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Sample records for canine tooth movement

  1. The effect of buccal corticotomy on accelerating orthodontic tooth movement of maxillary canine

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    Mohammad Reza Jahanbakhshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on result of this study, corticotomy can accelerates the rate of orthodontic tooth movement about two times faster than conventional orthodontics and it is significant in early stages after surgical porsedure. Therefore Buccal corticotomy is a useful adjunct technique for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement.

  2. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  3. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  4. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Corticotomy on Rate of Tooth Movement and Comparison with Conventional Method

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    B. Rahsepar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Reduction of orthodontic therapy treatment time is considered an important goal inthe management of malocclusion in adult patients. Corticotomy- facilitated orthodontic treatment may beconsidered an intermediate therapy between orthognatic surgry and conventional orthodontics for reducing treatment time.Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the rate of tooth movement of upper canine following corticotomy with conventional method.Materials and Methods: Ten young adult patients, 17-25 years old was selected through sequential sampling procedure in orthodontics department of Shiraz Dental School. The patients exhibited different orthodontic problems and needed extraction of premolars. Following extraction of premolars and initial phase oforthodontic treatment, corticotomy were performed unilaterally on buccual and palatal sides of extraction areaas described by Takami. The other imoperated sides were used as control. After subsiding the resultant inflammation, the activated NiTi spring was used and measurement of the amount of tooth movement wereassessed by using Rugae as reference point. The panoramic radiographs were super imposed for evaluation of canines tipping. For analyzing the results, Kolmogorou- simirnov and t.tcst were used. Results: The rate of canine tooth movement was much greater in the corticotomy sides than the unoperated (control side (P=0.015. This was especially significant at the end of first week of tooth movement(P=0.000. Comparing the two sides, the amount of canine tipping was much lesser in corticotomy group than the control group (P=0.046. There was no significant difference concerning the anchorage loss between thetwo groups (P=0.410.Conclusion: Corticotomy procedure had a positive effect on the rate of tooth movement with less tipping of the canines comparing to conventional orthodontic treatment. To get more benefit from this procedure, it is recommended to select those

  6. Finite Element Method Analysis of the Tooth Movement Induced by Orthodontic Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Meštrović, Senka; Šlaj, Mladen; Rajić, Petra

    2003-01-01

    The finite element method is a useful technique for measuring structural stress and for movement analyses. The objective of this investigation was to get a more accurate estimation of tooth movement depending on application point when a tipping orthodontic force is applied. The tree-dimensional model of un upper canine, consisting of 4,000 hexahedron elements with 2,367 nodes was obtained. Horizontal, orally directed 1N tipping orthodontic force was applied to the model on five...

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Corticotomy on Rate of Tooth Movement and Comparison with Conventional Method

    OpenAIRE

    B. Rahsepar; A.Zare Emani; H.Pakshir

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Reduction of orthodontic therapy treatment time is considered an important goal inthe management of malocclusion in adult patients. Corticotomy- facilitated orthodontic treatment may beconsidered an intermediate therapy between orthognatic surgry and conventional orthodontics for reducing treatment time.Purpose: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the rate of tooth movement of upper canine following corticotomy with conventional method.Materials and Methods...

  8. Evaluation of effect of low level laser therapy on pain during orthodontic tooth movement in human

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    Hosseini MH

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Lasers with different characteristics have been used to stimulate orthodontic tooth movements and to inhibit the pain during tooth movements. Considering the contradictory finding in this respect, the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT was evaluated on the pain during orthodontic tooth movement. "nMaterials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 12 patients were included with extracted upper first premolars and required canine retraction into extraction site. While in both sides canines were retracted by Niti coil spring, one side was exposed to GaAlAs laser (890nm. LLLT was done on the buccal and palatal mucosa by slow movement of probe. The patients were asked about their pain on both sides 2 days after beginning of retraction. Pain measurement was evaluated with VAS. "nResults: Pain perception in LLLT side significantly decreased (P=0.007. "nConclusion: Based on the results, single irradiation of GaAlAs laser (12J energy per tooth can decrease pain perception.

  9. Laser therapy for faster orthodontic tooth movement

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    Wasundhara A Bhad-Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major component of patient to reject orthodontic treatment is the long duration of treatment..If Low intensity laser therapy can promote wound healing by increased cell proliferation and improved micro circulation can bring about faster bone remodelling at fracture sites; then why not to use it with orthodontic forces for better results? Soft tissue laser has now become a part of essential equipment of modern dental clinics. To accelerate the physiologic tooth movement during orthodontic treatment a thorough knowledge of laser unit, mode of action and key factors to gain therapeutic effect is a must which this article illustrates .Study carried out by us did show a 30% reduction in the treatment time.

  10. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'; Efeitos da irradiacao com laser em baixa intensidade na velocidade de distalizacao de caninos durante a movimentacao ortodontica: 'estudo clinico comparativo'

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    Cruz, Delma Rebelo

    2003-07-01

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  11. Drinking coffee may help accelerate orthodontic tooth movement

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    Jianru Yi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Developing new methods to enhance orthodontic tooth movement and shorten the duration of treatment has always been desired. However, to date, no therapies have been widely used in clinics. Recent studies and feedback information from patients have shown that drinking coffee may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. The Hypothesis: Drinking coffee, as a daily habit of many people, can be an effective accelerator of tooth movement with little side effect for caffeine can break the calcium balance in bone tissue and directly inhibit the development of osteoblasts, leading to temporary decreased bone mineral density and consequently inducing faster orthodontic tooth movement. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Much effort has been made to explore therapies to shorten orthodontic treatment period with limited success. Daily coffee consumption may be a promising approach to enhance orthodontic tooth movement for its reversible effect on bone mineral density and calcium balance.

  12. Surgical Methods for the Acceleration of the Orthodontic Tooth Movement.

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    Almpani, Konstantinia; Kantarci, Alpdogan

    2016-01-01

    Surgical techniques for the acceleration of the orthodontic tooth movement have been tested for more than 100 years in clinical practice. Since original methods have been extremely invasive and have been associated with increased tooth morbidity and various other gaps, the research in this field has always followed an episodic trend. Modern approaches represent a well-refined strategy where the concept of the bony block has been abandoned and only a cortical plate around the orthodontic tooth movement has been desired. Selective alveolar decortication has been a reproducible gold standard to this end. Its proposed mechanism has been the induction of rapid orthodontic tooth movement through the involvement of the periodontal ligament. More recent techniques included further refinement of this procedure through less invasive techniques such as the use of piezoelectricity and corticision. This chapter focuses on the evolution of the surgical approaches and the mechanistic concepts underlying the biological process during the surgically accelerated orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:26599122

  13. Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Mechanical Stress on Root from Orthodontic Tooth Movement by Sliding Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; MAO Jing; PENG Zhou; XIE Hui

    2007-01-01

    In order to study mechanical stress on root from orthodontic tooth movement by sliding mechanics, a 3-dimensional finite element model incorporating all layers of a human mandibular dental arch with orthodontic appliance has been developed to simulate mechanical stress on root from the orthodontic tooth movement. Simulated orthodontic force of 2 N at 0, 30 and 45 degree from the horizontal axis was applied to the crown of the teeth. The finite element analysis showed when or- thodontic forces were applied to the tooth, the stress was mainly concentrated at the neck of the tooth decreasing uniformly to the apex and crown. The highest stress on the root was 0.621 N/ram2 for cer- vical margin of the canine, and 0.114 N/mm2 for apical region of the canine. The top of canine crown showed the largest amount of displacement (2.417 μm), while the lowest amount of displacement was located at the apical region of canine (0.043 μm). In conclusion, this model might enable one to simulate orthodontic tooth movements clinically. Sliding force at 2 N is ideal to ensure the bodily or- thodontic tooth movement. The highest stress concentration in the roots was always localized at the cervical margin when orthodontic force of 2 N at 0, 30 and 45 degree from the horizontal axis, so there may be the same risk of root resorption when orthodontic force of 2 N at 0, 30 and 45 degree was used in clinic cases.

  14. Corticotomy-/osteotomy-assisted tooth movement microCTs differ.

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    Lee, W; Karapetyan, G; Moats, R; Yamashita, D-D; Moon, H-B; Ferguson, D J; Yen, S

    2008-09-01

    Corticotomy-assisted and osteotomy-assisted tooth movement involves surgical incisions through the alveolar bone. To ascertain whether teeth move by distraction osteogenesis or by regional accelerated phenomenon (RAP), we randomly assigned 30 Sprague-Dawley rats to one of 5 experimental groups: corticotomy alone, corticotomy-assisted tooth movement, osteotomy alone, osteotomy-assisted tooth movement, or tooth movement alone. Each animal was imaged by microtomography immediately after surgery, after 21 days, and after 2 months. After 21 days, regional accelerated phenomenon was observed in the alveolar bone of the corticotomy-treated animals and distraction osteogenesis in the osteotomy-assisted tooth movement animals. Pixel count data were analyzed by nested ANOVA for 5 experimental groups, split-mouth controls, 3 levels along the root, and 5 sites per level. The most demineralized sites after 21 days differed for each of the experimental groups. Our study indicates that osteotomies and corticotomies induce different alveolar bone reactions, which can be exploited for tooth movement. PMID:18719214

  15. Corticision: A Flapless Procedure to Accelerate Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Guk

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from applied forces to the teeth evoking cellular responses in the teeth and their surrounding tissues, including the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingiva. It is advantageous for the orthodontist to be well informed of the detailed process of the biological events that unfold during tooth movement, since some of these details may differ from one person to another due to biological differences such as periodontal metabolism or alveolar bone density. This led us to emphasize that orthodontics is a field of endeavor where the integration of mechanics and biology is materialized, and to affirm the fact that tooth movement is conducted in individual human beings, each composed of a unique and intricate physiological system. Biological variations may be the foundation of the differences that are frequently observed in the outcomes of orthodontic treatment in particular with reference to treatment duration between patients with similar malocclusions and who were treated identically. A wide diversity of clinical trials has been carried out to control the tissue resistance to facilitate orthodontic tooth movement, which involves biomechanical, pharmaceutical, surgical, electrical regimens or tissue engineering technology. The term 'Corticision' is a neologism which indicates 'cortical bone incision'. It is a minimally invasive periodontal procedure without flap elevation, thus accelerating tooth movement with an enhanced turnover rate of the surrounding structures. This chapter introduces the technical procedure, and the biological background of how such a minor surgical procedure can receive the accelerated tooth movement with impunity and thereby shorten the duration of treatment. PMID:26599124

  16. Comparison of rate of maxillary canine movement with or without modified corticotomy facilitated orthodontic treatment: A prospective clinical trial

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    Harshal N Suryavanshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The average orthodontic treatment time for extraction therapy is 31 months. One of the main disadvantages of orthodontic treatment is time. Alveolar corticotomies have been used in conjunction with orthodontics to reduce the treatment time by increasing the rate of tooth movement. Concerns about the possible risks of corticotomy procedure have led to the modification of this technique. Germeη et al. reported a case treated by their modified corticotomy technique and noted reduced treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of teeth with their new conservative corticotomy technique. This study was undertaken to clinically evaluate the efficacy of the aforesaid technique. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth study design was carried out to compare the rate of maxillary canine movement with and without modified corticotomy facilitated orthodontic treatment in 10 patients requiring maxillary first premolar extractions. The modified corticotomy procedure was performed on the maxillary arch unilaterally. The upper arch was immediately activated bilaterally after surgical procedure using equal orthodontic forces for retraction of the maxillary canines. The amount of tooth movement was recorded at an interval of every month till the completion of canine retraction. The rate of canine movement on experimental and control site was compared. The patients were followed for 6 months to check the occurrence of undesired effects such as root resorption, periodontal damage and loss of vitality of teeth on the experimental side. Results: Higher mean velocity was observed in canines with modified corticotomy facilitated retraction compared to conventionally retracted canines; with the difference in mean velocity between the two groups was found to be clinically significant as well as statistically significant (P < 0.001. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results suggested that modified corticotomy

  17. Rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Hong; XU Qing-feng; LU Hong-fei; MAI Zhi-hui; AN Ai-qun; LIU Guo-ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal models are needed for the study of rapid tooth movement into the extraction socket through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.Methods Modified distraction devices were placed on eight dogs between the first and third mandibular premolars on the left sides;similar placement of traditional straight wise appliances on the right sides served as the control.The experimental distractors were activated(0.25 mm/d)twice a day and the control devices were activated(100 g)for two weeks with consolidation periods at weeks two,three,six,and ten.Two dogs were sacrificed at each consolidation time point;rates and patterns of tooth movement,loss of anchorage,and periapical films were evaluated,and the aftected premolars and surrounding periodontal tissues were decalcified and examined histologically.General observations,X-ray periapical filming and histology examination were performed.Results Distal movement((3.66±0.1 4)mm)measured two weeks after modified distraction exceeded that achieved using the traditional device((1.15±0.21)mm;P<0.05).Loss of anchorage was minimally averaged(0.34±0.06)mm and (0.32±0.07)mm in the experimental and control sides,respectively.By radiography,apical and lateral surface root resorptions on both sides were minimal.Alveolar bone Iesions were never evident.Fibroblasts were endched in periodontal ligaments and bone spicules formed actively along directions of distraction.Conclusions The canine model is suitable for the study of rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.The technique accelerates tooth movement,periodontal remodeling,alveolar bone absorption,and may induce fibroblast formation,as compared to the traditional orthodontic method,without adversely affecting root absorption,bone loss,tooth mobility and anchorage loss.

  18. Inflammatory side effects associated with orthodontic tooth movement

    OpenAIRE

    Giannopoulou, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement is induced my mechanical stimuli and facilitated by the remodeling of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The remodeling activities and the ultimately tooth displacement are the consequence of an inflammatory process. Vascular and cellular changes were the first events to be recognized and described. With the advancement of research techniques an important number of inflammatory mediators, growth factors, neuropeptides and metabolites of arachidonic acid hav...

  19. A Comparison between Osteotomy and Corticotomy-Assisted Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Stephen L-K

    2016-01-01

    Osteotomies and corticotomies used in combination with orthodontic tooth movement can activate different bone responses that may be exploited to accelerate tooth movement. Segmental osteotomies around dental roots can create a tooth-bearing transport disk that may be distracted and positioned with orthodontic appliances and archwires. In difficult craniofacial repairs, alveolar segments can be guided into position with archwires and orthodontic mechanics. The corticotomy extending into the marrow space can activate bone injury repair mechanisms that accelerate bone turnover as the alveolar bone surrounding the dental roots transitions from a demineralization phase to a fibrous replacement phase and, finally, a mineralization phase. The controlled demineralization and replacement of alveolar bone provides a window of opportunity for roots to move though less dense bone prior to remineralization. Although the corticotomies and osteotomies are minor surgeries compared to orthognathic surgery, the goal of future research is to produce similar bone responses by using smaller surgeries or by eliminating the surgeries altogether. PMID:26599126

  20. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  1. Minor tooth movements using microimplant anchorage: case reports.

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    Sohn, Dong-Seok; Lee, Jung-Kwang; An, Kyung-Mi

    2008-03-01

    For the treatment of extruded or tipped molars, various conventional techniques have been used. But those methods may lead to undesirable movement of the anchorage units and lengthen treatment time because of limited tooth-borne anchorage potential. Introduction of microimplants as orthodontic anchorage has expanded treatment possibilities because of their advantages. Some advantages are a less complex surgical procedure, decrease in cost, immediate loading, and their ability to be placed in any area of the alveolar bone. This article will illustrate clinical experiences in patients who were treated with the intrusion of overerupted molars, the up-righting of tilted molars, and other clinical applications for minor tooth movements. Anchorage control was achieved with the surgical insertion of titanium microimplants for immediate loading in the alveolar bone. When needed, minimal fixed appliances were used and orthodontic treatment was completed without any other complications.

  2. Case Report: Canine Fossa Abscess; A Rare Etiological Factor: The Lower Canine Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Agacayak, K. Serkan; Atılgan, S. Serhat; GORGUN, Belgin; Yaman, Ferhan; Ucan, M. Can; Atalay, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic infection may be dangerous; especially when life-threatening complications occur. Infection spreads through the bone and periosteum toward nearby or more distant structures and spaces. Canine fossa abscess is an odontogenic infection that can lead to life-threatening complications. Successful treatment requires early recognition, determination of etiological factors, and proper medical and surgical management. The aim of this paper is to emphasize different and rare etiological fa...

  3. [Accelerated tooth movement by alveolar corticotomy or piezocision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strippoli, Julien; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The relatively recent introduction of corticotomies and piezocision has made it possible for orthodontists to accelerate tooth movement and thereby to shorten the length of orthodontic treatment. Specialists emphasizing a mechanistic concept have been debating the underlying basic biological mechanics of these new therapeutic tools with opposing specialists who support a biological conception. Our analysis of different publications on the subject suggests that the biological explanation, with its emphasis on the Regional Acceleratory Phenomenon (RAP), is correct. However, the majority of studies in this field are not based on the principle of evidence based medicine (EBM). PMID:22717115

  4. The mythology of the killer deciduous canine tooth in southern Sudan.

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    Baba, S P; Kay, E J

    1989-01-01

    In Southern Sudan it is a commonly held belief that the unerupted deciduous canine tooth is injurious to the health of infants and that it causes diarrheal diseases. The teeth are therefore often removed by native extractors in an attempt to alleviate the symptoms of these dangerous diseases. This study examined the prevalence of this practice among babies presenting at a hospital, and examined the health status of the infants involved. The 90 infants in the study had all had at least one deciduous tooth removed, and the great majority were suffering from dehydration, caused by various abdominal diseases. It is clear that an educational campaign aimed at reducing the prevalence of this practice is required.

  5. Applications of surface-surface matching algorithms for determination of orthodontic tooth movements.

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    Keilig, L; Piesche, K; Jäger, A; Bourauel, C

    2003-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movements are described as the differences between initial and final tooth positions. A computer based method for determination of tooth movements for different treatment methods was developed. A total of 20 casts of the upper jaw of patients treated with tooth positioners or fixed appliances were used as a basis for this study. Tooth movement was analysed on casts before (Ci) and after treatment (Cf). The casts were digitized either with a COMT or 3D laser scanning systems. After digitization, the models were superimposed in the palate by using a surface-surface matching algorithm. Tooth surfaces of the orthodontically moved teeth were segmented and determination of tooth movement was accomplished by matching the moved teeth from Ci to Cf. The resulting transformations delivered three dimensional information on translations and rotations. An accuracy of 0.2 mm in translations and 1 degree in rotations could be demonstrated, showing the different efficiency of treatment schemes. PMID:14675956

  6. New therapeutic modalities to modulate orthodontic tooth movement

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    Ildeu Andrade Jr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM is desirable not only to patients because it shortens treatment time, but also to orthodontists, since treatment duration is associated with increased risk of gingival inflammation, decalcification, dental caries, and root resorption. The increased focus on the biological basis of tooth movement has rendered Orthodontics a more comprehensive specialty that incorporates facets of all fields of medicine. Current knowledge raises the possibility of using new therapeutic modalities for modulation of OTM, such as corticotomy, laser therapy, vibration (low-intensity pulsed ultrasound, local injections of biomodulators and gene therapy; with the latter being applicable in the near future. They are intended to enhance or inhibit recruitment, differentiation and/or activation of bone cells, accelerate or reduce OTM, increase stability of orthodontic results, as well as assist with the prevention of root resorption. This article summarizes recent studies on each one of these therapeutic modalities, provides readers with information about how they affect OTM and points out future clinical perspectives.

  7. Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Review Article

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    Soghra Yassaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased duration of fixed orthodontic treatments leads to increased tooth root degeneration, gum inflammation and tooth caries. To decrease the time period of orthodontic treatment, it is essential to facilitate tooth movement or in other words increase the speed of bone remodeling. Use of low level laser therapy is a method for achieving this goal.

  8. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and osteopontin in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement

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    Dhaval Oswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During orthodontic treatment, the early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves several metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of human teeth exposed to orthodontic force. Materials and Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 15 healthy orthodontic patients (age, 12-22 years. In each patient, the left maxillary canine having the fixed orthodontic appliance was used as the test tooth, and its antagonist, with no appliance, was the control. Orthodontic force, 75 g was applied using a 16 × 22 beta titanium closing loop. The GCF sampling on the disto-buccal aspects of experimental and control tooth was performed at specific time interval with sterilized absorbent paper point. Processing was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect OPN and MMP-7 levels. Results: The peak level of OPN was seen after 1 h application of orthodontic force which was 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02. The peak level of MMP-7 was seen at 0 h which was 598.3 pg/ml ± 107.5. The levels of OPN after 1 h increased to 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02, and they decreased at 24 h to 1012.86 pg/ml ± 168.47 (P = 0.001. The levels of MMP-7 after 1 h decreased to 478 pg/ml ± 99.7 which increased at 24 h to 526.9 pg/ml ± 99.2. Conclusions: Orthodontic forces affect both OPN and MMP-7 protein levels on the compression side in a time-dependent fashion.

  9. Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A clinical trial

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    Ankur Kansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT can be utilized for different treatments in the field of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of LILT on (1 the rate of canine movement during canine retraction phase and (2 evaluate the radiographic changes occurring during LILT around the irradiated area. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients of both genders were included for this study. One quadrant of the upper arch was considered control group (CG and received mechanical activation of the canine teeth with 150 g. The opposite quadrant received the same mechanical activation and was also irradiated with a diode emitting light (gallium-arsenide laser at 904 nm, for 10 s at 12 mW, at 4.2 J/cm 2 . Laser application was done on 1 st day, 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 th , 28 th , 35 th , 42 nd , 49 th , 56 th day respectively during the canine retraction phase. Distance was measured on 1 st day, 35 th day and 63 rd day and appliance activation was done on 1 st and 35 th day. Results were analyzed using t-test with the significance level set at P < 0.01. Results: Mean value obtained from 1 st to 63 rd day was 3.30 ± 2.36 mm for CG and 3.53 ± 2.30 mm for laser group (LG. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth movement during canine retraction between the LG and the CG. There was no evidence of any pathologic changes in the radiograph following LILT.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinases and chemokines in the gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Jonas; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Haffajee, Anne; Teles, Ricardo Palmier; Fidel, Rivail; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo

    2011-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and monocyte chemoattractants are key modulators of the biological mechanisms triggered in the periodontium by mechanical forces. The gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) provides a non-invasive method to assess longitudinally the release of inflammatory mediators during orthodontic tooth movement. The goal of this study was to examine the GCF levels of MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-13 and of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and regulated on activation normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) at different time points during orthodontic tooth movement. Fourteen subjects (three males and 11 females, 18.8 ± 4.8 years of age; range from 12 to 28 years) had their maxillary canines retracted. Thirty-second GCF samples were collected from the tension and pressure sides 7 days prior to the activation of the orthodontic appliance, on the day of activation, and after 1 and 24 hours, and 14, 21, and 80 days of constant force application. The volume of GCF was measured and samples analysed using a multiplexed bead immunoassay for the content of the six target molecules. Differences in the mean GFC volumes and mean level for each analyte over time were assessed using the Friedman test, and differences between the tension and pressure sides at each time point with the Mann-Whitney test. The mean levels of the three MMPs changed significantly over time but only at the compression side (P < 0.05, Friedman test). The GCF levels of the three chemokines were not affected by the application of mechanical stress. The levels of MMPs in GCF at the pressure side are modulated by the application of orthodontic force. PMID:21389074

  11. The Role of Hypoxia in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

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    A. Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic forces are known to have various effects on the alveolar process, such as cell deformation, inflammation, and circulatory disturbances. Each of these conditions affecting cell differentiation, cell repair, and cell migration, is driven by numerous molecular and inflammatory mediators. As a result, bone remodeling is induced, facilitating orthodontic tooth movement. However, orthodontic forces not only have cellular effects but also induce vascular changes. Orthodontic forces are known to occlude periodontal ligament vessels on the pressure side of the dental root, decreasing the blood perfusion of the tissue. This condition is accompanied by hypoxia, which is known to either affect cell proliferation or induce apoptosis, depending on the oxygen gradient. Because upregulated tissue proliferation rates are often accompanied by angiogenesis, hypoxia may be assumed to fundamentally contribute to bone remodeling processes during orthodontic treatment.

  12. Immunohistochemical evaluation of osteoclast recruitment during experimental tooth movement in young and adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, YJ; Kuijpers-Jagtman, AM; Maltha, JC

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Orthodontic tooth movement starts slower in adults than in juveniles, but the rate of tooth movement in later phases is the same in both age groups. The hypotheses to be tested are that these phenomena are related to slower osteoclast recruitment in adults than in juveniles, but that in l

  13. Extraction of primary canine tooth buds: prevalence and associated dental abnormalities in a group of Ethiopian Jewish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, G; Mamber, E

    1994-03-01

    Recent publications have described a common belief, held in rural areas in Africa, that unerupted primary canines cause diarrhoea, vomiting and fever in infants. To relieve these symptoms a traditional native healer extracts these tooth buds. The emigration of Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 1991 allowed an investigation of this practice among this community. A group of 59 children (27 boys and 32 girls) aged 3-12 years were examined clinically and radiographically. Evidence was found of extraction of 63 primary canine buds in 35 (59%) of the children. Extraction of one canine was found in 16 children, two in 13 children and three in three children, and three children had all four canines extracted. Forty-six (74%) mandibular compared to only 16 (26%) maxillary canines had been extracted; the extractions were equally divided between both sides of the jaws. Another 19 primary canines had hypoplastic defects, probably the result of unsuccessful extractions. Associated dental abnormalities included hypoplasia of the permanent successors and adjacent primary and permanent teeth, displacement of permanent teeth, midline shift to the extraction side, missing primary lateral incisors (probably accidentally extracted) and distal eruption of permanent lateral incisors, leaving their primary predecessors retained. Parental enquiry revealed that the practice is more common in rural rather than urban areas and still exists in the Ethiopian community in Israel. The findings of this survey should urge the authorities to take steps to stop this practice.

  14. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa’a M. Salloum

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement.

  15. Developing a Corticopuncture system to accelerate the rate of tooth movement

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Mohamed Moharam

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Tooth movement is caused by inflammatory and cellular reactions within the bone in response to applied orthodontic forces. Several attempts have been made to increase the rate of bone turnover in order to achieve accelerated tooth movement. These attempts can be classified into two categories: physical trauma (such as Alveolar Corticotomy "Wilckodontics", Piezopuncture, Laser and Resonance Vibrations) and application of drugs (such as the systemic and local application of Vitami...

  16. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    OpenAIRE

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2016-01-01

    Problem statement: Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material a...

  17. M1-like Macrophage Polarization Promotes Orthodontic Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Luo, Q; Song, Y; Liu, F; Yan, Y; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-09-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in inflammatory-mediated bone loss. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is associated with inflammatory bone remodeling. However, whether and how macrophages contribute to mechanical force-induced OTM remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that polarization of M1-like macrophages may contribute to the OTM. Orthodontic nickel-titanium springs were applied to the upper first molars of rats or mice to induce OTM. The distance of OTM gradually increased after mechanical force was applied to the rats for 5 and 10 d. M1-like macrophage polarization and expression of M1 cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α also increased after force application. More importantly, monocyte/macrophage depletion in mice by injection of clodronate liposomes decreased the distance of OTM and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, accompanied by reduced expressions of M1 markers TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), whereas systemic transfusion of M1 macrophages in mice increased them. Further experiments showed that injection of recombinant TNF-α increased the distance of OTM and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, as well as upregulated the expression of TNF-α and iNOS. Blockage of TNF-α by etanercept injection reduced the distance of OTM and the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and CD68(+) macrophages, as well as decreased the levels of TNF-α and iNOS. These data suggest that M1-like macrophage polarization promotes alveolar bone resorption and consequent OTM after mechanical force application. PMID:26124217

  18. Influence of medication on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (Part 1: hormons and corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhashemi Amirhossein

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article was to define the mechanism of action and effects of commonly used medications on the tissue remodeling and Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM. A review on the effects of medications and dietary supplements on the rate of experimental tooth movement was performed using Cochrane library, Embase and medline (1980-2013. 63 articles were included in this review. 34 of them were related to the effects of hormones and analgesics, were evaluated in this article but their interpretation was hindered by the variability in experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and medication regimens. Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs reduced the rate of tooth movement while non-NSAIDs such as acetaminophen had no effect on the rate of OTM. Corticosteroids, parathyroid hormone and thyroxin increased the rate of tooth movement. Sturgeons might slow OTM, but experimental studies are lacking. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement and information on their consumption is necessary to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients.

  19. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  20. Dynamic Analysis of the Expression of HSP70 during Experimental Tooth Movement in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the expression of HSP70 during experimental tooth movement was dynamically observed and the relationship between HSP70 and orthodontic periodontal tissue remodeling were observed. The orthodontic appliance was placed between the right maxillary first molar and maxillary central incisors of adult SD rats to establish a rat molar movement model. Immunohistochemistry was performed 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 day(s) after orthodontic force application to observe the expression and localization of inducible HSP70. The expression of HSP70 was strongly positive in the early stage of the tooth movement, became gradually less positive, and was weakly positive in the restoration stage. There was difference in staining pattern between different parts of PDL during the same period. These results suggest that the expression of HSP70 and difference in staining pattern among different parts of PDL during orthodontic tooth movement in rats may be implicated in stress response and remodeling of periodontal tissue.

  1. Dynamics of Alloplastic Bone Grafts on an Early Stage of Corticotomy-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Hyung-Joo Choi; Dong-Yeol Lee; Tae-Woo Kim

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological...

  2. Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bone remodeling occurs during orthodontic treatment; this process enables tooth movement. Many factors can affect bone remodeling at the cellular level, such as nutritional supplements that can affect tooth movement. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin C on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 36 six-week male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 225+32 g, which were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Rats in the case group received 1wt% vitamin C in their daily water. Opening springs were placed on the incisor teeth of both case and control groups. After 17 days, rats were sacrificed; the distance between the mesio-incisal angles of these teeth was measured with a digital caliper. Histological sections were made containing incisor teeth and alveolar bone and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The number of resorption lacunae was evaluated using light microscopy.Results: Our findings showed that the amount of tooth movement in the vitamin C group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.001. The osteoclast counts were significantly higher in vitamin C group (P=0.036.Conclusion: Oral vitamin C can increase orthodontic tooth movement in rats with more osteoclast lacunae around root in the pressure area. 

  3. Dynamics of Alloplastic Bone Grafts on an Early Stage of Corticotomy-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Joo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological findings, augmented corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement might enhance the condition of the periodontal tissue and the stability of the outcomes of orthodontic treatment.

  4. Dynamics of alloplastic bone grafts on an early stage of corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar augmented corticotomy is effective in accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, but the effect only lasts for a relatively short time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying biology of the immediate periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement after a corticotomy with alloplastic bone grafts. The results demonstrated that measurable tooth movement began as early as 3 days after the intervention in beagle dogs. Based on the results and histological findings, augmented corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic tooth movement might enhance the condition of the periodontal tissue and the stability of the outcomes of orthodontic treatment. PMID:25276787

  5. Effect of the Chronic Use of Lithium Carbonate on Induced Tooth Movement in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Kagy, Viviane; Trevisan Bittencourt Muniz, Luciana; Michels, Arieli Carini; Luiz, Suelen Teixeira; Reis Azevedo Alanis, Luciana; Brancher, João Armando; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido; Camargo, Elisa Souza; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval

    2016-01-01

    Patients who seek dental treatment may have bipolar disorder, and lithium carbonate (LC) is the drug of choice used in the treatment of this disorder. Taking into consideration the controversial results found in the literature, and the possible influence of LC on induced tooth movement, the objective was to evaluate tooth movement induced in rats after administration of lithium carbonate. One hundred and ninety-two rats were divided into 3 groups. In the L group, the animals received daily 60mg/kg of LC, they were not subjected to orthodontic movement, and they were euthanized after 33, 37, 44 or 51 days. In the LM group, the LC was administered for 30 days and during the subsequent 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, corresponding to the period of induced tooth movement, and they received a spring that produced a 30cN force. In the SM group, saline solution was applied. Measurements were made of tooth displacement, the numbers of osteoclasts and serum lithium phosphate (PO4), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine levels. The tooth displacement was lower in the LM group compared to the SM group at 44 days. A tendency toward reduction in the number of osteoclasts was observed in the LM group compared to the SM group at 44 days. The average lithium were higher in the L and LM groups compared to the SM group. The opposite was observed for the PO4 group. A higher value for the ALP was found in the L group. The average creatinine level was lower in the LM group. LC inhibited tooth movement for 14 days, possibly due to the reduction in the number of osteoclasts. PMID:27487121

  6. Histological changes following surgically-assisted rapid tooth movement through resistance reduction and distraction osteogenesis in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the histological changes of rapid tooth movement in dogs treated by resistance reduction and distraction osteogenesis,aiming to establish an animal model and further to reveal the remodeling mechanism of rapid tooth movement. Methods A total of 8 local hybrid dogs were selected as subjects for this study. The second pre-molar was extracted on both sides. The experimental side underwent alvelor surgery for resistance reduction and a home-made tooth-borne intraoral distraction device ...

  7. A new concept in orthodontics: faster and healthier tooth movement by regularly consuming xyilitol chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was first discovered in the 19th century, it wasn’t until the 1960’s that commercial production was first implemented. Recent studies showed that xylitol chewing gum is beneficial for preventing caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, it is also advantageous for orthodontic treatment, especially the fixed orthodontics patients who have difficulties in acquiring optimal oral health, particularly periodontal health which important in remodeling. However, how consuming xylitol chewing gum may stimulate tooth movement and preventing root resorption is still unclear. It is suggested that chewing activities may stimulate tooth movement, since jaw hypofunction leads to lower mineral apposition and bone function; and narrow periodontal ligament (PDL. These conditions may lead to impaired remodeling process, and increases the susceptibility of root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, since stimulation of the PDL could be mechanoreceptive (i.e. chewing action or nociceptive (i.e. painful stimulation, periodontal nerve fibers are supposed to play an important role in bone remodeling. It is supported by a study which revealed that during tooth movement, the galanin-containing immunoreactive nerve fibers, a part of primary sensory neurons in the PDL is increasing. Galanin is able to induce osteoclast differentiation that needed for bone resorption in orthodontic treatment. The objective of this study is to elucidate a new concept in using xylitol chewing gum as an excellent media to have a faster and healthier orthodontic movement. Since continuous chewing stimulates the PDL which enhances tooth movement, improves oral health, and prevents root resorption; it is concluded that this concept is possible.

  8. Assessment of Corticotomy Facilitated Tooth Movement and Changes in Alveolar Bone Thickness - A CT Scan Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Preeti; Bhattacharya, Hirak; Anjum, Arbab; Bhandari, Ravi; Agarwal, D. K.; Gupta, Ankur; Ansar, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Corticotomy is an effective method of accelerating the orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the treatment time for the extraction space closure, between corticotomy assisted and conventional orthodontic tooth movement and to check the alveolar bone thickness before and after corticotomy procedure in the corticotomy group.

  9. Optimum force magnitude for orthodontic tooth movement : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the literature concerning the optimal force or range of forces for orthodontic tooth movement. Over 400 articles both on human research and animal experiments were found in Medline and by hand searching of main orthodontic and dental journals.

  10. Effect of atorvastatin on orthodontic tooth movement in male wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein MirHashemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups.The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p0.05.According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation.

  11. Effect of Atorvastatin on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Male Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    MirHashemi, Amir Hossein; Afshari, Maryam; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Dehpour, Ahmadreza; Sheikhzade, Sedigheh; Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg) as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups. Results: The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation. PMID:24910664

  12. Medication effects on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.; Turp, J.C.; Motschall, E.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, several reviews have been published on the effects of medications on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in orthodontics. However, the effects of medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been evaluated. METHODS: A systematic literature review o

  13. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

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    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  14. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material and methods Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n = 15 each) according to investing method: plaster–plaster–plaster (P–P–P), plaster–stone–stone (P-S-S), and plaster–mix (P–M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I–I) and intermolar (M–M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor–molar (LI–LM and RI–RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to compare the results. Results M–M, LI–LM, and RI–RM movement was significantly greater in the P–P–P group than in the P–S–S and P–M groups; no significant difference in I–I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M–M and I–I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P–P–P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. Conclusion The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement. PMID:26792971

  15. The role of polymerization cycle and post-pressing time on tooth movement in complete dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Araujo de Negreiros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of polymerization cycle and post-pressing time on tooth movement in complete dentures. Forty maxillary complete dentures were fabricated and randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 5; the polymerization cycle (conventional long cycle in water bath, fast cycle in boiling water, and by microwave energy and the post-pressing time (immediate and 6 hours were varied. Metal reference pins were placed on the incisal border of the central incisors (RI and LI, on the buccal cusp of the first premolars (RP and LP, and on the mesiobuccal cusp of the second molars (RM and LM. Two transverse and 2 anteroposterior distances were measured with a linear optical microscope (Olympus Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan with an accuracy of .0005 mm, before and after processing the complete dentures. The data collected were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey Test at a significance level of 5%. When Clássico, a conventional heat-polymerizable acrylic resin, was polymerized by microwave energy, tooth movement was statistically significant for 2 distances, with the highest value being observed for the 6-hour post-pressing time. Onda-Cryl microwave acrylic resin processed by microwave energy presented the lowest tooth movement for 2 distances, considering the 6-hour post-pressing time. QC-20 acrylic resin presented no statistically significant change considering both post-pressing times in each distance evaluated. Tooth movement showed an asymmetric behavior, so the mastering of the processing method is essential to the precise execution of all laboratory steps, irrespective of the polymerization cycle and post-pressing time used.

  16. Minimally Invasive Techniques to Accelerate the Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Qamruddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Materials and Methods. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health, MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. Results. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. Conclusions. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction.

  17. Microscopic evaluation of induced tooth movement after subluxation trauma: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.

  18. Minimally Invasive Techniques to Accelerate the Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Khamis, Mohd Fadhli; Husein, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Materials and Methods. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health), MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE)), and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. Results. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. Conclusions. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction. PMID:26881201

  19. Immunolocalization of lubricin in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Loreto, Carla; Talic, Nabeel; Caltabiano, Rosario; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Lubricin is a protein which contributes to the boundary lubrication, facilitating low friction levels at the interfacing surfaces of joints. In tendons and ligaments it facilitates the relative movement of collagen bundles. Its expression is affected by mechanical signals and cytokines. During application of orthodontic forces to teeth, there is a transduction of mechanical forces to the cells of the periodontal ligament (PDL), which triggers several biological reactions causing the synthesis of prostaglandins, cytokines and growth factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunolocalization of lubricin and to evaluate if it is time-dependently and differentially detected within the PDL following the application of orthodontic forces to create areas of compression and tension. This was achieved by placing elastic bands between the maxillary first and second molars of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats (each weighing 120-200g) for 12 and 24h. The molar-bearing segments were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Binding of a monoclonal antibody was used to evaluate lubricin localization using an indirect streptavidin/biotin immunperoxidase technique. Lubricin, was constitutively expressed in the PDL of rat molars. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, lubricin was down-regulated, on both sides (compression and tension) of the PDL, in a time-dependent fashion, although to a different extent, being at any time more expressed on the tension side. Furthermore, in every sample, almost all PDL cells in the adjacent tooth cementum and alveolar bone, were more heavily immunolabeled by lubricin antibody, contrary to those located in the central portion of the PDL. Lubricin expression therefore seems related to PDL remodeling and tooth displacement following the application of an orthodontic force, and it appears that lubricin may play an important role during tooth movement.

  20. Effect of prostaglandin E1 versus corticotomy on orthodontic tooth movement: An in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    U B Rajasekaran; U S Krishna Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of corticotomy versus prostaglandin E1 injection in human subjects on rate of tooth movement, anchorage loss and their effect on crest bone height and root length. Settings and Design: Clinical interventional study. Split mouth design was used. Materials and Methods: Study was done on 32 regular orthodontic patients. A volume of 100 mcg of prostaglandin E1 was injected on the right side once in 2 weeks and on th...

  1. Effects of Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption on Orthodontic Tooth Movements in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Agha Aghili; Seyed Mohammad Hoseini; Soghra Yassaei; Seyed Amirreza Fatahi Meybodi; Mohammad Hosein Toudeh Zaeim; Mahdjoubeh Goldani Moghadam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B), the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B) two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. T...

  2. Initial tooth movement under extraoral force and considerations for controlled molar movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Jost-Brinkmann, P G; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    Initial movement of the maxillary first molars under the application of straight-pull, cervical-pull, and high-pull headgear was measured in human subjects. Facebow deflection can influence molar movement as the relationship of the force vector to the molar's center of resistance changes with an increase of force. The present study proposes using headgear with a combination of variable-pull headcap and short outer bow. A variable-pull headcap allows a great range in force direction. The direction of the headgear force system can be accurately determined using a short outer bow.

  3. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats.

  4. Effect of supplementary zinc on orthodontic tooth movement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh, Ahmad Akhoundi Mohammad; Rezvaneh, Ghazanfari; Shahroo, Etemad-Moghadam; Mojgan, Alaeddini; Azam, Khorshidian; Shahram, Rabbani; Reza, Shamshiri Ahmad; Nafiseh, Momeni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Osteoclasts and osteoblasts are responsible for regulating bone homeostasis during which the trace element zinc has been shown to exert a cumulative effect on bone mass by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc (Zn) on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in a rat model. Material and Methods: A total of 44 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 11 animals each and received 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm Zn in distilled water for 60 days. In the last 21 days of the study, nickel-titanium closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary right incisors and first molars of all rats, and tooth movement was measured at the end of this period. Histological analysis of hematoxylin/eosin slides was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL) width. Results: Mean OTM was calculated as 51.8, 49.1, 35.5 and 45 µm in the 0, 1.5, 20 and 50 ppm zinc-receiving groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in neither OTM nor histological parameters among the study groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: According to the results obtained in the current investigation, increase in supplementary zinc up to 50 ppm does not affect the rate of OTM neither bone and root resorption in rats. PMID:27275614

  5. Effects of medications and laser on induced tooth movement and associated root resorption: four key points

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    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The following four fundamental points on the use of experimental models will be described to ensure an accurate evaluation of the effects of medication and laser therapy on induced tooth movement and associated root resorption: (1 If the objective is to check the effect on root resorption, the forces experimentally applied must produce a lesion on the cementoblast layer in all specimens; (2 If the objective is to optimize induced tooth movement and reduce treatment time without side effects, the forces experimentally applied should not produce a lesion in the cementoblast layer in any specimen; (3 The laser therapy operator, the person administering medication and the person that places appliances should not know which animals will effectively receive the test treatment, and the control groups should receive placebo treatments; (4 CT and microscopic analysis of the specimens should be random, and the group to which the specimen belongs should not be identified to ensure that the person reading images and the pathologists are not influenced in their evaluation of phenomena. These measures will ensure that results are more reliable and easier to extrapolate to orthodontic clinical practice.

  6. Evaluation of pain in rats through facial expression following experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lina; Long, Hu; Zhang, Li; Chen, Helin; Zhou, Yang; Ye, Niansong; Lai, Wenli

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate pain in rats by monitoring their facial expressions following experimental tooth movement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following five groups based on the magnitude of orthodontic force applied and administration of analgesics: control; 20 g; 40 g; 80 g; and morphine + 40 g. Closed-coil springs were used to mimic orthodontic forces. The facial expressions of each rat were videotaped, and the resulting rat grimace scale (RGS) coding was employed for pain quantification. The RGS score increased on day 1 but showed no significant change thereafter in the control and 20-g groups. In the 40- and 80-g groups, the RGS scores increased on day 1, peaked on day 3, and started to decrease on day 5. At 14 d, the RGS scores were similar in control and 20-, 40-, and 80-g groups and did not return to baseline. The RGS scores in the morphine + 40-g group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Our results reveal that coding of facial expression is a valid method for evaluation of pain in rats following experimental tooth movement. Inactivated springs (no force) still cause discomfort and result in an increase in the RGS. The threshold force magnitude required to evoke orthodontic pain in rats is between 20 and 40 g.

  7. Nicotine effect on bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement: Histological study in rats

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    Ricardo Lima Shintcovsk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nicotine is harmful to angiogenesis, osteogenesis and synthesis of collagen. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on bone remodeling during orthodontic movement in rats. Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group C (control, group CM (with orthodontic movement and group NM (nicotine with orthodontic movement groups. The animals comprising groups C and CM received 0.9% saline solution while group NM received nicotine solution (2 mg/kg. A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was used to induce tooth movement. The animals were euthanized and tissue specimens were processed histologically. We quantified blood vessels, Howship's lacunae and osteoclast-like cells present in the tension and compression areas of periodontal ligaments. The extent of bone formation was evaluated under polarized light to determine the percentage of immature/mature collagen. Results: We observed lower blood vessel densities in the NM group in comparison to the CM group, three (p < 0.001 and seven (p < 0.05 days after force application. Osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae in the NM group presented lower levels of expression in comparison to the CM group, with significant differences on day 7 (p < 0.05 for both variables and day 14 (p < 0.05 for osteoclast-like cells and p < 0.01 for Howship's lacunae. The percentage of immature collagen increased in the NM group in comparison to the CM group with a statistically significant difference on day 3 (p < 0.05, day 7 (p < 0.001, day 14 (p < 0.001 and day 21 (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Nicotine affects bone remodeling during orthodontic movement, reducing angiogenesis, osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae, thereby delaying the collagen maturation process in developed bone matrix.

  8. Cell biology in orthodontic tooth movement: The known and the unknown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-jin

    2005-01-01

    This review is aimed at providing, at the cellular level, a concise and complete overview of the important knowledge on the mechanism of orthodontic tooth movement to orthodontists and postgraduates who are involved or interested in basic research. The construction of this article was oriented to the following key questions: Where an osteoclast starts to its first resorption site? When the cascade of a resorption cycle starts? What are the factors involved in bone remodeling and how they orchestrate? What happens before and after the formation of a resorption pit? Major findings in these aspects were summarized and discussed. In addition, related biological phenomenon such as orthodontically induced root resorption was intensively reviewed. By means of an updated and systematic review, the author intended to introduce more biological evidence to orthodontic intervention and to encourage evidence-based treatment in daily orthodontic practice.

  9. Pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, increases orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mohsen; Alimoradi, Houman; Kheirandish, Yasaman; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Meysamie, Alipasha; Fatahi Meybodi, Seyed Amir Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Pantoprazole, is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescribed for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders, which in high doses has been suggested to decrease calcium absorption leading to hypocalcaemia and therefore osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to assess whether pantoprazol, could alter the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats. Materials and Methods: A time course study was established using 72 rats which were divided into six groups of 12 samples each (four: vehicle; eight: pantoprazole + vehicle). Pantoprazole at a dose of 200 mg/kg suspended in carboxymethyl cellulose (0.25 percent) was administered by a gastric tube. The upper incisors and first molars were ligated by a 5 mm nickel-titanium closed-coil spring to deliver an initial force of 60 g. Animals were euthanized two weeks after orthodontic treatment followed by assessment of tooth movement and histomorphometric evaluation of the detached maxillae. Lateral skull radiographs were obtained once a week, starting from the first day to the 6th week of the study. OTM and bone density data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: No significant changes in OTM measurements and optical density were observed in vehicle-receiving animals during the study (P=0.994). OTM was significantly increased after six weeks pantoprazole therapy which continued until the 7th week of the experiment (P=0.007). Optical density significantly increased in the pantoprazole-treated rats after six weeks. Conclusion: Long term PPI therapy at high doses could lead to osteoporosis and enhanced OTM. PMID:25140207

  10. Pantoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, increases orthodontic tooth movement in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shirazi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Pantoprazole, is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI prescribed for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal disorders, which in high doses has been suggested to decrease calcium absorption leading to hypocalcaemia and therefore osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to assess whether pantoprazol, could alter the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats. Materials and Methods: A time course study was established using 72 rats which were divided into six groups of 12 samples each (four: vehicle; eight: pantoprazole + vehicle. Pantoprazole at a dose of 200 mg/kg suspended in carboxymethyl cellulose (0.25 percent was administered by a gastric tube. The upper incisors and first molars were ligated by a 5 mm nickel-titanium closed-coil spring to deliver an initial force of 60 g. Animals were euthanized two weeks after orthodontic treatment followed by assessment of tooth movement and histomorphometric evaluation of the detached maxillae. Lateral skull radiographs were obtained once a week, starting from the first day to the 6th week of the study. OTM and bone density data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: No significant changes in OTM measurements and optical density were observed in vehicle-receiving animals during the study (P=0.994. OTM was significantly increased after six weeks pantoprazole therapy which continued until the 7th week of the experiment (P=0.007. Optical density significantly increased in the pantoprazole-treated rats after six weeks. Conclusion: Long term PPI therapy at high doses could lead to osteoporosis and enhanced OTM.

  11. The effect of medication on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (Part 2: Mediators and other drugs

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    Amirhossein Mirhashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecules produced in various diseased tissues or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can reach the mechanically stressed paradental tissues through the circulation and interact with local target cells. The combined effect of mechanical forces and one or more of these agents may be inhibitory, additive or synergistic. The aim of this review was to outline the mechanisms of action and effects of some commonly used drugs on tissue remodeling and Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM. A review on the effects of medications and dietary supplements on the rate of experimental tooth movement was performed using Cochrane library, Embase and Medline (1980-2013. 63 articles were included in the review. 34 of them related to the effects of hormones and analgesics were evaluated in the first part of this review. The rest of them (29 articles were evaluated in the current review, but their interpretation was hindered by the variability in experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and medication regimens. Vitamin D3 might enhance the pace of tooth movement, but dietary calcium and fluorides appear to reduce the rate of OTM. Bisphosphonates (BPNs are considered to have marked inhibitory effects on the rate of tooth movement. Nicotine and nitric oxide might effectively increase the speed of OTM. All drugs reviewed had therapeutic effects, as well as side effects, that may influence the cells targeted by orthodontic forces. Therefore, it is imperative that the orthodontist pays close attention to the drug consumption history of each and every patient, before and during the course of orthodontic treatment. When the use of drugs is revealed, their effects and side effects on tissue systems should be explored to determine their potential influence on the outcome of mechanotherapy.

  12. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

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    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  13. Tooth Movement out of the Bony Wall Using Augmented Corticotomy with Nonautogenous Graft Materials for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Kye-Bok Lee; Dong-Yeol Lee; Hyo-Won Ahn; Seong-Hun Kim; Eun-Cheol Kim; Igor Roitman

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars ...

  14. Reliability of instrumented movement analysis as outcome measure in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease: Results from a multitask locomotor protocol

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ferrarin; Bovi, G.; Rabuffetti, M.; Mazzoleni, P; Montesano, A.; Moroni, I.; Pagliano, E.; A. Marchi; C. Marchesi; E. Beghi; Pareyson, D

    2011-01-01

    Some neurodegenerative diseases at early stage may not drastically affect basic gait ability, whereas more demanding locomotor tasks are more prone to disease-induced abnormalities. In this study, we evaluated the interday test–retest reliability, 4–6 weeks apart, of instrumented movement analysis on a group of 20 subjects with Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease considering a set of kinematic and kinetic curves and related parameters obtained during natural walking (NW) and faster walking, hee...

  15. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Shi Li; Jie Ke; Gui-Zhi Zhao; Li-An Wu; Jun-Ping Kou; Hong-Chen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice. There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory; orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes. Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and ...

  16. Effect of CO2 low-intensity laser in reducing pain in orthodontics and ortho-dontic tooth movement%CO2弱激光照射对减轻正畸疼痛及牙齿移动速度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晶莹; 朱晓红; 侯录; 李鹍

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨不同能量参数CO2弱激光局部照射对尖牙向远中移动过程中牙齿疼痛及牙齿移动速度的影响。方法选择60例拔牙矫正的错合畸形患者,在牙列排齐整平后,使用0.018英寸不锈钢圆丝,用链状皮圈以150 g力量拉上颌尖牙向远中移动的过程中以两种不同强度能量参数的CO2弱激光对右侧尖牙根部区域进行照射,左侧作为对照侧。使用视觉模拟评分法( VAS)评价CO2弱激光局部照射对牙齿疼痛程度的影响。用游标卡尺测量尖牙远移的距离和支抗丧失(第一磨牙近中移动距离)的程度,评价两种能量参数CO2弱激光局部照射对尖牙向远中移动的过程中牙齿移动速度的影响。结果两种能量参数均能减轻正畸牙齿疼痛程度。高能量参数组激光能有效地加快牙齿移动速度,而低能量参数组没有明显加速牙齿的移动速度。结论不同能量参数的CO2弱激光局部照射对减轻正畸牙齿疼痛程度及牙齿移动速度的影响不同。%Objective To explore the effects of different energy parameters of CO 2 low-intensity laser in reducing orthodontic pain and tooth movement during canine distal movement .Meth-ods Sixty patients were included .After the dentition aligned , 0.018 inch stainless steel round wire was used , the device for canine distal movement was elastomeric chain which produced o-riginally 150 g force, the right canine root area was irradiated by two different energy parame-ters of CO2 low laser, the left was control group .The impact of the CO 2 low-intensity laser local irradiation on the patients ’ level of pain was evaluated with the visual analog scale ( VAS ) . The distance of canine to molar was measured with a vernier caliper , efect of two kinds of ener-gy parameters of CO 2 low laser irradiation on the distal movement of the canine tooth movement speed was evaluated .Results The two energy parameters of CO 2 low laser

  17. Age-at-death estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: study of a 20th-century Mexican sample of prisoners to test Cameriere's method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population.

  18. Comparisons of orthodontic root resorption under heavy and jiggling reciprocating forces during experimental tooth movement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikida, Takuji; Shimizu, Mami; Kikuta, Jun; Yoshino, Tomokazu; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective Root mobility due to reciprocating movement of the tooth (jiggling) may exacerbate orthodontic root resorption (ORR). "Jiggling" describes mesiodistal or buccolingual movement of the roots of the teeth during orthodontic treatment. In the present study, buccolingual movement is described as "jiggling." We aimed to investigate the relationship between ORR and jiggling and to test for positive cell expression in odontoclasts in resorbed roots during experimental tooth movement (jiggling) in vivo. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into control, heavy force (HF), optimal force (OF), and jiggling force (JF) groups. The expression levels of cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 protein, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1; an IL-8-related protein in rodents), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin protein in the dental root were determined using immunohistochemistry. Results On day 21, a greater number of root resorption lacunae, which contained multinucleated odontoclasts, were observed in the palatal roots of rats in the JF group than in rats from other groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the numbers of cathepsin K-positive and MMP-9-positive odontoclasts in the JF group on day 21. Immunoreactivities for IL-6, CINC-1, and RANKL were stronger in resorbed roots exposed to jiggling than in the other groups on day 21. Negative reactivity was observed in the controls. Conclusions These results suggest that jiggling may induce ORR via inflammatory cytokine production during orthodontic tooth movement, and that jiggling may be a risk factor for ORR. PMID:27478800

  19. Factores modificantes del movimiento dentario ortodóncico Modifiers factors of orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vargas del Valle

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de la remodelación ósea es fundamental tanto para ortodoncia como para la ortopedia dentofacial. Esta revisión clínica es sobre la relación de la actividad ósea desencadenada por las fuerzas ortodóncicas con diversos factores, como factores propios de los pacientes, moléculas producidas por tejidos enfermos, o drogas y nutrientes consumidas regularmente por los pacientes, los que pueden alcanzar los tejidos periodontales mecánicamente estresados por las fuerzas ortodóncicas a través de la circulación sanguínea, interactuando así con células blanco que producen la remodelación ósea necesaria para el movimiento dentario ortodóncico. El efecto combinado de estas fuerzas mecánicas con alguno de estos agentes pueden ser inhibitorio, aditivo o sinérgico. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los mecanismos de acción y los efectos de algunas de lasdrogas y otros factores sobre la remodelación del tejido óseo y el movimiento dentario ortodóncico.Bone remodeling is fundamental to orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics.This clinically oriented overview relate bone responses to orthodontic forces with many factors. Molecules produced in various diseased tissues, or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can reach the mechanically stressed paradental tissues through the circulation, and interact with local target cells. The combined effect of mechanical forces and one or more of these agents may be inhibitory, additive or synergistic. The objective of this review is to outline the mechanisms of action and effects of some commonly used drugs and other factors on tissue remodeling and orthodontic tooth movement.

  20. Comparison of rate of maxillary canine movement with or without modified corticotomy facilitated orthodontic treatment: A prospective clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Harshal N Suryavanshi; Vaishali R Das; Aashish Deshmukh; Raj Rai; Mena Vora

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The average orthodontic treatment time for extraction therapy is 31 months. One of the main disadvantages of orthodontic treatment is time. Alveolar corticotomies have been used in conjunction with orthodontics to reduce the treatment time by increasing the rate of tooth movement. Concerns about the possible risks of corticotomy procedure have led to the modification of this technique. Germeη et al. reported a case treated by their modified corticotomy technique and...

  1. Overview of Tooth Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bands and wires or appliances Cap Crown Cavities Caries Cleaning Prophylaxis Eye teeth Canines or cuspids Filling ... Abnormal tooth enamel may be due to a diet containing insufficient vitamin D. Abnormal enamel may also ...

  2. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption after artificial socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Seifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low- level laser therapy has been used to stimulate the orthodontic tooth movements (OTM previously. Furthermore, in the orthodontic treatments accompanying tooth extractions, the adjacent teeth move towards the extraction sites and close the space in some cases. Then, the adjacent tooth movements must be prevented in the treatments requiring space. Laser stimulates and at some doses decelerates tooth movement; it also improves healing process and enhances osteogenesis. Hence, it can prevent movement by osteogenesis adjacent to the tooth. The present study investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy on the OTM and root resorption following artificial socket preservation. Materials and Methods: In this experimental animal trial, 16 male albino rabbits were selected with similar characteristics and randomly divided in two groups. Under general anesthesia, an artificial socket, 8 mm in height, was created in the mesial aspect of the first premolars of the rabbits and filled with demineralized freeze dried bone allograft (DFDBA. The first premolars were connected to the incisors using nickel titanium coil springs. In experimental group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs laser was irritated mesial to first premolar where artificial socket was created continuously (808 nm. The cycle was 10 days irritation, 14 days rest, 10 days irritation, 14 days rest (Biostimulation mode. Control group was not laser irradiated. All animals were sacrificed after 48 days and the distance between the distal aspect of the first premolars, and the mesial surface of the second premolars was measured with leaf gauge. The specimens underwent histological assessments. Integrity of root and its resorption was observed under microscope calibration. The size of resorption lacunae was calculated in mm 2 . Normality of data was proved according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis, and Student′s t-test was done. P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant

  3. Simulação 3D de movimento ortodôntico 3D simulation of orthodontic tooth movement

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    Norman Duque Penedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver e validar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos (MEF, um modelo numérico tridimensional (3D de um incisivo central superior para simular o movimento dentário. MÉTODOS: esse modelo contempla a unidade dentária, o osso alveolar e o ligamento periodontal. Permite a simulação dos diferentes movimentos dentários e a determinação dos centros de rotação e de resistência. Limita o movimento ao espaço periodontal, registrando a direção, quantificando o deslocamento dentário e as tensões iniciais no ligamento periodontal. RESULTADOS: a análise dos deslocamentos dentários e das áreas que recebem tensões iniciais possibilita determinar os tipos de movimentos dentários. Com base nas forças ortodônticas, é possível quantificar a intensidade das tensões em cada região do dente, do ligamento periodontal ou do osso alveolar. Com base nas tensões axiais ao longo do ligamento periodontal e da tensão capilar, é possível predizer, teoricamente, as regiões em que deve ocorrer a remodelação óssea. CONCLUSÃO: o modelo foi validado pela determinação do módulo de elasticidade do ligamento periodontal de forma compatível com dados experimentais existentes na literatura. Os métodos utilizados na construção do modelo permitiram a criação de um modelo completo para uma arcada dentária, o qual possibilita realizar variadas simulações que envolvem a mecânica ortodôntica.OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D numerical model of a maxillary central incisor to simulate tooth movement using the Finite Element Method (FEM. METHODS: This model encompasses the tooth, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. It allows the simulation of different tooth movements and the establishment of centers of rotation and resistance. It limits the movement into the periodontal space, recording the direction, quantifying tooth displacement and initial stress in the periodontal ligament. RESULTS: By

  4. Determination of orthodontic tooth movement and tissue reaction following demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft grafting intervention

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    Massoud Seifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socket preservation after tooth extraction is one of the indications of bone grafting to enhance preorthodontic condition. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of socket preservation on the immediate tooth movement, alveolar ridge height preservation and orthodontic root resorption. Materials and Methods: In a split-mouth technique, twelve sites in three dogs were investigated as an experimental study. Crushed demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA (CenoBone® was used as the graft material. The defects were made by the extraction of 3 rd premolar. On one side of each jaw, the defects were preserved by DFDBA and defects of the other side left opened as the control group. Simultaneously the teeth adjacent to the defects were pulled together by a NiTi coil spring. After eight weeks, the amount of (OTM, alveolar height, and root resorption were measured. Analysis of variance was used for purpose of comparison. Results: There was a slight increase in OTM at grafted sites as they were compared to the control sites (P<0.05. Also a significant bone resorption in control site and successful socket preservation in experimental site were observed. Reduction of root resorption at the augmented site was significant compared to the normal healing site (P<0.05. Conclusion: Using socket preservation, tooth movement can be immediately started without waiting for the healing of the recipient site. This can provide some advantages like enhanced rate of OTM, its approved effects on ridge preservation that reduces the chance of dehiscence and the reduction of root resorption.

  5. Tooth movement out of the bony wall using augmented corticotomy with nonautogenous graft materials for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Bok; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Roitman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT) were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P corticotomy using nonautogenous graft materials facilitated tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side. PMID:25247172

  6. Tooth Movement out of the Bony Wall Using Augmented Corticotomy with Nonautogenous Graft Materials for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Bok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P < 0.001. Augmented corticotomy using nonautogenous graft materials facilitated tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side.

  7. Movement: A Clinical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Dalaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One major drawback of orthodontic treatment is its long duration due to slow tooth movement and the pain at the onset of treatment following application of forces. There is controversy regarding the efficacy of laser for decreasing the treatment time and pain of orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of low level diode laser on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and the associated pain.Materials and Methods: In this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 12 or- thodontic patients referring to Shahid Beheshti School of Dentistry for first premolar ex- traction were randomly selected and allocated to gallium aluminum-arsenide laser (Ga,Al,As diode laser, 880 nm, 100 mW, 5 j/cm2, 8 points, 80 seconds, continuous mode or control group. The patients initially underwent leveling and alignment using the sectional system. Force (150 gr was applied to each canine tooth via sectional closing loops. The loops were activated every month. The rate of tooth movement and pain were monitored over the treatment period and recorded on days 1, 3, 7, 30, 33, 37, 60, 63 and 67. Two-way ANOVA was used for comparison of groups.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of tooth movement and pain scores between the irradiated and non-irradiated sides at any time point (P>0.05.Conclusion: Although laser enhanced orthodontic tooth movement in the upper jaw, we failed to provide solid evidence to support the efficacy of laser for expediting tooth move- ment or reducing the associated pain.

  8. A Novel Rat Model of Orthodontic Tooth Movement Using Temporary Skeletal Anchorage Devices: 3D Finite Element Analysis and In Vivo Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Doschak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this animal study was to develop a model of orthodontic tooth movement using a microimplant as a TSAD in rodents. A finite element model of the TSAD in alveolar bone was built using μCT images of rat maxilla to determine the von Mises stresses and displacement in the alveolar bone surrounding the TSAD. For in vivo validation of the FE model, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 25) were used and a Stryker 1.2 × 3 mm microimplant was inserted in the right maxilla and used to protract the right first permanent molar using a NiTi closed coil spring. Tooth movement measurements were taken at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, animals were euthanized and tissues were analyzed by histology and EPMA. FE modeling showed maximum von Mises stress of 45 Mpa near the apex of TSAD but the average von Mises stress was under 25 Mpa. Appreciable tooth movement of 0.62 ± 0.04 mm at 4 weeks and 1.99 ± 0.14 mm at 8 weeks was obtained. Histological and EPMA results demonstrated no active bone remodeling around the TSAD at 8 weeks depicting good secondary stability. This study provided evidence that protracted tooth movement is achieved in small animals using TSADs. PMID:25295060

  9. Systemic effects of fluoxetine on the amount of tooth movement, root resorption, and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic force application in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rafiei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are of the most commonly used drugs among the public. These drugs may impact the regulation of bone cell functioning, and thus affect orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fluoxetine on tooth movements during orthodontic treatment in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male rats were randomly assigned into two groups and injected with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg (experimental group and normal saline (control group for a period of 1-month intraperitoneally 5 times/week. Then, the rats were anesthetized and a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was placed between the left maxillary first molar and left maxillary central incisors of all samples, and then fluoxetine (experimental group and normal saline (control group were injected for another 3 weeks by the same method. After measuring tooth movements, rats were sacrificed, and histomorphometric analyses were conducted and the obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: Following the fluoxetine injection, the mean amount of tooth movements in the experimental group was reduced compared to the control group, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding bone apposition rate (P = 0.83, external root resorption rate (P = 0.1, and mean number of root resorption lacunae (P = 0.16. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, systemic use of fluoxetine may cause insignificant reduction of tooth movement rate in rats; however, this subject needs more evaluations.

  10. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  11. The Damon System and release of substance P in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masaru; Takizawa, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Ryo; Imamura, Ryuichi; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2009-01-01

    Metabolism by peptidases plays an important role in modulating the levels of biologically active neuropeptides. One of these neuropeptides, substance P (SP), a component of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), may exponentiate the inflammatory process during orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to investigate the GCF levels of SP in patients using different bracket systems. Subjects were 10 patients (four males, six females; mean age, 25.1 ± 4.4 years) undergoing orthodontic movement (leveling) in the maxilla. Conventional brackets were placed on the left side, while the teeth on the right received self-ligating brackets. The teeth on the mandibular left side without any orthodontic attachments served as controls. GCF was sampled at 0, 1, 24, and 168 hours after initiation of treatment. Prevention of plaque-induced inflammation allowed assessment of the dynamics of mechanically stimulated SP levels in the GCF, which was determined using commercially enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kits. GCF levels of SP for the Damon System sites were significantly lower than for the teeth with conventional brackets at 24 hours. This result indicates that the Damon System inhibited an increase in the amount of SP in the GCF. Thus, the Damon System is useful to reduce the inflammation and pain resulting from orthodontic forces. PMID:19582258

  12. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  13. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Shi Li; Jie Ke; Gui-Zhi Zhao; Li-An Wu; Jun-Ping Kou; Hong-Chen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice.There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory;orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes.Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and glia.We raised the hypothesis that DSS could restore the impaired abilities of spatial learning and memory via regulating neuron or glia expression in the hippocampus.Methods:A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups:(1) Sham group (n =12),rats underwent all the operation procedure except for the placement of orthodontic forces and received saline treatment;(2) experimental tooth movement (ETM) group (n =12),rats received saline treatment and ETM;(3) DSS + ETM (DETM) group (n =12),rats received DSS treatment and ETM.All DETM group animals were administered with DSS at a dose of 150 mg/kg.Morris water maze test was evaluated;immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify astrocytes activation,and immunofluorescent dendritic spine analysis was used to identify the dendritic spines morphological characteristics expression levels in hippocampus.Results:Maze training sessions during the 5 successive days revealed that ETM significantly deficits in progressive learning in rats,DSS that was given from day 5 prior to ETM enhanced progressive learning.The ETM group rats took longer to cross target quadrant during the probe trial and got less times to cross-platform than DETM group.The spine density in hippocampus in ETM group was significantly decreased compared to the sham group.In addition,thin and mature spine density were decreased too.However,the DSS administration could reverse the dendritic shrinkage and increase the spine density compared to the ETM group

  14. Local use of iontophoresis with traditional Chinese herbal medicine, e.g., Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mechanical force is not the only means to cause tooth movement, but just one kind of stimuli for it. Biological stimuli, with potential of accelerating alveolar bone remodeling, other than mechanical force, have been attracted by orthodontists who are combating prolonged treatment duration. It has been approved that some traditional Chinese medicines, such as Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria, affect the process of bone remodeling. The Hypothesis: We make the hypothesis that local use of iontophoresis with Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria as a non-invasive and safe drug delivery system with no trauma, risk of infection or damage to patients is a new potential approach for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, and shorten the orthodontic treatment time. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Gu-Sui-Bu is effective at inducing bone remodeling, and iontophoresis as a non-invasive technique for drug delivery, is suitable for the transmission of some traditional Chinese herbal medicines into periodontal tissues.

  15. Effect of Low Llevel Therapy on Orthodontic Movement in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseini MH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Lasers with different characteristics have been used to stimulate orthodontic tooth movement. Considering the contradictory findings in this regard, this study was designed to assess the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 12 patients (4 boys and 8 girls; average age:16.9 ± 3.4 with extracted upper first premolars and required canine retraction into extraction site were included. While in both sides canines were retracted by NiTi coil spring, one side was exposed to GaAlAs laser (890 nm. LLLT was done (on the buccal and palatal mucosa by slow movement of probe at the beginning of the first month. Impression and cast fabrication performed at the beginning of retraction, one and two months later. The amount of retraction on the cast was measured with the aid of a reference plaque fabricated on the rogae using a digital caliper. Data were analyzed using paired sample T-test and one-sample Kolmogorov-Simirnov test. Results: There was no significant difference in the amounts of canine movement between laser exposed and control sides (P>0.05. Conclusion: The energy dose of laser used in this study (72 J per each tooth was not appropriate for increasing dental movement.

  16. 上颌种植钉配合摇椅曲内收上前牙的位移趋势的三维有限元分析%Three dimensional finite element analysis of tooth movement tendency in maxilla using mini-screw cooperated with upper accentuated-curve to close tooth space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佩蓉; 朱宪春; 闫森; 张娴; 史学明

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过改变摇椅曲的曲度和游离牵引钩的高度,分析使用种植钉配合摇椅曲整体内收前牙时该力学体系对磨牙压低作用的成因和力学机制.方法 采用螺旋CT扫描,并用Mimics 10.0建模软件建立上牙列及其支持组织,以及不同曲度摇椅曲(5°、10.、15°、20.、25°)和不同高度牵引钩(2.1、4.0、5.5 mm)的三维有限元模型,施加1.5 N向后的内收力,分析上颌各牙齿的位移趋势.结果 摇椅曲使切牙唇倾压低、远中直立和近中唇向扭转,尖牙唇倾升高、近中倾斜和近中唇向扭转,第二前磨牙和第一磨牙颊倾压低、远中直立和近中唇向扭转.随着摇椅曲曲度的增加,磨牙的位移趋势增加;但随着牵引钩高度的增加,磨牙的位移趋势减少.结论 摇椅曲曲度增加,磨牙被压低的程度增加;游离牵引钩高度增加,磨牙被压低的程度降低.5°的摇椅曲配合5.5 mm的游离牵引钩,磨牙被压低的程度最小.%Objective In order to find out the cause of molar intrusion and how to avoid molar intrusion, we analyze the movement tendency of tooth by changing the angles of upper accentuated-curve and the height of free traction hook. Methods Spiral CT scanning and Mimics 10.0 software were employed in this study to construct the three dimensional finite element model of maxillary teeth, periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone as well as the inch stainless steel upper accentuated-curve archwires with different angles (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) and the free traction hook with different height (2.1, 4.0, 5.5 mm). By exerting 1.5 N backward force to analysis the displacement trend of maxillary tooth. Results Upper accentuated-curve archwires made the incisors labially tip, intruse, distally upright and mesi-labially torsion; made the canines labially tip, prolong, mesial-tipped and mesi-labially torsion; made the second pre-molars and the first molars buccal tip, intruse, distal upright and mesi

  17. Escaping the Adverse Impacts of NSAIDs on Tooth Movement During Orthodontics: Current Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Li, Yifei; Zhang, Keke; Zhao, Zhihe; Mei, Li

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to relieve pain during orthodontic treatments; however, the possible inhibition of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) by NSAIDs has been debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some commonly used NSAIDs on OTM during orthodontic treatments. A review of the literature identified relevant studies up to August 2014. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane review group and the PRISMA statement. Studies were identified by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random-effect model using Revman 5.1.1.Five studies, including 128 subjects and 3 main NSAIDs (celecoxib, acetaminophen, and aspirin), were included for quantitative synthesis and analysis. Celecoxib did not inhibit OTM except with middle-term use (2-3 weeks) (95% CI [-6.47 to -0.43], P = 0.03). Acetaminophen did not inhibit OTM except with long-term use (>1 month) and low-dose use (∼100 mg/kg per day), (95% CI [-2.96 to -0.78], P = 0.0008; 95%CI [-2.42, -0.46], P = 0.004; respectively). Aspirin was found to inhibit OTM (95%CI [-2.40 to -0.64], P = 0.0008). Our systematic review with meta-analysis suggests that aspirin might inhibit OTM in rat models, whereas the short-term (pain would not inhibit OTM. Well-designed human research should be completed before a solid conclusion can be reached. PMID:27100413

  18. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontics: rate of tooth movement, pain, and release of RANKL and OPG in GCF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Arantza; Gómez, Clara; Palma, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate tooth movement, receptor activator of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and RANKL/OPG ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in compression side and pain level during initial orthodontic tooth treatment to determine the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Ten volunteers who required fixed appliance positioned from the upper first premolars to upper first molars were selected. For each patient, the upper first premolar of the quadrant 1 was chosen to be irradiated with a laser diode at 670 nm, 200 mW, and 6.37 W/cm(2), applied on the distal, buccal, and lingual sides during 9 min on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. The same procedure was applied in the first premolar of the contralateral quadrant inserting the tip but without laser emission. Samples of GCF from the compression side of the upper first premolars to distalize were collected at baseline and after 2, 7, 30, and 45 days posttreatment for determination of RANKL and OPG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, tooth movement was assessed by scanning models and pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. There was improvement in the parameters studied (pain, tooth movement, levels of RANKL in GCF, and RANKL/OPG ratio) in the laser group when compared to the control group, although differences were not statistically significant. The accumulated retraction of the upper premolar at 30 days was higher in the laser group, and this difference was statistically significant between groups. LLLT delivered in repeated doses (six times in the initial 2 weeks) leads in some extent to a slight orthodontical improvement.

  19. A comparative study of frictional resistance during simulated canine retraction on typodont model

    OpenAIRE

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gulshan K; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P.; SINGH Alka

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Frictional resistance is an important counterforce to orthodontic tooth movement during sliding mechanics. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different bracket-archwire-ligation combinations on “resistance to sliding” during simulated canine retraction on typodont model. Materials and Methods: the frictional resistance was tested between three modern orthodontic brackets-stainless steel, ceramic, and ceramic with metal slot (0.022-inch), and seven different archw...

  20. Velocity of Canine Retraction in Angle Class I Treated with First Premolar Extraction: Effect of Facial Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yu; Toyodome, Yoriko; Ishii, Takenobu; Sakamoto, Teruo; Motegi, Etsuko; Sueishi, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new methods have been applied to increase velocity of tooth movement. A standard mean of tooth movement velocity remains to be established, however. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated the effect of factors affecting this velocity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of facial pattern on the mean velocity of canine retraction in selected cases of orthodontic treatment carried out at this hospital. A total of 112 patients with Angle Class I crowding treated with extraction of the bilateral maxillary and mandibular first premolars and a conventional edgewise bracket were selected at random. The canine retraction period was defined as that between the end of leveling and the beginning of anterior retraction, and was obtained from medical records. Calipers were used to measure how far the canine cusps moved between pre- and post-surgically on superimposed cephalometric tracings. The velocity of canine retraction was significantly slower in the maxilla of male patients with a brachyofacial pattern (p<0.01). Canine retraction is the longest stage of orthodontic treatment. Here, movement was slowest in the maxilla of male patients with a brachyofacial pattern. This indicates that treatment may take longer than average in male patients with a brachyofacial pattern, and that this should be explained prior to commencing such work. PMID:26370574

  1. Corticotomy Facilitated Accelera ting Orthodontic Tooth Movement:Review%骨皮质切开术加速正畸牙移动的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦溅萍(综述); 马佳君; 张锡忠(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the rate of tooth movement is desirable to patients because it shortens treatment time.Currently,some orthodontists use corticotomy to speed up tooth movements .Corticotomies induce the regional acceleratory phenomena,which provides the biological basis for accelerated tooth movement .Animal research and clinical studies show that orthodontic treatment time with this technique can be reduced to 1/2-1/3 of the time of conventional orthodontic with less root resorption ,increased bone support,and low relapse , which is adapted for most malocclusions.Based on the available literature,performing corticotomies on a rou-tine basis may not be justified ,since random controlled clinical studies are still needed to understand the long term efficacy and safety.%近年来,国内外一些正畸医师采用骨皮质切开术辅助加速正畸牙移动以缩短治疗时间。骨皮质切开后快速牙移动的理论基础与局部加速现象相关。动物实验和临床研究证明该技术可以使正畸治疗时间缩短为传统治疗时间的1/2~1/3,并且牙根吸收减少,牙槽骨量增加,且复发较低,适用于大部分错牙合畸形。尽管骨皮质切开加速牙移动有诸多优点,但尚不能作为临床常规治疗方法,对其长期疗效和安全性还缺乏完善的临床随机对照试验。

  2. 正畸力作用下炎性牙周组织的改建%Remodeling of inflammatory periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝军; 赵宏轶; 何苗; 英杰

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More and more patients with periodontal disease require orthodontic treatments. Thus, the remodeling process and its mechanism of inflammatory periodontal tissues become a hot point during orthodontic tooth movement.OBJECTIVE: To observe the remodeling of inflammatory periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement.METHODS: A total of 50 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control and periodontitis groups. In the periodontitis group, rats were established periodontitis models. After that, all rats were prepared for orthodontic tooth movement models. The remodeling of periodontal tissues was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after orthodontic tooth movement.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The movement distance of the periodontitis group was greater than that of the control group. At 0-7 days after orthodontic force application, there was obviously bone resorption at the pressure side and the bone formation was inhibited at the tension side; at 14 days after force application, the bone resorption was diminished, associated with large numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts at the pressure sides in both groups. The findings showed that rats with periodontitis suffered more periodontal traumatism during orthodontic tooth movement, thus, treatment should be delayed until the inflammatory signs were controlled and the local inflammatory was eliminated.%背景:在越来越多的牙周病需要进行正畸治疗时,牙齿移动过程中,炎性牙周组织的改建过程及其机制便成为研究热点.目的:观察在正畸牙移动过程中炎性牙周组织的改建.方法:将50只健康雄性SD大鼠,随机分为正常牙移动组和牙周炎牙移动组,牙周炎牙移动组建立实验性牙周炎动物模型后,所有大鼠建立正畸牙移动模型.分别于牙齿移动后的1,3,5,7和14d,采用苏木精-伊红染色方法观察牙齿受力移动的不同阶段牙周组织的改建.结果与结论:牙周炎牙

  3. Chemokine CCL2 up-regulated in the medullary dorsal horn astrocytes contributes to nocifensive behaviors induced by experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Fu, Runqing; Tan, Yu; Fang, Bing; Yang, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the astrocytic chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) plays an important role in nocifensive behaviors after experimental tooth movement (ETM), the expression and cellular localization of CCL2 and astrocyte activation in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) were determined by immunohistochemistry in rats. The dose-dependent effects of intrathecal C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antagonists on these changes in nocifensive behaviors were evaluated. Exogenous CCL2 was added to medullary dorsal horn slices to evaluate its contributory role in the induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation ex vivo. We found a significant increase in the expression of CCL2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), corresponding well to the nocifensive behaviors after ETM. In addition, application of recombinant CCL2 led to ERK activation, which could be attenuated effectively by pretreatment with CCL2-neutralizing antibody ex vivo. The magnitude of the nocifensive behavior could be reduced by medullary CCR2 antagonists in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the astrocytic CCL2 is actively involved in the development and maintenance of tooth-movement pain and thus may be a potential target for analgesics in orthodontic nocifensive responses control.

  4. 消炎镇痛及激素类药物影响正畸牙移动的研究现状%The effect of anti-inflammatoryand hormone drugs on orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余为民; 刘兴文; 吴中兴

    2012-01-01

    文献回顾性分析在正畸治疗过程中服用消炎止痛及激素类药物对正畸牙移动产生的影响.通过PubMed检索自1990年-2009年实验研究消炎止痛及激素类药物对牙齿移动速度影响的相关文献,从实验设计、正畸力大小及用药剂量等方面进行了分析.非甾体抗炎药可减缓正畸牙的移动,甾体抗炎药则对正畸牙的移动不产生影响,皮质激素、甲状腺激素等可加速正畸牙的移动,但其稳定性差.在正畸治疗过程中可以选择性使用药物治疗来减缓支抗牙的移动提高支抗,亦可通过药物治疗来加速正畸牙的移动,缩短正畸治疗时间,提高矫治效率.%The authors retrieve PubMed related literatures from 1990 to 2009 on the study of anti-inflammatory and hormone drugs on orthodontic tooth movement, and analyze the experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and dose. In order to literature review on the effect of anti-inflammatory and hormone drugs on orthodontic tooth movement in orthodontic treatment process. The results show that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease orthodontic tooth movement, but non-NSAID analgesics has no effect on orthodontic tooth movement. Corticosteroid hormone and thyroid hormone have been shown to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, but the stability is poor. The author conclud that in the orthodontic treatment process, drugs can be selectively used to slow the movement of anchorage tooth and improve the anchorage, or drug therapy is adopted to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, shorten orthodontic treatment time, improve appliance efficiency.

  5. Tooth abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your teeth, mouth, and gums. You may have pain when the dentist taps the tooth. Biting or closing the mouth tightly also increases ... abscess; Dental abscess; Tooth infection; Abscess - tooth Images Tooth anatomy References Amsterdam JT. Oral Medicine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  6. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  7. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  8. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Randau; Chris Carbone; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids...

  9. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  10. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  11. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  12. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  13. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  14. Research progress on effect of low-level laser therapy during orthodontic tooth movement%低强度激光促进正畸治疗牙移动的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜子淇; 何武林; 邹淑娟

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of patients and orthodontists, accelerating teeth movement is desirable because the treatment duration is very long. The harmless and infection-free low-level laser(LLL) is highly capable of suppressing inflammatory process, reducing pain, and promoting wound healing. Thus, LLL is widely utilized in several different treatments in clinical practice. Researchers have studied the effects of LLL, and found that this method can accelerate alveolar bone remodeling and increase the rate of tooth movement in animals. Several clinical trials have also enhanced the efficiency of LLL in accelerating the velocity of orthodontic tooth movement. In this article, recent experimental and clinical studies on the mechanism through which LLL improves orthodontic tooth movement are reviewed.%提高正畸治疗牙移动速率,缩短疗程是正畸患者及医生的迫切要求。低强度激光(LLL)因具有抗炎、镇痛、促进组织愈合和无创伤等优点,在医学领域得到广泛运用。近年来,大量基础研究发现LLL能影响机体的成骨及破骨效应,提高实验动物牙移动速率,相关的临床试验报道也证实了其促进患者正畸牙移动的有效性。本文就LLL促进正畸牙移动的基础和临床研究进展作一综述。

  15. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  16. The correlation research of the relationship between high mobility group protein box 1 and orthodontic tooth movement%高速泳动族蛋白盒1与正畸牙移动的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昕欣

    2012-01-01

    正畸牙受矫治力作用后,其牙周组织将发生一系列的生物化学反应,多种细胞因子和激素参与了反应的整个过程.高速泳动族蛋白盒1(HMGB1)是一种重要的晚期炎症因子,参与骨组织改建并与成纤维细胞相互作用,据此推测其可能参与正畸牙移动过程中的牙周组织改建.本文就HMGB1与炎症反应、骨组织改建、成纤维细胞、牙周炎,正畸牙移动的生物学基础等研究现状作一综述.%A series of biochemical reaction happened in the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement, varies cytokine and hormone participate in the process. High mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is an important late inflammatory mediator. In recent years, researches have made to find that HMGB1 was involved in the remolding and metabolism of bone and can interacted with fibroblast. Because of the biological effect, we can speculate that HMGB1 may play an important role in the remolding of periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. This review focused on the relationship between HMGB1 and orthodontic tooth movement.

  17. 生长因子在正畸牙移动牙周组织改建中的作用%Effects of growth factors on the periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏

    2012-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement is achieved by the periodontal tissue remodeling in response to mechanical loading and is believed to be mediated by several host mediators. With the development of modem experimental techniques, the researchers have been able to investigate the biological characteristics of orthodontic tooth movement at the molecular and genetic level. The growth factor is one of the most important cytokines which play an important role in the periodontal tissue remodeling. Therefore, a thoroughly awareness of the extensional regulatory mechanism of growth factors is essential to understand the biological behaviour of orthodontic tooth movement, and to the application of growth factors in orthodontic clinic. This article reviews the research progress of the biological foundation and the periodontal tissue responses during orthodontic tooth movement and effects of growth factors on the periodontal tissue remodeling.%正畸牙移动是在机械应力作用下多种因子介导的牙周组织改建.随着现代试验技术的发展,研究者们开始在分子和基因水平研究正畸牙移动的生物学特征.在各种参与牙周组织改建的细胞因子中,生长因子是重要的调节因子之一.了解其在正畸牙移动过程中对牙周组织改建的具体作用机制,有助于正畸医师更好地理解正畸牙移动的生物学行为,指导其在正畸临床上的应用.本文就正畸牙移动的生物学基础、正畸牙移动过程中牙周组织的变化、生长因子在牙周组织改建中的作用等研究进展作一综述.

  18. Tooth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to determine if you need to see your dentist right away. SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS SELF-CARE Begin Here ... You have TOOTH LOSS. DENTAL EMERGENCY See your dentist or go to the emergency room right away. ...

  19. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  20. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration. PMID:27433532

  1. Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoti, Serena; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Abdolreza, Jamilian; Femiano, Felice; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-07-01

    The presence of an impacted mandibular canine is one of the most difficult challenges that an orthodontist will meet. Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dentoskeletal characteristics; the duration, risks, and costs of treatment; patient preferences; and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports an orthodontic treatment of a boy, age 12.9 years, with an impacted mandibular canine in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed. Radiographic analysis indicated a transmigration of the mandibular right canine. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous right canine followed by surgical exposure and ligation of the permanent canine. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct position of the tooth was achieved. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the impacted canine. PMID:26502299

  2. Management of impacted all canines with surgical exposure and alignment by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is a dental problem very often encountered in orthodontic practice. After the third molar, the canine is the most frequently impacted tooth. Bringing the impacted canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article illustrates a peculiar case, in which all four permanent canines maintained their unerupted status at age of 16 years. All four impacted canines were surgically exposed, attachment bonded, traction given with K-9 spring and ideally positioned with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.

  3. Mechanism of human tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2014-01-01

    discussed in the introduction. Human studies, mainly clinical and radiological, have focused on normal eruption and gender differences. Why a tooth begins eruption and what enables it to move eruptively and later to end these eruptive movements is not known. Pathological eruption courses contribute...

  4. Integrating conventional and CAD/CAM digital techniques for establishing canine protected articulation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kerdani, Tarek; Nimmo, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Canine protected articulation is widely accepted for patients requiring extensive oral rehabilitation. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations have been primarily designed in occlusion at the maximum intercuspal position. Designing a virtual articulator that is capable of accepting excursive occlusal records and duplicating the mandibular movements is a challenge for CAD/CAM technology. Modifying tooth shape using composite resin trial restorations to produce esthetic results and later scanning the modified teeth to create milled crowns is becoming a popular use of the CAD/CAM technology. This report describes a technique that combines conventional and CAD/CAM prosthodontic techniques for milling crowns for canine teeth that are designed to establish or improve canine protected articulation. This technique involves designing and fabricating interim restorations based on diagnostic waxing, scanning the designs intraorally, and storing them in software as pretreatment digital records. The scanned designs are then applied to the digital representation of the prepared teeth to fabricate the definitive restorations. PMID:26774319

  5. 生长激素对大鼠牙齿移动及牙周组织影响的研究%The Effect of growth hormone on tooth movement and periodontal tissues of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠华龙; 安晶涛; 杨莉苹; 孙婷婷; 唐林

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究生长激素(growth hormone,GH)对大鼠牙周膜、牙槽骨和正畸牙齿移动的影响。方法40只7周龄Wistar雄性大鼠,随机分成对照组(C)和实验组(E),每组20只。实验组每只大鼠每天接受腹部皮下注射GH0.15 IU/(kg· d);对照组每天接受等量的生理盐水注射。所有大鼠的上切牙和左侧上颌第一磨牙间放置一力值0.49 N镍钛拉簧,以使第一磨牙向近中移动。加力后3、7、10和14 d处死大鼠。游标卡尺测量第一磨牙移动的距离。上颌骨切片做HE染色。结果10 d和14 d时,实验组和对照组相比,牙齿移动距离有显著差异(P <0.05)。与对照组相比,实验组在7 d 有更多的破骨细胞,同时在7和10 d表现出更多的血管。结论短期注射GH会影响骨改建及加快正畸牙齿移动,缩短治疗时间。%Objective To investigate the effect of growth hormone (GH)on periodontal ligament,alveolar bone and orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Methods 40 Wistar rats (gender:male;age:7weeks)were randomly divided into control and experimental groups, each having 20 rats. The experimental group received subcutaneous injections of growth hormone at a dose of 0. 15 IU/ kg·d,and the control group received equivalent volumes of saline. A nickel-titanium spring was fixed to maxillary incisors and the left upper first mo-lar,with a force of 0. 49N,so as to move the molar mesially. The rats were sacrificed on day 3,7,10 and 14. The distance of tooth move-ment was determined by using a vernier caliper. The sections of the maxillae were prepared for hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results On day 10 and 14,there was a significant difference of total tooth movement between the experimental group and the control group (P <0. 05). Compared with the control group,the experimental group showed more osteoclasts on day 7 and more blood vessels on day 7 and 10. Conclusions Short-term GH administration can affect

  6. Extraction of Unerupted Maxillary Canine Teeth in a Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes M. B. Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case report is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of unerupted canine teeth in a maned wolf. After physical examination, complete blood count, and serum biochemical profile, the animal underwent general anesthesia and head radiography was performed to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment consisted of the extraction of both maxillary canine teeth and clinical and radiographic follow-up of the right mandibular canine tooth.

  7. Orthodontic treatment of the transposition of a maxillary canine and a first premolar: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa, Dinoi Maria; Stefano, Mummolo; Annalisa, Monaco; Enrico, Marchetti; Vincenzo, Campanella; Giuseppe, Marzo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transposition is an anomaly of tooth position, the most frequent of which involves the canine and the first maxillary premolar. We describe the orthodontic treatment of a unilateral transposition of an upper canine and an upper right first premolar in the permanent dentition. Case presentation A 12-year-old Caucasian boy presented with transposition of his upper right canine and upper right first premolar. He had combined surgical-orthodontic treatment to correct the transpositio...

  8. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  9. Low-level laser therapy for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement:a Meta-analysis and systematic review%低强度激光促进正畸牙移动的Meta分析和系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何武林; 周圆; 杨烁; 文军; 褚洪星; 葛孟柯; 段培佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and related risk of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. Methods An extensive electronic search was conducted by two review⁃ers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi⁃RCTs concerning the efficacy of LLLT for accelerating tooth move⁃ment during orthodontic treatment were searched in CENTRAL, PubMed, Medline, Embase, CBM, CNKI. Results Six RCTs and three quasi⁃RCTs, involving 211 patients from six countries, were selected from 173 relevant studies. All nine articles were feasible for the systematic review and meta⁃analysis, five of which were assessed as moderate risk of bias, while the rest were assessed as high risk of bias. The mean difference and the 95%confidence interval (95%CI) of accu⁃mulative moved distance of teeth were observed among all the researches. The results showed that the LLLT could acceler⁃ate orthodontic tooth movement in 7 days (MD=0.19, 95%CI 0.02⁃0.37, P=0.03) and 2 months (MD=1.08, 95%CI 0.16⁃2.01, P=0.02). Moreover, a relatively lower energy density (2.5, 5 and 8 J/cm2) was seemingly more effective than 20 and 25 J/cm2 and even higher ones. Conclusion This systematic review and meta⁃analysis demonstrated that LLLT might speed up the tooth movement in orthodontic treatment. A relatively lower energy density (2.5, 5, and 8 J/cm2) was seemingly more effective than higher ones. More qualified RCTs in human subjects are required.%目的:评价低强度激光治疗(low⁃level laser therapy ,LLLT)促进正畸牙移动的有效性及相关风险。方法依据Cochrane Handbook的规范化要求,检索1980年-2014年Medline、PubMed等数据库,运用Review Manager 5.1软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入6个国家6篇随机对照试验,3篇不完全随机对照试验,211名患者。偏倚风险评价显示5个研究为中度偏倚风险,4个研究为高度偏倚风险。Meta分析结果显示:与对照组

  10. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  11. Morphometric analysis of canine in gender determination: Revisited in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Paramkusam

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation and Conclusion: Use of the standard mandibular CI in gender determination is recommended for forensic procedures as it was found to have an acceptable accuracy. MD width of canine may be used in a setup when only the single tooth or a fragment of a jaw is available for analysis, with due consideration to its relatively low accuracy.

  12. Varying types of circus movement re-entry with both normal and dissociated contralateral conduction causing different right and left atrial rhythms in canine atrial flutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, S; Boineau, J P; Schuessler, R B; Cox, J L

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an animal model of atrial flutter (AFL) or fibrillation (AFB) and to determine precisely the pathway of atrial activation during arrhythmias induced by programmed stimulation. In 10 dogs, a shunt from the left subclavian artery to the left upper pulmonary vein was created to produce left atrial enlargement. Five months later, using programmed electrical stimulation, it was possible to induce 17 sustained atrial tachycardias in 9 of the 10 dogs, including 9 episodes of AFL caused by circus movement re-entry, 6 episodes of focal tachycardia, and 2 episodes of AFB. Short cycle length left atrial tachycardias caused by either circus movement or a focus did not propagate in a uniform 1:1 pattern to the right atrium (RA), resulting in RA dissociation. In these arrhythmias, complex wavefronts from both current and preceding left atrial cycles coexisted in the RA. Circus movement was associated with a spectrum of different re-entrant pathways with different path lengths. These differences in the path length were determined by various ways in which obstacles such as the superior vena cava and orifice of the right atrial appendage or pulmonary vein orifices were combined by contiguous areas of functional block.

  13. The unerupted maxillary canine - a post-surgical review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-10-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  14. A comparison of the forces required to produce tooth movement in vitro using two self-ligating brackets and a pre-adjusted bracket employing two types of ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A P; Waters, N E; Birnie, D J; Pethybridge, R J

    1993-10-01

    Friction in fixed appliance systems has received considerable attention in the recent literature, although that attributable to the type of ligation used has not been fully investigated. This in vitro study of 0.022 x 0.028 inch slot Minitwin, Activa ('A' Company, San Diego, California, USA), and SPEED brackets (Strite Industries Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario, Canada), investigates friction in two forms of self-ligating brackets and in two methods of ligating Minitwin straight wire brackets with polyurethane elastomeric ligatures. The resistance to sliding of rectangular archwires through the ligated brackets was measured on a vertically mounted Instron testing machine. The stainless steel archwires used were straight lengths of 0.016" x 0.022", 0.017" x 0.025", 0.018" x 0.025", and 0.019" x 0.025" Nubryte Gold (GAC International Inc., Central Islip, New York, USA). The results showed a significant reduction (P brackets compared with SPEED brackets by a factor of approximately 15. When the SPEED brackets were compared to Minitwin brackets, the reduction in friction was by 50-70 per cent (P self-ligating brackets require less force to produce tooth movement because they apply less frictional contact to the archwire than conventionally tied siamese brackets. PMID:8223972

  15. 多西环素对大鼠正畸移动牙根吸收影响的研究%An experimental study on root resorption tissue during orthodontic tooth movement in rats with doxycycline administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志菲; 刘月华

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the root-resorbing tissue during experimental tooth movement with doxycycline (DC) administration,to elucidate the protein changes and mechanism of root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth move-ment. All of these could give an evidence which maybe used regulate orthodontic tooth movement more efficiently. Method:Animal models of experimental orthodontic tooth movement in Sprague-Dawley rats were established. 36 male rats were ran-domly assigned to four groups. Nine animals served as untreated controls. Nine animals were only administered DC for 7 days,by means of injection on rat's back subcutaneously daily. In 18 animals the maxillary first molar was moved mesially by a continuous and constant reciprocal force of 50 g from Sentalloy®closed-coil springs. In 9 of these animals DC was ad-ministered at the time of appliance insertion and throughout the experiment. The animals were sacrificed 7,10 or 14 days af-ter force application and block sections processed for Haematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining and tartrate resistant acid phos-phatase (TRAP). The root resorption area and the number of TRAP-postive cells on root were counted at the compressing side of the mesial roots. Computer image analysis was performed to evaluate all of these results. Result:①The animals in the doxy-ortho group had significantly less root resorption than the animals in the ortho-group at all experimental periods,except day 14. In the doxy-ortho group, the mean of root resorption increased throughout the experiment,while the ortho group re-vealed a reduction in the mean of root resorption by day 14.②In both groups the number of TRAP-positive cells presented a peak at day 10 and decreased towards day 14. The doxy-ortho group demonstrated significantly fewer TRAP-positive cells on the root surface than the ortho group after 10 days of force application. Conclusion:DC may have an inhibitory effect on the recruitment of TRAP-positive cells and orthodontically

  16. Corticotomias alveolares na Ortodontia: indicações e efeitos na movimentação dentária Alveolar corticotomies in orthodontics: Indications and effects on tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauro Douglas Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a busca pelo aumento na eficiência dos tratamentos ortodônticos é uma constante em diversas áreas da Ortodontia atual. A realização de corticotomias alveolares pouco antes da aplicação de forças ortodônticas vem sendo sugerida como uma forma de potencializar a movimentação dentária e, consequentemente, o tratamento ortodôntico como um todo. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo revê a perspectiva histórica dessa abordagem terapêutica, apresenta e ilustra com casos clínicos suas principais indicações e, por fim, discute os fundamentos biológicos que justificam sua utilização.INTRODUCTION: The systematic search for increased efficiency in orthodontic treatment is shared by several areas of orthodontics. Performing alveolar corticotomies shortly before the application of orthodontic forces has been suggested as a method to enhance tooth movement and, consequently, orthodontic treatment as a whole. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the historical perspective of this therapeutic approach, presents and illustrates with clinical cases its main indications and finally discusses the biological reasons underlying its use.

  17. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  18. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  19. Permanent tooth calcification in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): patterns and polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, K L; Conroy, G C

    1996-01-01

    Tooth calcification is an important developmental marker for use in constructing models for early hominid life history, particularly for its application to the fossil record. As chimpanzees are commonly utilized in interspecific comparisons in such research, this study aims to improve available baseline data for tooth calcification patterns in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and to quantify basic patterns and polymorphisms. We present an analysis of developmental patterns for the left mandibular dentition (I1-M3) based on intraoral radiographs obtained from a cross-sectional sample of chimpanzees (58 males, 60 females) housed at LEMSIP (NYU Medical Center) and Yerkes (Emory University). No significant differences with previous descriptions of the basic sequences of tooth calcification in chimpanzees were found, but variation in such patterns was documented for the first time. In the overall sequence, polymorphisms between the canine and the group (M2 P4 P3) reached significant levels. This is due to the relative delay in canine crown formation compared to other teeth. Differences in the basic sequence between males and females were recorded, but are due to minor shifts in the percentages of occurrence for polymorphic sequences which are common to both genders. Perhaps our most important findings are that a) different polymorphic sequences occur in tooth calcification and tooth emergence in chimpanzees, and b) developmental relationships among teeth fluctuate throughout tooth calcification. Thus, characterizations of dental developmental patterns based on particular stages of development cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other stages without supporting data. PMID:8928717

  20. A comparison of the forces required to produce tooth movement ex vivo through three types of pre-adjusted brackets when subjected to determined tip or torque values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, A P; Waters, N E; Birnie, D J

    1994-11-01

    Friction in fixed appliance systems has received considerable attention in recent literature, although that attributable to varying second order (tip) and third order (torque) adjustments in either the bracket or the archwire has not been fully investigated. The ex vivo study of 0.022 x 0.028-inch slot Minitwin, Activa, and Standard Straight Wire brackets investigates friction when known values of tip or torque were applied to 0.018 x 0.025-inch stainless steel wires. The resistance to sliding of the wire through the ligated brackets was measured on a vertically-mounted Instron testing machine. The results showed that the self-ligating Activa brackets consistently produced less friction than the other conventionally tied brackets. Minitwin brackets were slightly more resistant to movement than the Standard brackets during torquing, but the converse was found when tip was applied. Increasing tip and torque (ranges tested 0-6 degrees and 0-25 degrees, respectively) produced almost linear increases in friction for all brackets, although increasing tip had the more profound effect on friction, particularly in Activa brackets. PMID:7857896

  1. Experimental research on cortical incision type to promote orthodontic tooth movement%骨皮质切开术式加快正畸牙移动的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴颖

    2014-01-01

    目的:确定一种既操作简单、创伤小、临床易于开展,又有效加快正畸牙移动的骨皮质切开术式,为临床实践提供参考。方法:选择成年Beagle犬9只拔除两侧第二前磨牙,并随机选择其中一侧为骨皮质切开实验侧,另一侧为传统正畸方法对照侧,常规加力2周,固定保持4周后测量支抗牙移动牙移动距离;定期拍摄X线片和进行牙髓活力测试。结果:移动牙固定4周时松动度普遍小于I度;实验侧移动牙加力2周平均向远中移动3.12mm,对照侧移动牙平均向远中移动1.77mm(P﹤0.001),实验侧支抗牙平均向近中移动0.41mm,对照侧支抗牙平均向近中移动0.36mm(P﹥0.05);双侧均未出现牙根吸收及牙髓活力异常。结论:骨皮质切开术可加快牙齿移动速度;未见牙根吸收、骨质缺损、牙齿松动、支抗丧失等副作用。%To determine as well as a way of simple operation, small trauma, clinical, easy to carry out, and effective to speed up the bone cortex dissection of orthodontic tooth movement type in order to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods: Nine adult Beagle dogs were selected and pulled on both sides of the second premolar, randomly selected one side to cut the experimental side, the other side of the traditional orthodontic method contrast, conventional strength for 2 weeks, fixed stay for 4 weeks after measuring the palatal teeth movement distance; X-ray films and dental pulpvitality were regularly tested. Results: The mobile teeth fixed loose degree is generally less than I degree after 4 weeks; Experimental side mobile teeth strength for 2 weeks in average to move 3.12 mm, the control side mobile teeth moved far from 1.77 mm (P0.05); Both sides were not abnormal root absorption and dental pulp vitality. Conclusion:The bone cortex dissection can accelerate the tooth movement without side effects including root absorption and bone defects, loose teeth and the

  2. 应用种植支抗大鼠牙齿移动压力侧与牙齿自然萌出过程中骨保护素及RANKL表达的比较%Comparison of osteoprotegerin and RANKL expresssions during orthodontic tooth movement using implant anchorage and natural tooth eruption in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红艳; 赵悦

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore whether osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expressed differentially during orthodontic tooth movement using implant anchorage and natural tooth eruption in rats.Methods:By means of HE staining,X-ray photography and immunohistochemistriy,the morphology of the mandibular first molars and expressions of OPG and RANKL in experimental rats receivd orthodontic force using implant anchroage for 2,4,7 and 14 days,and control rats aged postnatal days 0,7,10,15 and 21.Results:The radiophotographs showed that the mandibular first molars were pulled toward mesiocclusion with presence of orthodontic force.The amounts of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were similar both in experimetnal and control animals.Strong expressions of OPG and RANKL were detected both in experimental and control animals.Conclusion:The similar trend of OPG and RANKL expressions during OTM and tooth eruption are in coincidence with alveolar bone remodeling.%目的:比较应用种植支抗使大鼠牙齿移动与牙齿自然萌出过程中骨保护素及破骨细胞核因子B受体活化因子配基(RANKL)表达变化.方法:建立应用种植支抗牵引移动大鼠下颌第1磨牙的动物实验组.对照组取出生后0、7、10、15d及21 d的SD乳鼠处死,实验组分别于加力牵引2、4、7d及14d后,解剖分离大鼠下颌骨,拍X线片,常规H-E染色观察大体组织形态,免疫组织化学检测骨保护素及RANKL表达.结果:应用种植支抗牵引大鼠牙齿移动组中,X线示牵引的第1磨牙向近中移动,H-E染色示牙齿自然萌出组中的成骨细胞及破骨细胞强阳性表达,应用种植支抗牙齿移动组中成骨细胞及破骨细胞表达较多.免疫组织化学显示实验组和对照组骨保护素及RANKL阳性表达.结论:在牙齿自然萌出及正畸牙移动过程中,骨保护素及RANKL表达变化相似,其变化规律与牙槽骨改建过程一致.

  3. Effects of flapless bur decortications on movement velocity of dogs′ teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: (1 Corticotomy facilitated orthodontic tooth movement is achievable with flapless bur decortication technique. (2 Velocity of tooth movement decreases in later stages of treatment due to maturation of newly formed bone at decortication sites.

  4. 静止期牙周炎正畸牙周组织中胰岛素样生长因子-Ⅰ表达的实验研究%Experimental Study of Insulin-like Growth Factor-Ⅰ Expression in Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Stable Periodontitis.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东红; 郑嵘; 曹作宏; 吴立鹏

    2011-01-01

    目的:对比分析IGF-Ⅰ在静止期牙周炎牙移动和正常牙移动牙周组织改建中的表达变化.方法:72只wistar大鼠随机平分为牙周炎牙移动及正常牙移动1、3、7、14、21 d组及对照组,近中移动各组大鼠上颌第一磨牙,分别测量牙齿移动距离并进行IGF-Ⅰ免疫组化染色分析.结果:在既定时间内,牙周炎组大鼠牙移动距离大于正常组;牙周炎牙移动组的IGF-Ⅰ含量低于正常牙移动组,加力第1、7、14天差异有统计学意义.结论:IGF-Ⅰ作为局部调控因子参与了正畸牙周组织改建过程;在慢性炎症环境下,IGF-Ⅰ表达水平低于正常牙移动组.%Objective: To compare and analyze the effect of IGF-Ⅰ on periodontal tissue remodeling during the tooth movement in rats with periodontitis and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods: Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into healthy and periodontitis tooth movement groups with 1th, 3th, 7th, 14th, 21th days and control group. With the maxillary first molar mesially moved, the rats were measured of distance of tooth movement and sections were detected by immunohistochemical stain. Results: In a given period of time, distance of tooth movement in periodontitis rats was longer than that in healthy group; IGF-Ⅰ was lower than that in healthy tooth movement group; the compressive side in the periodontal tissue lth, 7th, 14th days groups showed significant difference from control. Conclusion: IGF-Ⅰ participated in the orthodontic periodontal tissue remodeling. Since the presence of chronic inflammatory environment, the expression level of IGF-Ⅰ in periodontitis toothmovement group decreased significantly.

  5. 斑点杂交法检测正畸大鼠三叉神经节PPTAmRNA的变化%Changes in the Expression of PPTA mRNA in the Rat trigeminal Ganglion during Tooth Movement using Dot-blot hybridization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷越; 孙应明

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes in the Expression of PPTA mRNA in the Rat trigeminal Ganglion during Tooth Movement. Methods The changes in the expression of PPTA mRNA in the rat trigeminal ganglion.during tooth movement in different periods.were detected using Dot-blot hybridization. Results The expression of PPTA mRNA in trigeminal ganglion was stonger than that in blank group and control group at all the time points; PPTA mRNA level was increased after 2 hours and reached the peak level around 8 hours to 3 days during tooth movement,7days after tooth movement PPTA mRNA level was still higher than in control group. Conclusion Orthodontic tooth movement can lead to a stonger expression of PPTA mRNA in trigeminal ganglion, suggesting that the PPTA may be involved in the occurrence of orthodontic pain.%目的:观察正畸牙齿移动不同时期大鼠三叉神经节(Trigeminal Ganglion,TG)中前速激肽原A(PPTA)mRNA的表达变化,初步探讨牙齿移动导致疼痛的可能机制.方法:采用斑点杂交的方法检测正畸加力后不同时期大鼠TG内PPTAmRNA水平的变化情况.结果:加力2h大鼠三叉神经节PPTA mRNA的表达量开始增加,加力8h至加力3天达到最高,至第7天PPTA mRNA水平仍然明显高于对照组.结论:正畸牙齿移动能导致TG内PPTAmRNA表达水平的上调,提示PPTA可能参与了正畸疼痛的发生.

  6. Orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar bone: a clinical study in 10 cleft lip and palate patients%唇腭裂患者牙槽突裂植骨区牙移入的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨臣杰; 陈振琦; 杨育生; 钱玉芬

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSES: To explore the possibility of tooth movement into grafted alveolar bone in cleft lip and palate patients (CLP), and to evaluate the bone height of the grafted bone and alveolar bone support of the moved-in teeth. METHODS: Ten CLP patients were included in this study. Periapical radiographs were taken for the cleft-associated teeth 3 months later after bone grafting (Tl) and after tooth movement into the grafted bone (T2). Alveolar bone support of the moved teeth were measured at Tl and T2 stages. Paired t test were performed for statistical analysis with SPSS17.0 software package. The height of the grafted bone were evaluated serai -quantitatively using the Bergland system. RESULTS: All the cleft-associated teeth were bodily moved into the grafted area. The average alveolar bone support for the moved teeth was (89.85±2.51)% (Tl) and (90.22±2.44)% (T2), respectively. There was no significant difference between Tl and T2. No significant radiographic alteration was observed in the height of the grafted bone. CONCLUSIONS: Cleft-associated teeth could be bodily moved into the grafted bone. A successful level of alveolar bone support for the moved teeth was achieved. Moved-in teeth could reduce the resorption of grafted bone. Supported by Medical Research Fund of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality(074119643).%目的:探讨牙槽突裂植骨区牙移入的可行性及牙移入的方式,评价移入牙的牙槽骨支持率和移植骨高度变化.方法:选取唇腭裂伴牙槽突裂患者10例,行牙槽突裂自体髂骨植骨术后,分别拍摄植骨后3个月(T1)及牙移入植骨区后(T2)的根尖片,观察牙移入植骨区的情况,测量T1和T2阶段移入牙的牙槽骨支持率,采用SPSS17.0软件包对测量数据进行配对t检验,并参照Bergaand四分法评价移植骨的高度变化.结果:①牙整体移入植骨区,牙槽骨支持率为(89.85±2.51)% (T1)和(90.22±2.44)%(T2),牙移入植骨区后的

  7. Expression of PI3K in Rabbit Periodontal Tissues Remodeling during Orthodontic Tooth Movement.%正畸力作用下兔牙周组织中PI3K的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕; 孙素芬

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨正畸力作用下兔牙周组织中PI3K在正畸牙移动牙周组织改建过程中的作用.方法:选用24只日本大耳白兔建立正畸牙移动的动物模型,将实验动物上颌右侧戴矫治器,作为实验组;左侧未戴矫治器,作为对照组.分别在戴矫治器后3、5、7、14 d各处死6只实验动物.用实时荧光定量PCR及Western blot免疫印迹分析方法对PI3K表达的变化进行检测.结果:实时荧光定量PCR结果显示,加力3 d后牙周组织中PI3K mRNA表达增强,7 d后牙周组织中PI3K mRNA表达明显增强,随后缓慢下降,与对照侧相比,其差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).Western blot免疫印迹分析与RQ-PCR结果一致.结论:在正畸牙移动过程中,兔牙周组织中PI3K的表达明显增强,提示PI3K参与牙周组织改建,并在牙周组织改建中起重要作用.%Objective: To study the role of PI3K in periodontal tissues remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: Twenty-four rabbits were chosen to establish rabbit models for the study. The right maxillary teeth of each animal treated by orthodontics were the test side, and the untreated left teeth were set the control side.The animals were sacrificed after 3, 5, 7, 14 d, respectively. The prepared tissue specimens were processed to study the expression of PI3K in periodontal tissues by real- time quantitative PCR and Western blot techniques. Resuits.. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of PI3K mRNA dramatically changed after 3 d. The expression of PI3K mRNA in treating periodontal tissues was higher than that in the control side, especially after 7 d, and then decreased. Compared with the control side, there was significant difference (P<0. 01). The expression of Western blot was the same as the real-time quantitative PCR. Conclusion: Higher expression of PI3K during orthodontic tooth movement plays an important role in the process of periodontium remodeling.

  8. 尼古丁对大鼠实验性牙移动牙根吸收的影响*★%Nicotine inhibits root resorption induced by experimental tooth movement in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖丽呼玛•阿热甫江; 潘旭; 米丛波

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking can seriously affect the periodontal tissues and root, and nicotine in tobacco can increase the progression of periodontal disease and influence bone remodeling thus leading to bone resorption. While intergrin αvβ3 participates in the root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of nicotine on root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth movement based on the indicators of intergrin αvβ3 expression in the odontoclasts. METHODS: A total of 110 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, normal saline group, 0.5 mg/kg nicotine group, 0.75 mg/kg nicotine group and 1 mg/kg nicotine group. In the last four groups, 50 g force was exposed on the maxil ary first molar, and intraperitoneal injection of nicotine tartrate solution or saline in a certain dose was performed daily. Then the histological changes and expression of intergrin αvβ3 were observed after exposed force on the maxil ary first molar for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the prolonging of time for exposing force, the periodontal ligament fibers around the root were distorted and lost normal shape, and inflammatory cel infiltration could be seen. Resorption lacuna and odontoclasts were found on the root surface in the pressure side and tension side as wel as the root bifurcation. The dose of nicotine injection, the number and depth of resorption lacuna on the root surface and the number of odontoclasts showed a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining result showed that expression of intergrin αvβ3 could be seen in each group, except for the blank control group, and the expression intensity was increased with the prolonging of the time for force; the intergrin αvβ3 positive expression was strong after forced for 7 days, and decreased when forced for 14 days. The number of odontoclasts expressing

  9. Retração rápida de caninos Rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a retração rápida de caninos por distração do ligamento periodontal é uma técnica de movimentação dentária que permite o fechamento de espaço da extração de primeiros pré-molares em um intervalo de duas ou três semanas, proporcionando uma redução significativa no tempo do tratamento ortodôntico. OBJETIVO: apresentar modificações propostas na técnica cirúrgica original e no posicionamento dos distratores. CONCLUSÕES: a retração rápida de caninos é uma técnica que proporciona uma redução significativa no tempo de tratamento ortodôntico. A modificação na técnica cirúrgica proporcionou maior velocidade e segurança ao ato cirúrgico. O distrator posicionado por palatina, no mínimo, proporcionou a preservação da tábua óssea vestibular e evitou a vestibularização dos caninos.INTRODUCTION: Rapid canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament is a tooth movement technique that allows the closure of first premolar extraction space within a period of two to three weeks while providing significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. OBJECTIVE: To propose changes in the original surgical technique and in the placement of distractors. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid canine retraction is a technique that provides significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. Changes in the surgical technique provided greater speed and safety in surgery. As a minimum benefit, when positioned palatally, distractors helped to preserve the buccal bone plate and prevented canine proclination.

  10. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  11. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

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    Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6% and mandibular canines (79.6%. In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%, Type II (2.8%, Type V (2%, Type XIX (1.2%, and Type IV (0.8%. In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%, Type II (3.2%, Type V (2%, and Type XIX (1.6%. Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population.

  12. Complex odontoma associated to a primary maxillary canine: case report

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    Estela Maris LOSSO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Odontomas are malformations of the dental tissues and may interfere with the eruption of the associated tooth. The early diagnosis, followed by a proper treatment at the right time, will result in a favorable prognosis and a desirable occlusion development. Complex odontomas associated to primary teeth are rare. Case report and conclusion: This article describes a case of a complex odontoma in a four-year-old girl that prevented eruption of the left primary canine. The treatment choice was enucleation of the odontoma and the maintenance of the left primary canine.In this case, complete removal of the complex odontoma was successfully conducted, since after one year of follow-up the primary maxillary canine restarted its eruption process.

  13. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  14. Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular growth and tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per;

    2005-01-01

    Normal and abnormal jaw growth and tooth eruption are topics of great importance for several dental and medical disciplines. Thus far, clinical studies on these topics have used two-dimensional (2D) radiographic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to analyse normal mandibular growth...... and tooth eruption in three dimensions based on computer tomography (CT) scans, extending the principles of mandibular growth analysis proposed by Bjork in 1969 from two to three dimensions. As longitudinal CT data from normal children are not available (for ethical reasons), CT data from children......, relocated laterally during growth. Furthermore, the position of tooth buds remained relatively stable inside the jaw until root formation started. Eruption paths of canines and premolars were vertical, whereas molars erupted in a lingual direction. The 3D method would seem to offer new insight into jaw...

  15. Influence of musical instruments on tooth positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E

    1981-08-01

    A 2-year longitudinal investigation was conducted at five New York City junior high schools on 11- to 13-year-old children starting instrumental music education to determine what tooth movement, if any, resulted from the playing of certain musical instruments. Questionnaires, interviews, oral examinations, and dental casts were used at the start of instrumental study, after one year, and then after a second year. Statistically significant anterior tooth movements occurred in an overwhelming majority of the instrumentalists, while negligible movements were recorded for the controls over this period. As a result of this study, certain recommendations can be made by dentists when they are asked to suggest instruments which are dentally suited for children. In most cases they can suggest more than one instrument which would be of benefit dentally to the individual child, especially in the increase or reduction of overjet and overbite. The playing of the correct musical instrument can serve as an adjunct to the dentist or orthodontist in trying to accomplish certain tooth movements.

  16. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Senhorinho Esteves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars.

  17. Movimentação dentária experimental em murinos: período de observação e plano dos cortes microscópicos Experimental tooth movement in murines: study period and direction of microscopic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cuzzuol Fracalossi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este trabalho tem por finalidade explicitar aspectos microscópicos relevantes da movimentação dentária induzida em murinos quanto aos: (1 diferentes períodos de observação e (2 planos dos cortes microscópicos transversais e longitudinais. Os estudos experimentais sobre a movimentação dentária induzida em murinos variam quanto aos períodos e planos de cortes microscópicos, mesmo os trabalhos que utilizam especificamente o modelo de Heller e Nanda, de 1979. Para contribuir (1 na escolha do melhor design experimental de movimentação dentária induzida em murinos em futuros trabalhos, e (2 no aperfeiçoamento dos critérios de análise por outros pesquisadores, propusemo-nos a publicar este artigo. MÉTODOS: Empregaram-se 50 ratos machos Wistar, com 90 dias de vida, submetidos à movimentação dentária induzida por períodos de 3, 5, 7 e 9 dias. Utilizou-se movimento de inclinação mesial no primeiro molar superior esquerdo, com uma força equivalente a 75cN. A análise microscópica qualitativa avaliou os fenômenos teciduais e celulares decorrentes da movimentação dentária induzida, nos diferentes períodos de observação e entre os cortes microscópicos transversais e longitudinais. RESULTADOS: dos fenômenos observados, as áreas hialinas tiveram expressão máxima no período de 5 dias e as reabsorções radiculares apresentaram-se exuberantes e bem demarcadas no período de 9 dias. Nos dois fenômenos, as raízes mais afetadas foram as distais, especialmente a raiz distovestibular. CONCLUSÃO: mediante o delineamento proposto, pode-se sugerir, para futuros trabalhos nesta linha de pesquisa, períodos de análise de 5 a 9 dias e cortes microscópicos transversais.AIM: This study aims to elucidate the relevant microscopic aspects of induced tooth movement in murines with regard to: (1 different study periods; and (2 transverse and longitudinal directions of microscopic sections. Experimental studies on induced

  18. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  19. Precise modeling of arc tooth face-gear with transition curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yanmei; Fang Zongde; Su Jinzhan; Feng Xianzhang; Peng Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    A fabrication method is adopted for which an imaginary gear simultaneously realizes conjugated meshing with an arc tooth cylindrical gear and an arc tooth face-gear. The cutter fillet and tooth crest edge form the tooth root fillet of the gear, and the linear tooth surface equation of the imaginary gear and the position vector of the curvature center of the cutter fillet are constructed with certain cutter inclination to deduce a working arc tooth surface equation. The tooth root fillet equation of the arc tooth face-gear is derived from the meshing geometry and kinematics. A numer-ically controlled machining model of the arc tooth face-gear is established through the transforma-tion of adjustment parameters from the cutter-tilt milling machine to a common multi-axis NC machine. Motion parameters of each movement axis of the NC machine are acquired. A processing example is presented to verify the precision of the fabrication method in processing the arc tooth face-gear. The method provides a theoretical and tentative basis for the analysis of tooth surface contact stress, tooth root bending stress and dynamics. A hobbing test is conducted to demonstrate the good meshing condition of the arc tooth face-gear pair.

  20. 镍钛螺簧牵拉大鼠第一磨牙向近中移动:正畸牙移动模型%Mesial movement of the rat molars using Ni-Ticoil spring:a model of orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娇红; 张扬

    2014-01-01

    背景:在有关正畸牙移动的实验中,动物模型的建立是关键,其中力值的选择、支抗的控制对实验结果的影响很大。  目的:在综合考虑各种因素的情况下,建立一个较完善的正畸牙移动动物模型。  方法:在20只Wistar大鼠上颌两个切牙牙根中部水平钻洞,用0.3 mm直径结扎丝从洞中穿过,将牙槽骨、两个切牙结扎在一起,将右上颌第一磨牙以0.2 mm直径结扎丝结扎,随机分为4组,在切牙和第一磨牙间分别置10,25,50 g Sental oy镍钛螺簧,以切牙为支抗,拉第一磨牙向近中移动,以不加力的为对照组。加力后14 d苏木精-伊红染色观察第一磨牙牙体牙髓变化,并使用软件测量计算牙本质吸收相对深度。  结果与结论:10 g镍钛螺簧组牙骨质不规则吸收,压力侧牙周膜间隙变窄;25 g镍钛螺簧组压力侧可见牙骨质及牙本质不规则吸收;50 g镍钛螺簧组牙根可见明显的吸收,深达牙本质层。10 g螺簧组牙本质吸收相对深度与对照组相比差异无显著性意义(P>0.05),其他各组之间牙本质吸收相对深度差异均有显著性意义(P OBJECTIVE:To establish an animal model for orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS:Twenty Wistar rats were included in this study. The root of incisor teeth at upper jaw was dril ed and then threaded with a ligature wire (0.3 mm diameter), therefore the alveolar bone and two incisor teeth were ligated. The first molar at right upper jaw was also ligated using a ligature wire (0.2 mm diameter). The experimental teeth were randomly divided into four groups. A Sental oy closed-coil spring (10 g, 25 g, 50 g) was placed between the maxil ary incisors and the maxil ary first molar, respectively. Taking the incisor as the anchorage, the molars were given a mesial movement, and control group received no force. On day 14, the dental pulp, dentin and enamin resorption was analyzed with Image

  1. Tooth in oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, D; Manjunatha, Bs

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of ectopic teeth has increased. In many cases, the etiology of ectopic teeth cannot be identified. Ectopic tooth in deciduous dentition period is very rare and information is limited about its causes and characteristics. The conditions commonly associated with an increased prevalence of ectopic teeth include cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner syndrome. The diagnosis is made by the clinical and radiological examinations. The indication for extraction in ectopic teeth cases is in general determined by the presence of symptomatology, or by the need for preventing future complications. We present a case of an ectopic maxillary tooth in a 4 year-old boy. In addition, this report also addresses a young patient with a tooth in the oropharynx with the objective of non traumatic etiology, and such a clinical presentation is extremely rare. The authors believe the case presented here is the first documented case of an ectopic supernumerary tooth seen in the oropharynx. PMID:22144844

  2. Tooth in oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Nagarajappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ectopic teeth has increased. In many cases, the etiology of ectopic teeth cannot be identified. Ectopic tooth in deciduous dentition period is very rare and information is limited about its causes and characteristics. The conditions commonly associated with an increased prevalence of ectopic teeth include cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner syndrome. The diagnosis is made by the clinical and radiological examinations. The indication for extraction in ectopic teeth cases is in general determined by the presence of symptomatology, or by the need for preventing future complications. We present a case of an ectopic maxillary tooth in a 4 year-old boy. In addition, this report also addresses a young patient with a tooth in the oropharynx with the objective of non traumatic etiology, and such a clinical presentation is extremely rare. The authors believe the case presented here is the first documented case of an ectopic supernumerary tooth seen in the oropharynx.

  3. Implant-Root Proximity and Pulp Vitality of the Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasharoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background When dental implants are applied in partially edentulous patients, there is the risk of placing the implants in close proximity or in direct contact with the adjacent roots. In this situation assurance of pulp vitality of the adjacent tooth is neessary. Objectives The current study aimed to assess pulp response of the tooth after root proximity with dental implant. Patients and Methods After investigating 2800 records of patients, 31 implants in 29 patients were included in this study. A parallel peri-apical radiography was taken and pulp vitality tests (cold, heat and electrical pulp tests were conducted for each patient. Results Among the 31 assessed implants and the adjacent intact teeth, 13 implants had direct contact and 18 implants had proximity of less than 1 mm with the adjacent root. All of the teeth had positive (normal pulp response to all tests. The most prevalent areas for proximity of implant-tooth were upper first premolar implants and upper canine teeth. The most approximation area was apical third of root of the teeth. Conclusions Based on the clinical and radiographic examinations, implant-tooth approximation (less than 1 mm or direct contact is not related to pulp vitality of the tooth. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm the results of the study.

  4. 牙周炎正畸牙周组织中胰岛素样生长因子-Ⅰ表达的实验研究%Experimental study of insulin-like growth factor- Ⅰ expression in orthodontic tooth movement with periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东红; 王石; 吴立鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察胰岛素样生长因子-Ⅰ在牙周炎正畸牙移动过程中的表达,探讨其对炎性正畸牙周组织的影响.方法 36只wistar大鼠建立牙周炎动物模型,并随机平分为牙移动1天、3天、7天、14天、21天组及对照组,近中移动各实验组大鼠上颌第一磨牙,处死后制取牙周组织标本,行HE染色和免疫组化分析.结果 在既定时间内,IGF-Ⅰ在压力侧和张力侧均有阳性表达,在加力第3天两侧表达均达到峰值,但强度较弱.结论 IGF-Ⅰ在正畸牙周组织改建中,参与了炎症正畸牙周组织改建过程,影响张力侧的成骨活动和压力侧的破骨活动.%Objective To observe effection of insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ during orthodontic tooth movement in periodontal tissue, and to explore the effection of IGF-Ⅰ on inflammatory orthodontics. Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats after establishment animal model of periodontitis, were randomly divided into periodontitis tooth movement 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days and compared group. Moved mesially the maxillary first molar, and made periodontal tissue for HE staining and immunohistochemical analysis. Results In a given period of time, IGF- Ⅰ in the pressure and tension sides were positive, the third day the immunohistochemical of IGF- Ⅰ were reached the maximum.but the intensity was weak. Conclusion IGF- Ⅰ acted in tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement, not only affected the tension side of bone formation activity, but also affected the pressure side of osteoclast activity.

  5. Maxillary anterior tooth dimensions and proportions in an Irish young adult population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condon, M

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken in a young Irish population to determine the dimensions and ratios of the six maxillary anterior teeth. One hundred and nine Irish subjects (age 18-25 inclusive) had irreversible hydrocolloid impressions made of their maxillary dentition poured in type V stone. Clinical crown dimensions were measured with a digital calliper. The stone casts were digitally photographed in a standardised manner enabling calculation of various ratios between the maxillary anterior teeth. Sexual dimorphism existed for various tooth dimensions; most notably canine teeth were in the region of 0·8 mm longer and 0·6 mm wider in males. Central and lateral incisors were found to be 0·5 mm wider in males. It is, therefore, recommended that dimensional tooth guidelines should be given for each of the sexes and not on a population basis. With regard to tooth proportion ratios, no significant differences were found between genders or the left and right sides for any of the measurements or ratios measured. The digitally recorded tooth proportions were similar for both sexes, and the Golden Proportion guidelines could only be applied to the lateral incisor\\/central incisor widths (0·618). Identified width proportions for the canine\\/central incisor were 0·58 and for canine\\/lateral incisor 0·89.

  6. Biomaterial selection for tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili; Mao, Jeremy J

    2011-10-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth.

  7. Tooth regeneration: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadu Shifali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of a functional tooth has the potential to be a promising therapeutic strategy. Experiments have shown that with the use of principles of bioengineering along with adult stem cells, scaffold material, and signaling molecules, tooth regeneration is possible. Research work is in progress on creating a viable bioroot with all its support. A new culture needs to be created that can possibly provide all the nutrients to the stem cells. With the ongoing research, tissue engineering is likely to revolutionize dental health and well-being of people by regenerating teeth over the next decade.

  8. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  9. Tooth extraction by orthodontic force after radiation therapy: report of case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a therapeutic approach to orthodontic tooth extraction in a patient at high risk for the development of osteoradionecrosis with conventional techniques. The rationale for this procedure is discussed in detail, combining principles of radiation biology, clinical radiation therapy, and biomechanics of tooth movement

  10. 关于口腔正畸治疗对牙周病引发前牙移位疾病的临床分析%Clinical analysis of orthodontic treatment of periodontal disease caused by tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析口腔正畸治疗对牙周病引发前牙移位疾病的临床效果。方法选取我院收治的100例牙周病引发前牙移位患者作为观察对象,收治时间为2012年10月至2015年2月,随机将其分成两组,每组50例。对照组采取常规治疗,实验组采取口腔正畸治疗,观察比较两组牙周病引发前牙移位患者的临床疗效及牙周袋深度。结果实验组患者的平均牙周袋深度为(3.12±0.43)mm,显著低于对照组;且两组牙周病引发前牙移位患者临床疗效的比较结果存在显著差异,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义。结论对牙周病引发前牙移位患者采取口腔正畸治疗,能有效缩短患者的牙周袋深度,效果显著。%Objective to analyse the orthodontics treatment of periodontal disease caused by the clinical effect of anterior tooth displacement diseases.Methods select our hospital 100 cases of patients with periodontal disease cause anterior tooth displacement as research object, the treating time for October 2012 to February 2015, it is divided into two groups at random, 50 cases in each group. Control group treated with conventional, orthodontics treatment group adopted to compare two groups of patients with periodontal disease cause anterior displacement of the clinical efficacy of periodontal pocket depth.Results the average depth of periodontal pocket for experimental group patients (3.12±0.43) mm, significantly lower than the control group; And two groups of patients with periodontal disease cause anterior tooth displacement comparison results exist significant differences in the clinical curative effect,P< 0.05, the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion in patients with periodontal disease cause front teeth shift to orthodontics treatment, can effectively shorten the patient's periodontal pocket depth, effect is remarkable.

  11. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the extra bulk and removable nature of the partial denture and report that it feels unnatural. This type of prosthesis is best as a temporary replacement as described above. The second option in a patient without a bone graft is a fixed bridge. The missing tooth is restored with an ...

  12. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  13. New hominin fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the mosaic evolution of canine teeth in early hominins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Plavcan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst reduced size, altered shape and diminished sexual dimorphism of the canine–premolar complex are diagnostic features of the hominin clade, little is known about the rate and timing of changes in canine size and shape in early hominins. The earliest Australopithecus, Australopithecus anamensis, had canine crowns similar in size to those of its descendant Australopithecus afarensis, but a single large root alveolus has suggested that this species may have had larger and more dimorphic canines than previously recognised. Here we present three new associated dentitions attributed to A. anamensis, recently recovered from the type site of Kanapoi, Kenya, that provide evidence of canine evolution in early Australopithecus. These fossils include the largest mandibular canine root in the hominin fossil record. We demonstrate that, although canine crown height did not differ between these species, A. anamensis had larger and more dimorphic roots, more like those of extant great apes and Ardipithecus ramidus, than those of A. afarensis. The canine and premolar occlusal shapes of A. anamensis also resemble those of Ar. ramidus, and are intermediary between extant great apes and A. afarensis. A. afarensis achieved Homo-like maxillary crown basal proportions without a reduction in crown height. Thus, canine crown size and dimorphism remained stable during the early evolution of Australopithecus, but mandibular root dimensions changed only later within the A. anamensis–afarensis lineage, coincident with morphological changes in the canine–premolar complex. These observations suggest that selection on canine tooth crown height, shape and root dimensions was not coupled in early hominin evolution, and was not part of an integrated adaptive package.

  14. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits Peter D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion, which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Results Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Conclusions Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration.

  15. Is re-creation of human identity possible using tooth prints? An experimental study to aid in identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jadhav, Kiran; Ahmed Mujib, B R; Amberkar, Vikram S

    2009-11-20

    Enamel in teeth, as documented is the hardest substance in the entire human body. Tooth prints are the enamel rod end patterns on the tooth surface. Could this fact be a boon in utilizing it for an individual's identification in the hands of forensic experts? A study has been attempted towards the same. These tooth prints were recorded for 60 extracted tooth specimens after acid etching using a cellophane tape. Subsequently a digital image of the print was obtained which was subjected to biometric conversion using Verifinger standard SDK version 6.0 software followed by the use of Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) software for comparison of the tooth prints. In results we observed that tooth prints were composed of varied patterns and sub-patterns. A comparison was made between the tooth prints of different and the same individual and also between different classes of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars). None of the patterns exhibited intra- and inter-individual similarity. Nor did any particular class of the tooth could be preferentially used over the other for an individual identification. This field demands a need for further exploration towards the use of tooth prints for establishing an individual's identity. PMID:19716244

  16. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Moshkelgosha; Negar Khosravifard; Ali Golkari

    2014-01-01

    When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. Aim: To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran) from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD) of all ...

  17. Transurgical re-attachment of coronal fragment in anterior-fractured tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Martos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetic and functional rehabilitation is the primary goal of the treatment of crown-root-fractured tooth. A 14-year-old male patient that fractured her maxillary left canine with biologic width violation is presented. Transurgical exposures of the fracture remnant were performed to possibility the rubber dam isolation followed by crown re-attachment using bonding system and a resin composite. Clinical and radiographic examination 5 months after trauma showed good esthetics, pulp normality, and periodontal health.

  18. Evaluation of the changes of interleukin- 6 level in gingival cervical fluid (GCF during orthodontic movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safavi SMR

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: In recent years, different substances have been considered in gingival cervical fluid (GCF as diagnostic markers due to the evaluation of biologic events and biochemical process related to bone turnover during orthodontic movements. IL-6 concentration increases in GCF during the first week after force loading. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of IL-6 in GCF during orthodontic movements.Materials and Methods: Fourteen orthodontic patients (9 females and 5 males, mean age 15.1±2.5 years with "nCl I malocclusion needing first bicuspid extraction participated in this clinical trial. In each patient one maxillary canine was distalized (DC with a NiTi push coil spring. The contra-lateral canine (CC was included in the orthodontic appliance but was not subjected to the orthodontic force  and one of the mandibular canines was used as control with no orthodontic appliance (Antagonist canine: AC. The concentration of IL-6 was evaluated at the baseline and 14th and 28th days after intervention. GCF was taken with periopapers from both mesial and distal sides of tooth before appliance activation, on the 14th and 28th days. Concentration of IL-6 in DC, CC, and AC detected by ELISA reader was compared by repeated measure ANOVA and LSD multiple comparison, P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Although the inflammatory gingival indices increased in both DC and CC teeth but it was not significant. The amount of IL-6 in GCF increased on day 14th in DC teeth in comparison with AC and CC teeth. In addition, the concentration of IL-6 in DC teeth was significantly greater than the 1st and 28th days. The maximum concentration of IL-6 was detected in both pressure and tension sides of DCs at T14. At T28, although the IL-6 levels were significantly higher than baseline levels but, it was significantly less than T14.Conclusion: The results of this study support the hypothesis that mechanical stimuli cause an

  19. Tooth reorientation affects tooth function during prey processing and tooth ontogeny in the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Mason N; Ramsay, Jason B; Schaefer, Justin T

    2008-01-01

    The dental anatomy of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, rays and relatives) creates a functional system that is more dynamic than that of mammalian dentition. Continuous dental replacement (where new teeth are moved rostrally to replace older ones) and indirect fibrous attachment of the dentition to the jaw allow teeth to reorient relative to the jaw over both long- and short-term scales, respectively. In this study, we examine the processing behavior and dental anatomy of the lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831) to illustrate that the freedom of movement of elasmobranch dentition allows a functional flexibility that can be important for complex prey processing behaviors. From static manipulations of dissected jaws and observations of feeding events in live animals, we show that the teeth rotate during jaw protrusion, resulting in a secondary grasping mechanism that likely serves to hold prey while the buccal cavity is flushed free of sediment. The function of teeth is not always readily apparent from morphology; in addition to short-term reorientation, the long-term dental reorientation during replacement allows a given tooth to serve multiple functions during tooth ontogeny. Unlike teeth inside the mouth, the cusps of external teeth (on the portion of the tooth pad that extends past the occlusal plane) lay flat, such that the labial faces act as a functional battering surface, protecting the jaws during prey excavation.

  20. Saw-tooth cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatza Ageliki A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present an unusual case of cardiomyopathy in a two month old male infant with a grade-I systolic murmur. Echocardiographic examination disclosed left ventricular (LV, dysplasia with saw-tooth like inwards myocardial projections extending from the lateral walls towards the LV cavity. There was mild LV systolic dysfunction with apical hypokinesia. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance demonstrated in detail these cross bridging muscular projections originating from the inferior interventricular septum and lateral LV wall, along with areas of hypokinesis at the LV septum and apex in a noncoronary distribution, without any late gadolinium enhancement. We have termed this condition saw-tooth cardiomyopathy because of the very characteristic appearance.

  1. Saw-tooth cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Karatza Ageliki A; Danias Peter G; Davlouros Periklis A; Kiaffas Maria G; Alexopoulos Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We present an unusual case of cardiomyopathy in a two month old male infant with a grade-I systolic murmur. Echocardiographic examination disclosed left ventricular (LV), dysplasia with saw-tooth like inwards myocardial projections extending from the lateral walls towards the LV cavity. There was mild LV systolic dysfunction with apical hypokinesia. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance demonstrated in detail these cross bridging muscular projections originating from the inferior interve...

  2. 牙仙女%The Tooth Fairy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世荣

    2009-01-01

    @@ The American children’s ritual of hiding a lost tooth under a pillow stems from an old German tradition of placing a lost tooth in a mouse or rat hole SO that when a new tooth grew in,it would possess the strong dental qualities of a rodent’S tooth.In America the “tooth rat”was replaced by the“tooth fairy”,who would compensate the child with money for surrendering a tooth to her.

  3. Unusual variant of type 3 dens invaginatus in a maxillary canine: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamfelj, Iztok; Kansky, Andrej A; Gaspersic, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with clinical symptoms of periapical inflammation related to the right maxillary canine. A bizarre radiographic appearance of the root was considered suggestive of a compound odontome. Histological examination of the surgically extracted canine revealed a very rare variant of Oehlers' type 3 invagination. The invagination originated in a pit above the cingulum as a narrow coronal channel that opened into a large cavity inside the dilated root. The radicular part of the invagination contained all components of the attachment apparatus. The root canal and its apical foramen were slit-like and circular. Radiographic appearance of two roots separated by a wide interradicular area in a normally single-rooted tooth is indicative of this variant of type 3 invagination. Timely prophylactic treatment and follow-up or early endodontic treatment confined to the coronal channel are crucial to prevent pulp necrosis and consequent loss of the tooth.

  4. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. R.; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'no...

  5. Young's modulus and hardness of shark tooth biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, Lisa B; Simkins, Daniel C; Motta, Philip J; Hirai, Makoto; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-03-01

    To date, the majority of studies on feeding mechanics in sharks have focused on the movement of cranial components and muscle function, with little attention to tooth properties or function. Attributes related to mechanical properties, such as structural strength, may also be subjected to natural selection. Additionally it is necessary to characterize these properties in order to construct biomechanical models of tooth function. The goal of this study was to determine hardness and elastic modulus for the shark tooth materials enameloid, osteodentine, and orthodentine. Five teeth each from one carcharhiniform species, the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo, and one lamniform, the sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus, were utilized for nanoindentation testing. Each tooth was sectioned transversely, air-dried, and polished. Both enameloid and dentine were tested on each tooth via a Berkovich diamond tip, with nine 2 microm deep indentations per material. t-Tests were used to determine if there were differences in hardness and Young's modulus between the tooth materials of the two species. There was no significant difference between the two species for the material properties of enameloid, however both hardness and Young's modulus were higher for osteodentine than for orthodentine. This may be due to differences in microanatomy and chemical composition, however this needs to be studied in greater detail.

  6. Expression of cath K, RANKL and OPG in alveolar bone on the pressure side during orthodontic tooth movement in rats%大鼠正畸牙移动压力侧牙槽骨中cath K、RANKL和OPG的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 王邦康; 刘郁

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测大鼠正畸牙移动压力侧cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白表达变化及时间分布特点.方法 选用80只6周龄SD雄性大鼠建立正畸牙移动模型,分别在加力后2d、5d、7d、10d和14d各处死16只大鼠.HE染色观察大鼠牙周组织的形态学变化;TRAP染色计数压力侧牙槽骨组织中的破骨细胞数量;免疫组化方法定位及相对定量检测压力侧牙槽骨中cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白表达变化及时间分布特点.结果 压力侧牙槽骨组织中的TRAP染色阳性破骨细胞计数随加力时间的增加而增加,第7d达到高峰,此后逐渐降低;压力侧牙槽骨组织中的cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白的表达水平均随加力时间的增加而增加,第7d达到高峰,以后均逐渐降低.结论 cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白表达的变化规律与骨改建过程一致,与止畸牙移动骨改建过程中破骨细胞的分化、形成和功能密切相关.%Objective To investigate the expression of cath K(cathepsin K), RANKL(receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B ligand ) and its decoy receptor, OPG (osteoprotegerin) in alveolar bone on the pressure side during orthodontic tooth movement. Methods An experimental model of orthodontic tooth movement was established in rats. The rats were executed at 2, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days after orthodontic force application. The morphological changes were observed by HE staining. The numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone on the pressure side were counted. Cath K,RANKL and OPG protein expression were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone on the pressure side significantly increased in a time-dependent manner at 2-7 days. After that the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone gradually decreased. The protein expression of cath K, RANKL and OPG in alveolar bone on the pressure side increased in a time-dependent manner after orthodontic force application. After that it gradually

  7. 磷脂酰肌醇-3-激酶/蛋白质丝氨酸-苏氨酸激酶信号通路与正畸牙移动的关系%The relationship between phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases/protein-serine-threonine kinase signaling pathwayand orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕; 王岩; 孙素芬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases(PI3K)/protein-serine-threonine kinase(AKt) signaling pathway and orthodontic tooth movement.Methods Twenty-four rabbits were chosen to establish rabbit models for the study.The right maxillary teeth of each animal treated by orthodontics were as the test side,and the untreated left teeth were as the control side.The animals were sacrificed at 3, 5, 7, 14 d, respectively.The prepared tissue specimens were processed for the study.The changes of the expression of PI3K, AKt in periodontal tissues were detected by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction(RQ-PCR) and Western blot techniques.Results RQ-PCR showed that the expression of PI3K, AKt mRNA dramatically changed at 3 d.The expression of PI3K, AKt mRNA in the test side was higher than the control side, especially at 7 d, and then decreased.Compared with the control side, there was statistical significant difference in the test side(P<0.05).The study obtained consistent conclusion from Western blot and RQ-PCR.Conclusion Expression of PI3K, AKt in rabbit periodontal tissues increase during orthodontic tooth movement, which prompts that PI3K/AKt signal pathways relate to orthodontic tooth movement and PI3K/AKt signal pathway involve in the periodontal tissue remodeling.%目的 探讨磷脂酰肌醇-3-激酶(PI3K)/蛋白质丝氨酸-苏氨酸激酶(AKt)信号通路与正畸牙移动的关系.方法 选用24只日本大耳白兔建立正畸牙移动的动物模型,将实验动物上颌右侧戴矫治器,作为实验侧;上颌左侧未戴矫治器,作为对照侧.分别在戴矫治器3、5、7、14 d后各处死6只实验动物.用实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应(RQ-PCR)及Western blot免疫印迹分析方法 对PI3K、AKt表达的变化进行检测.结果 RQ-PCR结果 显示:加力3 d后,牙周组织中PI3K、AKt mRNA表达增强;7 d后牙周组织中PI3K、AKt mRNA明显增强,随后缓慢下降,与对照侧相比,

  8. Comparison of the physiological properties of human periodontal-masseteric reflex evoked by incisor and canine stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eOhmori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in 7 healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL and the correlation coefficient (CC between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality.

  9. Orthodontic management of a borderline case with ectopic maxillary canine by unilateral premolar extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Mohd. Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Management of orthodontic cases often requires extraction of permanent teeth. The decision making regarding extractions depends upon the arch length tooth material discrepancies, the growth pattern, general profile, and arch asymmetries. Unique orthodontic problems may command special treatment lines to be taken. The present report describes a case with unilateral buccally blocked out canine and bilateral posterior crossbite, for which unilateral premolar extractions were performed achieve esthetic and functionally stable occlusion. PMID:27041913

  10. Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in the permanent dentition: treatment considerations and a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Synodinos, Philippos N

    2010-12-01

    Transposition is defined as the interchange of position between two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch. Permanent maxillary canine-premolar transposition is the most commonly observed transposition in the human dentition. Its prevalence is relatively low and its aetiology remains unclear, although it has been associated with genetic factors. It may also be related to a combination of localised factors such as malformation of adjacent teeth, tooth agenesis, retention of the deciduous canine and a history of local trauma. Treatment is selected on an individual case basis after thoroughly considering the overall facial and dental characteristics, duration of treatment, cost, patient preference and the orthodontist\\'s experience. This article provides a case report of maxillary canine transposition in the permanent dentition, successfully managed with orthodontic treatment.

  11. A newer simultaneous space creation, eruption, and adjacent root control spring for the management of impacted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, treatment of impaction includes: Welcome preparation (to create space, surgical exposure and attachment to the impacted tooth and the orthodontic guidance for the eruption of the impacted tooth. Sometimes, due to deficiency of space, creation of space for impacted tooth requires first, and space regaining efforts may require the distal movement of posterior teeth and or mesial movement of anterior teeth in the arch, but it may create some problems. To overcome the unwanted problem in this clinical situation and to reduce overall treatment duration of the patient, we have developed the Simultaneous space creation, Eruption and Adjacent root control spring to control crown as well as root movement.

  12. Comparison of sexual dimorphism of permanent mandibular canine with mandibular first molar by odontometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aditi; Manjunatha, Bhari Shranesha; Dholia, Bhavik; Althomali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is one of important tool of forensic science. The objective of this study is to assess the dimorphic status of mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual (BL) diameter of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar among the students of dental college. This study is of definite significance as sex chromosomes and hormonal production influenced tooth morphology. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study adopted the purposive sampling technique, of 50 male and 50 female aged 17-25 years, using study casts for mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar were taken using digital Vernier caliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and t-test to compare MD and BL dimensions in male and female populations and P ≤ 0.05 was found statistically significant. Results: Sexual dimorphism can be predicted by measuring mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine and mandibular first molar. The left mandibular canine showed more sexual dimorphism (12.66%) in comparison to left mandibular first molar (0.824%) only. Right mandibular canine showed greater dimorphism in MD dimensions (10.94%) in comparison to right mandibular first molar (6.96%). In bucco-lingual dimensions mandibular canine showed less variability when compared with mandibular first molar, thus our study showed more significance on mesio-distal dimensions of both teeth. Conclusion: The present study concludes statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine over mandibular first molar on study casts. The MD dimensions in mandibular canine and mandibular first molar can help in determining sex and identification of unknown person. PMID:26816466

  13. Masculinization of the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular canines in opposite sex twin girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Tuomo; Harila, Virpi; Tapanainen, Juha S; Alvesalo, Lassi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of prenatal androgenization on the clinical eruption of permanent teeth expressing dimorphism and bimaturism. The eruption curves of permanent teeth (except third molars), including those that make up the canine complex (permanent canines, lower first premolars), are compared among opposite sex twins (OS twins) relative to single-born boys and girls. The comparisons are made with regard to three phases of eruption (pierced mucosa, half- erupted, and completely erupted) from a cross-sectional sample of dental casts, using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyzes. The casts were collected from 2159 school children from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project, including 39 pairs of OS-twins, of which 12 pairs (30.8%) were Euro-Americans and 27 pairs (69.2%) were of African-American ancestry. The eruption patterns of the incisors, upper first molars, and lower canines were found to be significantly masculinized (delayed) among OS twin girls. The differences in most other teeth were either not significant, or the number of observations of active eruption phases were too few, such as in the upper first molars and incisors, to yield strong evidence and meaningful results. The masculinization of the tooth eruption pattern in OS twin girls is intriguing because of the lower canine responses during puberty, as well as canine primordial formation during early fetal androgenization of their co-twin during the 8th to 14th gestational weeks. The present results offer a challenge for future research exploring tooth eruption mechanisms, and may also highlight some cases of delayed or ectopic canines, which are biased toward females. PMID:23754587

  14. Autogenous tooth transplantation: an alternative to replace extracted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard treatment to replace missing tooth is dental implants, however, in certain cases, such as in young patients its placement is contraindicated. Autogenous tooth transplantation, which has been widely done in Scandinavian countries for many years, may become a good alternative to overcome this problem. Purpose: This article attempted to provide information about the indication, treatment planning, surgical technique and the successful result of autogenous tooth transplantation. Case: A fifteen year old male patient presented with large caries and periapical disease of his lower left first molar, which was partially erupted and the roots was not fully formed in radiograph. Case management: Autogenous tooth transplantation procedure was performed consisting of extraction of #36, odontectomy of #38 followed by its implantation to socket #36 and fixation of the transplanted tooth to the adjacent teeth. Post operative evaluation was done on regular basis within 18 months period. There was no complaint, the tooth was clinically stable and no evidence of periodontal problem. Serial radiographs showed healing of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue, and the complete root formation was evident by 18 months post operatively. Conclusion: Autogenous tooth transplantation is a potential alternative to replace extracted tooth. Provided that the case be properly planned and operation carefully performed, successful result of this treatment can be achieved.

  15. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  16. USE THE REIMPLANTED TOOTH AS ABUTMENT FOR FIXED PAR TIAL DENTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmoradizadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Use of the fixed partial denture is more favorable t han the removable partial denture for my patient, she complained about e dentulism in upper right side and a little discomfort with second upper premolar. Clinical examin ation shows the tooth was crown less and radio graphically tooth had a big periapical lesi on with poor prognosis. METHOD: After root canal treatment and extraction the tooth, clea n and irrigate the socket, we are implanted it with hydroxyapatite again and follow the patient for six months. After six months, radio graph shows that the tooth was in ideal condition without mobility, then the tooth has used as an abutment for fixed partial denture with canine and 2 nd molar in order to have a better prognosis we used semi precision attachment, and foll ow her for three years. RESULT: Three years follow the patient shows the tooth is in an ac ceptable condition radio-graphically without mobility and patient was comfortable esthetically a nd functionally. CONCLUSION: In my opinion in this case use of the hydroxyapatite, crown lengthening during the re- implantation and use the semi precision attachment was the reaso n of increase the prognosis after treatment

  17. On gear tooth stiffness evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Jørgensen, Martin Felix

    2014-01-01

    and secondly the size of the contact. In the FE calculation the true gear tooth root profile is applied. The meshing stiffnesses of gears are highly non-linear, it is however found that the stiffness of an individual tooth can be expressed in a linear form assuming that the contact width is constant. © 2014...

  18. Broken or knocked out tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can also hold the tooth between your lower lip and gum or under your tongue. A tooth- ... will need dental help right away to avoid infection and pain. You ... fixed to avoid sharp edges that can cut your lips or tongue.

  19. Panoramic radiological study to identify locally displaced maxillary canines in Bangladeshi population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alif, Sheikh Mohammad [Northern University, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haque, Sejuty [Bangladesh Dental College, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Nimmi, Naima; Ashraf, Ali [AIKO Dental Clinic and Implant Centre, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Khan, Saeed Hossain; Khan, Mahfujul Haq [WHO Collaborating Centre and Ibrahim Medical College, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2011-12-15

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction on a basis of a single panoramic radiograph in Bangladeshi population. A random sample of seven hundred panoramic radiographs was collected from the patient record of a dental clinic. All the selected panoramic radiographs were taken from January 2009 to August 2010 by a single panoramic radiograph machine with the same exposure time (19 seconds) for all radiographs. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs were excluded to minimize the selection bias. In a dim lit room, an observer assessed the radiographs on a standard radiographic light box. The position of the impacted maxillary canine was recorded in line with the longitudinal axis of a tooth using the edge of a metal ruler. Data were subsequently put on SPSS 11.5 software and chi-square (x{sup 2}) tests were applied to find out the association. Among 580 panoramic radiographs it was found that impacted maxillary canines were present in only 7 (1.2%) radiographs. A statistical significant difference was found between the age of the patients and the vertical position of the impacted canines (p=0.000) and between the age of the patients and the horizontal position of the impacted canines (p=0.003). The prevalence was found to be low compared with the present study from the limitation of panoramic image. Further study needs to include three-dimensional imaging modality.

  20. Morfologia alveolar sob a perspectiva da tomografia computadorizada: definindo os limites biológicos para a movimentação dentária Alveolar bone morphology under the perspective of the computed tomography: defining the biological limits of tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2010-10-01

    treatment, mainly at the region of the mandibular incisors. Hyperdivergent patients seems to present a thinner thickness of the labial/buccal and lingual bone plates at the level of the root apex of permanent teeth, compared to hypodivergent patients. Buccolingual tooth movement might decentralize teeth from the alveolar bone causing bone dehiscences. CONCLUSION: The alveolar bone morphology constitutes a limiting factor for the orthodontic movement and should be individually considered in the orthodontic treatment planning.

  1. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  2. Movimento de gaveta em joelhos de cães submetidos à estabilização extracapsular após secção do ligamento cruzado cranial in vitro Drawer movement in canine knees undergoing extracapsular stabilization after cranial cruciate ligament rupture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kemper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica TightRope, que procura aperfeiçoar a estabilização extra-capsular com sutura lateral, por meio da realização de mínimas incisões e criação de túneis ósseos em pontos isométricos, que permitem a inserção de mecanismo que anula o movimento de gaveta, além de reduzir a ocorrência de complicações graves. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a modificação da técnica TightRope em joelhos de cadáveres caninos com a finalidade de disponibilizar um procedimento simples e de custo reduzido para tratamento da Ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCCr. Experimentalmente, foram utilizados 20 membros pélvicos de dez cadáveres caninos, provenientes do setor de patologia da Universidade Norte do Paraná, os quais pesavam entre 6,3 e 24kg. Para estabilização do LCCr, rompido intencionalmente, foi adotada a técnica de TightRope modificada utilizando fio de poliamida, cavilha e emprego de um parafuso ortopédico para proporcionar a fixação óssea. Comparando os valores de deslocamento obtidos durante a realização do movimento de gaveta previamente à ruptura do LCCr e após a realização do procedimento cirúrgico, observou-se que a modificação da técnica TightRope promoveu estabilidade significativa para a maioria (12 de 20 dos joelhos testados (P=0,0033. Contudo, essa estabilidade foi inferior, quando comparada à estabilidade do ligamento intacto.The TightRope technique, that has been developed, aims to improve the extra-capsular stabilization with lateral suture through smaller incisions and creating isometric bone tunnels at points that allow the inclusion of a mechanism that overrides the movement of drawer and reduce the occurrence of serious complications. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the TightRope modified technique in canine cadaver knees in order to provide a simple and cost effective treatment for cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCrLR. Experimentally; we used 20 pelvic limbs of ten canine

  3. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  4. A Software for Space Analysis and Comparison of the Accuracy of Tooth Measurements by Digital and Manual Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Roeinpeikar SMM.; Salehi P.; Pakshir HR.; Emami Z.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problems: Several methods have been presented for the prediction of mesiodistal width of the unerupted canines and premolars. Nowadays, application of digital methods is suggested in dental analysis in orthodontics. Purpose: The aim of this study was to design a software for space analysis and comparison of the accuracy of tooth measurements by digital and manual methods in an Iranian population.Material and Method: By using Delphi and C++ programming languages, a software was de...

  5. Surgical Management of Compound Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Andrea; Carbone, Daniele; Marini, Roberta; Pacifici, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic benign jaws tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum, and pulp tissue. According to the World Health Organization classification, two distinct types of odontomas are acknowledged: complex and compound odontoma. In complex odontomas, all dental tissues are formed, but appeared without an organized structure. In compound odontomas, all dental tissues are arranged in numerous tooth-like structures known as denticles. Compound odontomas are often associated with impacted adjacent permanent teeth and their surgical removal represents the best therapeutic option. A case of a 20-year-old male patient with a compound odontoma-associated of impacted maxillary canine is presented. A minimally invasive surgical technique is adopted to remove the least amount of bone tissue as far as possible.

  6. Surgical Management of Compound Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pacifici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic benign jaws tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum, and pulp tissue. According to the World Health Organization classification, two distinct types of odontomas are acknowledged: complex and compound odontoma. In complex odontomas, all dental tissues are formed, but appeared without an organized structure. In compound odontomas, all dental tissues are arranged in numerous tooth-like structures known as denticles. Compound odontomas are often associated with impacted adjacent permanent teeth and their surgical removal represents the best therapeutic option. A case of a 20-year-old male patient with a compound odontoma-associated of impacted maxillary canine is presented. A minimally invasive surgical technique is adopted to remove the least amount of bone tissue as far as possible.

  7. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site where teeth have been extracted or following endodontic treatment, without an identifiable cause. Over time, the ... of dental procedure such as having a root canal or tooth extraction. On occasion, the pain can ...

  8. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Shuang WANG; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or s...

  9. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell... hepatitis, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (B) If at least 19 of the 20 vaccinates do...

  10. Effect of low energy laser irradiation on the expression of substance P in dental pulp and periodontium during experimental orthodontic tooth movement in rats%低强度激光对大鼠实验性牙齿移动牙髓与牙周组织中P物质表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新华; 赵姝哲

    2004-01-01

    背景:目前国外的研究认为骨改建的过程可能部分地受神经肽调控.目的:观察低强度激光照射对大鼠实验性牙齿移动牙髓与牙周组织中P物质表达的影响.设计:随机对照的研究.地点和材料:于吉林大学第二临床学院动物室对45只Wistar大鼠进行动物实验.干预:利用免疫组化ABC染色,结合计算机图像分析,测定45只Wistar大鼠正畸牙齿移动在0,,6,2,4和72 h的实验侧和对照侧牙髓P物质免疫组化(SP-like immumoreactivity,P-IR);以及在0(0 h),(24 h),(72 h),,14和21 d时实验侧和对照侧牙周组织中SP-IR的灰度值.实验动物被分为9组,每组5只.于上颌第一磨牙和切牙之间拴结镍钛闭合螺旋弹簧,力值为40 g.左侧为实验侧,右侧为对照侧.实验侧为低强度激光照射侧,采用He-Ne激光与C02激光同时照射的方法.主要观察指标:①牙髓中SP-IR灰度值变化.②牙周膜压力区SP-IR灰度值变化.③牙周膜张力区SP-IR灰度值变化.④实验侧和对照侧的牙周膜压力区与张力区SP-IR灰度值变化的比较.结果:实验侧牙髓中SP-IR免疫组化灰度值低于对照侧,以第12,4 h明显(P<0.01);实验侧牙周膜压力区SP-IR免疫组化灰度值在7 d时明显高于对照侧(P<0.01);在14 d时较高于对照侧(P<0.05).实验侧牙周膜张力区SP-IR免疫组化灰度值在14 d时较高于对照侧(P<0.05).结论:低强度激光照射对正畸初始牙髓中P物质的表达及牙周组织中P物质的表达均有影响.%BACKGROUND: As believed by recent domestic and international researches,the bone reconstruction process might be partly modulated by neuropeptides.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low power laser irradiation on the expression of substance P (SP) in dental pulp and periodontium during experimental orthodontic tooth movement in rats.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial SETTING and MATERIALS: Forty-five Wistar rats were selected in the study in the animal

  11. Unilateral canine crossbite correction in adults using the Invisalign method: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and debate the treatment of a unilateral canine crossbite using clear aligners (Invisalign). The possibility of combining partial fixed appliances with removable elastics to optimize the final outcome is also described. The advantages of protected movement, due to the presence of the aligners, to jump the occlusion during crossbite correction is also highlighted.

  12. Bilateral severe root resorption associated with impacted maxillary canines: details on diagnosis and treatment plan – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Scapini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are the second most frequently impacted teeth in the dental arch. Root resorptions are often found in teeth adjacent to an impacted maxillary canine (IMC and may potentially lead to tooth loss. The treatment is often complicated when diagnosis is established at a later stage. Computed tomography (CT has been proven to be superior in determining the presence and degree of root resorption in teeth adjacent to IMC to support treatment plans and clinical decisions. This report describes the case of a patient with bilaterally impacted maxillary canines associated with severe root resorption of the right fi rst premolar and the left lateral incisor and focuses on the importance of CT imaging for diagnosis and treatment plan.

  13. Heterogeneity in the spread and control of infectious disease: consequences for the elimination of canine rabies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Elaine A.; Katie Hampson; Sarah Cleaveland; Ramona Consunji; Raffy Deray; John Friar; Haydon, Daniel T.; Joji Jimenez; Marlon Pancipane; Sunny E. Townsend

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing vaccination campaign effectiveness is vital in designing efficient disease elimination programmes. We investigated the importance of spatial heterogeneity in vaccination coverage and human-mediated dog movements for the elimination of endemic canine rabies by mass dog vaccination in Region VI of the Philippines (Western Visayas). Household survey data was used to parameterise a spatially-explicit rabies transmission model with realistic dog movement and v...

  14. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with agenesis of lateral incisor and unerupted canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boaventura Vieira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic-surgical treatment was performed in patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to exceeding mandibular growth. Patient also presented upper and lower dental protrusion, overjet of -3.0 mm, overbite of -1.0 mm, congenital absence of tooth #22, teeth #13 and supernumerary impaction, tooth #12 with conoid shape and partly erupted in supraversion, prolonged retention of tooth #53, tendency to vertical growth of the face and facial asymmetry. The discrepancy on the upper arch was -2.0 mm and -5.0 mm on the lower arch. METHODS: The pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was performed with extractions of the teeth #35 and #45. On the upper arch, teeth #53, #12 and supernumerary were extracted to accomplish the traction of the impacted canine. The spaces of the lower extractions were closed with mesialization of posterior segment. After aligning and leveling the teeth, extractions spaces closure and correct positioning of teeth on the bone bases, the correct intercuspation of the dental arch, with molars and canines in Angle's Class I, coincident midline, normal overjet and overbite and ideal torques, were evaluated through study models. The patient was submitted to orthognathic surgery and then the post-surgical orthodontic treatment was finished. RESULTS: The Class III malocclusion was treated establishing occlusal and facial normal standards.

  15. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  16. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl-Palomo, L.; Bissada, N. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Periodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Palomo, J.M.; Hans, M.G. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Orthodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  17. Nonalimentary tooth use in the neolithic population of the Lengyel culture in central Poland (4600-4000 BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Wiesław

    2011-04-01

    One hundred and four skeletons of adult individuals representing Neolithic populations of the Brześć Kujawski group of the Lengyel Culture (Kuyavia, central Poland, 4600-4000 BC) were analyzed with regard to evidence of nonalimentary tooth use, periapical lesions and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL). Instances of nonalimentary behaviors were found in 47.1% of females and 27.5% of males. Females were primarily characterized by occlusal grooves on the incisors and canines, most probably resulting from yarn production or weaving. The most frequent defect in males was severe tooth wear extending from the incisors to first molars, caused by some hard-to-identify nonalimentary activities. Occlusal grooves were also found in males, but their morphology indicates processing of some coarser material. The occupational nature of the tooth defects has been confirmed by archaeological data. The only two burials with grave goods indicative of craft specialization at the sites studied contain the remains of individuals with marks of nonalimentary tooth use. Moreover, the sites provide unequivocal evidence of weaving and basketry production in the form of loom weights and imprints of cloth and mats. Periapical lesions have been found in 40.4% of males and 35.6% of females, and AMTL in 32.1% of males and 36.7% of females. Individuals with evidence of nonalimentary tooth wear are characterized both by a higher incidence of these lesions in general, and by their more frequent location in the anterior part of the alveolar arch. PMID:21404231

  18. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  19. Dental and Maxillofacial Abnormalities in Children with Premature Loss of Primary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: since primary canines are among the last teeth to be replaced by permanent ones, they are critical to maintain the space in the dental arch and proper occlusion. Their premature loss has a greater impact on the anterior region, but it can also affect the posterior region. Objective: to describe dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in children who prematurely lost the primary canines. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 5 to 9 years attending the Guerrillero Heroico Elementary School located within the health area number 2 of Cienfuegos municipality, from November 2014 through April 2015. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, cause of tooth loss, dental and maxillofacial abnormalities (linguoversion of lower or upper incisors, mesial occlusion, crowding, hyperocclusion, and increased or decreased overjet. Results: the premature loss of primary canines was more frequently observed in children aged 5 and 6 years and in most cases, it resulted from indicated extractions (66.7%. Linguoversion of lower incisors and increased overjet were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: all children showed dental and maxillofacial abnormalities related to the premature loss of primary canines. This demonstrates the importance of avoiding their early loss whenever possible, as it is a key factor for the development of malocclusion.

  20. Primary culprit for tooth loss!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailavanya Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In order to facilitate planning for dental health services and to progress strategies to continue the reduction in tooth loss, it is important to identify the factors that result in such loss. therefore the aim of the study is to investigate the major cause for tooth extraction. Objective: to examine whether the major reason for tooth extraction is dental caries or periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out among the dental practitioners in our district. A questionnaire containing 10 items was distributed to the dental practitioners, which included age, gender, no of teeth indicated for extraction, the reason for extraction, and the periodontal parameters that are involved with the extracted tooth and were requested to complete the form on every extraction they were to undertake. the study form was collected at the end of the study period and data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 502 patients were enrolled during the study period, and a total of 1055 teeth were extracted for several reasons. we found that 51.14%extractions are due to dental caries in case of 20-30years age groups, which is more when compared to tooth loss due to periodontal diseases in this age group. whereas in case of >40years of age group periodontal diseases account for 54.11%, and dental caries accounts for only 29.11%. Showing more teeth were lost due to periodontal disease. Conclusion: therefore we concluded that, caries is the dominant reason for extraction in patients with 20–30 years of age while periodontal disease accounts for the majority of tooth extraction in patients older than 40 years.

  1. Tanshinone type IIA inhibits osteoprotegerin and osteoclast differentiation factor expression at relapse stage after orthodontic tooth movement%丹参酮ⅡA局部注射正畸牙移动后复发阶段破骨细胞分化因子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世英; 刘继光; 赵刚

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In recent years, many drugs emerge to control tooth movement, and scholars in China begin to investigate Chinese herbs with moderate nature and smal adverse reaction. OBJECTIVE:To observe the relapse after orthodontic tooth movement, osteoprotegerin and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in periodontal tissue after rats were treated with local tanshinone type IIA at different doses. METHODS:A total of 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups:control, low dose (tanshinone type IIA 0.36 mg/d), medium dose (tanshinone type IIA 0.72 mg/d), and high dose (tanshinone type IIA 1.44 mg/d) groups. Taking anterior teeth as the anchorage, the maxil ary first molar of rats was tracted to mesial movement. In experimental groups, gingival mucosa of the first molar was local injected with tanshinone type IIA 1 day before the force device was removed, while control group was injected with physiological saline, once a day, for 4 weeks. Immediately, 1 week, and 4 weeks after the force device was removed, the distance between the maxil ary first molar and second molar was measured and body mass was weighted. The animals were kil ed after 4 weeks, osteoprotegerin and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in maxil ary first molar and periodontal tissue were determined using immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There was no obvious change in the body weight of rats in each group (P>0.05). In low, medium and high dose groups, recurrent distance of the teeth was shorter than that in control group (P smal er the degree of recurrence was. Osteoprotegerin expression in the periodontal tissue was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group (P  目的:观察局部给予不同剂量丹参酮ⅡA 后,大鼠正畸牙齿移动后的复发过程中复发程度、牙周组织中的骨保护素及破骨细胞分化因子的表达。  方法:选用48只雄性Wistar大鼠,随机分成4组,对照

  2. Stress Analysis of Occlusal Forces in Canine Teeth and Their Role in the Development of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Romeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical tooth lesions for many decades were attributed to the effects of abrasion and erosion mainly through toothbrush trauma, abrasive toothpaste, and erosive acids. However, though the above may be involved, more recently a biomechanical theory for the formation of these lesions has arisen, and the term abfraction was coined. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of abfraction lesions in upper canine teeth under axial and lateral loading conditions using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An extracted human upper canine tooth was scanned by μCT machine (Skyscan, Belgium. These μCT scans were segmented, reconstructed, and meshed using ScanIP (Simpleware, Exeter, UK to create a three-dimensional finite element model. A 100 N load was applied axially at the incisal edge and laterally at 45° midpalatally to the long axis of the canine tooth. Separately, 200 N axial and non-axial loads were applied simultaneously to the tooth. It was found that stresses were concentrated at the CEJ in all scenarios. Lateral loading produced maximum stresses greater than axial loading, and pulp tissues, however, experienced minimum levels of stresses. This study has contributed towards the understanding of the aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions which is a key in their clinical management.

  3. Tooth root growth impairment after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tooth root growth impairment that resulted from 35 to 37 Gy mantle port radiation in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease was quantified and related to specific age groups and categories of teeth. Root measurements of the mandibular permanent canines, first and second premolars, and first and second molars were made from sequential panoramic radiographs taken at the time of radiation therapy and after the closure of root apexes. The severity of root growth impairment was greatest in patients who received radiation during the early stages of odontogenesis. With later stages of odontogenesis, and as the age increased at the time of treatment, less impairment occurred. The potential difficulties of using repeated panoramic radiographs to assess tooth lengths in longitudinal studies also were discussed

  4. Comparison of the effect of thermal stresses on tooth-colored posts, cores and tooth structures by finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Nalbant

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to analyze the influence of cold heat flow in all ceramic crown material, composite core, zirconium and glass fiber reinforced composite post materials, resin based luting cement and root dentin; and to compare these two tooth-colored post systems about their temperature and thermal stress distributions.
    Materials and Methods: A 3-dimesional finite element model of maxillary left canine tooth was constructed. All ceramic crown, composite core, tooth dentin, post and bone were modeled. In the first part of this study, initial body temperature was assumed to be 36.5°C and the outer temperature was reduced to 0°C for 5 secs. In the second part, the thermal stress was calculated as a result of temperature change. For the analysis, 7 nodes of the finite element model were selected and heat flow, temperature and thermal stres on these nodes were evaluated.
    Results: Mean temperature value was 15.75 °C for GFRC post model and 15.47 °C for Zr post model. The maximum von Mises stress was obtained at the node C in both post systems. In general, thermal stress was observed on the cervical part of all-ceramic crown and there was an interface between root dentin-composite core and post material. The temperature gradient of the GFRC post was smaller than that of the zirconia post.
    Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, zirconia posts produced greater stress than GFRC posts. Temperature changes had more effect on the post-cement interface and cervical areas than on the other areas.

  5. Analysis of Ten Kinds of Chinese Literatures on Application Status of Experimental Tooth Movement Animal Model%10种国内期刊正畸牙移动动物模型应用研究的统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢云; 贵林; 杨茜; 张帆; 吴志强; 常新

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解国内学者对正畸牙移动动物模型的应用现状.方法:利用数据库检索和手动检索相结合方式,数据库检索以清华同方知网技术产业集团出版的CNKI数据库为主要检索工具,对国内10种口腔核心期刊进行调查,检索近10年刊登的文献中有关正畸牙移动动物模型的文献,应用文献计量学方法对其进行统计分析.结果:检出文献86篇,其中69篇是关于正畸牙移动中牙周组织改建机制研究方面(80.25%);5篇是关于正畸牙移动疼痛机制研究方面(5.81%);7篇与动情周期有关(8.13%);5篇与正畸牙移动牙根吸收有关(5.81%).结论:目前对于正畸牙移动的研究主要在牙周组织改建方面,而关于正畸疼痛、正畸牙根吸收及生理周期等方面还有待进一步深入研究.%Objective: To analyze Chinese literatures on application status of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) animal models. Methods: The database search method and manual search method were combined, and 10 kinds of domestic oral survey journals were selected. The published articles about OTM animal model were chosen, which were published in recent 10 years, and used bibliometric methods on statistical analysis. Results: 86 articles were selected. 69 articles were about the mechanisms of OTM in periodontal tissue remodeling (80. 25%). 5 articles were about the mechanism of OTM pain (5. 81%). 7 articles were referred to the estrous cycle during OTM (8.13%); 5 articles were about the root resorption during OTM (5. 81%). Conclusion: So far, the main application of OTM animal model is periodontal tissue remodeling, and orthodontic pain, root resorption and orthodontic aspects menstrual cycles remain to be further studied.

  6. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John A Whitlock; Joy M Richman

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development.

  7. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified. PMID:20690545

  8. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; Muller, E.E.; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  9. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  10. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of genetic nerve disorders. It is named after the three doctors who first identified it. ... a nerve biopsy. There is no cure. The disease can be so mild you don't realize ...

  11. Towards unraveling the human tooth transcriptome: the dentome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijia Hu

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to characterize the transcriptome profiles of human ameloblasts and odontoblasts, evaluate molecular pathways and advance our knowledge of the human "dentome". Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate odontoblasts and ameloblasts from human tooth buds (15-20week gestational age from 4 fetuses. RNA was examined using Agilent 41k whole genome arrays at 2 different stages of enamel formation, presecretory and secretory. Probe detection was considered against the array negative control to control for background noise. Differential expression was examined using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM 4.0 between different cell types and developmental stages with a false discovery rate of 20%. Pathway analysis was conducted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. We found that during primary tooth formation, odontoblasts expressed 14,802 genes, presecretory ameloblasts 15,179 genes and secretory ameloblasts 14,526 genes. Genes known to be active during tooth development for each cell type (eg COL1A1, AMELX were shown to be expressed by our approach. Exploring further into the list of differentially expressed genes between the motile odontoblasts and non-motile presecretory ameloblasts we found several genes of interest that could be involved in cell movement (FN1, LUM, ASTN1. Furthermore, our analysis indicated that the Phospholipase C and ERK5 pathways, that are important for cell movement, were activated in the motile odontoblasts. In addition our pathway analysis identified WNT3A and TGFB1 as important upstream contributors. Recent studies implicate these genes in the development of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. The utility of laser capture microdissection can be a valuable tool in the examination of specific tissues or cell populations present in human tooth buds. Advancing our knowledge of the human dentome and related molecular pathways provides new insights into the complex mechanisms regulating

  12. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  13. Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000\\/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.

  14. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well define...... affect the movements. Furthermore, I discuss differences in movement organization, and visual information from striking movements.......Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  15. Dimorphic Mandibular canines in gender determination in Moradabad population of western Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadiputi Sreedhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Among morphological characteristics that differentiate a male from a female, tooth size has also been evaluated in various populations for its applicability in anthropologic and forensic investigations to identify the gender from dental remains. The present study was undertaken to investigate the accuracy of mesio-distal width of the mandibular canines, inter-canine arch width, and Mandibular Canine Index (MCI with which gender can be differentiated in Moradabad population and to correlate the results with other available data. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the casts of 30 males and 30 females between the age group of 19-30 years. Results: The mean right and left canine dimension (RCW and LCW for females was between 6.28 mm and 6.54 mm while that of males was 7.06 mm and 7.45 mm. The mean inter-canine arch width (ICW in males was 27.64 mm, whereas in females was 23.42 mm. Area under curve (AUC of ICW, RCW, and LCW had 100%, 98%, and 99.7%. The predicted sensitivity and specificity observed of three criteria was 100% for ICW, 93.3% and 93.3% for RCW, and 96.7% and 100% for LCW, which were found to be highly statistically significant. The mean values of right and left CMI were significantly higher in females as compared to males (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The MCI parameter in the present study was a quick and reliable method for sexual identification and showed sexual dimorphism by both the RMCI and LMCI with greater significance in identifying females by using RMCI.

  16. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reilly, Mary M

    2011-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder affecting at least 1 in 2,500. Over the last two decades, there have been rapid advances in understanding the molecular basis for many forms of CMT with more than 30 causative genes now described. This has made obtaining an accurate genetic diagnosis possible but at times challenging for clinicians. This review aims to provide a simple, pragmatic approach to diagnosing CMT from a clinician\\'s perspective.

  17. Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.

    2005-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.

  18. Mechanical modelling of tooth wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karme, Aleksis; Rannikko, Janina; Kallonen, Aki; Clauss, Marcus; Fortelius, Mikael

    2016-07-01

    Different diets wear teeth in different ways and generate distinguishable wear and microwear patterns that have long been the basis of palaeodiet reconstructions. Little experimental research has been performed to study them together. Here, we show that an artificial mechanical masticator, a chewing machine, occluding real horse teeth in continuous simulated chewing (of 100 000 chewing cycles) is capable of replicating microscopic wear features and gross wear on teeth that resemble wear in specimens collected from nature. Simulating pure attrition (chewing without food) and four plant material diets of different abrasives content (at n = 5 tooth pairs per group), we detected differences in microscopic wear features by stereomicroscopy of the chewing surface in the number and quality of pits and scratches that were not always as expected. Using computed tomography scanning in one tooth per diet, absolute wear was quantified as the mean height change after the simulated chewing. Absolute wear increased with diet abrasiveness, originating from phytoliths and grit. In combination, our findings highlight that differences in actual dental tissue loss can occur at similar microwear patterns, cautioning against a direct transformation of microwear results into predictions about diet or tooth wear rate. PMID:27411727

  19. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  20. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154 isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease.

  1. Penatalaksanaan impaksi caninus permanen rahang atas dengan surgical exposure (The management of impacted permanent canine with surgical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Brata Wijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impacted tooth is often unidentified because there is no symptom. It is found when patient is examined by dentist. The maxillary canine should be retained for strength masticatory function, esthetics and child development. Purpose: The article was aimed to report treatment options of impacted canine in the 13 years old child. Case: Thirteen years-old girl came to the Universitas Gadjah Mada Dental Hospital with complaints of the upper right permanent canine had not erupted, with no history of pain. Periapical radiograph showed the impacted position of tooth #13 mesioangular. The shift sketch technique radiograph showed the impacted canine located at the palatal site. Case management: surgical exposure the upper right maxillary canine was done, followed by orthodontic treatment to direct tooth position into occlusal line. Fixed orthodontic appliance used was Roth bracket with straight wire technique. After surgery and orthodontic treatment, #13 was in normal occlusion. Conclusion: The surgical exposure followed by orthodontic treatment could be done successfully with special consideration to the patient’s age, the dental space, location of dental crowns, dental inclination, the apical root form of impacted tooth and patient cooperation.Latar belakang: Terjadinya gigi impaksi biasanya diketahui setelah melakukan pemeriksaan ke dokter gigi karena jarang menimbulkan keluhan. Gigi caninus rahang atas sebaiknya dipertahankan untuk kekuatan fungsi pengunyahan, estetik dan tumbuh kembang anak. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan perawatan impaksi gigi kaninus atas pada anak 13 tahun. Kasus: Anak perempuan usia 13 tahun datang ke Rumah sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Gadjah Mada dengan keluhan gigi kaninus permanen kanan atas yang belum erupsi, tanpa ada riwayat sakit di area tersebut. Hasil radiografi periapikal menunjukkan posisi gigi #13 impaksi mesioangular. Hasil radiografi dengan teknik shift

  2. The Effect of Lower Power Laser Irrdiation on the Expression of Integrin avβ3 in Periodontium during Experimental Tooth Movement%弱激光照射对实验性牙移动牙周组织血管内皮细胞中整合素αVβ3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀梅; 孙新华; 吴国民; 张晓英

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨弱激光照射对兔实验性牙移动牙周组织整合素αVβ3表达的影响.方法:35只大耳白兔随机分为7组,每组5只,分别作为对照组,1、3、5、7、14、21 d组.左侧为对照侧,右侧为弱激光照射侧.于上颌第一磨牙与同侧切牙间置不锈钢螺簧,以80g力拉磨牙向近中.按期分批处死动物,取标本,通过原位杂交方法检测牙周组织中整合素αVβ3mRNA的表达.结果:经弱激光照射后,照射侧牙周组织血管内皮细胞中整合素αVβ3表达高于对照侧.照射侧压力区血管内皮细胞中整合素αVβ3表达在1d时明显低于对照侧,3、5、7 d时明显高于对照侧;照射侧张力区整合素αVβ3表达在1、3、5、7 d时显著高于对照侧.结论:弱激光照射促进了牙周组织血管内皮细胞中中整合素αVβ3的表达,这可能是其促进牙周组织改建,减轻正畸疼痛的机制之一.%Objective: To investigate the effect of low power laser on integrin αVβ3 expression in periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: Thirty-five rabbits were divided into 7 groups on average: untreated (control). 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, 14d, and 21d group. Except the control group, the right cheek of the other rabbits received irradiation of lower power laser as the experimental side and the left side was considered as the control side. A elastic coil spring was ligated between the incisors and the first molar and exert a force of approximately 80 g to pull the first molar mesially. The animals were killed on time respectively and specimens were made to observe the expression of integrinαVβ3 in periodontium through in situ hybridization. Results: The expression of integrinβ3 in the vascular endothelial cells in the compression region of the irradiated side was apparently less than the control side on the first day and was apparently more than the control side on the third day and the fifth day. Differently, the expression of integrinβ3 in the

  3. Automating digital leaf measurement: the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, David P A; Tang, H Lilian; Clark, Jonathan Y; Hu, Yin; Jin, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Many species of plants produce leaves with distinct teeth around their margins. The presence and nature of these teeth can often help botanists to identify species. Moreover, it has long been known that more species native to colder regions have teeth than species native to warmer regions. It has therefore been suggested that fossilized remains of leaves can be used as a proxy for ancient climate reconstruction. Similar studies on living plants can help our understanding of the relationships. The required analysis of leaves typically involves considerable manual effort, which in practice limits the number of leaves that are analyzed, potentially reducing the power of the results. In this work, we describe a novel algorithm to automate the marginal tooth analysis of leaves found in digital images. We demonstrate our methods on a large set of images of whole herbarium specimens collected from Tilia trees (also known as lime, linden or basswood). We chose the genus Tilia as its constituent species have toothed leaves of varied size and shape. In a previous study we extracted c.1600 leaves automatically from a set of c.1100 images. Our new algorithm locates teeth on the margins of such leaves and extracts features such as each tooth's area, perimeter and internal angles, as well as counting them. We evaluate an implementation of our algorithm's performance against a manually analyzed subset of the images. We found that the algorithm achieves an accuracy of 85% for counting teeth and 75% for estimating tooth area. We also demonstrate that the automatically extracted features are sufficient to identify different species of Tilia using a simple linear discriminant analysis, and that the features relating to teeth are the most useful.

  4. Automating digital leaf measurement: the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P A Corney

    Full Text Available Many species of plants produce leaves with distinct teeth around their margins. The presence and nature of these teeth can often help botanists to identify species. Moreover, it has long been known that more species native to colder regions have teeth than species native to warmer regions. It has therefore been suggested that fossilized remains of leaves can be used as a proxy for ancient climate reconstruction. Similar studies on living plants can help our understanding of the relationships. The required analysis of leaves typically involves considerable manual effort, which in practice limits the number of leaves that are analyzed, potentially reducing the power of the results. In this work, we describe a novel algorithm to automate the marginal tooth analysis of leaves found in digital images. We demonstrate our methods on a large set of images of whole herbarium specimens collected from Tilia trees (also known as lime, linden or basswood. We chose the genus Tilia as its constituent species have toothed leaves of varied size and shape. In a previous study we extracted c.1600 leaves automatically from a set of c.1100 images. Our new algorithm locates teeth on the margins of such leaves and extracts features such as each tooth's area, perimeter and internal angles, as well as counting them. We evaluate an implementation of our algorithm's performance against a manually analyzed subset of the images. We found that the algorithm achieves an accuracy of 85% for counting teeth and 75% for estimating tooth area. We also demonstrate that the automatically extracted features are sufficient to identify different species of Tilia using a simple linear discriminant analysis, and that the features relating to teeth are the most useful.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tooth Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Ling Ye; Xue-dong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The potential MSCs for tooth regeneration mainly include stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical part of the papilla (SCAPs), stem cells from the dental follicle (DFSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This review outlines the recent progress in the mesenchymal stem cells used in tooth regeneration.

  6. Tooth periodontal ligament: Direct 3D microCT visualization of the collagen network and how the network changes when the tooth is loaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh, Gili R S; Brumfeld, Vlad; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2013-02-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL), a soft tissue connecting the tooth and the bone, is essential for tooth movement, bone remodeling and force dissipation. A collagenous network that connects the tooth root surface to the alveolar jaw bone is one of the major components of the PDL. The organization of the collagenous component and how it changes under load is still poorly understood. Here using a state-of-the-art custom-made loading apparatus and a humidified environment inside a microCT, we visualize the PDL collagenous network of a fresh rat molar in 3D at 1 μm voxel size without any fixation or contrasting agents. We demonstrate that the PDL collagen network is organized in sheets. The spaces between sheets vary thus creating dense and sparse networks. Upon vertical loading, the sheets in both networks are stretched into well aligned arrays. The sparse network is located mainly in areas which undergo compressive loading as the tooth moves towards the bone, whereas the dense network functions mostly in tension as the tooth moves further from the bone. This new visualization method can be used to study other non-mineralized or partially mineralized tissues, and in particular those that are subjected to mechanical loads. The method will also be valuable for characterizing diseased tissues, as well as better understanding the phenotypic expressions of genetic mutants. PMID:23110851

  7. An Investigation of Three types of Tooth Implant Supported Fixed Prosthesis Designs with 3D Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Koosha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tooth/implant supported fixed prostheses may present biomechanical design problems, as the implant is rigidly anchored within the alveolus, whereas the tooth is attached by the periodontal ligament to the bone allowing movement. Many clinicians prefer tooth/implant supported fixed prosthesis designs with rigid connectors. However, there are some doubts about the effect of attachment placement in different prosthesis designs. The purpose of this study was to examine the stresses accumulated around the implant and natural teeth under occlusal forces using three dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA.Materials and Methods: In this study, different connection designs of tooth/implant fixed prosthesis in distal extension situations were investigated by 3D FEA. Three models with various connection designs were studied; in the first model an implant rigidly connected to an abutment, in the second and third models an implant connected to abutment tooth with nonrigid connector in the distal part of the tooth and mesial part of the implant. In each model, a screw type implant (5×11mm and a mandibular second premolar were used. The stress values of these models loaded with vertical forces (250N were analyzed.Results: There was no difference in stress distribution around the bone support of the implant. Maximum stress values were observed at the crestal bone of the implant. In all models, tooth movement was higher than implant movement.Conclusion: There is no difference in using a rigid connector, non rigid connector in the distal surface of the tooth or in the mesial surface of an implant.

  8. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  9. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  10. A clinical and radiographic study to evaluate the rate of retraction of maxillary canine using nickel-titanium closed coil spring with two different bracket systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Adarsh Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the efficiency of self-ligating brackets with the conventional preadjusted edgewise (PEA brackets during maxillary canine retraction using nickel-titanium closed coil springs. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 20 healthy patients (10 males and 10 females, within age groups 16-26 years (mean, 20 years having Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion. All patients underwent bilateral extraction of the maxillary first bicuspids and retraction of the maxillary canines with fixed self-ligating brackets (3M Smart clip and PEA appliance (3M Gemini. The initial records included standard intra- and extra-oral photographs, study models, lateral cephalograms, and panoramic radiographs. Results: The mean distal movement of canines in self-ligating brackets was 0.89 mm/mo with standard deviation of 0.255 and in preadjusted edgewise brackets, the mean distal movement of canines was 0.87 mm/mo with standard deviation of 0.214. The mean tipping of canine in self-ligating brackets was 7.45 ± 1.050(0 and in PEA brackets it was 7.70° ± 1.21°. The mean rotation of canine in self-ligating brackets was 7.65° ± 3.47° and in preadjusted edgewise appliance it was 12.30° ± 3.08°. Conclusion: The rates of distal movement of the maxillary canines were similar with both conventional and self-ligating brackets. Rotation of the maxillary canines during retraction was minimized with self-ligating brackets in comparison to conventional bracket systems.

  11. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.)

  12. Proposed regression equations for prediction of the size of unerupted permanent canines and premolars in Yemeni sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kabab, FA; Ghoname, NA; Banabilh, SM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to formulate a prediction regression equation for Yemeni and to compare it with Moyer's method for the prediction of the size of the un-erupted permanent canines and premolars. Subjects and Methods: Measurements of mesio-distal width of four permanent mandibular incisors, as well as canines and premolars in both arches were obtained from a sample of 400 school children aged 12-14 years old (13.80 ± 0.42 standard deviation) using electronic digital calliper. The data were subjected to statistical and linear regression analysis and then compared with Moyer's prediction tables. Results: The result showed that the mean mesio-distal tooth widths of the canines and premolars in the maxillary arch were significantly larger in boys than girls (P Moyer's method. Significant differences (P Moyer's tables in almost all percentile levels, including the recommended 50% and 75% levels. Conclusions: The Moyer's probability tables significantly overestimate the mesio-distal widths of the un-erupted permanent canine and premolars of Yemeni in almost all percentile levels, including the commonly used 50% and 75% levels. Therefore, it was suggested with caution that the proposed prediction regression equations and tables developed in the present study could be considered as an alternative and more precise method for mixed dentition space analysis in Yemeni. PMID:25143930

  13. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  14. Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Abdul; Farooq, Imran; Grobler, Sias R; Rossouw, R J

    2015-12-01

    Tooth bleaching (whitening) is one of the most common and inexpensive method for treating discolouration of teeth. Dental aesthetics, especially tooth colour, is of great importance to majority of the people; and discolouration of even a single tooth can negatively influence the quality of life. Therefore, a review of the literature was carried out (limited to aesthetic tooth-bleaching) to provide a broad overview of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whitening products on soft and hard oral tissues. PMID:26691365

  15. [Tooth erosion - a multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strużycka, Izabela; Rusyan, Ewa; Bogusławska-Kapała, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    During the last decades, an increasingly greater interest in dental erosion has been observed in clinical dental practice, in dental public health and in dental research because prevalence of erosive tooth wear is still increasing especially in young age group of population. Erosive tooth wear is a multifactorial etiology process characterized by progressive loss of hard dental tissue. It is defined as the exogenous and/or endogenous acids dissolution of the dental tissue, without bacterial involvement. In the development of dental erosive wear, interactions are required which include chemical, biological, behavioral, diet, time, socioeconomic, knowledge, education, and general health factors. Examples of risk groups could be patients with eating disorders, like anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic alcohol abuse or dependence. Special nutrition habits groups with high consumption of soft or sport drinks, special diets like vegetarian, vegan or raw food diet, the regular intake of drugs, medications and food supplements can also increase the risk for dental erosion. Comprehensive knowledge of the different risk and protective factors is a perquisite for initiating adequate preventive measures. PMID:27000809

  16. Tooth root growth impairment after mantle radiation in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, J.P. Jr.; Hopkins, K.P.; Thompson, E.I.; Hustu, H.O.

    1985-10-01

    The tooth root growth impairment that resulted from 35 to 37 Gy mantle port radiation in 47 long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin's disease was quantified and related to specific age groups and categories of teeth. Root measurements of the mandibular permanent canines, first and second premolars, and first and second molars were made from sequential panoramic radiographs taken at the time of radiation therapy and after the closure of root apexes. The severity of root growth impairment was greatest in patients who received radiation during the early stages of odontogenesis. With later stages of odontogenesis, and as the age increased at the time of treatment, less impairment occurred. The potential difficulties of using repeated panoramic radiographs to assess tooth lengths in longitudinal studies also were discussed.

  17. Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental Saber-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wroe

    Full Text Available Questions surrounding the dramatic morphology of saber-tooths, and the presumably deadly purpose to which it was put, have long excited scholarly and popular attention. Among saber-toothed species, the iconic North American placental, Smilodon fatalis, and the bizarre South American sparassodont, Thylacosmilus atrox, represent extreme forms commonly forwarded as examples of convergent evolution. For S. fatalis, some consensus has been reached on the question of killing behaviour, with most researchers accepting the canine-shear bite hypothesis, wherein both head-depressing and jaw closing musculatures played a role in delivery of the fatal bite. However, whether, or to what degree, T. atrox may have applied a similar approach remains an open question. Here we apply a three-dimensional computational approach to examine convergence in mechanical performance between the two species. We find that, in many respects, the placental S. fatalis (a true felid was more similar to the metatherian T. atrox than to a conical-toothed cat. In modeling of both saber-tooths we found that jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were low, but that simulations invoking neck musculature revealed less cranio-mandibular stress than in a conical-toothed cat. However, our study also revealed differences between the two saber-tooths likely reflected in the modus operandi of the kill. Jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were extremely weak in T. atrox, and its skull was even better-adapted to resist stress induced by head-depressors. Considered together with the fact that the center of the arc described by the canines was closer to the jaw-joint in Smilodon, our results are consistent with both jaw-closing and neck musculature playing a role in prey dispatch for the placental, as has been previously suggested. However, for T. atrox, we conclude that the jaw-adductors probably played no major part in the killing bite. We propose that the metatherian presents a more complete commitment

  18. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  19. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  20. Biologically Based Restorative Management of Tooth Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. D. Kelleher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of tooth wear is increasing in industrialised nations. Yet, there is no high-level evidence to support or refute any therapeutic intervention. In the absence of such evidence, many currently prevailing management strategies for tooth wear may be failing in their duty of care to first and foremost improve the oral health of patients with this disease. This paper promotes biologically sound approaches to the management of tooth wear on the basis of current best evidence of the aetiology and clinical features of this disease. The relative risks and benefits of the varying approaches to managing tooth wear are discussed with reference to long-term follow-up studies. Using reference to ethical standards such as “The Daughter Test”, this paper presents case reports of patients with moderate-to-severe levels of tooth wear managed in line with these biologically sound principles.

  1. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  2. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...... levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  3. [Dental implants in tooth grinders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Brouwers, J E; Cune, M S; Naeije, M

    2004-03-01

    Bruxism (tooth grinding and clenching) is generally considered a contraindication for dental implants, although the evidence is usually based on clinical experience only. So far, studies to the possible cause-and-effect relationship between bruxism and implant failure do not yield consistent and specific outcomes. This is partly due to the large variation in the technical and the biological aspects of the investigations. Although there is still no proof that bruxism causes overload of dental implants and their suprastructures, a careful approach is recommended. Practical advices as to minimize the chance of implant failure are given. Besides the recommendation to reduce or eliminate bruxism itself, these advices concern the number and dimensions of the implants, the design of the occlusion and articulation patterns, and the use of a hard nightguard. PMID:15058243

  4. Canine stifle stability following cranial cruciate ligament transection and medial meniscal release - an ex vivo biomechanical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tanja Vedel; Kristiansen, Signe Søndergaard; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    Introduction The patellar tendon angle (PTA), describing the relationship of the patellar tendon to the tibial plateau, is biomechanically significant for canine stifle stability. The crossover point, at which the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) becomes the primary stifle stabilizer, has been...... point and cranial tibial subluxation (CTS) in the CrCL deficient canine stifle has not been described previously. The present study evaluated CTS, PTA and joint angle fluoroscopically during stifle movement from flexion to full extension in a cadaveric biomechanical model. Materials and methods Sagittal...... stifle stability was evaluated in right pelvic limbs from canine cadavers under three different test situations (intact, CrCL deficient and medial meniscal release (MMR)). Dogs were euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study, owner approval given for research use and institutional ethical approval...

  5. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  6. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  7. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  8. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  9. Prediction of width of un-erupted incisors, canines and premolars in a Ugandan population: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buwembo William

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate prediction of the space forms an important part of an orthodontic assessment in the mixed dentition. However the most commonly used methods of space analysis are based on data developed on Caucasian populations. In order to provide more accurate local data we set out to develop a formula for predicting the widths of un-erupted canines and premolars for a Ugandan population and to compare the predicted widths of the teeth from this formula with those obtained from Moyers’ tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Methods Dental casts were prepared using mandibular and maxillary arch impressions of 220 children (85 boys/135 girls aged 12–17 years recruited from schools in Kampala, Uganda. The mesio-distal width of the mandibular incisors, mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars were measured with a pair of digital calipers. Based on regression analysis, predictive equations were derived and the findings were compared with those presented in Moyers’ probability tables, and Tanaka and Johnston’s equations. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the tooth widths predicted by our equations and those from Moyers’ probability tables at the 65th and 75th percentile probabilities for the girls and at 75th level in boys in the mandibular arch. While in the maxillary arch no statistically significant differences at the 75th and 95th levels were noted in girls. There were statistically significant differences between predicted tooth sizes using equations from the present study and those predicted from the Tanaka and Johnston regression equations. Conclusions In this Ugandan population, Moyers’ probability tables could be used to predict tooth widths at specific percentile probabilities, but generally, Tanaka and Johnston technique tends to overestimate the tooth widths.

  10. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  11. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  12. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  13. TOOTH CONTACT ANALYSIS OF CONICAL INVOLUTE GEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical model of conical involute gears is developed based on the theory of gearing and the generating mechanism. Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is performed to examine the meshing and bearing contact of the conical involute gear pairs with intersected and crossed axes. In addition, the principal directions and curvatures of the gear surfaces are investigated and the contact ellipses of the mating tooth surfaces are also studied. Finally, the numerical illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the computational results, test gears are made for tooth-bearing tests, and the conclusion is verified that the theory has the applicability.

  14. Despre babesioza canină

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.

  15. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  16. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  17. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  18. The effect of food bolus location on jaw movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N.B. Molenaar; P.J. Gezelle Meerburg; J. Luraschi; T. Whittle; M. Schimmel; F. Lobbezoo; C.C. Peck; G.M. Murray; I. Minami

    2012-01-01

    Masticatory efficiency in individuals with extensive tooth loss has been widely discussed. However, little is known about jaw movement smoothness during chewing and the effect of differences in food bolus location on movement smoothness and masticatory efficiency. The aim of this study was to determ

  19. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  20. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  1. Immediate Esthetic Rehabilitation of Periodontally Compromised Anterior Tooth Using Natural Tooth as Pontic

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pavan Kumar; Surya Kumari Nujella; S. Sujatha Gopal; K. Karthik Roy

    2016-01-01

    For patients who require removal of anterior teeth and their replacement various treatment modalities are available. With advancement in technology and availability of glass/polyethylene fibres, use of natural tooth as pontic with fibre reinforced composite restorations offers the promising results. The present case report describes management of periodontally compromised mandibular anterior tooth using natural tooth pontic with fibre reinforcement. A 1-year follow-up showed that the bridge w...

  2. Immediate Esthetic Rehabilitation of Periodontally Compromised Anterior Tooth Using Natural Tooth as Pontic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Pavan; Nujella, Surya Kumari; Gopal, S Sujatha; Roy, K Karthik

    2016-01-01

    For patients who require removal of anterior teeth and their replacement various treatment modalities are available. With advancement in technology and availability of glass/polyethylene fibres, use of natural tooth as pontic with fibre reinforced composite restorations offers the promising results. The present case report describes management of periodontally compromised mandibular anterior tooth using natural tooth pontic with fibre reinforcement. A 1-year follow-up showed that the bridge was intact with good esthetics and no problem was reported. PMID:27195156

  3. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  4. Genetics And Tooth Anomalies - An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswathy Brahmanandan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development like the development of all epithelial appendages is regulated by inductive tissue interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. Numerous genes interact, either act in conjunction or antagonize each other in odontogenesis. A number of different mesenchymal molecules and their receptors act as mediators in epithelial mesenchymal interactions. Several genes linked with early tooth positioning and developments belong to signaling pathways and have morphogenesis regulatory functions in morphogenesis of other organs. Their mutations often show pleiotropic effects beyond dental morphogenesis. In contrast, certain genes involved in enamel and dentin structures are highly specific for tooth. Mutations in these genes have been identified as causes of Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI, Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DI, Dentin Dysplasia (DD and anomalies in tooth number. This article focuses on genetic basis of inherited non-syndromic teeth disorders.

  5. Computer simulation of gear tooth manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri; Huston, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate gear tooth manufacturing procedures is discussed. An analytical basis for the simulation is established for spur gears. The simulation itself, however, is developed not only for spur gears, but for straight bevel gears as well. The applications of the developed procedure extend from the development of finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring the fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms.

  6. Tooth wear: the view of the anthropologist

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Kaidonis

    2007-01-01

    Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental ar...

  7. Tooth Preparation and Pulpal Response: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Dr. Özlem; ERKUT, Doç. Dr. Selim

    2013-01-01

    Pulp tissue reaction to tooth preparation for direct or indirect restorations is one of the major concerns in fixed prosthodontics. Although the sensitivity of dentine to a variety of stimuli is difficult to correlate with morphological and functional observations, hydrodynamic theory was used to explain dental pain mechanism. External stimuli (e.g., thermal, mechanical and dental restorative processes) applied to human tooth cause either an inward (toward the pulp chamber) or outward (away f...

  8. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leskovec, J. [Dental Clinic, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Hrvatski trg 6, 1104 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Filipic, C. [Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Levstik, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, P.O. Box 3000, 1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: adrijan.levstik@ijs.si

    2005-07-15

    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters -bar {sub v0} and {sigma}{sub v}, indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy.

  9. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters -bar v0 and σv, indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy

  10. Genetics And Tooth Anomalies - An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Aswathy Brahmanandan; Ahmed Hasan Farooqi T; Deepa.M.S; Aswathy Raj R

    2013-01-01

    Tooth development like the development of all epithelial appendages is regulated by inductive tissue interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. Numerous genes interact, either act in conjunction or antagonize each other in odontogenesis. A number of different mesenchymal molecules and their receptors act as mediators in epithelial mesenchymal interactions. Several genes linked with early tooth positioning and developments belong to signaling pathways and have morphogenesis regulatory f...

  11. Fetal eye movements on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Woitek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Eye movements are the physical expression of upper fetal brainstem function. Our aim was to identify and differentiate specific types of fetal eye movement patterns using dynamic MRI sequences. Their occurrence as well as the presence of conjugated eyeball motion and consistently parallel eyeball position was systematically analyzed. METHODS: Dynamic SSFP sequences were acquired in 72 singleton fetuses (17-40 GW, three age groups [17-23 GW, 24-32 GW, 33-40 GW]. Fetal eye movements were evaluated according to a modified classification originally published by Birnholz (1981: Type 0: no eye movements; Type I: single transient deviations; Type Ia: fast deviation, slower reposition; Type Ib: fast deviation, fast reposition; Type II: single prolonged eye movements; Type III: complex sequences; and Type IV: nystagmoid. RESULTS: In 95.8% of fetuses, the evaluation of eye movements was possible using MRI, with a mean acquisition time of 70 seconds. Due to head motion, 4.2% of the fetuses and 20.1% of all dynamic SSFP sequences were excluded. Eye movements were observed in 45 fetuses (65.2%. Significant differences between the age groups were found for Type I (p = 0.03, Type Ia (p = 0.031, and Type IV eye movements (p = 0.033. Consistently parallel bulbs were found in 27.3-45%. CONCLUSIONS: In human fetuses, different eye movement patterns can be identified and described by MRI in utero. In addition to the originally classified eye movement patterns, a novel subtype has been observed, which apparently characterizes an important step in fetal brainstem development. We evaluated, for the first time, eyeball position in fetuses. Ultimately, the assessment of fetal eye movements by MRI yields the potential to identify early signs of brainstem dysfunction, as encountered in brain malformations such as Chiari II or molar tooth malformations.

  12. Tooth enamel and enameloid in actinopterygian fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.SASAGAWA; M.ISHIYAMA; H.YOKOSUKA; M.MIKAMI; T.UCHIDA

    2009-01-01

    The morphological features of tooth enamel and enameloid in actinopterygian fish are reviewed to provide basic data concerning the biomineralization of teeth in lower vertebrates. Enameloid, which covers the tooth surface, is a unique well-mineralized tissue and usually has the same functions as mammalian tooth enamel. However, the development of enameloi is different from that of the enamel produced by dental epithelial cells. Enameloid is made by a combination of odontoblasts and dental epithelial cells. An organic matrix that contains collagen is provided by odontoblasts, and then dental epithelial cells dissolve the degenerate matrix and suooly inorganic ions during advanced crystal growth in enameloid. It is likely that enameloid is a good model for studying the growth of well-mineralized hard tissues in vertebrates. Some actinopterygian fish possess a collar enamel layer that is situated at the surface of the tooth shaft, indicating that the origin of tooth enamel is found in fish. Collar enamel is thought to be a precursor of mammalian enamel, although it is thin and not well mineralized in comparison with enameloid. In Lepisosteus and Polypterus, both of which are living actinopterygians,both enameloid and enamel are found in the same tooth. Therefore, they ace suitable materials for examining the developmental processes of enameloid and enamel and the relationship among them.

  13. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  14. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Del Puerto, Helen L; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Luciana Moro; Fabiana Alves; Braz, Gissandra F; Almir S. Martins

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus...

  15. Tooth eruption sequence and dental crowding: a case-control study [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2ng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Moshkelgosha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When cases of dental crowding are identified and diagnosed promptly, interceptive orthodontics is particularly successful. Aim: To assess the differences in the eruption sequence of the mandibular canine and first premolar teeth in children with and without dental crowding. Materials and Methods: Children who attended the Shiraz Dental School's orthodontic clinic (Iran from September to December 2012 were enrolled in this case-control study. Tooth size arch length discrepancy (TSALD of all 8-10 year olds was calculated from patients’ dental models. Thirty-six children were randomly selected from those with TSALD of equal or less than 4mm (those with crowding. Each selected case was matched for sex and age with another child (as control with TSALD>−4mm attending the same clinic, in the same time period. The existing panoramic radiographs were traced and the eruption percentages were measured for mandibular canine and first premolar teeth. The mean difference between canine and first premolar eruption percentages was compared between the case and control groups using the SPSS (version PASW 18 software and a paired sample t-test. Results: Canine and first premolar eruption percentages in the case group were 65.82±13.00 and 78.92±10.15 percent, respectively. The mean eruption percentages for canines and first premolars of the control group were 74.12±14.55 and 75.47±11.60 percent, respectively. There was a significant difference in pre-eruptive positions of canine and first premolar teeth in those with moderate to severe crowding when compared to the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: These findings may improve the early diagnosis of children with high risk of developing moderate to severe crowding during mixed dentition.

  16. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  17. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high interobserver

  18. The effect of canine disimpaction performed with temporary anchorage devices (TADs before comprehensive orthodontic treatment to avoid root resorption of adjacent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of impacted canines away from the roots of neighboring teeth before full-mouth bracket placement, performed by means of TADs to decrease undesired side effects on adjacent teeth. Methods: The study sample consisted of 34 palatally impacted canines, being 19 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. In the experimental group, before placement of brackets, the impacted canine was erupted by means of miniscrews. In the control group, after initiation of comprehensive orthodontics, canine disimpaction was performed by means of a cantilever spring soldered to a palatal bar. At the end of treatment, volume of lateral incisors and canine root resorption were measured and compared by means of a CBCT-derived tridimensional model. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score, bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival index (GI were recorded. Clinical success rate was also calculated. Results: The volume of root resorption of lateral teeth in the control group was significantly greater than in the experimental group (p < 0.001. At the end of treatment, VAS score, GI and BOP were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, it seems that disimpaction of canines and moving them to the arch can be done successfully carried out with minimal side effects by means of skeletal anchorage.

  19. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  20. Controlled Deposition of HAp Mimicking Tooth Enamel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chemical compositions and microsturcture of mature human tooth enamel were investigated by XRD , FTIR and SEM to further understand the characteristics of tooth enamel. In order to obtain apatite crystals chemically and structurally similar to those in tooth enamel, biomimetic way was employed. Selfassembled monolyers terminated with-SO3 H groups were used as deposition substrates and 1.5 SBF ( the concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- ions 1.5 times than those in simulated body fluid ) with and without 5 ppm F- were used as soaking medium. The XRD and FTIR results showed that both the deposited fluoride-substituted hydroxyapatite( F-HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF with F- and hydroxyapatite ( HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF were carbonate-containing, mimicking human tooth enamel in chemical compositions. The SEM photos showed that needle-like F-HAp crystals bad large aspect ratios and grew in bundles, which were similar to the crystals in human tooth enamel.The results provide available information on dental restoration.

  1. Population response characteristics of intrinsic signals in the cat somatosensory cortex following canine mechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jianxiang; Wang, Jian; Li, Zhong; Meng, Jianjun; Yu, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic signal optical imaging has been widely used to measure functional maps in various sensory cortices due to better spatial resolution and sensitivity for detecting cortical neuroplasticity. However, application of this technique in dentistry has not been reported. In this study, intrinsic signal optical imaging was used to investigate mechanically driven responses in the cat somatosensory cortex, when punctate mechanical stimuli were applied to maxillary canines. The global signal and its spatial organization pattern were obtained. Global signal strength gradually increased with stimulus strength. There was no significant difference in response strength between contralateral and ipsilateral mechanical stimulation. A slightly greater response was recorded in the sigmoidal gyrus than in the coronal gyrus. The cat somatosensory cortex activated by sensory inputs from mechanical stimulation of canines lacks both topographical and functional organization. It is not organized into columns that represent sensory input from each tooth or direction of stimulation. These results demonstrate that intrinsic signal optical imaging is a valid tool for investigating neural responses and neuroplasticity in the somatosensory cortex that represents teeth. PMID:27163378

  2. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, Henry

    1988-01-01

    A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

  3. Movement in Architecture: A Spacial Movement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Lauren Coleen

    2010-01-01

    As the body moves through space ephemeral lines of movement are created. These lines of movement are influenced by body tendencies. We learn from the body by watching the path and patterning of movement. From the study of the movement of the body, theories of spacial movement were developed. The goal of my project is to draw from spacial movement theory to create an architectural expression that motivates movement of the body on my site and through my building. The focus of my thesis is ...

  4. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  5. Study of formation constant of molybdophosphate and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation constant of molybdophosphate complex and it's application in the product of xenotime sand, tooth and bone have been studied by spectrophotometric method. The molybdophosphate complex were formed from reaction between phosphate and molybdate on several of pH in the strong acid condition (pH = 0.45 - 0.71) and several of phosphate mole fraction (0.01 - 0.08). The several of complex formation reactions were determined by matrix disintegration technique. Molybdophosphate complex were founded three forms i.e. (P2Mo18O62)6- or 9 MPA, (PMo11O39)7- or 11 MPA and (PMo12O40)3- or 12 MPA. The formation constant of (PMo12O40)3- complex was found β = 1046.95 ± 103.7, while for (P2Mo18O62)6- and (PMo11O39)7- were not detected. The application in samples were found the concentration of P in product of xenotime sand : 5.37±0.08 μg/ml, in canine-tooth: 10.40 - 19.49 % in cutting-tooth : 11.08 - 18.05 % and in bone 10.94 - 14.29 %. (author)

  6. Orthodontic microsurgery: a new surgically guided technique for dental movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellotti, Tomaso; Podesta, Andrea

    2007-08-01

    Eight patients with malocclusions were treated with a new orthodontic-surgical technique that reduces the duration of treatment compared to conventional techniques. The monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction (MTDLD) technique combines two different dental movements that work separately but simultaneously on opposite root surfaces. On the root surface corresponding to the direction of movement, vertical and horizontal microsurgical corticotomies are performed around each tooth root with a piezosurgical microsaw to eliminate cortical bone resistance. The immediate application of strong biomechanical forces produces rapid dislocation of the root and the cortical bone together. On the root surface opposite the direction of movement, the force of dislocation produces rapid distraction of ligament fibers. During the osteogenic process that follows, application of normal orthodontic biomechanics achieves the final tooth movement. All eight patients underwent periodontal and radiologic examinations for more than 1 year after treatment. No periodontal defects were observed in any of the patients, including one with a severe malocclusion and a thin periodontal tissue biotype. Compared to traditional orthodontic therapy, the average treatment time with the MTDLD technique in the mandible and maxilla was reduced by 60% and 70%, respectively.

  7. Tooth structure and fracture strength of cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondelli, José; Sene, Fábio; Ramos, Renata Pereira;

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the loss of tooth substance after cavity preparation for direct and indirect restorations and its relationship with fracture strength of the prepared teeth. Sixty sound human maxillary first premolars were assigned to 6 groups (n=10). MOD direct composite cavities......) or 1/2 (Groups III and VI) of the intercuspal distance. Teeth were weighed (digital balance accurate to 0.001 g) before and after preparation to record tooth substance mass lost during cavity preparation. The prepared teeth were submitted to occlusal loading to determine their fracture strength using...

  8. Movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  9. Immediate Esthetic Rehabilitation of Periodontally Compromised Anterior Tooth Using Natural Tooth as Pontic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pavan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For patients who require removal of anterior teeth and their replacement various treatment modalities are available. With advancement in technology and availability of glass/polyethylene fibres, use of natural tooth as pontic with fibre reinforced composite restorations offers the promising results. The present case report describes management of periodontally compromised mandibular anterior tooth using natural tooth pontic with fibre reinforcement. A 1-year follow-up showed that the bridge was intact with good esthetics and no problem was reported.

  10. 3D analysis of craniofacial growth and tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, Sven

    The 9th International Congress on Cleft Palate and Related Craniofacial Anomalies, 3D analysis, craniofacial growth, tooth eruption......The 9th International Congress on Cleft Palate and Related Craniofacial Anomalies, 3D analysis, craniofacial growth, tooth eruption...

  11. Seal Out Tooth Decay: A Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Seal Out Tooth Decay A Fact Sheet for Parents What are dental ... important reason for getting sealants is to avoid tooth decay. • Fluoride in toothpaste and in drinking water protects ...

  12. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  13. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  14. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  15. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  16. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F;

    2011-01-01

    is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...

  17. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  18. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  19. Hyaluronan in human deciduous tooth germs in the bell stage. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Martin Ebbe; Garbarsch, Charly; Olsen, Birgitte Engelbrecht;

    1997-01-01

    Anatomy, development, glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, tooth germs, histochemistry, immunocytochemistry......Anatomy, development, glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, tooth germs, histochemistry, immunocytochemistry...

  20. The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and tooth decay?

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKAN, Buğra; FİLİK, Levent; SAĞLAM, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Backgaround and Aims: The aim of this study was to show the relationship of gastroesophageal reflux disease and tooth decay. The most common cause of tooth decay is poor oral hygiene but gastric contents may also cause poor oral hygiene and tooth decay. In this study, we hypothesized and investigated whether gastroesophageal reflux disease caused tooth decay. Materials and Methods:Sixty-five patients were studied; 30 patients had gastroesophageal reflux disease, with disease diagnosis...

  1. Tooth width ratios in crowded and non-crowded dentitions

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabé, E.; Villanueva, KM; Flores-Mir, C

    2004-01-01

    Discrepancies in tooth width ratios could affect the excellence in the finishing of orthodontic cases. This study compares tooth width ratios in crowded and noncrowded dental arches. Tooth widths were measured from 143 dental casts (40 crowded and 33 spaced in male individuals and 43 crowded and 27 spaced in female individuals). Simultaneous crowded or spaced arches were selected. Tooth width measurements were made with a sliding caliper with a Vernier scale neared 0.1 mm. Inter- (0.990) and ...

  2. Comparison of the Remaining Tooth Structure and Fracture Resistance between Labial and Lingual Access Cavities in Permanent Anterior Teeth with Labial Caries: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar B.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Labial access cavity preparation is a conventional method in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth, but in some conditions labial cavity preparation is recommended.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare labial and lingual access cavity preparation in the permanent anterior teeth with labial caries in terms of the remaining tooth structure and fracture resistance. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 150 intact permanent human anterior teeth were selected in 5 groups each with 30 teeth including the maxillary central, maxillary lateral, maxillary canine, mandibular incisors and mandibular canine. A class V cavity with similar ratios to dimensions of each tooth was prepared on the labial surface of all specimens. The volumes of each of these teeth were measured by Penta Pycnometer before and after class V cavity preparation (V1, V2. Each group was randomly divided into 2 equal subgroups (n=15. Access cavities were prepared labially in subgroup A and lingually in subgroup B; then, the remained volume of each tooth was measured again (V3. The mean proportional volume loss of each tooth was calculated through access preparation (V2-V3/V1. Then, the specimens were embedded in acrylic resin blocks and subjected to load with a universal testing machine.Results: The differences of mean of theremained volume and fracture resistance of the two subgroups were statistically significant in all groups ( p <0.05 and those teeth with labial access showed more remained volume and fracture resistance than lingual access. Conclusion: Labial access cavity preparation can enhance the remained volume and fracture resistance as compared to lingual access in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth with labial caries especially in mandibular incisors.

  3. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  4. The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

  5. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  7. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  8. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  9. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | Reprints and Permissions | Privacy Statement | Terms and Conditions © 1996-2016 Academy of General Dentistry. All Rights Reserved.

  10. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-11-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  11. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattibene, Paola, E-mail: paola.fattibene@iss.i [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Callens, Freddy, E-mail: freddy.callens@ugent.b [Ghent University, Department of Solid State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  12. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental care and oral health information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Friday, July 15, 2016 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference ... Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth? What is Orofacial ...

  13. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Sports and Oral Health Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth ... Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  14. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental care and oral health information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Monday, August 22, 2016 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference ... My Child's Baby Teeth? What is Orofacial Pain? Learn what those dental words mean. The Life of a Tooth ...

  15. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental care and oral health information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Thursday, August 04, 2016 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference ... of Dental Advances How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth? Headaches and Jaw Pain? Check Your Posture! Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Learn what ...

  16. Tooth mobility changes subsequent to root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    with a Mühlemanns periodontometer and noninjured incisors served as controls. The mobility values represented the labial-lingual excursion of the root measured in μm when the tooth received a frontal and a palatal impact of 100 g force. In 18 cases of hard tissue healing (HT), a slightly increased mobility was seen...

  17. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  18. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Sports and Oral Health How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth? The History of Dental Advances Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction What is Orofacial Pain? Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive ... | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  19. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  20. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Dental care and oral health information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Wednesday, August 03, 2016 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference ... Than You Can Chew? How Do I Care for My Child's Baby Teeth? Is My Child at Risk for Early Childhood Tooth Decay? Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Learn what ...

  1. Regenerative Applications Using Tooth Derived Stem Cells in Other Than Tooth Regeneration: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Jong Park; Seunghee Cha; Young-Seok Park

    2016-01-01

    Tooth derived stem cells or dental stem cells are categorized according to the location from which they are isolated and represent a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Originally, as one kind of mesenchymal stem cells, they are considered an alternative of bone marrow stromal cells. They share many commonalties but maintain differences. Considering their original function in development and the homeostasis of tooth structures, many applications of these cells in dentistry ha...

  2. Relative cheek-tooth size in Australopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, H M

    1984-07-01

    Until the discovery of Australopithecus afarensis, cheek-tooth megadontia was unequivocally one of the defining characteristics of the australopithecine grade in human evolution along with bipedalism and small brains. This species, however, has an average postcanine area of 757 mm2, which is more like Homo habilis (759 mm2) than A. africanus (856 mm2). But what is its relative cheek-tooth size in comparison to body size? One approach to this question is to compare postcanine tooth area to estimated body weight. By this method all Australopithecus species are megadont: they have cheek teeth 1.7 to 2.3 times larger than modern hominoids of similar body size. The series from A. afarensis to A. africanus to A. robustus to A. boisei shows strong positive allometry indicating increasing megadontia through time. The series from H. habilis to H. erectus to H. sapiens shows strong negative allometry which implies a sharp reduction in the relative size of the posterior teeth. Postcanine megadontia in Australopithecus species can also be demonstrated by comparing tooth size and body size in associated skeletons: A. afarensis (represented by A.L. 288-1) has a cheek-tooth size 2.8 times larger than expected from modern hominoids; A. africanus (Sts 7) and A. robustus (TM 1517) are over twice the expected size. The evolutionary transition from the megadont condition of Australopithecus to the trend of decreasing megadontia seen in the Homo lineage may have occurred between 3.0 and 2.5 m.y. from A. afarensis to H.habilis but other evidence indicates that it is more likely to have occurred between 2.5 to 2.0 m.y. from an A. africanus-like form to H. habilis. PMID:6433716

  3. Is tooth wear in the primary dentition predictive of tooth wear in the permanent dentition? Report from a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harding, M A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of tooth wear in the permanent dentition of a sample of 12-year-old school children and establish whether an association exists between tooth wear recorded now and tooth wear recorded in their primary dentition at age five.

  4. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes. PMID:16261767

  5. A TOOTH TATTOO WITH A PURPOSE: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin is not the only place that can be decorated with a tattoo. You can decorate your tooth with amazing tattoos. Tooth tattoos and tooth jewels have become one of the hottest fashion trends , and a very popular arrival in cosmetic dentistry. But won’t it be a boon if it had some preventive or medicinal v alue. Yes tooth tattoos can act as indicators of once illness. These tiny electronic sensors can diagnose illnesses by 'tasting' your breath. This paper is an insight into how a tooth tattoos can pick up early warning signs of sickness or infection by bact eria in people's breath.

  6. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xia, Zeyang, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Xiong, Jing, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 510855 (China); Zhang, Jianwei [TAMS, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 22527 (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0

  7. Canine oral biofilms: Cultural, molecular, and in vitro studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The canine oral microbiota is poorly understood compared to that of humans. The aim of this work was to improve understanding of the canine oral microbiota. This was achieved by surveying the canine oral microbiota, determining coaggregation interactions between its members, and developing a laboratory microcosm. Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaque and saliva of dogs, and isolates were identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 339 isolates, 84 phylotypes belonging to ...

  8. Portrait of a Canine Probiotic – from Gut to Gut

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, D.; Murphy, K. Barry; MacSharry, J.; Boileau, T.; Sunvold, G.; Reinhart, G.; Kiely, B.; Shanahan, F; O'Mahony, L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The gastrointestinal environment is a complex interactive system involving the host, ingested dietary components, and numerous microbial species. We hypothesised that isolation and screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria adherent to healthy canine gastrointestinal tissue would yield strains with commensal activity in canines. The aims of this study were 1) to isolate a bank of commensal organisms from the canine gastrointestinal tract; 2) to screen these novel microbi...

  9. 'Split posterior tooth': conservative clinical re-attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sathish; Chacko, Lisa Neelathil

    2014-07-30

    Trauma is the prime causative factor for fracture of teeth/dentition. Many procedural management options are followed successfully in relation to the anterior teeth. However, most posterior cases where the tooth is fractured have only limited options to pursue to save the tooth. Fractured teeth, whether they are vital/non-vital, are predominantly managed with surgical options. This paper discusses a conservative approach to reattaching a split posterior tooth. A split tooth situation is mostly an absolute indication for extraction, but the clinician may go in for extensive surgical procedures if he/she wishes to save it. The reattachment of the tooth can be successfully done and it can be put to function. This paper discusses how a split posterior tooth can be treated successfully, although depending on multiple factors. A full crown cemented after successful reattachment and root canal therapy would provide sufficient support in order for the tooth to heal.

  10. Bayesian three-dimensional reconstruction of toothed whale trajectories: Passive acoustics assisted with visual and tagging measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Laplanche, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience The author describes and evaluates a Bayesian method to reconstruct three-dimensional toothed whale trajectories from a series of echolocation signals. Localization by using passive acoustic data (time of arrival of source signals at receptors) is assisted by using visual data (coordinates of the whale when diving and resurfacing) and tag information (movement statistics). The efficiency of the Bayesian method is compared to the standard minimum mean squared error st...

  11. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was ..., there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid......BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE...

  12. An in vitro investigation into retention strength and fatigue resistance of various designs of tooth/implant supported overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Du, Tianfeng; Cao, Yingguang

    2012-02-01

    Previously, the choice of prosthetic implant-retained overdentures has depended on data from previous studies about the retention-fatigue strength of the attachment system selected. Little or no data have been available on the correlation between the attachment system selected and the overdenture support configuration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retention force and fatigue resistance of three attachment systems and four support designs of overdenture prosthesis. Four lower edentulous acrylic models were prepared and eight combinations of attachments groups were investigated in the study. These included: O-Rings with mini-dental implants (MDIs), Dalbo elliptic with Dalbo Rotex and fabricated flexible acrylic attachments with both MDI and Dalbo Rotex. The study was divided into four test groups: groups A and B, controls, and groups C and D, experimental groups. Control group A contained three overdenture supports: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with Dalbo Rotex screwed in. Control group B contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with Dalbo Rotex screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Experimental group C contained three overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with MDI screwed in. Experimental group D contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with MDIs screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to attachment type used. Five samples were prepared for each group. Retention force (N) values were recorded initially (0 cycles) and after 360, 720, 1440

  13. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  14. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  15. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  16. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Effects of extrusion on the feed quality for other animals than pets have been well recognized. Our studies investigated to what extent extrusion and/or drying of a c...

  17. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman Ragnvi; Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie; Fransson Boel A; Bergström Annika; Häggström Jens

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameter...

  18. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  19. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  20. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

  1. Non-surgical management of tooth hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Levin, Liran

    2016-10-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint of patients in dental practices. Studies have demonstrated dentinal hypersensitivity to affect 10-30% of the population. There are various potential causes of tooth sensitivity and a variety of available treatment options. This narrative review will discuss the possible aetiology of this condition, as well as the treatment modalities available. A tailor-made treatment plan that starts with the most non-invasive treatment options and escalates only when those options have proven insufficient in alleviating symptoms should be provided for each patient. Only after all non- and less-invasive methods have failed to reduce the symptoms should more invasive treatment options, such as root-coverage, be considered. PMID:27301300

  2. Heterogeneity in the spread and control of infectious disease: consequences for the elimination of canine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine A; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Consunji, Ramona; Deray, Raffy; Friar, John; Haydon, Daniel T; Jimenez, Joji; Pancipane, Marlon; Townsend, Sunny E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors influencing vaccination campaign effectiveness is vital in designing efficient disease elimination programmes. We investigated the importance of spatial heterogeneity in vaccination coverage and human-mediated dog movements for the elimination of endemic canine rabies by mass dog vaccination in Region VI of the Philippines (Western Visayas). Household survey data was used to parameterise a spatially-explicit rabies transmission model with realistic dog movement and vaccination coverage scenarios, assuming a basic reproduction number for rabies drawn from the literature. This showed that heterogeneous vaccination reduces elimination prospects relative to homogeneous vaccination at the same overall level. Had the three vaccination campaigns completed in Region VI in 2010-2012 been homogeneous, they would have eliminated rabies with high probability. However, given the observed heterogeneity, three further campaigns may be required to achieve elimination with probability 0.95. We recommend that heterogeneity be reduced in future campaigns through targeted efforts in low coverage areas, even at the expense of reduced coverage in previously high coverage areas. Reported human-mediated dog movements did not reduce elimination probability, so expending limited resources on restricting dog movements is unnecessary in this endemic setting. Enhanced surveillance will be necessary post-elimination, however, given the reintroduction risk from long-distance dog movements. PMID:26667267

  3. Heterogeneity in the spread and control of infectious disease: consequences for the elimination of canine rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Elaine A.; Hampson, Katie; Cleaveland, Sarah; Consunji, Ramona; Deray, Raffy; Friar, John; Haydon, Daniel T.; Jimenez, Joji; Pancipane, Marlon; Townsend, Sunny E.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors influencing vaccination campaign effectiveness is vital in designing efficient disease elimination programmes. We investigated the importance of spatial heterogeneity in vaccination coverage and human-mediated dog movements for the elimination of endemic canine rabies by mass dog vaccination in Region VI of the Philippines (Western Visayas). Household survey data was used to parameterise a spatially-explicit rabies transmission model with realistic dog movement and vaccination coverage scenarios, assuming a basic reproduction number for rabies drawn from the literature. This showed that heterogeneous vaccination reduces elimination prospects relative to homogeneous vaccination at the same overall level. Had the three vaccination campaigns completed in Region VI in 2010-2012 been homogeneous, they would have eliminated rabies with high probability. However, given the observed heterogeneity, three further campaigns may be required to achieve elimination with probability 0.95. We recommend that heterogeneity be reduced in future campaigns through targeted efforts in low coverage areas, even at the expense of reduced coverage in previously high coverage areas. Reported human-mediated dog movements did not reduce elimination probability, so expending limited resources on restricting dog movements is unnecessary in this endemic setting. Enhanced surveillance will be necessary post-elimination, however, given the reintroduction risk from long-distance dog movements.

  4. Microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padhy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections. Materials and Methods: The total wound samples (n=172 taken from both traumatic (140 and post-surgical (32 persistent wounds in canines were processed for routine microbial isolation and identification during a period of 15 months. Results: Staphylococcus intermedius was found to be the predominant isolate from all types of wounds under study. It was followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Pasteurella spp., Corynaebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. From different traumatic wounds of dogs, S. intermedius (92/140=65.7% and from surgical wounds, P. aeruginosa (24/32=75% were found to be the predominant isolates recovered whereas the most commonly isolated bacterial genus in both traumatic and surgical wounds of dogs was Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion: Canine wounds are polymicrobial in nature. Hence proper microbial laboratory diagnosis and presence of multiple organisms in a wound are to be taken into consideration for effective treatment of persistent wound infections in dogs.

  5. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  6. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  7. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes. PMID:27197087

  8. Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wei Zheng; Bin-Peng Zhang; Ruo-Shi Xu; Xin Xu; Ling Ye; Xue-Dong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial–temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation.

  9. Ectopic Premolar Tooth in the Sigmoid Notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgül, H. M.; Bayrakdar, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Impaction of a mandibular premolar is relatively uncommon. Ectopic placement is more unusual and there has been no discussion in the literature of an ectopic mandibular premolar in the coronoid process. In this case report, we present an impacted ectopic mandibular permanent premolar in the sigmoid notch (incisura mandibulae) region. Etiology of the tooth and treatment options are discussed and illustrated by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images.

  10. Tooth loss and obstructive sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    Gai Valerio; Pera Paolo; Erovigni Francesco; Graziano Alessandra; Arienti Andrea; Brussino Luisa; Cicolin Alessandro; Bucca Caterina; Mutani Roberto; Preti Giulio; Rolla Giovanni; Carossa Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Complete tooth loss (edentulism) produces anatomical changes that may impair upper airway size and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether edentulism favours the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Methods Polysomnography was performed in 48 edentulous subjects on two consecutive nights, one slept with and the other without dentures. Upper airway size was assessed by cephalometry and by recording forced mid-inspiratory airflow rate (FIF50). Exhale...

  11. Tooth wear: the view of the anthropologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidonis, John A

    2008-03-01

    Anthropologists have for many years considered human tooth wear a normal physiological phenomenon where teeth, although worn, remain functional throughout life. Wear was considered pathological only if pulpal exposure or premature tooth loss occurred. In addition, adaptive changes to the stomatognathic system in response to wear have been reported including continual eruption, the widening of the masticatory cycle, remodelling of the temporomandibular joint and the shortening of the dental arches from tooth migration. Comparative studies of many different species have also documented these physiological processes supporting the idea of perpetual change over time. In particular, differential wear between enamel and dentine was considered a physiological process relating to the evolution of the form and function of teeth. Although evidence of attrition and abrasion has been known to exist among hunter-gatherer populations for many thousands of years, the prevalence of erosion in such early populations seems insignificant. In particular, non-carious cervical lesions to date have not been observed within these populations and therefore should be viewed as 'modern-day' pathology. Extrapolating this anthropological perspective to the clinical setting has merits, particularly in the prevention of pre-mature unnecessary treatment. PMID:17938977

  12. Digital Computer Matching of Tooth Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-suk Oh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the validity of the digital photocolorimetric (PCM method in matching the color of human teeth. First, two Vitapan Classical shade guides, each containing 16 shade guide teeth, were visually shade matched, and digital photographs of each three pair of shade guide teeth were taken in a color matching booth. Secondly, visual shade matching of the upper central incisors of 48 subjects was performed by two prosthodontists independently in a chair, using the Vitapan Classical shade guide. The three closest shade guide teeth were visually selected and ranked in order of preference, for which digital photographs were taken under ceiling daylight-corrected fluorescent lighting. All digital images were analyzed on a computer screen using software to calculate the color difference between the reference tooth and other teeth in the same digital image. The percent color matching for the shade guide teeth and human teeth was 88% and 75%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in matching the tooth color between the shade guide teeth and human teeth. The digital PCM method is valid for the range of human teeth based on the Vitapan Classical shade guide. This method enhances communication with the laboratory personnel in matching the tooth color.

  13. Group Distal Movement of Teeth using Micro-Screw–Implant Anchorage-A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kalarickal, Biju

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a case of orthodontic tooth movement of a 29-year-old female patient utilizing maxillary posterior edentulous area. Micro-implants were placed at buccal edentulous spaces and inter-radicular space for retraction of entire maxillary dentition. An overjet reduction of 8mm and good posterior occlusion were achieved.

  14. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood samples...

  15. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  16. Local Synthesis and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face-Milled, Uniform Tooth Height Spiral Bevel Gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    Face-milled spiral bevel gears with uniform tooth height are considered. An approach is proposed for the design of low-noise and localized bearing contact of such gears. The approach is based on the mismatch of contacting surfaces and permits two types of bearing contact either directed longitudinally or across the surface to be obtained. Conditions to avoid undercutting were determined. A Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) was developed. This analysis was used to determine the influence of misalignment on meshing and contact of the spiral bevel gears. A numerical example that illustrates the theory developed is provided.

  17. IBA analysis of a possible therapeutic ancient tooth inlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; Pineda, J. C.; Zavala, E. P.; Murillo, G.; Chavez, R.; Lazcurain, R.; Espinosa, Ma. L.; Villanueva, O.

    1998-03-01

    Five pre-Columbian human teeth from the same skeleton found during excavation in an ancient ceremonial center in Mexico, have been analyzed by two conventional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques: PIXE and 4He RBS. The anthropologists have estimated that the skeleton is about 2000 years old. X-ray radiography studies of one of these teeth have revealed that they contain an inlay in the tooth crown. The IBA methods have been used to study the inlay materials and also the tooth enamel. The IBA studies show that the tooth inlay materials have almost the same atomic composition as the tooth enamel. These results suggest that the tooth inlay were made for therapeutic purposes, using healthy tooth grains as inlay materials which were glued into the prepared teeth to fill it up.

  18. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:27487508

  19. The Tooth Wear Evaluation System: development and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wetselaar, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tooth wear is a multifactorial condition, leading to the loss of dental hard tissues, viz., enamel and dentine. Because of its multifactorial etiology, tooth wear can manifest itself in many different representations, and therefore it can be difficult and demanding to diagnose and manage the condition. In this thesis, the development of a comprehensive modular system is described, the Tooth Wear Evaluation System (TWES). With this system, one can recognize the problem (viz., qualifying the to...

  20. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Ray; Anusuya Chinsamy

    2002-06-01

    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal theropod and shows some features similar to the allosauroids. This tooth is of significance, as dinosaur remains except for some footprints and trackways, are poorly known in the Late Triassic horizons of southern Africa.

  1. Hair keratin mutations in tooth enamel increase dental decay risk

    OpenAIRE

    Duverger, Olivier; Ohara, Takahiro; Shaffer, John R.; Donahue, Danielle; Zerfas, Patricia; Dullnig, Andrew; Crecelius, Christopher; Beniash, Elia; Marazita, Mary L; Morasso, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and has a unique combination of hardness and fracture toughness that protects teeth from dental caries, the most common chronic disease worldwide. In addition to a high mineral content, tooth enamel comprises organic material that is important for mechanical performance and influences the initiation and progression of caries; however, the protein composition of tooth enamel has not been fully characterized. Here, we determined that epith...

  2. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Smits Peter D; Evans Alistair R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibu...

  3. A TOOTH TATTOO WITH A PURPOSE: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Neetu,; Anuroop; Prasant; Ashishkumar K; Fareedi Mukram

    2014-01-01

    Skin is not the only place that can be decorated with a tattoo. You can decorate your tooth with amazing tattoos. Tooth tattoos and tooth jewels have become one of the hottest fashion trends , and a very popular arrival in cosmetic dentistry. But won’t it be a boon if it had some preventive or medicinal v alue. Yes tooth tattoos can act as indicators of once illness. These tiny electronic sensors can diagnose illnesses by 'tasting' your breath. This paper is an i...

  4. Comparison between normal and special chain-drive toothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolipski, M.

    1985-12-01

    A comparison of these two types of tooth arrangements on chain drives with round-link chains comes out clearly in favour of the special toothing. The article describes the advantages of this type of toothing. A proposal is made to use the special tooth arrangement in the construction of drive pocket wheels. Such a move would prevent the disastrous effects of links becoming jammed in the pockets during running-in and would consequently improve the service life of both chain and drive sprocket.

  5. [Interproximal tooth cleansing of abutment teeth and pontic design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, T; Plagmann, H C; Engelsmann, U; Schlüter, R

    1990-03-01

    This clinical study was an attempt to find out if a patient's home care plaque control at his or her abutment tooth is more effectively enhanced by a modified ridge lap or a hygienic pontic design. Oral hygiene was performed either with a tooth brush alone or in combination with an interdental brush. We found that the effectivity of interproximal toothcleaning was not influenced by the pontic design and that only interdental brushes permit a good plaque control at the proximal area of the abutment tooth. This implies that "self cleansing" is non-existent in these tooth areas. PMID:2257819

  6. ROLE OF BACTERIA IN THE TOOTH ABSCESS: A MINI REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Biswajit Batabyal; Gautam kr. Kundu

    2013-01-01

    A tooth abscess or root abscess is pus enclosed in the tissues of the jaw bone at the apex of an infected tooth's root(s). Usually the abscess originates from a bacterial infection that has accumulated in the soft, often dead, pulp of the tooth. This can be caused by untreated tooth decay, cracked teeth or extensive periodontal disease. A failed root canal treatment may also create a similar abscess. Recently developed molecular methods have made it possible to characterise mixed micro flora ...

  7. Msx1 Mutations: How Do They Cause Tooth Agenesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Kong, H; Mues, G.; D’Souza, R.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factors PAX9 and MSX1 cause selective tooth agenesis in humans. In tooth bud mesenchyme of mice, both proteins are required for the expression of Bmp4, which is the key signaling factor for progression to the next step of tooth development. We have previously shown that Pax9 can transactivate a 2.4-kb Bmp4 promoter construct, and that most tooth-agenesis-causing PAX9 mutations impair DNA binding and Bmp4 promoter activation. We also found that Msx1 by itself rep...

  8. An Unusual Occurrence of Bilateral Maxillary Supernumerary Teeth with Dilaceration in Impacted Tooth and Talon Cusp in Erupted Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vijayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An apparently h ealthy 12-year-old boy was referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology whose chief complaint was the presence of an additional tooth in the upper front teeth region. His medical, dental and family history was not relevant. Intraoral examination revealed an erupted, supernumerary tooth palatal to permanent maxillary right central incisor and radiograph revealed another supernume - rary tooth with dilaceration. The erupted supernumerary tooth showed presence of a talon’s cusp on the lingual aspect. Occlu - sal interference, displacement of adjacent teeth and impaired esthetics are the common complications of supernumerary tooth. This report presents a case of talon cusp in a super- numerary tooth and an additional impacted supernumerary with dilaceration which is an extremely rare condition with only few reported cases in the literature

  9. Allogeneic Transplantation of Periodontal Ligament-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Sheets in Canine Critical-Size Supra-Alveolar Periodontal Defect Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumanuma, Yuka; Iwata, Takanori; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Washio, Kaoru; Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that induces the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, followed by tooth loss. Although several approaches have been applied to periodontal regeneration, complete periodontal regeneration has not been accomplished. Tissue engineering using a combination of cells and scaffolds is considered to be a viable alternative strategy. We have shown that autologous transplantation of periodontal ligament-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (PDL-MSC) sheets regenerates periodontal tissue in canine models. However, the indications for autologous cell transplantation in clinical situations are limited. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic transplantation of PDL-MSC sheets using a canine horizontal periodontal defect model. Canine PDL-MSCs were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and were cultured on temperature-responsive dishes. Three-layered cell sheets were transplanted around denuded root surfaces either autologously or allogeneically. A mixture of β-tricalcium phosphate and collagen gel was placed on the bone defects. Eight weeks after transplantation, dogs were euthanized and subjected to microcomputed tomography and histological analyses. RNA and DNA were extracted from the paraffin sections to verify the presence of EGFP at the transplantation site. Inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontal regeneration was observed in both the autologous and the allogeneic transplantation groups. The allogeneic transplantation group showed particularly significant regeneration of newly formed cementum, which is critical for the periodontal regeneration. Serum levels of inflammatory markers from peripheral blood sera showed little difference between the autologous and allogeneic groups. EGFP amplicons were detectable in the paraffin sections of the allogeneic group. These results suggest that

  10. Limb, tooth, beak: Three modes of development and evolutionary innovation of form

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marta Linde-Medina; Stuart A Newman

    2014-04-01

    The standard model of evolutionary change of form, deriving from Darwin’s theory via the Modern Synthesis, assumes a gradualistic reshaping of anatomical structures, with major changes only occurring by many cycles of natural selection for marginal adaptive advantage. This model, with its assertion that a single mechanism underlies both micro- and macroevolutionary change, contains an implicit notion of development which is only applicable in some cases. Here we compare the embryological processes that shape the vertebrate limb bud, the mammalian tooth and the avian beak. The implied notion of development in the standard evolutionary picture is met only in the case of the vertebrate limb, a single-primordium organ with morphostatic shaping, in which cells rearrange in response to signalling centres which are essentially unchanged by cell movement. In the case of the tooth, a single-primordium organ with morphodynamic shaping in which the strengths and relationships between signalling centres is influenced by the cell and tissue movements they induce, and the beak, in which the final form is influenced by the collision and rearrangement of multiple tissue primordia, abrupt appearance of qualitatively different forms (i.e. morphological novelties) can occur with small changes in system parameters induced by a genetic change, or by an environmental factor whose effects can be subsequently canalized genetically. Bringing developmental mechanisms and, specifically, the material properties of tissues as excitable media into the evolutionary picture, demonstrates that gradualistic change for incremental adaptive advantage is only one of the possible modes of morphological evolution.

  11. Limb, tooth, beak: three modes of development and evolutionary innovation of form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde-Medina, Marta; Newman, Stuart A

    2014-04-01

    The standard model of evolutionary change of form, deriving from Darwin's theory via the Modern Synthesis, assumes a gradualistic reshaping of anatomical structures, with major changes only occurring by many cycles of natural selection for marginal adaptive advantage. This model, with its assertion that a single mechanism underlies both micro- and macroevolutionary change, contains an implicit notion of development which is only applicable in some cases. Here we compare the embryological processes that shape the vertebrate limb bud, the mammalian tooth and the avian beak. The implied notion of development in the standard evolutionary picture is met only in the case of the vertebrate limb, a single-primordium organ with morphostatic shaping, in which cells rearrange in response to signalling centres which are essentially unchanged by cell movement. In the case of the tooth, a single-primordium organ with morphodynamic shaping in which the strengths and relationships between signalling centres is influenced by the cell and tissue movements they induce, and the beak, in which the final form is influenced by the collision and rearrangement of multiple tissue primordia, abrupt appearance of qualitatively different forms (i.e. morphological novelties) can occur with small changes in system parameters induced by a genetic change, or by an environmental factor whose effects can be subsequently canalized genetically. Bringing developmental mechanisms and, specifically, the material properties of tissues as excitable media into the evolutionary picture, demonstrates that gradualistic change for incremental adaptive advantage is only one of the possible modes of morphological evolution.

  12. Forensic Identification Based on Tooth Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human teeth are the most robust and stable parts of the body, providing biological clue material for forensic purposes even when most of the oter means of identifcation have been seriously affected by adverse environmental conditions. In particular blood grouping, isozymes, serum proteins and DNA polymorhphisms can be detected from teeth that protect these identification markers in addition to the traditional dental records. While in general the value of traditional dental records in the forensic work is decreasing eg due to mproved dental care, the newer means of identification from tooth material provide considerable promise for effective identification in difficult cases.The DNA analysis from tooth material has been shown to ba a viable route in forensic analysis, when other material for such an analysis is unusable. However in most cases useful biologic material other than teeth is abailable, and then DNA analysis can be made from other tissue with less effort than by using teeth. Also, in cases with lacking other tissue, blood grouping, isozymes and serum proteins may provide cheaper inherited combinations of blood grouping, isozymes and serum proteins can be treated similary to polymorphic DNA loci as independent markers, their identification can be managed if the false positives and negatives in analysis can be minimmised, and the corresponding frequencies of occurrence are known.It was the purpose of the present work to review the methods of forensic identification from tooth material, based on analysis of blood grouping, isozymes and serum proteins. It appears that such a combined analysis provides a robust method for forensic purposes. Nevertheless, for efficient identification it is recommended that as many (multiple forensic methods as possible are combined, so that faster and cheaper methods such as imminent medical forensics are used first, and more thorough analysis is used to support and complement these methods.

  13. Impact of diet on tooth erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesPubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, EBSHost, Scientific Electronic Library online (SciELO).Study selectionPopulation-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies assessing tooth erosion and diet, conducted in children and adolescents between eight and 19 years reporting on the permanent dentition were considered.Data extraction and synthesisStudies were selected independently by two reviewers and standard data items extracted. Study quality was assessed using the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) statement and Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). The pooled effect of dietary habits on tooth erosion occurrence was calculated using a fixed and a random model (OR and 95%CI).ResultsThirteen studies involving a total of 16,661 children were included. Eleven of the studies were cross-sectional and two longitudinal. Dietary habits data were mainly obtained from brief dietary assessments (69.2%) with food amount (weighed or estimated) and food frequency questionnaires used less commonly (15.4%). Most dietary assessments were self-administered (84.6%), assessed diet on a single occasion (61.5%) and required recalls of a week or more days or usual behaviours (46.2%). Meta-analyses were carried out for carbonated/soft drinks, sports drinks, milk-based drinks, yogurt, confectionery and snacks and acidic natural fruit drinks. Higher consumption of carbonated drinks or acid snacks/sweets and for acid fruit juices increased the odds for tooth erosion, while higher intake of milk and yogurt reduced the odds of erosion (see table).ConclusionsThe evidence indicated that some dietary habits (soft drinks, acidic snacks/sweets and acidic fruit juices) increased the odds for erosion occurrence, while milk or yogurt produced a protective effect. Methodological issues were shown to partly explain the heterogeneity of the data for some dietary products. PMID:27339233

  14. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  15. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.M., Bruzell; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.;

    2013-01-01

    -office = 39.3% [n = 28]; p >0.05; 95% CI [OR]: 0.198‑1.102) whereas prevalence of gingival irritation was higher after in-office treatment (at-home = 14.0%; in-office = 35.7%; p ... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  16. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  17. Pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani-Acsadi, Agnes; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Pierz, Kristan; Acsadi, Gyula

    2015-06-01

    Heritable diseases of the peripheral nerves (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT]) affect the motor units and sensory nerves, and they are among the most prevalent genetic conditions in the pediatric patient population. The typical clinical presentation includes distal muscle weakness and atrophy, but the severity and progression are largely variable. Improvements in supportive treatment have led to better preservation of patients' motor functions. More than 80 genes have been associated with CMT. These genetic discoveries, along with the developments of cellular and transgenic disease models, have allowed clinicians to better understand the disease mechanisms, which should lead to more specific treatments.

  18. ESR dating of tooth enamel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five tooth samples from the palaeoanthropological site of Jinniushan were dated with both electron-spin-resonance (ESR) and uranium-series techniques. The ESR age of about 230 ka is in good agreement with the U-series dating result, which confirms the hypothesis of possible coexistence of Homo erect us and Homo sapiens in China. Problems in ESR dating are discussed such as: 1) inappropriate of simple exponential extrapolation for accumulated dose determination; 2)experimental measurement of alpha detection efficiency and radon emanation and 3)selection of U-uptake model

  19. Ni-Ti辅弓矫治恒牙初期上颌唇侧错位尖牙的临床方法%Clinical method of the Ni-Ti auxiliary arch in treatment of the labial ectopic canine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫文凤; 祝廷; 刘瑞丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨Ni-Ti辅弓矫治恒牙初期上颌尖牙唇侧错位的临床方法。方法:15例上颌尖牙唇侧错位的恒牙初期患者,采用Ni-Ti辅弓及推簧开展尖牙间隙及排齐尖牙。结果:15例病例尖牙均进入牙弓排齐,咬合良好。结论:恒牙初期,通过Ni-Ti辅弓及推簧排齐上颌唇侧错位尖牙是一种简单有效的不拔牙矫治方法。%Objective To study the method of the Ni- Ti auxiliary arch in treatment of the labial ectopic canine in early permanent dentition. Methods In 15 cases of the labial ectopic canine were treated with Ni- Ti auxiliary arch and pushspring . Results 15 cases of the labial ectopic canine have been aligned and occluson was good. Conclusion The Ni- Ti auxiliary arch can be effect to treat the labial ectopic canine in early permanent dentition without extracting tooth.

  20. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay for detecting of antibody to canine distemper virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2006-01-01

    Serum neutralisation test (SNT) has been established for evaluating canine distemper vaccination, but until now SNT was rarely used due to the need for continuous tissue culture facilities and requires 3 days to perform. For detecting antibody to canine distemper virus, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is relatively simple and rapid seroassay. ELISA for canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) was developed by using Onderstepoort strain of canine dis...

  1. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O' Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  2. Lactoferrin in canine sera: a pyometra study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoskova, A; Adlerova, L; Kudlackova, H; Leva, L; Vitasek, R; Faldyna, M

    2009-07-01

    The concentration of lactoferrin was measured in canine sera from groups of healthy male dogs as well as pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs and was compared with that of bitches with pyometra. Lactoferrin concentrations were higher in bitches with pyometra. The role of elevated lactoferrin concentrations in the suppression of lymphocyte activity was examined in sera from bitches with pyometra in a series of investigations. Although the sera from bitches with pyometra were capable of suppressing lymphocyte activity, lactoferrin was not found to be involved in this action. PMID:19754566

  3. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  4. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  5. Tectonic Plate Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landalf, Helen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity that employs movement to enable students to understand concepts related to plate tectonics. Argues that movement brings topics to life in a concrete way and helps children retain knowledge. (DDR)

  6. In vitro analysis of residual tooth structure of maxillary anterior teeth after different prosthetic finish line preparations for full-coverage single crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Bruna; Sorrentino, Roberto; Goracci, Cecilia; Zarone, Fernando; Ferrari, Marco

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate residual dentin thickness (RDT) after different tooth preparations, 90 sound maxillary anterior teeth were selected and divided into 3 groups according to tooth type (n = 30), namely, maxillary central incisors, maxillary lateral incisors, and maxillary canines. In each group, specimens were randomly divided and prepared for single-crown coverage with shoulder (SHO, n = 10, control), slight chamfer (CHA, n = 10), and knife-edge (KNE, n = 10) finish lines. After tooth preparation, specimens were sectioned and divided into 4 subgroups (buccal, distal, palatal, and mesial) according to measurement area. RDT values were compared by using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (P = 0.05). Significant differences were found between SHO and the other two groups (P 0.05). SHO was significantly more aggressive than CHA and KNE, which were comparable. Interproximal areas became critical due to thin RDT, which could potentially compromise the structural and biological integrity of teeth. The choice of finish line should be guided by careful clinical evaluation.

  7. Frictional property comparisons of conventional and self-ligating lingual brackets according to tooth displacement during initial leveling and alignment: an in vitro mechanical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Yoon; Lim, Bum-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the effects of tooth displacement on frictional force when conventional ligating lingual brackets (CL-LBs), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width, and self-ligating lingual brackets (SL-LBs) were used with initial leveling and alignment wires. Methods CL-LBs (7th Generation), CL-LBs with a narrow bracket width (STb), and SL-LBs (In-Ovation L) were tested under three tooth displacement conditions: no displacement (control); a 2-mm palatal displacement (PD) of the maxillary right lateral incisor (MXLI); and a 2-mm gingival displacement (GD) of the maxillary right canine (MXC) (nine groups, n = 7 per group). A stereolithographic typodont system and artificial saliva were used. Static and kinetic frictional forces (SFF and KFF, respectively) were measured while drawing a 0.013-inch copper-nickel-titanium archwire through brackets at 0.5 mm/min for 5 minutes at 36.5℃. Results The In-Ovation L exhibited lower SFF under control conditions and lower KFF under all displacement conditions than the 7th Generation and STb (all p brackets (all p bracket widths exhibited higher KFF than SL-LBs under tooth displacement conditions. CL-LBs and ligation methods should be developed to produce SFF and KFF as low as those in SL-LBs during the initial and leveling stage. PMID:27019823

  8. Combined implant-residual tooth supported prosthesis after tooth hemisection: A finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Hasan, Istabrak; Keilig, Ludger; Chen, Junliang; Pan, Qing; Huang, Yue; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Tooth hemisection preserves partial tooth structure and reduces the resorption of alveolar bone. The aim of this study was to analyze the feasibility of preserving a molar after hemisection and inserting a dental implant with different prosthetic superstructures by means of finite element analysis. First, the distance between the root of the mandibular second premolar and the distal root of the first molar were measured in 80 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data sets. Based on these data, the lower right posterior jaw segment was reconstructed and the geometries of the appropriate implant were imported. Four models were created: (1) Hemi-1: An implant (3.7×9mm) replaced the mesial root of the molar, and a single crown was placed on the implant and residual tooth. (2) Hemi-2: Two separate crowns were generated for the implant and the residual tooth. (3) Single: An implant (5.5×9mm) with crown replaced the whole molar. (4) FPD: A 3-unit fixed partial denture combined the distal residual part of the molar and premolar. The results indicated that stresses in the cortical bone and strains in the majority region of the spongious bone were below the physiological upper limits. There were higher stresses in implant with the Hemi-1 and Single models, which had the same maximum values of 45.0MPa. The FPD models represented the higher values of stresses in the teeth and strains in PDL compared to other models. From a biomechanical point of view, it can be concluded that a combination of an implant and residual molar after tooth hemisection is an acceptable treatment option. PMID:26851558

  9. The efficacy of bilateral balanced and canine guidance occlusal splints in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rafah, Eman M; Alammari, Manal R; Banasr, Fahad H

    2014-06-01

    Studies on the effects of stabilization splints on the neuromuscular system in patients with functional disorders indicate that the splints reestablish symmetric and reduced postural activity in the temporal and masseter muscles and significantly reduce the masseter muscle activity. This study was conducted on sixteen male dentulous patients who were suffering from subjective and objective signs of Temporomanbdibular Disorders (TMD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups, eight patients in each according to the fabrication of the occlusal design of the stabilization splint. All patients were subjected to clinical examination using Helkimo Dysfunction Index (HDI) and Pantographic examination through Pantographic Reproducibility Index (PRI) to assess the degree of TMD before and after splint therapy. The obtained results reported a significant improvement in the TMD symptoms as monitored by HDI scores and PRI scores in both groups after three months of using the different occlusal design stabilizing splint with Bilateral balanced and canine guidance stabilization splints during excursive movements. Also the results showed a significant and progressive improvement in the TMD symptoms between 3 weeks (p=0.08) and 3 months (p=0.001) after using the occlusal splint with canine guidance during excursive movements compared with bilateral balanced guidance as manifested by the coordination of mandibular movements by the pantographic tracings through Pantographic Reproducibility Index (PRI).

  10. Effects of immunization with natural and recombinant lysine decarboxylase on canine gingivitis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jennifer L; DeMars, Paul L; Collins, Lindsay M; Stoner, Julie A; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Feasley, Christa L; Haddock, James A; Levine, Martin

    2012-10-19

    Periodontal disease, gingival inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontal attachment loss (periodontitis), causes tooth loss and susceptibility to chronic inflammation. Professionally scaling and cleaning the teeth regularly controls the disease, but is expensive in companion animals. Eikenella corrodens is common in canine oral cavities where it is a source of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). In human dental biofilms (plaques), LDC converts lysine to cadaverine and impairs the gingival epithelial barrier to bacteria. LDC vaccination may therefore retard gingivitis development. Year-old beagle dogs provided blood samples, and had weight and clinical measurements (biofilm and gingivitis) recorded. After scaling and cleaning, two dogs were immunized subcutaneously with 0.2mg native LDC from E. corrodens and 2 sets of four dogs with 0.2mg recombinant LDC purified from Escherichia coli. A third set of 4 dogs was immunized intranasally. Rehydragel(®), Emulsigen(®), Polygen™ or Carbigen™ were used as adjuvant. Four additional pairs of dogs were sham-immunized with each adjuvant alone (controls). Immunizations were repeated twice, 3 weeks apart, and clinical measurements were obtained after another 2 weeks, when the teeth were scaled and cleaned again. Tooth brushing was then stopped and the diet was changed from hard to soft chow. Clinical measurements were repeated after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Compared with sham-immunized dogs, gingivitis was reduced over all 8 weeks of soft diet after subcutaneous immunization with native LDC, or after intranasal immunization with recombinant LDC in Carbigen™, but for only 6 of the 8 weeks after subcutaneous immunization with recombinant LDC in Emulsigen(®) (repeated measures ANOVA). Subcutaneous vaccination induced a strong serum IgG antibody response that decreased during the soft diet period, whereas intranasal immunization induced a weak serum IgA antibody response that did not decrease. Immunization with recombinant LDC may

  11. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  12. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  13. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  14. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  15. Hierarchical structure and biomineralization in cricket tooth

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Xueqing; Cai, Quan; Mo, Guang; Du, Rong; Chen, Zhongjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2012-01-01

    Cricket is a truculent insect with stiff and sharp teeth as a fighting weapon. The structure and possible biomineralization of the cricket teeth are always interested. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to probe the element distribution, possible crystalline structures and size distribution of scatterers in cricket teeth. Scanning electron microscope was used to observe the nanoscaled structure. The results demonstrate that Zn is the main heavy element in cricket teeth. The surface of the cricket teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnFe2(AsO4)2(OH)2(H2O)4. While, the interior of the teeth has a crystalline compound like ZnCl2, which is from the biomineralization. The ZnCl2-like biomineral forms nanoscaled microfibrils and their axial direction points at the top of tooth cusp. The microfibrils aggregate random into intermediate filaments, forming a hierarchical structure. A sketch map of the cricket tooth cusp was proposed and a d...

  16. Establishment of a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Sen; XIA Sui-sheng; TANG Li-gong; CHENG Jun; CHEN Zhi-shui; ZHENG Shan-gen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation. Methods:12 male dogs were averagely grouped as donors and recipients. A small number of donor canine lymphocytes was infused into different anatomic locations of a paired canine recipient for each time and which was repeated weekly. Specific immune sensitization was monitored by means of Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) and Mixed Lymphocyte Culture (MLC) test. When CDC test conversed to be positive and MLC test showed a significant proliferation of reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients, the right kidneys of the paired dogs were excised and transplanted to each other concurrently. Injury of renal allograft function was scheduled determined by ECT dynamic kidney photography and pathologic investigation. Results :CDC test usually conversed to be positive and reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients were also observed to be proliferated significantly in MLC test after 3 to 4 times of canine donor lymphocyte infusions. Renal allograft function deterioration occurred 4 d post-operatively in 4 of 6 canine recipients, in contrast to none in control dogs. Pathologic changes suggested antibody-mediated rejection (delayed) or acute rejection in 3 excised renal allograft of sensitized dogs. Seven days after operation, all sensitized dogs had lost graft function, pathologic changes of which showed that the renal allografts were seriously rejected. 2 of 3 dogs in control group were also acutely rejected. Conclusion:A convenient method by means of repeated stimulation of canine lymphocyte may induce specific immune sensitization in canine recipients. Renal allografts in sensitized dogs will be earlier rejected and result in a more deteriorated graft function.

  17. A Tooth Flank Crowning Method by Applying a Novel Crossed Angle Function Between the Hob Cutter and Work Gear in the Gear Hobbing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yu-Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel longitudinal tooth flank crowning method is proposed by setting the crossed angle between the hob cutter and work gear as a linear function of hob’s traverse feed movement in the gear hobbing process. However, this method makes twisted tooth flanks on the hobbed work gear. Therefore, a variable pressure angle hob cutter is applied to obtain an anti-twist tooth flank of hobbed work gear. A computer simulation example is performed to verify the superiority of the proposed novel hobbing method by comparing topographies of the crowned work gear surfaces hobbed by a standard hob cutter and a variable pressure angle hob cutter.

  18. A Software for Space Analysis and Comparison of the Accuracy of Tooth Measurements by Digital and Manual Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeinpeikar SMM.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Several methods have been presented for the prediction of mesiodistal width of the unerupted canines and premolars. Nowadays, application of digital methods is suggested in dental analysis in orthodontics. Purpose: The aim of this study was to design a software for space analysis and comparison of the accuracy of tooth measurements by digital and manual methods in an Iranian population.Material and Method: By using Delphi and C++ programming languages, a software was designed. After insertion of 2 dimensional scanned images of dental casts, the software can predict mesiodistal width of the unerupted canines and premolars by using 12-variable regression equations based on the incisors and first molars. After providing 2 dimensional images of 125 dental casts in permanent dentition (75 females and 50 males, the prediction accuracy of regression equations was investigated. By providing 2-dimensional images of dental casts in 50 patients with mixed dentition, the accuracy of dental measurements was evaluated through the designed software. Moreover, the time duration of manual and digital measurements was evaluated. Data was analyzed in SPSS, version 17, using paired sample t-test for comparing the manual and digital measurements and evaluation of interobserver and intraobserver errors.Results: Prediction of the width of the canines and premolars by the designed software was not significantly different from manual measurement of those teeth on dental casts with digital Caliper ( p >0.05. There were no significant differences between manual and digital measurement of mesiodistal width of the teeth ( p >0.05. Also, there were no significant differences between intra-observer and inter-observer measurements and the speed of measurements in digital and manual methods. However, the time duration and speed of space analysis with these two methods were significantly different.Conclusion: The designed software has a good accuracy in

  19. [Tooth regeneration in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, F; Artis, J P; Lanot, R

    1977-01-01

    The first inferior molar has been extracted, a part of its being reimplanted or not. A new molar of normal form regenerated, apparently from the apex of the tooth germ, in all cases in which the alveolus was left free or implanted with a tooth freagment deprived of pulpa. PMID:145296

  20. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Hu, Jian; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function) implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  1. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Dai

    Full Text Available Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  2. In vitro investigation of heat transfer in human tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min; Liu, Q. Da; Xu, Feng; Bai, B. Feng; Lu, T. Jian

    2010-03-01

    The understanding of heat transfer in human teeth is important for optimizing clinical practice protocols and daily intake instructions. However, it is technically challenging to study the in vitro thermal behavior of human tooth due to its small size and complex biological/geometrical structure. The currently widely used method is based on thermocouples, which has several limitations such as low spatial resolution, contact measurement and, in particular, lack of whole-field information. To address these challenges, an experimental system was developed to measure the whole-field temperature distribution in human tooth in vitro. The human tooth sample was heated at the tooth crown with flowing hot water (60 °C) for 10 s and then cooled down by natural convection of air. The temperature of the whole sectioned sample surface was recorded using an infrared camera. The results demonstrate that the developed system is capable of measuring temperature evolution in small human tooth samples. The biological junction of tooth (e.g., dental-enamel junction) is shown to have great influence on its heat transfer behavior. The present study could open the door for several future applications, e.g., systemic investigation of heat transfer in intact/restored tooth heated with clinical methods for treatment optimization, and measurement of thermal properties for different tooth layers.

  3. Anomalies of tooth formation in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lexner, Michala O; Bardow, Allan; Hertz, Jens Michael;

    2007-01-01

    is the first to elaborate on anomalies of tooth formation found in a group of hemizygous males and heterozygous females with known ED1 mutations. These tooth anomalies may be used as dental biomarkers for heterozygous females, enabling an earlier diagnosis, and therefore, better treatment and genetic...

  4. Detection of canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeS; PanD; BeraAK; SreevatsavaV; DasSK; DasS; RanaT; BandyopadhyayS; BhattacharyaD

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA method. Methods:During the present investigation experimental infection was established using evaginated worms of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). To check cross reactivity two pups were infected with Taenia hydatigena(T. hydatigena). In order to detect the presence of antigen, hyperimmune sera were raised against excretory-secretory products of adult worms E. chinococcus granulosus. Faecal sample collected either from experimentally infected pups or from other sources were heated at 70℃to detect heat stable soluble antigen. Results:Pups harbouring less than 104 worms showed negative results. Samples collected from 14 days onwards from experimentally infected animals harbouring more than 104 worms showed positive value. The maximum positive samples were detected in samples collected from in and around slaughter house and the least number of samples were detected positive maintained by dog squad. Conclusions:The affinity purified IgG exhibited promising results for detection of canine echinococcosis by indirect ELISA.

  5. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  6. Canine pluripotent stem cells: Are they ready for clinical applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Harvey Betts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner.

  7. Patient Discomfort Following Single-Tooth Implant Placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spin-Neto, Rubens; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias; Wenzel, Ann;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Evaluate postoperative discomfort (pain, bleeding and swelling) in single-tooth implant patients submitted to immediate or conventional tooth restoration together with assessment of treatment time. Methods: Twenty-four patients who received single-tooth maxillary dental implants were randomly...... assigned to an IR (Immediate Restoration) or CR (Conventional Restoration) group. In IR, an implant was inserted and a provisional tooth crown was delivered within the same session, while in CR it was delivered three months after implantation. Pain (first three days), bleeding (first day) and swelling...... scores for pain and swelling decreased continuously over the time period in both groups. Conclusions: The longer treatment time in IR didn't increase patients' perception of pain, bleeding and swelling, compared to CR. The impact of immediate tooth restoration on patients' esthetic outcome should...

  8. Initial observations of cheek tooth abnormalities in sheep in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjavec, V; Crossley, D

    2010-07-24

    Observations were made on a small flock of 50 sheep of the native Slovenian Jezersko-Solcava breed by investigators with dental training. The aim was to determine the range of naturally occurring dental diseases, so postmortem examinations were performed on animals slaughtered for meat or culled due to disease. Additional data were obtained by examination of 25 specimens submitted for investigation of unexplained death at a pathology centre. Seventeen (34 per cent) of the flock had incisor disease but only five became clinically ill; all these five had advanced cheek tooth disease (gingival recession, periodontal pocketing, diastemata, missing teeth, occlusal wear abnormalities, food impaction, tooth mobility, tooth fracture, tooth loss and/or jaw abscessation). Advanced cheek tooth disease was found in 21 (84 per cent) of the sheep submitted to the pathology laboratory, while only seven (28 per cent) had advanced incisor disease. The results show that, as in other countries, dental disease is a serious problem for sheep in Slovenia.

  9. The clinical meaning of external cervical resorption in maxillary canine: transoperative dental trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available External Cervical Resorption in maxillary canines with pulp vitality is frequently associated with dental trauma resulting from surgical procedures carried out to prepare the teeth for further orthodontic traction. Preparation procedures might surgically manipulate the cementoenamel junction or cause luxation of teeth due to applying excessive force or movement tests beyond the tolerance limits of periodontal ligament and cervical tissue structures. Dentin exposure at the cementoenamel junction triggers External Cervical Resorption as a result of inflammation followed by antigen recognition of dentin proteins. External Cervical Resorption is painless, does not induce pulpitis and develops slowly. The lesion is generally associated with and covered by gingival soft tissues which disguise normal clinical aspects, thereby leading to late diagnosis when the process is near pulp threshold. Endodontic treatment is recommended only if surgical procedures are rendered necessary in the pulp space; otherwise, External Cervical Resorption should be treated by conservative means: protecting the dental pulp and restoring function and esthetics of teeth whose pulp will remain in normal conditions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of well-grounded research evincing how often External Cervical Resorption associated with canines subjected to orthodontic traction occurs.

  10. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  11. Ultrastructure of basement membranes in developing shark tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, T; Inoue, S

    2003-01-01

    Based on studies of the tooth of largely mammalian species, the dental basement membranes are shown to be specialized for various roles significant in the development and maintenance of the tooth. Comparative studies with the nonmammalian tooth will facilitate further clarification of the mechanisms of mammalian tooth formation. In this study, basement membranes of the shark tooth in successive developmental stages was ultrastructurally examined for elucidation of their roles in odontogenesis. Teeth of a shark, Cephaloscyllium umbratile, were processed for thin section electron microscopy. Throughout the developmental stages the lamina densa of the basement membrane was made up of a fine network of "cords," irregular anastomosing strands known to be the major component of mammalian basement membranes. In the presecretory stage of the shark tooth, dental papilla cells were immobilized for their differentiation into odontoblasts by means of the binding of their processes to numerous narrow extensions of the lamina densa of the inner dental epithelium. In the secretory stage, a number of cords of the widened lamina densa were extended towards and bound to tubular vesicles of the forming enameloid. During the mineralization stage, fragments of the degrading enameloid matrix appeared to be moving through the lamina densa to the epithelial cells for processing. In the maturation stage, half of the lamina densa facing the enameloid was mineralized forming an advancing edge of mineralization of the enameloid. It provided strong binding and smooth transition of organic to mineral phase which may allow transportation of substances across the phases for enameloid maturation in a way similar to that reported in the mammalian tooth. These observations indicate that basement membranes of the developing shark tooth, as those in the mammalian tooth, play various roles, including anchoring, firm binding, and possible mediation of the transport of substances that are known to be

  12. Bayesian three-dimensional reconstruction of toothed whale trajectories: passive acoustics assisted with visual and tagging measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplanche, Christophe

    2012-11-01

    The author describes and evaluates a Bayesian method to reconstruct three-dimensional toothed whale trajectories from a series of echolocation signals. Localization by using passive acoustic data (time of arrival of source signals at receptors) is assisted by using visual data (coordinates of the whale when diving and resurfacing) and tag information (movement statistics). The efficiency of the Bayesian method is compared to the standard minimum mean squared error statistical approach by comparing the reconstruction results of 48 simulated sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) trajectories. The use of the advanced Bayesian method reduces bias (standard deviation) with respect to the standard method up to a factor of 8.9 (13.6). The author provides open-source software which is functional with acoustic data which would be collected in the field from any three-dimensional receptor array design. This approach renews passive acoustics as a valuable tool to study the underwater behavior of toothed whales. PMID:23145606

  13. Abrasive Wear of Digger Tooth Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Sarhan sarhan, Nofal Al-Araji, Rateb Issa , Mohammad Alia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of silicon carbide SiC abrasive particles of 20, 30, 40, 50 and60μm size on carburized digger tooth steel was studied. Four types of steel, withdifferent hardness, were tested at two constant linear sliding speeds and undervarious loads of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50N. Tests were carried out for sliding time of0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5min. Experimental results showed that there wasconsistent reduction in abrasive wear as the hardness of the materials wasincreased. It was found that wear increased with the increase of applied load,linear sliding speed and sliding time. Also, it was noticed that the wear increasedwith increase in abrasive particle size, and the most effective size was 40 μm.SEM observations of the worm surface showed that the cutting and ploughingwere the dominant abrasive wear mechanisms.

  14. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  15. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  16. Canine index – A tool for sex determination

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    Shankar M. Bakkannavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are most useful tools in victim identification in the living as well as the dead in the field of forensic investigations. Their ability to survive in situations like mass disasters makes them constructive devices. Many authors have measured crowns of teeth in both males and females and found certain variations. Canines, reported to survive in air crash and hurricane disasters, are perhaps the most stable teeth in the oral cavity because of the labiolingual thickness of the crown and the root anchorage in the alveolar process of jaws. Measurement of mesiodistal width of the mandibular canines and inter-canine distance of the mandible provides good evidence of sex identification due to dimorphism. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of canine index (CI in the determination of sex.

  17. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  18. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy Gary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila. The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed.

  19. MICROWAVE PROPAGATION IN TOOTH AND DENTAL DEFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Papezova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:The most common method of conventional dental diagnosisinvolves X-rays, such as Radio Tomography (RT or Computer Tomography (CT. Such methods are used for diagnosing pores in dental material that can lead to premature failure of dental material. Diagnosis by X-ray provides an objective analysis. However, repeated radiation from X-rays can cause biological damage to human tissues. From this point of view, there is a significant need to progress to quantitative non-invasive and non-destructive testing (NDT methods to measure dental material and improve treatment options. This article focuses on applying microwave technology to characterize teeth and teeth replacements. Knowledge of microwave propagation in biomaterial with no defects, using a defined microwave frequency range, and subsequently comparing the result with defective material could provide a means of dental diagnosis without the risk of radiation for the patient, i.e. without X-ray. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to examine microwave technology in the field of dental medical diagnosis as a new NDT method. METHODS: The basic concept of applying microwave technology to characterize teeth in dental diagnosis was examined using a basic algorithm designed in the MATLAB programming language. Tests used dielectric properties of tooth and tooth decay and propagated electromagnetic (EM waves to show different characteristics of chosen materials.RESULTS: The analyses of frequency dependent reflection and transmission coefficients of the chosen material, specificallyteeth, atfrequency range 0 GHz to 30 GHz, computed differences between healthy and defective dental material.CONCLUSION: Thus, this could be used in providing a dental diagnosis without exposing patients to radiation, i.e. without X-ray. The next stage will involve creating a complete model of a jaw with teeth, and designing a sensor for crack detection for comparisons using this basic algorithm.

  20. Tooth loss and obstructive sleep apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai Valerio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete tooth loss (edentulism produces anatomical changes that may impair upper airway size and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether edentulism favours the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. Methods Polysomnography was performed in 48 edentulous subjects on two consecutive nights, one slept with and the other without dentures. Upper airway size was assessed by cephalometry and by recording forced mid-inspiratory airflow rate (FIF50. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO and oral NO (oNO, were measured as markers of airway and oropharyngeal inflammation. Results The apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI without dentures was significantly higher than with dentures (17·4 ± 3·6 versus 11·0 ± 2·3. p = 0·002, and was inversely related to FIF50 (p = 0·017 and directly related to eNO (p = 0·042. Sleeping with dentures, 23 subjects (48% had an AHI over 5, consistent with OSA, but sleeping without dentures the number of subjects with abnormal AHI rose to 34 (71%. At cephalometry, removing dentures produced a significant decrease in retropharyngeal space (from 1·522 ± 0·33 cm to 1·27 ± 0·42 cm, p = 0·006. Both morning eNO and oNO were higher after the night slept without dentures (eNO 46·1 ± 8·2 ppb versus 33·7 ± 6·3 ppb, p = 0·035, oNO 84·6 ± 13·7 ppb versus 59·2 ± 17·4 ppb, p = 0·001. Conclusion These findings suggest that complete tooth loss favours upper airway obstruction during sleep. This untoward effect seems to be due to decrease in retropharyngeal space and is associated with increased oral and exhaled NO concentration.

  1. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, L.V.; Visser, Ilona; Belikov, S.I.; Denikina, N.N.; Harder, Timm; Goatley, L.; Rima, B.; Edginton, B.; Osterhaus, Albert; Barrett, Thomas,

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals in Lake Baikal after the initial epizootic. Three out of 45 brain tissue samples collect...

  2. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Valério Carvalho; Clarisse Vieira Botelho; Caroline Gracielle Torres Ferreira; Paulo Oldemar Scherer; Jamária Adriana Pinheiro Soares-Martins; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida; Abelardo Silva Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availabilit...

  3. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, A; Simmonds, P.; Dubovi, E J; Qaisar, N.; Henriquez, J. A.; J. Medina; S Shields; Lipkin, W. I.

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions...

  4. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Halaswamy V Kambalimath; Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indi...

  5. Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Maeda

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OSA is known to present with highly variable and chaotic karyotypes, including hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy, and increased numbers of metacentric chromosomes. The spectrum of genomic instabilities in canine OSA has significantly augmented the difficulty in clearly defining the biological and clinical significance of the observed cytogenetic abnormalities. In this study, eight canine OSA cell lines were used to investigate telomere fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a peptide nucleotide acid probe. We characterized each cell line by classical cytogenetic studies and cellular phenotypes including telomere associated factors and then evaluated correlations from this data. All eight canine OSA cell lines displayed increased abnormal metacentric chromosomes and exhibited numerous telomere fusions and interstitial telomeric signals. Also, as evidence of unstable telomeres, colocalization of γ-H2AX and telomere signals in interphase cells was observed. Each cell line was characterized by a combination of data representing cellular doubling time, DNA content, chromosome number, metacentric chromosome frequency, telomere signal level, cellular radiosensitivity, and DNA-PKcs protein expression level. We have also studied primary cultures from 10 spontaneous canine OSAs. Based on the observation of telomere aberrations in those primary cell cultures, we are reasonably certain that our observations in cell lines are not an artifact of prolonged culture. A correlation between telomere fusions and the other characteristics analyzed in our study could not be identified. However, it is important to note that all of the canine OSA samples exhibiting telomere fusion utilized in our study were telomerase positive. Pending further research regarding telomerase negative canine OSA cell lines, our findings may suggest telomere fusions can potentially serve as a novel marker for canine OSA.

  6. Recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and Giardia infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, M; Hashimoto, M; Ishida, T

    2001-05-01

    Epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. Rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from January to June of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and G. lamblia (48.2%). Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and CPV-2b was the predominant antigenic type. Although canine rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine distemper virus were also detected in a small number of diarrheal cases, no evidence for calicivirus infection was obtained. PMID:11411507

  7. Transmigration of mandibular canine: report of four cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2011-01-01

    Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%-0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine. PMID:22570797

  8. Transmigration of Mandibular Canine: Report of Four Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%–0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine.

  9. [Sleep related movement disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep related movement disorders (SRMD) are characterized by simple, stereotyped movements occur during sleep, with the exception of restless legs syndrome (RLS). RLS has the following essential features; an urge to move the legs usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensation in the legs, improvement of symptoms after movement (non-stereotypical movements, such as walking and stretching, to reduce symptoms), and symptoms occur or worsen during periods of rest and in the evening and night. However, RLS is closely associated with periodic limb movement, which shows typical stererotyped limb movements. In the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 3rd edition, sleep disturbances or daytime symptoms are prerequiste for a diagnosis of SRMD. We here review diagnosis and treatment of SRMD. PMID:26065126

  10. Digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Zhong, Yicheng; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Fusong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-04-01

    A dental defect is one of the most common oral diseases, and it often requires a full crown restoration. In this clinical operation, the dentist must manually prepare the affected tooth for the full crown so that it has a convergence angle between 4° and 10°, no undercuts, and uniform and even shoulder widths and depths using a high speed diamond bur in the patient׳s mouth within one hour, which is a difficult task that requires visual-manual operation. The quality of the tooth preparation has an important effect on the success rate of the subsequent prosthodontic treatment. This study involved research into digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation. First, the margin line of the tooth preparation was designed using a semi-automatic interactive process. Second, the inserting direction was automatically computed. Then, the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the tooth preparation were defined for the model. Next, the shoulder and axial surface of the tooth preparation were formed using parametric modeling. Finally, the implicit surface of a radial basis function was used to construct the tooth preparation׳s occlusal surface. The experimental results verified that the method of digital modeling for full crown preparation proposed in this study can quickly and accurately implement personalized designs of various parameters, such as the shoulder width and the convergence angle; it provides a digital design tool for full crown preparation.

  11. Digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ning; Zhong, Yicheng; Liu, Hao; Yuan, Fusong; Sun, Yuchun

    2016-04-01

    A dental defect is one of the most common oral diseases, and it often requires a full crown restoration. In this clinical operation, the dentist must manually prepare the affected tooth for the full crown so that it has a convergence angle between 4° and 10°, no undercuts, and uniform and even shoulder widths and depths using a high speed diamond bur in the patient׳s mouth within one hour, which is a difficult task that requires visual-manual operation. The quality of the tooth preparation has an important effect on the success rate of the subsequent prosthodontic treatment. This study involved research into digital modeling technology for full dental crown tooth preparation. First, the margin line of the tooth preparation was designed using a semi-automatic interactive process. Second, the inserting direction was automatically computed. Then, the characteristic parameters and the constraints on the tooth preparation were defined for the model. Next, the shoulder and axial surface of the tooth preparation were formed using parametric modeling. Finally, the implicit surface of a radial basis function was used to construct the tooth preparation׳s occlusal surface. The experimental results verified that the method of digital modeling for full crown preparation proposed in this study can quickly and accurately implement personalized designs of various parameters, such as the shoulder width and the convergence angle; it provides a digital design tool for full crown preparation. PMID:26945598

  12. MOVEMENT DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujitnath

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Involuntary movements of different types are associated with many diseases in children. Movement disorders in adult have been published in different journals, but in children these disorders have been ignored, even in most of the paediatric neurology books. Here is a brief attempt to describe different types of movement disorders and their various names in different diseases. Possible investigations and treatment of the disorders have been described in short.

  13. Factores modificantes del movimiento dentario ortodóncico Modifiers factors of orthodontic tooth movement

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vargas del Valle; M.S. Piñeiro Becerra; H Palomino Montenegro; M.A. Torres-Quintana

    2010-01-01

    El fenómeno de la remodelación ósea es fundamental tanto para ortodoncia como para la ortopedia dentofacial. Esta revisión clínica es sobre la relación de la actividad ósea desencadenada por las fuerzas ortodóncicas con diversos factores, como factores propios de los pacientes, moléculas producidas por tejidos enfermos, o drogas y nutrientes consumidas regularmente por los pacientes, los que pueden alcanzar los tejidos periodontales mecánicamente estresados por las fuerzas ortodóncicas a trav...

  14. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  15. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism. PMID:26782444

  16. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  17. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  18. European surveillance for pantropic canine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  19. A canine model of multiple portosystemic shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L M; Boothe, H W; Miller, M W; Boothe, D M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (PSS) similar in nature to spontaneously occurring PSS. Sixteen dogs were used and were divided into a control (n = 6) and a diseased group (n = 10). Dogs of the diseased group were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg of body weight, po) twice weekly, and clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and hepatic scintigraphic findings were recorded during the development of hepatic disease and PSS. Surgery was then performed to permit visual verification of multiple shunts, catheter placement for portography examination, and biopsy of the liver. All diseased dogs developed severe hepatic disease and multiple PSS as documented visually at surgery and on portography. Based on this study, dimethylnitrosamine-induced portosystemic shunting appears to be an appropriate model for spontaneously occurring multiple PSS secondary to portal hypertension. PMID:10741951

  20. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  1. The mathematics of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Review of: Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and Plants. Peter Turchin. 1998. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. 306 pages. $38.95 (paper).

  2. Multiple essential MT1-MMP functions in tooth root formation, dentinogenesis, and tooth eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H; Snider, T N; Wimer, H F; Yamada, S S; Yang, T; Holmbeck, K; Foster, B L

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a transmembrane zinc-endopeptidase that breaks down extracellular matrix components, including several collagens, during tissue development and physiological remodeling. MT1-MMP-deficient mice (MT1-MMP(-/-)) feature severe defects in connective tissues, such as impaired growth, osteopenia, fibrosis, and conspicuous loss of molar tooth eruption and root formation. In order to define the functions of MT1-MMP during root formation and tooth eruption, we analyzed the development of teeth and surrounding tissues in the absence of MT1-MMP. In situ hybridization showed that MT1-MMP was widely expressed in cells associated with teeth and surrounding connective tissues during development. Multiple defects in dentoalveolar tissues were associated with loss of MT1-MMP. Root formation was inhibited by defective structure and function of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS). However, no defect was found in creation of the eruption pathway, suggesting that tooth eruption was hampered by lack of alveolar bone modeling/remodeling coincident with reduced periodontal ligament (PDL) formation and integration with the alveolar bone. Additionally, we identified a significant defect in dentin formation and mineralization associated with the loss of MT1-MMP. To segregate these multiple defects and trace their cellular origin, conditional ablation of MT1-MMP was performed in epithelia and mesenchyme. Mice featuring selective loss of MT1-MMP activity in the epithelium were indistinguishable from wild type mice, and importantly, featured a normal HERS structure and molar eruption. In contrast, selective knock-out of MT1-MMP in Osterix-expressing mesenchymal cells, including osteoblasts and odontoblasts, recapitulated major defects from the global knock-out including altered HERS structure, short roots, defective dentin formation and mineralization, and reduced alveolar bone formation, although molars were able to erupt. These data

  3. Revitalization of traumatized immature tooth with platelet-rich fibrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umrana Faizuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic treatment options for immature, nonvital teeth conventionally include surgical endodontics, apexification with calcium hydroxide, or single visit mineral trioxide aggregate plug. Regeneration is a new concept which is been introduced in the treatment of traumatized open apex tooth. Regeneration of pulp-dentin complex in an infected necrotic tooth with an open apex is possible if the canal is effectively disinfected. The purpose of this case report is to add a new vista in regenerative, endodontic therapy by using platelet-rich fibrin for revitalization of immature nonvital tooth.

  4. Study on differences of radiosensitivity of human tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study differences of radiosensitivity of human tooth enamel, 84 tooth enamel samples from 5 subjects were separated, and irradiated with radiation dose of 5 Gy from 60Co γ rays. After irradiation each sample was measured by ESR technique. Experimental results indicate that some difference in radiosensitivity exists for teeth from each subject (coefficients of variation of each subject range from 9.3% to 14.0%). Nevertheless, the mean values for all teeth of each subject among 5 subjects agree within the range of 325.77 to 386.80. It shows that the radiosensitivity of tooth enamel is basically uniform

  5. Tooth brushing among 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, L. S.; Nordahl, H.; Christensen, L. B.;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Regular tooth brushing in adolescence predicts stable tooth brushing habits later in life. Differences in tooth brushing habits by ethnic background and socioeconomic position have been suggested. We investigated migration status and social class in relation to infrequent tooth brushin...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  7. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  8. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring ...

  9. Randomness Of Amoeba Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, S.; Khadijah, Siti; Kuwajima, T.; Ohki, M.; Tacano, M.; Sikula, J.

    2005-11-01

    Movements of amoebas were automatically traced using the difference between two successive frames of the microscopic movie. It was observed that the movements were almost random in that the directions and the magnitudes of the successive two steps are not correlated, and that the distance from the origin was proportional to the square root of the step number.

  10. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a n

  11. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Bart H.F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  12. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  13. Evaluating residual dentin thickness following various mandibular anterior tooth preparations for zirconia full-coverage single crowns: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Bruna; Sorrentino, Roberto; Goracci, Cecilia; Amato, Massimo; Zarone, Fernando; Ferrari, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual dentin thickness (RDT) after different tooth preparations. Ninety mandibular anterior teeth were divided into three groups: central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines. Specimens were prepared for single-crown coverage with shoulder, slight chamfer, and knife-edge finish lines. Specimens were sectioned and divided into four subgroups according to measurement areas: (1) buccal, (2) distal, (3) lingual, and (4) mesial. The RDT was analyzed statistically by means of one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test (P = .05). Significant differences were found for shoulder but not for slight chamfer and knife-edge finish lines. The interproximal areas wound up being critical due to thin RDT, potentially interfering with the structural and biologic integrity of teeth.

  14. Enhanced Prediction of Gear Tooth Surface Fatigue Life Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sentient will develop an enhanced prediction of gear tooth surface fatigue life with rigorous analysis of the tribological phenomena that contribute to pitting...

  15. Making a tooth: growth factors, transcription factors, and stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yah Ding ZHANG; Zhi CHEN; Yi Qiang SONG; Chao LIU; Yi Ping CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian tooth development is largely dependent on sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.These processes involve a series of inductive and permissive interactions that result in the determination, differentiation,and organization of odontogenic tissues. Multiple signaling molecules, including BMPs, FGFs, Shh, and Wnt proteins,have been implicated in mediating these tissue interactions. Transcription factors participate in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions via linking the signaling loops between tissue layers by responding to inductive signals and regulating the expression of other signaling molecules. Adult stem cells are highly plastic and multipotent. These cells including dental pulp stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells could be reprogrammed into odontogenic fate and participated in tooth formation. Recent progress in the studies of molecular basis of tooth development, adult stem cell biology, and regeneration will provide fundamental knowledge for the realization of human tooth regeneration in the near future.

  16. Ectopic 3rd Molar Tooth in the Maxillary Antrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu A. Bello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Location of ectopic tooth in a nondentate area like the maxillary antrum is rare. A 17-year-old boy, with one year history of recurrent right facial swelling and radiographic finding of a maxillary third molar tooth located at the posterior wall of the maxillary antrum, is presented. Under endotracheal intubation, the tooth was extracted through a Caldwell-Luc antrostomy approach and patient had an uneventful recovery and has been symptom free for eight months. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary antrum is rare and is commonest with maxillary third molar. It may be symptomless but is more commonly associated with inflammatory symptoms. The treatment of choice is surgical excision which is mostly carried out with Caldwell-Luc approach, even though endoscopic approach is being reported.

  17. Tooth bleaching--a critical review of the biological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J E; Pallesen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    model, indicated that hydrogen peroxide might act as a promoter. Multiple exposures of hydrogen peroxide have resulted in localized effects on the gastric mucosa, decreased food consumption, reduced weight gain, and blood chemistry changes in mice and rats. Our risk assessment revealed that a sufficient......-bleaching technique is used, the first subjective change in tooth color may be observed after 2-4 nights of tooth bleaching, and more than 90% satisfactory results have been reported. Tooth sensitivity is a common side-effect of external tooth bleaching observed in 15%-78% of the patients, but clinical studies...... addressing the risk of other adverse effects are lacking. Direct contact with hydrogen peroxide induced genotoxic effects in bacteria and cultured cells, whereas the effect was reduced or abolished in the presence of metabolizing enzymes. Several tumor-promoting studies, including the hamster cheek pouch...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Charcot- ...

  19. Retrospective individual dosimetry using EPR of tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of joint investigations (in the framework of ECP-10 program) aimed on the improvement of the sensitivity and accuracy of the procedure of dose measurement using tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy are presented. It is shown, what the sensitivity of method may be increased using special physical-chemical procedure of the enamel samples treatment, which leads to the reducing of EPR signal of organic components in enamel. Tooth diseases may have an effect on radiation sensitivity of enamel. On the basis of statistical analysis of the results of more then 2000 tooth enamel samples measurements it was shown, what tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy gives opportunity to register contribution into total dose, which is caused by natural environmental radiation and by radioactive contamination. EPR response of enamel to ultraviolet exposure is investigated and possible influences to EPR dosimetry is discussed. The correction factors for EPR dosimetry in real radiation fields are estimated

  20. Relationship between gestational age, birth weight and deciduous tooth eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrin Mohamed Khalifa

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Delayed tooth eruption was related to lower birth weight and prematurity. The delayed eruption in preterm babies may be related to premature birth and not to a delay in dental development.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE DIFFUSION ON IDEALIZED TOOTH STRUCTURE INVOLVING DEBONDING DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FanJianping; TangChak-Yin

    2005-01-01

    This study highlights the joint effect of early polymerization shrinkage and longtermmoisture diffusion on the behavior of the restoration-tooth structure. The interphase debonding between particle and polymer resin in dental composite is taken into account by introducing the damage variable. The idealized model is designed and constructed for representing the restorationtooth structure, which consists of enamel, dentin, composite and interphase, each considered as homogenous material. The simulation is carried out using the general-purpose finite element software package, ABAQUS incorporated with a user subroutine for definition of damaged material behavior. The influence of Young's moduli of composite and interphase on stress and displacement is discussed. The compensating effect of water sorption on the polymerization shrinkage is examined with and without involving damage evolution. A comparison is made between the influence of hyper-, equi- and hypo-water sorption. Interfacial failure in the specific regions as well as cuspal movement has been predicated. The damage evolving in dental composite reduces the rigidity of composite, thus in turn reducing consequent stress and increasing consequent displacement. The development of stresses at the restoration-tooth interface can have a detrimental effect on the longevity of a restoration.

  2. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  3. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  4. Two Mathematical Models for Generation of Crowned Tooth Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Kelemen; Jozsef Szente

    2014-01-01

    Gear couplings are mechanical components to connect shaft ends and eliminate the misalignments. The most important element of the gear coupling is the hub which is an external gear having crowned teeth. The crowned teeth on the hub are typically produced by hobbing. The resulting tooth surface depends on several parameters. It is influenced by the size of the hob and the feed. In this paper two mathematical models of the crowned tooth surface are introduced for the generation of the idealized...

  5. DENTAL IMPLANTS: AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR TOOTH REPLACEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee Nandini; Singh Sushma

    2013-01-01

    A dental implant is an artificial tooth that replaces a tooth that has been taken out. Implants are natural-looking, can provide support for dentures and do not affect the teeth bordering them. They are as stable as your real teeth and protect you from the loss of jawbone, which occurs when you lose teeth. Endosseous dental implants have revolutionized the fields of implants and periodontics. During the last decade, a great deal of information has been generated concerning the effectiveness a...

  6. Management of premature primary tooth loss in the child patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Clarice S

    2013-08-01

    Premature loss of primary teeth can result in a loss of arch length and have a negative effect on occlusion and alignment, often increasing the need for orthodontic treatment. Use of space maintainers can reduce the severity of problems such as crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction and poor molar relationship. This article presents a review of the consequences of premature tooth loss and discusses the appliances commonly used for space maintenance.

  7. Cell adhesion molecules during odontogenesis and tooth-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Heymann, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules play essential roles in the development and disease of tooth and oral structures, as well as in the maintenance of adult tissue structure/function. It has been shown that different types of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play an important part in craniofacial development when ectomesenchymal cells migrate from the neural list to the primitive oral cavity, giving rise to the palatal processes and tooth germs. The role of CAMs in craniofacial developmen...

  8. Role of Homeobox Genes in Tooth Morphogenesis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Suryadeva, Sreevalli; Khan, Mohammadi Begum

    2015-01-01

    In oral cavity, disturbances due to genetic alterations may range from lack of tooth development to morphological defects. Due to technical advances in genetic engineering and molecular biology, valuable information regarding dentofacial growth could be studied in detailed manner. This helped us to explain the aetiology and pathogenesis of many dentofacial disorders. The success in treatment lies first in determining the aetiology of tooth anomalies and finally differentiating the effect of g...

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance biophysical radiation dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the advancements made in the field of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) for biophysical dosimetry with tooth enamel for accident, emergency, and retrospective radiation dose reconstruction. A methodology has been developed to measure retrospective radiation exposures in human tooth enamel. This entails novel sample preparation procedures with minimum mechanical treatment to reduce the preparation induced uncertainties, establish optimum measurement conditions inside the EPR cavity, post-process the measured spectrum with functional simulation of dosimetric and other interfering signals, and reconstruct dose. By using this technique, retrospective gamma exposures as low as 80±30 mGy have been successfully deciphered. The notion of dose modifier was introduced in EPR biodosimetry for low dose measurements. It has been demonstrated that by using the modified zero added dose (MZAD) technique for low radiation exposures, doses in 100 mGy ranges can be easily reconstructed in teeth that were previously thought useless for EPR dosimetry. Also, the use of a dose modifier makes robust dose reconstruction possible for higher radiation exposures. The EPR dosimetry technique was also developed for tooth samples extracted from rodents, which represent small tooth sizing. EPR doses in the molars, extracted from the mice irradiated with whole body exposures, were reassessed and shown to be correct within the experimental uncertainty. The sensitivity of human tooth enamel for neutron irradiation, obtained from the 3 MV McMaster K.N. Van de Graaff accelerator, was also studied. For the first time this work has shown that the neutron sensitivity of the tooth enamel is approximately 1/10th of the equivalent gamma sensitivity. Parametric studies for neutron dose rate and neutron energy within the available range of the accelerator, showed no impact on the sensitivity of the tooth enamel. Therefore, tooth enamel can be used as a dosimeter for both neutrons

  10. Interdisciplinary Treatment of a Fused Lower Premolar with Supernumerary Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Gadimli, Cengiz; Sari, Zafer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this report is to describe combined orthodontic and endodontic treatment of a fused mandibular premolar with supernumerary tooth. The patient was a 15 year old girl seeking orthodontic treatment for the correction of maxillary and mandibular crowding. Cephalometric examination revealed skeletally Class I relationship. The panoramic radiograph showed a fused tooth with two separate pulp chambers and two separate root canals connecting in apical third. After the endodontic trea...

  11. Prevalence and Indicators of Tooth Wear among Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhao; Du, Yangge; Zhang, Jing; Tai, Baojun; Du, Minquan; Jiang, Han

    2016-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have focused on the prevalence and related indicators of tooth wear. However, no sufficient studies have been conducted with Chinese adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of tooth wear and identify related indicators among adults aged 36 to 74 years in Wuhan City, P.R. China. A cross-sectional and analytic study was conducted with 720 participants, aged 35-49 yrs and 50-74 yrs, in 2014. Each age group included 360 participants, of which 50% were males and 50% were females. All participants completed a questionnaire before examination. Tooth wear was assessed using the modified Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of tooth wear was 67.5% and 100% in the 35-49 and 50-74 age groups, respectively. The prevalence of dentin exposure was 64.7% and 98.3%, respectively. A significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure was found in the 50-74 yr group than in the 35-49 yr group (p status, and unilateral chewing. The frequency of changing toothbrushes and the habit of drinking water during meals were associated with tooth wear. In addition, the usage of hard-bristle toothbrushes and consuming vitamin C and aspirin were found to be linked with dentin exposure. In conclusion, the prevalence of tooth wear and dentin exposure observed in Chinese adults was high, and the results revealed an association between tooth wear and socio-behavioral risk indicators. PMID:27583435

  12. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. PMID:25680810

  13. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey : article

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, S; A. Acar

    2009-01-01

    Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serumsamples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11), and Akbash dogs (n = 17) and Turkish Greyhounds (n=15) in Es...

  14. Modification of tooth development by heat shock protein 60

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamas Papp; Angela Polyak; Krisztina Papp; Zoltan Meszar; Roza Zakany; Eva Meszar-Katona; Palne Terdik Tu nde; Chang Hwa Ham; Szabolcs Felszeghy

    2016-01-01

    Although several heat shock proteins have been investigated in relation to tooth development, no available information is available about the spatial and temporal expression pattern of heat shock protein 60 (Hsp 60). To characterize Hsp 60 expression in the structures of the developing tooth germ, we used Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Hsp 60 was present in high amounts in the inner and outer enamel epithelia, enamel knot (EK) and stratum intermedium (SI). Hsp 60 also appeared in odontoblasts beginning in the bell stage. To obtain data on the possible effect of Hsp 60 on isolated lower incisors from mice, we performed in vitro culturing. To investigate the effect of exogenous Hsp 60 on the cell cycle during culturing, we used the 5-bromo-2- deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation test on dental cells. Exogenously administered Hsp 60 caused bluntness at the apical part of the 16.5-day-old tooth germs, but it did not influence the proliferation rate of dental cells. We identified the expression of Hsp 60 in the developing tooth germ, which was present in high concentrations in the inner and outer enamel epithelia, EK, SI and odontoblasts. High concentration of exogenous Hsp 60 can cause abnormal morphology of the tooth germ, but it did not influence the proliferation rate of the dental cells. Our results suggest that increased levels of Hsp 60 may cause abnormalities in the morphological development of the tooth germ and support the data on the significance of Hsp during the developmental processes.

  15. An automatic tooth preparation technique: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yaopeng; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Dangxiao; Lyu, Peijun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the feasibility and accuracy of a new automatic tooth preparation technique in dental healthcare. An automatic tooth preparation robotic device with three-dimensional motion planning software was developed, which controlled an ultra-short pulse laser (USPL) beam (wavelength 1,064 nm, pulse width 15 ps, output power 30 W, and repeat frequency rate 100 kHz) to complete the tooth preparation process. A total of 15 freshly extracted human intact first molars were collected and fixed into a phantom head, and the target preparation shapes of these molars were designed using customised computer-aided design (CAD) software. The accuracy of tooth preparation was evaluated using the Geomagic Studio and Imageware software, and the preparing time of each tooth was recorded. Compared with the target preparation shape, the average shape error of the 15 prepared molars was 0.05–0.17 mm, the preparation depth error of the occlusal surface was approximately 0.097 mm, and the error of the convergence angle was approximately 1.0°. The average preparation time was 17 minutes. These results validated the accuracy and feasibility of the automatic tooth preparation technique.

  16. [Rehabilitation of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Fumihiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Nishimura, Yukihide; Arakawa, Hideki; Kawasaki, Takashi; Ogawa, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most commonly inherited neuromuscular diseases causing progressive muscle weakness; contracture; deformity in the feet, legs, and hands; and impairments of ambulation and handgrip. Reduced physical ability can be attributed not only to the disease but also to physical deconditioning. Previously, most physicians in the field of rehabilitation were anxious about the hypothesis of overwork weakness in CMT, and did not conduct intensive exercise programs for patients with CMT. However, recent studies have reported that progressive resistance strengthening programs for lower extremities are feasible, safe, beneficial, and improve exercise intolerance and undue fatigue in patients with CMT. Although the improvement in exercise tolerance may be partly due to the reversal of deconditioning effect of related sedentary lifestyle, progressive resistance training and physical fitness can improve walking function, activities of daily living, and subjective perception of pain and fatigue in patients with CMT. To increase the daily physical function, some studies described the potential benefits of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs); however, no control study supported it. So far, the training programs on CMT have been dependent on the exercise programs for able-bodied individuals. To increase the effects of rehabilitation, optimal programs that combine the training protocol and AFO strategies will have to be designed for patients with CMT. PMID:26764300

  17. Biomaterials in tooth tissue engineering: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sarang; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Biomaterials play a crucial role in the field of tissue engineering. They are utilized for fabricating frameworks known as scaffolds, matrices or constructs which are interconnected porous structures that establish a cellular microenvironment required for optimal tissue regeneration. Several natural and synthetic biomaterials have been utilized for fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds. Amongst different biomaterials, polymers are the most extensively experimented and employed materials. They can be tailored to provide good interconnected porosity, large surface area, adequate mechanical strengths, varying surface characterization and different geometries required for tissue regeneration. A single type of material may however not meet all the requirements. Selection of two or more biomaterials, optimization of their physical, chemical and mechanical properties and advanced fabrication techniques are required to obtain scaffold designs intended for their final application. Current focus is aimed at designing biomaterials such that they will replicate the local extra cellular environment of the native organ and enable cell-cell and cell-scaffold interactions at micro level required for functional tissue regeneration. This article provides an insight into the different biomaterials available and the emerging use of nano engineering principles for the construction of bioactive scaffolds in tooth regeneration.

  18. Trace Elements in Human Tooth Enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace elements are considered to play a role in the resistance of teeth to dental caries. The exact mechanism by which they act has not yet been fully established. Estimations of trace elements have been undertaken in sound human teeth. By means of activation analysis it has been possible to determine trace element concentrations in different layers of enamel in the same tooth. The concentrations of the following elements have been determined: arsenic, antimony, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, molybdenum and vanadium. The distribution of trace elements in enamel varies from those with a narrow range, such as manganese, to those with a broad range, such as antimony. The elements present in the broad range are considered to be non-essential and their presence is thought to result from a chance incorporation into the enamel. Those in the narrow range appear to be essential trace elements and are present in amounts which do not vary unduly from other body tissues. Only manganese and zinc were found in higher concentrations in the surface layer of enamel compared with the inner layers. The importance of the concentration of trace elements on this surface layer of enamel is emphasized as this layer is the site of the first attack by the carious process. (author)

  19. [Pathology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic testing is available, nerve biopsy is useful in selected patients for the diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These are sporadic cases of hereditary neuropathy, or familial cases in which genetic testing is negative. CMT is caused by mutations of various genes. The pathological features of CMT have mostly been investigated using nerve biopsy, which may shed light on the presumed functions of mutated gene products. PMP22 duplication in CMT1A induces numerous large onion bulb lesions (OB). Compared to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, the differential features of CMT1A are patchy distribution of OB and non-inflammatory lesions. CMT1B also manifests as OB, but presents abnormal compaction of myelin sheaths caused by uncompacted myelin or excessive myelin folding. CMT2 includes axonal neuropathies and many causative genes have been found. CMT2A (MFN2 mutation) shows abnormal mitochondria with a spherical morphology instead of tubular in the longitudinal direction. CMT4 consists of autosomal recessive forms with demyelinating pathology. Most subtypes have mutations of genes relating to myelin maintenance, and pathologically, they show abnormal folding of the myelin structure.

  20. Tooth-surface-specific Effects of Xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, A.V.; Bader, J.D.; Leo, M.C.; Preisser, J.S.; Shugars, D.A.; Vollmer, W.M.; Amaechi, B.T.; Holland, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial was a three-year, double-blind, multi-center, randomized clinical trial that evaluated the effectiveness of xylitol vs. placebo lozenges in the prevention of dental caries in caries-active adults. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to investigate whether xylitol lozenges had a differential effect on cumulative caries increments on different tooth surfaces. Participants (ages 21-80 yrs) with at least one follow-up visit (n = 620) were examined at baseline, 12, 24, and 33 months. Negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for xylitol’s differential effect on cumulative caries increments on root and coronal surfaces and, among coronal surfaces, on smooth (buccal and lingual), occlusal, and proximal surfaces. Participants in the xylitol arm developed 40% fewer root caries lesions (0.23 D2FS/year) than those in the placebo arm (0.38 D2FS/year; IRR = 0.60; 95% CI [0.44, 0.81]; p < .001). There was no statistically significant difference between xylitol and control participants in the incidence of smooth-surface caries (p = .100), occlusal-surface caries (p = .408), or proximal-surface caries (p = .159). Among these caries-active adults, xylitol appears to have a caries-preventive effect on root surfaces (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00393055). PMID:23589387