WorldWideScience

Sample records for canine tooth movement

  1. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled.

  2. Effect of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Salivary Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity

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    Steiven Adhitya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 1024x768 Aspartate aminotransferase is one of biological indicator in gingival crevicular fluid (CGF. Force orthodontic application could increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in CGF. However, the increase activity of aspartate aminotransferase in saliva due to orthodontic force and its correlation between aspartate aminotransferase activity and tooth movement remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate application orthodontic force on the aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva based on the duration of force and finding correlation between tooth movement and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Methods: Twenty saliva samples collected before extraction of first premolar, at the time of force application for canine retraction and after force application. The canines retraction used 100 grams of interrupted force (module chain for thirty days. The collection of saliva and the measurement of tooth movement were carried out 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days after force application. The measurement of aspartate aminotransferase activity in saliva was done using spectrophotometer. Results: Application of orthodontic force influences the salivary aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=25.290, p=0.000. Furthermore, tooth movement correlated with aspartate aminotransferase activity (F=0.429, p=0.000. Conclusion: Aspartate aminotransferase activity could be used as tooth movement indicator that related to the duration of force application.DOI : 10.14693/jdi.v20i1.128

  3. Inadvertent tooth movement with fixed lingual retainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Timothy G; Proffit, William R; Samara, Said A

    2016-02-01

    Fixed retainers are effective in maintaining the alignment of the anterior teeth more than 90% of the time, but they can produce inadvertent tooth movement that in the most severe instances requires orthodontic retreatment managed with a periodontist. This is different from relapse into crowding when a fixed retainer is lost. These problems arise when the retainer breaks but remains bonded to some or all teeth, or when an intact retainer is distorted by function or was not passive when bonded. In both instances, torque of the affected teeth is the predominant outcome. A fixed retainer made with dead soft wire is the least likely to create torque problems but is the most likely to break. Highly flexible twist wires bonded to all the teeth appear to be the most likely to produce inadvertent tooth movement, but this also can occur with stiffer wires bonded only to the canines. Orthodontists, general dentists, and patients should be aware of possible problems with fixed retainers, especially those with all teeth bonded, because the patient might not notice partial debonding. Regular observations of patients wearing fixed retainers by orthodontists in the short term and family dentists in the long term are needed.

  4. Proteoglycans and orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, R J; Embery, G

    2001-12-01

    Proteoglycans represent an important and diverse family of extracellular matrix components within the connective tissues of the periodontium. This review focuses on the function and metabolism of the various proteoglycans in periodontal tissues, such as alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, and considers their potential fate in response to an orthodontic force. Such considerations provide an important background in evaluating the potential for proteoglycan metabolites, alongside other connective tissue metabolites, as biomarkers for assessing the deep-seated metabolic changes and as a diagnostic tool in monitoring orthodontic tooth movement.

  5. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  6. Practical whole-tooth restoration utilizing autologous bioengineered tooth germ transplantation in a postnatal canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Mitsuaki; Oshima, Masamitsu; Ogawa, Miho; Sonoyama, Wataru; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Oida, Yasutaka; Shinkawa, Shigehiko; Nakajima, Ryu; Mine, Atsushi; Hayano, Satoru; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Kasugai, Shohei; Yamaguchi, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Kuboki, Takuo

    2017-01-01

    Whole-organ regeneration has great potential for the replacement of dysfunctional organs through the reconstruction of a fully functional bioengineered organ using three-dimensional cell manipulation in vitro. Recently, many basic studies of whole-tooth replacement using three-dimensional cell manipulation have been conducted in a mouse model. Further evidence of the practical application to human medicine is required to demonstrate tooth restoration by reconstructing bioengineered tooth germ using a postnatal large-animal model. Herein, we demonstrate functional tooth restoration through the autologous transplantation of bioengineered tooth germ in a postnatal canine model. The bioengineered tooth, which was reconstructed using permanent tooth germ cells, erupted into the jawbone after autologous transplantation and achieved physiological function equivalent to that of a natural tooth. This study represents a substantial advancement in whole-organ replacement therapy through the transplantation of bioengineered organ germ as a practical model for future clinical regenerative medicine. PMID:28300208

  7. Effect of drugs on orthodontic tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Aulia Amrullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement is basically a biological response to mechanical forces given to the teeth in orthodontic treatment, which involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structure. Remodeling changes in periodontal tissues are considered to be essential in effecting orthodontic tooth movement which is the base of orthodontic correction. Molecules produced in various diseased tissues or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can influence mechanically stressed periodontal tissue through the circulation and interact with target cell combination of which may be inhibitory, additive or synergize. Medications might have an important influence on the rate of tooth movement, and information on their consumption is essential to adequately discuss treatment planning with patients. Therefore it is imperative to the practitioners being in medical profession, must pay close attention to the drug consumption history of every patient before and during the course of treatment.

  8. Effects of diazepam on orthodontic tooth movement and alveolar bone cAMP levels in cats.

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    Burrow, S J; Sammon, P J; Tuncay, O C

    1986-08-01

    Cyclic AMP has been suggested as a possible intracellular mediator in bone remodeling during tooth movement. Accordingly, an increase in the level of this nucleotide should result in faster tooth movement. Breakdown of cAMP was inhibited by administration of diazepam in eight cats undergoing orthodontic tooth movement; another matched group of eight animals served as controls. Orthodontic appliances consisted of coil springs stretching between the right side maxillary and mandibular canines and third premolars. The data for tooth movement and cAMP concentrations were analyzed by repeated measures factorial analyses of variance. The results indicated that administration of diazepam increased the rate of tooth movement at P less than 0.0005 and, interestingly, although diazepam had no effect on undisturbed tissues, it lowered the cAMP levels in the periodontal tissues of orthodontically moved teeth at P less than 0.01. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the concentration of cAMP did not correlate with bone remodeling in this model and perhaps should not be used as an index of periodontal-tissue response during orthodontic tooth movement.

  9. Endogenous and Exogenous Substances Influencing the Orthodontic Tooth Movement

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    Mine Geçgelen Cesur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement occurs as a result of prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces. Recent studies have focused on the effects of systemic or local applications of medications and the intake of dietary supplements as well as the mechanical forces. Factors affecting the orthodontic tooth movement are parathyroid hormone, thyroid hormones, estrogen, vitamin D3, eicosanoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, paracetamol, corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, cholesterol drugs, anticonvulsants, oral contraceptives, alcohol and nicotine use, nitric oxide, and fluoride. These medications have an important effect on the rate of tooth movement and treatment time. NSAIDs decrease tooth movement, but paracetamol has no effect. Parathyroid and thyroxin hormones increase tooth movement. Bisphosphonates have a strong inhibitory effect. Vitamin D3 stimulates tooth movement and dietary calcium seems to reduce it. It is important to discuss with patients about the consumption of these substances during orthodontic treatment.

  10. The management of anterior tooth wear using gold palatal veneers in canine guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Martin, N

    2013-03-01

    Localised anterior tooth wear can be managed using minimally invasive techniques with conservation of tooth structure and preservation of pulp vitality. This article describes and illustrates with two clinical cases, the management of localised tooth wear, with the restoration of canine guidance by a combination of gold palatal veneers and direct composite restorations.

  11. Drinking coffee may help accelerate orthodontic tooth movement

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    Jianru Yi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Developing new methods to enhance orthodontic tooth movement and shorten the duration of treatment has always been desired. However, to date, no therapies have been widely used in clinics. Recent studies and feedback information from patients have shown that drinking coffee may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. The Hypothesis: Drinking coffee, as a daily habit of many people, can be an effective accelerator of tooth movement with little side effect for caffeine can break the calcium balance in bone tissue and directly inhibit the development of osteoblasts, leading to temporary decreased bone mineral density and consequently inducing faster orthodontic tooth movement. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Much effort has been made to explore therapies to shorten orthodontic treatment period with limited success. Daily coffee consumption may be a promising approach to enhance orthodontic tooth movement for its reversible effect on bone mineral density and calcium balance.

  12. Interleukin-1beta levels, pain intensity, and tooth movement using two different magnitudes of continuous orthodontic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppanapornlarp, Suwannee; Kajii, Takashi S; Surarit, Rudee; Iida, Junichiro

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum orthodontic force from a broader perspective. Interleukin (IL)-1β levels in human gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), pain intensity, and the amount of tooth movement were measured during canine retraction using different magnitudes of continuous orthodontic force. Sixteen subjects (two males and 14 females), aged 18-24 years, diagnosed with Class I bimaxillary protrusion and treated with first premolar extractions participated in this study. The upper canines were retracted with continuous forces of 50 or 150 g using nickel-titanium coil springs on segmented archwires. One of the lower canines was used as a control. GCF was collected from the distal site of each tooth at specific time points. IL-1β concentrations, pain intensity, using the visual analogue scale (VAS), and the amount of tooth movement were evaluated. One-way analysis of variance, Friedman, and paired t-tests were used for comparisons of IL-1β in GCF, the plaque and gingival indices, and the efficiency of tooth movement on pain perception, respectively. IL-1β concentration in the 150 g group showed the highest level at 24 hours and 2 months with significant differences compared with the control group (P magnitudes of continuous force at 2 months. A 50 g force could effectively induce tooth movement similar to 150 g with less pain and less inflammation.

  13. Effects of low-energy laser irradiation on the distalization velocity during experimental canine tooth movement in humans: 'comparative clinical study'; Efeitos da irradiacao com laser em baixa intensidade na velocidade de distalizacao de caninos durante a movimentacao ortodontica: 'estudo clinico comparativo'

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    Cruz, Delma Rebelo

    2003-07-01

    This research investigated the effects of low level laser therapy (LLLT) upon the velocity of canine tooth movement and consequently bone remodeling. A total of eleven patients were treated with a 780 nm diode laser. One side of the upper arcade was considered control group and was not irradiated but received mechanical activation every thirty days. The opposite side received the same mechanical activation but was also irradiated at days 0, 3, 7 and 14 of each month. Data of the biometrical progress were taken on both sides on days 3,7,14,21 and 30 of each month. The results indicate that all patients showed significant acceleration of the distalization velocity on the side treated with LLLT when compared to the control. (author)

  14. Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Mechanical Stress on Root from Orthodontic Tooth Movement by Sliding Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ping; MAO Jing; PENG Zhou; XIE Hui

    2007-01-01

    In order to study mechanical stress on root from orthodontic tooth movement by sliding mechanics, a 3-dimensional finite element model incorporating all layers of a human mandibular dental arch with orthodontic appliance has been developed to simulate mechanical stress on root from the orthodontic tooth movement. Simulated orthodontic force of 2 N at 0, 30 and 45 degree from the horizontal axis was applied to the crown of the teeth. The finite element analysis showed when or- thodontic forces were applied to the tooth, the stress was mainly concentrated at the neck of the tooth decreasing uniformly to the apex and crown. The highest stress on the root was 0.621 N/ram2 for cer- vical margin of the canine, and 0.114 N/mm2 for apical region of the canine. The top of canine crown showed the largest amount of displacement (2.417 μm), while the lowest amount of displacement was located at the apical region of canine (0.043 μm). In conclusion, this model might enable one to simulate orthodontic tooth movements clinically. Sliding force at 2 N is ideal to ensure the bodily or- thodontic tooth movement. The highest stress concentration in the roots was always localized at the cervical margin when orthodontic force of 2 N at 0, 30 and 45 degree from the horizontal axis, so there may be the same risk of root resorption when orthodontic force of 2 N at 0, 30 and 45 degree was used in clinic cases.

  15. Endogenous and Exogenous Substances Influencing the Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Mine Geçgelen Cesur; Gözde Beygirci

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement occurs as a result of prolonged application of controlled mechanical forces. Recent studies have focused on the effects of systemic or local applications of medications and the intake of dietary supplements as well as the mechanical forces. Factors affecting the orthodontic tooth movement are parathyroid hormone, thyroid hormones, estrogen, vitamin D3, eicosanoids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), paracetamol, corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, choleste...

  16. Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal changes during orthodontic tooth movement - work in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZIMBRAN, ADELA; DUDEA, DIANA; GASPARIK, CRISTINA; DUDEA, SORIN

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a process whereby the application of a force induces bone resorption on the pressure side and bone apposition on the tension side of the lamina dura. However, only limited data are available on the in vivo behavior of the periodontal tissues. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of periodontal tissues, induced by the orthodontic canine retraction, using 40 MHz ultrasonography. Methods Ultrasonographic evaluation of periodontal tissues was conducted in 5 patients with indication for orthodontic treatment. The upper first premolars were extracted bilaterally due to severe crowding, and the canines were distalized using elastomeric chain with a net force of 100 cN. Ultrasonographic scans (US scans) were performed before, during and after retraction, in three distinct areas of the canines buccal surface: mesial, middle and distal. The reference point was the bracket, which appeared hyperechoic on the US scan. Four different dimensions were obtained: D1 (depth of the sulcus), D2 (thickness of the gingiva), D3 (length of the supracrestal fibers), D4 (width of periodontal space). Results An increase of D1 was observed in all three areas of the periodontium, during orthodontic treatment. D3 was strongly correlated before and immediately after force delivery only for the mesial area (r=0.828, pmovement. Conclusion High-resolution ultrasonography has the capability to obviate changes in periodontal ligament space and free gingiva during orthodontic tooth movement. PMID:28246503

  17. Root resorption during orthodontic tooth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, C; Hofman, Z

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the extent of maxillary incisor root resorption during different orthodontic tooth movements using three different techniques, namely the basal intrusion arch, the three component arch, and levelling of the upper dental arch with the straightwire appliance. The radiographs of 49 subjects (20 males and 29 females) with a mean age of 14.5 years were taken at two time points: in groups 1 and 2 after the levelling phase and in group 3 immediately after placement of the archwire (T1) and in all groups after a period of 6 months (T2). The amount of root resorption of the central incisors was determined at T2. The average incisor resorption was different in the three groups, with group 2 (three component arch) showing greater resorption (0.46 mm) than groups 1 (basal arch) and 3 (straightwire) of 0.26 and 0.25 mm, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that differences in root resorption in the three groups were not significant. Wilcoxon paired test showed that the root resorption occurring between T1 and T2 in the three groups was not significant. There was also no significant difference among the rates of resorption in the three groups. Grouping the subjects on the basis of the extent of root resorption and the biomechanics used showed differences in the percentage of subjects with the least (resorption between the three groups. This again showed that the technique of three component intrusion arch resulted in the greatest increase in root resorption.

  18. Corticision: A Flapless Procedure to Accelerate Tooth Movement.

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    Park, Young Guk

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement results from applied forces to the teeth evoking cellular responses in the teeth and their surrounding tissues, including the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingiva. It is advantageous for the orthodontist to be well informed of the detailed process of the biological events that unfold during tooth movement, since some of these details may differ from one person to another due to biological differences such as periodontal metabolism or alveolar bone density. This led us to emphasize that orthodontics is a field of endeavor where the integration of mechanics and biology is materialized, and to affirm the fact that tooth movement is conducted in individual human beings, each composed of a unique and intricate physiological system. Biological variations may be the foundation of the differences that are frequently observed in the outcomes of orthodontic treatment in particular with reference to treatment duration between patients with similar malocclusions and who were treated identically. A wide diversity of clinical trials has been carried out to control the tissue resistance to facilitate orthodontic tooth movement, which involves biomechanical, pharmaceutical, surgical, electrical regimens or tissue engineering technology. The term 'Corticision' is a neologism which indicates 'cortical bone incision'. It is a minimally invasive periodontal procedure without flap elevation, thus accelerating tooth movement with an enhanced turnover rate of the surrounding structures. This chapter introduces the technical procedure, and the biological background of how such a minor surgical procedure can receive the accelerated tooth movement with impunity and thereby shorten the duration of treatment.

  19. Comparison of rate of maxillary canine movement with or without modified corticotomy facilitated orthodontic treatment: A prospective clinical trial

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    Harshal N Suryavanshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The average orthodontic treatment time for extraction therapy is 31 months. One of the main disadvantages of orthodontic treatment is time. Alveolar corticotomies have been used in conjunction with orthodontics to reduce the treatment time by increasing the rate of tooth movement. Concerns about the possible risks of corticotomy procedure have led to the modification of this technique. Germeη et al. reported a case treated by their modified corticotomy technique and noted reduced treatment time without any adverse effects on the periodontium and the vitality of teeth with their new conservative corticotomy technique. This study was undertaken to clinically evaluate the efficacy of the aforesaid technique. Materials and Methods: A split-mouth study design was carried out to compare the rate of maxillary canine movement with and without modified corticotomy facilitated orthodontic treatment in 10 patients requiring maxillary first premolar extractions. The modified corticotomy procedure was performed on the maxillary arch unilaterally. The upper arch was immediately activated bilaterally after surgical procedure using equal orthodontic forces for retraction of the maxillary canines. The amount of tooth movement was recorded at an interval of every month till the completion of canine retraction. The rate of canine movement on experimental and control site was compared. The patients were followed for 6 months to check the occurrence of undesired effects such as root resorption, periodontal damage and loss of vitality of teeth on the experimental side. Results: Higher mean velocity was observed in canines with modified corticotomy facilitated retraction compared to conventionally retracted canines; with the difference in mean velocity between the two groups was found to be clinically significant as well as statistically significant (P < 0.001. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results suggested that modified corticotomy

  20. Rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Hong; XU Qing-feng; LU Hong-fei; MAI Zhi-hui; AN Ai-qun; LIU Guo-ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal models are needed for the study of rapid tooth movement into the extraction socket through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.Methods Modified distraction devices were placed on eight dogs between the first and third mandibular premolars on the left sides;similar placement of traditional straight wise appliances on the right sides served as the control.The experimental distractors were activated(0.25 mm/d)twice a day and the control devices were activated(100 g)for two weeks with consolidation periods at weeks two,three,six,and ten.Two dogs were sacrificed at each consolidation time point;rates and patterns of tooth movement,loss of anchorage,and periapical films were evaluated,and the aftected premolars and surrounding periodontal tissues were decalcified and examined histologically.General observations,X-ray periapical filming and histology examination were performed.Results Distal movement((3.66±0.1 4)mm)measured two weeks after modified distraction exceeded that achieved using the traditional device((1.15±0.21)mm;P<0.05).Loss of anchorage was minimally averaged(0.34±0.06)mm and (0.32±0.07)mm in the experimental and control sides,respectively.By radiography,apical and lateral surface root resorptions on both sides were minimal.Alveolar bone Iesions were never evident.Fibroblasts were endched in periodontal ligaments and bone spicules formed actively along directions of distraction.Conclusions The canine model is suitable for the study of rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.The technique accelerates tooth movement,periodontal remodeling,alveolar bone absorption,and may induce fibroblast formation,as compared to the traditional orthodontic method,without adversely affecting root absorption,bone loss,tooth mobility and anchorage loss.

  1. Periodontal response after tooth movement into intrabony defects.

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    Polson, A; Caton, J; Polson, A P; Nyman, S; Novak, J; Reed, B

    1984-04-01

    The present study was undertaken since conflicting evidence exists regarding the effect of such tooth movement on levels of connective tissue attachment. Localized intrabony pockets were produced around isolated incisors in four rhesus monkeys. The root surfaces were planned to the level of the bone at the base of the angular bony defects. An oral hygiene regime was begun and continued for the remainder of the study. The experimental teeth were moved orthodontically into, and through, the original area of the intrabony defect. Two months after cessation of active tooth movement, block specimens were removed for histologic analysis. Control specimens comprised those teeth with induced periodontal defects, but without tooth movement. In specimens not subjected to tooth movement, angular bony defects were present and epithelium lined the root surface to the apical extent of instrumentation. The alveolar bone adjacent to the orthodontically moved teeth no longer had angular defect morphology. On the pressure side, epithelium lined the root surface, was interposed between root surface and bone and terminated at the apical limit of root instrumentation. On the tension side, the crest of the bone was located apical to the level of root planing, and epithelium lined the instrumented portion of the root surface. It was concluded that orthodontic tooth movement into intrabony periodontal defects was without effect upon the levels of connective tissue attachment.

  2. Sclerostin Promotes Bone Remodeling in the Process of Tooth Movement

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    Shu, Rui; Bai, Ding; Sheu, Tzongjen; He, Yao; Yang, Xianrui; Xue, Chaoran; He, Yiruo; Zhao, Mengyuan; Han, Xianglong

    2017-01-01

    Tooth movement is a biological process of bone remodeling induced by mechanical force. Sclerostin secreted by osteocytes is mechanosensory and important in bone remodeling. However, little is known regarding the role of sclerostin in tooth movement. In this study, models of experimental tooth movement were established in rats and mice. Sclerostin expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry staining, and osteoclastic activity was analyzed with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells underwent uniaxial compression and tension stress or were cultured in hypoxia conditions. Expression of sclerostin was assessed by RT-qPCR and ELISA. MLO-Y4 cells were cultured with recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL) interference and then co-cultured with RAW264.7 osteoclast precursor cells. Expressions of RANKL and OPG were analyzed by RT-qPCR, and osteoclastic activity was assessed by TRAP staining. During tooth movement, sclerostin was expressed differently in compression and tension sites. In SOST knock-out mice, there were significantly fewer TRAP-positive cells than in WT mice during tooth movement in compression sites. In-vitro studies showed that the expression of sclerostin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells was not different under a uniaxial compression and tension force, whereas hypoxia conditions significantly increased sclerostin expression in MLO-Y4 cells. rhSCL interference increased the expression of RANKL and the RANKL/OPG ratio in MLO-Y4 cells and the osteoclastic induction ability of MLO-Y4 cells in experimental osteocyte-osteoclast co-culture. These data suggest that sclerostin plays an important role in the bone remodeling of tooth movement. PMID:28081119

  3. Canine tooth dimorphism: An adjunct for establishing sex identity

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    Madhavi Yuwanati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teeth are an excellent material for genetic, odontological and forensic investigations and research purpose. From all the teeth, the mandibular canines are found to exhibit sexual dimorphism. However, very few studies have been published on maxillary canine′s measurements. Aims: 1. To find out utility of maxillary and mandibular canine width as a tool for sex determination in Central Indian population. 2. To find out the average size of canines in males and females of Central Indian population. 3. To compare the findings with National and International studies Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in 100 cases in the age group of 17-21 years. Mesiodistal width of right and left mandibular and maxillary canines were measured on the casts with digital calliper and subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done to assess sex difference using Students ′t′ test (paired. Results and Conclusions: It was seen that a definite statistically significant sexual dimorphism exists when mandibular and maxillary canine measurements were compared. Thus, it can be suggested that canine width measurements can be used as an adjunct for sex identification purpose in Central Indian Population.

  4. Focal hyalinization during experimental tooth movement in beagle dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhl, M. von; Maltha, J.C.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to study morphological differences between the periodontal structures of beagle dogs showing different rates of tooth movement under identical experimental conditions. An orthodontic appliance was placed on the mandibular second premolar and the first molar to exert a continuous and cons

  5. Dentigerous cyst associated with ectopic canine and a supernumerary tooth: a rare occurrence.

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    Ramakrishna, Ashwini; Lambade, Pravin

    2013-07-01

    Amongst the cysts of the jaw dentigerous cyst (DC) is one of the most prevalent types of odontogenic cysts, which is associated with the crown of an unerupted or developing tooth. DC is more commonly seen with mandibular third molar and maxillary canine and rarely other teeth are involved. These cysts seldom associate with supernumerary teeth. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of large dentigerous cyst associated with supernumerary teeth and an ectopic canine, which is a rare presentation along with its management.

  6. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

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    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  7. Minor tooth movements using microimplant anchorage: case reports.

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    Sohn, Dong-Seok; Lee, Jung-Kwang; An, Kyung-Mi

    2008-03-01

    For the treatment of extruded or tipped molars, various conventional techniques have been used. But those methods may lead to undesirable movement of the anchorage units and lengthen treatment time because of limited tooth-borne anchorage potential. Introduction of microimplants as orthodontic anchorage has expanded treatment possibilities because of their advantages. Some advantages are a less complex surgical procedure, decrease in cost, immediate loading, and their ability to be placed in any area of the alveolar bone. This article will illustrate clinical experiences in patients who were treated with the intrusion of overerupted molars, the up-righting of tilted molars, and other clinical applications for minor tooth movements. Anchorage control was achieved with the surgical insertion of titanium microimplants for immediate loading in the alveolar bone. When needed, minimal fixed appliances were used and orthodontic treatment was completed without any other complications.

  8. Cellular and Molecular Changes in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin; Zulham Yamamoto; lntan Zarina Zainol Abidin; Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab; Zaidah Zainal Ariffin

    2011-01-01

    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue sam...

  9. Root resorption in relation to orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Chaitra; Hofman, Zdenĕk

    2006-01-01

    Root resorption is an undesirable sequela of orthodontic tooth movement. The odontoclasts are responsible for root resorption and the process of hyalinization is known to preceed the orthodontic root resorption. It is found that there are several predisposing factors, therefore an evaluation of these factors should be done by careful examination of personal medical history, severity of malocclusion and dental treatment (if any due to previous history of trauma), anterior crossbite etc. The evaluation becomes an essential factor as it helps the orthodontists in detecting the occurance and severity of the root resorption and thereby plan out the treatment more effectively. Orthodontic tooth movements especially intrusion and other movements like tipping, torque are all known to influence the root resorption, therefore the detection using radiographs and repair of root resorption is of utmost significance as root resorption is a more serious problem from a medicolegal stand point of view. However some studies have shown that the repair process is known to occur after the cessation of orthodontic treatment by the deposition of cementum of cellular type. In the light of orthodontist's liability of what is basically an unpredictable phenomenon, it is necessary that the speciality define this uncertainity and protect its members against unnecessary and unjustified litigation.

  10. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, T M; Sinclair, P M

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of a simple surgically noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field could increase both the rate and amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed in guinea pigs. In addition, the objective was to evaluate the electromagnetic field's effects on bony physiology and metabolism and to search for possible systemic side effects. Laterally directed orthodontic force was applied to the maxillary central incisors of a sample of 40 young male, Hartley guinea pigs (20 experimental, 20 control) by means of a standardized intraoral coil spring inserted under constricting pressure into holes drilled in the guinea pigs' two maxillary central incisors. During the experimental period, the guinea pigs were placed in specially constructed, plastic animal holders with their heads positioned in an area of uniform electromagnetic field. Control animals were placed in similar plastic holders that did not carry the electrical apparatus. The application of a pulsed electromagnetic field to the experimental animals significantly increased both the rate and final amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed over the 10-day experimental period. The experimental animals also demonstrated histologic evidence of significantly greater amounts of bone and matrix deposited in the area of tension between the orthodontically moved maxillary incisors. This increase in cellular activity was also reflected by the presence of significantly greater numbers of osteoclasts in the alveolar bone surrounding the maxillary incisors of the experimental animals. After a 10-day exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field, minor changes in serologic parameters relating to protein metabolism and muscle activity were noted. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement and bone deposition through the application of a noninvasive, pulsed electromagnetic field.

  11. Cellular and Molecular Changes in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

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    Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts, tension region (involving osteoclasts, dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption, inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment.

  12. The mythology of the killer deciduous canine tooth in southern Sudan.

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    Baba, S P; Kay, E J

    1989-01-01

    In Southern Sudan it is a commonly held belief that the unerupted deciduous canine tooth is injurious to the health of infants and that it causes diarrheal diseases. The teeth are therefore often removed by native extractors in an attempt to alleviate the symptoms of these dangerous diseases. This study examined the prevalence of this practice among babies presenting at a hospital, and examined the health status of the infants involved. The 90 infants in the study had all had at least one deciduous tooth removed, and the great majority were suffering from dehydration, caused by various abdominal diseases. It is clear that an educational campaign aimed at reducing the prevalence of this practice is required.

  13. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and osteopontin in human gingival crevicular fluid during initial tooth movement

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    Dhaval Oswal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: During orthodontic treatment, the early response of periodontal tissues to mechanical stress involves several metabolic changes that allow tooth movement. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate osteopontin (OPN and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-7 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of human teeth exposed to orthodontic force. Materials and Methods: GCF samples were obtained from 15 healthy orthodontic patients (age, 12-22 years. In each patient, the left maxillary canine having the fixed orthodontic appliance was used as the test tooth, and its antagonist, with no appliance, was the control. Orthodontic force, 75 g was applied using a 16 × 22 beta titanium closing loop. The GCF sampling on the disto-buccal aspects of experimental and control tooth was performed at specific time interval with sterilized absorbent paper point. Processing was carried out with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect OPN and MMP-7 levels. Results: The peak level of OPN was seen after 1 h application of orthodontic force which was 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02. The peak level of MMP-7 was seen at 0 h which was 598.3 pg/ml ± 107.5. The levels of OPN after 1 h increased to 1280.36 pg/ml ± 185.02, and they decreased at 24 h to 1012.86 pg/ml ± 168.47 (P = 0.001. The levels of MMP-7 after 1 h decreased to 478 pg/ml ± 99.7 which increased at 24 h to 526.9 pg/ml ± 99.2. Conclusions: Orthodontic forces affect both OPN and MMP-7 protein levels on the compression side in a time-dependent fashion.

  14. Effects of low-intensity laser therapy on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: A clinical trial

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    Ankur Kansal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT can be utilized for different treatments in the field of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of LILT on (1 the rate of canine movement during canine retraction phase and (2 evaluate the radiographic changes occurring during LILT around the irradiated area. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 patients of both genders were included for this study. One quadrant of the upper arch was considered control group (CG and received mechanical activation of the canine teeth with 150 g. The opposite quadrant received the same mechanical activation and was also irradiated with a diode emitting light (gallium-arsenide laser at 904 nm, for 10 s at 12 mW, at 4.2 J/cm 2 . Laser application was done on 1 st day, 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 th , 28 th , 35 th , 42 nd , 49 th , 56 th day respectively during the canine retraction phase. Distance was measured on 1 st day, 35 th day and 63 rd day and appliance activation was done on 1 st and 35 th day. Results were analyzed using t-test with the significance level set at P < 0.01. Results: Mean value obtained from 1 st to 63 rd day was 3.30 ± 2.36 mm for CG and 3.53 ± 2.30 mm for laser group (LG. Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of tooth movement during canine retraction between the LG and the CG. There was no evidence of any pathologic changes in the radiograph following LILT.

  15. [Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field on orthodontic tooth movement through transmission electromicroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q

    1991-01-01

    This experiment is to observe the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on orthodontic tooth movement of guinea pigs through transmission electron microscope (TEM). 14-days observations indicate that PEMF could accelerate the rate of orthodontic tooth movement as a result of the increase in quantity of active cell without changing the ultrastructures of cells and have no unfavorable effects on periodontal tissues.

  16. The Role of Hypoxia in Orthodontic Tooth Movement

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    A. Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic forces are known to have various effects on the alveolar process, such as cell deformation, inflammation, and circulatory disturbances. Each of these conditions affecting cell differentiation, cell repair, and cell migration, is driven by numerous molecular and inflammatory mediators. As a result, bone remodeling is induced, facilitating orthodontic tooth movement. However, orthodontic forces not only have cellular effects but also induce vascular changes. Orthodontic forces are known to occlude periodontal ligament vessels on the pressure side of the dental root, decreasing the blood perfusion of the tissue. This condition is accompanied by hypoxia, which is known to either affect cell proliferation or induce apoptosis, depending on the oxygen gradient. Because upregulated tissue proliferation rates are often accompanied by angiogenesis, hypoxia may be assumed to fundamentally contribute to bone remodeling processes during orthodontic treatment.

  17. The Influence of Acetyl Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) and Acetaminophen on Clinical and Histologic Aspects of Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on orthodontic tooth movement . Amer. J. Ortho. 91:91-102, 1987. 59. Botting, P. and...peripheral prostaglandin inhibitor aspirin have on certain clinical and histologic aspects of orthodontic tooth movement : 2) Similarly, what effect ... orthodontic adjustment with respect to minimizing the effects of a prostaglandin inhibitor on tooth movement .? SiS 3 REVIEW OF THE

  18. The Potential Use of Pharmacological Agents to Modulate Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouskoura, Thaleia; Katsaros, Christos; von Gunten, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    The biological processes that come into play during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) have been shown to be influenced by a variety of pharmacological agents. The effects of such agents are of particular relevance to the clinician as the rate of tooth movement can be accelerated or reduced as a result. This review aims to provide an overview of recent insights into drug-mediated effects and the potential use of drugs to influence the rate of tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. The limitations of current experimental models and the need for well-designed clinical and pre-clinical studies are also discussed. PMID:28228735

  19. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

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    Alaa’a M. Salloum

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement.

  20. Prevalence of tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor associated with palatally displaced canine (PDC) anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, S; Peck, L; Kataja, M

    1996-10-01

    Fifty-eight nonsyndromic North American white orthodontic patients with palatal displacement of one or both maxillary canine teeth were studied for associated tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors. Agenesis of permanent teeth was identified by x-ray film analysis. Conical crown-size reduction (peg-shape anomaly) of the maxillary lateral incisor (l2) was determined by direct observation. Increases in absence of third molars and second premolars associated with the palatally displaced canine (PDC) anomaly were statistically very highly significant compared with normative data for tooth-agenesis prevalence. In contrast, the prevalence of l2 agenesis in the PDC sample showed no difference statistically compared with reference values. Reasons for this posterior site-specific suppression of tooth formation are not clear. The l2 peg-shape anomaly exceeded a 10-fold elevation in expression in the PDC sample, a very highly significant increase from normal prevalence. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that the anomalies of tooth agenesis, tooth-size reduction, and PDC are biologic covariables in a complex of genetically related dental disturbances.

  1. Molecular Markers of Dental Pulp Tissue during Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Pilot Study

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    Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Three specific orthodontic tooth movement genes, that is, FCRL1, HSPG2, and LAMB2 were detected at upper first premolar (with appliance dental pulp tissue by using GeneFishing technique as compared to lower first premolar (without appliance. These three differentially expressed genes have the potential as molecular markers during orthodontic tooth movement by looking at molecular changes of pulp tissue.

  2. Extraction of primary canine tooth buds: prevalence and associated dental abnormalities in a group of Ethiopian Jewish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, G; Mamber, E

    1994-03-01

    Recent publications have described a common belief, held in rural areas in Africa, that unerupted primary canines cause diarrhoea, vomiting and fever in infants. To relieve these symptoms a traditional native healer extracts these tooth buds. The emigration of Ethiopian Jews to Israel in 1991 allowed an investigation of this practice among this community. A group of 59 children (27 boys and 32 girls) aged 3-12 years were examined clinically and radiographically. Evidence was found of extraction of 63 primary canine buds in 35 (59%) of the children. Extraction of one canine was found in 16 children, two in 13 children and three in three children, and three children had all four canines extracted. Forty-six (74%) mandibular compared to only 16 (26%) maxillary canines had been extracted; the extractions were equally divided between both sides of the jaws. Another 19 primary canines had hypoplastic defects, probably the result of unsuccessful extractions. Associated dental abnormalities included hypoplasia of the permanent successors and adjacent primary and permanent teeth, displacement of permanent teeth, midline shift to the extraction side, missing primary lateral incisors (probably accidentally extracted) and distal eruption of permanent lateral incisors, leaving their primary predecessors retained. Parental enquiry revealed that the practice is more common in rural rather than urban areas and still exists in the Ethiopian community in Israel. The findings of this survey should urge the authorities to take steps to stop this practice.

  3. Alkaline phosphatase expression during relapse after orthodontic tooth movement

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    Pinandi Sri Pudyani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing of osteoblast activities during bone formation will be accompanied with the increasing expression of alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP. ALP can be obtained from clear fluid excreted by gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Bone turnover, especially bone formation process, can be monitored through the expression of ALP secreted by GCF during orthodontic treatment. Thus, retention period is an important period that can be monitored through the level of bone metabolism around teeth. Purpose: This research were aimed to determine the relation of distance change caused by tooth relapse and ALP activities in gingival crevicular fluid after orthodontic; and to determine ALP as a potential biomarker of bone formation during retention period. Methods: Lower incisors of 25 guinea pigs were moved 3 mm to the distally by using open coil spring. Those relapse distance were measured and the gingival crevicular fluid was taken by using paper points to evaluate ALP levels on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 21 respectivelly by using a spectrophotometer (405 nm. t-test and ANOVA test were conducted to determine the difference of ALP activities among the time intervals. The correlation regression analysis was conducted to determine the relation of distance change caused by the relapse tooth movement and ALP activities. Results: The greatest relapse movement was occurred on day 3 after open coil spring was removed. There was significant difference of the average of distance decrease among groups A1-A5 (p<0.05. It was also known that ALP level was increased on day 3, but there was no significant difference of the average level of ALP among groups A1-A5 (p>0.05. Finally, based on the results of correlation analysis between the ALP level decreasing and the relapse distance on both right and left of mesial and distal sides, it is known that there was no relation between those two variables (p>0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that relapse after orthodontic

  4. The Effect of Ovariectomy and Orchiectomy on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi, Massoud; Ezzati, Baharak; Saedi, Sara; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Root resorption (RR) after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is known as a multifactorial complication of orthodontic treatments. Hormonal deficiencies and their effect on bone turnover are reported to have influences on the rate of tooth movement and root resorption. Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the effect of female and male steroid sex hormones on tooth movement and root resorption. Materials and Method Orthodontic appliances were placed on the right maxillary first molars of 10 ovariectomized female and 10 orchiectomized male Wistar rats as experimental groups and 10 female and 10 male healthy Wistar rats as control groups. NiTi closed-coil springs (9mm, Medium, 011"×.030", Ortho Technology®; Tampa, Florida) were placed between the right incisors and the first right maxillary molars to induce tipping movement in the first molars with the application of a 60g force. After 21 days, the rats were sacrificed and tooth movement was measured by using a digital caliper (Guanglu, China). Orthodontic induced root resorption (OIRR) was assessed by histomorphometric analysis after hematoxylin and eosin staining of sections of the mesial root. Results The rate of tooth movement was significantly higher in all female rats, with the root resorption being lower in the experimental group. The rate of tooth movement in experimental male rats was significantly higher than the control group (p= 0.001) and the rate of root resorption was significantly lower in the experimental group (p= 0.001). Conclusion It seems that alterations in plasma levels of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone hormones can influence the rate of OTM and RR. The acceleration in tooth movement increased OTM and decreased RR. PMID:26636117

  5. Evaluation of root resorption by CBCT after rapid orthodontic tooth movement%正畸治疗中快速远中移动尖牙的CBCT研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕萍; 于海鹏; 刘婧

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究正畸治疗过程中快速移动尖牙术后牙根的吸收和改建。方法选取安氏Ⅱ类错成年患者15例,减数双侧上颌第一前磨牙,牙周膜牵引成骨术快速远中移动尖牙26颗,术前及术后3个月分别拍摄CBCT,测量牙根长度及牙槽骨的改建情况。结果26颗尖牙在2至3周内快速远中移动到位,尖牙快速远中移动术后3个月无明显的牙根吸收,尖牙近中骨组织密度正常。结论快速移动尖牙安全有效,可缩短正畸疗程。%Objective To investigate the root resorption and bone remodeling after rapid tooth movement by CBCT. Methods Fifteen adult patients with Angle Ⅱ malocclusion were selected. After extraction of the first upper premolars and alveolar surgery in the mesial side of the extraction socket,26 canine teeth were moved distally,which was assisted by periodontal ligament distraction osteogenesis(PDLD). Before distraction and three months after operation, CBCT scans were taken and then the lengths and tipping angulars of canine were analyzed. Results The canines were retracted to the proximal side of the second premolars in 3 weeks. Three months after rapid tooth movement, no root resorption was observed and new bone was deposited in the tension area. Conclusion Rapid canine movement is safe, effective and can shorten the course of orthodontic treatment.

  6. Effects of carbonated soft drink consumption on orthodontic tooth movements in rats.

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    Hossein Agha Aghili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the possible effects of Carbonated Soft Drink consumption on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group. In the experimental groups (A&B, the water in the dietary regimen was replaced with soft drinks (Fanta® in group A and Cola® in group B two weeks before placement of orthodontic appliances. Then 5-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were placed between the maxillary right first molars and first incisors under general anesthesia. This regimen continued for two weeks more and animals drank soft drink ad libitum. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were sacrificed, and interproximal tooth movements were measured.The mean amounts of tooth movement were 0.19mm in group A, 0.22mm in group B and 0.37mm in group C. Statistical analysis with analysis of variance (ANOVA test showed significant differences between all groups. The least movement occurred in group A that had received Fanta® drink.CSDs consumption decreases the rate of orthodontic tooth movement. The role of soft drinks in decreasing tooth movement might be related to its effects on bone metabolism.

  7. Effects of human relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligaments in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Monica S.; Liu, Zee J.; Gu, Gao M.; King, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The rate-limiting step in orthodontic treatment is often the rapidity with which teeth move. Using biological agents to modify the rate of tooth movement has been shown to be effective in animals. Relaxin is a hormone present in both males and females. Its main action is to increase the turnover of fibrous connective tissues. Thus, relaxin might increase the amount and rate of tooth movement through its effect on the periodontal ligament (PDL). The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and PDL structures. Methods Bilateral orthodontic appliances designed to tip maxillary molars mesially with a force of 40 cN were placed in 96 rats. At day 0, the animals were randomized to either relaxin or vehicle treatment. Twelve rats in each group were killed at 2, 4, 7, and 9 days after appliance activation. Cephalograms were taken at appliance placement and when the rats were killed. Tooth movement was measured cephalometrically in relation to palatal implants. Fractal analysis and visual analog scale assessments were used to evaluate the effect of relaxin on PDL fiber organization at the tension sites in histologic sections. The in-vitro testing for PDL mechanical strength and tooth mobility was performed by using tissue from an additional 20 rats that had previously received the same relaxin or vehicle treatments for 1 or 3 days (n = 5). Results Both groups had statistically significant tooth movement as functions of time. However, relaxin did not stimulate significantly greater or more rapid tooth movement. Fractal and visual analog scale analyses implied that relaxin reduced PDL fiber organization. In-vitro mechanical testing and tooth mobility assessments indicated that the PDL of the mandibular incisors in the relaxin-treated rats had reduced yield load, strain, and stiffness. Moreover, the range of tooth mobility of the maxillary first molars increased to 130% to 170%, over vehicle-treated rats at day 1

  8. Dynamic Analysis of the Expression of HSP70 during Experimental Tooth Movement in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the expression of HSP70 during experimental tooth movement was dynamically observed and the relationship between HSP70 and orthodontic periodontal tissue remodeling were observed. The orthodontic appliance was placed between the right maxillary first molar and maxillary central incisors of adult SD rats to establish a rat molar movement model. Immunohistochemistry was performed 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 day(s) after orthodontic force application to observe the expression and localization of inducible HSP70. The expression of HSP70 was strongly positive in the early stage of the tooth movement, became gradually less positive, and was weakly positive in the restoration stage. There was difference in staining pattern between different parts of PDL during the same period. These results suggest that the expression of HSP70 and difference in staining pattern among different parts of PDL during orthodontic tooth movement in rats may be implicated in stress response and remodeling of periodontal tissue.

  9. Periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hu; Liao, Lina; Gao, Meiya; Ma, Wenqiang; Zhou, Yang; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2015-08-01

    Calcitonin-related gene peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in orofacial inflammatory pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether periodontal CGRP contributes to orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Closed coil springs were used to deliver forces. Rats were euthanized on 0d, 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, and 14d following experimental tooth movement. Then, alveolar bones were obtained for immunostaining of periodontal tissues against CGRP. Two hours prior to euthanasia on each day, orofacial pain levels were assessed through rat grimace scale. CGRP and olcegepant (CGRP receptor antagonist) were injected into periodontal tissues to verify the roles of periodontal CGRP in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. Periodontal CGRP expression levels and orofacial pain levels were elevated on 1d, 3d, 5d, and 7d following experimental tooth movement. The two indices were significantly correlated with each other and fitted into a dose-response model. Periodontal administration of CGRP could elevate periodontal CGRP expressions and exacerbate orofacial pain. Moreover, olcegepant administration could decrease periodontal CGRP expressions and alleviate orofacial pain. Therefore, periodontal CGRP plays an important role in pain transmission and modulation following experimental tooth movement. We suggest that it may participate in a positive feedback aiming to amplify orofacial pain signals.

  10. Effect of Dietary Vitamin C on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Rats

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    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bone remodeling occurs during orthodontic treatment; this process enables tooth movement. Many factors can affect bone remodeling at the cellular level, such as nutritional supplements that can affect tooth movement. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin C on orthodontic tooth movement in rats. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 36 six-week male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 225+32 g, which were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Rats in the case group received 1wt% vitamin C in their daily water. Opening springs were placed on the incisor teeth of both case and control groups. After 17 days, rats were sacrificed; the distance between the mesio-incisal angles of these teeth was measured with a digital caliper. Histological sections were made containing incisor teeth and alveolar bone and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The number of resorption lacunae was evaluated using light microscopy.Results: Our findings showed that the amount of tooth movement in the vitamin C group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.001. The osteoclast counts were significantly higher in vitamin C group (P=0.036.Conclusion: Oral vitamin C can increase orthodontic tooth movement in rats with more osteoclast lacunae around root in the pressure area. 

  11. The Role of Mechanical Force in Molecular and Cellular during Orthodontic Tooth Movement

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    Ida Bagus Narmada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Application of mechanical force on abnormally positioned tooth, cause changes in tooth location and transmitted to the bone ia the periodontal ligament (PDL produce orthodontic tooth movement. This force application is further way that remodeling in the area occurs. In order to develop biological strategies for enhancing this movement of teeth in bone, the underlying mechanisms of bone resorption and apposition should be understood in detail. Analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF may be a good means of examining the on going molecular and cellular process associated with gingival and bone turnover during orthodontic tooth movement. If it could be possible to biologically monitor and predict the outcome of orthodontic force, then the appliance management could be based on dividual tissue response and the effectiveness of the treatment could be improved and understanding their biology is critical to finding ways to modify bone biology to move teeth faster. The present article reviewed a short introduction to some mayors advanced mechanical force in molecular and cellular biology during orthodontic tooth movement.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i3.30

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: a longitudinal randomized split-mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavarro, Cristiane; Teles, Ricardo Palmier; Capelli Júnior, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    This randomized split-mouth study aimed to examine the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at different time points during orthodontic tooth movement. A total of 16 healthy orthodontic subjects (7 females, 9 males; mean age, 17.7 years) who needed their first upper premolars extracted were enrolled. One randomly chosen maxillary canine was subjected to a distalizing force and was considered to be the test side. The contralateral canine, which was not subjected to any force but was included in the orthodontic appliance, was used as a control side. GCF sampling was performed at both the mesial (tension) and distal (pressure) test and control sites at baseline, immediately before applying the orthodontic appliance, and after 1 and 24 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days. A multiplexed bead immunoassay was used to analyse the GCF samples. The mean levels of the MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 were not significantly different between the test and control groups in each time showed. The comparisons between the tension and pressure sites were also not significantly different at each individual time. A few variations focused on MMP-1 and -3, but the expression of MMP-8 was higher than that of the other MMPs. MMPs are released in sufficient quantities such that tooth movement occurs but with no significant increase in GCF levels.

  13. Histological changes following surgically-assisted rapid tooth movement through resistance reduction and distraction osteogenesis in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the histological changes of rapid tooth movement in dogs treated by resistance reduction and distraction osteogenesis,aiming to establish an animal model and further to reveal the remodeling mechanism of rapid tooth movement. Methods A total of 8 local hybrid dogs were selected as subjects for this study. The second pre-molar was extracted on both sides. The experimental side underwent alvelor surgery for resistance reduction and a home-made tooth-borne intraoral distraction device ...

  14. A new concept in orthodontics: faster and healthier tooth movement by regularly consuming xyilitol chewing gum

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    Haryono Utomo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was first discovered in the 19th century, it wasn’t until the 1960’s that commercial production was first implemented. Recent studies showed that xylitol chewing gum is beneficial for preventing caries and periodontal disease. Therefore, it is also advantageous for orthodontic treatment, especially the fixed orthodontics patients who have difficulties in acquiring optimal oral health, particularly periodontal health which important in remodeling. However, how consuming xylitol chewing gum may stimulate tooth movement and preventing root resorption is still unclear. It is suggested that chewing activities may stimulate tooth movement, since jaw hypofunction leads to lower mineral apposition and bone function; and narrow periodontal ligament (PDL. These conditions may lead to impaired remodeling process, and increases the susceptibility of root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Moreover, since stimulation of the PDL could be mechanoreceptive (i.e. chewing action or nociceptive (i.e. painful stimulation, periodontal nerve fibers are supposed to play an important role in bone remodeling. It is supported by a study which revealed that during tooth movement, the galanin-containing immunoreactive nerve fibers, a part of primary sensory neurons in the PDL is increasing. Galanin is able to induce osteoclast differentiation that needed for bone resorption in orthodontic treatment. The objective of this study is to elucidate a new concept in using xylitol chewing gum as an excellent media to have a faster and healthier orthodontic movement. Since continuous chewing stimulates the PDL which enhances tooth movement, improves oral health, and prevents root resorption; it is concluded that this concept is possible.

  15. The influence of teriparatide in induced tooth movement: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Bianca-Núbia; Rodrigues, José-Lucas-Sani-de Alcântara; Moreira, Jefferson-Chaves; Matos, Felipe-de Souza; Cesar, Carla-Patrícia-Hernandez-Alves-Ribeiro; Repeke, Carlos-Eduardo-Palanch

    2016-01-01

    Background Teriparatide is a synthetic drug similar than PTH (parathyroid hormone), which is currently used as long-term treatment option for patients with bone chronic diseases, as osteoporosis; and this drug can interfere in a positive way in orthodontic movement. Objectives: The medical literature was assessed in the present systematic review in order to determine the level of scientific evidence supporting the influence of teriparatide in induced tooth movement. Material and Methods The PRISMA Checklist was followed in this systematic review. Four electronic databases (PubMed; Scopus; ScienceDirect; OpenGrey) were searched without implementing restrictions of year, status, and language of publications. The inclusion criteria consisted of selecting only experimental studies comparing the influence of teriparatide in tooth movement of male Wistar rats. The exclusion criteria consisted of experiments with female rats or other experimental animals, and animals with pathologic conditions. The eligible studies were evaluated based on methodological quality. Two trained examiners performed all the research steps. Results The initial sample comprised 700 studies, which was reduced to 664 after the exclusion of duplicates (n=36). Three articles were selected for the final qualitative analysis. The local administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1-34 or PTH 1-84 revealed major effectiveness when compared with control groups and systematic administration. Additionally, the dilution of PTH 1-34 within methyl cellulose (MC) gel increased the time range for drug release, enabling to reduce the drug concentration without decreasing the effectiveness of tooth movement. Conclusions Teriparatide demonstrated potential acceleration of tooth movement in Wistar rats depending on the drug concentration; drug administration; and time for drug release. Key words:Teriparatide, tooth movement, parathyroid hormone, orthodontics. PMID:27957280

  16. The influence of assisted mandibular movement on the incidence of nonworking tooth contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, J P; Dickson, J L; Kemper, J T

    1982-08-01

    A total of 147 subjects were examined for nonworking tooth contacts. The subjects were instructed to voluntarily move their mandibles 2 mm laterally and surveyed for tooth contacts on the nonworking side. If no contact was present, moderate forces were applied to the angle of the mandible and the subjects were again surveyed for the same tooth contacts. This procedure was repeated on the opposite side to collect two units of data from each subject. Three significant findings were revealed in the study. 1. A significant number of sides (29.9%) and patients (43.5%) had nonworking contacts during voluntary movement. 2. The incidence of nonworking contact increased significantly (87.8% of the sides and 94.5% of the patients) when force was applied to the mandible. 3. With assisted movement, women exhibited a more significant increase (91.1% of the sides) in nonworking contact than did men (79.3% of the sides).

  17. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially. Anima

  18. Medication effects on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartzela, T.; Turp, J.C.; Motschall, E.; Maltha, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recently, several reviews have been published on the effects of medications on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in orthodontics. However, the effects of medications on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been evaluated. METHODS: A systematic literature review o

  19. Effect of atorvastatin on orthodontic tooth movement in male wistar rats.

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    Amir Hossein MirHashemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs by many patients and have been recently shown to affect bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of atorvastatinon on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM in rats.Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups of 12 samples each. Group A, served as control with no medication while groups B and C received a daily gavage of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC as vehicle and atorvastatin (5 mg/kg as test substance, respectively. In all three groups, 6mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs were ligated between the maxillary incisors and first left molars to deliver an initial force of 60g. Tooth movement was measured following sacrifice, 21 days after appliance insertion. Root resorption, PDL width and osteoclast number were histologically evaluated and compared between the groups.The mean amount of tooth movement was 0.62 mm in group A, 0.59 mm in group B and 0.38 mm in group C. OTM reduction following administration of atorvastatin was statistically significant (p0.05.According to the results obtained in the current study, atorvastatin appears to reduce tooth movement in rats; however its effect on osteoclasts, especially osteoclastic function, requires further investigation.

  20. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S.H.; Giesen, E.B.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five y

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, Miriam; Bloemen, M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von Den Hoff, Johannes W

    2009-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement requires extensive re-modelling of the periodontium. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix during re-modelling, while their activity is regulated by the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The aim of this study was to investigate di

  2. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Bohl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Fudalej, Piotr S.; Maltha, Jaap C.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental, pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged

  3. Optimum force magnitude for orthodontic tooth movement : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the literature concerning the optimal force or range of forces for orthodontic tooth movement. Over 400 articles both on human research and animal experiments were found in Medline and by hand searching of main orthodontic and dental journals.

  4. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

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    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  5. The effects of samarium-cobalt magnets and pulsed electromagnetic fields on tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darendeliler, M A; Sinclair, P M; Kusy, R P

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of either samarium cobalt magnets or pulsed electromagnetic fields could increase the rate and amount of orthodontic tooth movement observed in guinea pigs. In addition, the objective was to evaluate the effect of a magnetic field on bony physiology and metabolism and to monitor for possible systemic side effects. Fifteen grams of laterally directed orthodontic force were applied to move the maxillary central incisors of a sample of 18 young male Hartley guinea pigs divided into three groups: group 1, an orthodontic coil spring was used to move the incisors; group 2, a pair of samarium-cobalt magnets provided the tooth moving force; and group 3, a coil spring was used in combination with a pulsed electromagnetic field. The results showed that both the static magnetic field produced by the samarium-cobalt magnets and the pulsed electromagnetic field used in combination with the coil spring were successful in increasing the rate of tooth movement over that produced by the coil springs alone. The mechanism producing this effect appears to have involved a reduction in the "lag" phase often seen in orthodontic tooth movement. Both magnetically stimulated groups also showed increases in both the organization and amount of new bone deposited in the area of tension between the orthodontically moved maxillary incisors.

  6. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material and methods Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n = 15 each) according to investing method: plaster–plaster–plaster (P–P–P), plaster–stone–stone (P-S-S), and plaster–mix (P–M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I–I) and intermolar (M–M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor–molar (LI–LM and RI–RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to compare the results. Results M–M, LI–LM, and RI–RM movement was significantly greater in the P–P–P group than in the P–S–S and P–M groups; no significant difference in I–I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M–M and I–I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P–P–P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. Conclusion The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement. PMID:26792971

  7. Microscopic evaluation of induced tooth movement after subluxation trauma: an experimental study in rats

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    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the histological alterations that occurred in the periodontal area of rat molars submitted to induced tooth movement (ITM right after an intentional trauma (subluxation. METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus were selected. The animals were divided into eight groups (n = 5, according to the combination of variables: Group 1 - control (neither trauma nor ITM; Group 2 - ITM; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 - dentoalveolar trauma groups corresponding, respectively, to 1, 3, 8 and 10 days after trauma; Groups 7 and 8 - the animals' molars were subjected to a 900 cN impact and, one and three days after the trauma event, tooth movement was induced. The rats' maxillary first molars were mesially moved during seven days with a closed coil (50 cN. After the experimental period of each group, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the right maxillas were removed and processed for histological analysis under light microscopy. RESULTS: In the animals of group 3, 4, 5 and 6, the histological alterations were not very significant. Consequently, the effect of induced tooth movement right after a subluxation event (groups 7 and 8 was very similar to those described for Group 2. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the quality of periodontal repair when ITM was applied to teeth that had suffered a subluxation trauma.

  8. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, S H; Giesen, E B W; Maltha, J C

    2012-10-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five young adult male beagle dogs were used to test the null hypothesis that the mechanical behaviour of the PDL is identical in normal and hyalinized PDL. Therefore, tooth transposition was measured after standardized force application by super-elastic nickel titanium (NiTi) coil springs, exerting a constant force of 100 cN for 5 hours in both conditions. A rapid transposition during the first few seconds was found. However, it was significantly less for hyalinized than for non-hyalinized PDL. Subsequently, a short-lived creep movement was found for hyalinized PDL, while creep persisted at the non-hyalinized sides (analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons post hoc tests). The results showed substantial biomechanical differences between hyalinized and non-hyalinized PDL at different time points (Mann-Whitney). This indicates that FE models in the study of long-term orthodontic tooth movement, which are based solely on the characteristics of normal PDL should be reconsidered.

  9. Minimally Invasive Techniques to Accelerate the Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies

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    Irfan Qamruddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate various noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures for the enhancement of orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Materials and Methods. Literature was searched using NCBI (PubMed, PubMed Central, and PubMed Health, MedPilot (Medline, Catalogue ZB MED, Catalogue Medicine Health, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE, and Google Scholar from January 2009 till 31 December 2014. We included original articles related to noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures to enhance orthodontic tooth movement in animals. Extraction of data and quality assessments were carried out by two observers independently. Results. The total number of hits was 9195 out of which just 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Nine articles were good and 5 articles were moderate in quality. Low level laser therapy (LLLT was among the most common noninvasive techniques whereas flapless corticision using various instruments was among the commonest minimally invasive procedures to enhance velocity of tooth movement. Conclusions. LLLT, low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, mechanical vibration, and flapless corticision are emerging noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques which need further researches to establish protocols to use them clinically with conviction.

  10. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

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    Martina Von Böhl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  11. Pulp-dentine complex changes and root resorption during intrusive orthodontic tooth movement in patients prescribed nabumetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Paula A; Oberti, Giovanni; Moncada, Cesar A; Vasseur, Olga; Jaramillo, Alejandro; Tobón, Diego; Agudelo, Jaime A

    2005-01-01

    Pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain may be experienced during orthodontic movement. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been suggested to control these changes. The purpose of this study was to observe pulp-dentinal reactions, root resorption, tooth pain, and tooth movement after the application of a 4-ounce intrusive orthodontic force to human maxillary first premolars in patients given the NSAID nabumetone. Thirty-four maxillary first premolars were evaluated. A placebo was prescribed to 17 patients after an intrusive force was activated and reactivated for an 8-week period on the right side. The same procedure was repeated on the left side after patients were given nabumetone. Pulp-dentinal reactions and external root resorption were evaluated by histology. Pain and movement were also evaluated. Nabumetone was found to be useful in reducing pulpitis, external root resorption, and pain caused by intrusive orthodontic movement, without altering tooth movement in response to the application of orthodontic force.

  12. The action of corticosteroids on orthodontic tooth movement: a literature review

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    Luegya Amorim Henriques Knop

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Tooth movement is initially characterized by an acute sterile inflammation, followed by sequential multiple reactions in the periodontal ligament in response to biomechanical forces. Pharmacological agents such as corticosteroids may affect the course of orthodontic movement. Scientific studies show antagonistic actions of these drugs on bone resorption during tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature about the effect of corticosteroids on orthodontic tooth movement. CONCLUSION: Patients should be questioned regarding the use of these drugs in the orthodontic practice and for those who use them, the orthodontic treatment should be differentiated, with longer intervals between visits and periodic X-rays due to the delay in bone formation observed in some scientific studies.INTRODUÇÃO: a movimentação dentária é caracterizada, inicialmente, por uma inflamação aguda estéril, seguida por reações múltiplas sequenciais no ligamento periodontal em resposta às forças biomecânicas. Agentes farmacológicos, como os corticosteroides, podem alterar o curso da movimentação ortodôntica. Os estudos científicos demonstram ações antagonistas dessas drogas sobre a reabsorção óssea durante a movimentação dentária. OBJETIVO: realizar revisão de literatura sobre a ação dos corticosteroides no movimento dentário ortodôntico. CONCLUSÃO: os pacientes devem ser questionados quanto ao uso dessas drogas na clínica ortodôntica e, para aqueles que fazem uso, o tratamento ortodôntico deve ser diferenciado, com intervalos maiores entre as consultas e solicitação periódica de radiografias devido ao atraso na neoformação óssea observado em alguns estudos científicos.

  13. Immunolocalization of lubricin in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Loreto, Carla; Talic, Nabeel; Caltabiano, Rosario; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Lubricin is a protein which contributes to the boundary lubrication, facilitating low friction levels at the interfacing surfaces of joints. In tendons and ligaments it facilitates the relative movement of collagen bundles. Its expression is affected by mechanical signals and cytokines. During application of orthodontic forces to teeth, there is a transduction of mechanical forces to the cells of the periodontal ligament (PDL), which triggers several biological reactions causing the synthesis of prostaglandins, cytokines and growth factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunolocalization of lubricin and to evaluate if it is time-dependently and differentially detected within the PDL following the application of orthodontic forces to create areas of compression and tension. This was achieved by placing elastic bands between the maxillary first and second molars of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats (each weighing 120-200g) for 12 and 24h. The molar-bearing segments were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Binding of a monoclonal antibody was used to evaluate lubricin localization using an indirect streptavidin/biotin immunperoxidase technique. Lubricin, was constitutively expressed in the PDL of rat molars. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, lubricin was down-regulated, on both sides (compression and tension) of the PDL, in a time-dependent fashion, although to a different extent, being at any time more expressed on the tension side. Furthermore, in every sample, almost all PDL cells in the adjacent tooth cementum and alveolar bone, were more heavily immunolabeled by lubricin antibody, contrary to those located in the central portion of the PDL. Lubricin expression therefore seems related to PDL remodeling and tooth displacement following the application of an orthodontic force, and it appears that lubricin may play an important role during tooth movement.

  14. Effect of LED-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizer, Abdullah; Uysal, Tancan; Güray, Enis; Akkuş, Derya

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of light-emitting diode-mediated-photobiomodulation therapy (LPT), on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (TM) and orthodontically induced root resorption, in rats. Twenty male 12-week-old Wistar rats were separated into two groups (control and LPT) and 50 cN of force was applied between maxillary left molar and incisor with a coil spring. In the treatment group, LPT was applied with an energy density of 20 mW/cm(2) over a period of 10 consecutive days directly over the movement of the first molar teeth area. The distance between the teeth was measured with a digital caliper on days 0 (T0), 10 (T1), and 21 (T2) on dental cast models. The surface area of root resorption lacunae was measured histomorphometrically using digital photomicrographs. Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical evaluation at p resorption, expressed as a percentage, showed that the average relative root resorption affecting the maxillary molars on the TM side was 0.098 ± 0.066 in the LPT group and 0.494 ± 0.224 in the control group. Statistically significant inhibition of root resorption with LPT was determined (p orthodontic tooth movement and inhibitory effects on orthodontically induced resorptive activity.

  15. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

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    Liviu Feller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  16. Initial tooth movement under extraoral force and considerations for controlled molar movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Jost-Brinkmann, P G; Yamada, Y

    1995-01-01

    Initial movement of the maxillary first molars under the application of straight-pull, cervical-pull, and high-pull headgear was measured in human subjects. Facebow deflection can influence molar movement as the relationship of the force vector to the molar's center of resistance changes with an increase of force. The present study proposes using headgear with a combination of variable-pull headcap and short outer bow. A variable-pull headcap allows a great range in force direction. The direction of the headgear force system can be accurately determined using a short outer bow.

  17. Distribution pattern of versican, link protein and hyaluronic acid in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R; Yamamoto, H; Kasai, K; Yamauchi, M

    2002-02-01

    The ability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) to rapidly remodel is the basis of orthodontic tooth movement. During the tooth movement, matrix proteoglycans (PGs) may play important roles in spatial, mechanical and biological aspects for the maintenance and repair of the PDL. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of a large hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding proteoglycan, versican, link protein (LP) and HA in the rat molar PDL during experimental tooth movement by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Experimental tooth movement was performed according to Waldo's method. Histologically, regressive changes, such as decrease of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and exudative change of edema were observed in the compressive side and progressive changes, such as proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, in the strain side one day after treatment. By 3 days after tooth movement, regressive or progressive changes were not observed in either side. Using monoclonal antibodies specific to versican core protein or LP, the positive immunoreactivity for both molecules was constantly observed throughout the PDL. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, however, the immunostainings of versican and LP became significantly intense only in the compressive side but decreased in the strain side. The intensity in the compressive side was strongest one day after the force was applied and gradually diminished thereafter. HA of both sides did not change during experimental tooth movement. Since HA is present in the PDL, large amounts of versican and LP expressed in the compressive side may create large hydrated aggregates via their association with HA that dissipates the compressive force applied to this tissue.

  18. Finite element analysis of equine incisor teeth. Part 2: investigation of stresses and strain energy densities in the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone during tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, P; Lüpke, M; Seifert, H; Staszyk, C

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the hypothetical contribution of biomechanical loading to the onset of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) and to elucidate the physiological age-related positional changes of the equine incisors. Based on high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) datasets, 3-dimensional models of entire incisor arcades and the canine teeth were constructed representing a young and an old incisor dentition. Special attention was paid to constructing an anatomically correct model of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Using previously determined Young's moduli for the equine incisor PDL, finite element (FE) analysis was performed. Resulting strains, stresses and strain energy densities (SEDs), as well as the resulting regions of tension and compression within the PDL and the surrounding bone were investigated during occlusion. The results showed a distinct distribution pattern of high stresses and corresponding SEDs in the PDL and bone. Due to the tooth movement, peaks of SEDs were obtained in the PDL as well as in the bone on the labial and palatal/lingual sides of the alveolar crest. At the root, highest SEDs were detected in the PDL on the palatal/lingual side slightly occlusal of the root tip. This distribution pattern of high SEDs within the PDL coincides with the position of initial resorptive lesions in EOTRH affected teeth. The position of high SEDs in the bone can explain the typical age-related alteration of shape and angulation of equine incisors.

  19. Effects of medications and laser on induced tooth movement and associated root resorption: four key points

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    Alberto Consolaro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The following four fundamental points on the use of experimental models will be described to ensure an accurate evaluation of the effects of medication and laser therapy on induced tooth movement and associated root resorption: (1 If the objective is to check the effect on root resorption, the forces experimentally applied must produce a lesion on the cementoblast layer in all specimens; (2 If the objective is to optimize induced tooth movement and reduce treatment time without side effects, the forces experimentally applied should not produce a lesion in the cementoblast layer in any specimen; (3 The laser therapy operator, the person administering medication and the person that places appliances should not know which animals will effectively receive the test treatment, and the control groups should receive placebo treatments; (4 CT and microscopic analysis of the specimens should be random, and the group to which the specimen belongs should not be identified to ensure that the person reading images and the pathologists are not influenced in their evaluation of phenomena. These measures will ensure that results are more reliable and easier to extrapolate to orthodontic clinical practice.

  20. Effects of nicotine on bone during orthodontic tooth movement in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakathir, Manal A.; Linjawi, Amal I.; Omar, Samia S.; Aboqura, Ahad B.; Hassan, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of nicotine on orthodontic tooth movement and accompanying histological and immunohistochemical changes in rats. Methods: An experimental study conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2013 and 2014. Thirty-two rats randomly divided into 4 groups. Three were experimental, received daily nicotine injections: group A: 0.37 mg/kg, group B: 0.57 mg/kg, and group C: 0.93 mg/kg. The control group (group D) received a daily injection of 0.5 mL saline. All rats were subjected to 30 g of orthodontic force on the maxillary left first molars and incisors using a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring. The distance between the 2 teeth was assessed before and after 14 days of force application. Histological, immunohistochemical, and histomorphometric assessments were performed on sections from groups C and D. Results: Groups C (porthodontic tooth movement with unbalanced bone resorption and apposition patterns around the moving teeth. PMID:27652365

  1. Evaluation of pain in rats through facial expression following experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lina; Long, Hu; Zhang, Li; Chen, Helin; Zhou, Yang; Ye, Niansong; Lai, Wenli

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate pain in rats by monitoring their facial expressions following experimental tooth movement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following five groups based on the magnitude of orthodontic force applied and administration of analgesics: control; 20 g; 40 g; 80 g; and morphine + 40 g. Closed-coil springs were used to mimic orthodontic forces. The facial expressions of each rat were videotaped, and the resulting rat grimace scale (RGS) coding was employed for pain quantification. The RGS score increased on day 1 but showed no significant change thereafter in the control and 20-g groups. In the 40- and 80-g groups, the RGS scores increased on day 1, peaked on day 3, and started to decrease on day 5. At 14 d, the RGS scores were similar in control and 20-, 40-, and 80-g groups and did not return to baseline. The RGS scores in the morphine + 40-g group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Our results reveal that coding of facial expression is a valid method for evaluation of pain in rats following experimental tooth movement. Inactivated springs (no force) still cause discomfort and result in an increase in the RGS. The threshold force magnitude required to evoke orthodontic pain in rats is between 20 and 40 g.

  2. Force-Induced H2S by PDLSCs Modifies Osteoclastic Activity during Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Wen, F; He, D; Liu, D; Yang, R; Wang, X; Yan, Y; Liu, Y; Kou, X; Zhou, Y

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gasotransmitter, has been recently linked to mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function and bone homeostasis. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are the main MSCs in PDL, which respond to mechanical force to induce physiological activities during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). However, it is unknown whether mechanical force might induce endogenous H2S production by PDLSCs to regulate alveolar bone homeostasis. Here, we used a mouse OTM model to demonstrate that orthodontic force-induced endogenous H2S production in PDL tissue was associated with macrophage accumulation and osteoclastic activity in alveolar bone. Then, we showed that mechanical force application induced cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) expression and endogenous H2S production by PDLSCs. Moreover, blocking endogenous H2S or systemically increasing H2S levels could decrease or enhance force-induced osteoclastic activities to control tooth movement. We further revealed how force-induced H2S production by PDLSCs contributed to the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) system by PDLSCs. The secretion and expression of these factors controlled macrophage migration and osteoclast differentiation. This study demonstrated that PDLSCs produced H2S to respond to and transduce force signals. Force-induced gasotransmitter H2S production in PDLSCs therefore regulated osteoclastic activities in alveolar bone and controlled the OTM process through the MCP-1 secretion and RANKL/OPG system.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Orthodontic Tooth Movement

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    Mohd Faiz Ellias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment has been shown to induce inflammation, followed by bone remodelling in the periodontium. These processes trigger the secretion of various proteins and enzymes into the saliva. This study aims to identify salivary proteins that change in expression during orthodontic tooth movement. These differentially expressed proteins can potentially serve as protein biomarkers for the monitoring of orthodontic treatment and tooth movement. Whole saliva from three healthy female subjects were collected before force application using fixed appliance and at 14 days after 0.014′′ Niti wire was applied. Salivary proteins were resolved using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE over a pH range of 3–10, and the resulting proteome profiles were compared. Differentially expressed protein spots were then identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed; however, only eight were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Four of these proteins—Protein S100-A9, immunoglobulin J chain, Ig alpha-1 chain C region, and CRISP-3—have known roles in inflammation and bone resorption.

  4. Optimizing Maxillary Aesthetics of a Severe Compromised Tooth through Orthodontic Movement and Dental Implants

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    Rafael Scaf de Molon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of severe compromised tooth in the maxillary anterior area still poses great challenge to the clinicians. Several treatment modalities have been proposed to restore the function and aesthetics in teeth with advanced periodontal disease. The present study aims to report a case of traumatic injury of a left-maxillary central incisor with ridge preservation, orthodontic movement, and implant therapy. A 45-year-old woman underwent the proposed treatment for her left central incisor: basic periodontal therapy, xenogenous bone graft, and guided bone regeneration (GBR. Six months after the graft procedure, orthodontic movement by means of alignment and leveling was made and a coronal displacement of the gingival margin and vertical bone apposition could be observed after 13 months of active movement. Afterwards, a dental implant was placed followed by a connective tissue graft and immediate provisionalization of the crown. In conclusion, orthodontic movement was effective to improve the gingival tissue and alveolar bone prior to implant placement favoring the aesthetic results. Six years postoperatively, the results revealed height and width alveolar bone gain indicating that the treatment proposed was able to restore all the functional and aesthetic parameters.

  5. Corticotomies as a surgical procedure to accelerate tooth movement during orthodontic treatment: A systematic review

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    Fernández-Ferrer, Laura; Montiel-Company, José-María; Candel-Martí, Eugenia; Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main aims of orthodontists is to reduce the treatment time as much as possible, particularly in view of the rise in demand for orthodontic treatment among adult patients. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of corticotomy as a surgical procedure that accelerates orthodontic tooth movement, together with its possible adverse effects. Material and Methods A systematic review of articles in 4 databases, Pubmed, Cochrane, Scopus and Embase, complemented by a manual search, identified 772 articles. The duplicates were eliminated and a critical reading of titles and abstracts led to the rejection of articles that did not meet the objectives of the review, leaving 69. After reading the full text of these articles, 49 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. On applying the CONSORT criteria as a quality filter, a further 4 were eliminated due to low quality. Finally, 16 articles (4 systematic reviews and 12 controlled trials) were reviewed. Results All the studies agree that corticotomy prior to orthodontic treatment accelerates dental movement, reducing the treatment time. With regard to side-effects, no periodontal damage was found, although this was only studied in the short term. Conclusions The evidence regarding the results of corticotomy is limited, given the small number of quality clinical studies available. Before this procedure is included as a routine practice in dental surgeries, studies of higher methodological quality are required, studying a greater number of individuals and examining the possible long-term adverse effects and the cost/benefit of the procedure. Key words:Corticotomy, orthodontics, adults, accelerated tooth movement, osteotomy. PMID:27475698

  6. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

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    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  7. Nicotine effect on bone remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement: Histological study in rats

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    Ricardo Lima Shintcovsk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nicotine is harmful to angiogenesis, osteogenesis and synthesis of collagen. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on bone remodeling during orthodontic movement in rats. Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group C (control, group CM (with orthodontic movement and group NM (nicotine with orthodontic movement groups. The animals comprising groups C and CM received 0.9% saline solution while group NM received nicotine solution (2 mg/kg. A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was used to induce tooth movement. The animals were euthanized and tissue specimens were processed histologically. We quantified blood vessels, Howship's lacunae and osteoclast-like cells present in the tension and compression areas of periodontal ligaments. The extent of bone formation was evaluated under polarized light to determine the percentage of immature/mature collagen. Results: We observed lower blood vessel densities in the NM group in comparison to the CM group, three (p < 0.001 and seven (p < 0.05 days after force application. Osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae in the NM group presented lower levels of expression in comparison to the CM group, with significant differences on day 7 (p < 0.05 for both variables and day 14 (p < 0.05 for osteoclast-like cells and p < 0.01 for Howship's lacunae. The percentage of immature collagen increased in the NM group in comparison to the CM group with a statistically significant difference on day 3 (p < 0.05, day 7 (p < 0.001, day 14 (p < 0.001 and day 21 (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Nicotine affects bone remodeling during orthodontic movement, reducing angiogenesis, osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae, thereby delaying the collagen maturation process in developed bone matrix.

  8. Cell biology in orthodontic tooth movement: The known and the unknown

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    REN Yi-jin

    2005-01-01

    This review is aimed at providing, at the cellular level, a concise and complete overview of the important knowledge on the mechanism of orthodontic tooth movement to orthodontists and postgraduates who are involved or interested in basic research. The construction of this article was oriented to the following key questions: Where an osteoclast starts to its first resorption site? When the cascade of a resorption cycle starts? What are the factors involved in bone remodeling and how they orchestrate? What happens before and after the formation of a resorption pit? Major findings in these aspects were summarized and discussed. In addition, related biological phenomenon such as orthodontically induced root resorption was intensively reviewed. By means of an updated and systematic review, the author intended to introduce more biological evidence to orthodontic intervention and to encourage evidence-based treatment in daily orthodontic practice.

  9. Histological changes during orthodontic tooth movement due to hyperbaric oxygen therapy

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    Arya Brahmanta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical force of orthodontics causes changes in periodontal ligament vascularization and blood flow, resulting in biochemical and cellular changes as well as changes in the contour of the alveolar bone and in the thickness of the periodontal ligaments. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy is one of many solutions stimulating the growth of new blood vessels and increasing tissue oxygenation. Thus, HBO plays a role in recovery of periodontal ligament and osteoblasts. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effects of HBO therapy for seven days on periodontal ligament size and osteoblast number in the tension site during bone remodeling in tooth movement. Method: The study was true experimental laboratories with completely randomized control group post test only design. Twenty-four males guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups. K0 was the control group without any treatment, K1 was the group given a mechanical orthodontic pressure, and K2 was the group treated with the addition of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The maxillary incisors were moved distally by elastic separator. After HBO therapy on day 7, all of the groups were sacrificed, and then periodontal ligament size and osteoblast number were analyzed by one-way Anova and LSD statistical tests. Result: The results showed significant differences in the size of the periodontal ligament and the number of osteoblasts in the tension site among the groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: HBO therapy at 2.4 ATA for 7 days is effective in recovery of periodontal ligament and increased osteoblast number during bone remodeling in tension area of orthodontic tooth movement.

  10. The effect of medication on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (Part 2: Mediators and other drugs

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    Amirhossein Mirhashemi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Molecules produced in various diseased tissues or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can reach the mechanically stressed paradental tissues through the circulation and interact with local target cells. The combined effect of mechanical forces and one or more of these agents may be inhibitory, additive or synergistic. The aim of this review was to outline the mechanisms of action and effects of some commonly used drugs on tissue remodeling and Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM. A review on the effects of medications and dietary supplements on the rate of experimental tooth movement was performed using Cochrane library, Embase and Medline (1980-2013. 63 articles were included in the review. 34 of them related to the effects of hormones and analgesics were evaluated in the first part of this review. The rest of them (29 articles were evaluated in the current review, but their interpretation was hindered by the variability in experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and medication regimens. Vitamin D3 might enhance the pace of tooth movement, but dietary calcium and fluorides appear to reduce the rate of OTM. Bisphosphonates (BPNs are considered to have marked inhibitory effects on the rate of tooth movement. Nicotine and nitric oxide might effectively increase the speed of OTM. All drugs reviewed had therapeutic effects, as well as side effects, that may influence the cells targeted by orthodontic forces. Therefore, it is imperative that the orthodontist pays close attention to the drug consumption history of each and every patient, before and during the course of orthodontic treatment. When the use of drugs is revealed, their effects and side effects on tissue systems should be explored to determine their potential influence on the outcome of mechanotherapy.

  11. Immunolocalization of FGF-2 and VEGF in rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement

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    Milene Freitas Lima Salomão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article aimed at identifying the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the tension and pressure areas of rat periodontal ligament, in different periods of experimental orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: An orthodontic force of 0.5 N was applied to the upper right first molar of 18 male Wistar rats for periods of 3 (group I, 7 (group II and 14 days (group III. The counter-side first molar was used as a control. The animals were euthanized at the aforementioned time periods, and their maxillary bone was removed and fixed. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed and embedded in paraffin. FGF-2 and VEGF expressions were studied through immunohistochemistry and morphological analysis. RESULTS: The experimental side showed a higher expression of both FGF-2 and VEGF in all groups, when compared with the control side (P < 0.05. Statistically significant differences were also found between the tension and pressure areas in the experimental side. CONCLUSION: Both FGF-2 and VEGF are expressed in rat periodontal tissue. Additionally, these growth factors are upregulated when orthodontic forces are applied, thereby suggesting that they play an important role in changes that occur in periodontal tissue during orthodontic movement.

  12. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

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    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  13. External Root Resorption During Standardised Orthodontic Tooth Movement In Young And Adult Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-jin; JC. Maltha; AM Kuijpers-Jagtman

    2004-01-01

    目的:比较研究幼鼠和成年鼠正畸牙齿移动过程中的牙根吸收.方法:本研究包括两组大鼠,其中幼鼠30只(年龄约6周),成年鼠30只(年龄约9~12个月).大鼠上颌牙一侧用于实验侧,另一侧用于对照.实验侧的三颗磨牙用结扎丝颌粘接剂固为一个整体,在超弹性拉簧作用下(力值为0.1牛顿)向切牙侧移动.1,2,4,8和12周时给予大鼠过量麻醉剂,材料用于组织学研究.上颌第一磨牙的近中颊侧根为根吸收研究对象.压力侧和张力侧的牙根吸收程度在显微镜下进行长度测量.实验侧与对照侧,压力侧与张力侧,幼鼠与成年鼠之间的牙根吸收程度分别以实验时间为参照,在统计学手段下进行了组间和组内分析和比较,以探讨牙齿移动时间和年龄因素对于牙根吸收的影响.结果:实验侧的牙根吸收在幼鼠与成年鼠之间在1,2,4,8周时均没有统计学差异.而在第12周时,成年鼠实验侧牙根吸收大于幼鼠 (P<0.05).成年鼠实验组压力侧的牙根吸收明显大于对照组压力侧,而在幼鼠组没有发现这一差异.两组年龄幼鼠的实验组其压力侧和张力侧的牙根吸收均高度相关.结论:相对于对照侧,正畸牙齿移动并没有在幼鼠的实验侧诱发更多的牙根吸收.在成年鼠,长期的正畸作用力倾向于诱发更多的牙根吸收.这些研究结果表明对于正畸成年病人的后期治疗要更加注意防止牙根吸收.%Objective: To evaluate root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in young and adult rats. Material and Methods: Standardised orthodontic tooth movement was performed in two groups of 30 male rats; a juvenile group aged 6 wks and an adult group aged 9-12 months. A split mouth design was chosen. The three maxillary molars at the experimental sides were moved as one unit mesially by a Sentalloy coil spring delivering a force of 10 cN over a long range of activation. The contra-lateral molars served as

  14. Escaping the Adverse Impacts of NSAIDs on Tooth Movement During Orthodontics

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    Fang, Jie; Li, Yifei; Zhang, Keke; Zhao, Zhihe; Mei, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to relieve pain during orthodontic treatments; however, the possible inhibition of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) by NSAIDs has been debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some commonly used NSAIDs on OTM during orthodontic treatments. A review of the literature identified relevant studies up to August 2014. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane review group and the PRISMA statement. Studies were identified by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random-effect model using Revman 5.1.1. Five studies, including 128 subjects and 3 main NSAIDs (celecoxib, acetaminophen, and aspirin), were included for quantitative synthesis and analysis. Celecoxib did not inhibit OTM except with middle-term use (2–3 weeks) (95% CI [−6.47 to −0.43], P = 0.03). Acetaminophen did not inhibit OTM except with long-term use (>1 month) and low-dose use (∼100 mg/kg per day), (95% CI [−2.96 to −0.78], P = 0.0008; 95%CI [−2.42, −0.46], P = 0.004; respectively). Aspirin was found to inhibit OTM (95%CI [−2.40 to −0.64], P = 0.0008). Our systematic review with meta-analysis suggests that aspirin might inhibit OTM in rat models, whereas the short-term (orthodontic pain would not inhibit OTM. Well-designed human research should be completed before a solid conclusion can be reached. PMID:27100413

  15. The Effect of Celecoxib on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rat

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    Ahmad Sodagar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Inhibition of prostaglandin (PGs production leads to decrease in orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. It is not known whether inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is the key mechanism for this effect. In this study, the effect of celecoxib, a highly-selective COX-2 inhibitor, was investigated on OTM in rats.Materials and Methods: Four groups of male rats (seven animals in each goup were used in the study. A 5mm-long nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was ligated between the right maxillary incisor and the first molar of each rat to deliver an initial force of 60g. All four groups recieved orthodontic appliances, group 1 received no injections, group 2 received celecoxib injections (0.3 mg in 0.1 ml saline solution, group 3 recieved normal saline injections (0.1 ml saline solution, and group 4 recieved needle penetration without injecting any solution. The local injections were carried out every 3 days for 18 days. All injections were subperiosteal and given in the upper right first molar mucosa. The animals were sacrificed 21 days after appliance insertion and OTM was measured.Results: In the animals treated with celecoxib a statistically significant decrease in OTM was observed compared with the other groups. Histological findings revealed that osteoclast count was significantly lower in group 2 compared with the other groups (P<0.05. The amount of root resorption showed a slight, but nonsignificant decrease in group 3.Conclusion: This study suggests that celecoxib decreases OTM and osteoclast count. This might be the result of COX-2 enzyme inhibition and subsequent decrease in prostaglandin production.

  16. Factores modificantes del movimiento dentario ortodóncico Modifiers factors of orthodontic tooth movement

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    P. Vargas del Valle

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de la remodelación ósea es fundamental tanto para ortodoncia como para la ortopedia dentofacial. Esta revisión clínica es sobre la relación de la actividad ósea desencadenada por las fuerzas ortodóncicas con diversos factores, como factores propios de los pacientes, moléculas producidas por tejidos enfermos, o drogas y nutrientes consumidas regularmente por los pacientes, los que pueden alcanzar los tejidos periodontales mecánicamente estresados por las fuerzas ortodóncicas a través de la circulación sanguínea, interactuando así con células blanco que producen la remodelación ósea necesaria para el movimiento dentario ortodóncico. El efecto combinado de estas fuerzas mecánicas con alguno de estos agentes pueden ser inhibitorio, aditivo o sinérgico. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los mecanismos de acción y los efectos de algunas de lasdrogas y otros factores sobre la remodelación del tejido óseo y el movimiento dentario ortodóncico.Bone remodeling is fundamental to orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics.This clinically oriented overview relate bone responses to orthodontic forces with many factors. Molecules produced in various diseased tissues, or drugs and nutrients consumed regularly by patients, can reach the mechanically stressed paradental tissues through the circulation, and interact with local target cells. The combined effect of mechanical forces and one or more of these agents may be inhibitory, additive or synergistic. The objective of this review is to outline the mechanisms of action and effects of some commonly used drugs and other factors on tissue remodeling and orthodontic tooth movement.

  17. Age-at-death estimation by pulp/tooth area ratio in canines: study of a 20th-century Mexican sample of prisoners to test Cameriere's method.

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    De Luca, Stefano; Bautista, Josefina; Alemán, Inmaculada; Cameriere, Roberto

    2011-09-01

    Accurate age estimation has always been a problem for forensic scientists, and apposition of secondary dentine is often used as an indicator of age. Cameriere et al. studied the pulp/tooth area ratio by peri-apical X-ray images of the canines, to observe the apposition of secondary dentine. The present study examines the application of this technique in a Mexican identified sample coming from the Department of Physical Anthropology of the INAH, at Mexico City. The main aim of this work is to test the reliability of this method in a skeletal sample of a specific population, different from the samples used for its development. The obtained regression model explained 96.2% of total variance (R(2) = 0.962) with a standard error of estimate of 1.909 and a standard deviation of 1.947. These results demonstrate great reliability and that the age/secondary dentine relationship is not variable in this specific population.

  18. The level’s changing of transforming growth factor β2 during canine retraction in non-growing age patient

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    Adianti Adianti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Orthodontic tooth movement occurred as a result of alveolar bone remodeling and collagen due to mechanical load. This mechanical load applied to the tooth will exert a number of cytokine and growth factors. One of the growth factors that are often associated with orthodontic tooth movement is transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β. It has 3 isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3. It has been known that in adult patient, tooth movement rate was slower. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the changing level of TGF-β2 in non-growing patient due to mechanical load in canine retraction. Method: Gingival crevicular fluid from 6 subjects who undergo canine retraction was taken to investigate changing level of TGF-β2. Distal site of each upper canine served as an experimental tooth. The gingival crevicular fluid from experimental tooth was taken just prior to mechanical load, at 24h and 72h after mechanical load. Result: ELISA reader showed that level of TGF-β2 was decreasing during experiment time. Conclusion: It can be concluded that in non-growing patient, TGF-β2 has less role in alveolar bone resorption in orthodontic tooth movement.

  19. Simulação 3D de movimento ortodôntico 3D simulation of orthodontic tooth movement

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    Norman Duque Penedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: desenvolver e validar, através do Método dos Elementos Finitos (MEF, um modelo numérico tridimensional (3D de um incisivo central superior para simular o movimento dentário. MÉTODOS: esse modelo contempla a unidade dentária, o osso alveolar e o ligamento periodontal. Permite a simulação dos diferentes movimentos dentários e a determinação dos centros de rotação e de resistência. Limita o movimento ao espaço periodontal, registrando a direção, quantificando o deslocamento dentário e as tensões iniciais no ligamento periodontal. RESULTADOS: a análise dos deslocamentos dentários e das áreas que recebem tensões iniciais possibilita determinar os tipos de movimentos dentários. Com base nas forças ortodônticas, é possível quantificar a intensidade das tensões em cada região do dente, do ligamento periodontal ou do osso alveolar. Com base nas tensões axiais ao longo do ligamento periodontal e da tensão capilar, é possível predizer, teoricamente, as regiões em que deve ocorrer a remodelação óssea. CONCLUSÃO: o modelo foi validado pela determinação do módulo de elasticidade do ligamento periodontal de forma compatível com dados experimentais existentes na literatura. Os métodos utilizados na construção do modelo permitiram a criação de um modelo completo para uma arcada dentária, o qual possibilita realizar variadas simulações que envolvem a mecânica ortodôntica.OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a three-dimensional (3D numerical model of a maxillary central incisor to simulate tooth movement using the Finite Element Method (FEM. METHODS: This model encompasses the tooth, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. It allows the simulation of different tooth movements and the establishment of centers of rotation and resistance. It limits the movement into the periodontal space, recording the direction, quantifying tooth displacement and initial stress in the periodontal ligament. RESULTS: By

  20. The Effect of Thyroid Hormone, Prostaglandin E2, and Calcium Gluconate on Orthodontic Tooth Movement and Root Resorption in Rats

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    Massoud Seifi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: A major objective of investigators is to clarify the role of metabolites in achievement of maximum tooth movement with minimal root damage during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of administration of thyroid hormone, prostaglandin E2, and calcium on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Materials and Method: Sixty four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of eight rats each: 1- 20µg/kg thyroxine was injected in traperitoneally after installation of the orthodontic appliance. 2- 0.1 ml of 1 mg/ml prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally. 3- 10% (200 mg/kg calcium gluconate was injected. 4- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally and 10% calcium was injected intraperitoneally. 5- Thyroxine was injected intraperitoneally and prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally. 6- 20µg/kg thyroxine with calcium was injected. 7- Prostaglandin E2 was injected submucosally with calcium and thyroxine. 8- Distilled water was used in control group. The orthodontic appliances comprised of a NiTi closed coil were posteriorly con-nected to the right first molar and anteriorly to the upper right incisor. OTM was measured with a feeler gauge. The mid-mesial root of the first molar and the adjacent tissues were histologically evaluated. The Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: The highest mean OTM was observed in the thyroxine and prostaglan-din E2 group (Mean±SD = 0.7375±0.1359 mm that was significantly different (p< 0.05. A significant difference (p< 0.05 in root resorption was observed be-tween the prostaglandin E2 (0.0192±0.0198 mm2 and the other groups. Conclusion: It seems that the combination of thyroxine and prostaglandin E2, with a synergistic effect, would decrease the root resorption and increase the rate of orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

  1. Hounsfield Unit Change in Root and Alveolar Bone during Canine Retraction

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    Jiang, Feifei; Liu, Sean Y.; Xia, Zeyang; Li, Shuning; Chen, Jie; Kula, Katherine S.; Eckert, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the Hounsfield unit (HU) changes in the alveolar bone and root surface during controlled canine retractions. Methods Eighteen maxillary canine retraction patients were selected for this split mouth design clinical trial. The canines in each patient were randomly assigned to receive either translation or controlled tipping treatment strategy. Pre- and post-treatment cone beam computed tomography scans of each patient were used to determine tooth movement direction and HU changes. The alveolar bone and root surface were divided into 108 divisions, respectively. The HU in each division was measured. The Mixed-model ANOVA was applied to test the HU change distribution at the p<0.05 significant level. Results The HU changes varied with the directions relative to the canine movement. The HU reduction occurred at the root surface. Larger reductions occurred in the divisions that were perpendicular to the moving direction. However, HU decreased in the alveolar bone in the moving direction. The highest HU reduction was at the coronal level. Conclusions HU reduction occurs on the root surface in the direction perpendicular to the tooth movement and in the alveolar bone in the direction of tooth movement when a canine is retracted. PMID:25836004

  2. The effect of red wine extract, resveratrol, on the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement in guinea pigs

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    Isidro Alex C Urriquia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An animal trial, its protocol approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.P. National Institutes of Health (IACUC Protocol No. 2010-008, was employed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the degree and rate of orthodontic tooth movement in guinea pigs. Materials and Methods: Eighteen male adult guinea pigs were randomly allocated into 3 groups: low dose, high dose, and control groups. A 0.016" titanium molybdenum alloy wire formed into a helical torsion spring with a coil, with the loops cemented onto the maxillary incisors of the animals, served as the orthodontic appliance. Daily oral administration of resveratrol was provided to the low dose (0.047 mg/kg and high dose (0.47 mg/kg groups, while water was provided to the control group. Measurements were taken everyday at the interproximal area at the level of the incisal edge using a measuring caliper. Results: The results of the ANOVA showed no statistically significant differences in the mean measurements of tooth separation among the three groups from day 2 (P=0.966 to day 8 (P=0.056. However, starting from day 9 (P=0.049 until day 18 (P=0.000, there was a significant difference in the mean tooth separation among the test groups. Conclusion: Using the LSD, it was noted that the low dose and the high dose groups have similar degrees of mean tooth separation, with the control group being significantly different from the two.

  3. Determination of orthodontic tooth movement and tissue reaction following demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft grafting intervention

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    Massoud Seifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socket preservation after tooth extraction is one of the indications of bone grafting to enhance preorthodontic condition. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of socket preservation on the immediate tooth movement, alveolar ridge height preservation and orthodontic root resorption. Materials and Methods: In a split-mouth technique, twelve sites in three dogs were investigated as an experimental study. Crushed demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA (CenoBone® was used as the graft material. The defects were made by the extraction of 3 rd premolar. On one side of each jaw, the defects were preserved by DFDBA and defects of the other side left opened as the control group. Simultaneously the teeth adjacent to the defects were pulled together by a NiTi coil spring. After eight weeks, the amount of (OTM, alveolar height, and root resorption were measured. Analysis of variance was used for purpose of comparison. Results: There was a slight increase in OTM at grafted sites as they were compared to the control sites (P<0.05. Also a significant bone resorption in control site and successful socket preservation in experimental site were observed. Reduction of root resorption at the augmented site was significant compared to the normal healing site (P<0.05. Conclusion: Using socket preservation, tooth movement can be immediately started without waiting for the healing of the recipient site. This can provide some advantages like enhanced rate of OTM, its approved effects on ridge preservation that reduces the chance of dehiscence and the reduction of root resorption.

  4. Tooth movement out of the bony wall using augmented corticotomy with nonautogenous graft materials for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kye-Bok; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Roitman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT) were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side.

  5. Tooth Movement out of the Bony Wall Using Augmented Corticotomy with Nonautogenous Graft Materials for Bone Regeneration

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    Kye-Bok Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective randomized split-mouth study was performed to compare the effects of augmented corticotomy with those of different nonautogenous bone graft materials combined with orthodontic tooth movement in dogs. Decortication was performed on the buccal bone surface of 6 male beagle dogs that were randomly assigned to receive grafts of deproteinized bovine bone mineral, irradiated cortical bone, or synthetic bone. Immediate orthodontic force was applied to the second and third premolars for buccal tipping for 6 weeks. The pocket depth and width of keratinized tissue (WKT were measured. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The probing depth, WKT, and ratio of the area of new bone to that of total bone on the buccal side were not significantly different between groups. All groups had considerable new bone formation on the pressure side. New bone formation on the buccal side and buccal plate formation in the coronal direction along the root surfaces were induced by the bone-derived and PDL-derived mesenchymal matrix, respectively. The angular change between groups was significantly different (P < 0.001. Augmented corticotomy using nonautogenous graft materials facilitated tooth movement without fenestrations and accelerated new bone formation on the pressure side.

  6. Periodontal Biological Events Associated with Orthodontic Tooth Movement: The Biomechanics of the Cytoskeleton and the Extracellular Matrix

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    L. Feller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical stimuli generated by orthodontic forces cause deformation of extracellular matrices and cells, vascular changes, inflammation, and the release of active biological agents generating a complex multifactorial sequence of biological events culminating in bone remodelling enabling orthodontic tooth movement. Orthodontic forces on the teeth generate stresses in periodontal tissues according to a number of variables including the type (continuous, interrupted, or intermittent, magnitude, direction, and frequency of the applied load. Whether the strain is compressive or tensile determines whether bone deposition or bone resorption will occur. The mechanically induced strains mediate structural changes in extracellular matrices and in cells, consequently affecting cellular gene expression and function. In the extracellular matrix, mechanosensing molecules integrated into the structure of various proteins can be activated upon load-induced protein unfolding. These specialized molecules have the capacity to sense and then to convert microenvironmental biomechanical stimuli into intracellular biochemical signals that interact to generate a coordinated tissue response. It is also possible that the applied force may directly cause nuclear deformation with configurational changes in chromatin, thus influencing gene expression. In this review article we summarize the current general concepts of mechanotransduction influencing the remodelling of periodontal tissues thus enabling tooth movement in response to applied orthodontic loads.

  7. A Novel Rat Model of Orthodontic Tooth Movement Using Temporary Skeletal Anchorage Devices: 3D Finite Element Analysis and In Vivo Validation

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    Stevenson, Thomas; Doschak, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this animal study was to develop a model of orthodontic tooth movement using a microimplant as a TSAD in rodents. A finite element model of the TSAD in alveolar bone was built using μCT images of rat maxilla to determine the von Mises stresses and displacement in the alveolar bone surrounding the TSAD. For in vivo validation of the FE model, Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 25) were used and a Stryker 1.2 × 3 mm microimplant was inserted in the right maxilla and used to protract the right first permanent molar using a NiTi closed coil spring. Tooth movement measurements were taken at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, animals were euthanized and tissues were analyzed by histology and EPMA. FE modeling showed maximum von Mises stress of 45 Mpa near the apex of TSAD but the average von Mises stress was under 25 Mpa. Appreciable tooth movement of 0.62 ± 0.04 mm at 4 weeks and 1.99 ± 0.14 mm at 8 weeks was obtained. Histological and EPMA results demonstrated no active bone remodeling around the TSAD at 8 weeks depicting good secondary stability. This study provided evidence that protracted tooth movement is achieved in small animals using TSADs. PMID:25295060

  8. Use of cone-beam computed tomography in the diagnosis of sensory nerve paresthesia secondary to orthodontic tooth movement: a clinical report.

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    Chana, Randeep S; Wiltshire, William A; Cholakis, Anastasia; Levine, Gary

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we report an incident of transient neuropathy secondary to tooth movement involving the inferior alveolar nerve. This clinical report reflects the need to thoroughly examine potentially high-risk patients for neuropathy using advanced diagnostic tools such as cone-beam computed tomography when diagnosing and planning treatment.

  9. Systemic effects of fluoxetine on the amount of tooth movement, root resorption, and alveolar bone remodeling during orthodontic force application in rat

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    Mehdi Rafiei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antidepressant drugs such as fluoxetine are of the most commonly used drugs among the public. These drugs may impact the regulation of bone cell functioning, and thus affect orthodontic tooth movement. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fluoxetine on tooth movements during orthodontic treatment in rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 male rats were randomly assigned into two groups and injected with fluoxetine 10 mg/kg (experimental group and normal saline (control group for a period of 1-month intraperitoneally 5 times/week. Then, the rats were anesthetized and a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was placed between the left maxillary first molar and left maxillary central incisors of all samples, and then fluoxetine (experimental group and normal saline (control group were injected for another 3 weeks by the same method. After measuring tooth movements, rats were sacrificed, and histomorphometric analyses were conducted and the obtained data were statistically analyzed using independent t-test and the significance was set at 0.05. Results: Following the fluoxetine injection, the mean amount of tooth movements in the experimental group was reduced compared to the control group, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding bone apposition rate (P = 0.83, external root resorption rate (P = 0.1, and mean number of root resorption lacunae (P = 0.16. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, systemic use of fluoxetine may cause insignificant reduction of tooth movement rate in rats; however, this subject needs more evaluations.

  10. Changes of hard dental and bone tissue of alveolar process in rats on the orthodontic tooth movement on the background of an experimental goiter

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    Kamila A. Kolesnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to study the state of dental hard and bone tissues of alveolar process in rats with the model of orthodontic tooth movement at the experimental goiter based on the analysis of bone phosphatases and proteases activity. Material and Methods —Experimental study with the model of goiter and orthodontic tooth movement in rats. The experiment was carried out with 30 Wistar rats of gregarious breeding. During the first stage of the experiment the goitre was being simulated by giving 1% solution of potassium perchlorate with drinking water for 20 days. During the second experimental stage using thiopental the orthodontic model of tooth movement (OMtM was being reproduced for 21 days. The lower jaw in rats served to reveal carious cavities and atrophy rate of alveolar process, the upper jaw served for determining the common activity of alkaline, acid phosphatase, elastase and total proteolytic activity (OPA, the pulp of incisors served to determine the activity of bone phosphatases. Statistical analysis — One way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Сomparison between experimental groups was carried out with the help of t-Student U and Mann-Whitney test (p.asymp.sig<0.05 was considered significant. Results — in animals under experiment the orthodontic tooth movement together with thyroid disorders is accompanied by increased proteases activity of bone tissue and impaired activity of bone phosphatases. Conclusions — sudden aggravation in the resorption processes of bone tissue of alveolar process, demineralization of hard dental tissue during the orthodontic tooth movement in relation to experimental goiter show that child with the thyroid gland disorders are in need of active treatment and preventive measures during active apparatus treatment of dentoalveolar anomalies.

  11. Advanced system for 3D dental anatomy reconstruction and 3D tooth movement simulation during orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserrat, Carlos; Alcaniz-Raya, Mariano L.; Juan, M. Carmen; Grau Colomer, Vincente; Albalat, Salvador E.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for 3D orthodontics treatment simulation developed for an orthodontics planning system (MAGALLANES). We develop an original system for 3D capturing and reconstruction of dental anatomy that avoid use of dental casts in orthodontic treatments. Two original techniques are presented, one direct in which data are acquired directly form patient's mouth by mean of low cost 3D digitizers, and one mixed in which data are obtained by 3D digitizing of hydrocollids molds. FOr this purpose we have designed and manufactured an optimized optical measuring system based on laser structured light. We apply these 3D dental models to simulate 3D movement of teeth, including rotations, during orthodontic treatment. The proposed algorithms enable to quantify the effect of orthodontic appliance on tooth movement. The developed techniques has been integrated in a system named MAGALLANES. This original system present several tools for 3D simulation and planning of orthodontic treatments. The prototype system has been tested in several orthodontic clinic with very good results.

  12. Effects of Danggui-Shaoyao-San on the Influence of Spatial Learning and Memory Induced by Experimental Tooth Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Shi Li; Jie Ke; Gui-Zhi Zhao; Li-An Wu; Jun-Ping Kou; Hong-Chen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The pain caused by orthodontic treatment has been considered as tough problems in orthodontic practice.There is substantial literature on pain which has exactly effected on learning and memory;orthodontic tooth movement affected the emotional status has been showed positive outcomes.Danggui-Shaoyao-San (DSS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine prescription that has been used for pain treatment and analgesic effect for orthodontic pain via inhibiting the activations of neuron and glia.We raised the hypothesis that DSS could restore the impaired abilities of spatial learning and memory via regulating neuron or glia expression in the hippocampus.Methods:A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into three groups:(1) Sham group (n =12),rats underwent all the operation procedure except for the placement of orthodontic forces and received saline treatment;(2) experimental tooth movement (ETM) group (n =12),rats received saline treatment and ETM;(3) DSS + ETM (DETM) group (n =12),rats received DSS treatment and ETM.All DETM group animals were administered with DSS at a dose of 150 mg/kg.Morris water maze test was evaluated;immunofluorescent histochemistry was used to identify astrocytes activation,and immunofluorescent dendritic spine analysis was used to identify the dendritic spines morphological characteristics expression levels in hippocampus.Results:Maze training sessions during the 5 successive days revealed that ETM significantly deficits in progressive learning in rats,DSS that was given from day 5 prior to ETM enhanced progressive learning.The ETM group rats took longer to cross target quadrant during the probe trial and got less times to cross-platform than DETM group.The spine density in hippocampus in ETM group was significantly decreased compared to the sham group.In addition,thin and mature spine density were decreased too.However,the DSS administration could reverse the dendritic shrinkage and increase the spine density compared to the ETM group

  13. Characterization of proteoglycan metabolites in human gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, R J; Embery, G; Samuels, R H

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have identified glycosaminoglycans in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) associated with a variety of clinical conditions, notably those involving bone resorptive activity. GCF was here collected from around teeth undergoing active orthodontic movement. Proteoglycan metabolites were purified from GCF by anion-exchange chromatography using fast performance liquid chromatography. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan was associated with the most highly anionic protein fractions IV, V and VI, and biochemical analysis was restricted to these fractions. Analysis included glycosaminoglycan content by cellulose acetate electrophoresis, molecular size by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blotting and amino acid analyses. Fraction IV contained hyaluronan (18.7%) and chondroitin sulphate (10.9%), fraction V heparan sulphate (29.5%) and chondroitin sulphate (19.6%) and fraction VI chondroitin sulphate only (21.3%). SDS-PAGE revealed two Coomassie blue bands in fraction V of 72 and 60 kDa and two further bands in fraction VI of 71 and 56 kDa. These proteoglycans appeared resistant to digestion by chondroitinase ABC or heparinase III, although the glycosaminoglycan chains underwent degradation after protein-core removal. The molecular mass and amino acid composition of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan fractions showed a close similarity to those of human alveolar bone proteoglycan. The presence of heparan sulphate proteoglycan in GCF in association with orthodontic movement is in accord with previous reports. The findings support the view that proteoglycans in GCF are 'biomarkers', notably those associated with active resorption of alveolar bone.

  14. 青少年女性月经周期不同阶段加力对正畸牙移动的影响%Orthodontic tooth movement at different stages of adolescent female menstrual cycle

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    王斌; 杨曦; 周建萍; 冯刚; 戴红卫; 黄兰

    2014-01-01

    背景:雌激素对正畸牙齿移动有影响,目前仅有动物实验证明,雌激素水平越低,正畸牙移动量越大,雌激素水平越高,正畸牙移动量越小。  目的:分析青少年女性正畸患者月经周期的不同时期加力对正畸牙移动的影响。  方法:选取12例14-18岁已具有月经初潮,月经规律,需要拔除上颌第1前磨牙的女性患者。采取自身对照,将患者上颌左右两侧尖牙,随机分为月经期加力组和排卵期加力组,应用种植体支抗加力远中移动尖牙,月经期加力组加力2周后排卵期加力组开始加力。各组分别于加力即刻及4周时取模,灌制超硬石膏模型,测量各组尖牙向远中移动的距离,采用GraphPad Prism5软件包对数据进行统计学分析。  结果与结论:月经期加力组尖牙移动量大于排卵期加力组(P OBJECTIVE:To investigate effects of orthodontic force applied on orthodontic tooth movement at different stages of menstrual cycle among young female patients. METHODS:Twelve young female patients were included in this study, aged 14-18 years old. They already have regular menstrual cycle, and need to extract the first premolar in the maxil a. By using self-control method, these female patients with their maxil ary canine at both sides were randomly divided into two groups:orthodontic force at ovulatory period and orthodontic force at menstrual period. Micro-implant anchorage was implanted to the distal y moving canine. Orthodontic force was given to the group of ovulatory period 2 weeks after the force was given at menstrual period. Dentition models were taken at day 0 and 28 after force, to prepare a superhard plaster model using silastic impression materials. Between these two groups, the distances of the canine distal movement were measured and statistical analysis was performed with GraphPad Prism5 software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:The distances of the canine distal

  15. Local use of iontophoresis with traditional Chinese herbal medicine, e.g., Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement

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    Yongming Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mechanical force is not the only means to cause tooth movement, but just one kind of stimuli for it. Biological stimuli, with potential of accelerating alveolar bone remodeling, other than mechanical force, have been attracted by orthodontists who are combating prolonged treatment duration. It has been approved that some traditional Chinese medicines, such as Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria, affect the process of bone remodeling. The Hypothesis: We make the hypothesis that local use of iontophoresis with Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria as a non-invasive and safe drug delivery system with no trauma, risk of infection or damage to patients is a new potential approach for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, and shorten the orthodontic treatment time. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Gu-Sui-Bu is effective at inducing bone remodeling, and iontophoresis as a non-invasive technique for drug delivery, is suitable for the transmission of some traditional Chinese herbal medicines into periodontal tissues.

  16. The effect of capsaicin on expression patterns of CGRP in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis following experimental tooth movement in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHOU, Yang; LONG, Hu; YE, Niansong; LIAO, Lina; YANG, Xin; JIAN, Fan; WANG, Yan; LAI, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the effect of capsaicin on expression patterns of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) following experimental tooth movement. Material and Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study and divided into small-dose capsaicin+force group, large-dose capsaicin+force group, saline+force group, and no force group. Closed coil springs were used to mimic orthodontic forces in all groups except for the no force group, in which springs were inactivated. Capsaicin and saline were injected into periodontal tissues. Rats were euthanized at 0 h, 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, and 7 d following experimental tooth movement. Then, TG and Vc were obtained for immunohistochemical staining and western blotting against CGRP. Results Immunohistochemical results indicated that CGRP positive neurons were located in the TG, and CGRP immunoreactive fibers were distributed in the Vc. Immunohistochemical semiquantitative analysis and western blotting analysis demonstrated that CGRP expression levels both in TG and Vc were elevated at 12 h, 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, and 7 d in the saline + force group. However, both small-dose and large-dose capsaicin could decrease CGRP expression in TG and Vc at 1 d and 3 d following experimental tooth movement, as compared with the saline + force group. Conclusions These results suggest that capsaicin could regulate CGRP expression in TG and Vc following experimental tooth movement in rats. PMID:28076465

  17. Effects of low-level laser therapy on orthodontics: rate of tooth movement, pain, and release of RANKL and OPG in GCF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Arantza; Gómez, Clara; Palma, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was evaluate tooth movement, receptor activator of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and RANKL/OPG ratio in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in compression side and pain level during initial orthodontic tooth treatment to determine the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Ten volunteers who required fixed appliance positioned from the upper first premolars to upper first molars were selected. For each patient, the upper first premolar of the quadrant 1 was chosen to be irradiated with a laser diode at 670 nm, 200 mW, and 6.37 W/cm(2), applied on the distal, buccal, and lingual sides during 9 min on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. The same procedure was applied in the first premolar of the contralateral quadrant inserting the tip but without laser emission. Samples of GCF from the compression side of the upper first premolars to distalize were collected at baseline and after 2, 7, 30, and 45 days posttreatment for determination of RANKL and OPG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, tooth movement was assessed by scanning models and pain intensity was assessed using a visual analog scale. There was improvement in the parameters studied (pain, tooth movement, levels of RANKL in GCF, and RANKL/OPG ratio) in the laser group when compared to the control group, although differences were not statistically significant. The accumulated retraction of the upper premolar at 30 days was higher in the laser group, and this difference was statistically significant between groups. LLLT delivered in repeated doses (six times in the initial 2 weeks) leads in some extent to a slight orthodontical improvement.

  18. Escaping the Adverse Impacts of NSAIDs on Tooth Movement During Orthodontics: Current Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie; Li, Yifei; Zhang, Keke; Zhao, Zhihe; Mei, Li

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to relieve pain during orthodontic treatments; however, the possible inhibition of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) by NSAIDs has been debated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some commonly used NSAIDs on OTM during orthodontic treatments. A review of the literature identified relevant studies up to August 2014. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane review group and the PRISMA statement. Studies were identified by searching PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random-effect model using Revman 5.1.1.Five studies, including 128 subjects and 3 main NSAIDs (celecoxib, acetaminophen, and aspirin), were included for quantitative synthesis and analysis. Celecoxib did not inhibit OTM except with middle-term use (2-3 weeks) (95% CI [-6.47 to -0.43], P = 0.03). Acetaminophen did not inhibit OTM except with long-term use (>1 month) and low-dose use (∼100 mg/kg per day), (95% CI [-2.96 to -0.78], P = 0.0008; 95%CI [-2.42, -0.46], P = 0.004; respectively). Aspirin was found to inhibit OTM (95%CI [-2.40 to -0.64], P = 0.0008). Our systematic review with meta-analysis suggests that aspirin might inhibit OTM in rat models, whereas the short-term (orthodontic pain would not inhibit OTM. Well-designed human research should be completed before a solid conclusion can be reached.

  19. 上颌种植钉配合摇椅曲内收上前牙的位移趋势的三维有限元分析%Three dimensional finite element analysis of tooth movement tendency in maxilla using mini-screw cooperated with upper accentuated-curve to close tooth space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佩蓉; 朱宪春; 闫森; 张娴; 史学明

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过改变摇椅曲的曲度和游离牵引钩的高度,分析使用种植钉配合摇椅曲整体内收前牙时该力学体系对磨牙压低作用的成因和力学机制.方法 采用螺旋CT扫描,并用Mimics 10.0建模软件建立上牙列及其支持组织,以及不同曲度摇椅曲(5°、10.、15°、20.、25°)和不同高度牵引钩(2.1、4.0、5.5 mm)的三维有限元模型,施加1.5 N向后的内收力,分析上颌各牙齿的位移趋势.结果 摇椅曲使切牙唇倾压低、远中直立和近中唇向扭转,尖牙唇倾升高、近中倾斜和近中唇向扭转,第二前磨牙和第一磨牙颊倾压低、远中直立和近中唇向扭转.随着摇椅曲曲度的增加,磨牙的位移趋势增加;但随着牵引钩高度的增加,磨牙的位移趋势减少.结论 摇椅曲曲度增加,磨牙被压低的程度增加;游离牵引钩高度增加,磨牙被压低的程度降低.5°的摇椅曲配合5.5 mm的游离牵引钩,磨牙被压低的程度最小.%Objective In order to find out the cause of molar intrusion and how to avoid molar intrusion, we analyze the movement tendency of tooth by changing the angles of upper accentuated-curve and the height of free traction hook. Methods Spiral CT scanning and Mimics 10.0 software were employed in this study to construct the three dimensional finite element model of maxillary teeth, periodontal ligaments and alveolar bone as well as the inch stainless steel upper accentuated-curve archwires with different angles (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°) and the free traction hook with different height (2.1, 4.0, 5.5 mm). By exerting 1.5 N backward force to analysis the displacement trend of maxillary tooth. Results Upper accentuated-curve archwires made the incisors labially tip, intruse, distally upright and mesi-labially torsion; made the canines labially tip, prolong, mesial-tipped and mesi-labially torsion; made the second pre-molars and the first molars buccal tip, intruse, distal upright and mesi

  20. [Changes in the microvascular pattern of the periodontal ligament in an experimental tooth extrusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K

    1989-08-01

    Forty eight adult cats were employed to investigate the serial changes of vascular patterns of the periodontal ligament on tooth extrusion. The right upper canines have been successively extruded (initial load 40 gr) with a open coil spring. The experimental periods were set on 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. On each experimental period, the microvascular casts of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone around the experimental tooth were prepared for the scanning electron microscopy, utilizing the acrylic plastic injection method (Taniguchi and Ohta, et al. 1952 and 1955). And the serial sections of the surrounding tissues of the experimental tooth were made. In order to elucidate the mode of the tooth movement, the load of applied force and the distance of extrusion were measured. Results obtained were as follows: 1. The experimental tooth was extruded rapidly during first two weeks. The speed reduced gradually afterwards. 2. The new vascularization was seen around the apex first, then widely spread in the periodontal ligament. And the remarkable trabecula-shaped bone formation were observed around the venous networks of the root apex after two week period. 3. The tissue reactions after the tooth extrusion delayed in comparison with the movement of the tooth. 4. Although the tissue reactions of the root apex of the extruded tooth were originally similar to the one in the transverse tooth movement, slight differences were found in timing of the tissue change and shape of the capillary network. The findings of the tissue change showed that the light force was indicated in extrusion of the tooth. And the range of action of the force applied should be limited in orthodontic clinic.

  1. Assessment of the Role of NO-cGMP Pathway in Orthodontic Tooth Movement Using PDE5 Inhibitors: An Animal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, Amir Hossein; Akhoundi, Mohammad Sadegh Ahmad; Ghazanfari, Rezvaneh; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo; Alaeddini, Mojgan; Khorshidian, Azam; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that mediates mechanical bone loading. Cyclic guanosine 3′, 5′ monophosphate (cGMP) is a NO-induced effector molecule. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of NO-cGMP pathway on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) in rats by use of two phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors namely sildenafil and tadalafil as chemical tools. Materials and Methods: Forty-five male Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups (n=15) based on the substance they received. The first group received daily injections of tadalafil; the second group received daily injections of sildenafil and the third group received daily injections of normal saline. The orthodontic appliances consisted of nickel-titanium closed-coil spring ligated between the maxillary right incisor and the first molar of the animals for 21 days. The amount of tooth movement was measured in all three groups at the end of this period. Histological analysis was performed to assess root resorption lacunae, osteoclast number and periodontal ligament (PDL) thickness. Results: All appliance-treated molars in the experimental and control groups showed evidence of tooth movement. The mean OTM was calculated to be 0.39±0.16, 0.32±0.16 and 0.26±0.16mm in tadalafil, sildenafil and control groups, respectively and there were no significant differences in OTM among the study groups (P>0.05). In the tadalafil group, significantly greater root resorption on the tension side was seen when compared with controls (P≤0.05). Conclusions: Tadalafil and sildenafil PDE-5 inhibitors affecting the NO-cGMP pathway did not affect OTM in rats.

  2. 正畸力作用下炎性牙周组织的改建%Remodeling of inflammatory periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝军; 赵宏轶; 何苗; 英杰

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More and more patients with periodontal disease require orthodontic treatments. Thus, the remodeling process and its mechanism of inflammatory periodontal tissues become a hot point during orthodontic tooth movement.OBJECTIVE: To observe the remodeling of inflammatory periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement.METHODS: A total of 50 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into the control and periodontitis groups. In the periodontitis group, rats were established periodontitis models. After that, all rats were prepared for orthodontic tooth movement models. The remodeling of periodontal tissues was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after orthodontic tooth movement.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The movement distance of the periodontitis group was greater than that of the control group. At 0-7 days after orthodontic force application, there was obviously bone resorption at the pressure side and the bone formation was inhibited at the tension side; at 14 days after force application, the bone resorption was diminished, associated with large numbers of multinucleated osteoclasts at the pressure sides in both groups. The findings showed that rats with periodontitis suffered more periodontal traumatism during orthodontic tooth movement, thus, treatment should be delayed until the inflammatory signs were controlled and the local inflammatory was eliminated.%背景:在越来越多的牙周病需要进行正畸治疗时,牙齿移动过程中,炎性牙周组织的改建过程及其机制便成为研究热点.目的:观察在正畸牙移动过程中炎性牙周组织的改建.方法:将50只健康雄性SD大鼠,随机分为正常牙移动组和牙周炎牙移动组,牙周炎牙移动组建立实验性牙周炎动物模型后,所有大鼠建立正畸牙移动模型.分别于牙齿移动后的1,3,5,7和14d,采用苏木精-伊红染色方法观察牙齿受力移动的不同阶段牙周组织的改建.结果与结论:牙周炎牙

  3. Osteoprotegerin and ligand of receptor activator of nuclear factor : kappaB expression in ovariectomized rats during tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Lijun; Ren, Yijin; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Lingyong; Cheng, Hui; Sandham, John; Zhao, Zhihe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the null hypothesis that increased tooth displacement in ovariectomized rats is not related to differential expressions of OPG and RANKL in the periodontium. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four 12-week female rats were used; half were ovariectomized and half were not. Three months

  4. Chemokine CCL2 up-regulated in the medullary dorsal horn astrocytes contributes to nocifensive behaviors induced by experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Fu, Runqing; Tan, Yu; Fang, Bing; Yang, Zhi

    2014-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the astrocytic chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) plays an important role in nocifensive behaviors after experimental tooth movement (ETM), the expression and cellular localization of CCL2 and astrocyte activation in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) were determined by immunohistochemistry in rats. The dose-dependent effects of intrathecal C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antagonists on these changes in nocifensive behaviors were evaluated. Exogenous CCL2 was added to medullary dorsal horn slices to evaluate its contributory role in the induction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation ex vivo. We found a significant increase in the expression of CCL2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), corresponding well to the nocifensive behaviors after ETM. In addition, application of recombinant CCL2 led to ERK activation, which could be attenuated effectively by pretreatment with CCL2-neutralizing antibody ex vivo. The magnitude of the nocifensive behavior could be reduced by medullary CCR2 antagonists in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the astrocytic CCL2 is actively involved in the development and maintenance of tooth-movement pain and thus may be a potential target for analgesics in orthodontic nocifensive responses control.

  5. Comparisons of the chondroitin sulphate levels in orthodontically moved canines and the clinical outcomes between two different force magnitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insee, Kanlaya; Pothacharoen, Peraphan; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Ongchai, Siriwan; Jotikasthira, Dhirawat; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the chondroitin sulphate (CS) levels in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of moved canines using either 70 or 120 g of orthodontic force, and to compare the rate of tooth movement and the amount of pain between these two force magnitudes. Sixteen patients (6 males and 10 females; aged 16.91 ± 2.99 years), with class I malocclusion, who required orthodontic treatment with first premolar extractions, were recruited. The force magnitudes used to move the maxillary canines distally were controlled at 70 and 120 g on the right and the left sides, respectively. GCF samples were collected with Periopaper(®) strips before and during orthodontic tooth movement. Competitive ELISA with monoclonal antibody was used to measure the CS levels. The distance of tooth movement and the amount of pain assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) scores were evaluated. The medians of CS levels during the loaded period were significantly greater than those during the unloaded period (P magnitudes. However, using 120 g, the medians of VAS scores were significantly greater than those with 70 g (P < 0.05). Collectively, 70 g retraction force appears to be sufficient and more suitable than 120 g force as it causes no difference in biochemically-assessed bone remodelling activity, the same rate of tooth movement, reduced pain and better comfort.

  6. 消炎镇痛及激素类药物影响正畸牙移动的研究现状%The effect of anti-inflammatoryand hormone drugs on orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余为民; 刘兴文; 吴中兴

    2012-01-01

    文献回顾性分析在正畸治疗过程中服用消炎止痛及激素类药物对正畸牙移动产生的影响.通过PubMed检索自1990年-2009年实验研究消炎止痛及激素类药物对牙齿移动速度影响的相关文献,从实验设计、正畸力大小及用药剂量等方面进行了分析.非甾体抗炎药可减缓正畸牙的移动,甾体抗炎药则对正畸牙的移动不产生影响,皮质激素、甲状腺激素等可加速正畸牙的移动,但其稳定性差.在正畸治疗过程中可以选择性使用药物治疗来减缓支抗牙的移动提高支抗,亦可通过药物治疗来加速正畸牙的移动,缩短正畸治疗时间,提高矫治效率.%The authors retrieve PubMed related literatures from 1990 to 2009 on the study of anti-inflammatory and hormone drugs on orthodontic tooth movement, and analyze the experimental design, magnitude of force applied during tooth movement and dose. In order to literature review on the effect of anti-inflammatory and hormone drugs on orthodontic tooth movement in orthodontic treatment process. The results show that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decrease orthodontic tooth movement, but non-NSAID analgesics has no effect on orthodontic tooth movement. Corticosteroid hormone and thyroid hormone have been shown to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, but the stability is poor. The author conclud that in the orthodontic treatment process, drugs can be selectively used to slow the movement of anchorage tooth and improve the anchorage, or drug therapy is adopted to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, shorten orthodontic treatment time, improve appliance efficiency.

  7. The effects of dried root aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its major ingredient in acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-qun Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM is a popular and classic herb in traditional Chineses medicines. The objective is to confirm the effects of aqueous extract of S. miltiorrhiza (ESM and its main ingredient on the promotion of orthodontic tooth movement and healing of periodontal ligament in rat. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n= 150 were divided into five groups: model control group (0.5 ml/kg phosphate-buffered saline (PBS injection, ESM group (0.75 g/kg/day of crude drugs and Danshensu subgroups (250, 500, 750 mg/kg/day of body weight. All rats were administered intramuscularly into the buccal vestibular mucosa of first molar of left maxillary. The indicators such as the moving distance of orthodontic tooth, nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG expression and osteoclasts were tested. Results: The expressions of RANKL and OPG in the treatment groups were obviously enhanced compared with control group (P

  8. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  9. Unusual intraosseous transmigration of impacted tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Urala, Arun Srinivas; Kamath, Abhay Taranath; Jayaswal, Priyanka; Valiathan, Ashima [Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal (India)

    2012-03-15

    Transmigration of an impacted tooth through the symphyseal suture is a rare and special developmental anomaly of unknown etiology that is unique to the mandibular canine. Maxillary canine transmigration is even rarer. Transmigrated canines are particularly significant due to the aesthetic and functional importance. A maxillary lateral incisor crossing the mid-palatal suture has never been reported in the literature. The aim of this report is to present the first case of simultaneous transmigration of a lateral incisor and canine in the maxilla. The paper also reports four unusual cases of unilateral canine transmigration in the maxilla and mandible and successful eruption of one of the transmigrated mandibular canines following orthodontic traction. Etiology of transmigration and its clinical considerations are also discussed.

  10. Tooth wear patterns in the deciduous dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John J; Yonezu, Takuro; Bishara, Samir E

    2002-12-01

    Tooth wear is common in the deciduous dentition. A recent study suggests that tooth wear in the deciduous dentition is related to subsequent tooth wear in adults, so that early identification of factors related to tooth wear could be of long-term benefit. The purposes of this study were to describe patterns of tooth wear in the deciduous dentition and to relate tooth wear to occlusal characteristics and longitudinal dietary patterns. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of a cohort of children recruited at birth from Iowa hospitals. Stone casts were obtained in the deciduous dentition stage, and 355 children, 4 to 5 years old, met the selection criteria. Tooth wear was categorized for each tooth as none, mild, moderate, or severe, and related to occlusal characteristics and longitudinal data on fruit juice and soft drink consumption. All children exhibited some tooth wear on at least 1 tooth, and nearly 16% of them had at least 1 tooth with severe wear. Tooth wear was generally more severe in the maxillary arch and the anterior teeth. Severe tooth wear on the molars was significantly related to posterior crossbites, but severe tooth wear on the incisors was related to Class III canine relationships. There were no statistically significant relationships between tooth wear and soft drink or fruit juice consumption. Based on our results, we concluded that mild tooth wear is universal in the deciduous dentition, but only a few occlusal factors are related to severe tooth wear. Tooth wear was not related to any dietary patterns we investigated.

  11. Biomarkers of Periodontal Tissue Remodeling during Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Mice and Men: Overview and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia d'Apuzzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically active substances are expressed by cells within the periodontium in response to mechanical stimuli from orthodontic appliances. Several possible biomarkers representing biological modifications during specific phenomena as simile-inflammatory process, bone resorption and formation, periodontal ligament changes, and vascular and neural responses are proposed. Citations to potentially published trials were conducted by searching PubMed, Cochrane databases, and scientific textbooks. Additionally, hand searching and contact with experts in the area were undertaken to identify potentially relevant published and unpublished studies. Selection criteria were as follows: animal models involving only mice and rats undergoing orthodontic treatment; collection of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF as a noninvasively procedure for humans; no other simultaneous treatment that could affect experimental orthodontic movement. The data suggest that knowledge of the remodeling process occurring in periodontal tissues during orthodontic and orthopedic therapies may be a clinical usefulness procedure leading to proper choice of mechanical stress to improve and to shorten the period of treatment, avoiding adverse consequences. The relevance for clinicians of evaluating the rate of some substances as valid biomarkers of periodontal effects during orthodontic movement, by means of two models of study, mice and men, is underlined.

  12. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  13. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  14. Research progress on mechanisms and regulations of bone resorption in orthodontic tooth movement%正畸牙移动中骨吸收机制及其调控的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包幸福

    2012-01-01

    破骨细胞在正畸牙移动压力侧骨吸收过程中发挥着重要的作用,针对破骨细胞分化成熟及其发挥功能的调控研究,能为正畸治疗中控制牙齿移动提供新的思路,同时有助于防治正畸治疗中出现的牙根外吸收等.%Osteoclast is responsible for bone resorption in the compression side of orthodontic tooth movement. Regulations to differentiation and mature of osteoclast may provide new horizons of tooth movement control in orthodontic treatment. At the same time, it is helpful to know the similar mechanisms of root resorption.

  15. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  16. Tooth crown heights, tooth wear, sexual dimorphism and jaw growth in hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M C; Beynon, A D

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this review is to bring together data that link tooth morphology with tooth function and tooth growth: We aim to show how the microanatomy of hominoid teeth is providing evidence about rates of tooth growth that are likely to be a consequence of both masticatory strategy and social behaviour. First, we present data about incisor and molar tooth wear in wild short chimpanzees that demonstrate how crown heights are likely to be related to relative tooth use in a broad sense. Following this we review recent studies that describe the microanatomy of hominoid tooth enamel and show how these studies are providing evidence about tooth crown formation times in hominoids, as well as improving estimates for the age at death of certain juvenile fossil hominids. Next, we outline what is known about the mechanisms of tooth growth in the sexually dimorphic canine teeth of chimpanzees and compare these patterns of growth with tooth growth patterns in the canines of three fossil hominids from Laetoli, Tanzania. Finally, we discuss how selection pressures that operate to increase or reduce the size of anterior teeth interact with jaw size. We argue that the space available to grow developing teeth in the mandibles of juvenile hominoids is determined by the growth patterns of the mandibles, which in turn reflect masticatory strategy. The consequences of selection pressure to grow large or small anterior teeth are likely to be reflected in the times at which these teeth are able to emerge into occlusion.

  17. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  18. 中草药在正畸牙移动牙周组织改建中的作用%The function of Chinese herbal medicine in the reconstruction of periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雅竹; 管晓燕; 肖茜文; 王斯玮; 刘建国

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Orthodontic tooth movement is based on the periodontal tissue remodeling. In the exogenous factors accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, Chinese herbal medicine has become a research hotspot because of its wide resources, low cost, easy to extract, mild effect, smal toxic, less side effects and drug resistance. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS:A computer-based retrieval of CNKI, Wanfang and PubMed databases was performed for articles related to Chinese herbal medicine for improving orthodontic tooth movement published before 2014. The keywords were “Chinese herbal medicine, orthodontic tooth movement, periodontal tissue remodeling” in Chinese and English, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Erigeron breviscapus, Salvia, teasel, Drynaria, baicalin, evening primrose oil as Chinese herbs are most widely used in the promotion of periodontal tissue remodeling, characterized as wide resources, low cost, easy to extract, mild effect, low toxicity, less drug resistance. In the clinical orthodontic treatment, it is hoped to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement and shorten the treatment time. Therefore, under the appropriate corrective force, Chinese herbs can be used properly to improve periodontal tissue repair and remodeling, which can improve the microcirculation of periodontal tissue, increase the local blood flow, promote bone formation and repress bone resorption.%背景:正畸牙移动以牙周组织改建为基础和前提,在加快正畸牙移动的外源性因素中,中草药以其资源广,成本低,易提取,作用温和,毒副作用小,不易产生耐药性等优点成为研究的热点。目的:就中草药在正畸牙移动牙周组织改建中的作用等研究进展作一综述。方法:使用计算机检索中国知网,万方医学网及PubMed数据库从建库起至2014年有关促进正畸

  19. Research progress on effect of low-level laser therapy during orthodontic tooth movement%低强度激光促进正畸治疗牙移动的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜子淇; 何武林; 邹淑娟

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of patients and orthodontists, accelerating teeth movement is desirable because the treatment duration is very long. The harmless and infection-free low-level laser(LLL) is highly capable of suppressing inflammatory process, reducing pain, and promoting wound healing. Thus, LLL is widely utilized in several different treatments in clinical practice. Researchers have studied the effects of LLL, and found that this method can accelerate alveolar bone remodeling and increase the rate of tooth movement in animals. Several clinical trials have also enhanced the efficiency of LLL in accelerating the velocity of orthodontic tooth movement. In this article, recent experimental and clinical studies on the mechanism through which LLL improves orthodontic tooth movement are reviewed.%提高正畸治疗牙移动速率,缩短疗程是正畸患者及医生的迫切要求。低强度激光(LLL)因具有抗炎、镇痛、促进组织愈合和无创伤等优点,在医学领域得到广泛运用。近年来,大量基础研究发现LLL能影响机体的成骨及破骨效应,提高实验动物牙移动速率,相关的临床试验报道也证实了其促进患者正畸牙移动的有效性。本文就LLL促进正畸牙移动的基础和临床研究进展作一综述。

  20. The effect of force magnitude and duration to root resorption and tooth movements in rats%力值大小及加力时间对大鼠牙齿移动及牙根吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雯雯; 戴红卫; 冯刚; 周建萍

    2012-01-01

    目的;探讨不同力量大小和加力持续时间对大鼠牙齿移动距离及移动过程中牙根吸收程度的影响。方法:通过镍钛拉簧给SD大鼠右上颌的一磨牙分别施加10g、40g、100g大小的力,分别测量右上颌第一磨牙近中根的牙根吸收面积,牙根吸收的深度和牙齿移动的距离。结果:1,2天和12天10g组和40g组右上颌第一磨牙移动的距离显著大于100g组。2.每组中牙根吸收面积和深度均随着加力时间的增加而增加,而且力值越大吸收的程度越大。结论:牙齿移动的距离及牙根吸收的程度与力值及加力时间有密切关系,轻力在增加牙齿移动距离的同时能减少牙根吸收。%Objective:To explore the effect of the amount of tooth movement and root resorption with different force magnitude and duration.Method: Mesial force were applied to the right maxillary first molars of SD rat using nickel titanium closed-coil springs,Measure the root resorption area,depth and the movement distance of the right maxillary first molars.Result: 1.In 2days and 12days,the amount of tooth movement of 10g and 40g groups was significantly longer than 100g group.2.The root resorption area and depth of three groups were not only increased with the force duration,but also with the force magnitude.Conclusion: There were intimate relationships between the amount of tooth movement,the extent of root resorption and the force magnitude and duration.Light force produced more tooth movement and less root resorption compared with heavier forces.

  1. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  2. The correlation research of the relationship between high mobility group protein box 1 and orthodontic tooth movement%高速泳动族蛋白盒1与正畸牙移动的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昕欣

    2012-01-01

    正畸牙受矫治力作用后,其牙周组织将发生一系列的生物化学反应,多种细胞因子和激素参与了反应的整个过程.高速泳动族蛋白盒1(HMGB1)是一种重要的晚期炎症因子,参与骨组织改建并与成纤维细胞相互作用,据此推测其可能参与正畸牙移动过程中的牙周组织改建.本文就HMGB1与炎症反应、骨组织改建、成纤维细胞、牙周炎,正畸牙移动的生物学基础等研究现状作一综述.%A series of biochemical reaction happened in the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement, varies cytokine and hormone participate in the process. High mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) is an important late inflammatory mediator. In recent years, researches have made to find that HMGB1 was involved in the remolding and metabolism of bone and can interacted with fibroblast. Because of the biological effect, we can speculate that HMGB1 may play an important role in the remolding of periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. This review focused on the relationship between HMGB1 and orthodontic tooth movement.

  3. LIPUS repaired root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats%低强度脉冲超声促进大鼠正畸性牙根吸收的修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志峰; 徐娟; 鄂玲玲; 王东胜; 吕燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究低强度脉冲超声(low-intensity pulsed ultrasound,LIPUS)对大鼠正畸性牙根吸收的作用.方法 158只Wistar大鼠建立正畸牙移动根吸收的动物模型,100 g初始力值加载于大鼠右侧上颌两中切牙与第一磨牙之间14 d,随机分为空白对照组、加力组、100 MW/cm2超声治疗组和150 MW/cm2超声治疗组.应用扫描电镜观察牙根表面吸收状态,同时测量牙根吸收指数.结果 LIPUS超声组降低了牙根吸收指数,100 MW/cm2超声治疗组(2.08±0.51)%与150 MW/cm2超声治疗组(2.78±0.52)%差异无统计学意义.高倍扫描电镜下可见修复性牙骨质形成.结论 LIPUS对大鼠正畸性牙根吸收有修复作用.%Objective To examine the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on root resorption in rats model used for study of orthodontic tooth movement. Methods 158 Wistar rats were included in the sample as animal model to study root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. 100g of initial force was applied between the upper incisors and the upper first molar for 14 days. The rats were randomly classified into control group, experimental group,100 MW/cm2 LIPUS group and 150 MW/cm2 LIPUS group. Root resorption were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results The LIPUS showed significant effect in decreasing root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. No significant difference was noted between 100 MW/cm2 LIPUS group (2.08±0.51)% and 150 MW/cm2 LIPUS group(2.78±0.52)%. Formation of reparative cementum can be found by scanning electron microscopy.Conclusions LIPUS might be useful for reparation of mechanical stress-induced root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement.

  4. 生长因子在正畸牙移动牙周组织改建中的作用%Effects of growth factors on the periodontal tissue remodeling during orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭鹏

    2012-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement is achieved by the periodontal tissue remodeling in response to mechanical loading and is believed to be mediated by several host mediators. With the development of modem experimental techniques, the researchers have been able to investigate the biological characteristics of orthodontic tooth movement at the molecular and genetic level. The growth factor is one of the most important cytokines which play an important role in the periodontal tissue remodeling. Therefore, a thoroughly awareness of the extensional regulatory mechanism of growth factors is essential to understand the biological behaviour of orthodontic tooth movement, and to the application of growth factors in orthodontic clinic. This article reviews the research progress of the biological foundation and the periodontal tissue responses during orthodontic tooth movement and effects of growth factors on the periodontal tissue remodeling.%正畸牙移动是在机械应力作用下多种因子介导的牙周组织改建.随着现代试验技术的发展,研究者们开始在分子和基因水平研究正畸牙移动的生物学特征.在各种参与牙周组织改建的细胞因子中,生长因子是重要的调节因子之一.了解其在正畸牙移动过程中对牙周组织改建的具体作用机制,有助于正畸医师更好地理解正畸牙移动的生物学行为,指导其在正畸临床上的应用.本文就正畸牙移动的生物学基础、正畸牙移动过程中牙周组织的变化、生长因子在牙周组织改建中的作用等研究进展作一综述.

  5. Maxillary canine transpositions in two brothers and one sister: associated dental anomalies and genetic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Juan J; Hattab, Faiez; Ríos, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    Transposition is an uncommon dental anomaly involving positional interchange of two teeth. The maxillary canine is the tooth more frequently transposed in man. Maxillary canine-first premolar appears to be the most common type of tooth transposition, followed by maxillary canine-lateral incisor transposition. Maxillary canine transpositions are frequently associated with other dental abnormalities such as agenesis and pegshaped incisors. This report describes the presence of transposed canines in one sister and two brothers. The female showed bilateral maxillary canine-first premolar transposition with the left canine fully mesial to its neighboring first premolar, and the right canine blocked-out facially between the first and second premolar. One of the brothers showed full maxillary left canine-lateral incisor transposition. The other brother showed maxillary canine-first premolar transposition and agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors, with the left canine blocked-out facially between the first and second premolar. Findings from this case report and other previously published cases provide strong evidence that maxillary canine transpositions are a disturbance of tooth order and eruptive position resulting from genetic influences within a multifactorial inheritance model.

  6. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  7. MMP-3及TIMP-1在正畸牙周组织改建过程中的表达%The expression of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 during experimental tooth movement in rats.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永明; 林珠; 冯雪; 段银钟

    2000-01-01

    Objective :To observe the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) during experimental tooth movement in rats. Methods:30 adult SD rats were randomly grouped into 6:the control and the 5 groupes for experemental tooth movement. Orthodontic appliance was placed between the maxillary left first molar and maxillary central incisors of the rats in tested groupes. MMP-3 and TIMP-1 expression was examined with immunohistochemical technic and image analyses 1,3,5,7 and 1 4 days after orthodontic force application. Results: The expression of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 was weak in the periodotium in control rats. MMP-3 expression increased 1 d after tooth movement and reached the maximum in 5 d. Strong expression of MMP-3 was also found in osteoclasts. TIMP-1 expresion was increased 3 d after tooth movement and increased in 7 d. TIMP-1 positive firbro blasts and osteoblasts were found not only on the pressure side but also on the tension side of the periodontium. Conclusion :MMP3 and TIMP-1 may play some roles in orthodontic periodontium remodeling during tooth movement and in osteoclastic bone resorption.%目的:探讨大鼠正畸牙周组织改建过程中基质金属蛋白酶-3(MMP-3)和金属蛋白酶组织抑制因子-1(TIMP-1)与正畸牙齿移动的关系。方法:在SD成年大鼠上颌左侧第一磨牙与上颌切牙之间安置正畸装置,建立大鼠磨牙移动实验模型。于牙齿移动1、3、5、7、14 d后取材分别进行免疫组化染色,图像分析,观察MMP-3和TIMP-l表达的变化。结果:牙齿移动1 d后,牙周组织细胞MMP-3表达增强,5 d后MMP-3表达达到高峰。此时破骨细胞胞浆亦呈强阳性表达。而TIMP-1于牙齿移动3 d后表达开始增强,7 d后显著表达。结论:MMP-3及TIMP-1参与了正畸牙周组织改建过程,MMP-3在破骨细胞性骨吸收中起着重要作用。

  8. Impacted canines: Etiology, diagnosis, and orthodontic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Manne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaction of maxillary and mandibular canines is a frequently encountered clinical problem, the treatment of which usually requires an interdisciplinary approach. Surgical exposure of the impacted tooth and the complex orthodontic mechanisms that are applied to align the tooth into the arch may lead to varying amounts of damage to the supporting structures of the tooth, not to mention the long treatment duration and the financial burden to the patient. Hence, it seems worthwhile to focus on the means of early diagnosis and interception of this clinical situation. In the present article, an overview of the incidence and sequelae, as well as the surgical, periodontal, and orthodontic considerations in the management of impacted canines is presented.

  9. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15-53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration.

  10. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration. PMID:27433532

  11. Clinical effects of canine movement by segmented dental arches%节段正轴辅弓远移尖牙的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昀; 李传生

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To observe the clinical effects of canine distal removement by segmented dental arches.METHODS: Twelve cases (24 canines) of severely crowded dentation patients were chosen. After extraction of the first premolars, specially bended segmented dental arches were applied to move the canines distally. Overjet and over-bite, interdigitation for posterial molars as well as canines and anchorage molars moving situations were observed. RESULTS:After 5 months, canines were moved 5. 2mm ( 1. 04mm/per month) distally and 3. 8mm (0. 76mm/per month) occlusally by segmented dental arches. MBT straight wire appliance was used for the later stage treatment. After MBT treatment, normal jet and normal bite were achieved. Canines and first molars reached interdigitation relationship. There was no shift in anchorage molars. CONCLUSION: Early stage usage of special segmented dental arches to move canines distally and later stage usage of MBT straight wire appliance are effective on the orthodontic treatment of severely crowded dentition.%目的:探讨重度拥挤伴尖牙近中唇移过低位病人拔除4个第一前磨牙后,早期用节段正轴辅弓远中、黯向移动尖牙,结合直丝弓矫治器的矫治疗效,为临床应用提供依据.方法:对12例(共24个尖牙)前牙拥挤和伴有尖牙近中唇移过低位的病例,在拔除第一前磨牙1周后应用自行弯制的节段正轴辅弓牵引尖牙远中、向移动,同时观察尖牙、磨牙的移动情况和临床效果.结果:经过早期使用节段正轴辅弓,尖牙5个月平均向远中移动5.2mm(速率1.04mm/月),骀向移动5个月平均3.8mm(速率0.76mm/月).通过后期的MWT.直丝弓矫治器,12例病人覆、覆盖正常,尖牙和第一磨牙达到理想的中性咬合关系,上下颌牙齿尖窝交错,咬合关系良好,尖牙轴倾度正常,支抗磨牙无明显移动.结论:早期应用节段正轴辅弓和后期直丝弓矫治器,进行拥挤伴尖牙近中唇移过低位的拔牙矫治,不

  12. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  13. The expression of calretinin and cytokeratins in canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, A; Arzi, B; Murphy, B; Naydan, D K; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma (CAA) represent two epithelium-derived neoplasms that affect the oral cavity of dogs. The expression of cytokeratins (CKs) and calretinin has been previously established in the canine tooth bud and odontogenic tumours. The aim of this study was to characterize the CK and calretinin expression profile of OSCC in comparison to CAA and canine tooth bud tissues. Samples from 15 OSCC and 15 CAA cases, as well as 6 tooth buds and 2 normal gingival tissues were examined. OSCC CK expression was consistent with the CK expression profile of CAA and canine tooth bud tissue. Calretinin was positively expressed in 10 of 15 OSCC cases, with 5 cases demonstrating high staining intensity. Only 2 of 15 CAA cases demonstrated mild-moderate staining intensity. The statistically significant difference in staining pattern and intensity of calretinin in OSCC and CAA can help distinguish between these two tumour types.

  14. Management of impacted all canines with surgical exposure and alignment by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is a dental problem very often encountered in orthodontic practice. After the third molar, the canine is the most frequently impacted tooth. Bringing the impacted canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article illustrates a peculiar case, in which all four permanent canines maintained their unerupted status at age of 16 years. All four impacted canines were surgically exposed, attachment bonded, traction given with K-9 spring and ideally positioned with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.

  15. Preliminary Study on Postoperatively Accelerated Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Surgery-first Approach%手术先行方案中术后牙齿加速移动的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈恒丕; 王涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Surgery-first become prevalent for dentofacial deformity currently.Tooth movement was accelerated 3-4 months after orthognathic surgery in surgery-first approach.Orthognathic surgery accelerate tooth movement has been raised In this pa-per,experiment had executed to analyze the reason of postoperative rapid orthodontic tooth movement.Materials and Methods: 12 adult New Zealand rabbits,divided into two groups,A&B,6 in each group,group A for the experimental group,group B for the control group,left mandibular first premolar moved forward by 75gf as initial force after surgery-first model been done in mandible. Group B, left mandibular first premolar been moved forward by 75gf as initial force without surgery.Results:The distance left mandibular first premolar had moved is 0.96mm on average in group A,0.91mm in group B.There are no significant difference between the two groups, p=0.36.Conclusions:In this study,injury of orthognathic surgical on mandible do not evidently induce postoperative rapid orthodontic tooth movement in mandible.Local factors such as weakening of occlusal function and biomechanics changed caused by improvement of dentofacial relationship could not be ignored in surgery-first approach.%目的:手术先行方案治疗牙颌面畸形是目前的研究热点。在采用手术先行方案的治疗中,发现正颌手术后3-4个月牙齿加速移动,提出了正颌手术致颌面部损伤加快牙齿移动的观点。本文通过实验分析手术先行方案中术后牙齿快速移动的原因。材料与方法:12只成年新西兰大白兔,分为AB两组,每组6只,A组为实验组,B组为对照组,A以兔左下颌骨建立手术先行方案模型,术后以75 gf为初始力移动左下颌第一前臼齿向前。B组仅用75 gf初始力移动左下颌第一前臼齿向前。结果:A组中左下颌第一前臼齿移动距离平均为0.96 mm ,B组为0.91 mm ,两组间无明显差异,p=0.36。结论:实验中对

  16. CANINE IMPACTIONS: AN ORTHODONTIST’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : Impacted teeth are those which are not predictable and do not erupt absolutely based on clinical and radiographic assessment. Certain impactions can be complicated and the outcome unpredictable if the tooth is positioned unfavourably either horizontally or vertically in the alveolar bone. Presence of canines buccally, palatally or lingually can be seen using various diagnostic methods. Factors that interfere with its development and eruption have influence on aesthetics’, function and stability. A detailed understanding of the management of impacted teeth is essential for a stable and aesthetic result. So, we put forth the most common procedures which can be carried out by general dentists in managing impacted maxillary canines.

  17. Expression of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid during maxillary canine distal movement%上颌尖牙远中移动过程中龈沟液内中性粒细胞浸润炎症相关因子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桓溪; 邢洪波; 苗芳; 李宁; 邱静怡; 李娟

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:To dynamicaly monitor the varying levels of inflammatory factors in the gingival crevicular fluid is helpful to assess the early effect of orthodontic tooth movement. Myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1, pentraxin 3 are proven to be closely related to inflammation, but it is unclear about the levels of these three kinds of inflammatory factors as wel as association of these three kinds of inflammatory factors with orthodontic tooth. OBJECTIVE:To detect the expression levels of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid during maxilary canine distal movement and to assess their correlation with periodontal disease, canine movement distance and orthodontic force. METHODS:Twenty-one orthodontic patients were enroled and assigned into 150 g (n=12) or 100 g (n=9) groups according to orthodontic force. The gingival crevicular fluid samples of orthodontic patients were colected before and at 4, 12, 24 hours, 7, 14 days after maxilary canine distal movement. Levels of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid were measured and analyzed using ELISA assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: During the distal movement of maxilary canine, under orthodontic force, the level of myeloperoxidase was peaked at 4 hours and then decreased, while the expression level of soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 was peaked at 12 hours, and then decreased. Both myeloperoxidase and soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 levels returned to normal at 7 days under orthodontic force. The expression level of pentraxin-3 was increased significantly under orthodontic force, peaked at 24 hours, and then decreased gradualy to the normal level at 7 days. In addition, the expression levels of myeloperoxidase, soluble intercelular adhesion molecule-1 and pentraxin-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid were significantly higher under 150 g force than

  18. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  19. Low-level laser therapy for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement:a Meta-analysis and systematic review%低强度激光促进正畸牙移动的Meta分析和系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何武林; 周圆; 杨烁; 文军; 褚洪星; 葛孟柯; 段培佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and related risk of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for accelerating tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. Methods An extensive electronic search was conducted by two review⁃ers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi⁃RCTs concerning the efficacy of LLLT for accelerating tooth move⁃ment during orthodontic treatment were searched in CENTRAL, PubMed, Medline, Embase, CBM, CNKI. Results Six RCTs and three quasi⁃RCTs, involving 211 patients from six countries, were selected from 173 relevant studies. All nine articles were feasible for the systematic review and meta⁃analysis, five of which were assessed as moderate risk of bias, while the rest were assessed as high risk of bias. The mean difference and the 95%confidence interval (95%CI) of accu⁃mulative moved distance of teeth were observed among all the researches. The results showed that the LLLT could acceler⁃ate orthodontic tooth movement in 7 days (MD=0.19, 95%CI 0.02⁃0.37, P=0.03) and 2 months (MD=1.08, 95%CI 0.16⁃2.01, P=0.02). Moreover, a relatively lower energy density (2.5, 5 and 8 J/cm2) was seemingly more effective than 20 and 25 J/cm2 and even higher ones. Conclusion This systematic review and meta⁃analysis demonstrated that LLLT might speed up the tooth movement in orthodontic treatment. A relatively lower energy density (2.5, 5, and 8 J/cm2) was seemingly more effective than higher ones. More qualified RCTs in human subjects are required.%目的:评价低强度激光治疗(low⁃level laser therapy ,LLLT)促进正畸牙移动的有效性及相关风险。方法依据Cochrane Handbook的规范化要求,检索1980年-2014年Medline、PubMed等数据库,运用Review Manager 5.1软件进行Meta分析。结果共纳入6个国家6篇随机对照试验,3篇不完全随机对照试验,211名患者。偏倚风险评价显示5个研究为中度偏倚风险,4个研究为高度偏倚风险。Meta分析结果显示:与对照组

  20. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Avesh Sachan; T P Chaturvedi

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal o...

  1. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Virani Noman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. This case report is of a 15-year-old Somalian born boy, who presented at the dental institute with intermittent pain in his lower right permanent canine which was associated with a discharging intra oral buccal sinus. The tooth was endodontically treated and then restored with composite. General dental practitioners need to be vigilant when encountered with tooth presenting unusual morphology, unilateral missing tooth, and shift in the midline due to early loss of deciduous/permanent canines. Identification of any such dental mutilation practice will need further counselling of the individual and family members. It is the duty of every dental professional to educate and safeguard the oral and dental health of general public.

  2. Unilateral Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagihan Koç

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of maxillary permanent canines is an extremely rare condition, which may appear as part of a syndrome or as a nonsyndromic form. Nonsyndromic canine agenesis combined with other types of tooth agenesis has occasionally been described in the literature but isolated cases are rarely observed. This report presents an isolated case of maxillary permanent canine agenesis in a healthy 18-year-old female patient and a literature review on the prevalence, etiology, and differential diagnosis of the condition.

  3. Comparative study on inflammatory cytokine levels in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement with Smart Clip self-ligating brackets and conventional brackets%Smart Clip 自锁托槽和传统托槽对正畸牙龈沟液中炎症因子水平的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩骁; 刘昕; 张晏更; 葛宇

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes of the cytokine levels in the gingival crevicular fluid after applying force on the self-li-gating brackets and conventional brackets,and analyse the periodontal tissue remodeling.Methods Sixteen maxillary protruding pa-tients who needed removing bilateral maxillary first premolars were selected,self-ligating appliance being used on one side of the upper dentition as the experimental group,and using traditional straight wire appliance on the other side as the control group.IL-1 βand PGE2 levels of the gingival crevicular fluid taken at different time points in canine retraction were detected,and to analyze the relationship of their changes with periodontal tissue inflammatory response.Results After retruding the canines,levels of IL-1 βand PGE2 of the gin-gival crevicular fluid all increased and reached their top at 24 h.There were no significant differencesin IL-1 βand PGE2 levels of the gingival crevicular fluid between the experimental group and control group.Conclusions Self-ligating appliance did not differ signifi-cantly from traditional appliance in periodontal tissue remodeling in the early phase of the orthodontic tooth movement.%目的:探讨自锁矫治器和传统矫治器对牙齿加力后龈沟液中炎症因子水平变化从而比较两种类型托槽引起的牙周组织改建的情况。方法选择16例上颌前突需拔除上颌双侧第一前磨牙的患者,上牙列一侧使用自锁矫治器作为试验组,一侧使用传统直丝弓矫治器作为对照组,对两侧尖牙加力后取不同时间点的龈沟液,检测其中 IL -1β和 PGE2水平,分析其变化与牙周组织炎症反应的关系。结果在对尖牙加力后,龈沟液中 IL -1β和 PGE2水平均升高,均在加力后24 h 达到最高值,各检测时间点试验组和对照组龈沟液中 IL -1β和 PGE2含量差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论2种矫治器在正畸牙移动的初期对牙周组织改建的影响无明显区别。

  4. 丹参联合电动牙刷对大鼠正畸牙移动过程的影响%The effect of salvia combine electric toothbrushon on rats,experimental orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾德蛟; 吴秋瑾; 刘海霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究中药丹参联合电动牙刷对大鼠正畸牙齿移动及移动过程中牙槽骨密度的影响。方法:选取72只SD雄性大鼠,建立大鼠正畸牙齿移动实验模型,随机分为丹参联合电动牙刷+加力组(A组)丹参+加力组(B组)和对照组单纯加力组(C组),每组24只。 A组每天于左上第一磨牙颊黏膜处注射丹参,并间歇进行15 min电动牙刷颤动,B组注射丹参,C组为对照组。3组动物于正畸加力1、3、7、14 d分批次处死,每批处死6只,分离大鼠上颌骨,HE染色观察牙周组织变化并测量牙齿移动的距离及牙槽骨骨密度。使用SPSS 19.0软件进行数据分析。结果:A组和B组较C组的牙周组织中更早更多出现破骨细胞;A、B组除第1 d外牙齿移动距离均明显高于C组(P<0.01),且A组明显高于B组(P<0.01);第7d,A组牙槽骨密度明显高于C组(P<0.05),第14 d,A组明显高于B组(P<0.05),且A、B组均高于C组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论:丹参联合电动牙刷在加速牙齿移动的同时能有效地降低牙槽骨骨密度的减少。%Objective:To observe the effects of the traditional Chinese herb salvia combined with electric toothbrush on the reconstruction of the alveolar bone and the density of the alveolar bone during rats’ orthodontic tooth movement. Method:72 male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were selected to establish the animal models of orthodontic tooth movement. The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:salvia+electric toothbrush group (group A) and salvia group(group B) and normal saline group(group C). Each group had 24 rats. Group A were injected salvia injection under the left maxillary first molar buccal mucosa and massaged intermittently by an electric toothbrush 15 minutes every day. Group B were only injected salvia injection and Group C was control. Each group were sacrificed in batches at four time points (1

  5. Interspecific and intraspecific relationships between tooth size and jaw size in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcan, J Michael; Daegling, David J

    2006-08-01

    The association between mandibular robusticity, postcanine megadontia, and canine reduction in hominins has led to speculation that large and robust jaws might be required to spatially accommodate large canine and molar teeth in hominins and other primates. If so, then variations in mandibular form that are generally regarded as biomechanical adaptations to masticatory demands might instead be incidental effects of functional requirements of tooth support. While the association between large teeth and deep, robust jaws in hominins is well known, the relationship between tooth size and jaw size has not been systematically evaluated in a comparative sample of primates. We evaluate the relationships between molar tooth size, canine tooth size, and mandibular corpus and symphyseal dimensions in a sample of adult anthropoids in interspecific (n=84 species) and intraspecific (n=36 species) contexts. For intraspecific comparisons, tooth size and jaw size are correlated, but for a majority of species this is a function of sexual size dimorphism. Interspecific comparisons lend little direct support to the hypothesis that jaw breadth directly covaries with molar tooth breadth, but they do support the hypothesis that mandibular depth is associated with canine tooth size in males. The latter observation suggests that if there is a causal association between canine size and mandibular depth, it is subject to a threshold effect. In contrast, neither corpus nor symphyseal robusticity, measured as a shape index of breadth/height, are correlated with tooth size. Our results suggest that further studies of the relationship between tooth size and corpus morphology should focus on tooth root size and corpus bony architecture, and that species-specific factors should have a strong impact on such relationships.

  6. Tooth sensitivity: mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, K

    1993-08-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Exposed superficial dentin is free of nerve endings, yet sensitive. Experimental evidence indicates that stimuli, such as probing the dentin surface and air blasts, induce fluid movements in the dentinal tubules and these fluid movements, in turn, activate the intradental nerves. The condition of the dentin surface is critically important in allowing this process. In addition, the internal environment of the pulp may influence nerve excitability. Therapies for tooth sensitivity include both agents that obstruct the dentinal tubules and agents that can decrease the excitability of the intradental nerves. The exact treatment used depends on the etiology of the individual's problem and the extent of dentinal tissue damage.

  7. Morphometric analysis of canine in gender determination: Revisited in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Paramkusam

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation and Conclusion: Use of the standard mandibular CI in gender determination is recommended for forensic procedures as it was found to have an acceptable accuracy. MD width of canine may be used in a setup when only the single tooth or a fragment of a jaw is available for analysis, with due consideration to its relatively low accuracy.

  8. Alignment of palatally impacted canine with open window technique and modified K-9 spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was an 18-year-old female who had an Angle Class I malocclusion with a left palatally impacted maxillary canine. The orthodontic treatment of a palatally impacted canine is aimed at bringing the tooth into its correct position in the dental arch without causing any periodontal damage. To achieve this goal, a variety of surgical and orthodontic techniques have been proposed in relation to the position of the impacted tooth and there are various treatment methods used for traction. The duration of the traction was 3 months and alignment duration was 12 months the total treatment time was 15 months. In the following case, we presented that maxillary palatally impacted canine was brought into the arch with open window method for canine exposure and modified K-9 spring for traction, that is simple spring for orthodontic traction of the palatally impacted canines.

  9. Corticotomias alveolares na Ortodontia: indicações e efeitos na movimentação dentária Alveolar corticotomies in orthodontics: Indications and effects on tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauro Douglas Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a busca pelo aumento na eficiência dos tratamentos ortodônticos é uma constante em diversas áreas da Ortodontia atual. A realização de corticotomias alveolares pouco antes da aplicação de forças ortodônticas vem sendo sugerida como uma forma de potencializar a movimentação dentária e, consequentemente, o tratamento ortodôntico como um todo. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo revê a perspectiva histórica dessa abordagem terapêutica, apresenta e ilustra com casos clínicos suas principais indicações e, por fim, discute os fundamentos biológicos que justificam sua utilização.INTRODUCTION: The systematic search for increased efficiency in orthodontic treatment is shared by several areas of orthodontics. Performing alveolar corticotomies shortly before the application of orthodontic forces has been suggested as a method to enhance tooth movement and, consequently, orthodontic treatment as a whole. OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the historical perspective of this therapeutic approach, presents and illustrates with clinical cases its main indications and finally discusses the biological reasons underlying its use.

  10. Tooth Germ-Like Construct Transplantation for Whole-Tooth Regeneration: An In Vivo Study in the Miniature Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai-Chiang; Kitamura, Yutaka; Wu, Chang-Chin; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Ling, Thai-Yen; Kuo, Tzong-Fu

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-tooth regeneration using a tooth germ-like construct. Dental pulp from upper incisors, canines, premolars, and molars were extracted from sexually mature miniature pigs. Pulp tissues were cultured and expanded in vitro to obtain dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), and cells were differentiated into odontoblasts and osteoblasts. Epithelial cells were isolated from gingival epithelium. The epithelial cells, odontoblasts, and osteoblasts were seeded onto the surface, upper, and lower layers, respectively, of a bioactive scaffold. The lower first and second molar tooth germs were removed bilaterally and the layered cell/scaffold constructs were transplanted to the mandibular alveolar socket of a pig. At 13.5 months postimplantation, seven of eight pigs developed two teeth with crown, root, and pulp structures. Enamel-like tissues, dentin, cementum, odontoblasts, and periodontal tissues were found upon histological inspection. The regenerated tooth expressed dentin matrix protein-1 and osteopontin. All pigs had regenerated molar teeth regardless of the original tooth used to procure the DPSCs. Pigs that had tooth germs removed or who received empty scaffolds did not develop teeth. Although periodontal ligaments were generated, ankylosis was found in some animals. This study revealed that implantation of a tooth germ-like structure generated a complete tooth with a high success rate. The implant location may influence the morphology of the regenerated tooth.

  11. Varying types of circus movement re-entry with both normal and dissociated contralateral conduction causing different right and left atrial rhythms in canine atrial flutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, S; Boineau, J P; Schuessler, R B; Cox, J L

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an animal model of atrial flutter (AFL) or fibrillation (AFB) and to determine precisely the pathway of atrial activation during arrhythmias induced by programmed stimulation. In 10 dogs, a shunt from the left subclavian artery to the left upper pulmonary vein was created to produce left atrial enlargement. Five months later, using programmed electrical stimulation, it was possible to induce 17 sustained atrial tachycardias in 9 of the 10 dogs, including 9 episodes of AFL caused by circus movement re-entry, 6 episodes of focal tachycardia, and 2 episodes of AFB. Short cycle length left atrial tachycardias caused by either circus movement or a focus did not propagate in a uniform 1:1 pattern to the right atrium (RA), resulting in RA dissociation. In these arrhythmias, complex wavefronts from both current and preceding left atrial cycles coexisted in the RA. Circus movement was associated with a spectrum of different re-entrant pathways with different path lengths. These differences in the path length were determined by various ways in which obstacles such as the superior vena cava and orifice of the right atrial appendage or pulmonary vein orifices were combined by contiguous areas of functional block.

  12. 骨皮质切开术式加快正畸牙移动的实验研究%Experimental research on cortical incision type to promote orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴颖

    2014-01-01

    目的:确定一种既操作简单、创伤小、临床易于开展,又有效加快正畸牙移动的骨皮质切开术式,为临床实践提供参考。方法:选择成年Beagle犬9只拔除两侧第二前磨牙,并随机选择其中一侧为骨皮质切开实验侧,另一侧为传统正畸方法对照侧,常规加力2周,固定保持4周后测量支抗牙移动牙移动距离;定期拍摄X线片和进行牙髓活力测试。结果:移动牙固定4周时松动度普遍小于I度;实验侧移动牙加力2周平均向远中移动3.12mm,对照侧移动牙平均向远中移动1.77mm(P﹤0.001),实验侧支抗牙平均向近中移动0.41mm,对照侧支抗牙平均向近中移动0.36mm(P﹥0.05);双侧均未出现牙根吸收及牙髓活力异常。结论:骨皮质切开术可加快牙齿移动速度;未见牙根吸收、骨质缺损、牙齿松动、支抗丧失等副作用。%To determine as well as a way of simple operation, small trauma, clinical, easy to carry out, and effective to speed up the bone cortex dissection of orthodontic tooth movement type in order to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods: Nine adult Beagle dogs were selected and pulled on both sides of the second premolar, randomly selected one side to cut the experimental side, the other side of the traditional orthodontic method contrast, conventional strength for 2 weeks, fixed stay for 4 weeks after measuring the palatal teeth movement distance; X-ray films and dental pulpvitality were regularly tested. Results: The mobile teeth fixed loose degree is generally less than I degree after 4 weeks; Experimental side mobile teeth strength for 2 weeks in average to move 3.12 mm, the control side mobile teeth moved far from 1.77 mm (P0.05); Both sides were not abnormal root absorption and dental pulp vitality. Conclusion:The bone cortex dissection can accelerate the tooth movement without side effects including root absorption and bone defects, loose teeth and the

  13. The unerupted maxillary canine - a post-surgical review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-10-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  14. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier-Lowe, Candace K; Anthony, James

    2015-08-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  15. Novel treatment of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis of incisor teeth in a 22-year-old Arabian mare

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis is a rarely reported condition in the incisor and canine teeth of older horses. Histologically, there is internal and external resorption of the tooth with formation of excessive cementum. Once lesions become infected or supragingival this condition is very painful. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of hypercementosis in an Arabian mare are described.

  16. Dynamic changes of aspartate transaminase level in gingival crevicular fluid on tooth movement in new bone area%犬牙移入牵张成骨区龈沟液 AST 水平动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌宁; 王银龙; 李峥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the dynamic changes of aspartate transaminase(AST ) in gingival crevicular fluid on tooth movement in new bone area after distraction osteogenesis at different time .Methods The distraction osteogenesis surgical proce‐dure was performed in 8 beagle dogs without periodontal disease and normal teeth ,experimental teeth were transplanted into the bone regeneration area after 2 weeks and after 6 weeks .Comparative analysis AST of each time (1 ,2 ,3 ,7 ,14 ,28 d after distraction) dynamic changes in gingival crevicular fluid .Results The AST level of gingival crevicular fluid in experimental tooth was rising for the first three days ,and the group of two weeks were significantly higher than 6 weeks ;AST levels after 7 d showed a trend of de‐cline ,down to the lowest point at 21 d ,and gradually restored ,AST levels reached a higher level again in the 28 d .Conclusion The AST level of experimental teeth increased significantly after 2 weeks than after 6 weeks ,but over time the AST level change is not linear ,this change has certain guiding significance for the clinical research in the future .%目的:研究分析不同时机将犬牙移入牵张成骨区后龈沟液的天门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST )水平变化。方法8只无牙周疾病且正常恒牙列beag le犬行牵张成骨术后分为两组(2周和6周),均行牙齿移入牵张成骨新骨区。观察对实验牙加力1、2、3、7、14、28 d后龈沟液中AST水平变化。结果两组实验牙龈沟液AST水平前3 d均存在上升趋势,且2周组上升较6周组明显;7 d后AST水平呈现下降趋势,在21 d达最低,并逐渐恢复;当28 d时AST水平再次上升。结论牵张成骨2周后实验牙移入新骨区龈沟液AST整体水平较6周后明显升高,但随着时间的推移AST水平改变并非呈线性升高。

  17. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  18. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  19. Removal of retained upper canine in the middle. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Mesa Reinaldo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of upper canine is one of the most common retentions that occur in permanent teething, this event may be related to that, this is the last tooth to erupt in the lower, also is associated with involution of the jaws, because eruption path is long and complex, often facing unfavorable. A case of a female patient, aged 25, of rural origin, which does not suffer from any disease, which was seen because of discomfort in area 23, ie in the left upper permanent canine. It was noted in the oral examination persistent left superior temporal canine, 63, and periapical and panoramic X-rays showed the presence of 23 included in an intermediate position. It was decided to make a modification of surgical technique with a conservative view of the palatal cortical bone. Was performed successfully including resection of the canine.

  20. Orthodontic tooth movement into the grafted alveolar bone: a clinical study in 10 cleft lip and palate patients%唇腭裂患者牙槽突裂植骨区牙移入的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨臣杰; 陈振琦; 杨育生; 钱玉芬

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSES: To explore the possibility of tooth movement into grafted alveolar bone in cleft lip and palate patients (CLP), and to evaluate the bone height of the grafted bone and alveolar bone support of the moved-in teeth. METHODS: Ten CLP patients were included in this study. Periapical radiographs were taken for the cleft-associated teeth 3 months later after bone grafting (Tl) and after tooth movement into the grafted bone (T2). Alveolar bone support of the moved teeth were measured at Tl and T2 stages. Paired t test were performed for statistical analysis with SPSS17.0 software package. The height of the grafted bone were evaluated serai -quantitatively using the Bergland system. RESULTS: All the cleft-associated teeth were bodily moved into the grafted area. The average alveolar bone support for the moved teeth was (89.85±2.51)% (Tl) and (90.22±2.44)% (T2), respectively. There was no significant difference between Tl and T2. No significant radiographic alteration was observed in the height of the grafted bone. CONCLUSIONS: Cleft-associated teeth could be bodily moved into the grafted bone. A successful level of alveolar bone support for the moved teeth was achieved. Moved-in teeth could reduce the resorption of grafted bone. Supported by Medical Research Fund of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality(074119643).%目的:探讨牙槽突裂植骨区牙移入的可行性及牙移入的方式,评价移入牙的牙槽骨支持率和移植骨高度变化.方法:选取唇腭裂伴牙槽突裂患者10例,行牙槽突裂自体髂骨植骨术后,分别拍摄植骨后3个月(T1)及牙移入植骨区后(T2)的根尖片,观察牙移入植骨区的情况,测量T1和T2阶段移入牙的牙槽骨支持率,采用SPSS17.0软件包对测量数据进行配对t检验,并参照Bergaand四分法评价移植骨的高度变化.结果:①牙整体移入植骨区,牙槽骨支持率为(89.85±2.51)% (T1)和(90.22±2.44)%(T2),牙移入植骨区后的

  1. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avesh Sachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal or external root resorption of teeth adjacent to the ectopic canine is the most common sequel. Malocclusion with severe crowding is difficult to treat without extraction. Non-extraction treatment of ectopic canines can compromise the patient′s profile. This article represents two cases of extraction treatment approach for buccally displaced or ectopic canine in a patient with severe crowding in the mandibular arch.

  2. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal or external root resorption of teeth adjacent to the ectopic canine is the most common sequel. Malocclusion with severe crowding is difficult to treat without extraction. Non-extraction treatment of ectopic canines can compromise the patient's profile. This article represents two cases of extraction treatment approach for buccally displaced or ectopic canine in a patient with severe crowding in the mandibular arch.

  3. Interdisciplinary management of single-tooth implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, F M; Mathews, D M; Kokich, V G

    1997-03-01

    Orthodontists treat many patients who are missing maxillary lateral incisors and/or mandibular second premolars. In the past, if the canines could not be substituted for lateral incisors, conventional full-coverage bridges were the common restoration. Recently, resin-bonded Maryland bridges became a popular substitute for conventional bridges to avoid crowns on the nonrestored abutments. However, resin-bonded bridges have a poor long-term prognosis for retention, lasting on average about 10 years. Since implants were introduced into dentistry by Swedish researchers in the mid-1980s, they have become a promising substitute for conventional or resin-bonded bridges. However, to successfully place and restore single-tooth implants in young orthodontic patients several questions must be answered. This article will discuss the many interdisciplinary issues that are involved in placing and restoring single-tooth implants in orthodontic patients.

  4. 尼古丁对大鼠实验性牙移动牙根吸收的影响*★%Nicotine inhibits root resorption induced by experimental tooth movement in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖丽呼玛•阿热甫江; 潘旭; 米丛波

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking can seriously affect the periodontal tissues and root, and nicotine in tobacco can increase the progression of periodontal disease and influence bone remodeling thus leading to bone resorption. While intergrin αvβ3 participates in the root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth movement. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of nicotine on root resorption induced by orthodontic tooth movement based on the indicators of intergrin αvβ3 expression in the odontoclasts. METHODS: A total of 110 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the blank control group, normal saline group, 0.5 mg/kg nicotine group, 0.75 mg/kg nicotine group and 1 mg/kg nicotine group. In the last four groups, 50 g force was exposed on the maxil ary first molar, and intraperitoneal injection of nicotine tartrate solution or saline in a certain dose was performed daily. Then the histological changes and expression of intergrin αvβ3 were observed after exposed force on the maxil ary first molar for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days using hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: With the prolonging of time for exposing force, the periodontal ligament fibers around the root were distorted and lost normal shape, and inflammatory cel infiltration could be seen. Resorption lacuna and odontoclasts were found on the root surface in the pressure side and tension side as wel as the root bifurcation. The dose of nicotine injection, the number and depth of resorption lacuna on the root surface and the number of odontoclasts showed a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining result showed that expression of intergrin αvβ3 could be seen in each group, except for the blank control group, and the expression intensity was increased with the prolonging of the time for force; the intergrin αvβ3 positive expression was strong after forced for 7 days, and decreased when forced for 14 days. The number of odontoclasts expressing

  5. Experimental tooth movement through bone regenerated after distraction osteogenesis in sheep%应用正畸移动装置在牵引成骨新成骨中移动牙的动物模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹喆; 贾绮林; 曾祥龙

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨应用自制正畸移动装置在牵引成骨新成骨中移动牙的方法的可行性,建立动物模型,为临床应用提供客观理论依据.方法 将六只成年(12~15月龄)雄性小尾寒羊(绵羊)的下颌两侧随机分组,随机选择一侧为实验组,另一侧为对照组.实验组按照骨成熟期分为一周组、两周组、三周组、四周组(非成熟骨组)和半年组、一年组(成熟骨组).对照组分为常规对照和空白对照.非成熟组对侧为常规对照,成熟骨组对侧为空白对照.实验组在下颌第一双尖牙的近中牙槽嵴位置行手术骨皮质切开,放置牵引成骨器,术后5天开始牵引成骨,每12小时牵引加力一次,1.2 mm/d,牵引6天,在第一双尖牙近中形成7.2 mm新生骨段;分别在一周、两周、三周、四周和半年、一年后,在第一双尖牙近中约2 cm位置牙槽嵴顶植入种植钉作为支抗,使用正畸轻力移动牙齿的方法应用镍钛拉簧牵引第一双尖牙向近中移动,力值约100 g(0.98 N),3周后第一双尖牙移入牵引成骨骨段.常规对照组,使用同样正畸方法牵引第一双尖牙向近中移动3周.结果 实验组牙齿顺利移动进入牵引成骨骨段,松动度I度,局部牙龈红肿、轻度炎症,X线检查示无根尖周病变、无明显牙根吸收.结论 使用正畸力在牵引成骨新成骨中移动牙齿的方法切实可行,本研究所建立的动物模型可以应用于后续的研究中.%Objective To establish animal model of orthodontic tooth movement through bone regenerated after distraction osteogenesis .Methods The experiment was carried out in 6 adult male sheep, with one side of jaws served as experiment or control side.Experimental groups were randomly divided into one-week group、two-week group、three-week group、four-week group (immature group) and half year group、 one year group (mature group).Control groups were divided into conventional control group and blank group

  6. Tooth sensitivity and whitening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Edward J

    2005-09-01

    This article presents a review of the basic concepts of tooth sensitivity and how those concepts apply to cervical dentin hypersensitivity and the sensitivity frequently associated with tooth whitening. The etiology and treatment of cervical dentin hypersensitivity are described. The clinical presentation, incidence, and predisposing factors for sensitivity associated with tooth whitening also are discussed.

  7. Retração rápida de caninos Rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a retração rápida de caninos por distração do ligamento periodontal é uma técnica de movimentação dentária que permite o fechamento de espaço da extração de primeiros pré-molares em um intervalo de duas ou três semanas, proporcionando uma redução significativa no tempo do tratamento ortodôntico. OBJETIVO: apresentar modificações propostas na técnica cirúrgica original e no posicionamento dos distratores. CONCLUSÕES: a retração rápida de caninos é uma técnica que proporciona uma redução significativa no tempo de tratamento ortodôntico. A modificação na técnica cirúrgica proporcionou maior velocidade e segurança ao ato cirúrgico. O distrator posicionado por palatina, no mínimo, proporcionou a preservação da tábua óssea vestibular e evitou a vestibularização dos caninos.INTRODUCTION: Rapid canine retraction through distraction of the periodontal ligament is a tooth movement technique that allows the closure of first premolar extraction space within a period of two to three weeks while providing significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. OBJECTIVE: To propose changes in the original surgical technique and in the placement of distractors. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid canine retraction is a technique that provides significant reduction in orthodontic treatment time. Changes in the surgical technique provided greater speed and safety in surgery. As a minimum benefit, when positioned palatally, distractors helped to preserve the buccal bone plate and prevented canine proclination.

  8. Mechanism of human tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Human eruption is a unique developmental process in the organism. The aetiology or the mechanism behind eruption has never been fully understood and the scientific literature in the field is extremely sparse. Human and animal tissues provide different possibilities for eruption analyses, briefly...... discussed in the introduction. Human studies, mainly clinical and radiological, have focused on normal eruption and gender differences. Why a tooth begins eruption and what enables it to move eruptively and later to end these eruptive movements is not known. Pathological eruption courses contribute......, and the ability of the periodontal ligament to adapt to eruptive movements. Animal studies and studies on normal and pathological eruption in humans can support and explain different aspects in the new theory. The eruption mechanism still needs elucidation and the paper recommends that future research on eruption...

  9. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  10. Effect of nicotine intake on the periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement%正畸牙移动过程中尼古丁摄入对牙周组织影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘旭; 祖丽呼玛•阿热甫江; 胡明华; 聂晶; 米丛波; 杨凤莲

    2015-01-01

    tooth movement. METHODS: Totaly 110 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (n=10), normal saline group (n=25), 0.5 mg/kg nicotine group (n=25), 0.75 mg/kg nicotine group (n=25), 1 mg/kg nicotine group (n=25). Rats in the normal saline groups were injected intraperitonealy with 0.1 mL normal saline, and those in the three nicotine groups were respectively injected with 0.5, 0.75, 1 mg/kg nicotine tartrate solution. Except the blank control group, the unilateral maxilary first molars of rats in the other four groups were exposed to 50 g force. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 days under force, the rats were sacrificed to take the maxilary tissues. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe the changes of periodontal tissues, immunohistochemical staining was employed to count positive cels, andin situ hybridization staining was adopted to detect the mean absorbance value of cyclooxygenase-2 in the periodontal tissues. RESULTTS AND CONCLUSION:The number of odontoclasts and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the nicotine groups were higher than those in the non-nicotine groups. With the increasing dose of nicotine, the number of odontoclasts gradualy increased, and the difference was statisticaly significant (P < 0.05). At 7 days under force, the number of odontoclasts reached the peak. With the increasing dose of nicotine, the positive expression intensity of cyclooxygenase-2 was also increased, and the difference was statisticaly significant (P < 0.05). The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 reached peak at 5 days under force. These findings indicate that with the increasing dose of nicotine, the number of odontoclasts and the expression intensity of cyclooxygenase-2 are both increased at the same time point under force. During the orthodontic tooth movement, the intake of nicotine can damage the periodontal tissue, and the dose of nicotine can directly influence the severity of damage to the periodontal tissue.

  11. A new understanding of oral and dental disorders of the equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Edward; Rawlinson, Jennifer T

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the classification systems for dental fractures and how the assessment affects treatment options. Diagonal incisor malocclusion is discussed in relation to skull asymmetry and how this commonly relates to premolar and molar occlusion. Oral and radiographic assessment of incisive bone fracture and incisor avulsion is reviewed for determining treatment options. A summary of incisor and canine resorption and hypercementosis is presented. Clinical presentations, staging, and classifications of tooth resorption as well as canine odontoplasty are discussed. Excessive plaque and calculus formation on lower canines leading to periodontal disease and abscess is examined.

  12. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Somalinga Amardeep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6% and mandibular canines (79.6%. In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%, Type II (2.8%, Type V (2%, Type XIX (1.2%, and Type IV (0.8%. In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%, Type II (3.2%, Type V (2%, and Type XIX (1.6%. Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population.

  13. A re-evaluation of subspecific variation and canine dimorphism in woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, S R; Jungers, W L

    1994-12-01

    A recent study suggests that differing populations of woolly spider monkeys exhibit a substantial degree of morphological, cytogenetic, and behavioral variation. We re-evaluate the differences between populations in the degree of canine tooth height sexual dimorphism and in the frequency of thumbs. Statistical analysis of variation in the degree of canine sexual dimorphism between these populations fails to provide strong evidence for subspecific variation: differences in the degree of canine dimorphism cannot be considered statistically significant. Differences between populations in the frequency of thumbs are, however, statistically significant. The lack of clear distinctions between populations in the degree of canine dimorphism complicates assessments of behavioral variation between these populations. We suggest that the level of geographic variation in woolly spider monkey canine dimorphism is not consistent with subspecific status.

  14. Sexual dimorphism in tooth morphometrics: An evaluation of the parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism refers to the variations in tooth size and shape between the sexes. The consistency of these variations is valuable in the identification of the sex of an individual in times of mass disaster when whole body parts get destroyed or are unavailable. There exist differences in the expression of these variables across races and regions. This study aims to tabulate and identify the variations in tooth measurements using standarized reference points in an attempt to establish parameters of sexual dimorphism. Materials and Methods: 100 individuals (50 of each sex in the age group 19-23 years were assessed for standard morphometric parameters of the maxillary central incisor, canine, premolar and molar. Odontometric measurements of established parameters were recorded from impression casts of the maxillary jaws. The mesiodistal width (MDW, the bucco-ligual width (BLW, the crown length (CL and the cervical angle (CA were charted among the teeth. The consistency of the variations was statistically analyzed and a logistic regression table was prepared to identify the sex of the individual from the tooth measurements.Results and Conclusions: The BLW, MDW and CL reflected significant variations among all the teeth to be effective in establishing sexual dimorphism. CA as a parameter was inadequate across all the teeth. The permanent maxillary canine was the most important tooth to be reflective of the gender and statistically significant to be utilized for gender determination.

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular growth and tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per

    2005-01-01

    , relocated laterally during growth. Furthermore, the position of tooth buds remained relatively stable inside the jaw until root formation started. Eruption paths of canines and premolars were vertical, whereas molars erupted in a lingual direction. The 3D method would seem to offer new insight into jaw......Normal and abnormal jaw growth and tooth eruption are topics of great importance for several dental and medical disciplines. Thus far, clinical studies on these topics have used two-dimensional (2D) radiographic techniques. The purpose of the present study was to analyse normal mandibular growth...... and tooth eruption in three dimensions based on computer tomography (CT) scans, extending the principles of mandibular growth analysis proposed by Bjork in 1969 from two to three dimensions. As longitudinal CT data from normal children are not available (for ethical reasons), CT data from children...

  16. Complex odontoma associated to a primary maxillary canine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Maris LOSSO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Odontomas are malformations of the dental tissues and may interfere with the eruption of the associated tooth. The early diagnosis, followed by a proper treatment at the right time, will result in a favorable prognosis and a desirable occlusion development. Complex odontomas associated to primary teeth are rare. Case report and conclusion: This article describes a case of a complex odontoma in a four-year-old girl that prevented eruption of the left primary canine. The treatment choice was enucleation of the odontoma and the maintenance of the left primary canine.In this case, complete removal of the complex odontoma was successfully conducted, since after one year of follow-up the primary maxillary canine restarted its eruption process.

  17. Evaluation of extraction sites for evidence of retained tooth roots and periapical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James I; Niemiec, Brook

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective clinical study was to determine the frequency and pathogenicity of unintentional retained tooth root fragments after extraction of the maxillary fourth premolar (108 and 208) and mandibular first molar teeth (309 and 409) in 74 canine and 42 feline client-owned patients. Radiographs of client-owned animals with historical evidence of extraction of teeth 309 and 409 were reviewed. All patients had dental extraction(s) for clinical reasons, and all extractions were deemed successful by the practitioners. Extraction sites were radiographed to identify tooth root fragments and pathology. Twenty-five canine and 25 feline patients that had extractions utilizing preoperative and postoperative radiography were also included. Sixty-one of 74 canine patients (82.4%; P retained tooth root fragments. In total, 100 of 116 cases (86.4%; P retained tooth root fragments, and periapical pathology was found in 66 of 116 (56.8%; P = 0.000000743) radiographs, including 39 of 74 canine cases (52.7%; P = 0.00002765) and 27 of 42 feline cases (64.3%; P = 0.01589). The control group had no evidence of retained root fragments. Further veterinary dental training and routine use of pre- and postoperative dental radiology are recommended.

  18. Influence of musical instruments on tooth positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, E

    1981-08-01

    A 2-year longitudinal investigation was conducted at five New York City junior high schools on 11- to 13-year-old children starting instrumental music education to determine what tooth movement, if any, resulted from the playing of certain musical instruments. Questionnaires, interviews, oral examinations, and dental casts were used at the start of instrumental study, after one year, and then after a second year. Statistically significant anterior tooth movements occurred in an overwhelming majority of the instrumentalists, while negligible movements were recorded for the controls over this period. As a result of this study, certain recommendations can be made by dentists when they are asked to suggest instruments which are dentally suited for children. In most cases they can suggest more than one instrument which would be of benefit dentally to the individual child, especially in the increase or reduction of overjet and overbite. The playing of the correct musical instrument can serve as an adjunct to the dentist or orthodontist in trying to accomplish certain tooth movements.

  19. To Tell the Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Tell the Tooth Print and Take a Quiz + Watch Videos Dudley and Friends Sesame Street + For Preteens Healthy Habits Nutrition Be a Dentist + For Educators Career Resources Presentations and Resources Smile Smarts Dental Health Curriculum MouthHealthy Kids > Games and Quizzes > To Tell the Tooth To Tell ...

  20. Nasal tooth: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Si Hyun; Kim, Ji Hye; Hwang, Hee Young; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Park, Chol Heui [Gachon Medical School, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    Ectopic tooth is not uncommon and usually occurs in the palate and maxillary sinus. We report a case of ectopic tooth located in the nasal cavity, a rare site. The mass depicted by CT was highly attenuated, and central lucency was observed.

  1. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  2. Retração rápida de caninos associada ao levantamento do seio maxilar Rapid canine retraction associated with maxillary sinus lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Carvalho Ribeiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a retração rápida de caninos por distração do ligamento periodontal é uma técnica de movimentação dentária que permite o fechamento de espaço da extração de primeiros pré-molares em um intervalo de 2 ou 3 semanas, proporcionando uma redução significativa no tempo do tratamento ortodôntico. A técnica cirúrgica para realização deste procedimento é relativamente simples, entretanto, nos casos onde o seio maxilar apresenta-se próximo ao ápice radicular de caninos e pré-molares, sempre há o risco de perfuração da membrana desta cavidade. OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste artigo é apresentar, através de um caso clínico, uma modificação na técnica original proposta por Liou e Huang, onde o levantamento do seio maxilar, executado de forma bastante simples, imprimiu maior controle e segurança ao ato cirúrgico necessário para a realização da retração rápida de caninos. CONCLUSÃO: a retração rápida de caninos é um procedimento exeqüível e o levantamento de seio maxilar pode auxiliar na execução do movimento dentário.INTRODUCTION: Rapid canine distalization using distraction of the periodontal ligament is a tooth movement technique that allows to close the space of extraction of first premolars in about 2 or 3 weeks, reducing orthodontic treatment time considerably. The surgical technique for this procedure is reasonably simple, however, during surgery in the maxilla, always exists the risk of sinus injury when the sinus membrane is close to the apex of canines and first premolars. AIM: The aim of this study is to present a case report showing a modification of the original technique proposed by Liou and Huang, where the maxillary sinus membrane lifting procedure was undertaken in a simple way, leaving it intact, and permitting a safer and more controlled protocol to start the rapid canine retraction. CONCLUSION: Rapid canine retraction is a viable procedure and maxillary sinus lifting may be

  3. Movimentação dentária experimental em murinos: período de observação e plano dos cortes microscópicos Experimental tooth movement in murines: study period and direction of microscopic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cuzzuol Fracalossi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este trabalho tem por finalidade explicitar aspectos microscópicos relevantes da movimentação dentária induzida em murinos quanto aos: (1 diferentes períodos de observação e (2 planos dos cortes microscópicos transversais e longitudinais. Os estudos experimentais sobre a movimentação dentária induzida em murinos variam quanto aos períodos e planos de cortes microscópicos, mesmo os trabalhos que utilizam especificamente o modelo de Heller e Nanda, de 1979. Para contribuir (1 na escolha do melhor design experimental de movimentação dentária induzida em murinos em futuros trabalhos, e (2 no aperfeiçoamento dos critérios de análise por outros pesquisadores, propusemo-nos a publicar este artigo. MÉTODOS: Empregaram-se 50 ratos machos Wistar, com 90 dias de vida, submetidos à movimentação dentária induzida por períodos de 3, 5, 7 e 9 dias. Utilizou-se movimento de inclinação mesial no primeiro molar superior esquerdo, com uma força equivalente a 75cN. A análise microscópica qualitativa avaliou os fenômenos teciduais e celulares decorrentes da movimentação dentária induzida, nos diferentes períodos de observação e entre os cortes microscópicos transversais e longitudinais. RESULTADOS: dos fenômenos observados, as áreas hialinas tiveram expressão máxima no período de 5 dias e as reabsorções radiculares apresentaram-se exuberantes e bem demarcadas no período de 9 dias. Nos dois fenômenos, as raízes mais afetadas foram as distais, especialmente a raiz distovestibular. CONCLUSÃO: mediante o delineamento proposto, pode-se sugerir, para futuros trabalhos nesta linha de pesquisa, períodos de análise de 5 a 9 dias e cortes microscópicos transversais.AIM: This study aims to elucidate the relevant microscopic aspects of induced tooth movement in murines with regard to: (1 different study periods; and (2 transverse and longitudinal directions of microscopic sections. Experimental studies on induced

  4. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  5. Enamel Hypoplasia of Deciduous Canine

    OpenAIRE

    加納, 隆; 平出, 百合子; 舟津, 聡; 峯村, 隆一; 恩田, 千爾; 正木, 岳馬

    1993-01-01

    From observation of frequency and measurement of the lengths and widths of enamel hypoplasia on the maxillary and mandibular deciduous canines, extracted from 50 Indians' skulls, the following results were obtained. 1) Enamel hypoplasia occurred in 15% of the maxillary deciduous canines and 44% of the mandibular deciduous canines. 2) Symmetrical cases of enamel hypoplasia occurred in 8.0% of the maxillary deciduous canins and in 34% of the mandibular deciduous canines. The enamel hypoplasia o...

  6. Tooth anomalies associated with failure of eruption of first and second permanent molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, T

    2000-12-01

    The occurrence of tooth anomalies in association with failure of the first and second molars to erupt was assessed in a sample of 1520 nonsyndromic subjects with uncrowded dental arches (mean age, 14 years 4 months) and compared with the prevalence rate calculated in a matched control group of 1000 subjects. The tooth anomalies examined included infraocclusion of deciduous molars, palatal displacement of maxillary canines, rotation of maxillary lateral incisors, aplasia of second premolars, and small size of maxillary lateral incisors. Associations among arrested eruption of first and second permanent molars and anomalies in tooth eruption and position (infraoccluded deciduous molars, palatally displaced canines, rotated maxillary lateral incisors) were highly significant (P position, most likely under genetic influence.

  7. 镍钛螺簧牵拉大鼠第一磨牙向近中移动:正畸牙移动模型%Mesial movement of the rat molars using Ni-Ticoil spring:a model of orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段娇红; 张扬

    2014-01-01

    背景:在有关正畸牙移动的实验中,动物模型的建立是关键,其中力值的选择、支抗的控制对实验结果的影响很大。  目的:在综合考虑各种因素的情况下,建立一个较完善的正畸牙移动动物模型。  方法:在20只Wistar大鼠上颌两个切牙牙根中部水平钻洞,用0.3 mm直径结扎丝从洞中穿过,将牙槽骨、两个切牙结扎在一起,将右上颌第一磨牙以0.2 mm直径结扎丝结扎,随机分为4组,在切牙和第一磨牙间分别置10,25,50 g Sental oy镍钛螺簧,以切牙为支抗,拉第一磨牙向近中移动,以不加力的为对照组。加力后14 d苏木精-伊红染色观察第一磨牙牙体牙髓变化,并使用软件测量计算牙本质吸收相对深度。  结果与结论:10 g镍钛螺簧组牙骨质不规则吸收,压力侧牙周膜间隙变窄;25 g镍钛螺簧组压力侧可见牙骨质及牙本质不规则吸收;50 g镍钛螺簧组牙根可见明显的吸收,深达牙本质层。10 g螺簧组牙本质吸收相对深度与对照组相比差异无显著性意义(P>0.05),其他各组之间牙本质吸收相对深度差异均有显著性意义(P OBJECTIVE:To establish an animal model for orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS:Twenty Wistar rats were included in this study. The root of incisor teeth at upper jaw was dril ed and then threaded with a ligature wire (0.3 mm diameter), therefore the alveolar bone and two incisor teeth were ligated. The first molar at right upper jaw was also ligated using a ligature wire (0.2 mm diameter). The experimental teeth were randomly divided into four groups. A Sental oy closed-coil spring (10 g, 25 g, 50 g) was placed between the maxil ary incisors and the maxil ary first molar, respectively. Taking the incisor as the anchorage, the molars were given a mesial movement, and control group received no force. On day 14, the dental pulp, dentin and enamin resorption was analyzed with Image

  8. Precise modeling of arc tooth face-gear with transition curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yanmei; Fang Zongde; Su Jinzhan; Feng Xianzhang; Peng Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    A fabrication method is adopted for which an imaginary gear simultaneously realizes conjugated meshing with an arc tooth cylindrical gear and an arc tooth face-gear. The cutter fillet and tooth crest edge form the tooth root fillet of the gear, and the linear tooth surface equation of the imaginary gear and the position vector of the curvature center of the cutter fillet are constructed with certain cutter inclination to deduce a working arc tooth surface equation. The tooth root fillet equation of the arc tooth face-gear is derived from the meshing geometry and kinematics. A numer-ically controlled machining model of the arc tooth face-gear is established through the transforma-tion of adjustment parameters from the cutter-tilt milling machine to a common multi-axis NC machine. Motion parameters of each movement axis of the NC machine are acquired. A processing example is presented to verify the precision of the fabrication method in processing the arc tooth face-gear. The method provides a theoretical and tentative basis for the analysis of tooth surface contact stress, tooth root bending stress and dynamics. A hobbing test is conducted to demonstrate the good meshing condition of the arc tooth face-gear pair.

  9. Autogenous tooth transplantation for replacing a lost tooth: case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ji-Youn; Chang, Hoon-Sang; Hwang,Yun-Chan; Hwang, In-Nam; Oh, Won-Mann; LEE, Bin-Na

    2013-01-01

    The autogenous tooth transplantation is an alternative treatment replacing a missing tooth when a suitable donor tooth is available. It is also a successful treatment option to save significant amount of time and cost comparing implants or conventional prosthetics. These cases, which required single tooth extraction due to deep caries and severe periodontal disease, could have good results by transplanting non-functional but sound donor tooth to the extraction site.

  10. Tooth in oropharynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Nagarajappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ectopic teeth has increased. In many cases, the etiology of ectopic teeth cannot be identified. Ectopic tooth in deciduous dentition period is very rare and information is limited about its causes and characteristics. The conditions commonly associated with an increased prevalence of ectopic teeth include cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner syndrome. The diagnosis is made by the clinical and radiological examinations. The indication for extraction in ectopic teeth cases is in general determined by the presence of symptomatology, or by the need for preventing future complications. We present a case of an ectopic maxillary tooth in a 4 year-old boy. In addition, this report also addresses a young patient with a tooth in the oropharynx with the objective of non traumatic etiology, and such a clinical presentation is extremely rare. The authors believe the case presented here is the first documented case of an ectopic supernumerary tooth seen in the oropharynx.

  11. Tooth in oropharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, D; Manjunatha, Bs

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of ectopic teeth has increased. In many cases, the etiology of ectopic teeth cannot be identified. Ectopic tooth in deciduous dentition period is very rare and information is limited about its causes and characteristics. The conditions commonly associated with an increased prevalence of ectopic teeth include cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner syndrome. The diagnosis is made by the clinical and radiological examinations. The indication for extraction in ectopic teeth cases is in general determined by the presence of symptomatology, or by the need for preventing future complications. We present a case of an ectopic maxillary tooth in a 4 year-old boy. In addition, this report also addresses a young patient with a tooth in the oropharynx with the objective of non traumatic etiology, and such a clinical presentation is extremely rare. The authors believe the case presented here is the first documented case of an ectopic supernumerary tooth seen in the oropharynx.

  12. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  13. Micro-CT study of the influence of orthodontic force on the root resorption and orthodontic tooth movement%应用Micro-CT研究矫治力对正畸牙齿移动及牙根吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓威; 陈蕾; 邵军; 徐晓芳; 袁亚娣; 吴昌敬

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the tooth movement distance and root resorption in rats under different orthodon⁃tic forces, to explore the effect of orthodontic force on the root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Methods 64 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats aged 10 months weighting 220⁃270 g in this study. 10 g and 30 g nickel⁃titanium closed⁃coil springs were applied mesially to the maxillary right first molars, while contralateral first molar was severed as a control. At day 3, 7, 14 and 28 after loading, the molars were extracted. The tooth movement distance and the vol⁃ume on the surface area of root resorption were measured and scaned by Micro⁃CT. Results Tooth movement gradually increased after loading. For 10 g group, 30 g group showed farther tooth movement distance with time throughout 14 days (P = 0.039), but there was a reverse result at day 28 (P<0.05). There was a significant increased in the root re⁃sorption craters between the control group and the 10 g/30 g group after 28 days of loading (P=0.004), and the deeply root resorption were observed on the 30 g group (P<0.001). Conclusion Reliable evaluation and quantitative analysis in the tooth movement and the root resorption could be done by Micro⁃CT. Tooth movement in the 10 g group was more rapid than the 30 g group, nevertheless, the root resorption craters was less reduced after 28 days loading.%目的:了解不同矫治力作用下大鼠牙齿移动距离及牙根吸收情况,探索应用Micro⁃CT研究正畸牙齿移动过程中矫治力对牙根吸收的影响。方法10周龄健康雄性SD大鼠64只(220~270 g),分别施以10 g (10 g力组)、30 g力(130 g力组)拉右侧上颌第一磨牙向近中移动建立实验动物模型,以对侧同名牙为对照牙。于加力后第3、7、14、28天处死动物,使用Micro⁃CT扫描上颌第一磨牙及周围牙槽骨,测量上颌第一磨牙近中移动距离,计算加力28 d上颌第一磨牙近中根的

  14. Implant-Root Proximity and Pulp Vitality of the Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasharoie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background When dental implants are applied in partially edentulous patients, there is the risk of placing the implants in close proximity or in direct contact with the adjacent roots. In this situation assurance of pulp vitality of the adjacent tooth is neessary. Objectives The current study aimed to assess pulp response of the tooth after root proximity with dental implant. Patients and Methods After investigating 2800 records of patients, 31 implants in 29 patients were included in this study. A parallel peri-apical radiography was taken and pulp vitality tests (cold, heat and electrical pulp tests were conducted for each patient. Results Among the 31 assessed implants and the adjacent intact teeth, 13 implants had direct contact and 18 implants had proximity of less than 1 mm with the adjacent root. All of the teeth had positive (normal pulp response to all tests. The most prevalent areas for proximity of implant-tooth were upper first premolar implants and upper canine teeth. The most approximation area was apical third of root of the teeth. Conclusions Based on the clinical and radiographic examinations, implant-tooth approximation (less than 1 mm or direct contact is not related to pulp vitality of the tooth. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to confirm the results of the study.

  15. Eruption of an impacted canine in an adenomatid odontogenic tumor treated with combined orthodontic and surgical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdur, Emire Aybuke; Ileri, Zehra; Ugurluoglu, Ceyhan; Cakir, Mustafa; Dolanmaz, Dogan

    2016-06-01

    An adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon asymptomatic lesion that is often misdiagnosed as a dentigerous cyst. It originates from the odontogenic epithelium. Enucleation and curettage is the usual treatment of choice. Marsupialization may be attempted instead of extraction of the impacted tooth, since it provides an opportunity for tooth eruption. This case report is the first to report on the eruption of an impacted canine in an adenomatoid odontogenic tumor treated with combined orthodontics and marsupialization. The impacted canine erupted uneventfully, with no evidence of recurrence 3 years after the treatment.

  16. Functional tooth regenerative therapy: tooth tissue regeneration and whole-tooth replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Tsuji, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Oral and general health is compromised by irreversible dental problems, including dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth injury. Regenerative therapy for tooth tissue repair and whole-tooth replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept with the potential for the full recovery of tooth function. Several types of stem cells and cell-activating cytokines have been identified in oral tissues. These cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for tooth tissue regenerative therapies because they have the ability to differentiate into tooth tissues in vitro and in vivo. Whole-tooth replacement therapy is regarded as an important model for the development of an organ regenerative concept. A novel three-dimensional cell-manipulation method, designated the organ germ method, has been developed to recapitulate organogenesis. This method involves compartmentalisation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells at a high cell density to mimic multicellular assembly conditions and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. A bioengineered tooth germ can generate a structurally correct tooth in vitro and erupt successfully with the correct tooth structure when transplanted into the oral cavity. We have ectopically generated a bioengineered tooth unit composed of a mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and that tooth unit was successfully engrafted into an adult jawbone through bone integration. Such bioengineered teeth were able to perform normal physiological tooth functions, such as developing a masticatory potential in response to mechanical stress and a perceptive potential for noxious stimuli. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning tooth regenerative therapy.

  17. Maxillary anterior tooth dimensions and proportions in an Irish young adult population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condon, M

    2011-07-01

    This study was undertaken in a young Irish population to determine the dimensions and ratios of the six maxillary anterior teeth. One hundred and nine Irish subjects (age 18-25 inclusive) had irreversible hydrocolloid impressions made of their maxillary dentition poured in type V stone. Clinical crown dimensions were measured with a digital calliper. The stone casts were digitally photographed in a standardised manner enabling calculation of various ratios between the maxillary anterior teeth. Sexual dimorphism existed for various tooth dimensions; most notably canine teeth were in the region of 0·8 mm longer and 0·6 mm wider in males. Central and lateral incisors were found to be 0·5 mm wider in males. It is, therefore, recommended that dimensional tooth guidelines should be given for each of the sexes and not on a population basis. With regard to tooth proportion ratios, no significant differences were found between genders or the left and right sides for any of the measurements or ratios measured. The digitally recorded tooth proportions were similar for both sexes, and the Golden Proportion guidelines could only be applied to the lateral incisor\\/central incisor widths (0·618). Identified width proportions for the canine\\/central incisor were 0·58 and for canine\\/lateral incisor 0·89.

  18. Biomaterial selection for tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili; Mao, Jeremy J

    2011-10-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth.

  19. Tooth extraction by orthodontic force after radiation therapy: report of case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodu, B.; Filler, S.J.; Woodfin, G.K.

    1985-12-01

    This report presents a therapeutic approach to orthodontic tooth extraction in a patient at high risk for the development of osteoradionecrosis with conventional techniques. The rationale for this procedure is discussed in detail, combining principles of radiation biology, clinical radiation therapy, and biomechanics of tooth movement.

  20. Tooth regeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadu, Shifali S

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration of a functional tooth has the potential to be a promising therapeutic strategy. Experiments have shown that with the use of principles of bioengineering along with adult stem cells, scaffold material, and signaling molecules, tooth regeneration is possible. Research work is in progress on creating a viable bioroot with all its support. A new culture needs to be created that can possibly provide all the nutrients to the stem cells. With the ongoing research, tissue engineering is likely to revolutionize dental health and well-being of people by regenerating teeth over the next decade.

  1. Tooth regeneration: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadu Shifali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of a functional tooth has the potential to be a promising therapeutic strategy. Experiments have shown that with the use of principles of bioengineering along with adult stem cells, scaffold material, and signaling molecules, tooth regeneration is possible. Research work is in progress on creating a viable bioroot with all its support. A new culture needs to be created that can possibly provide all the nutrients to the stem cells. With the ongoing research, tissue engineering is likely to revolutionize dental health and well-being of people by regenerating teeth over the next decade.

  2. 关于口腔正畸治疗对牙周病引发前牙移位疾病的临床分析%Clinical analysis of orthodontic treatment of periodontal disease caused by tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯志敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析口腔正畸治疗对牙周病引发前牙移位疾病的临床效果。方法选取我院收治的100例牙周病引发前牙移位患者作为观察对象,收治时间为2012年10月至2015年2月,随机将其分成两组,每组50例。对照组采取常规治疗,实验组采取口腔正畸治疗,观察比较两组牙周病引发前牙移位患者的临床疗效及牙周袋深度。结果实验组患者的平均牙周袋深度为(3.12±0.43)mm,显著低于对照组;且两组牙周病引发前牙移位患者临床疗效的比较结果存在显著差异,P<0.05,差异有统计学意义。结论对牙周病引发前牙移位患者采取口腔正畸治疗,能有效缩短患者的牙周袋深度,效果显著。%Objective to analyse the orthodontics treatment of periodontal disease caused by the clinical effect of anterior tooth displacement diseases.Methods select our hospital 100 cases of patients with periodontal disease cause anterior tooth displacement as research object, the treating time for October 2012 to February 2015, it is divided into two groups at random, 50 cases in each group. Control group treated with conventional, orthodontics treatment group adopted to compare two groups of patients with periodontal disease cause anterior displacement of the clinical efficacy of periodontal pocket depth.Results the average depth of periodontal pocket for experimental group patients (3.12±0.43) mm, significantly lower than the control group; And two groups of patients with periodontal disease cause anterior tooth displacement comparison results exist significant differences in the clinical curative effect,P< 0.05, the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion in patients with periodontal disease cause front teeth shift to orthodontics treatment, can effectively shorten the patient's periodontal pocket depth, effect is remarkable.

  3. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo; Mancini, Lucia; Dreossi, Diego; Eichert, Diane; Turco, Gianluca; Biasotto, Matteo; Terrasi, Filippo; De Cesare, Nicola; Hua, Quan; Levchenko, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  4. Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bernardini

    Full Text Available Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic. Here we report a 6500-year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. The use of different analytical techniques, including synchrotron radiation computed micro-tomography (micro-CT, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS radiocarbon dating, Infrared (IR Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, has shown that the exposed area of dentine resulting from occlusal wear and the upper part of a vertical crack affecting enamel and dentin tissues were filled with beeswax shortly before or after the individual's death. If the filling was done when the person was still alive, the intervention was likely aimed to relieve tooth sensitivity derived from either exposed dentine and/or the pain resulting from chewing on a cracked tooth: this would provide the earliest known direct evidence of therapeutic-palliative dental filling.

  5. Load System of Segmental T-Loops for Canine Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zeyang; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Feifei; Li, Shuning; Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Liu, Sean Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The orthodontic load system, especially the ideal moment-to-force ratios (M/F), is the commonly used design parameter of segmental T-loops for canine retraction. However, the load system, including M/F, may be affected by the changes in canine angulations and interbracket distance (IBD). Here, we hypothesize that clinical changes in canine position and angulation during canine retraction will significantly affect the load system delivered to the tooth. Methods The load systems of two T-loop groups, one for translation (TR) and the other for controlled tipping (CT), from nine bilateral canine retraction patients were made to the targeted values obtained from finite element analyses and validated. Each loop was tested on the corresponding maxillary dental cast obtained in the clinic. The casts were made before and after each treatment interval so that both initial and residual load systems could be obtained. The pre- and post-treatment IBDs were recorded for calculating IBD changes. Results As the IBDs decreased, the averaged retraction-force-drop per IBD reduction was 36 cN/mm, a 30% drop per 1 mm IBD decrease. The averaged anti-tipping-moment-drops per IBD reductions were 0.02 N-mm/mm for CT and 1.4 N-mm/mm for TR, ~0.6 % and 17% drop per 1 mm IBD decrease, respectively. Consequently, the average M/F increases per 1 mm IBD reduction were 1.24 mm/mm for CT and 6.34 mm/mm for TR. There was significant residual load left, which could continue to move the tooth if the patient missed the scheduled appointment. Conclusions Clinical changes in canine position and angulation during canine retraction significantly affect the load system. The initial planned M/F needs to be lower to reach the expected average ideal value. Patients should be required to follow the office visit schedule closely to avoid negative effects due to significant M/F increases with time. PMID:24075663

  6. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan Ocakcioglu; Serhat Koyuncu; Mustafa Kupeli; Oguzhan Bol

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum.

  7. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  8. Advances in the treatment of diseased equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Jennifer T; Earley, Edward

    2013-08-01

    Dental therapies for equid incisor and canine teeth have modernized significantly over the last 2 decades. Basic principles in incisor reduction have become more conservative, and extraction procedures more exacting. Periodontal and endodontic treatments are described to save teeth that would have succumbed to extraction in the past. Pathologic impacts on treatment decisions for equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis are significant, and veterinarians and owners need to be aware of treatment options and outcomes. Easy access to equid incisor and canine teeth offers a variety of therapeutic options, and this article reviews some of the practical procedures available.

  9. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshua Shapira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  10. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated ...

  11. Fate of HERS during Tooth Root Development

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, XIAOFENG; BRINGAS, PABLO; Slavkin, Harold C.; Chai, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Tooth root development begins after the completion of crown formation in mammals. Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. In order to investigate the morphological fate and analyze the dynamic movement of HERS cells in vivo, we generated K14-Cre;R26R mice. HERS cells are detectable on the surface of the root throughout root formation and do not disappear. Most of the HERS c...

  12. Tooth reorientation affects tooth function during prey processing and tooth ontogeny in the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Mason N; Ramsay, Jason B; Schaefer, Justin T

    2008-01-01

    The dental anatomy of elasmobranch fishes (sharks, rays and relatives) creates a functional system that is more dynamic than that of mammalian dentition. Continuous dental replacement (where new teeth are moved rostrally to replace older ones) and indirect fibrous attachment of the dentition to the jaw allow teeth to reorient relative to the jaw over both long- and short-term scales, respectively. In this study, we examine the processing behavior and dental anatomy of the lesser electric ray Narcine brasiliensis (Olfers, 1831) to illustrate that the freedom of movement of elasmobranch dentition allows a functional flexibility that can be important for complex prey processing behaviors. From static manipulations of dissected jaws and observations of feeding events in live animals, we show that the teeth rotate during jaw protrusion, resulting in a secondary grasping mechanism that likely serves to hold prey while the buccal cavity is flushed free of sediment. The function of teeth is not always readily apparent from morphology; in addition to short-term reorientation, the long-term dental reorientation during replacement allows a given tooth to serve multiple functions during tooth ontogeny. Unlike teeth inside the mouth, the cusps of external teeth (on the portion of the tooth pad that extends past the occlusal plane) lay flat, such that the labial faces act as a functional battering surface, protecting the jaws during prey excavation.

  13. Talon Cusp On Permanent Maxillary Canine: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Chandan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available teeth are varied. One such rare anomaly affecting the shape of anterior teeth is taloncusp. It is an accessory cusp-like projection found on lingual or labial surfaces of theupper or lower incisors, unilaterally or bilaterally in both dentitions. It is composed ofnormal enamel and dentine, with or without pulp. It is thought to develop as a result ofevagination on the surface of a tooth during morphodifferentiation stage. Reportedincidence is 0.04-10%, with higher prevalence in males. It is more common inpermanent dentition with a predilection for maxillary lateral incisors (55%, followed bycentral incisors (36% and canines (9%. Talon cusp may cause problems like irritationof tongue during speech and mastication, occlusal interference, caries susceptibility anddisplacement of the affected tooth, and esthetics. Its treatment ranges from applicationof sealant to gradual reduction to root canal therapy. Early diagnosis of talon cusp andits treatment can avoid complications related to this anomaly.

  14. New hominin fossils from Kanapoi, Kenya, and the mosaic evolution of canine teeth in early hominins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Plavcan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Whilst reduced size, altered shape and diminished sexual dimorphism of the canine–premolar complex are diagnostic features of the hominin clade, little is known about the rate and timing of changes in canine size and shape in early hominins. The earliest Australopithecus, Australopithecus anamensis, had canine crowns similar in size to those of its descendant Australopithecus afarensis, but a single large root alveolus has suggested that this species may have had larger and more dimorphic canines than previously recognised. Here we present three new associated dentitions attributed to A. anamensis, recently recovered from the type site of Kanapoi, Kenya, that provide evidence of canine evolution in early Australopithecus. These fossils include the largest mandibular canine root in the hominin fossil record. We demonstrate that, although canine crown height did not differ between these species, A. anamensis had larger and more dimorphic roots, more like those of extant great apes and Ardipithecus ramidus, than those of A. afarensis. The canine and premolar occlusal shapes of A. anamensis also resemble those of Ar. ramidus, and are intermediary between extant great apes and A. afarensis. A. afarensis achieved Homo-like maxillary crown basal proportions without a reduction in crown height. Thus, canine crown size and dimorphism remained stable during the early evolution of Australopithecus, but mandibular root dimensions changed only later within the A. anamensis–afarensis lineage, coincident with morphological changes in the canine–premolar complex. These observations suggest that selection on canine tooth crown height, shape and root dimensions was not coupled in early hominin evolution, and was not part of an integrated adaptive package.

  15. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  16. Saw-tooth cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatza Ageliki A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present an unusual case of cardiomyopathy in a two month old male infant with a grade-I systolic murmur. Echocardiographic examination disclosed left ventricular (LV, dysplasia with saw-tooth like inwards myocardial projections extending from the lateral walls towards the LV cavity. There was mild LV systolic dysfunction with apical hypokinesia. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance demonstrated in detail these cross bridging muscular projections originating from the inferior interventricular septum and lateral LV wall, along with areas of hypokinesis at the LV septum and apex in a noncoronary distribution, without any late gadolinium enhancement. We have termed this condition saw-tooth cardiomyopathy because of the very characteristic appearance.

  17. Transurgical re-attachment of coronal fragment in anterior-fractured tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Martos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetic and functional rehabilitation is the primary goal of the treatment of crown-root-fractured tooth. A 14-year-old male patient that fractured her maxillary left canine with biologic width violation is presented. Transurgical exposures of the fracture remnant were performed to possibility the rubber dam isolation followed by crown re-attachment using bonding system and a resin composite. Clinical and radiographic examination 5 months after trauma showed good esthetics, pulp normality, and periodontal health.

  18. 牙仙女%The Tooth Fairy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世荣

    2009-01-01

    @@ The American children’s ritual of hiding a lost tooth under a pillow stems from an old German tradition of placing a lost tooth in a mouse or rat hole SO that when a new tooth grew in,it would possess the strong dental qualities of a rodent’S tooth.In America the “tooth rat”was replaced by the“tooth fairy”,who would compensate the child with money for surrendering a tooth to her.

  19. Solving tooth sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Solving tooth sensitivity requires both you and the patients to be resilient and to understand that if one approach doesn't work, you can try another one that is non-invasive or, at worst, minimally invasive. Much like the clinician who posted the original question, I strongly believe that it is our responsibility to convince patients that jumping to a radical solution could be totally unnecessary--and expensive-- and still might not solve the problem.

  20. Tooth in oropharynx

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajappa, D; B S Manjunatha

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of ectopic teeth has increased. In many cases, the etiology of ectopic teeth cannot be identified. Ectopic tooth in deciduous dentition period is very rare and information is limited about its causes and characteristics. The conditions commonly associated with an increased prevalence of ectopic teeth include cleft lip and palate, cleidocranial dysplasia, and Gardner syndrome. The diagnosis is made by the clinical and radiological examinations. The indication for extraction in ec...

  1. Expression of cath K, RANKL and OPG in alveolar bone on the pressure side during orthodontic tooth movement in rats%大鼠正畸牙移动压力侧牙槽骨中cath K、RANKL和OPG的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王威; 王邦康; 刘郁

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测大鼠正畸牙移动压力侧cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白表达变化及时间分布特点.方法 选用80只6周龄SD雄性大鼠建立正畸牙移动模型,分别在加力后2d、5d、7d、10d和14d各处死16只大鼠.HE染色观察大鼠牙周组织的形态学变化;TRAP染色计数压力侧牙槽骨组织中的破骨细胞数量;免疫组化方法定位及相对定量检测压力侧牙槽骨中cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白表达变化及时间分布特点.结果 压力侧牙槽骨组织中的TRAP染色阳性破骨细胞计数随加力时间的增加而增加,第7d达到高峰,此后逐渐降低;压力侧牙槽骨组织中的cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白的表达水平均随加力时间的增加而增加,第7d达到高峰,以后均逐渐降低.结论 cath K、RANKL和OPG蛋白表达的变化规律与骨改建过程一致,与止畸牙移动骨改建过程中破骨细胞的分化、形成和功能密切相关.%Objective To investigate the expression of cath K(cathepsin K), RANKL(receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B ligand ) and its decoy receptor, OPG (osteoprotegerin) in alveolar bone on the pressure side during orthodontic tooth movement. Methods An experimental model of orthodontic tooth movement was established in rats. The rats were executed at 2, 5, 7, 10 and 14 days after orthodontic force application. The morphological changes were observed by HE staining. The numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone on the pressure side were counted. Cath K,RANKL and OPG protein expression were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone on the pressure side significantly increased in a time-dependent manner at 2-7 days. After that the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts in alveolar bone gradually decreased. The protein expression of cath K, RANKL and OPG in alveolar bone on the pressure side increased in a time-dependent manner after orthodontic force application. After that it gradually

  2. Young's modulus and hardness of shark tooth biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, Lisa B; Simkins, Daniel C; Motta, Philip J; Hirai, Makoto; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-03-01

    To date, the majority of studies on feeding mechanics in sharks have focused on the movement of cranial components and muscle function, with little attention to tooth properties or function. Attributes related to mechanical properties, such as structural strength, may also be subjected to natural selection. Additionally it is necessary to characterize these properties in order to construct biomechanical models of tooth function. The goal of this study was to determine hardness and elastic modulus for the shark tooth materials enameloid, osteodentine, and orthodentine. Five teeth each from one carcharhiniform species, the bonnethead Sphyrna tiburo, and one lamniform, the sand tiger shark Carcharias taurus, were utilized for nanoindentation testing. Each tooth was sectioned transversely, air-dried, and polished. Both enameloid and dentine were tested on each tooth via a Berkovich diamond tip, with nine 2 microm deep indentations per material. t-Tests were used to determine if there were differences in hardness and Young's modulus between the tooth materials of the two species. There was no significant difference between the two species for the material properties of enameloid, however both hardness and Young's modulus were higher for osteodentine than for orthodentine. This may be due to differences in microanatomy and chemical composition, however this needs to be studied in greater detail.

  3. Interalar width as a guide in denture tooth selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W; Bomberg, T J; Hatch, R A

    1986-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship of the IAW, measured between at the widest dimension of the alae of the nose, and two other measurements of maxillary anterior teeth. The other measurements, both of which are significant in the selection and arrangement of artificial teeth used in complete dentures, were the ICTW and the ARCD measured from the distal surface of the maxillary canine on one side of the arch to the distal surface of the canine on the opposite side of the arch. No distinction was made between either the sex or the age of the subjects. The mean ICTW of 35.35 mm was 3% greater than the mean IAW of 34.28 mm. The mean ARCD of 44.85 mm was 31% greater than the mean IAW of 34.28 mm. This mean ARCD compares favorably (less than 1 mm difference) with a constructed ARCD of 45.8 mm from a tooth dimension study by Shillingburg et al. The ARCD was 44.85 mm. This measurement had not been made in the previous study examining the relationship of interalar distance to ICTW. When the IAW was plotted against the intercanine cusp tip width, a fairly strong correlation coefficient of 0.413 was exhibited. A weaker but definite correlation coefficient of 0.217 was observed when the interalar width plotted against the circumferential arc distance from distal surface to distal surface of the maxillary canines.

  4. A newer simultaneous space creation, eruption, and adjacent root control spring for the management of impacted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, treatment of impaction includes: Welcome preparation (to create space, surgical exposure and attachment to the impacted tooth and the orthodontic guidance for the eruption of the impacted tooth. Sometimes, due to deficiency of space, creation of space for impacted tooth requires first, and space regaining efforts may require the distal movement of posterior teeth and or mesial movement of anterior teeth in the arch, but it may create some problems. To overcome the unwanted problem in this clinical situation and to reduce overall treatment duration of the patient, we have developed the Simultaneous space creation, Eruption and Adjacent root control spring to control crown as well as root movement.

  5. Unusual variant of type 3 dens invaginatus in a maxillary canine: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamfelj, Iztok; Kansky, Andrej A; Gaspersic, Dominik

    2007-01-01

    A 13-year-old boy presented with clinical symptoms of periapical inflammation related to the right maxillary canine. A bizarre radiographic appearance of the root was considered suggestive of a compound odontome. Histological examination of the surgically extracted canine revealed a very rare variant of Oehlers' type 3 invagination. The invagination originated in a pit above the cingulum as a narrow coronal channel that opened into a large cavity inside the dilated root. The radicular part of the invagination contained all components of the attachment apparatus. The root canal and its apical foramen were slit-like and circular. Radiographic appearance of two roots separated by a wide interradicular area in a normally single-rooted tooth is indicative of this variant of type 3 invagination. Timely prophylactic treatment and follow-up or early endodontic treatment confined to the coronal channel are crucial to prevent pulp necrosis and consequent loss of the tooth.

  6. Comparison of the physiological properties of human periodontal-masseteric reflex evoked by incisor and canine stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eOhmori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was designed to clarify whether the bilateral cooperation in the human periodontal-masseteric reflex (PMR differs between central incisors and canines. Methods: Surface array electrodes were placed on the bilateral masseter muscles to simultaneously record the firing activities of single motor units from both sides in 7 healthy adults. During light clenching, mechanical stimulation was applied to the right maxillary central incisor and canine to evoke the PMR. Unitary activity was plotted with respect to the background activity and firing frequency. The slope of the regression line (sRL and the correlation coefficient (CC between the central incisor and canine and the lateral differences between these values were compared. Results: There were significant differences in the sRL and CC, as well as lateral differences, between the central incisor- and canine-driven PMR. Discussion: These results suggest that the PMR differs depending on both the tooth position and laterality.

  7. Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  8. Comparison of sexual dimorphism of permanent mandibular canine with mandibular first molar by odontometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Agrawal; Bhari Shranesha Manjunatha; Bhavik Dholia; Yousef Althomali

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is one of important tool of forensic science. The objective of this study is to assess the dimorphic status of mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual (BL) diameter of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar among the students of dental college. This study is of definite significance as sex chromosomes and hormonal production influenced tooth morphology. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study adopted the purposive sampling technique, of 50 ...

  9. Orthodontic management of a borderline case with ectopic maxillary canine by unilateral premolar extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of orthodontic cases often requires extraction of permanent teeth. The decision making regarding extractions depends upon the arch length tooth material discrepancies, the growth pattern, general profile, and arch asymmetries. Unique orthodontic problems may command special treatment lines to be taken. The present report describes a case with unilateral buccally blocked out canine and bilateral posterior crossbite, for which unilateral premolar extractions were performed achieve esthetic and functionally stable occlusion.

  10. Orthodontic management of a borderline case with ectopic maxillary canine by unilateral premolar extractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Mohd. Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Management of orthodontic cases often requires extraction of permanent teeth. The decision making regarding extractions depends upon the arch length tooth material discrepancies, the growth pattern, general profile, and arch asymmetries. Unique orthodontic problems may command special treatment lines to be taken. The present report describes a case with unilateral buccally blocked out canine and bilateral posterior crossbite, for which unilateral premolar extractions were performed achieve esthetic and functionally stable occlusion. PMID:27041913

  11. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  12. Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: relationships between tooth width, arch length, and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, T; Matsumoto, Y; Suzuki, J; Sato, N; Oguchi, H

    1999-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of serial extraction alone on crowding. We also investigated the relationships between tooth width, arch length, and irregularity index. Maxillary dental casts from 32 subjects who had undergone only serial extraction were analyzed at 3 stages: before deciduous canines extraction, after first premolars extraction, and at the end of the observation period. The mean of the irregularity index decreased significantly as serial extraction proceeded and further decreased during the observation period. In cases where the width of the incisor was more than 2 standard deviations above the means for the control subjects, there was a significant correlation between tooth width of the lateral incisors and irregularity index before extraction as well as a significant correlation between the summation of tooth widths of the central and lateral incisors and irregularity index at that time. There was a significant negative correlation between arch length discrepancy and irregularity index before extraction and also a significant correlation between arch length discrepancy and correction of the irregularity index from before deciduous canines extraction to after first premolars extraction. These results suggest that tooth width and arch length discrepancy might preferentially affect the degree of anterior crowding in cases of severe crowding. There was no aggravation of the average crowding level during the observation period in the present study. The present study quantitatively suggested that serial extraction was useful for the purpose of correcting crowding in most cases.

  13. Autogenous tooth transplantation: an alternative to replace extracted tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Kamadjaja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gold standard treatment to replace missing tooth is dental implants, however, in certain cases, such as in young patients its placement is contraindicated. Autogenous tooth transplantation, which has been widely done in Scandinavian countries for many years, may become a good alternative to overcome this problem. Purpose: This article attempted to provide information about the indication, treatment planning, surgical technique and the successful result of autogenous tooth transplantation. Case: A fifteen year old male patient presented with large caries and periapical disease of his lower left first molar, which was partially erupted and the roots was not fully formed in radiograph. Case management: Autogenous tooth transplantation procedure was performed consisting of extraction of #36, odontectomy of #38 followed by its implantation to socket #36 and fixation of the transplanted tooth to the adjacent teeth. Post operative evaluation was done on regular basis within 18 months period. There was no complaint, the tooth was clinically stable and no evidence of periodontal problem. Serial radiographs showed healing of alveolar bone and periodontal tissue, and the complete root formation was evident by 18 months post operatively. Conclusion: Autogenous tooth transplantation is a potential alternative to replace extracted tooth. Provided that the case be properly planned and operation carefully performed, successful result of this treatment can be achieved.

  14. Maxillary canine substitution for the severely resorbed root of central incisor: 12-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Yoshiyuki; Park, Jae Hyun; Tai, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Ectopically erupting maxillary canines can cause problems that necessitate surgical, orthodontic, and restorative treatment. When a canine eruption disturbance causes resorption and requires subsequent extraction of the affected teeth, the resulting spaces are candidates for orthodontic repositioning and recontouring of the remaining teeth. To achieve successful results, the clinician must have a proper knowledge of tooth anatomy, root angulation, gingival margin position, restorative techniques, and occlusion. A collaborative effort from the pediatric dentist, orthodontist, and surgeon is required to produce an esthetic and functional result. This case report describes the substitution of maxillary canines for both the left central and right lateral incisors and substitution of the maxillary right lateral incisor for the maxillary right central incisor.

  15. Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in the permanent dentition: treatment considerations and a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Synodinos, Philippos N

    2010-12-01

    Transposition is defined as the interchange of position between two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch. Permanent maxillary canine-premolar transposition is the most commonly observed transposition in the human dentition. Its prevalence is relatively low and its aetiology remains unclear, although it has been associated with genetic factors. It may also be related to a combination of localised factors such as malformation of adjacent teeth, tooth agenesis, retention of the deciduous canine and a history of local trauma. Treatment is selected on an individual case basis after thoroughly considering the overall facial and dental characteristics, duration of treatment, cost, patient preference and the orthodontist\\'s experience. This article provides a case report of maxillary canine transposition in the permanent dentition, successfully managed with orthodontic treatment.

  16. Anterior tooth morphology and its effect on torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loenen, M; Degrieck, J; De Pauw, G; Dermaut, L

    2005-06-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the variation in crown-root angle (CRA) of the upper incisors and canines as well as the variation in their labial contour. In addition, the influence of the variability of the labial contour and of different bracket heights on torque was evaluated. Proximal radiographs were taken of 160 extracted maxillary teeth (81 incisors and 79 canines). They were digitized and analysed with Jasc Paint Shop Pro 7TM and Mathcad 2001 Professional. The incisal edge, the centre of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ), and the root apex were digitized to define the crown and root long axis. For all teeth the CRA was measured. At several heights of the labial surface a tangent was determined, enabling measurement of the inclination of the labial surface. The CRA had great variability, ranging from 167 to 195 degrees for the canines (mean value 183 degrees) and from 171 to 195 degrees for the incisors (average 184 degrees). The mean inclinations of the labial surfaces for the incisors varied greatly. Between 4 and 4.5 mm from the incisal edge the standard deviations (SD) were the smallest and between 2 and 4.5 mm from the incisal edge the labial surface angle differed by approximately 10 degrees. For the canines the mean inclinations of the buccal surface also varied. This angle differed by around 10 degrees between 2 and 4.5 mm from the incisal edge, but the SD were much larger than for the incisors. It can be concluded that placement of a bracket on a tooth at varying heights, still within a clinically acceptable range, results in important differences in the amount of root torque.

  17. Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular Canine in an Iranian Population: A CBCT Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Ali; Namaryan, Nafiseh; Moudi, Ehsan; Gholinia, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to assess the morphology of mandibular canines using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a north Iranian population. Methods and Materials: For the morphological assessment of mandibular canines, 150 CBCT images taken from patients for different reasons were used. The mandibular canines were examined in sagittal, coronal and axial dimensions. The canal pattern, number of roots/canals, the tooth length, the orientation of the roots and the position of the apical foramina were evaluated and the effect of gender on each variable was assessed. The obtained data were analyzed using the Chi-square and student’s t-tests. Results: According to the Vertucci’s criteria, the most common pattern was type I morphology (89.7%), followed by types III (5.7%), II (3.7%) and V (1%). No significant differences were observed between the male and female patients in terms of canal type (P>0.05). Gender difference is a factor which affected the root length and the number of mandibular canine root and root canal. There were 296 single-root and four double-root canines. The double-root canines and mandibular canine with two canals were significantly more common among men than women (P=0.00). The apical foramen was laterally positioned in 68.3% and centrally in 31.7% of the cases, and the root curvatures were mostly oriented toward the buccal region. No significant statistical difference was observed for mentioned parameters in right and left half of the jaw. Conclusion: Due the diverse morphology and the potential presence of a second mandibular canine among Iranians, dentists should perform endodontic treatments with greater care. CBCT is an accurate tool for the morphological assessment of root canals. PMID:28179930

  18. Comparison of sexual dimorphism of permanent mandibular canine with mandibular first molar by odontometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is one of important tool of forensic science. The objective of this study is to assess the dimorphic status of mesio-distal (MD and bucco-lingual (BL diameter of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar among the students of dental college. This study is of definite significance as sex chromosomes and hormonal production influenced tooth morphology. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study adopted the purposive sampling technique, of 50 male and 50 female aged 17-25 years, using study casts for mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar were taken using digital Vernier caliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and t-test to compare MD and BL dimensions in male and female populations and P ≤ 0.05 was found statistically significant. Results: Sexual dimorphism can be predicted by measuring mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine and mandibular first molar. The left mandibular canine showed more sexual dimorphism (12.66% in comparison to left mandibular first molar (0.824% only. Right mandibular canine showed greater dimorphism in MD dimensions (10.94% in comparison to right mandibular first molar (6.96%. In bucco-lingual dimensions mandibular canine showed less variability when compared with mandibular first molar, thus our study showed more significance on mesio-distal dimensions of both teeth. Conclusion: The present study concludes statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine over mandibular first molar on study casts. The MD dimensions in mandibular canine and mandibular first molar can help in determining sex and identification of unknown person.

  19. Comparison of sexual dimorphism of permanent mandibular canine with mandibular first molar by odontometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aditi; Manjunatha, Bhari Shranesha; Dholia, Bhavik; Althomali, Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sexual dimorphism is one of important tool of forensic science. The objective of this study is to assess the dimorphic status of mesio-distal (MD) and bucco-lingual (BL) diameter of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar among the students of dental college. This study is of definite significance as sex chromosomes and hormonal production influenced tooth morphology. Materials and Methods: The descriptive study adopted the purposive sampling technique, of 50 male and 50 female aged 17-25 years, using study casts for mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of mandibular canine with mandibular first molar were taken using digital Vernier caliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using descriptive statistics and t-test to compare MD and BL dimensions in male and female populations and P ≤ 0.05 was found statistically significant. Results: Sexual dimorphism can be predicted by measuring mesiodistal dimension of mandibular canine and mandibular first molar. The left mandibular canine showed more sexual dimorphism (12.66%) in comparison to left mandibular first molar (0.824%) only. Right mandibular canine showed greater dimorphism in MD dimensions (10.94%) in comparison to right mandibular first molar (6.96%). In bucco-lingual dimensions mandibular canine showed less variability when compared with mandibular first molar, thus our study showed more significance on mesio-distal dimensions of both teeth. Conclusion: The present study concludes statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canine over mandibular first molar on study casts. The MD dimensions in mandibular canine and mandibular first molar can help in determining sex and identification of unknown person. PMID:26816466

  20. Managing congenitally missing lateral incisors. Part II: tooth-supported restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Greggory A; Kokich, Vincent O

    2005-01-01

    Three treatment options exist for the replacement of congenitally missing lateral incisors: canine substitution, a tooth-supported restoration, or a single-tooth implant. Selecting the appropriate treatment option depends on the malocclusion, the anterior relationship, specific space requirements, and the condition of the adjacent teeth. The ideal treatment is the most conservative alternative that satisfies individual esthetic and functional requirements. This article closely examines the three options when replacing a missing lateral incisor with a tooth-supported restoration. These options are a resin-bonded fixed partial denture, a cantilevered fixed partial denture, and a conventional full-coverage fixed partial denture. The specific criteria that must be evaluated for each option is addressed to illustrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment planning to achieve optimal esthetics and long-term predictability. This article is the second of a three-part series discussing the three treatment alternatives for replacing congenitally missing lateral incisors.

  1. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  2. USE THE REIMPLANTED TOOTH AS ABUTMENT FOR FIXED PAR TIAL DENTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmoradizadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Use of the fixed partial denture is more favorable t han the removable partial denture for my patient, she complained about e dentulism in upper right side and a little discomfort with second upper premolar. Clinical examin ation shows the tooth was crown less and radio graphically tooth had a big periapical lesi on with poor prognosis. METHOD: After root canal treatment and extraction the tooth, clea n and irrigate the socket, we are implanted it with hydroxyapatite again and follow the patient for six months. After six months, radio graph shows that the tooth was in ideal condition without mobility, then the tooth has used as an abutment for fixed partial denture with canine and 2 nd molar in order to have a better prognosis we used semi precision attachment, and foll ow her for three years. RESULT: Three years follow the patient shows the tooth is in an ac ceptable condition radio-graphically without mobility and patient was comfortable esthetically a nd functionally. CONCLUSION: In my opinion in this case use of the hydroxyapatite, crown lengthening during the re- implantation and use the semi precision attachment was the reaso n of increase the prognosis after treatment

  3. Web-based evaluation of experts' opinions on impacted maxillary canines forced eruption using CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims at examining the difficulty in performing forced eruption of impacted maxillary canines, using CBCT information and according to experienced orthodontist's opinion. The second aim was to find the most important factors related to this decision. METHODS: Based on a careful literature review on impacted maxillary canines, ten main factors were selected to assess difficulties associated with impacted teeth. Thirty six consecutive patients with 50 impacted maxillary canines were examined and variables were measured for each impacted tooth using Dolphin 3D software. Ten orthodontists assessed the radiographs of teeth and provided their opinion on the difficulty in bringing impacted teeth into occlusion named subjective degree of difficulty (SDD. The correlation established between mean SDD of each tooth and measured variables were analyzed by means of linear regression. RESULTS: Mean SDD was 6.45 ± 1.22 for all 50 teeth. Linear regression showed a high coefficient of correlation between mean SDD and age, dilacerations, vertical height, angulation and horizontal overlap (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: To predict the difficulty of impacted maxillary canines forced eruption, according to the opinion of experienced orthodontists, the factors age, dilaceration, angulation, overlap and vertical distance from the occlusal plane are the most important variables.

  4. [A 24 month evaluation of zinc oxide pulpotomy on primary canines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chédid, J-C Abou; Pilipili, C

    2008-01-01

    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Since formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, plus a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. Twenty-five decayed primary canines and twenty-five healthy primary canines necessitating disking for orthodontic purposes were pulpotomized using non modified Zinc Oxide Eugenol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 24 months post operatively. Half of the treated canines presented with a mobility, while internal and external resorptions were more frequent in decayed teeth and their number increased with time. On the other hand, abscesses and fistulas were equally found in both treated groups. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the binominal law, or the comparative test of an observed proportion to a reference proportion. In this study, and based on the excessive negative results in both groups, we demonstrated that non fixative pulpotomies on temporary canines were not a promising technique.

  5. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  6. Acute changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local clearance of /sup 125/I from the periodontal ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwall, B.; Berg, J.O.; Gazelius, B.; Edwall L.; Aars, H.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local /sup 125/I clearance from the periodontal ligament (PDL) were monitored simultaneously in cats. Axial tooth movements, reflecting periodontal ligament volume changes, were measured with an ultrasonic transit time technique. Local blood flow changes in the PDL were studied indirectly by measuring the local clearance of /sup 125/I. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk caused an intrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant reduction of the /sup 125/I-clearance. Infusion of noradrenaline induced a similar respone. Stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve during systemic treatment with phentolamine caused an extrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant increase in the clearance of the tracer from the PDL. Intra-arterial infusion of the vasodilator substance P mimicked that response. Fization of the tooth to the jaw bone, thus preventing an intrusive movement, did not change the reductions in clearance seen on sympathetic stimulation, indicating that this blood flow reduction was not dependent on tooth movement. A qualitative relation between PDL blood flow (as measured by local /sup 125/I clearance) and PDL volume (as measured by tooth position) in shown. The two variables measured are suggested to reflect two aspects of blood flow in the PDL. 22 refs.

  7. Evaluation of periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement in rats: a micro-computed tomography study%牙齿移动过程中牙槽骨显微结构动态变化的微型CT研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹楠; 庄丽; 白玉兴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the microstructure changes of rat alveolar bone around tooth root under orthodontic force loading. Methods Ten 10-week-old rats were included in the study. Upper first molars were moved mesially with 0.196 N of force. The alveolar bone around the root of upper first molar was scanned by a micro-computed tomography scan system(SkyScan-1076) in different period after the initiation of orthodontic force loading( on the 3rd, 7th, 14th day after force loading ) and analyzed by a speciallydesigned software to measure the microstructure parameters of alveolar bone ( bone volume fraction, bone surface to volume ratio, structure model index, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number). Results From the 7th day, bone volume fraction[(41±14)%], structure model index( 1.51 ±0. 52) and trabecular separation [(90 ± 30 ) μm] changed significantly in the compressive area compared with those[(64±15)%, (0.51 ±0.85), (56 ±-10) μm] on the 3rd day. From the 14th day, bone volume fraction[(78 ± 14)%], structure model index(0. 28 ± 0. 20) and trabecular separation[(29 ±13) μm] changed significantly in the tension area compared with those[(67 ± 14)%, (0.40 ±0.41 ),(48 ± 15) μm] on the 7th day. No difference on trabecular number was found between the compressive area and tension area(P >0. 05). Conclusions The significant resorption of the alveolar bone was observed on the 7th days in the compressive area and the deposition of the alveolar bone was observed on the 14th day in the compressive area after orthodontic force loading.%目的 通过微型CT探讨正畸牙齿移动过程中矫治力对牙槽骨骨小梁的影响规律,以期为正畸临床提供参考.方法 选择10周龄SD雄性大鼠10只建立实验动物模型,施加0.196 N矫治力,近中移动上颌第一磨牙,分别于加力前、加力后第3、7、14 d对大鼠上颌牙槽骨骨小梁进行微型CT扫描,计算骨体积分数、骨表面积体积比、结构模

  8. Periodontal remodeling with aging and effects associated with orthodontic tooth movement%牙周组织老龄化变化及其对正畸牙移动的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易颖煜; 赵宁; 沈刚

    2014-01-01

    Remodeling of alveolar aging is expressed in the lower height of the alveolar ridge. Osteoporosis, osteoporotic fractures, and absorption of bone prevail over osteogenesis. Periodontium changes included increasing collagen fiber, thinner periodontal membrane, and declining reactivity of the periodontal ligament reconstruction. Epithelial keratinization and the number of connective tissue cells decreased with age in gingival tissue. The height of the free gingival margin reduced according to the alveolar bone. In addition, osteoporosis accelerated the rate of tooth movement, which prevented the reconstruction and stability of orthodontic tooth in a new position. Orthodontic treatment will be increasingly time-consuming as patients age because of the decreasing alveolar immature cells, osteoblasts, blood vessels, and marrow cavity. Reduced bone metabolism and tooth movement, prolonged remodeling of perioral muscle, weakened ability of alveolar renewal and rebuilding, slowed periodontal cell activity and collagen formation rate, and pulling side formation and pressing side absorption of alveolar bone also contribute to time-consuming treatment. Under mechanical stimulus, the increase of prostaglandin in gingival crevicular fluid may cause the reduced rate of orthodontic tooth movement in adults.%牙槽骨老龄化变化表现在牙槽嵴高度降低、骨质疏松、骨密度减低,骨吸收大于骨形成。牙周膜老龄化改变体现在胶原纤维增多,牙周膜厚度变薄,牙周膜的反应性改建能力下降。牙龈老龄化变化体现在牙龈上皮角化程度降低,牙龈结缔组织中的细胞

  9. Morfologia alveolar sob a perspectiva da tomografia computadorizada: definindo os limites biológicos para a movimentação dentária Alveolar bone morphology under the perspective of the computed tomography: defining the biological limits of tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2010-10-01

    treatment, mainly at the region of the mandibular incisors. Hyperdivergent patients seems to present a thinner thickness of the labial/buccal and lingual bone plates at the level of the root apex of permanent teeth, compared to hypodivergent patients. Buccolingual tooth movement might decentralize teeth from the alveolar bone causing bone dehiscences. CONCLUSION: The alveolar bone morphology constitutes a limiting factor for the orthodontic movement and should be individually considered in the orthodontic treatment planning.

  10. Efficient transport of droplet sandwiched between saw-tooth plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Wu, Hengan; Wang, Fengchao

    2016-01-15

    The transport of droplet sandwiched between smooth and saw-tooth plates was investigated using molecular dynamics method. The repeated opening and closing of the plates result in sequential stretching and squeezing of the droplet, which provide the driving force. The asymmetrical saw tooth obstructs the backward motion of the droplet, and gives rise to a net forward displacement of the droplet in every opening and closing cycle. This unidirectional motion facilitates the efficient droplet transport, which is referred to as the ratchet-like effect in this work. Our simulations also reveal that the influence of the surface wettability on the droplet transport is different for saw-tooth and smooth plates. Droplet transport efficiency exhibits monotonic decrease with the increase of the solid-liquid interactions for saw-tooth plates. While for smooth plates, unidirectional droplet movement was only observed for certain solid-liquid interactions. Taken together these simulation results and theoretical analysis, we demonstrate that hydrophobic saw-tooth plates can improve the transport efficiency significantly. These findings not only enhance our understanding of the droplet transport from atomistic scale, but also are beneficial to practical applications in designing of micro- and nano-fluidic systems.

  11. Collective Movement of Epithelial Cells on a Collagen Gel Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, Hisashi; Irahara, Chikako; KOBAYASHI, Ryo; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kawabata, Kazushige

    2004-01-01

    Collective cell movement acts as an efficient strategy in many physiological events, including wound healing, embryonic development, and morphogenesis. We found that epithelial cells (Madin-Darby canine kidney cell) migrated collectively along one direction on a collagen gel substrate. Time-lapse images of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells cultured on type-I collagen gels and glass substrates were captured by phase contrast microscopy equipped with an incubation system. On the gel substrate, th...

  12. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  13. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  14. 正畸牙根吸收与龈沟液中牙本质涎磷蛋白和牙本质涎蛋白相关性的实验研究%Relationship between orthodontics root resorption following experimental tooth movement and the level ofdentin sialoph-osphoprotein and dentin siaioprotein in gingival crevicular fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志刚; 胡敏; 姜欢; 田莉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of expression of dentin sialoph-osphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) with root resorption following experimental tooth movement in rats.Methods 36 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups on average randomly: Control group, light force group and heavy force group.The experimental teeth were drawn-off mesially by the force of 0.392 N in light force group and 0.98 N in heavy force group, with both of the maxillary central incisors as the tooth of anchorage.At the 7th day, the gingival crevicular fluid of rats were collected; the histological slices were made, including the experimental tooth and periodontal tissue; the tissues was stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining to observe the histological changes of the root resorption of rats.Then the expression of DSPP and DSP were assayed by using biochemistry techniques of Western blot.Results Histological observation: There was not root resorption in control group.Neither root resorption nor cementoclast was observed in light force group.And in heavy force group visible root resorption came out in pressure zone.Western blot results: There was expression of DSPP and no DSP in control group, and there was the expression of DSPP and DSP in both light force group and heavy force group.The result of statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in the expression of DSPP and DSP among three groups.The highest one was heavy force group, followed by the light force group and control group with the least amount of proteins.Conclusion There is the expression of DSPP and DSP in gingival crevicular fluid following experimental tooth movement with root resorption.%目的 探讨大鼠龈沟液中牙本质涎磷蛋白(DSPP)和牙本质涎蛋白(DSP)的表达与实验性牙移动所致牙根吸收的关系.方法 36只健康Wistardd大鼠随机分成3组:对照组、

  15. Movimento de gaveta em joelhos de cães submetidos à estabilização extracapsular após secção do ligamento cruzado cranial in vitro Drawer movement in canine knees undergoing extracapsular stabilization after cranial cruciate ligament rupture in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kemper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica TightRope, que procura aperfeiçoar a estabilização extra-capsular com sutura lateral, por meio da realização de mínimas incisões e criação de túneis ósseos em pontos isométricos, que permitem a inserção de mecanismo que anula o movimento de gaveta, além de reduzir a ocorrência de complicações graves. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a modificação da técnica TightRope em joelhos de cadáveres caninos com a finalidade de disponibilizar um procedimento simples e de custo reduzido para tratamento da Ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial (RLCCr. Experimentalmente, foram utilizados 20 membros pélvicos de dez cadáveres caninos, provenientes do setor de patologia da Universidade Norte do Paraná, os quais pesavam entre 6,3 e 24kg. Para estabilização do LCCr, rompido intencionalmente, foi adotada a técnica de TightRope modificada utilizando fio de poliamida, cavilha e emprego de um parafuso ortopédico para proporcionar a fixação óssea. Comparando os valores de deslocamento obtidos durante a realização do movimento de gaveta previamente à ruptura do LCCr e após a realização do procedimento cirúrgico, observou-se que a modificação da técnica TightRope promoveu estabilidade significativa para a maioria (12 de 20 dos joelhos testados (P=0,0033. Contudo, essa estabilidade foi inferior, quando comparada à estabilidade do ligamento intacto.The TightRope technique, that has been developed, aims to improve the extra-capsular stabilization with lateral suture through smaller incisions and creating isometric bone tunnels at points that allow the inclusion of a mechanism that overrides the movement of drawer and reduce the occurrence of serious complications. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the TightRope modified technique in canine cadaver knees in order to provide a simple and cost effective treatment for cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCrLR. Experimentally; we used 20 pelvic limbs of ten canine

  16. Atypical Odontalgia (Phantom Tooth Pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atypical facial pain, phantom tooth pain, or neuropathic orofacial pain, is characterized by chronic pain in a ... such as a specialist in oral medicine or orofacial pain. The information contained in this monograph is ...

  17. Surgical Management of Compound Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Andrea; Carbone, Daniele; Marini, Roberta; Pacifici, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic benign jaws tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum, and pulp tissue. According to the World Health Organization classification, two distinct types of odontomas are acknowledged: complex and compound odontoma. In complex odontomas, all dental tissues are formed, but appeared without an organized structure. In compound odontomas, all dental tissues are arranged in numerous tooth-like structures known as denticles. Compound odontomas are often associated with impacted adjacent permanent teeth and their surgical removal represents the best therapeutic option. A case of a 20-year-old male patient with a compound odontoma-associated of impacted maxillary canine is presented. A minimally invasive surgical technique is adopted to remove the least amount of bone tissue as far as possible.

  18. Surgical Management of Compound Odontoma Associated with Unerupted Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pacifici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic benign jaws tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. These tumors are composed of enamel, dentine, cementum, and pulp tissue. According to the World Health Organization classification, two distinct types of odontomas are acknowledged: complex and compound odontoma. In complex odontomas, all dental tissues are formed, but appeared without an organized structure. In compound odontomas, all dental tissues are arranged in numerous tooth-like structures known as denticles. Compound odontomas are often associated with impacted adjacent permanent teeth and their surgical removal represents the best therapeutic option. A case of a 20-year-old male patient with a compound odontoma-associated of impacted maxillary canine is presented. A minimally invasive surgical technique is adopted to remove the least amount of bone tissue as far as possible.

  19. 局部注射川芎嗪对大鼠牙移动保持阶段骨保护素的表达%Local injection of ligustrazine influences the expression of osteoprotegerin in the maintenance phase in rats with orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭睿; 阮蔷; 鲁微; 吴晓丹; 赵刚

    2016-01-01

    背景:研究认为川芎嗪可再生坏死部位的血管组织,增加局部血流量,促进坏死骨的吸收和新骨再生,恢复坏死股骨头的功能。目的:观察川芎嗪对大鼠牙移动保持阶段牙周组织改建和骨保护素表达的影响。方法:选健康雄性Wistar大鼠32只,随机分为4组,每组8只。所有大鼠建立正畸牙移动模型,用50 g力牵引左侧上颌第1磨牙近中移动,加力21 d。实验组装置去除前1天在第1磨牙远中骨膜下分别注射50µL不同剂量的川芎嗪溶液(5,10,15 mg/L);对照组注射同等量生理盐水。第1周和第4周分批麻醉后处死,测量大鼠牙齿移动距离,观察大鼠给药后复发距离、复发百分率,免疫组织化学和苏木精-伊红染色进行大鼠牙周组织学观察,光镜下观察牙体牙周组织牙周膜宽度及成骨细胞数量。结果与结论:①对照组复发距离大于实验组;②实验组成骨细胞数量比对照组显著增加;③免疫组织化学染色可见骨保护素阳性表达见原张力侧于胞浆,呈棕黄色,实验组染色强度明显高于对照组;④川芎嗪10 mg/L组牙周膜宽度较好,复发趋势较小;⑤结果说明川芎嗪通过促进成骨细胞增殖,提高骨保护素的表达,有利于正畸后牙齿的保持。%BACKGROUND:Ligustrazine has been shown to restore the function of the femoral headviathe revascularization, increased blood flow, theabsorption ofnecroticbone, and bone regeneration. OBJECTIVE:To study the effects of ligustrazine on remodeling of periodontal tissues and the expression of osteoprotegerin in the maintenance phase in rats with orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS:Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats were included and equaly randomized into four groups. Maxilary left first molar mesialization was performed through traction of 50 g force for 21 days to establish the rat model of tooth movement. 5, 10, 15 mg/L ligustrazine (50 µ

  20. Effect of low energy laser irradiation on the expression of substance P in dental pulp and periodontium during experimental orthodontic tooth movement in rats%低强度激光对大鼠实验性牙齿移动牙髓与牙周组织中P物质表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙新华; 赵姝哲

    2004-01-01

    背景:目前国外的研究认为骨改建的过程可能部分地受神经肽调控.目的:观察低强度激光照射对大鼠实验性牙齿移动牙髓与牙周组织中P物质表达的影响.设计:随机对照的研究.地点和材料:于吉林大学第二临床学院动物室对45只Wistar大鼠进行动物实验.干预:利用免疫组化ABC染色,结合计算机图像分析,测定45只Wistar大鼠正畸牙齿移动在0,,6,2,4和72 h的实验侧和对照侧牙髓P物质免疫组化(SP-like immumoreactivity,P-IR);以及在0(0 h),(24 h),(72 h),,14和21 d时实验侧和对照侧牙周组织中SP-IR的灰度值.实验动物被分为9组,每组5只.于上颌第一磨牙和切牙之间拴结镍钛闭合螺旋弹簧,力值为40 g.左侧为实验侧,右侧为对照侧.实验侧为低强度激光照射侧,采用He-Ne激光与C02激光同时照射的方法.主要观察指标:①牙髓中SP-IR灰度值变化.②牙周膜压力区SP-IR灰度值变化.③牙周膜张力区SP-IR灰度值变化.④实验侧和对照侧的牙周膜压力区与张力区SP-IR灰度值变化的比较.结果:实验侧牙髓中SP-IR免疫组化灰度值低于对照侧,以第12,4 h明显(P<0.01);实验侧牙周膜压力区SP-IR免疫组化灰度值在7 d时明显高于对照侧(P<0.01);在14 d时较高于对照侧(P<0.05).实验侧牙周膜张力区SP-IR免疫组化灰度值在14 d时较高于对照侧(P<0.05).结论:低强度激光照射对正畸初始牙髓中P物质的表达及牙周组织中P物质的表达均有影响.%BACKGROUND: As believed by recent domestic and international researches,the bone reconstruction process might be partly modulated by neuropeptides.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of low power laser irradiation on the expression of substance P (SP) in dental pulp and periodontium during experimental orthodontic tooth movement in rats.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial SETTING and MATERIALS: Forty-five Wistar rats were selected in the study in the animal

  1. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or s...

  2. Clinical trial of tooth desensitization prior to in-office bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deepak; Venkata, Suresh; Naganath, Meena; LingaReddy, Usha; Ishihata, Hiroshi; Finger, Werner J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this clinical trial was to compare tooth sensitivity during and after bleaching with hydrogen peroxide gel following application of GLUMA Desensitizer PowerGel or placebo. Forty-six subjects with sound maxillary incisors and canines were enrolled. Tooth shades were determined by comparison with a Vitapan Classic Shade guide. GLUMA Desensitizer PowerGel and placebo were randomly applied to the labial surfaces of the left or right anterior teeth for 1 min, which were then rinsed and dried. Then, Opalescence Boost PF 40% gel was applied onto labial enamel for 15 min. Sensitivity scores [recorded on a 10-point visual-analog scale (VAS)] were determined before, at 5, 10, and 15 min during, and 1, 24, 48 h and 1 wk after, the bleaching treatment. Shades were determined postbleaching and after 1 wk. Prebleaching application of GLUMA Desensitizer PowerGel significantly reduced tooth sensitivity during and after bleaching when compared with treatment with placebo. The whitening effects immediately and 1 wk after bleaching were significant when compared with the prebleaching shades. In conclusion, tooth pretreatment with GLUMA Desensitizer PowerGel for 1 min prior to 15 min of in-office bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide gel was highly effective in reducing tooth sensitivity during and after bleaching.

  3. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...... affect the movements. Furthermore, I discuss differences in movement organization, and visual information from striking movements....

  4. Three-dimensional reconstruction studies and morphometric analysis of rudimental tooth primordia in the upper incisor region of the sheep (Ovis aries, Ruminantia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Kirsti; Matulová, Petra; Mísek, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The functional dentition of the domestic sheep lacks all upper incisors and the upper canines. Nevertheless, occurrence of a dental lamina and rudimental tooth primordia had been described in the upper incisor region of the sheep. The aim of this study was to describe temporo-spatial pattern of origin and regression of these rudimental tooth primordia by light microscopy, computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry of the dental epithelium. Transient existence of a dental lamina in the upper incisor region of the sheep and three epithelial thickenings on its deep mesenchymal margin has been observed at day of ontogeny (DO) 48-53. They could not been identified as full-value tooth primordia, because they did not induce differentiation of tooth mesenchyme, but they could represent last remnants of functional upper incisors in early ancestors of ruminants. Additionally, a large rudimental upper canine primordium near the sutura maxilloincisiva occurred at DO43, reached early cap stage at DO52 and started to regress at DO53. Thus, our findings showed a discrepancy between the embryonic and adult dental pattern in the sheep. Similar molecular mechanisms as described for diastemal tooth rudiments in rodents could be involved during regression of rudimental tooth primordia in the upper incisor region of the sheep.

  5. Analysis of split tooth as an unstudied reason for tooth extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Osaghae, Ifueko Patience; Azodo, Clement Chinedu

    2014-01-01

    Background Split tooth is an unstudied reason for tooth extraction. The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze split tooth as a reason for extraction in a dental clinic in Benin City. Methods The prospective study was carried out on 669 patients having tooth extraction between May, 2005 and December, 2012. Over the period of the study, diagnosis and tooth extraction were done by three dentists of more five years practice experience. The indications for tooth extraction were noted ...

  6. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  7. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  8. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  9. Unilateral canine crossbite correction in adults using the Invisalign method: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present and debate the treatment of a unilateral canine crossbite using clear aligners (Invisalign). The possibility of combining partial fixed appliances with removable elastics to optimize the final outcome is also described. The advantages of protected movement, due to the presence of the aligners, to jump the occlusion during crossbite correction is also highlighted.

  10. Cytokines in crevicular fluid and orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    This review aimed to evaluate studies on cytokines in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic treatment, summarizing the regulation patterns of the most commonly studied cytokines and exploring their clinical implications. To achieve this, a number of key databases were searched using

  11. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl-Palomo, L.; Bissada, N. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Periodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Palomo, J.M.; Hans, M.G. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Orthodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  12. Bilateral severe root resorption associated with impacted maxillary canines: details on diagnosis and treatment plan – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarosa Scapini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are the second most frequently impacted teeth in the dental arch. Root resorptions are often found in teeth adjacent to an impacted maxillary canine (IMC and may potentially lead to tooth loss. The treatment is often complicated when diagnosis is established at a later stage. Computed tomography (CT has been proven to be superior in determining the presence and degree of root resorption in teeth adjacent to IMC to support treatment plans and clinical decisions. This report describes the case of a patient with bilaterally impacted maxillary canines associated with severe root resorption of the right fi rst premolar and the left lateral incisor and focuses on the importance of CT imaging for diagnosis and treatment plan.

  13. Tanshinone type IIA inhibits osteoprotegerin and osteoclast differentiation factor expression at relapse stage after orthodontic tooth movement%丹参酮ⅡA局部注射正畸牙移动后复发阶段破骨细胞分化因子的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世英; 刘继光; 赵刚

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In recent years, many drugs emerge to control tooth movement, and scholars in China begin to investigate Chinese herbs with moderate nature and smal adverse reaction. OBJECTIVE:To observe the relapse after orthodontic tooth movement, osteoprotegerin and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in periodontal tissue after rats were treated with local tanshinone type IIA at different doses. METHODS:A total of 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups:control, low dose (tanshinone type IIA 0.36 mg/d), medium dose (tanshinone type IIA 0.72 mg/d), and high dose (tanshinone type IIA 1.44 mg/d) groups. Taking anterior teeth as the anchorage, the maxil ary first molar of rats was tracted to mesial movement. In experimental groups, gingival mucosa of the first molar was local injected with tanshinone type IIA 1 day before the force device was removed, while control group was injected with physiological saline, once a day, for 4 weeks. Immediately, 1 week, and 4 weeks after the force device was removed, the distance between the maxil ary first molar and second molar was measured and body mass was weighted. The animals were kil ed after 4 weeks, osteoprotegerin and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in maxil ary first molar and periodontal tissue were determined using immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:There was no obvious change in the body weight of rats in each group (P>0.05). In low, medium and high dose groups, recurrent distance of the teeth was shorter than that in control group (P smal er the degree of recurrence was. Osteoprotegerin expression in the periodontal tissue was significantly higher in the experimental groups than the control group (P  目的:观察局部给予不同剂量丹参酮ⅡA 后,大鼠正畸牙齿移动后的复发过程中复发程度、牙周组织中的骨保护素及破骨细胞分化因子的表达。  方法:选用48只雄性Wistar大鼠,随机分成4组,对照

  14. Tooth polishing: The current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alankar Sawai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients′ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  15. Tooth polishing: The current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Madhuri Alankar; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Jafri, Zeba; Sultan, Nishat; Daing, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients' need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same.

  16. Mandibular lateral incisor-canine transposition, concomitant dental anomalies, and genetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, S; Peck, L; Kataja, M

    1998-10-01

    Mandibular lateral incisor-canine (Mn.I2.C) transposition is a rare developmental disturbance of tooth order characterized by positional interchange of the two teeth. In children with Mn.I2.C anomaly, the mandibular lateral incisor shows distal ectopic eruption and the adjacent canine subsequently erupts mesial to it. A sample of 60 orthodontic patients with Mn.I2.C transposition was studied using roentgenograms taken at the time of diagnosis. Two age-related phenotypes of the anomaly were identified: early-stage (median age, 9 years) and mature-stage (median age, 12 years). Mn.I2.C transposition occurred bilaterally in 10 subjects (17%) and favored female expression (sex ratio, M1:F3) and right-side occurrence (68% of unilateral cases). Statistically significant associations were found between Mn.I2.C transposition and increased frequency of tooth agenesis (M3, p position probably caused by genetic influences. The Mn.I2.C anomaly likely results from genetic mechanisms similar to those responsible for occurrences of its associated dental anomalies, such as tooth agenesis and peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisors. In an appendix, clinical orthodontic management of Mn.I2.C transposition is discussed, based on treatment data derived from the study sample.

  17. Surgical-orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion with agenesis of lateral incisor and unerupted canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Boaventura Vieira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic-surgical treatment was performed in patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion due to exceeding mandibular growth. Patient also presented upper and lower dental protrusion, overjet of -3.0 mm, overbite of -1.0 mm, congenital absence of tooth #22, teeth #13 and supernumerary impaction, tooth #12 with conoid shape and partly erupted in supraversion, prolonged retention of tooth #53, tendency to vertical growth of the face and facial asymmetry. The discrepancy on the upper arch was -2.0 mm and -5.0 mm on the lower arch. METHODS: The pre-surgical orthodontic treatment was performed with extractions of the teeth #35 and #45. On the upper arch, teeth #53, #12 and supernumerary were extracted to accomplish the traction of the impacted canine. The spaces of the lower extractions were closed with mesialization of posterior segment. After aligning and leveling the teeth, extractions spaces closure and correct positioning of teeth on the bone bases, the correct intercuspation of the dental arch, with molars and canines in Angle's Class I, coincident midline, normal overjet and overbite and ideal torques, were evaluated through study models. The patient was submitted to orthognathic surgery and then the post-surgical orthodontic treatment was finished. RESULTS: The Class III malocclusion was treated establishing occlusal and facial normal standards.

  18. Nonalimentary tooth use in the neolithic population of the Lengyel culture in central Poland (4600-4000 BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Wiesław

    2011-04-01

    One hundred and four skeletons of adult individuals representing Neolithic populations of the Brześć Kujawski group of the Lengyel Culture (Kuyavia, central Poland, 4600-4000 BC) were analyzed with regard to evidence of nonalimentary tooth use, periapical lesions and antemortem tooth loss (AMTL). Instances of nonalimentary behaviors were found in 47.1% of females and 27.5% of males. Females were primarily characterized by occlusal grooves on the incisors and canines, most probably resulting from yarn production or weaving. The most frequent defect in males was severe tooth wear extending from the incisors to first molars, caused by some hard-to-identify nonalimentary activities. Occlusal grooves were also found in males, but their morphology indicates processing of some coarser material. The occupational nature of the tooth defects has been confirmed by archaeological data. The only two burials with grave goods indicative of craft specialization at the sites studied contain the remains of individuals with marks of nonalimentary tooth use. Moreover, the sites provide unequivocal evidence of weaving and basketry production in the form of loom weights and imprints of cloth and mats. Periapical lesions have been found in 40.4% of males and 35.6% of females, and AMTL in 32.1% of males and 36.7% of females. Individuals with evidence of nonalimentary tooth wear are characterized both by a higher incidence of these lesions in general, and by their more frequent location in the anterior part of the alveolar arch.

  19. Primary culprit for tooth loss!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailavanya Nuvvula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In order to facilitate planning for dental health services and to progress strategies to continue the reduction in tooth loss, it is important to identify the factors that result in such loss. therefore the aim of the study is to investigate the major cause for tooth extraction. Objective: to examine whether the major reason for tooth extraction is dental caries or periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The study is carried out among the dental practitioners in our district. A questionnaire containing 10 items was distributed to the dental practitioners, which included age, gender, no of teeth indicated for extraction, the reason for extraction, and the periodontal parameters that are involved with the extracted tooth and were requested to complete the form on every extraction they were to undertake. the study form was collected at the end of the study period and data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A total of 502 patients were enrolled during the study period, and a total of 1055 teeth were extracted for several reasons. we found that 51.14%extractions are due to dental caries in case of 20-30years age groups, which is more when compared to tooth loss due to periodontal diseases in this age group. whereas in case of >40years of age group periodontal diseases account for 54.11%, and dental caries accounts for only 29.11%. Showing more teeth were lost due to periodontal disease. Conclusion: therefore we concluded that, caries is the dominant reason for extraction in patients with 20–30 years of age while periodontal disease accounts for the majority of tooth extraction in patients older than 40 years.

  20. On gear tooth stiffness evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Jørgensen, Martin Felix

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of gear stiffness is important for determining the load distribution between the gear teeth when two sets of teeth are in contact. Two factors have a major influence on the stiffness; firstly the boundary condition through the gear rim size included in the stiffness calculation...... and secondly the size of the contact. In the FE calculation the true gear tooth root profile is applied. The meshing stiffnesses of gears are highly non-linear, it is however found that the stiffness of an individual tooth can be expressed in a linear form assuming that the contact width is constant. © 2014...

  1. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times.

  2. Evolution and developmental diversity of tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Abigail S; Fraser, Gareth J

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the diversity observed during both the development and evolution of tooth replacement throughout the vertebrates in a phylogenetic framework from basal extant chondrichthyan fish and more derived teleost fish to mammals. We illustrate the conservation of the tooth regeneration process among vertebrate clades, where tooth regeneration refers to multiple tooth successors formed de novo for each tooth position in the jaws from a common set of retained dental progenitor cells. We discuss the conserved genetic mechanisms that might be modified to promote morphological diversity in replacement dentitions. We review current research and recent progress in this field during the last decade that have promoted our understanding of tooth diversity in an evolutionary developmental context, and show how tooth replacement and dental regeneration have impacted the evolution of the tooth-jaw module in vertebrates.

  3. Comparison of the effect of thermal stresses on tooth-colored posts, cores and tooth structures by finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Nalbant

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study were to analyze the influence of cold heat flow in all ceramic crown material, composite core, zirconium and glass fiber reinforced composite post materials, resin based luting cement and root dentin; and to compare these two tooth-colored post systems about their temperature and thermal stress distributions.
    Materials and Methods: A 3-dimesional finite element model of maxillary left canine tooth was constructed. All ceramic crown, composite core, tooth dentin, post and bone were modeled. In the first part of this study, initial body temperature was assumed to be 36.5°C and the outer temperature was reduced to 0°C for 5 secs. In the second part, the thermal stress was calculated as a result of temperature change. For the analysis, 7 nodes of the finite element model were selected and heat flow, temperature and thermal stres on these nodes were evaluated.
    Results: Mean temperature value was 15.75 °C for GFRC post model and 15.47 °C for Zr post model. The maximum von Mises stress was obtained at the node C in both post systems. In general, thermal stress was observed on the cervical part of all-ceramic crown and there was an interface between root dentin-composite core and post material. The temperature gradient of the GFRC post was smaller than that of the zirconia post.
    Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, zirconia posts produced greater stress than GFRC posts. Temperature changes had more effect on the post-cement interface and cervical areas than on the other areas.

  4. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  5. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-28

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  6. Tooth Retained Implant: No More an Oxymoron

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Periodontally af-fected teeth are treated in one of the two ways. (1) Tooth retention after periodontal surgery, in which the degree of regeneration achieved is unpredictable. (2) Tooth extrac-tion and implant placement. Implants have an osseointegrated surface which does not provide adequate shock absorption. Regeneration can be achieved by resecting the crown of the affected tooth and submerging the root. This technique has not had a clinical application so far as the tooth be...

  7. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John A Whitlock; Joy M Richman

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development.

  8. Stress Analysis of Occlusal Forces in Canine Teeth and Their Role in the Development of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Romeed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-carious cervical tooth lesions for many decades were attributed to the effects of abrasion and erosion mainly through toothbrush trauma, abrasive toothpaste, and erosive acids. However, though the above may be involved, more recently a biomechanical theory for the formation of these lesions has arisen, and the term abfraction was coined. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of abfraction lesions in upper canine teeth under axial and lateral loading conditions using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An extracted human upper canine tooth was scanned by μCT machine (Skyscan, Belgium. These μCT scans were segmented, reconstructed, and meshed using ScanIP (Simpleware, Exeter, UK to create a three-dimensional finite element model. A 100 N load was applied axially at the incisal edge and laterally at 45° midpalatally to the long axis of the canine tooth. Separately, 200 N axial and non-axial loads were applied simultaneously to the tooth. It was found that stresses were concentrated at the CEJ in all scenarios. Lateral loading produced maximum stresses greater than axial loading, and pulp tissues, however, experienced minimum levels of stresses. This study has contributed towards the understanding of the aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions which is a key in their clinical management.

  9. Dental and Maxillofacial Abnormalities in Children with Premature Loss of Primary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: since primary canines are among the last teeth to be replaced by permanent ones, they are critical to maintain the space in the dental arch and proper occlusion. Their premature loss has a greater impact on the anterior region, but it can also affect the posterior region. Objective: to describe dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in children who prematurely lost the primary canines. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 5 to 9 years attending the Guerrillero Heroico Elementary School located within the health area number 2 of Cienfuegos municipality, from November 2014 through April 2015. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, cause of tooth loss, dental and maxillofacial abnormalities (linguoversion of lower or upper incisors, mesial occlusion, crowding, hyperocclusion, and increased or decreased overjet. Results: the premature loss of primary canines was more frequently observed in children aged 5 and 6 years and in most cases, it resulted from indicated extractions (66.7%. Linguoversion of lower incisors and increased overjet were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: all children showed dental and maxillofacial abnormalities related to the premature loss of primary canines. This demonstrates the importance of avoiding their early loss whenever possible, as it is a key factor for the development of malocclusion.

  10. [Tooth regeneration--dream to reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Ling; Wang, Xue-Jiu

    2008-04-01

    Tooth or dentition missing compromises human health physically and psychiatrically. Although several prosthesis methods are used to restore tooth loss, these restorations are still non-biological methods. It is a dream for human being to regenerate a real tooth for hundreds years. There are two ways to regenerate the tooth. One is application of conventional tissue engineering techniques including seed cells and scaffold. The other is regeneration tooth using dental epithelium and dental mesenchymal cells based on the knowledge of tooth initiation and development. Marked progress has been achieved in these two ways, while there is still a long way to go. Recently a new concept has been proposed for regeneration of a biological tooth root based on tooth-related stem cells and tissue engineering technique. A biological tooth root has been regenerated in swine. It may be a valuable method for restoration of tooth loss before successful whole tooth regeneration. A latest research showed that a subpopulation in bone marrow cells can give rise to ameloblast-like cells when mixed with embryonic epithelium and reassociation with integrated mesenchyme, which may provide a new seed cell source for tooth regeneration.

  11. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  12. 牙槽间隔减阻术后快速移动尖牙的临床初探%Rapid canine distalization through distraction of the periodontal ligament after reducing interseptal bone resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文盛; 董福生; 任贵云; 冯立晓; 侯彦

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价牙槽间隔减阻术后快速移动尖牙的临床疗效,探讨该牙齿移动方式的可行性.方法 选择11例减数正畸患者,共20颗尖牙,在拔除第一前磨牙的同时行尖牙远中牙槽间隔减阻术,将螺旋扩大器改为牵张器,术后即刻粘固.术后第3天加力,每日3次,每次0.1 mm快速远中移动尖牙.牵张前、牵张结束时取模型,拍摄曲面断层X线片和尖牙根尖片,牵张前、牵张结束时和牵张结束后3个月检测尖牙牙髓电活力.结果 20颗尖牙于(25.6±4.7)d内向远中移动(5.56±1.32)mm(3.53±8.29mm),并有12.20°的远中倾斜和18.53°的旋转.支抗牙前移(0.76±0.75)mm.中切牙近中接触点舌向移动(0.67±0.55)mm.尖牙的快速移动未造成明显的牙根吸收和牙髓活力变化.结论 牙槽间隔减阻术后牵张牙周膜是一种快速移动牙齿的方式.%Objective To investigate the effect of rapid canine distulization through distraction of the periodontal ligament after reducing interseptal bone resistance. Methods Twenty canines in 11 patients who needed lirst premolar extractions were involved. A tooth-borne, custom-made distractor was bonded right after the first premolar extraction and the interseptal bone resistance reduction. Three days post-operatively,the distractor was activated 0.1 mm three times a day. Orthodontic models, panoramic radiographs,periapical radiographs, electrical vitality test were assessed pre- and post distraction procedure and 3 months after the completion of the procedure. Results The distraction procedure was completed in 18 to 35 days [mean (25.6 ± 4.7) days], with the distal displacement of the canines ranging from 3.53 to 8.29 nun[mean (5.56 ± 1.32) mm]. The canines showed a mean of 12. 20° distal tipping and 18.53° rotation. The anchorage teeth showed an average of (0.76 ± 0.75)mm mesial movement. The mesial contact point of incisors showed a mean of (0.67 ± 0.55) mm lingua] movement. There was no significant

  13. Several early interventions for ectopic maxillary canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Astorga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canine impactation is often encountered in orthodontic clinical practice and the aetiology is associated to genetic factors as well as local space factors. If preventive treatment is not started in ectopic maxillary canines, some possible consequences may occur, such as resorption of the roots of the neighboring permanent teeth, cysts, ankylosis and expensive surgical and orthodontic treatment. The aim of this review was to preset several early treatment modalities for ectopic maxillary canines based on recent scientific evidence. Four are the most important: Only extractions intervention, extraction of deciduous canines with cervical pull headgear, active intervention in late mixed dentition and active intervention in early mixed dentition. These different modalities showed a greater increasing the rate of normal eruption of ectopic canines ( 80-97%. The extraction of primary canine alone is still an effective method to prevent canine impactation, whose success rate would be increased if some other method interceptive is added.

  14. Finite element analysis of stress distribution in four different endodontic post systems in a model canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aijie; Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Ruoyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stress distribution in a maxillary canine restored with each of four different post systems at different levels of alveolar bone loss. Two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed by modeling a severely damaged canine with four different post systems: CAD/CAM zirconia, CAD/CAM glass fiber, cast titanium, and cast gold. A force of 100 N was applied to the crown, and the von Mises stresses were obtained. FEA revealed that the CAD/CAM zirconia post system produced the lowest maximum von Mises stress in the dentin layer at 115.8 MPa, while the CAD/CAM glass fiber post produced the highest stress in the dentin at 518.2 MPa. For a severely damaged anterior tooth, a zirconia post system is the best choice while a cast gold post ranks second. The CAD/CAM glass fiber post is least recommended in terms of stress level in the dentin.

  15. Correction of Multiple Canine Impactions by Mixed Straightwire and Cantilever Mechanics: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paduano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of a woman, aged 17 years, with a permanent dentition, brachyfacial typology, Angle Class I, with full impaction of two canines (13,33, and a severe ectopy of the maxillary left canine. Her main compliant was the position of the ectopic teeth. Methods. Straightwire fixed appliances, together with cantilever mechanics, were used to correct the impaired occlusion and to obtain an ideal torque control. Results and Conclusion. The treatment objectives were achieved in 26 months of treatment. The impactions were fully corrected with an optimal torque. The cantilever mechanics succeeded in obtaining tooth repositioning in a short lapse of time. After treatment, the dental alignment was stable.

  16. The use of spiral computed tomography in the localization of impacted maxillary canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preda, L.; La Fianza, A.; Di Maggio, E. [Pavia Univ. (Italy)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose was to compare spiral CT with conventional radiography in planning the orthodontic treatment of impacted permanent maxillary canines. In conclusion, CT facilitates the treatment of impacted canines especially when the teeth are very oblique to the arch. Root resorption is better demonstrated especially on the palatal and buccal surfaces of the adjacent incisors. Spiral CT reduces examination time and risks of accidental movement, thus optimizing multiplanar quality. Examination at 2:1 pitch enables a significant reduction in radiation exposure without loss of image quality. (N.C.)

  17. Effect of Simvastatin on the Expression of OPG during Retention Stage after Tooth Movement in Rats with Periodontitis%辛伐他汀对牙周炎大鼠牙移动保持阶段OPG表达影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟微; 陈远萍; 陈冲; 庄金良; 姜盼

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察牙周炎大鼠正畸性牙齿移动保持阶段,全身给予辛伐他汀对牙周组织中OPG表达的影响.方法:选用雄性Wistar大鼠65只,随机分组.1)空白对照组:不做任何处置.2)阴性对照组和实验组:根据Fishcer等人的方法,在大鼠上颌第一磨牙牙颈部用3~O丝线龈缘水平进行结扎,28 d后诱导形成大鼠牙周炎,牵引其上颌第一磨牙向近中移动.实验组在加力装置去除前1d开始,腹膜下注射辛伐他汀,阴性对照组注射生理盐水,1次/d,分别保持1、3、7、14、21、28 d后处死,免疫组化染色配合定量分析方法观察上颌第一磨牙牙根的近远中侧OPG的表达变化.结果:移动牙近中牙周组织OPG的表达在加力结束后逐渐减少,第7天时阴性对照组低于空白对照组,14 d后两组均有少量增加;远中侧阴性对照组OPG的表达在加力结束后1、3d变化不明显,而实验组OPG的表达逐渐增加,但在21d后变化不明显.相同时间段比较,实验组OPG表达量均高于阴性对照组.结论:辛伐他汀能够增加牙周炎大鼠正畸牙移动后牙周组织中OPG的表达量.%Objective: To study the influence of simvastatin on the expression of OPG in periodontal tissue of rats with periodontitis during the retention stage after the experimental tooth movement. Methods: 65 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 13 groups. 1) blank control group: rats without any treatment. 2) experimental control groups and experimental groups: silk ligatures were placed at the gingival margin level of the maxillary first molars for 28 days to establish animal periodontitis model , and then the maxillary first molars under the anchorage of rats' anterior teeth were mesially moved for 21 days and afterwards, retainers were placed on left arches for respectively Id, 3d, 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d. During retention stage, rats of experimental control groups received intraperitoneal injection of normal saline once a day

  18. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  19. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; Giordano,L.G.P.; Flaiban,K.K.M.C.; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  20. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  1. [Stereotypic movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, E

    2003-02-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive patterns of movement with certain peculiar features that make them especially interesting. Their physiopathology and their relationship with the neurobehavioural disorders they are frequently associated with are unknown. In this paper our aim is to offer a simple analysis of their dominant characteristics, their differentiation from other processes and a hypothesis of the properties of stereotypic movements, which could all set the foundations for research work into their physiopathology.

  2. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  3. Fluoridation and tooth wear in Irish adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, F M

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth wear in adults in Ireland and its relationship with water fluoridation. The National Survey of Adult Oral Health was conducted in 2000\\/2001. Tooth wear was determined using a partial mouth examination assessing the upper and lower anterior teeth. A total of 2456 subjects were examined. In this survey, increasing levels and severity of tooth wear were associated with ageing. Men were more affected by tooth wear and were more likely to be affected by severe tooth wear than women. It was found that age, and gender were significant predictors of tooth wear (P < 0.01). Overall, there was no significant relationship between fluoridation and tooth wear in this study.

  4. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  5. Tooth demineralization and associated factors in patients on fixed orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón-Valdés, Elías Nahúm; Lara-Carrillo, Edith; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Scougall-Vilchis, Rogelio José; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Fernández Barrera, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Dental demineralization was determined in patients at three time points during fixed orthodontic treatment. A multiple cross-sectional study included 108 patients divided into three different groups: (1) beginning of orthodontic treatment; (2) one year into treatment; and (3) two years into treatment. Demineralization was estimated using a DIAGNOdent pen. We obtained data from multiple tooth-by-tooth demineralization readings combined with salivary pH and patients’ oral hygienic and dietary behaviors. A t-test for independent samples and Spearman´s correlation were performed. No demineralizations differences were found between the initial stage and one year into treatment. Between one and two years small differences were observed, but demineralization increased between the initial stage and second treatment year, predominating in upper right central incisors (p = 0.056), upper left lateral incisors (p = 0.040), both upper canines (p = 0.055 and p = 0.040, respectively) and first left premolars (p = 0.034 and p = 0.053, respectively). We did not find associations between oral hygiene and dietary behaviours or salivary pH. In conclusion, demineralization occurred in first year of treatment and increased during second year, predominating in the upper arch and the left side mainly in upper right central incisors, upper left lateral incisors, both upper canines, and first left premolars. PMID:27805027

  6. 重组人生长激素在正畸牙移动过程中调节胰岛素样生长因子Ⅰ局部表达的实验研究%Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on local expression of insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ during orthodontic tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚军; 刘文韬; 王云龙; 贺红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore in vivo the expression of insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ (IGF-Ⅰ) under stress,and to analyze changes of the local expression related to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment.Methods Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and growth hormone groups,20 in each group.A force of 0.49 N was applied to move the right upper first molars mesially.The growth hormone group and control group received daily subcutaneous injections of rhGH and equivalent volumes of saline,respectively.The rats were sacrificed on days 1,3,7 and 14.Micro-CT-reconstructed images were used to survey root resorption,and horizontal sections of the maxillae were prepared for tartrateresistant acid phosphate(TRAP) and immunohistochemistry staining.Results Tooth moved faster in the growth hormone group([0.291±0.017],[0.513±0.111] mm) than in the control group([0.245±0.033],[0.368±0.052] mm) on days 7 and 14(P<0.05).More osteoclasts on day 3,and fewer osteoclasts on day 7 were observed in the growth hormone group([4.0±0.7],[2.6±0.6] cell/high-power field) than in the control group ([2.8±0.6],[3.8±0.8] cell/high-power field)(P<0.05).The number of IGF-Ⅰ positive osteoclasts in the growth hormone group([4.7±0.7] cell/high-power field) was significantly greater than that in the control group ([2.7±0.5] cell/high-power field)(P<0.01) on day 3.Compared with the control group([18.6± 1.5],[23.3±3.8] cell/high-power field),IGF-Ⅰ positive PDL cells increased on days 7 and 14 in the growth hormone groups([29.6±3.4],[37.5±6.1] cell/high-power field)(P<0.01).Conclusions rhGH could stimulate IGF-Ⅰ expression in PDL,and accelerate bone remodeling and tooth movement.%目的 探讨胰岛素样生长因子Ⅰ (insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ,IGF-Ⅰ)在机械力作用下表达水平的变化,及重组人生长激素(recombinant human growth hormone,rhGH)对IGF-Ⅰ局部表达水平的影响.方法 0.49 N力近中移动7周龄Wistar大鼠上颌右

  7. Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.

    2005-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.

  8. Supernumerary Jawbone Tooth: Clinical Case

    OpenAIRE

    Rivas Gutiérrez, Jesús; Carlos Sánchez, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: supernumerary teeth are dental development anomalies, alsoknown as hyperdontia or extra teeth. Their prevalence ranges between 0.3% and 3.8%.Their morphology may be normal or dismorphic and are associated to the etiology ofocclusal alterations. It is important to make an early diagnostic through a radiographicalstudy. Case presentation:this article presents a clinical case of a supernumerary tooth thatcaused rotation and crowding of the anterior bottom teeth, which was addressed...

  9. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reilly, Mary M

    2011-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder affecting at least 1 in 2,500. Over the last two decades, there have been rapid advances in understanding the molecular basis for many forms of CMT with more than 30 causative genes now described. This has made obtaining an accurate genetic diagnosis possible but at times challenging for clinicians. This review aims to provide a simple, pragmatic approach to diagnosing CMT from a clinician\\'s perspective.

  10. BMP-2在减阻牵张快速牙移动不同加力方式下的表达及对牙移动的影响%The effects of BMP-2 expression in the related periodontal tissue on bone remolding of rapid tooth movement by resistance reduction and distration method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭早霞; 李宁; 李佩; 李美静; 杨乐乐; 陈曦; 米丛波

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察不同牵张力下减阻牵张快速牙移动中 BMP-2的表达。方法:Beagle 犬12只,随机均分为加力5、15 d、加力15 d 保持固定10、90 d 4组。以44为移动牙,每个组3只犬的6颗移动牙随机采用减阻-牵张方法、减阻-常规方法和常规方法各2颗。各组犬按预定时间处死并获取移动牙牙周组织块,免疫组化法染色并观察 BMP-2表达。结果:各加力方式下 BMP-2阳性表达分布区域相似,均在加力结束时达峰值,其中减阻牵张组峰值最大(P <0.05);牙移动距离最大(P <0.01)。加力各时间点,减阻常规组 BMP-2阳性表达均强于常规方法组但不及减阻牵张组显著;保持固定90 d,3组无差异(P >0.05)。结论:减阻措施配合持续强牵张力可显著提高移动牙牵张新骨区 BMP-2阳性表达,加速牙周组织新骨形成。%Objective:To investigate the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 2(BMP-2)expression in the related periodontal tissue on bone remodeling under different distracting force during rapid tooth movement by resistance reduction and distraction. Methods:1 2 Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows:5 d distraction,1 5 d distraction,1 5 d distraction and 1 0 d retaining and 1 5 d distraction and 90 d retaining.4 4 were distalized.6 teeth in each group were randomly assigned to re-sistance and distracting method,resistance and conventional method and conventional method,and there were 2 teeth in each group.Moving teeth models were prepared regularly.BMP-2 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry.Results:The BMP-2 positive expression of the 3 groups of different distraction schedule showed similar distribution area,and it reached peak at the end of 1 5-day distration,but the group of resistance and distracting method showed the maximum peak(P 0.05).Conclusion:Resistance reduction with sustained strong distracting force can significantly increased the

  11. The Effect of Lower Power Laser Irrdiation on the Expression of Integrin avβ3 in Periodontium during Experimental Tooth Movement%弱激光照射对实验性牙移动牙周组织血管内皮细胞中整合素αVβ3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀梅; 孙新华; 吴国民; 张晓英

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨弱激光照射对兔实验性牙移动牙周组织整合素αVβ3表达的影响.方法:35只大耳白兔随机分为7组,每组5只,分别作为对照组,1、3、5、7、14、21 d组.左侧为对照侧,右侧为弱激光照射侧.于上颌第一磨牙与同侧切牙间置不锈钢螺簧,以80g力拉磨牙向近中.按期分批处死动物,取标本,通过原位杂交方法检测牙周组织中整合素αVβ3mRNA的表达.结果:经弱激光照射后,照射侧牙周组织血管内皮细胞中整合素αVβ3表达高于对照侧.照射侧压力区血管内皮细胞中整合素αVβ3表达在1d时明显低于对照侧,3、5、7 d时明显高于对照侧;照射侧张力区整合素αVβ3表达在1、3、5、7 d时显著高于对照侧.结论:弱激光照射促进了牙周组织血管内皮细胞中中整合素αVβ3的表达,这可能是其促进牙周组织改建,减轻正畸疼痛的机制之一.%Objective: To investigate the effect of low power laser on integrin αVβ3 expression in periodontal tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. Methods: Thirty-five rabbits were divided into 7 groups on average: untreated (control). 1d, 3d, 5d, 7d, 14d, and 21d group. Except the control group, the right cheek of the other rabbits received irradiation of lower power laser as the experimental side and the left side was considered as the control side. A elastic coil spring was ligated between the incisors and the first molar and exert a force of approximately 80 g to pull the first molar mesially. The animals were killed on time respectively and specimens were made to observe the expression of integrinαVβ3 in periodontium through in situ hybridization. Results: The expression of integrinβ3 in the vascular endothelial cells in the compression region of the irradiated side was apparently less than the control side on the first day and was apparently more than the control side on the third day and the fifth day. Differently, the expression of integrinβ3 in the

  12. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in...

  13. Tooth wear in the deciduous dentition of 5-7-year-old children: risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatou, Tarsitsa; Mamai-Homata, Eleni

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the distribution and severity of tooth wear in deciduous dentition and its relationship with possible risk factors. A stratified cluster sample of 243 5-7-year-old children was examined using the tooth wear index of Smith and Knight, and their exposure to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors was retrospectively investigated through a structured questionnaire. The severity of wear was quantitatively estimated by the number of surfaces with affected dentine and by the cumulative score of the sextants, based on the Basic Erosive Wear Examination scoring system. Only 1.6% of the children were tooth wear free, whereas 45.6% had moderate to severe wear involving dentine. Maxillary canines were the most affected teeth (83.2%), and occlusal/incisal the most affected surfaces (52.7%). The likelihood of tooth wear involving dentine was greater in boys than girls (OR = 1.72), in immigrants than in Greeks (OR = 1.93), and in 6- and 7-year olds than in 5-year olds (OR = 2.78 to 2.93). After adjustment for age, gender, and nationality, exposure to several dietary factors and especially to soft drinks was found to significantly affect the prevalence (OR = 1.27) and the severity of tooth wear. Every additional serving/week of consumption of soft drinks increases the number of surfaces with dentine affected by 0.03 per year (p children with the higher prevalence and severity of tooth wear had an average exposure to soft drinks of 10 servings/week for a duration of 4 years. The cumulative score of sextants was better predicted by the assessed risk factors, in comparison with the number of surfaces with affected dentine. Tooth wear is a common condition in children, related both to the physiological process of aging of dentition and to the erosive effect of dietary factors. Strategies to reduce the intake of soft drinks in children are expected to have multiple benefits preventing tooth wear in childhood and in later life, as well as many other

  14. Automating digital leaf measurement: the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corney, David P A; Tang, H Lilian; Clark, Jonathan Y; Hu, Yin; Jin, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Many species of plants produce leaves with distinct teeth around their margins. The presence and nature of these teeth can often help botanists to identify species. Moreover, it has long been known that more species native to colder regions have teeth than species native to warmer regions. It has therefore been suggested that fossilized remains of leaves can be used as a proxy for ancient climate reconstruction. Similar studies on living plants can help our understanding of the relationships. The required analysis of leaves typically involves considerable manual effort, which in practice limits the number of leaves that are analyzed, potentially reducing the power of the results. In this work, we describe a novel algorithm to automate the marginal tooth analysis of leaves found in digital images. We demonstrate our methods on a large set of images of whole herbarium specimens collected from Tilia trees (also known as lime, linden or basswood). We chose the genus Tilia as its constituent species have toothed leaves of varied size and shape. In a previous study we extracted c.1600 leaves automatically from a set of c.1100 images. Our new algorithm locates teeth on the margins of such leaves and extracts features such as each tooth's area, perimeter and internal angles, as well as counting them. We evaluate an implementation of our algorithm's performance against a manually analyzed subset of the images. We found that the algorithm achieves an accuracy of 85% for counting teeth and 75% for estimating tooth area. We also demonstrate that the automatically extracted features are sufficient to identify different species of Tilia using a simple linear discriminant analysis, and that the features relating to teeth are the most useful.

  15. Automating digital leaf measurement: the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P A Corney

    Full Text Available Many species of plants produce leaves with distinct teeth around their margins. The presence and nature of these teeth can often help botanists to identify species. Moreover, it has long been known that more species native to colder regions have teeth than species native to warmer regions. It has therefore been suggested that fossilized remains of leaves can be used as a proxy for ancient climate reconstruction. Similar studies on living plants can help our understanding of the relationships. The required analysis of leaves typically involves considerable manual effort, which in practice limits the number of leaves that are analyzed, potentially reducing the power of the results. In this work, we describe a novel algorithm to automate the marginal tooth analysis of leaves found in digital images. We demonstrate our methods on a large set of images of whole herbarium specimens collected from Tilia trees (also known as lime, linden or basswood. We chose the genus Tilia as its constituent species have toothed leaves of varied size and shape. In a previous study we extracted c.1600 leaves automatically from a set of c.1100 images. Our new algorithm locates teeth on the margins of such leaves and extracts features such as each tooth's area, perimeter and internal angles, as well as counting them. We evaluate an implementation of our algorithm's performance against a manually analyzed subset of the images. We found that the algorithm achieves an accuracy of 85% for counting teeth and 75% for estimating tooth area. We also demonstrate that the automatically extracted features are sufficient to identify different species of Tilia using a simple linear discriminant analysis, and that the features relating to teeth are the most useful.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Tooth Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Ling Ye; Xue-dong Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Tooth loss compromises human oral health. Although several prosthetic methods, such as artificial denture and dental implants, are clinical therapies to tooth loss problems, they are thought to have safety and usage time issues. Recently, tooth tissue engineering has attracted more and more attention. Stem cell based tissue engineering is thought to be a promising way to replace the missing tooth. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells which can differentiate into a variety of cell types. The potential MSCs for tooth regeneration mainly include stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from the apical part of the papilla (SCAPs), stem cells from the dental follicle (DFSCs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). This review outlines the recent progress in the mesenchymal stem cells used in tooth regeneration.

  17. Test Tube Tooth: The Next Big Thing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mohammed; Yadav, Harsh; Sureka, Rakshit; Garg, Aarti

    2016-01-01

    Unlike some vertebrates and fishes, humans do not have the capacity for tooth regeneration after the loss of permanent teeth. Although artificial replacement with removable dentures, fixed prosthesis and implants is possible through advances in the field of prosthetic dentistry, it would be ideal to recreate a third set of natural teeth to replace lost dentition. For many years now, researchers in the field of tissue engineering have been trying to bioengineer dental tissues as well as whole teeth. In order to attain a whole tooth through dental engineering, that has the same or nearly same biological, mechanical and physical properties of a natural tooth, it’s necessary to deal with all the cells and tissues which are concerned with the formation, maintenance and repair of the tooth. In this article we review the steps involved in odontogenesis or organogenesis of a tooth and progress in the bioengineering of a whole tooth. PMID:27504430

  18. Penatalaksanaan impaksi caninus permanen rahang atas dengan surgical exposure (The management of impacted permanent canine with surgical exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeh Brata Wijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impacted tooth is often unidentified because there is no symptom. It is found when patient is examined by dentist. The maxillary canine should be retained for strength masticatory function, esthetics and child development. Purpose: The article was aimed to report treatment options of impacted canine in the 13 years old child. Case: Thirteen years-old girl came to the Universitas Gadjah Mada Dental Hospital with complaints of the upper right permanent canine had not erupted, with no history of pain. Periapical radiograph showed the impacted position of tooth #13 mesioangular. The shift sketch technique radiograph showed the impacted canine located at the palatal site. Case management: surgical exposure the upper right maxillary canine was done, followed by orthodontic treatment to direct tooth position into occlusal line. Fixed orthodontic appliance used was Roth bracket with straight wire technique. After surgery and orthodontic treatment, #13 was in normal occlusion. Conclusion: The surgical exposure followed by orthodontic treatment could be done successfully with special consideration to the patient’s age, the dental space, location of dental crowns, dental inclination, the apical root form of impacted tooth and patient cooperation.Latar belakang: Terjadinya gigi impaksi biasanya diketahui setelah melakukan pemeriksaan ke dokter gigi karena jarang menimbulkan keluhan. Gigi caninus rahang atas sebaiknya dipertahankan untuk kekuatan fungsi pengunyahan, estetik dan tumbuh kembang anak. Tujuan: Artikel ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan perawatan impaksi gigi kaninus atas pada anak 13 tahun. Kasus: Anak perempuan usia 13 tahun datang ke Rumah sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Gadjah Mada dengan keluhan gigi kaninus permanen kanan atas yang belum erupsi, tanpa ada riwayat sakit di area tersebut. Hasil radiografi periapikal menunjukkan posisi gigi #13 impaksi mesioangular. Hasil radiografi dengan teknik shift

  19. Influence of different tooth types on the bond strength of two orthodontic adhesive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Bora; Koyutürk, Alp Erdin; Çatalbaş, Bülent; Özer, Füsun

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of different tooth types on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic resin adhesive systems in vitro. Two hundred extracted sound human teeth were used in the study. Ten teeth of each tooth type were the mounted in acrylic resin leaving the buccal surface of the crowns parallel to the base of the moulds. In each experimental group, the adhesives (Transbond XT™ and Light Bond™) were applied to the etched enamel surfaces. The orthodontic composite resins were then applied to the surface in cylindrical-shaped plastic matrices. For SBS testing, a force transducer (Ultradent™) was applied at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute at the interface between the tooth and composite until failure occurred. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal–Wallis one-way ANOVA, a Bonferroni adjusted Mann–Whitney U-test, and an independent t-test. Generally, it was found that tooth type had a significant effect on SBS (P < 0.05) with Light Bond™ showing a higher SBS than Transbond XT™ (P < 0.05). The highest bond strengths were observed for the upper central incisor and lower molars with Light Bond™ (P < 0.05) and the lowest mean bond strengths for the upper molars and lower canine with Transbond XT™ (P <0.05). The results demonstrated that enamel SBS was significantly altered by both tooth type and adhesive system. Thus, the findings of this study confirm that enamel bond strength is not uniform for all teeth. These results may also explain the variability in the enamel-bonding efficacy of adhesives. PMID:18678760

  20. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  1. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154 isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease.

  2. Esthesioneuroblastoma presenting as tooth pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvathi Devi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthesioneuroblastoma, also called olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant tumor originating in the olfactory epithelium in the upper nasal cavity with intracranial extension and may also be associated with secondary sinus diseases. Esthesioneuroblastoma has been observed to cause death by distant metastasis or by invasion through the cribriform plate and secondary meningitis. It usually produces nasal obstruction, epistaxis and less commonly anosmia, headache and pain. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma in a 50-year-old female who reported with tooth pain as a presenting symptom.

  3. Esthesioneuroblastoma presenting as tooth pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Parvathi; Bhavle, Radhika; Aggarwal, Avanti; Walia, Cherry

    2014-09-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma, also called olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant tumor originating in the olfactory epithelium in the upper nasal cavity with intracranial extension and may also be associated with secondary sinus diseases. Esthesioneuroblastoma has been observed to cause death by distant metastasis or by invasion through the cribriform plate and secondary meningitis. It usually produces nasal obstruction, epistaxis and less commonly anosmia, headache and pain. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma in a 50-year-old female who reported with tooth pain as a presenting symptom.

  4. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  5. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals....

  6. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  7. Pediatric tooth extractions under sedoanalgesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaci, Ayse Hande; Isik, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to evaluate intravenous ketamine and inhalation sedation in children, their unwanted side-effects and surgeon satisfaction. Methods: In this study, data of 922 children aged between 1-18 who underwent tooth extraction under sedoanalgesia in our department between September 2015-January 2016 were gathered and anesthesia approaches, unwanted side effects and surgical satisfaction was investigated. Postoperative recovery emergence agitation or delirium was evaluated with Watcha Behavior Scale (WBS). Results: Patients were grouped and compared according to acceptance of intravenous line placement (Group-1) or not (Group- 2). Group 1 received intravenous ketamine anesthesia (n=822), Group 2 received inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane (n=100). Number of patients, age, weight and gender was significantly different in two groups. When side effects were investigated nausea was observed in 30 patients (3.6%), skin rashes were observed in 26 patients (3.2%) in Group-1 while skin rashes were observed in one patient (1%) in Group 2. 95% of surgeons reported intravenous anesthesia, 18% of surgeons reported inhalation anesthesia to be the anesthesia of choice. Emergence of postoperative recovery agitation (WBS≥3) was observed more frequent in Group 2 (p<0.05) than Group 1. Conclusion: Ketamine, which has analgesic, hypnotic and amnestic effects and which does not alter pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes thus minimizes aspiration possibility, is a safe and effective anesthetic agent for tooth extractions of the pediatric population under sedoanalgesia. PMID:27882039

  8. An in vitro investigation into retention strength and fatigue resistance of various designs of tooth/implant supported overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatalla, Abdalbseet A; Song, Ke; Du, Tianfeng; Cao, Yingguang

    2012-02-01

    Previously, the choice of prosthetic implant-retained overdentures has depended on data from previous studies about the retention-fatigue strength of the attachment system selected. Little or no data have been available on the correlation between the attachment system selected and the overdenture support configuration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retention force and fatigue resistance of three attachment systems and four support designs of overdenture prosthesis. Four lower edentulous acrylic models were prepared and eight combinations of attachments groups were investigated in the study. These included: O-Rings with mini-dental implants (MDIs), Dalbo elliptic with Dalbo Rotex and fabricated flexible acrylic attachments with both MDI and Dalbo Rotex. The study was divided into four test groups: groups A and B, controls, and groups C and D, experimental groups. Control group A contained three overdenture supports: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with Dalbo Rotex screwed in. Control group B contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with Dalbo Rotex screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Experimental group C contained three overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the canine region and at the midline, and one simulated tooth root with MDI screwed in. Experimental group D contained four overdenture support foundations: two free standing MDIs in the right canine region and the first premolar region, and two simulated tooth roots with MDIs screwed in at the same MDI position, but on the left side of the model. Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to attachment type used. Five samples were prepared for each group. Retention force (N) values were recorded initially (0 cycles) and after 360, 720, 1440

  9. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  10. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. Architectonic implementation questions relations between the human body and a body of architecture by the different ways we handle drawing materials. A drawing may explore architectonic problems at other...... levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  11. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption. PMID:28179939

  12. Biologically Based Restorative Management of Tooth Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin G. D. Kelleher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and severity of tooth wear is increasing in industrialised nations. Yet, there is no high-level evidence to support or refute any therapeutic intervention. In the absence of such evidence, many currently prevailing management strategies for tooth wear may be failing in their duty of care to first and foremost improve the oral health of patients with this disease. This paper promotes biologically sound approaches to the management of tooth wear on the basis of current best evidence of the aetiology and clinical features of this disease. The relative risks and benefits of the varying approaches to managing tooth wear are discussed with reference to long-term follow-up studies. Using reference to ethical standards such as “The Daughter Test”, this paper presents case reports of patients with moderate-to-severe levels of tooth wear managed in line with these biologically sound principles.

  13. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  14. Chloroplast movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masamitsu

    2013-09-01

    Chloroplast movement is important for plant survival under high light and for efficient photosynthesis under low light. This review introduces recent knowledge on chloroplast movement and shows how to analyze the responses and the moving mechanisms, potentially inspiring research in this field. Avoidance from the strong light is mediated by blue light receptor phototropin 2 (phot2) plausibly localized on the chloroplast envelop and accumulation at the week light-irradiated area is mediated by phot1 and phot2 localized on the plasma membrane. Chloroplasts move by chloroplast actin (cp-actin) filaments that must be polymerized by Chloroplast Unusual Positioning1 (CHUP1) at the front side of moving chloroplast. To understand the signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of chloroplast movement, that is, from light capture to motive force-generating mechanism, various methods should be employed based on the various aspects. Observation of chloroplast distribution pattern under different light condition by fixed cell sectioning is somewhat an old-fashioned technique but the most basic and important way. However, most importantly, precise chloroplast behavior during and just after the induction of chloroplast movement by partial cell irradiation using an irradiator with either low light or strong light microbeam should be recorded by time lapse photographs under infrared light and analyzed. Recently various factors involved in chloroplast movement, such as cp-actin filaments and CHUP1, could be traced in Arabidopsis transgenic lines with fluorescent protein tags under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and/or a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM). These methods are listed and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated.

  15. Age estimation by pulp-to-tooth area ratio using cone-beam computed tomography: A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpita; Acharya, Ashith B.; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Age estimation of living or deceased individuals is an important aspect of forensic sciences. Conventionally, pulp-to-tooth area ratio (PTR) measured from periapical radiographs have been utilized as a nondestructive method of age estimation. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a new method to acquire three-dimensional images of the teeth in living individuals. Aims: The present study investigated age estimation based on PTR of the maxillary canines measured in three planes obtained from CBCT image data. Settings and Design: Sixty subjects aged 20–85 years were included in the study. Materials and Methods: For each tooth, mid-sagittal, mid-coronal, and three axial sections—cementoenamel junction (CEJ), one-fourth root level from CEJ, and mid-root—were assessed. PTR was calculated using AutoCAD software after outlining the pulp and tooth. Statistical Analysis Used: All statistical analyses were performed using an SPSS 17.0 software program. Results and Conclusions: Linear regression analysis showed that only PTR in axial plane at CEJ had significant age correlation (r = 0.32; P < 0.05). This is probably because of clearer demarcation of pulp and tooth outline at this level. PMID:28123269

  16. Removal of retained upper canine in the middle. Case report Exéresis de canino superior retenido en posición intermedia. Presentación de un caso

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenido Mesa Reinaldo; José Luis Capote Femenias; Yordanis Boza Mejías; Alejandro Díaz Tejeda

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of upper canine is one of the most common retentions that occur in permanent teething, this event may be related to that, this is the last tooth to erupt in the lower, also is associated with involution of the jaws, because eruption path is long and complex, often facing unfavorable. A case of a female patient, aged 25, of rural origin, which does not suffer from any disease, which was seen because of discomfort in area 23, ie in the left upper permanent canine. It was noted in ...

  17. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  18. Spectroscopic investigations of carious tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thareja, R K; Sharma, A K; Shukla, Shobha

    2008-11-01

    We report on the elemental composition of healthy and infected part of human tooth using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We have used prominent constituent transitions in laser-excited tooth to diagnose the state of the tooth. A nanosecond laser pulse (355nm, 5ns) was used as an ablating pulse and the sodium (3s2S-3p2P) at 588.99 and (3s2S-3p2P) at 589.99nm, strontium (5s21S-1s5P) at 460.55nm, and calcium (3d3D-4f 3F0) at 452.55nm transitions for spectroscopic analysis. The spectroscopic observations in conjunction with discriminate analysis showed that calcium attached to the hydroxyapatite structure of the tooth was affected severely at the infected part of the tooth. The position-time plots generated from two-dimensional (2D) images conclusively showed a decrease in calcium concentration in the infected region of the irradiated tooth. Using the technique, we could distinguish between the healthy and carious parts of the tooth with significant accuracy.

  19. Tooth Retained Implant: No More an Oxymoron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhat

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontally af-fected teeth are treated in one of the two ways. (1 Tooth retention after periodontal surgery, in which the degree of regeneration achieved is unpredictable. (2 Tooth extrac-tion and implant placement. Implants have an osseointegrated surface which does not provide adequate shock absorption. Regeneration can be achieved by resecting the crown of the affected tooth and submerging the root. This technique has not had a clinical application so far as the tooth becomes difficult to restore. Placing an implant within the root can make the retained root restorable. At the same time, as the implant is placed within the root surface it achieves a periodontal integration which dampens occlusal forces better than osseointegration. Therefore, such a “tooth retained implant” may serve as an additional treatment option with significant benefits over tooth retention and implant placement alone. The hypothesis: Implants placed within retained roots have shown cementum deposition and attachment of periodontal ligament fibers over their surface. This periodontal attachment may be able to dam-pen forces better than in an osseointegrated implant. Moreover, since an implant is being placed, the crown of the tooth can be resected and submerged. This prevents epithelial migration, allows for the periodontal ligament cells to populate the wound and favors regeneration.Evaluation of the hypothesis: The technique of placing implants within cavities prepared in the root and then submerging them are simple for any practitioner placing implants routinely.

  20. Aquaporin water channels in the canine gubernaculum testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Silvana; Aralla, Marina; Fracassetti, Paola; Mobasheri, Ali; Cremonesi, Fausto

    2013-07-01

    The jelly-like gubernaculum testis (GT) is a hydrated structure consisting of a concentric sheath of dense connective tissue around a loose mesenchymal core, with two cords of skeletal muscle cells asymmetrically placed alongside. Expansion of the GT occurs during the transabdominal phase of testicular descent, linked to cell proliferation together with modifications of the hydric content of the organ. The aim of this study was to detect immunohistochemically the presence of aquaporins (AQPs), integral membrane proteins permitting passive transcellular water movement, in the canine GTs. Samples (n=15) were obtained from pregnancies of 9 medium sized bitches and dissected from healthy fetuses. Five fetuses were aged 35-45 days of gestation, 10 fetuses from 46 days of gestation to delivery, thus offering us the opportunity to study the progressive maturation of the gubernacula. The presence of AQP3, 4, 7, 8 and -9 was assessed in the muscular components of the GT, some of them (AQP3, AQP4, AQP7) with increasing intensity through the second half of pregnancy up to term. AQP1 was localized in the capillary and venous endothelia in the younger fetuses, also in the artery adventitia and in the nerve perineurium in progressively older fetuses. These data demonstrate the potential importance and contribution of AQP-mediated water flux in hydration and volume modification of the growing GT in a canine model.

  1. Long anterior mandibular tooth roots in Neanderthals are not the result of their large jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cabec, Adeline; Kupczik, Kornelius; Gunz, Philipp; Braga, José; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2012-11-01

    Tooth root length has been shown to taxonomically distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. However, this may result from differences in jaw size between both taxa, although most previous studies have revealed a very low or non-existent correlation between tooth size and jaw size in recent modern humans. We therefore investigated, within a broader taxonomical frame, to what extent measurements on the anterior tooth roots and the symphyseal region covary. Our samples comprise permanent mandibular incisors and canines from Mauer, Neanderthals, and extant and fossil modern humans sensu lato. Using micro-computed tomography, we took linear and cross-sectional surface area measurements of the roots and the symphyseal region and calculated the root volume. We also measured 3D landmarks to quantify the overall size of the mandible using centroid size. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between root size and symphyseal shape, based on Procrustes shape variables of semi-landmarks along the symphyseal outline. Our results show that Neanderthals have significantly larger anterior tooth roots than recent modern humans in terms of root length, mid-sagittal surface area and volume, even after correction for mandibular size. In contrast, symphyseal height and width do not differ significantly between both taxa, whereas, without scaling, the mid-sagittal symphyseal surface area and the centroid size of the mandible do differ. Importantly, no significant correlation was found between any of the root and symphyseal measurements after correction for overall mandibular size. The shape analyses revealed that Neanderthals have a vertical symphyseal profile with an evenly-thick symphysis, whereas recent modern humans display an unevenly-thick symphysis, comprising a pronounced incurvatio mandibularis and a bony chin. These results suggest a negative evolutionary allometry for the recent modern human anterior root size. Therefore, root length and other root dimensions can be

  2. The Effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation on the Orthodontic Movement of Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Bone is said to have piezoelectric (piezo - from the Greek word meaning "pressure") properties ’. 4 6 primarily due to its collagenous composition as...Movement, Am. J. Orthod . 80. 256-262, 1981. $ 3. Litton, S.F.: Orthodontic Tooth Movement During Ascorbic Acid Deficiency, Am. J. Orthod . 65: 290-302...Nucleotides, Am J. Orthod . 76: 14-32, 1980. 5. Gianelly, A.A., and Schnur, R.M.: The Use of Para- thyroid Hormone to Assist Orthodontic Tooth Movement

  3. Gracious Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Kreft

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984 Christopher Cordner offered a critical view on theories of graceful movement in sport developed by Ng. G. Wulk, David Best and Joseph Kupfer. In 2001 Paul Davis criticized his view. Cordner responded, rejecting all the criticism. More than a century before, Herbert Spencer and Jean-Marie Guyau had a similar controversy over grace. Both exchanges of opinion involve three positions: that grace is the most efficient movement and therefore something quantitative and measurable; that grace is expression of the wholeness of person and the world; and that grace is something which neither science nor philosophy can explain. To clarify these conflicting issues, this article proposes to examine the history of the notion which goes back to the Latin gratia and has root in the Ancient Greek charis, and to apply the concepts of cultural anchor and thin coherence, following John R. Searle’s explanation that we produce epistemically objective accounts of ontologically subjective reality.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of upper impacted canines%上颌阻生尖牙的诊断与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金作林

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of upper impacted canines.Radiograph diagnosis is the most important tool in-cluding panoramic,CT and CBCT.Preventive and interceptive treatment,tooth extraction,self tooth transplantation and orthodontic traction can be used in the treatment.%上颌尖牙阻生是临床上常见的错(牙合)畸形,本文主要介绍上颌尖牙阻生的定义、发病率以及包括根尖片、全颌曲面断层片、CBCT 和螺旋 CT 等影像学诊断,预防性治疗、拔除、自体牙再植以及正畸导萌等治疗方法,以期为临床治疗提供参考。

  5. Antinuclear movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Hee; Im, Jaeg Yeong

    1988-08-15

    This book is for antinuclear movement. So, this book introduces many articles on nuclear issues of Asia and the pacific area. The titles of articles are the crusades of Reagan by Werner Plaha, contending between super powers in Europe by Alva Reimer Myrdal, claims of resistance by Daniel Ellsberg, nuclear and the Korean Peninsula by Go, Seung Woo, Liberation but of belief of nuclear weapon by Lee, Young Hee and nuclear weapon in Korea by peter Haze.

  6. Reliability of single panoramic radiograph with vertical and horizontal parallax; and intraoral periapical radiograph with Clark′s rule compared to computed tomography/surgical exposure in localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Bokkasam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate an accurate, inexpensive and low-radiation conventional radiograph suitable for localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 38 subjects in the age group of 13-50 years of both the genders with 50 impacted canines. Panoramic radiographs (OPGs (on which Chaushu et al. criteria was applied and intraoral periapical radiographs (IOPARs (on which Clark′s rule was applied of the subjects were made and the accuracy of the above two radiographic techniques were compared with computed tomography (CT axial sections or with surgical exposure, which was considered as the standard guide for localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine. The data obtained was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the statistical package for SAS software. Results: Localization of impacted maxillary permanent canine tooth done with SLOB (Same Lingual Opposite Buccal/Clark′s rule technique could predict the bucco-palatal canine impactions in 98% of cases. OPG using differential magnification index could predict location only in 68% of bucco-palatal canine impactions and in 72% based on vertical position. Conclusion: In 68% of cases the bucco-lingual position of the canine in OPG (by magnification index coincided with the location as per CT/surgical exposure. In 98% of cases localization with SLOB technique coincided with CT/surgical exposure. 72% of cases showed coincidence with vertical position of the canine on OPG with CT/surgical exposure. IOPARs taken with SLOB technique are more accurate than OPGs for localization of impacted permanent maxillary canine teeth.

  7. TOOTH CONTACT ANALYSIS OF CONICAL INVOLUTE GEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mathematical model of conical involute gears is developed based on the theory of gearing and the generating mechanism. Tooth contact analysis (TCA) is performed to examine the meshing and bearing contact of the conical involute gear pairs with intersected and crossed axes. In addition, the principal directions and curvatures of the gear surfaces are investigated and the contact ellipses of the mating tooth surfaces are also studied. Finally, the numerical illustrative examples are provided to demonstrate the computational results, test gears are made for tooth-bearing tests, and the conclusion is verified that the theory has the applicability.

  8. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  9. Regenerative Applications Using Tooth Derived Stem Cells in Other Than Tooth Regeneration: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Jong; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Tooth derived stem cells or dental stem cells are categorized according to the location from which they are isolated and represent a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Originally, as one kind of mesenchymal stem cells, they are considered an alternative of bone marrow stromal cells. They share many commonalties but maintain differences. Considering their original function in development and the homeostasis of tooth structures, many applications of these cells in dentistry have aimed at tooth structure regeneration; however, the application in other than tooth structures has been attempted extensively. The availability from discarded or removed teeth can be an innate benefit as a source of autologous cells. Their origin from the neural crest results in exploitation of neurological and numerous other applications. This review briefly highlights current and future perspectives of the regenerative applications of tooth derived stem cells in areas beyond tooth regeneration.

  10. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share function

  11. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  12. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  13. Impacted supernumerary tooth in coronoid process: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Se; Lee, Je Ho; Park, Hyok; Jung, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog [Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Impaction of tooth is a situation in which an unerupted tooth is wedged against another tooth or teeth or otherwise located so that it cannot erupt normally. The supernumerary tooth is also called as hyperdontia and defined as the condition of having additional tooth to the regular number of teeth. The most common supernumerary tooth is a mesiodens, which is a mal-formed, peg-like tooth that occurs between the maxillary incisors. The supernumerary tooth is commonly impacted but they are frequently impacted on maxilla. Ectopic impaction of supernumerary tooth on mandibular condyle, coronoid process, ascending ramus, and pterygomandibular space is very rare condition. In this case, we report a case of impacted supernumerary tooth on mandibular sigmoid notch without definite pathologic change.

  14. Critical appraisal. In-office tooth whitening: pulpal effects and tooth sensitivity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Ran; Swift, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    In-office bleaching is an effective method for whitening teeth.Tooth sensitivity associated with in-office whitening is reversible and may range from mild to considerable. The incidence and severity of tooth sensitivity can be reduced by pretreatment with a desensitizer such as potassium nitrate. Histologic studies and clinical studies on long-term pulpal effects are lacking to definitively support the safety of in-office tooth whitening. Future studies on the etiology of tooth sensitivity related to whitening might greatly improve the means of preventing and managing this side effect.

  15. Genetics And Tooth Anomalies - An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswathy Brahmanandan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development like the development of all epithelial appendages is regulated by inductive tissue interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme. Numerous genes interact, either act in conjunction or antagonize each other in odontogenesis. A number of different mesenchymal molecules and their receptors act as mediators in epithelial mesenchymal interactions. Several genes linked with early tooth positioning and developments belong to signaling pathways and have morphogenesis regulatory functions in morphogenesis of other organs. Their mutations often show pleiotropic effects beyond dental morphogenesis. In contrast, certain genes involved in enamel and dentin structures are highly specific for tooth. Mutations in these genes have been identified as causes of Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI, Dentinogenesis Imperfecta (DI, Dentin Dysplasia (DD and anomalies in tooth number. This article focuses on genetic basis of inherited non-syndromic teeth disorders.

  16. Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of France, and Howard Henry Tooth of the United Kingdom. Although most people have never heard of CMT, ... CMT provided by patients and families. (See http://neurology.med. wayne.edu/neurogenetics/na_database. php.) MDA ...

  17. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  18. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  19. Determination of tooth clearances at trochoidal pump

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanović, Lozica T.; Erić, Milan D.; Stojanović, Blaža Ž.; id_orcid 0000-0003-4790-2856; Ilić, Andreja B.

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a mathematical model of trochoidal gearing with clearances. Gearing of a trochoidal pump's gear set with an outer gear having one gear tooth more than an inner gear is analyzed. The inner gear tooth profile is described by peritrochoidal equidistance and the outer gear profile by a circular arc. Upon the basic principles of ideal profile generation, a mathematical model of gearing with clearances is developed. Using an analytical model, the calculation o...

  20. Endodontic therapy or single tooth implant? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabinejad, Mahmoud; Lozada, Jaime; Puterman, Israel; White, Shane N

    2008-06-01

    Should a tooth with pulpal involvement be saved through endodontic therapy, or extracted and replaced with a single tooth implant? Within the limitations of the existing literature, this systematic review of treatment outcomes found that initial endodontic treatment had a high long-term survival rate, equivalent to replacement of a missing tooth with an implant-supported restoration. Single tooth implants should be considered as the first treatment option for patients requiring extraction and tooth replacement.

  1. Despre babesioza canină

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.

  2. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  3. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  4. Canine cytogenetics--from band to basepair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, M

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics 'toolbox' for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics.

  5. Comparison of temporary anchorage devices and transpalatal arch-mediated anchorage reinforcement during canine retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecik, Defne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the dental and skeletal effects of canine retraction using conventional anchorage reinforcement systems and comparing them with the usage of TADs. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 50 patients having Class I malocclusions with bimaxillary protrusion indicated for first premolar extraction, and allocated into two groups. The first group consisted of 25 patients with a mean age of 18,7 years (min:14, max:22 years, 16 girls and 9 boys) that TADs were applied as an anchorage mechanic between attached gingiva of upper second premolar and first molar teeth. The second group consisted of 25 patients with a mean age of 19,4 years (min:15, max:23 years, 14 girls and 11 boys) that conventional molar anchorage with Transpalatal arch (TPA) was applied for the anchorage mechanics against canine retraction. Results: The results showed that mean mesial movement and the tipping of the first molars in TAD group between T0 - T1 were insignificant (P > 0,05), however in the TPA group were significant (P0,05). Conclusion: Although TPA is a useful appliance, it doesn't provide an effective anchorage control on anteroposterior movement maxillary first molar teeth concerning first premolar extraction treatment. TADs are more convenient to provide absolute anchorage during maxillary canine retraction in contrast to transpalatal arch. PMID:28042267

  6. Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented using finite element method. Nonlinear finite element model for gear tooth contact with rolling/sliding is then developed. The contact zones for multiple tooth pairs are identified and the associated integration situation is derived. The illustrated bending stress and transmission error results with static and dynamic boundary conditions indicate the significant effects due to the sliding friction between the surfaces of contacted gear teeth, and the friction effect can not be ignored. To understand the particular static and dynamic frictional effects on gear tooth contact analysis, some significant phenomena of gained results will also be discussed. The potentially significant contribution of tooth frictional shear stress is presented, particularly in the case of gear tooth contact analysis with both static and dynamic boundary conditions.

  7. Tooth enamel and enameloid in actinopterygian fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.SASAGAWA; M.ISHIYAMA; H.YOKOSUKA; M.MIKAMI; T.UCHIDA

    2009-01-01

    The morphological features of tooth enamel and enameloid in actinopterygian fish are reviewed to provide basic data concerning the biomineralization of teeth in lower vertebrates. Enameloid, which covers the tooth surface, is a unique well-mineralized tissue and usually has the same functions as mammalian tooth enamel. However, the development of enameloi is different from that of the enamel produced by dental epithelial cells. Enameloid is made by a combination of odontoblasts and dental epithelial cells. An organic matrix that contains collagen is provided by odontoblasts, and then dental epithelial cells dissolve the degenerate matrix and suooly inorganic ions during advanced crystal growth in enameloid. It is likely that enameloid is a good model for studying the growth of well-mineralized hard tissues in vertebrates. Some actinopterygian fish possess a collar enamel layer that is situated at the surface of the tooth shaft, indicating that the origin of tooth enamel is found in fish. Collar enamel is thought to be a precursor of mammalian enamel, although it is thin and not well mineralized in comparison with enameloid. In Lepisosteus and Polypterus, both of which are living actinopterygians,both enameloid and enamel are found in the same tooth. Therefore, they ace suitable materials for examining the developmental processes of enameloid and enamel and the relationship among them.

  8. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  9. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  10. A model of growth restraints to explain the development and evolution of tooth shapes in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Jeffrey W

    2008-12-07

    The problem investigated here is control of the development of tooth shape. Cells at the growing soft tissue interface between the ectoderm and mesoderm in a tooth anlage are observed to buckle and fold into a template for the shape of the tooth crown. The final shape is created by enamel secreted onto the folds. The pattern in which the folds develop is generally explained as a response to the pattern in which genes are locally expressed at the interface. This congruence leaves the problem of control unanswered because it does not explain how either pattern is controlled. Obviously, cells are subject to Newton's laws of motion so that mechanical forces and constraints must ultimately cause the movements of cells during tooth morphogenesis. A computer model is used to test the hypothesis that directional resistances to growth of the epithelial part of the interface could account for the shape into which the interface folds. The model starts with a single epithelial cell whose growth is constrained by 4 constant directional resistances (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). The constraints force the growing epithelium to buckle and fold. By entering into the model different values for these constraints the modeled epithelium is induced to buckle and fold into the different shapes associated with the evolution of a human upper molar from that of a reptilian ancestor. The patterns and sizes of cusps and the sequences in which they develop are all correctly reproduced. The model predicts the changes in the 4 directional constraints necessary to develop and evolve from one tooth shape into another. I conclude more generally expressed genes that control directional resistances to growth, not locally expressed genes, may provide the information for the shape into which a tooth develops.

  11. Comparative studies of canine colipase and lipases from bovine, porcine, canine, human and rat pancreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P C

    1978-01-01

    1. Colipase was purified from canine pancreatic juice and found to have certain specificity in its reaction with various pancreatic lipases. 2. This colipase will stimulate the lipolytic activities of lipases isolated from canine, bovine and porcine pancreas but not lipases from a fungus, or from human and rat pancreases. 3. Characterization of these lipases showed (a) the molecular dimension of rat lipase is very different from the other lipases; (b) the pIs of canine, porcine and bovine lipases are almost identical but different from the pIs of rat, human and Candida (a fungus) lipases; and (c) the antiserum prepared against canine lipase will also react with lipases from human, hog and cow pancreases but not with rat and Candida lipases. 4. These physical differences can explain partly the difference in reaction between the various lipases and the canine colipase.

  12. Light-force technique for the early treatment of an ectopic tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Mauro; Lupini, Daniela; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Free crown tipping can be useful when teeth do not erupt in their physiologic sequence and a real intraosseous migration and eruption of a single tooth into a distant ectopic position can be observed. This article presents a case of an ectopic mandibular lateral incisor treated early, with the light-force technique and uncontrolled forces, and finished with the bidimensional edgewise appliance. A Caucasian female patient, 10 years 10 months of age, had a mandibular left lateral incisor displacement, with the lateral incisor crown positioned mesial to left second primary molar. An early treatment was planned to correct the mandibular left lateral incisor displacement and to allow proper eruption of the mandibular left canine and first premolar. A second phase of treatment, in permanent dentition, was planned for the dental Class II subdivision on the right and deep bite correction. Phase 1 treatment was completed after 10 months; phase 2 treatment was initiated in the permanent dentition and lasted 18 months. Treatment achieved the following outcomes: (1) mandibular lateral incisor in corrected position; (2) full canine and molar Class I relationship; (3) overjet and overbite within the normal limits; (4) symmetric arches; and (5) a balanced profile. The radiograph evaluation revealed good root parallelism and mandibular left lateral incisor light root resorption. The light-force technique is not only a possible alternative but the ideal appliance for treatment in the mixed dentition, when the permanent teeth should be controlled.

  13. Tooth enamel mineralization in ungulates: implications for recovering a primary isotopic time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2002-09-01

    Temporal changes in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of an animal are an environmental and behavioral input signal that is recorded into the enamel of developing teeth. In this paper, we evaluate changes in phosphorus content and density along the axial lengths of three developing ungulate teeth to illustrate the protracted nature of mineral accumulation in a volume of developing enamel. The least mature enamel in these teeth contains by volume about 25% of the mineral mass of mature enamel, and the remaining 75% of the mineral accumulates during maturation. Using data from one of these teeth (a Hippopotamus amphibius canine), we develop a model for teeth growing at constant rate that describes how an input signal is recorded into tooth enamel. The model accounts for both the temporal and spatial patterns of amelogenesis (enamel formation) and the sampling geometry. The model shows that input signal attenuation occurs as a result of time-averaging during amelogenesis when the maturation interval is long compared to the duration of features in the input signal. Sampling does not induce significant attenuation, provided that the sampling interval is several times shorter than the maturation interval. We present a detailed δ 13C and δ 18O record for the H. amphibius canine and suggest possible input isotope signals that may have given rise to the measured isotope signal.

  14. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans.

  15. Complications of misdiagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; Baldo, Taiana de Oliveira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra

    2012-08-01

    Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can be associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth. This case report describes and discusses an interesting case of a 15-year-old girl with a Class III malocclusion and an impacted maxillary canine. Because of the unfavorable position of the ectopic canine and the severe root resorption of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors, the treatment options included extraction of the maxillary permanent canines. The mandibular first premolars were extracted to compensate for the Class III malocclusion. A panoramic radiograph taken earlier in the mixed dentition already indicated a possible eruption disturbance of the maxillary left permanent canine. The importance of early diagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption is highlighted in this case report. The early identification of radiographic signs of an ectopic pathway of eruption should be followed by deciduous canine extraction to prevent canine retention and maxillary incisor root resorption.

  16. Sexual Dimorphism in Human Mandibular Canine Teeth: A Radiomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines- It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.

  17. The combination use of platelet-rich fibrin and treated dentin matrix for tooth root regeneration by cell homing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baohui; Sheng, Lei; Chen, Gang; Guo, Shujuan; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous regeneration through cell homing provides an alternative approach for tissue regeneration, except cell transplantation, especially considering clinical translation. However, tooth root regeneration through cell homing remains a provocative approach in need of intensive study. Both platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) and treated dentin matrix (TDM) are warehouses of various growth factors, which can promote cell homing. We hypothesized that endogenous stem cells are able to sense biological cues from PRF membrane and TDM, and contribute to the regeneration of tooth root, including soft and hard periodontal tissues. Therefore, the biological effects of canine PRF and TDM on periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were evaluated respectively in vitro. Beagle dogs were used as orthotopic transplantation model. It was found that PRF significantly recruited and stimulated the proliferation of PDLSCs and BMSCs in vitro. Together, PRF and TDM induced cell differentiation by upregulating the mineralization-related gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopotin (OPN) after 7 days coculture. In vivo, transplantation of autologous PRF and allogeneic TDM into fresh tooth extraction socket achieved successful root regeneration 3 months postsurgery, characterized by the regeneration of cementum and periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissues with orientated fibers, indicative of functional restoration. The results suggest that tooth root connected to the alveolar bone by cementum-PDL complex can be regenerated through the implantation of PRF and TDM in a tooth socket microenvironment, probably by homing of BMSCs and PDLSCs. Furthermore, bioactive cues and inductive microenvironment are key factors for endogenous regeneration. This approach provides a tangible pathway toward clinical translation.

  18. Reliability of permanent mandibular first molars and incisors widths as predictor for the width of permanent mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mittar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Preventive measures are necessary to prevent a potential irregularity from progressing into a more severe malocclusion. The determination of the tooth size-arch length discrepancy in mixed dentition requires an accurate prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: For the study, 200 subjects in the age group of 16-25 years were selected from various colleges of M. M. University. The mesiodistal width of permanent mandibular incisors, first molars, canines and premolars of both arches were measured on the subject cast using an electronic digital caliper. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between mesiodistal tooth widths of males and females. Linear regression equation was determined to predict the sum of mandibular and maxillary permanent canines and premolars using mandibular first molars plus the four mandibular incisors as predictors. Results: There was no significant difference between the actual and predicted width of sum of permanent canines and premolars using regression equations. The predicted widths of both arches using Tanaka and Johnston equations showed significant differences. Determined regression equations for males were accurate in male samples and determined regression equation for females were accurate in female samples for both arches.

  19. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  20. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  1. Tooth regeneration from newly established cell lines from a molar tooth germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komine, Akihiko; Suenaga, Momoko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Tsuji, Takashi; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2007-04-13

    In order to investigate tooth development, several cell lines of the dental epithelium and ectomesenchyme have been established. However, no attempt has been reported to regenerate teeth with cell lines. Here, we have established several clonal cell lines of the dental epithelium from a p53-deficient fetal mouse. They expressed specific markers of the dental epithelium such as ameloblastin and amelogenin. A new method has been developed to bioengineer tooth germs with dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells. Reconstructed tooth germs with cell lines and fetal mesenchymal cells were implanted under kidney capsule. The germs regenerated teeth with well-calcified structures as seen in natural tooth. Germs without the cell lines developed bone. This is the first success to regenerate teeth with dental epithelial cell lines. They are useful models in vitro for investigation of mechanisms in morphogenesis and of cell lineage in differentiation, and for clinical application for tooth regeneration.

  2. The effect of canine disimpaction performed with temporary anchorage devices (TADs before comprehensive orthodontic treatment to avoid root resorption of adjacent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of impacted canines away from the roots of neighboring teeth before full-mouth bracket placement, performed by means of TADs to decrease undesired side effects on adjacent teeth. Methods: The study sample consisted of 34 palatally impacted canines, being 19 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. In the experimental group, before placement of brackets, the impacted canine was erupted by means of miniscrews. In the control group, after initiation of comprehensive orthodontics, canine disimpaction was performed by means of a cantilever spring soldered to a palatal bar. At the end of treatment, volume of lateral incisors and canine root resorption were measured and compared by means of a CBCT-derived tridimensional model. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS score, bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival index (GI were recorded. Clinical success rate was also calculated. Results: The volume of root resorption of lateral teeth in the control group was significantly greater than in the experimental group (p < 0.001. At the end of treatment, VAS score, GI and BOP were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, it seems that disimpaction of canines and moving them to the arch can be done successfully carried out with minimal side effects by means of skeletal anchorage.

  3. The effect of canine disimpaction performed with temporary anchorage devices (TADs) before comprehensive orthodontic treatment to avoid root resorption of adjacent teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Shafaee, Hooman; Forouzanfar, Ali; Zarch, Seyed Hossein Hoseini; Merati, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the movement of impacted canines away from the roots of neighboring teeth before full-mouth bracket placement, performed by means of TADs to decrease undesired side effects on adjacent teeth. Methods: The study sample consisted of 34 palatally impacted canines, being 19 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. In the experimental group, before placement of brackets, the impacted canine was erupted by means of miniscrews. In the control group, after initiation of comprehensive orthodontics, canine disimpaction was performed by means of a cantilever spring soldered to a palatal bar. At the end of treatment, volume of lateral incisors and canine root resorption were measured and compared by means of a CBCT-derived tridimensional model. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score, bleeding on probing (BOP) and gingival index (GI) were recorded. Clinical success rate was also calculated. Results: The volume of root resorption of lateral teeth in the control group was significantly greater than in the experimental group (p < 0.001). At the end of treatment, VAS score, GI and BOP were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, it seems that disimpaction of canines and moving them to the arch can be done successfully carried out with minimal side effects by means of skeletal anchorage. PMID:27275617

  4. Dental transposition of canine and lateral incisor and impacted central incisor treatment: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Jacinto Gebert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental transposition and impaction are disorders related to ectopic eruption or failure in tooth eruption, which can affect child physical, mental and social development and may be difficult to be clinically solved. METHODS: We describe a case of transposition between the upper left canine and lateral incisor associated with impaction of the central incisor on the same side, in a 12-year-old patient. Conservative treatment involving surgical-orthodontic correction of transposed teeth and traction of the central incisor was conducted. CONCLUSION: The option of correcting transposition and orthodontic traction by means of the segmented arch technique with devices such as cantilever and TMA rectangular wire loops, although a complex alternative, was proved to be esthetically and functionally effective.

  5. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  6. Esthetic Reconstruction of Diastema with Adhesive Tooth-Colored Restorations and Hyaluronic Acid Fillers

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    Supawadee Naorungroj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This report presents a comprehensive esthetic treatment with adhesive tooth-colored restorations in a combination with hyaluronic acid (HA fillers of diastema in an orthodontic patient with relapse. Case Report. A 36-year-old female patient consulted about 1.5–2 mm midline diastema after an orthodontic relapse of replacing missing central incisors with lateral incisors and dark-colored gingival tissue as a result of a metal post and core with porcelain fused to a metal (PFM crown at the left lateral incisor. Restorative treatments included replacing the PFM with all-ceramic material and placing a ceramic veneer on the right lateral incisor. To close the space, crown forms of both lateral incisors were altered. A direct resin composite was then used to reform right and left canines to a more ideal lateral incisor shape. An HA fillers injection was used to fill the remaining open gingival embrasure. Eighteen months after treatment, the interdental papilla remained stable and the patient was satisfied with the result. Conclusion. Esthetic reconstruction of diastema and open gingival embrasure in this case can be accomplished without orthodontic retreatment. Tooth-colored restorations and HA filler injection appear as a promising modality to address this patient’s esthetic concern.

  7. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournal Cave, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Tavoso, A.; de Lumley, Henry

    1988-01-01

    A series of well preserved mammal bones and horse teeth was analyzed from archaeological levels of Tournal Cave (Magdalenian, Aurignacian, and Mousterain) to test the hypothesis that well-crystallized enamel behaves more as a closed system than does whole bone. The isotopic composition of bones and tooth enamels from this deposit meet criteria for confidence, and gave no reasons to suspect contamination or open-system behavior. Two samples for which 231Pa could be analyzed showed internal concordance with the respective 230Th ages. In spite of the favourable isotopic criteria, however, comparison of the U-series ages of the bones and the tooth enamel with stratigraphic position and 14C control indicated the dates were not meaningful. In general, both bones and tooth enamels gave ages too young, although some were clearly too old. Neither group showed any systematic increase of age with stratigraphic depth. Tooth enamel, therefore, shows no advantage over bone for U-series dating for this site. In Tournal cave both bones and enamel are apparently open to U, which is probably cycling as a consequences of post-depositional groundwater movement. ?? 1988.

  8. Controlled Deposition of HAp Mimicking Tooth Enamel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chemical compositions and microsturcture of mature human tooth enamel were investigated by XRD , FTIR and SEM to further understand the characteristics of tooth enamel. In order to obtain apatite crystals chemically and structurally similar to those in tooth enamel, biomimetic way was employed. Selfassembled monolyers terminated with-SO3 H groups were used as deposition substrates and 1.5 SBF ( the concentrations of Ca2+ and PO43- ions 1.5 times than those in simulated body fluid ) with and without 5 ppm F- were used as soaking medium. The XRD and FTIR results showed that both the deposited fluoride-substituted hydroxyapatite( F-HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF with F- and hydroxyapatite ( HAp ) crystals in 1.5 SBF were carbonate-containing, mimicking human tooth enamel in chemical compositions. The SEM photos showed that needle-like F-HAp crystals bad large aspect ratios and grew in bundles, which were similar to the crystals in human tooth enamel.The results provide available information on dental restoration.

  9. Detecting Tooth Damage in Geared Drive Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method that was developed to detect gear tooth damage that does not require a priori knowledge of the frequency characteristic of the fault. The basic idea of the method is that a few damaged teeth will cause transient load fluctuations unlike the normal tooth load fluctuations. The method attempts to measure the energy in the lower side bands of the modulated signal caused by the transient load fluctuations. The method monitors the energy in the frequency interval which excludes the frequency of the lowest dominant normal tooth load fluctuation and all frequencies above it. The method reacted significantly to the tooth fracture damage results documented in the Lewis data sets which were obtained from tests of the OH-58A transmission and tests of high contact ratio spiral bevel gears. The method detected gear tooth fractures in all four of the high contact ratio spiral bevel gear runs. Published results indicate other detection methods were only able to detect faults for three out of four runs.

  10. The evolution of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sunny H

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in both extinct and extant mammalian groups has been extensively documented, but is poorly known in reptiles, including dinosaurs. Previous intensive sampling of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure revealed that: (1) the three-dimensional arrangement of enamel types and features within a tooth-the schmelzmuster-is most useful in diagnosing dinosaur clades at or around the family level; (2) enamel microstructure complexity is correlated with tooth morphology complexity and not necessarily with phylogenetic position; and (3) there is a large amount of homoplasy within Theropoda but much less within Ornithischia. In this study, the examination of the enamel microstructure of 28 additional dinosaur taxa fills in taxonomic gaps of previous studies and reinforces the aforementioned conclusions. Additionally, these new specimens reveal that within clades such as Sauropodomorpha, Neotheropoda, and Euornithopoda, the more basal taxa have simpler enamel that is a precursor to the more complex enamel of more derived taxa and that schmelzmusters evolve in a stepwise fashion. In the particularly well-sampled clade of Euornithopoda, correlations between the evolution of dental and enamel characters could be drawn. The ancestral schmelzmuster for Genasauria remains ambiguous due to the dearth of basal ornithischian teeth available for study. These new specimens provide new insights into the evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in dinosaurs, emphasizing the importance of thorough sampling within broadly inclusive clades, especially among their more basal members.

  11. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  12. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  13. 成人正畸治疗Ⅳ.成人修复前正畸治疗和小范围牙移动治疗%Orthodontic treatment for adult: Ⅳ.Adjunctive orthodontic treatment prepared for final restoration and adult minor tooth movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈扬熙

    2009-01-01

    在正畸门诊中,很多成年患者并非以矫治错袷畸形为主诉,大部分是会诊中需做正畸辅助处置,如牙周病、颞下颌关节紊乱病(TMD)、正颌手术、外伤治疗,以及缺失牙修复、美齿治疗等。鉴于转诊者的口腔条件欠佳以及主诉并不主要为矫治错耠畸形,故对患者的正畸处置设计应首先尊重和根据主诊科室的要求,并与主诊科医师和患者充分商讨后决定,属于多学科综合矫治。此时,正畸仅属于辅助性治疗的范畴,技术方法应力求简单、便捷、省时,多采用小范围牙移动(minor tooth movement,MTM)治疗进行局部调整。其中,以修复前的正畸治疗最常见。

  14. Orthodontic microsurgery: a new surgically guided technique for dental movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellotti, Tomaso; Podesta, Andrea

    2007-08-01

    Eight patients with malocclusions were treated with a new orthodontic-surgical technique that reduces the duration of treatment compared to conventional techniques. The monocortical tooth dislocation and ligament distraction (MTDLD) technique combines two different dental movements that work separately but simultaneously on opposite root surfaces. On the root surface corresponding to the direction of movement, vertical and horizontal microsurgical corticotomies are performed around each tooth root with a piezosurgical microsaw to eliminate cortical bone resistance. The immediate application of strong biomechanical forces produces rapid dislocation of the root and the cortical bone together. On the root surface opposite the direction of movement, the force of dislocation produces rapid distraction of ligament fibers. During the osteogenic process that follows, application of normal orthodontic biomechanics achieves the final tooth movement. All eight patients underwent periodontal and radiologic examinations for more than 1 year after treatment. No periodontal defects were observed in any of the patients, including one with a severe malocclusion and a thin periodontal tissue biotype. Compared to traditional orthodontic therapy, the average treatment time with the MTDLD technique in the mandible and maxilla was reduced by 60% and 70%, respectively.

  15. Determination of physical height from crown dimensions of deciduous tooth: A dental morphometric study

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    C Ramanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental morphometrics is a subject of great significance in forensic odontology in identification of an individual. Use of teeth to represent a physical profile is valuable for identification of an individual. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to assess the clinical crown length (CL of erupted deciduous teeth and height of the child. A correlation of these parameters was attempted to arrive at a mathematical equation which would formulate a ratio of tooth CL to individual height that would support in estimating the probable height of the child. Materials and Methods: About 60 children (30 males and 30 females of age ranged from 3–6 years were included in this study. Clinical vertical CLs of the deciduous dentition (tooth numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, and 55 were calculated using digital Vernier calipers (Aerospace Ltd., Bengaluru, Karnataka, India on the cast models. Child height was measured using a standard measuring tape. Ratios of deciduous CL to height of the child were recorded. Linear stepwise forward regression analysis was applied to predict the probability of CL of a tooth most likely to support in prediction of physical height of the child. Results: Tabulated results showed a probable correlation between tooth CL and height of the child. Tooth CLs of deciduous upper right second molar (55 among the males, lateral incisor (52 among females, and canine (53 using the combined male and female data were statistically significant, and they approximately predicted the child height with minimal variations. Mathematically derived equations based on linear stepwise forward regression analysis using sixty children data are height prediction (derived from combined data of male and female children = 400.558 + 90.264 (53 CL, male child height prediction (derived from data of male children = 660.290 + 72.970 (55 CL, and female child height prediction (derived from data of female children = −187.942 + 194.818 (52 CL. Conclusion: In

  16. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R

    2016-11-03

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed.

  17. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  18. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

  19. Whole Tooth Regeneration as a Future Dental Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Dental problems caused by dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth injury compromise the oral and general health issues. Current advances for the development of regenerative therapy have been influenced by our understanding of embryonic development, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering technology. Tooth regenerative therapy for tooth tissue repair and whole tooth replacement is currently expected a novel therapeutic concept with the full recovery of tooth physiological functions. Dental stem cells and cell-activating cytokines are thought to be candidate approach for tooth tissue regeneration because they have the potential to differentiate into tooth tissues in vitro and in vivo. Whole tooth replacement therapy is considered to be an attractive concept for next generation regenerative therapy as a form of bioengineered organ replacement. For realization of whole tooth regeneration, we have developed a novel three-dimensional cell manipulation method designated the "organ germ method". This method involves compartmentalisation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells at a high cell density to mimic multicellular assembly conditions and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in organogenesis. The bioengineered tooth germ generates a structurally correct tooth in vitro, and erupted successfully with correct tooth structure when transplanted into the oral cavity. We have ectopically generated a bioengineered tooth unit composed of a mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and that tooth unit was engrafted into an adult jawbone through bone integration. Bioengineered teeth were also able to perform physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function and response to noxious stimuli. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning whole tooth regenerative therapy.

  20. Mandibular incisor alignment and dental arch changes 1 year after extraction of deciduous canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Anders; Arnrup, Kristina; Lennartsson, Bertil; Huggare, Jan

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the early effects on mandibular incisor irregularity and rotation together with dental arch dimensions of the extraction of four deciduous canines. Children, during early mixed dentition, were randomized into one extraction (n = 32) and one control (n = 41) group. Dental casts from baseline (T0) and 1 year follow-up (T1) were used to evaluate changes in the irregularity index and in mandibular incisor rotation, dental arch dimensions, overjet, and overbite. Median mandibular incisor irregularity decreased over time, significantly more in the extraction than the control group (1.2 versus 0.7 mm; P extraction group (42 versus 20 per cent; P extraction group versus 34 per cent in the control group (P extraction group (1.3, 1.1 mm and 2.4, 2.0 mm, respectively; P extraction of the deciduous canines, small improvements in mandibular incisor alignment were seen, together with reduced arch dimensions. Little's index underestimated malalignment related to tooth rotation.

  1. Root resorption of the maxillary lateral incisor caused by impacted canine: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqerban, A; Jacobs, R; Lambrechts, P; Loozen, G; Willems, G

    2009-09-01

    Root resorption of maxillary lateral incisors caused by erupting canines is well known and a relatively common phenomenon. However, much debate and conflicting evidence exists with regard to the actual resorption trigger and potential etiological factors involved. Consequently, there are no obvious clinical clues concerning prevention and diagnosis as well as subsequent treatment decisions. The introduction of cone beam computer tomography has recently allowed drawing a new and much more documented light on the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, no investigations have determined that this new information may result in another and better diagnostic approach and an improved treatment outcome. Therefore, the present review will attempt to summarize the existing evidence on two- and three-dimensional images and try to link the radiological observations to any further preventive, diagnostic, and/or therapeutic measures. Detection thresholds, accuracy, and reliability of impacted canine localization and neighboring root resorption risks will also be considered. This review demonstrates how adding a third-dimension to the radiographic information may notably alter the prevalence of root resorptions and descriptions of this prevalence. In any case, further investigation is needed to determine resorption detection thresholds in various two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging techniques, as well as to determine therapeutic thresholds and criteria for strategic tooth extraction based on radiographic manifest and not manageable resorption lesions.

  2. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression...... is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  3. Proteins of the canine seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annice Aquino-Cortez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Studies have been performed to identify the proteins present in canine seminal plasma (SP and relate them to sperm quality as well as to discover molecular markers of reproductive tract diseases. There is evidence that heparin-binding proteins, zinc-binding proteins, and lactoferrin as well as the matrix metalloproteinase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes are associated with canine sperm quality. Other studies indicate that prolactin and enzymes like arginine esterase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase could be successfully used as biomarkers of reproductive disorders. Thus, the present literature review aims to address aspects related to proteins of the canine SP, their influence on fertility, and their importance as biomarkers of reproductive disorders.

  4. Early and unusual incisor resorption due to impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Ronald L

    2003-10-01

    A very early and severe case of maxillary incisor resorption caused by impacted canines is reported. An estimated 50,000 cases of ectopic eruption and impaction of maxillary canines occur each year in the United States. Although incisor resorption due to ectopically positioned permanent maxillary canines can be swift, silent, and devastating, an effective protocol has been developed for early detection and management of this condition. Palpation and, if indicated, radiographic evaluation are combined with primary canine removal in selected cases. These strategies--particularly when used early--can prevent the vast majority of palatally impacted maxillary canines and the potentially devastating resorption of adjacent incisors.

  5. Maxillary tooth displacement in the infratemporal fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosh Roshanghias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wisdom tooth operations are sometimes accompanied by complications. This case report shows complications during upper jaw third molar removal. Expectable problems during oral surgery should be planned to be solved in advance. Displacement of the third molar during oral surgeries as a considerable complication is rarely discussed scientifically. A good design of flap, adequate power for extraction, and clear view on the surgical field are crucial. Three-dimensional radiographic diagnostics in terms of cone beam computed tomography is helpful after tooth displacement into the infratemporal fossa.

  6. Ectopic tooth in maxillary sinus: Case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanojam, Shandilya; Halli, Rajshekhar; Hebbale, Manjula; Bhardwaj, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic eruption of a tooth within the dentate region of the jaws is often noticed in clinical practice and is well documented in the literature. But the ectopic eruption into the non dentate region is rare and scantly documented. The maxillary sinus is one such a non dentate region, apart from nasal septum, mandibular condyle, coronoid process and the palate, to accommodate such ectopic eruptions of teeth. Due to its rarity and lack of consensus over its management, the incidence deserves to be added to the literature and discussed. Early surgical intervention for removal of ectopic tooth along with enucleation of the associated cyst, if any, is the treatment of choice.

  7. [Ectopic molar tooth in the maxillary sinus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Hüseyin; Teker, Ayşenur Meriç; Ceran, Murat; Gedikli, Orhan

    2007-01-01

    The development of intranasal ectopic teeth is rare. Although they are more commonly seen in the palate and maxillary sinus, they can also be found in the mandibular condyle, coronoid process, and nasal cavity. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of headache. Computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses showed a bony mass in the right maxillary sinus wall, 1 cm in size. He did not have any history of maxillofacial trauma or operation. The mass was removed via a Caldwell-Luc procedure. It looked like a tooth. Histopathologic diagnosis was made as ectopic molar tooth. The patient was asymptomatic two weeks after the operation.

  8. XROMM analysis of tooth occlusion and temporomandibular joint kinematics during feeding in juvenile miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, Rachel A; Baier, David B; Metzger, Keith A; Herring, Susan W; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2015-08-01

    Like humans, domestic pigs are omnivorous and thus are a common model for human masticatory function. Prior attempts to characterize food-tooth interactions and jaw movements associated with mastication have been limited to aspects of the oral apparatus that are visible externally (with videography) and/or to 2D movements of oral structures (with monoplanar videofluoroscopy). We used XROMM, a 3D technique that combines CT-based morphology with biplanar videofluoroscopy, to quantify mandibular kinematics, tooth occlusion and mandibular condylar displacements within the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during feeding. We observed that the pig TMJ moved detectably in only three of six possible degrees of freedom during mastication: two rotations, pitch and yaw; and one translation, protraction-retraction. Asymmetrical yaw around a dorsoventral axis produced the observed alternating left-right chewing cycles responsible for food reduction. Furthermore, the relative motions of the upper and lower premolars contained a substantial mesiodistal component in addition to the buccolingual component, resulting in an oblique (rather than a strictly transverse) power stroke. This research demonstrates the capacity of XROMM to explore the kinematic underpinnings of key masticatory movements, such as the occlusal power stroke, by integrating tooth, joint and rigid body jaw movements. XROMM also allowed us to test kinematic hypotheses based on skeletal anatomy with actual kinematics observed during naturalistic feeding behaviors. We observed that the soft tissue structures of the TMJ appear to play a significant role in limiting the range of motion of a joint, and thus analyses based solely on osseous morphology may over-estimate joint mobility.

  9. 上颌异位尖牙埋伏阻生的辅弓矫治%The treatment of canine ectopic eruption with the auxiliary arch fragment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德顺; 高益林; 谢小飞; 田瑞雪

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the treatment method of the vertical loop of auxiliary arch fragment in canine ectopic eruption with fixed orthodontic technique. Methods In 6 cases of ectopic maxillary canine a fixed orthodontic technique is used with the vertical loop of auxiliary arch fragment support. Results 6 cases of ectopic canine with the vertical loop of auxiliary arch fragment support have been aligned into the dental arch in about 12 months. Conclusion The ectopic canine can be aligned completely into the dental arch by means of the orthodontic technique without the tooth extraction.%目的:探讨垂直曲式的片段辅弓应用在尖牙异位萌出的固定矫治方法.方法:对6例上颌异位尖牙用垂直曲式的片段辅弓支持下,固定正畸技术进行矫治.结果:6例在片段辅弓固定矫治器支持下,12个月左右异位尖牙进入牙弓排齐.结论:上颌异位尖牙通过正畸技术完全能排入正常牙列,不需拔除.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be painted on the interior of a prepared cavity of a tooth to improve retention of a restoration, such as...

  11. 3D analysis of craniofacial growth and tooth eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiborg, Sven

    The 9th International Congress on Cleft Palate and Related Craniofacial Anomalies, 3D analysis, craniofacial growth, tooth eruption......The 9th International Congress on Cleft Palate and Related Craniofacial Anomalies, 3D analysis, craniofacial growth, tooth eruption...

  12. Medical Treatment of Primary Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Strong, Travis D; Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a painful and often blinding group of ocular diseases for which there is no cure. Although the definition of glaucoma is rapidly evolving, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the most consistent risk factor of glaucoma in the canine patient. Therapy should be aimed at neuroprotection. The mainstay of therapy focuses on reducing IOP and maintaining a visual and comfortable eye. This article discusses the most current ocular hypotensive agents, focusing on their basic pharmacology, efficacy at lowering IOP, and recommended use in the treatment of idiopathic canine glaucoma.

  13. Functional Properties of Tooth Pulp Neurons Responding to Thermal Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, D.K.; Doutova, E.A.; McNaughton, K.; Light, A.R.; Närhi, M.; Maixner, W.

    2012-01-01

    The response properties of tooth pulp neurons that respond to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp have been not well-studied. The present study was designed to characterize the response properties of tooth pulp neurons to noxious thermal stimulation of the dental pulp. Experiments were conducted on 25 male ferrets, and heat stimulation was applied by a computer-controlled thermode. Only 15% of tooth pulp neurons (n = 39) responded to noxious thermal stimulation of the teeth. Tooth ...

  14. A panorama of tooth wear during the medieval period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, Rémi; Hadjouis, Djillali; Donat, Richard; Passarrius, Olivier; Maret, Delphine; Vaysse, Frédéric; Crubézy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Tooth wear is a natural phenomenon and a universal occurrence that has existed from the origin of humankind and depends on the way of life, especially diet. Tooth wear was very serious in ancient populations up to the medieval period. The aim of this paper is to present a global view of tooth wear in medieval times in Europe through different parameters: scoring systems, quantity and direction of wear, gender, differences between maxilla and mandible, relations with diet, caries, tooth malpositions and age.

  15. Comparison of the Remaining Tooth Structure and Fracture Resistance between Labial and Lingual Access Cavities in Permanent Anterior Teeth with Labial Caries: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftekhar B.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Labial access cavity preparation is a conventional method in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth, but in some conditions labial cavity preparation is recommended.Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare labial and lingual access cavity preparation in the permanent anterior teeth with labial caries in terms of the remaining tooth structure and fracture resistance. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 150 intact permanent human anterior teeth were selected in 5 groups each with 30 teeth including the maxillary central, maxillary lateral, maxillary canine, mandibular incisors and mandibular canine. A class V cavity with similar ratios to dimensions of each tooth was prepared on the labial surface of all specimens. The volumes of each of these teeth were measured by Penta Pycnometer before and after class V cavity preparation (V1, V2. Each group was randomly divided into 2 equal subgroups (n=15. Access cavities were prepared labially in subgroup A and lingually in subgroup B; then, the remained volume of each tooth was measured again (V3. The mean proportional volume loss of each tooth was calculated through access preparation (V2-V3/V1. Then, the specimens were embedded in acrylic resin blocks and subjected to load with a universal testing machine.Results: The differences of mean of theremained volume and fracture resistance of the two subgroups were statistically significant in all groups ( p <0.05 and those teeth with labial access showed more remained volume and fracture resistance than lingual access. Conclusion: Labial access cavity preparation can enhance the remained volume and fracture resistance as compared to lingual access in endodontic treatment of the anterior teeth with labial caries especially in mandibular incisors.

  16. The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

  17. Tooth-marked small theropod bone: an extremely rare trace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland

    2001-01-01

    Tooth-marked dinosaur bones provide insight into feeding behaviours and biting strategies of theropod dinosaurs. The majority of theropod tooth marks reported to date have been found on herbivorous dinosaur bones, although some tyrannosaurid bones with tooth marks have also been reported. In 1988...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A glycidyl... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section...

  19. An inductive signalling network regulates mammalian tooth morphogenesis with implications for tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Yu, M; Tian, W

    2013-10-01

    Sequential and reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, essential throughout such aspects of tooth morphogenesis as patterning, size and number of teeth, involves a well-ordered series of inductive and permissive signals that exert global control over cell proliferation, differentiation and organogenesis. In particular, growth factors, transcription factors and their corresponding receptors, as well as other soluble morphogens, make up a regulatory network at the molecular level that synergistically or antagonistically controls intra-/inter-cellular signal transduction during odontogenesis. This review summarizes recent advances in the study of crucial signalling pathways, for example of BMPs, Wnt, Notch, Shh and FGF, with emphasis on the potential integrated signalling network responsible for tooth formation. Our work probes into the complexity of these inductive signalling pathways to promote the understanding of tooth regeneration. Additionally, our study provides further insights into therapeutic strategies for various dental abnormalities in patterning and number, such as tooth agenesis and supernumerary teeth.

  20. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  1. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friv Home InfoBites Find an AGD Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental care and ... Tooth games Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | ...

  2. Restoration of the endodontically treated posterior tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Polesel

    2014-06-01

    Results and conclusions: Direct adhesive restorations, indirect bonded restorations and traditional full crown are three therapeutic options for the single posterior endodontically treated teeth. The amount of remaining sound tooth structure is the most significant factor influencing the therapeutic approach. The clinician's operative skill is a determining aspect for long-term success of adhesive inlays.

  3. Early Onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The clinical signs and genetic analysis of early-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT in a 2-year-old boy and members of his family are reported from the Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, and Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  4. Bleaching of the discolored traumatized tooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jon E.; Kopperud, Siemen E.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the treatment of discolored traumatized teeth, most of them being non-vital and subsequently, endodontically treated. Tooth bleaching based upon hydrogen peroxide as the active agent, applied directly or produced in a chemical reaction from sodium perborate or carbamide pe...... retreatment....

  5. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattibene, Paola; Callens, Freddy

    2010-11-01

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  6. EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattibene, Paola, E-mail: paola.fattibene@iss.i [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Department of Technology and Health, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome (Italy); Callens, Freddy, E-mail: freddy.callens@ugent.b [Ghent University, Department of Solid State Sciences, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    When tooth enamel is exposed to ionizing radiation, radicals are formed, which can be detected using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel is based on the (presumed) correlation between the intensity or amplitude of some of the radiation-induced signals with the dose absorbed in the enamel. In the present paper a critical review is given of this widely applied dosimetric method. The first part of the paper is fairly fundamental and deals with the main properties of tooth enamel and some of its model systems (e.g., synthetic apatites). Considerable attention is also paid to the numerous radiation-induced and native EPR signals and the radicals responsible for them. The relevant methods for EPR detection, identification and spectrum analyzing are reviewed from a general point of view. Finally, the needs for solid-state modelling and studies of the linearity of the dose response are investigated. The second part is devoted to the practical implementation of EPR dosimetry using enamel. It concerns specific problems of preparation of samples, their irradiation and spectrum acquisition. It also describes how the dosimetric signal intensity and dose can be retrieved from the EPR spectra. Special attention is paid to the energy dependence of the EPR response and to sources of uncertainties. Results of and problems encountered in international intercomparisons and epidemiological studies are also dealt with. In the final section the future of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel is analyzed.

  7. Storing tooth segments for optimal esthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzuner, T.; Turgut, S.; Özen, B.; Kılınç, H.; Bagis, B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A fractured whole crown segment can be reattached to its remnant; crowns from extracted teeth may be used as pontics in splinting techniques. We aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions on tooth segment optical properties after different durations. Study design: Sixty c

  8. Regenerative Applications Using Tooth Derived Stem Cells in Other Than Tooth Regeneration: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tooth derived stem cells or dental stem cells are categorized according to the location from which they are isolated and represent a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Originally, as one kind of mesenchymal stem cells, they are considered an alternative of bone marrow stromal cells. They share many commonalties but maintain differences. Considering their original function in development and the homeostasis of tooth structures, many applications of these cells in dentistry ha...

  9. Exceptionally prolonged tooth formation in elasmosaurid plesiosaurians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Larsson, Dennis; Lindgren, Johan; Kundrát, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians were globally prolific marine reptiles that dominated the Mesozoic seas for over 70 million years. Their iconic body-plan incorporated an exceedingly long neck and small skull equipped with prominent intermeshing ‘fangs’. How this bizarre dental apparatus was employed in feeding is uncertain, but fossilized gut contents indicate a diverse diet of small pelagic vertebrates, cephalopods and epifaunal benthos. Here we report the first plesiosaurian tooth formation rates as a mechanism for servicing the functional dentition. Multiple dentine thin sections were taken through isolated elasmosaurid teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. These specimens revealed an average of 950 daily incremental lines of von Ebner, and infer a remarkably protracted tooth formation cycle of about 2–3 years–other polyphyodont amniotes normally take ~1–2 years to form their teeth. Such delayed odontogenesis might reflect differences in crown length and function within an originally uneven tooth array. Indeed, slower replacement periodicity has been found to distinguish larger caniniform teeth in macrophagous pliosaurid plesiosaurians. However, the archetypal sauropterygian dental replacement system likely also imposed constraints via segregation of the developing tooth germs within discrete bony crypts; these partly resorbed to allow maturation of the replacement teeth within the primary alveoli after displacement of the functional crowns. Prolonged dental formation has otherwise been linked to tooth robustness and adaption for vigorous food processing. Conversely, elasmosaurids possessed narrow crowns with an elongate profile that denotes structural fragility. Their apparent predilection for easily subdued prey could thus have minimized this potential for damage, and was perhaps coupled with selective feeding strategies that ecologically optimized elasmosaurids towards more delicate middle trophic level aquatic predation. PMID:28241059

  10. Developing a biomimetic tooth bud model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Weibo; Schiele, Nathan R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Kuo, Catherine K; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-01-08

    A long-term goal is to bioengineer, fully functional, living teeth for regenerative medicine and dentistry applications. Biologically based replacement teeth would avoid insufficiencies of the currently used dental implants. Using natural tooth development as a guide, a model was fabricated using post-natal porcine dental epithelial (pDE), porcine dental mesenchymal (pDM) progenitor cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) encapsulated within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. Previous publications have shown that post-natal DE and DM cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds exhibited mineralized tooth crowns composed of dentin and enamel. However, these tooth structures were small and formed within the pores of the scaffolds. The present study shows that dental cell-encapsulated GelMA constructs can support mineralized dental tissue formation of predictable size and shape. Individually encapsulated pDE or pDM cell GelMA constructs were analysed to identify formulas that supported pDE and pDM cell attachment, spreading, metabolic activity, and neo-vasculature formation with co-seeded endothelial cells (HUVECs). GelMa constructs consisting of pDE-HUVECS in 3% GelMA and pDM-HUVECs within 5% GelMA supported dental cell differentiation and vascular mineralized dental tissue formation in vivo. These studies are the first to demonstrate the use of GelMA hydrogels to support the formation of post-natal dental progenitor cell-derived mineralized and functionally vascularized tissues of specified size and shape. These results introduce a novel three-dimensional biomimetic tooth bud model for eventual bioengineered tooth replacement teeth in humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Analysis of the soluble human tooth proteome and its ability to induce dentin/tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, So Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Young Ae; Kim, Kyung Min; Baek, Sang Heum; Park, Hyo Sang; Kim, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Cho, Je-Yeol; Cho, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hong-In; Park, Eui Kyun

    2011-01-01

    While the soluble proteins of human teeth consist of various extracellular matrix and bioactive proteins, they have not yet been characterized fully. Moreover, the role they play in tooth regeneration is not clear. Analysis of the soluble proteins in human teeth by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 147 different ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-soluble tooth proteins (ESTPs). Of these, 29 had not been shown previously to be present in human teeth. To determine their effect on the in vitro responses of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), DPSCs were cultured in ESTP-coated culture plates and three-dimensional scaffolds. The ESTPs significantly enhanced DPSC odontoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro, but had only partial effect on bone marrow stem cells or adipose tissue stem cells. To test the effect of ESTPs on in vivo dentin and tooth formation, mouse embryonic tooth-forming primordia and xenogenic murine apical bud epithelium/human DPSC composites were treated with ESTPs before implantation under the renal capsule of ICR mice. ESTP treatment promoted the formation of morphologically normal teeth by the tooth-forming primordium regions and enhanced the development of a regular and large dentin structure by the composites. These observations suggest that human ESTPs contain dentinogenic proteins and can promote dentin and tooth formation.

  12. Is tooth wear in the primary dentition predictive of tooth wear in the permanent dentition? Report from a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harding, M A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of tooth wear in the permanent dentition of a sample of 12-year-old school children and establish whether an association exists between tooth wear recorded now and tooth wear recorded in their primary dentition at age five.

  13. Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Stacy E

    2008-03-01

    Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed.

  14. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC, associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV, associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3. The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1 shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

  15. Efficacy of Scabisol against Canine Demodecosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Bodkhe

    Full Text Available In the present study scabisol containing precipitated sulphur was tried in 10 dogs suffering from Canine demodecosis. The improvement was observed within 72 hours of treatment, and complete recovery was noticed after three consecutive treatments. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 211-211

  16. Cardiac involvement in canine babesiosis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.

  17. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  18. Medical dissolution of canine struvite uroliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, C A; Polzin, D J; Kruger, J M; Abdullahi, S U; Leininger, J R; Griffith, D P

    1986-03-01

    Medical therapy is an effective method of canine struvite urolith dissolution. Recommendations include (1) eradication or control of urinary tract infection (if present), (2) use of calculolytic diets, and (3) administration of urease inhibitors to patients with persistent urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing microbes.

  19. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  20. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  1. Tooth regeneration: challenges and opportunities for biomedical material research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chang; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2006-03-01

    Tooth regeneration presents many challenges to researchers in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. This review considers the opportunities for biomedical material research to contribute to this multidisciplinary endeavor. We present short summaries and an overview on the collective knowledge of tooth developmental biology, advances in stem-cell research, and progress in the understanding of the tooth biomineralization principles as they provide the foundation for developing strategies for reparative and regenerative medicine. We emphasize that various biomaterials developed via biomimetic strategies have great potential for tooth tissue engineering and regeneration applications. The current practices in tooth tissue engineering approaches and applications of biomimetic carriers or scaffolds are also discussed.

  2. A TOOTH TATTOO WITH A PURPOSE: AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin is not the only place that can be decorated with a tattoo. You can decorate your tooth with amazing tattoos. Tooth tattoos and tooth jewels have become one of the hottest fashion trends , and a very popular arrival in cosmetic dentistry. But won’t it be a boon if it had some preventive or medicinal v alue. Yes tooth tattoos can act as indicators of once illness. These tiny electronic sensors can diagnose illnesses by 'tasting' your breath. This paper is an insight into how a tooth tattoos can pick up early warning signs of sickness or infection by bact eria in people's breath.

  3. 'Split posterior tooth': conservative clinical re-attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sathish; Chacko, Lisa Neelathil

    2014-07-30

    Trauma is the prime causative factor for fracture of teeth/dentition. Many procedural management options are followed successfully in relation to the anterior teeth. However, most posterior cases where the tooth is fractured have only limited options to pursue to save the tooth. Fractured teeth, whether they are vital/non-vital, are predominantly managed with surgical options. This paper discusses a conservative approach to reattaching a split posterior tooth. A split tooth situation is mostly an absolute indication for extraction, but the clinician may go in for extensive surgical procedures if he/she wishes to save it. The reattachment of the tooth can be successfully done and it can be put to function. This paper discusses how a split posterior tooth can be treated successfully, although depending on multiple factors. A full crown cemented after successful reattachment and root canal therapy would provide sufficient support in order for the tooth to heal.

  4. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei [Department of Automation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, and Key Laboratory of System Control and Information Processing, Ministry of Education of China, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xia, Zeyang, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Xiong, Jing, E-mail: zy.xia@siat.ac.cn, E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 510855 (China); Zhang, Jianwei [TAMS, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 22527 (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0

  5. Survivin expression in canine epidermis and in canine and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Laura; Colombi, Isabella; Fortunato, Carmine; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2009-10-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is ubiquitously expressed during tissue development, undetectable in most normal tissues, but re-expressed in most cancers, including skin malignancies. Expression of survivin was evaluated retrospectively in 19 canine cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; one in situ; 16 well differentiated; one invasive, one lymph node metastasis) and 19 well differentiated SCCs from human beings. Seven specimens of normal canine skin were included. Immunohistochemical expression of full-length survivin was determined using a commercially available antibody. In addition, apoptotic rate [Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labelling index (TUNEL) index] and mitotic index (MI), counting mitoses in 10 high power fields (HPF), were determined. Scattered survivin positive nuclei were identified in the epidermal basal cell layer of normal canine skin. Nuclear survivin expression was identified in 18 of 19 human and in all canine SCCs, mainly along the base of the tumour cell population. Cytoplasmic survivin expression was rarely observed in human SCCs and in 84.2% of canine SCCs. The TUNEL index ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 in human beings and from 7.5 to 69.4 in dogs, while MIs ranged from 0 to 4 in human beings and dogs. No correlation was found between survivin expression and apoptotic or mitotic rates. Canine and human tumours showed similar nuclear survivin expression, indicating similar functions of the molecule. We demonstrated survivin expression in normal adult canine epidermis. Increased nuclear survivin expression in pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions demonstrates a possible association of survivin with development of SCCs in human beings and dogs.

  6. Movement disorders and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver-Dunckley, Erika D; Adler, Charles H

    2012-11-01

    This article summarizes what is currently known about sleep disturbances in several movement disorders including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, parkinsonism, dystonia, Huntington disease, myoclonus, and ataxias. There is an association between movement disorders and sleep. In some cases the prevalence of sleep disorders is much higher in patients with movement disorder, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson disease. In other cases, sleep difficulties worsen the involuntary movements. In many cases the medications used to treat patients with movement disorder disturb sleep or cause daytime sleepiness. The importance of discussing sleep issues in patients with movement disorders cannot be underestimated.

  7. Non-surgical management of tooth hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Levin, Liran

    2016-10-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint of patients in dental practices. Studies have demonstrated dentinal hypersensitivity to affect 10-30% of the population. There are various potential causes of tooth sensitivity and a variety of available treatment options. This narrative review will discuss the possible aetiology of this condition, as well as the treatment modalities available. A tailor-made treatment plan that starts with the most non-invasive treatment options and escalates only when those options have proven insufficient in alleviating symptoms should be provided for each patient. Only after all non- and less-invasive methods have failed to reduce the symptoms should more invasive treatment options, such as root-coverage, be considered.

  8. Tooth in Ethmoid Sinus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebe Kazemei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption of teeth occurs in a variety of locations.Commonly seen in palate and maxillary sinus, they have alsobeen reported in nasal cavity, orbit, mandibular condyle,coronoid process, and facial skin.Here, we report a rare case of recurrent sinusitis caused byectopic tooth in right ethmoid sinus and successful endoscopicremoval of it. The symptoms of the patient disappeared aftersurgery. Such case has not been yet reported in the Englishliterature.Ectopic tooth is an uncommon cause of sinusitis. It shouldbe considered in patients presenting with recurrent sinusitis unresponsiveto medical treatment. Computed tomography of thesinuses is the modality of choice for diagnosis. Endoscopic sinussurgery is the best method for management of such cases.

  9. Esthetics and vertical tooth position: orthodontic possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokich, V G

    1997-12-01

    Throughout the 1990s, esthetic dentistry has become a prominent part of the treatment protocol of most dentists. Patients have become more conscious of the benefits of a beautiful smile and are willing to invest time and money to improve the appearance of their teeth. Many of these patients can be treated with routine restorative procedures (crowns, composites, laminates) to achieve the desired results. However, some patients have problems with tooth position that create significant discrepancies in gingival levels which can compromise the esthetic result of restorative dentistry. Prerestorative orthodontic therapy can often resolve these tooth position problems and enhance the esthetic restoration. This article describes the indication, methods, and results achieved when orthodontics preceded restorative dentistry in the treatment of various esthetic challenges.

  10. Tooth structure and fracture strength of cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondelli, José; Sene, Fábio; Ramos, Renata Pereira

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the loss of tooth substance after cavity preparation for direct and indirect restorations and its relationship with fracture strength of the prepared teeth. Sixty sound human maxillary first premolars were assigned to 6 groups (n=10). MOD direct composite cavities......) or 1/2 (Groups III and VI) of the intercuspal distance. Teeth were weighed (digital balance accurate to 0.001 g) before and after preparation to record tooth substance mass lost during cavity preparation. The prepared teeth were submitted to occlusal loading to determine their fracture strength using...... mass loss (13.91%) than composite resin preparations with the same width (10.02%). 1/2-inlay cavities had 21.34% of mass loss versus 16.19% for the 1/2-composite resin cavities. Fracture strength means (in kgf) were: GI = 187.65; GII = 143.62; GIII = 74.10; GIV = 164.22; GV = 101.92; GVI = 50...

  11. Bruxism in Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique

    2016-04-14

    Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology.

  12. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and ECM changes were investigated. We found that the myofibroblast is the most common stromal cell in canine GIT epithelial tumours and most likely originated from pre-existing fibroblast...

  13. Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    There have been numerous attempts to sex fossil specimens using the canine dentition. Whether focused on canine size or canine shape, most of these efforts share two deficiencies: lack of quantification of male-female differences in the adopted criteria and a failure to adequately explore among extant species the discriminatory power of these criteria. Here, canine shape indices relating to relative canine height, upper canine root/crown proportionality, and relative length of the lower canine mesial ridge were calculated for males and females of all species and subspecies of extant great apes and two species of gibbons. The accuracy of these indices for identifying the sex of the extant ape specimens was investigated through discriminant analysis and the use of bivariate plots of the two upper and two lower canine indices. The indices were found to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of great ape individuals, not only in single-species and subspecies samples but in mixed-species samples as well; assignment error rates were mostly between 0 and 4%. Accuracy was lowest in Pan (error rates as high as 15%) and highest in Pongo (one error). In most cases, error rates were lower in the upper canines. The effectiveness of these shape indices for sexing might be related to the degree of absolute canine size dimorphism; the indices did not effectively segregate males and females among minimally canine-dimorphic gibbons. The mixed-species results reveal that same-sex index values are remarkably concordant across great ape species, as are the patterns of spatial segregation of males and females in the bivariate plots. Results suggest that, while the indices can be used with some confidence to sex individual fossil specimens, their greatest utility will be for identifying the sex of groups of canines united by size and morphology.

  14. Frictional Effects on Gear Tooth Contact Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Li; Ken Mao

    2013-01-01

    The present paper concentrates on the investigations regarding the situations of frictional shear stress of gear teeth and the relevant frictional effects on bending stresses and transmission error in gear meshing. Sliding friction is one of the major reasons causing gear failure and vibration; the adequate consideration of frictional effects is essential for understanding gear contact behavior accurately. An analysis of tooth frictional effect on gear performance in spur gear is presented us...

  15. Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wei Zheng; Bin-Peng Zhang; Ruo-Shi Xu; Xin Xu; Ling Ye; Xue-Dong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial–temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation.

  16. Biomechanics of foetal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, N C

    2015-01-02

    Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing) and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  17. Biomechanics of foetal movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C. Nowlan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Foetal movements commence at seven weeks of gestation, with the foetal movement repertoire including twitches, whole body movements, stretches, isolated limb movements, breathing movements, head and neck movements, jaw movements (including yawning, sucking and swallowing and hiccups by ten weeks of gestational age. There are two key biomechanical aspects to gross foetal movements; the first being that the foetus moves in a dynamically changing constrained physical environment in which the freedom to move becomes increasingly restricted with increasing foetal size and decreasing amniotic fluid. Therefore, the mechanical environment experienced by the foetus affects its ability to move freely. Secondly, the mechanical forces induced by foetal movements are crucial for normal skeletal development, as evidenced by a number of conditions and syndromes for which reduced or abnormal foetal movements are implicated, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip, arthrogryposis and foetal akinesia deformation sequence. This review examines both the biomechanical effects of the physical environment on foetal movements through discussion of intrauterine factors, such as space, foetal positioning and volume of amniotic fluid, and the biomechanical role of gross foetal movements in human skeletal development through investigation of the effects of abnormal movement on the bones and joints. This review also highlights computational simulations of foetal movements that attempt to determine the mechanical forces acting on the foetus as it moves. Finally, avenues for future research into foetal movement biomechanics are highlighted, which have potential impact for a diverse range of fields including foetal medicine, musculoskeletal disorders and tissue engineering.

  18. Functional tooth regeneration using a bioengineered tooth unit as a mature organ replacement regenerative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Mizuno, Mitsumasa; Imamura, Aya; Ogawa, Miho; Yasukawa, Masato; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Morita, Ritsuko; Ikeda, Etsuko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Kasugai, Shohei; Saito, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Donor organ transplantation is currently an essential therapeutic approach to the replacement of a dysfunctional organ as a result of disease, injury or aging in vivo. Recent progress in the area of regenerative therapy has the potential to lead to bioengineered mature organ replacement in the future. In this proof of concept study, we here report a further development in this regard in which a bioengineered tooth unit comprising mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, was successfully transplanted into a properly-sized bony hole in the alveolar bone through bone integration by recipient bone remodeling in a murine transplantation model system. The bioengineered tooth unit restored enough the alveolar bone in a vertical direction into an extensive bone defect of murine lower jaw. Engrafted bioengineered tooth displayed physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function for bone remodeling and responsiveness to noxious stimulations. This study thus represents a substantial advance and demonstrates the real potential for bioengineered mature organ replacement as a next generation regenerative therapy.

  19. Iatrogenic traumatic brain injury during tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old spayed female Yorkshire terrier was referred for evaluation of progressive neurological signs after a routine dental prophylaxis with tooth extractions. The patient was circling to the left and blind in the right eye with right hemiparesis. Neurolocalization was to the left forebrain. MRI revealed a linear tract extending from the caudal oropharynx, through the left retrobulbar space and frontal lobe, into the left parietal lobe. A small skull fracture was identified in the frontal bone through which the linear tract passed. Those findings were consistent with iatrogenic trauma from slippage of a dental elevator during extraction of tooth 210. The dog was treated empirically with clindamycin. The patient regained most of its normal neurological function within the first 4 mo after the initial injury. Although still not normal, the dog has a good quality of life. Traumatic brain injury is a rarely reported complication of extraction. Care must be taken while performing dental cleaning and tooth extraction, especially of the maxillary premolar and molar teeth to avoid iatrogenic damage to surrounding structures.

  20. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was ..., there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid......BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE...

  1. Developmental processes and canine dimorphism in primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Gary T; Miller, Ellen R; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of canine sexual dimorphism is important for interpreting the developmental biology, socioecology and phylogenetic position of primates. All current evidence for extant primates indicates that canine dimorphism is achieved through bimaturism rather than via differences in rates of crown formation time. Using incremental growth lines, we charted the ontogeny of canine formation within species of Eocene Cantius, the earliest known canine-dimorphic primate, to test whether canine dimorphism via bimaturism was developmentally canalized early in primate evolution. Our results show that canine dimorphism in Cantius is achieved primarily through different rates of crown formation in males and females, not bimaturism. This is the first demonstration of rate differences resulting in canine dimorphism in any primate and therefore suggests that canine dimorphism is not developmentally homologous across Primates. The most likely interpretation is that canine dimorphism has been selected for at least twice during the course of primate evolution. The power of this approach is its ability to identify underlying developmental processes behind patterns of morphological similarity, even in long-extinct primate species.

  2. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  3. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  4. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  5. Canine autoimmune hemolytic anemia: management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swann JW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available James W Swann,1 Barbara J Skelly2 1Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is one of the most common manifestations of canine immune-mediated disease, yet treatment regimens remain nonstandardized and, in some cases, controversial. The main reason for this, as for most diseases in veterinary medicine, is the lack of large-scale placebo-controlled trials so that the efficacy of one treatment over another can be established. Most of the evidence used for treatment comes from retrospective studies and from personal preference and experience, and because of this, treatment regimens tend to vary among institutions and individual clinicians. Management of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia includes immunosuppression, thromboprophylaxis, and supportive care measures to help prevent and treat concurrent conditions. Keywords: IMHA, canine immune-mediated disease, management regimens

  6. Influence of tooth profile modification on spur gear dynamic tooth strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents results of dynamic strain gage measurements performed on the NASA gear-noise rig. The experiments were part of a joint research program between NASA and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions. Tests were performed on six sets of low contact ratio spur gears with different tooth profile modifications. Results presented include static and dynamic measurements of gear tooth strain taken over a matrix of operating conditions. The results demonstrate that a well-designed tooth profile modification can significantly reduce dynamic loads in spur gears, especially for gears which operate at high speed and under high torque. The two parabolic modifications tested were not as effective as linear modifications, possibly because the modification zone was too long.

  7. The treatment of canine demodecosis with amitraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D A

    1985-03-01

    The treatment of a series of 27 clinical cases of canine demodecosis is reported. Three of 4 applications of a wash containing 0,025% amitraz, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy where necessary, were sufficient to effect clinical cure in 25 out of 26 cases mildly to severely affected. In one case, very severely affected, 9 weekly applications, together with antimicrobial and antipruritic therapy, effected clinical and parasitological cure.

  8. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

  9. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  10. Microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padhy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections. Materials and Methods: The total wound samples (n=172 taken from both traumatic (140 and post-surgical (32 persistent wounds in canines were processed for routine microbial isolation and identification during a period of 15 months. Results: Staphylococcus intermedius was found to be the predominant isolate from all types of wounds under study. It was followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Pasteurella spp., Corynaebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. From different traumatic wounds of dogs, S. intermedius (92/140=65.7% and from surgical wounds, P. aeruginosa (24/32=75% were found to be the predominant isolates recovered whereas the most commonly isolated bacterial genus in both traumatic and surgical wounds of dogs was Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion: Canine wounds are polymicrobial in nature. Hence proper microbial laboratory diagnosis and presence of multiple organisms in a wound are to be taken into consideration for effective treatment of persistent wound infections in dogs.

  11. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A; Schjærff, Mette; Kania, Stephen A; Frank, Linda A; Guardabassi, Luca

    2010-10-26

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10 cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus pseudintermedius alone (n=5) or in combination with Malassezia pachydermatis (n=5). Some coryneform isolates displayed resistance to fusidic acid or enrofloxacin, two antimicrobial agents commonly used for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. The frequency of isolation of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year. On basis of the current knowledge, these coryneform bacteria should be regarded as potential secondary pathogens able to proliferate in the environment of an inflamed ear canal.

  12. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement-based intera......In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement...

  13. IBA analysis of a possible therapeutic ancient tooth inlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; Pineda, J. C.; Zavala, E. P.; Murillo, G.; Chavez, R.; Lazcurain, R.; Espinosa, Ma. L.; Villanueva, O.

    1998-03-01

    Five pre-Columbian human teeth from the same skeleton found during excavation in an ancient ceremonial center in Mexico, have been analyzed by two conventional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques: PIXE and 4He RBS. The anthropologists have estimated that the skeleton is about 2000 years old. X-ray radiography studies of one of these teeth have revealed that they contain an inlay in the tooth crown. The IBA methods have been used to study the inlay materials and also the tooth enamel. The IBA studies show that the tooth inlay materials have almost the same atomic composition as the tooth enamel. These results suggest that the tooth inlay were made for therapeutic purposes, using healthy tooth grains as inlay materials which were glued into the prepared teeth to fill it up.

  14. Anterior tooth root morphology and size in Neanderthals: taxonomic and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cabec, Adeline; Gunz, Philipp; Kupczik, Kornelius; Braga, José; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    Comparing modern humans and Neanderthals, we have previously shown that recent modern humans (RMH) and Neanderthals differ in anterior root lengths, and that this difference cannot be explained by group differences in overall mandibular size. Here, we first document the evolutionary changes of root size and shape of the anterior upper and lower dentition in a broad chronological and geographical framework. We then use the size and shape differences between RMH and Neanderthals to classify several isolated teeth from Kebara cave and Steinheim, and to interpret the anterior tooth roots of the Tabun C2 mandible. Our samples comprise permanent mandibular and maxillary incisors and canines from early Homo, Neanderthals, as well as extant and fossil modern humans (N = 359). In addition to root length, we measured cervical root diameter and area, total root volume, root pulp volume and root surface area from μCT scans. We quantified root shape variation using geometric morphometrics. Our results show that Neanderthals have not only significantly larger anterior roots than RMH overall, but also different root shapes for each tooth type. In the context of the 'teeth-as-tools' hypothesis, this could be an adaptation to better sustain high or frequent loads on the front teeth. We demonstrate that the two isolated incisors stored with the Steinheim skull are very likely recent. Tabun C2 shows an anterior dentition similar in size and shape to Neanderthals while its molar roots are non-Neanderthal. Two of the five isolated teeth from Kebara are classified as Neanderthals. Interestingly, early modern humans overlap with Neanderthals and RMH in root size and shape. Anterior roots of the Lower and Middle Pleistocene specimens are at least as large as Neanderthals, suggesting that Neanderthals retained a primitive pattern, which should prompt caution in the assessment of the earliest forms of modern humans.

  15. Sonosurgery for atraumatic tooth extraction: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Dimitrios E V; Geminiani, Alessandro; Zahavi, Thomas; Ercoli, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The preservation of an intact labial plate during tooth extraction is a critical determinant of whether an immediate implant can be placed and is also an important predictor of the esthetic result. The purpose of this clinical report was to present a method for atraumatic tooth extraction by using an air-driven sonic instrument with specially designed inserts. This surgical technique provides the clinician with an efficient method for atraumatic tooth extraction and preservation of an intact labial plate.

  16. Modular Permanent Magnet Machines with Alternate Teeth Having Tooth Tips

    OpenAIRE

    Li, G. J.; Zhu, Z.Q.; Foster, M. P.; Stone, D. A.; Zhan, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents single layer modular permanent magnet machines with either wound or unwound teeth with tooth tips. The structures with wound teeth having tooth tips are suitable for modular machines with slot number higher than pole number to compensate for the drop in winding factor due to the flux gaps in alternate stator teeth, accordingly to maintain or even to increase their average torques. However, the structures with unwound teeth having tooth tips are suitable for modular machine...

  17. A theropod tooth from the Late Triassic of southern Africa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghamitra Ray; Anusuya Chinsamy

    2002-06-01

    An isolated, large recurved and finely serrated tooth found associated with the prosauropod Euskelosaurus from the Late Triassic part of the Elliot Formation is described here. It is compared to the Triassic thecodonts and carnivorous dinosaurs and its possible affinity is discussed. The tooth possibly belongs to a basal theropod and shows some features similar to the allosauroids. This tooth is of significance, as dinosaur remains except for some footprints and trackways, are poorly known in the Late Triassic horizons of southern Africa.

  18. Comparison of the Diagnostic Image Quality of the Canine Maxillary Dentoalveolar Structures Obtained by Cone Beam Computed Tomography and 64-Multidetector Row Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Jason W; Drees, Randi; Koenig, Lisa J; Snyder, Christopher J; Hetzel, Scott; Miles, Chanda R; Schwarz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this blinded study was to validate the use of cone beam computed tomography (C) for imaging of the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures by comparing its diagnostic image quality with that of 64-multidetector row CT Sagittal slices of a tooth-bearing segment of the maxilla of a commercially purchased dog skull embedded in methylmethacrylate were obtained along a line parallel with the dental arch using a commercial histology diamond saw. The slice of tooth-bearing bone that best depicted the dentoalveolar structures was chosen and photographed. The maxillary segment was imaged with cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT. Four blinded evaluators compared the cone beam CT and 64-multidetector row CT images and image quality was scored as it related to the anatomy of dentoalveolar structures. Trabecular bone, enamel, dentin, pulp cavity, periodontal ligament space, and lamina dura were scored In addition, a score depicting the evaluators overall impression of the image was recorded. Images acquired with cone beam CT were found to be significantly superior in image quality to images acquired with 64-multidetector row CT overall, and in all scored categories. In our study setting cone beam CT was found to be a valid and clinically superior imaging modality for the canine maxillary dentoalveolar structures when compared to 64-multidetector row CT.

  19. Evaluation of scaffold materials for tooth tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Usami, Kazutada; Ando, Yusuke; Sakurai, Hiroya; Honda, Masaki J; Ueda, Minoru; Kagami, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the possibility of tooth tissue engineering has been reported. Although there are a number of available materials, information about scaffolds for tooth tissue engineering is still limited. To improve the manageability of tooth tissue engineering, the effect of scaffolds on in vivo tooth regeneration was evaluated. Collagen and fibrin were selected for this study based on the biocompatibility to dental papilla-derived cells and the results were compared with those of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fiber and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) porous block, which are commonly used for tooth, dentin and bone tissue engineering. Isolated porcine tooth germ-derived cells were seeded onto one of those scaffolds and transplanted to the back of nude mice. Tooth bud-like structures were observed more frequently in collagen and fibrin gels than on PGA or beta-TCP, while the amount of hard tissue formation was less. The results showed that collagen and fibrin gel support the initial regeneration process of tooth buds possibly due to their ability to support the growth of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. On the other hand, maturation of tooth buds was difficult in fibrin and collagen gels, which may require other factors.

  20. Comparison between normal and special chain-drive toothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolipski, M.

    1985-12-01

    A comparison of these two types of tooth arrangements on chain drives with round-link chains comes out clearly in favour of the special toothing. The article describes the advantages of this type of toothing. A proposal is made to use the special tooth arrangement in the construction of drive pocket wheels. Such a move would prevent the disastrous effects of links becoming jammed in the pockets during running-in and would consequently improve the service life of both chain and drive sprocket.