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Sample records for canine parvovirus type

  1. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

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    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  2. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

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    Mizak, B.; Plucienniczak, A.

    1995-01-01

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  3. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil.

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    Streck, André Felipe; Souza, Carine Kunzler; Gonçalves, K. R.; Zang, Luciana; Pinto, Luciane Dubina; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2009-01-01

    The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population.No Brasil, a presença do parvovírus canino do tipo 2 (CPV-2), 2a e 2b já havia sido descrita, contudo, ainda não havia sido verificada a presença do tipo 2c. No prese...

  4. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  5. Chronological analysis of canine parvovirus type 2 isolates in Japan.

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    Ohshima, Takahisa; Hisaka, Mitsuaki; Kawakami, Kazuo; Kishi, Masahiko; Tohya, Yukinobu; Mochizuki, Masami

    2008-08-01

    Fifty-five canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV) samples, 12 fecal specimens and 43 cell culture isolates, were examined for their genetic characteristics of VP2 gene. They were collected from the diseased dogs at various districts of Japan during 27 years from 1980 to 2006. A fragment of VP2 gene was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and DNA sequencing. The original antigenic type 2 of CPV (CPV-2) was no longer found in the samples since 1984, and two antigenic variants CPV-2a and CPV-2b replaced CPV-2 as predominant types for about 5 years from 1982. A new genetic variant of prototype CPV-2a with non-synonymous substitution at the VP2 amino acid residue 297 from Ser to Ala was first detected in 1987. New CPV-2b with the same amino acid substitution at position 297 as new CPV-2a was also detected from the samples collected in 1997. Since then new CPV-2b has been the predominant CPV over the field of Japan. Several additional amino acid substitutions were detected in the VP2 gene of some recent CPV strains. Neither CPV-2c(a), CPV-2c(b), nor "Glu-426" of the antigenic variants previously found outside the country was detected in any samples tested. Reactivity of new CPV-2a and 2b variants against antibodies produced by the current vaccine products was determined by a cross hemagglutination-inhibition test. The recent field CPV isolates reacted more efficiently to the antibodies produced in dogs vaccinated with the new CPV-2b vaccine strain than the conventional CPV-2 vaccine strain.

  6. Canine Parvovirus: Current Perspective

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    Nandi, S.; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs—the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with...

  7. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 by recombinase polymerase amplification.

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    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Li, Ruiwen; Wang, Jinfeng; Fu, Qi; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2016-04-01

    A novel recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based method for detection of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was developed. Sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of RPA was 10 copies of CPV-2 genomic DNA. RPA amplified both CPV-2a and -2b DNA but did not amplify the template of other important dog viruses (CCoV, PRV or CDV), demonstrating high specificity. The method was further validated with 57 canine fecal samples. An outstanding advantage of RPA is that it is an isothermal reaction and can be performed in a water bath, making RPA a potential alternative method for CPV-2 detection in resource-limited settings.

  8. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

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    Sharma, Shalini; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 102 fecal...... for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. RESULTS: No sample was found...

  9. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia.

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    Mitchell, S A; Zwijnenberg, R J; Huang, J; Hodge, A; Day, M J

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether client-owned dogs in Australia, last vaccinated with Canvac(®) vaccines containing canine parvovirus-type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) ± canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) at least 18 months ago, were seropositive or responded serologically to revaccination. A total of 235 dogs were recruited from 23 veterinary clinics, representing a variety of breeds, ages and time since last vaccination (TSLV: range 1.5-9 years, mean 2.8 years). Dogs had a blood sample taken and were revaccinated on day 0. A second blood sample was taken 7-14 days later. Blood samples were assessed for antibody titres to CPV-2 (by haemagglutination inhibition) and CDV, CAV type 1 (CAV-1) and CPiV (by virus neutralisation). Dogs with a day 0 titre >10 or a four-fold increase in titre following revaccination were considered to be serological responders. The overall percentage of dogs classified as serological responders was 98.7% for CPV-2, 96.6% for CDV, 99.6% for CAV-1 and 90.3% for CPiV. These results suggest that the duration of serological response induced by modified-live vaccines against CPV-2, CDV, CAV-1 and CPiV, including Canvac(®) vaccines, is beyond 18 months and may extend up to 9 years. Accordingly, these vaccines may be considered for use in extended revaccination interval protocols as recommended by current canine vaccine guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c from symptomatic puppies

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    R Puentes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 is a leading cause of diarrhea in puppies in several parts of the world. In this study CPV-2 was detected and recovered from puppies showing clinical disease from Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were processed and used to infect CRFK and MDCK cells in order to isolate the virus. Out of twelve, two samples were positive for CPV-2. A genomic region of 583 bp was amplified and the molecular characterization was performed by sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP. Two isolated viruses (UY1 and UY2 were CPV-2c-like viruses. The comparison between the cytophatic effect (CPE of CPV-2 (vaccinal virus and CPV-2c (isolated virus on primary canine cells cultures and on CRFK line cells, demonstrated that CPV-2c is less citopathogenic in CRFK than in primary cultures. Our study represents the first report on isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c in cell cultures from South American dogs.

  11. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus.

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    Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    A challenge-of-immunity study was conducted to demonstrate immunity in dogs 3 years after their second vaccination with a new multivalent, modified-live vaccine containing canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). Twenty-three seronegative pups were vaccinated at 7 and 11 weeks of age. Eighteen seronegative pups, randomized into groups of six dogs, served as challenge controls. Dogs were kept in strict isolation for 3 years following the vaccination and then challenged sequentially with virulent canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), CPV, and CDV. For each viral challenge, a separate group of six control dogs was also challenged. Clinical signs of CAV-1, CPV, and CDV infections were prevented in 100% of vaccinated dogs, demonstrating that the multivalent, modified-live test vaccine provided protection against virulent CAV-1, CPV, and CDV challenge in dogs 7 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination.

  12. Canine parvovirus: current perspective.

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    Nandi, S; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-06-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has been considered to be an important pathogen of domestic and wild canids and has spread worldwide since its emergence in 1978. It has been reported from Asia, Australia, New Zealand, the Americas and Europe. Two distinct parvoviruses are now known to infect dogs-the pathogenic CPV-2 and CPV-1 or the minute virus of canine (MVC). CPV-2, the causative agent of acute hemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs, is one of the most important pathogenic viruses with high morbidity (100%) and frequent mortality up to 10% in adult dogs and 91% in pups. The disease condition has been complicated further due to emergence of a number of variants namely CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c over the years and involvement of domestic and wild canines. There are a number of different serological and molecular tests available for prompt, specific and accurate diagnosis of the disease. Further, both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are available to control the disease in animals. Besides, new generation vaccines namely recombinant vaccine, peptide vaccine and DNA vaccine are in different stages of development and offer hope for better management of the disease in canines. However, new generation vaccines have not been issued license to be used in the field condition. Again, the presence of maternal antibodies often interferes with the active immunization with live attenuated vaccine and there always exists a window of susceptibility in spite of following proper immunization regimen. Lastly, judicious use of the vaccines in pet dogs, stray dogs and wild canids keeping in mind the new variants of the CPV-2 along with the proper sanitation and disinfection practices must be implemented for the successful control the disease.

  13. Three-year serologic immunity against canine parvovirus type 2 and canine adenovirus type 2 in dogs vaccinated with a canine combination vaccine.

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    Larson, L J; Schultz, R D

    2007-01-01

    A group of client-owned dogs and a group of dogs at a commercial kennel were evaluated for duration of antibody responses against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1) after receiving a combination vaccine containing recombinant canarypox-vectored canine distemper virus (CDV) and modified-live CPV-2, CAV-2, and canine parainfluenza virus, with (C6) or without (C4) two serovars of Leptospira (Recombitek C4 or C6, Merial). Duration of antibody, which correlates with protective immunity, was found to be at least 36 months in both groups. Recombitek combination vaccines can confidently be given every 3 years with assurance of protection in immunocompetent dogs against CPV-2 and CAV-1 as well as CDV. This allows this combination vaccine, like other, similar modified- live virus combination products containing CDV, CAV-2, and CPV-2, to be administered in accordance with the recommendations of the American Animal Hospital Association Canine Vaccine Task Force.

  14. Multiplex real-time PCR for identification of canine parvovirus antigenic types.

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    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Dwivedi, P N; Narang, Deepti

    2016-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important disease causing gastroenteritis and/or haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs. There are four antigenic types of CPV reported worldwide viz. CPV 2, CPV 2a, CPV 2b and CPV 2c. The diagnosis of CPV with the identification of the antigen type responsible remains problematic. In the present study, identification as well as antigenic typing of CPV was done using a de novo multiplex real time PCR to combat the problem of antigenic type identification. From the study it could be concluded that the here developed multiplex real time PCR assay could be used for rapid detection of CPV as well as typing of its three antigenic types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

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    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320. PMID:16210491

  16. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

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    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  17. Immunogenicity of an intranasally administered modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-10-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of < or = 80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  18. Evidence for immunisation failure in vaccinated adult dogs infected with canine parvovirus type 2c.

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    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Mari, Viviana; Lavazza, Antonio; Nardi, Manuela; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    An outbreak of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) infection in vaccinated adult dogs is reported. The disease occurred in a breeding kennel in Italy and affected 11 dogs aged between 6 months and 2.5 years, that had been repeatedly administered vaccines containing a type 2 (old type) CPV strain. CPV infection was demonstrated in all diseased dogs by an immunochromatographic test. A CPV strain was isolated from the intestinal content of a 20-month-old pregnant Bernese mountain bitch that underwent a fatal outcome. The strain was characterised as CPV-2c by means of real-time PCR assays using minor groove binder probes. The present report provides further concerns about the real efficacy of type 2-based vaccines against the antigenic variants of CPV and stresses the need for developing new vaccines prepared with the variants currently circulating in the dog population.

  19. Molecular typing of a novel canine parvovirus type 2a mutant circulating in Italy.

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    Mira, Francesco; Dowgier, Giulia; Purpari, Giuseppa; Vicari, Domenico; Di Bella, Santina; Macaluso, Giusi; Gucciardi, Francesca; Randazzo, Vincenzo; Decaro, Nicola; Guercio, Annalisa

    2018-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the etiological agent of a severe viral disease of dogs. After its emergence in late 1970s, the CPV original type (CPV-2) was rapidly and totally replaced by three antigenic variants named CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. CPV has an evolutionary rate nearest to those of RNA viruses, with consequences on disease diagnosis and epidemiology. This paper reports the molecular characterization of eight CPV-2a strains collected from dogs in Italy in 2016-2017. Genetic analysis was conducted on a CPV genomic region encompassing both open reading frames (ORFs) encoding for nonstructural (NS1-NS2) and structural proteins (VP1-VP2). Sequence analysis indicates new and unreported sequence changes, mainly affecting the VP2 gene, which included the mutation Tyr324Leu. This study represents the first evidence of a new CPV-2a mutant (VP2 324Leu) and illustrates the importance of a continuous molecular survey in order to obtain more information on effective spread of new CPV mutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A phylogenetic study of canine parvovirus type 2c in midwestern Brazil

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    Danúbia S. Fontana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1970s, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 has emerged as a causative agent of fatal severe acute hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. To date, three antigenic types of CPV-2 were described worldwide (CPV-2a/b/c. This study was conducted to determine the variants of CPV-2 circulating in dogs from the Cuiabá Municipality in Midwestern Brazil. Out of 50 fecal samples, collected between 2009 and 2011, 27 tested positive for CPV-2. A 583 bp fragment of the VP2 gene was amplified by PCR, 13 representative samples were analyzed further by DNA sequencing. All strains were characterized as CPV-2c, displayed a low genetic variability although observed several amino acid substitution. These findings indicated that CPV-2c has been circulating in dogs from the Cuiabá Municipality in Midwestern Brazil.

  1. Effects of body weight on antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type 1 in vaccinated domestic adult dogs.

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    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Saito, Miyoko; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether post-vaccination antibody titers vary according to body weight in adult dogs. Antibody titers against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine adenovirus type 1 (CAdV-1) were measured for 978 domestic adult dogs from 2 to 6 y of age. The dogs had been vaccinated approximately 12 mo earlier with a commercial combination vaccine. The dogs were divided into groups according to their weight. It was found that mean antibody titers in all weight groups were sufficient to prevent infection. Intergroup comparison, however, revealed that CPV-2 antibody titers were significantly higher in the Super Light ( 20 kg) groups and were also significantly higher in the Light (5 to 9.9 kg) group than in the Heavy group. Antibody titers against CDV were significantly higher in the Super Light, Light, and Medium groups than in the Heavy group. There were no significant differences among the groups for the CAdV-1 antibody titers.

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Canine Parvovirus, Europe

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    Desario, Costantina; Addie, Diane D.; Martella, Vito; Vieira, Maria João; Elia, Gabriella; Zicola, Angelique; Davis, Christopher; Thompson, Gertrude; Thiry, Ethienne; Truyen, Uwe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), which causes hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs, has 3 antigenic variants: types 2a, 2b, and 2c. Molecular method assessment of the distribution of the CPV variants in Europe showed that the new variant CPV-2c is widespread in Europe and that the viruses are distributed in different countries. PMID:17953097

  3. Direct typing of Canine parvovirus (CPV) from infected dog faeces by rapid mini sequencing technique.

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    V, Pavana Jyothi; S, Akila; Selvan, Malini K; Naidu, Hariprasad; Raghunathan, Shwethaa; Kota, Sathish; Sundaram, R C Raja; Rana, Samir Kumar; Raj, G Dhinakar; Srinivasan, V A; Mohana Subramanian, B

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a non-enveloped single stranded DNA virus with an icosahedral capsid. Mini-sequencing based CPV typing was developed earlier to detect and differentiate all the CPV types and FPV in a single reaction. This technique was further evaluated in the present study by performing the mini-sequencing directly from fecal samples which avoided tedious virus isolation steps by cell culture system. Fecal swab samples were collected from 84 dogs with enteritis symptoms, suggestive of parvoviral infection from different locations across India. Seventy six of these samples were positive by PCR; the subsequent mini-sequencing reaction typed 74 of them as type 2a virus, and 2 samples as type 2b. Additionally, 25 of the positive samples were typed by cycle sequencing of PCR products. Direct CPV typing from fecal samples using mini-sequencing showed 100% correlation with CPV typing by cycle sequencing. Moreover, CPV typing was achieved by mini-sequencing even with faintly positive PCR amplicons which was not possible by cycle sequencing. Therefore, the mini-sequencing technique is recommended for regular epidemiological follow up of CPV types, since the technique is rapid, highly sensitive and high capacity method for CPV typing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Typing of canine parvovirus isolates using mini-sequencing based single nucleotide polymorphism analysis.

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    Naidu, Hariprasad; Subramanian, B Mohana; Chinchkar, Shankar Ramchandra; Sriraman, Rajan; Rana, Samir Kumar; Srinivasan, V A

    2012-05-01

    The antigenic types of canine parvovirus (CPV) are defined based on differences in the amino acids of the major capsid protein VP2. Type specificity is conferred by a limited number of amino acid changes and in particular by few nucleotide substitutions. PCR based methods are not particularly suitable for typing circulating variants which differ in a few specific nucleotide substitutions. Assays for determining SNPs can detect efficiently nucleotide substitutions and can thus be adapted to identify CPV types. In the present study, CPV typing was performed by single nucleotide extension using the mini-sequencing technique. A mini-sequencing signature was established for all the four CPV types (CPV2, 2a, 2b and 2c) and feline panleukopenia virus. The CPV typing using the mini-sequencing reaction was performed for 13 CPV field isolates and the two vaccine strains available in our repository. All the isolates had been typed earlier by full-length sequencing of the VP2 gene. The typing results obtained from mini-sequencing matched completely with that of sequencing. Typing could be achieved with less than 100 copies of standard plasmid DNA constructs or ≤10¹ FAID₅₀ of virus by mini-sequencing technique. The technique was also efficient for detecting multiple types in mixed infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiplex Amplification Refractory Mutation System PCR (ARMS-PCR) provides sequencing independent typing of canine parvovirus.

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    Chander, Vishal; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Gupta, Vikas; Nandi, Sukdeb; Singh, Mithilesh; Badasara, Surendra Kumar; Sharma, Chhavi; Mittal, Mitesh; Dandapat, S; Gupta, V K

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus-2 antigenic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) ubiquitously distributed worldwide in canine population causes severe fatal gastroenteritis. Antigenic typing of CPV-2 remains a prime focus of research groups worldwide in understanding the disease epidemiology and virus evolution. The present study was thus envisioned to provide a simple sequencing independent, rapid, robust, specific, user-friendly technique for detecting and typing of presently circulating CPV-2 antigenic variants. ARMS-PCR strategy was employed using specific primers for CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c to differentiate these antigenic types. ARMS-PCR was initially optimized with reference positive controls in two steps; where first reaction was used to differentiate CPV-2a from CPV-2b/CPV-2c. The second reaction was carried out with CPV-2c specific primers to confirm the presence of CPV-2c. Initial validation of the ARMS-PCR was carried out with 24 sequenced samples and the results were matched with the sequencing results. ARMS-PCR technique was further used to screen and type 90 suspected clinical samples. Randomly selected 15 suspected clinical samples that were typed with this technique were sequenced. The results of ARMS-PCR and the sequencing matched exactly with each other. The developed technique has a potential to become a sequencing independent method for simultaneous detection and typing of CPV-2 antigenic variants in veterinary disease diagnostic laboratories globally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Canine parvovirus--a review of epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on type 2c.

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    Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-02-24

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged in late 1970s causing severe epizootics in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Soon after its emergence, CPV-2 underwent genetic evolution giving rise consecutively to two antigenic variants, CPV-2a and CPV-2b that replaced progressively the original type. In 2000, a new antigenic variant, CPV-2c, was detected in Italy and rapidly spread to several countries. In comparison to the original type CPV-2, the antigenic variants display increased pathogenicity in dogs and extended host range, being able to infect and cause disease in cats. Epidemiological survey indicate that the newest type CPV-2c is becoming prevalent in different geographic regions and is often associated to severe disease in adult dogs and also in dogs that have completed the vaccination protocols. However, the primary cause of failure of CPV vaccination is interference by maternally derived immunity. Diagnosis of CPV infection by traditional methods has been shown to be poorly sensitive, especially in the late stages of infections. New diagnostic approaches based on molecular methods have been developed for sensitive detection of CPV in clinical samples and rapid characterisation of the viral type. Continuous surveillance will help assess whether there is a real need to update currently available vaccines and diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh.

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    Sharma, Shalini; Dhar, Prasenjit; Thakur, Aneesh; Sharma, Vivek; Sharma, Mandeep

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102) of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5 th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610) used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.

  8. Comparative trial of the canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine adenovirus type 2 fractions of two commercially available modified live vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, J G H E; Muniz, M; Sutton, D; Fensome, R; Ling, F; Paul, G

    2006-11-25

    The results of vaccinating two groups of puppies with commercial vaccines, both of which claimed to provide adequate protection with a final vaccination at 10 weeks of age, were compared. Groups of 19 and 20 puppies with similar titres of maternally derived antibodies against canine parvovirus (cpv), canine distemper virus (cdv) and canine adenovirus type 2 (cav-2) at four weeks of age were vaccinated at six and 10 weeks of age and their responses to each vaccination were measured by comparing the titres against cpv, cdv and cav-2 in the serum samples taken immediately before the vaccination and four weeks later. After the vaccination at six weeks of age, all 19 of the puppies in group 1 had responded to cpv and cdv, and 14 had responded to cav-2; in group 2, 17 of the 20 had responded to cpv, 19 to cdv and 15 to cav-2. In both groups the puppies that did not respond to the first vaccination had responded serologically to cpv, cdv and cav-2 at 10 weeks of age.

  9. Molecular typing of canine parvovirus from Sulaimani, Iraq and phylogenetic analysis using partial VP2 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.O.Baba Sheikh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV remains the most significant viral cause of haemorrhagic enteritis and bloody diarrhoea in puppies over the age of 12 weeks. The objective of the present study was to detect and genotype CPV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and to perform phylogenetic analysis using partial VP2 gene sequences. We analysed eight faecal samples of unvaccinated dogs with signs of vomiting and bloody diarrhoea during the period from December 2013 to May 2014 in different locations in Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq. After PCR detection, we found that all viral sequences in our study were CPV-2b variants, which differed genetically by 0.8% to 3.6% from five commercially available vaccines. Alignment between eight nucleotides of field virus sequences showed 95% to 99.5% similarity. The phylogenetic analysis for the 8 field sequences formed two distinct clusters with two sequences belonging to strains from China and Thailand and the other six – with a strain from Egypt. Molecular characterisation and CPV typing are crucial in epidemiological studies for future prevention and control of the disease.

  10. Canine parvovirus type 2c identified from an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis in a litter in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A litter of recently-vaccinated puppies in Sweden experienced signs of severe haemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Canine parvovirus (CPV) was suspected as the cause of this outbreak on the basis of the clinical signs and the presence of parvoviral antigen in the faeces from one of the affected pups - confirmed using a commercial in-clinic faecal antigen ELISA test kit. A concern was raised about whether the vaccine (which contained a live, attenuated strain of CPV) could have caused the disease and so further faecal samples from the affected pups were submitted for laboratory virus isolation and identification. On cell culture, two out of four faecal samples were found to be virus-positive. This was confirmed as being canine parvovirus by immuno-staining with CPV specific monoclonal antibody. The virus was then tested using a series of PCR probes designed to confirm the identity of CPV and to distinguish the unique vaccine strain from field virus. This confirmed that the virus was indeed CPV but that it was not vaccine strain. The virus was then typed by sequencing the 426 amino acid region of the capsid gene which revealed this to be a type 2c virus. Since its emergence in the late 1970s, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2) has spread worldwide and is recognised as an important canine pathogen in all countries. The original CPV2 rapidly evolved into two antigenic variants, CPV2a and CPV2b, which progressively replaced the original CPV2. More recently a new antigenic variant, CPV2c, has appeared. To date this variant has been identified in many countries worldwide but there have been no reports yet of its presence in any Scandinavian countries. This case report therefore represents the first published evidence of the involvement of CPV2c in a severe outbreak of typical haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a susceptible litter of pups in Scandinavia. PMID:24016358

  11. Viral type characterization and clinical aspects of canine parvovirus in naturally infected dogs in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyssia Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the first isolation of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 in late 70’s new virus types as CPV-2a and CPV-2b have been emerged and becoming prevalent in natural canine population and more recently, a third subtype was identified , CPV-2c. The main purpose of this study was to detect and characterize canine parvovirus currently present in Central-West region of São Paulo state, in Brazil. Fecal samples were collected of vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs, clinically suspected of having CPV infection brought to the Infectious Diseases Service, Veterinary Hospital of FMVZ-UNESP. All samples (n=30 were screening for canine parvovirus through hemagglutination test and those resulting as positive (n=20 were submitted to PCR and the products were subsequently sequenced for subtype characterization. Results were tested for association with age, hematological values, viral hemagglutination titers in the feces, vaccination status and survival. Leukopenia was found in all animals, death occurred in 30% of unvaccinated dogs and in 42% of vaccinated ones. In a total of 20 positive sequenced samples, 18 were classified as CPV-2b, one as CPV-2c, and one as CPV-2a, being CPV2a and CPV2c detected in unvaccinated puppies. Compared to the reference samples amino acid change at position 426 in those circling virus was identified. The study results demonstrate the predominance of CPV-2b and the presence of CPV-2a and CPV-2c in naturally infected, vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs in in São Paulo region.

  12. Canine parvovirus type 2c identified from an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis in a litter in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, David; Vinberg, Carina; Gustafsson, Agneta; Pearce, Jacqueline; Greenwood, Neil

    2013-09-10

    A litter of recently-vaccinated puppies in Sweden experienced signs of severe haemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Canine parvovirus (CPV) was suspected as the cause of this outbreak on the basis of the clinical signs and the presence of parvoviral antigen in the faeces from one of the affected pups - confirmed using a commercial in-clinic faecal antigen ELISA test kit. A concern was raised about whether the vaccine (which contained a live, attenuated strain of CPV) could have caused the disease and so further faecal samples from the affected pups were submitted for laboratory virus isolation and identification.On cell culture, two out of four faecal samples were found to be virus-positive. This was confirmed as being canine parvovirus by immuno-staining with CPV specific monoclonal antibody. The virus was then tested using a series of PCR probes designed to confirm the identity of CPV and to distinguish the unique vaccine strain from field virus. This confirmed that the virus was indeed CPV but that it was not vaccine strain. The virus was then typed by sequencing the 426 amino acid region of the capsid gene which revealed this to be a type 2c virus.Since its emergence in the late 1970s, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV2) has spread worldwide and is recognised as an important canine pathogen in all countries. The original CPV2 rapidly evolved into two antigenic variants, CPV2a and CPV2b, which progressively replaced the original CPV2. More recently a new antigenic variant, CPV2c, has appeared. To date this variant has been identified in many countries worldwide but there have been no reports yet of its presence in any Scandinavian countries. This case report therefore represents the first published evidence of the involvement of CPV2c in a severe outbreak of typical haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a susceptible litter of pups in Scandinavia.

  13. Are vaccine strain, type or administration protocol risk factors for canine parvovirus vaccine failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, K D; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2017-10-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and worldwide cause of serious and often fatal disease in dogs, despite the widespread availability of vaccines. Which vaccine-related factors are associated with vaccination failure is largely unknown, and there are no reports from Australia. In this study - the first national population-level CPV study of its kind ever conducted - we analysed data on 594 cases of apparent CPV vaccination failure reported from an Australian national surveillance system to determine whether vaccine strain, type or administration protocol are risk factors for vaccination failures. The strain of CPV used in vaccine manufacture was not significantly associated with vaccination failure in clinical practice. The vaccine type (killed versus attenuated vaccine) for puppies diagnosed with CPV was associated with a lower mean age at time of vaccination (P=0.0495). The age at administration of the last CPV vaccination a puppy received prior to presenting with disease was a significant (P=0.0334) risk factor for vaccination failure, irrespective of whether the vaccine was marketed for a 10-week or 12-week or greater vaccination finish protocol. There was also a strong negative correlation between age at last vaccination prior to disease and vaccination failure (Pparvovirus vaccines, especially in outbreak situations. The large number of cases identified in this study confirms that CPV vaccination failure is occurring in Australia. Veterinarians should consider CPV as a differential diagnosis in cases with appropriate clinical presentation, regardless of the reported vaccination status of the dog. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2b from diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh

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    Shalini Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV among diarrheic dogs in Himachal Pradesh and to identify the most prevalent antigenic variant of CPV based on molecular typing and sequence analysis of VP2 gene. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrhea or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis from CPV vaccinated or non-vaccinated dogs. Samples were tested using CPV-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting VP2 gene, multiplex PCR for detection of CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants, and a PCR for the detection of CPV-2c. CPV-2b isolate was cultured on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cell lines and sequenced using VP2 structural protein gene. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis was done using ClustalW and MEGA6 and inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method. Results: No sample was found positive for the original CPV strain usually present in the vaccine. However, about 50% (52 out of 102 of the samples were found to be positive with CPV-2ab PCR assay that detects newer variants of CPV circulating in the field. In addition, multiplex PCR assay that identifies both CPV-2ab and CPV-2b revealed that CPV-2b was the major antigenic variant present in the affected dogs. A PCR positive isolate of CPV-2b was adapted to grow in MDCK cells and produced characteristic cytopathic effect after 5th passage. Multiple sequence alignment of VP2 structural gene of CPV-2b isolate (Accession number HG004610 used in the study was found to be similar to other sequenced isolates in NCBI sequence database and showed 98-99% homology. Conclusion: This study reports the first detection of CPV-2b in dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in Himachal Pradesh and absence of other antigenic types of CPV. Further, CPV-specific PCR assay can be used for rapid confirmation of circulating virus strains under field conditions.

  15. Canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spibey, N; Greenwood, N M; Sutton, D; Chalmers, W S K; Tarpey, I

    2008-04-01

    The ability of dogs vaccinated with a live attenuated CPV type 2 (Nobivac Intervet) vaccine to resist challenge with a current CPV2c isolate was investigated. Six SPF beagle dogs were given the minimum recommended course of vaccination, comprising a single inoculation of vaccine (Nobivac Lepto+Nobivac Pi) at 8-10 weeks of age followed 3 weeks later with a parvovirus vaccine in combination with distemper, adenovirus and parainfluenza virus (Nobivac DHPPi) and a repeat leptospirosis vaccine. Six control dogs were kept unvaccinated. All animals were challenged orally with a type 2c isolate of CPV and monitored for clinical signs, virus shedding, white blood cell fluctuations and serological responses. All vaccinated dogs were fully protected; showing no clinical signs nor shedding challenge virus in the faeces, in contrast to control animals, which displayed all the typical signs of infection with pathogenic CPV and shed challenge virus in the faeces.

  16. Development of a novel vaccine against canine parvovirus infection with a clinical isolate of the type 2b strain

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Seon Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Hwi Yool; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Nak-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In spite of an extensive vaccination program, parvoviral infections still pose a major threat to the health of dogs. Materials and Methods We isolated a novel canine parvovirus (CPV) strain from a dog with enteritis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the isolate showed that it is a novel type 2b CPV with asparagine at the 426th position and valine at the 555th position in VP2. To develop a vaccine against CPV infection, we passaged the isolate 4 times in A72 cells. Result...

  17. Phylodynamic and Genetic Diversity of Canine Parvovirus Type 2c in Taiwan

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    Yung-Cheng Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c emerged in 2000 and is known for causing a more severe disease than other CPV-2 variants in puppies. In 2015, the emerging CPV-2c variant was isolated in Taiwan and it subsequently became the predominant variant. To trace the evolution of Taiwanese CPV-2c, we compared complete VP2 genes of CPV-2c from Taiwan and sequences obtained from GenBank. The evolutionary rate of CPV-2c was estimated to be 4.586 × 10−4 substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density (HPD was 3.284–6.076 × 10−4. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA dated to 1990 (95% HPD: 1984–1996 and 2011 (95% HPD: 2010–2013 for the CPV-2c variant and Taiwanese isolates, respectively. The CPV-2c variant isolated from Taiwan was clustered with CPV-2c from China. This phylogenetic clade began to branch off in approximately 2010 (95% HPD was 3.823–6.497. Notably, two unique mutations of Taiwanese CPV-2c were found, Q383R and P410L. In summary, this is the first report on the genome evolution of CPV-2c in Taiwan, revealing that this CPV-2c variant shares a common evolutionary origin with strains from China. The demographic history inferred by the Bayesian skyline plot showed that the effective population of CPV-2c increased until 2006 and then slowly declined until 2011.

  18. Transcriptome profiling indicating canine parvovirus type 2a as a potential immune activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Xu; Gao, Yuan; Shu, Long; Wei, Yan-Quan; Yao, Xue-Ping; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Peng, Guang-Neng; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2016-12-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a) is a variant of CPV-2, which is a highly contagious pathogen causing severe gastroenteritis and death in young dogs. However, how CPV-2 participates in cell regulation and immune response remains unknown. In this study, persistently infected MDCK cells were generated through culture passage of the CPV-2a-infected cells for ten generations. Our study showed that CPV-2a induces cell proliferation arrest and cell morphology alternation before the fourth generation, whereas, the cell morphology returns to normal after five times of passages. PCR detection of viral VP2 gene demonstrated that CPV-2a proliferate with cell passage. An immunofluorescence assay revealed that CPV-2a particles were mainly located in the cell nuclei of MDCK cell. Then transcriptome microarray revealed that gene expression pattern of MDCK with CPV-2a persistent infection is distinct compared with normal cells. Gene ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway analysis demonstrated that CPV-2a infection induces a series of membrane-associated genes expression, including many MHC protein or MHC-related complexes. These genes are closely related to signaling pathways of virus-host interaction, including antigen processing and presentation pathway, intestinal immune network, graft-versus-host disease, and RIG-I-like helicases signaling pathway. In contrast, the suppressed genes mediated by CPV-2a showed low enrichment in any category, and were only involved in pathways linking to synthesis and metabolism of amino acids, which was confirmed by qPCR analysis. Our studies indicated that CPV-2a is a natural immune activator and has the capacity to activate host immune responses, which could be used for the development of antiviral strategy and biomaterial for medicine.

  19. Genetic characterization of canine parvovirus type 2 subtypes in Maputo, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, J; Miranda, C; Souto, R; Silva, E; Fafetine, J; Thompson, G

    2017-05-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) comprises three antigenic subtypes (2a, 2b and 2c) that have been reported in many countries. These subtypes cause serious disease in dogs with characteristic gastroenteritis signs. Little information has been documented in Africa about the genetic characterization of CPV-2. The aim of this study was to detect and to characterize the CPV-2 subtypes circulating in dogs admitted to Veterinary Clinics from two cities of Mozambique, Maputo and Matola, in 2010. A total of 40 field fecal samples were collected and tested for CPV-2 by polymerase chain reaction assay. The partial length VP2 gene of the positive samples were sequenced and genetically analyzed. Twenty-six (65%) fecal samples were positive for CPV-2. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was also performed from positive samples and did not reveal the presence of CPV-2c subtype. The results of the sequencing revealed the presence of CPV-2a (n = 9) and CPV-2b (n = 17). No CPV-2 and CPV-2c were detected. Sequence analysis comparison showed nucleotide identities of 99.6-100% among our CPV-2 isolates. Amino acid analysis showed predicted amino acid changes. Phylogenetically, all of the CPV-2a strains isolated formed a cluster together with South African and Nigerian isolates. Most of Mozambican CPV-2b isolates also tended to cluster together with South African isolates; however, four were more closely related to French strain and one isolates to the American strain. The present study was the first to characterize the CPV-2 circulating in the Mozambican dog population.

  20. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... from each dog shall be individually tested for neutralizing antibody against canine parvovirus to...

  1. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccinates and the controls shall be challenged with virulent canine parvovirus furnished or approved by...

  2. Vaccination of dogs with Duramune DAPPi+LC protects against pathogenic canine parvovirus type 2c challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; Stirling, C; Borowski, S; Thomas, A; King, V; Salt, J

    2013-06-22

    In this study, we determined whether vaccination with Duramune DAPPi+LC containing canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2b protects against challenge with virulent CPV antigenic type 2c. Seven healthy dogs, seronegative for CPV2, were enrolled into two treatment groups; five were vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with minimum titre vaccine, and two were given saline. Dogs were challenged with CPV 2c three weeks later. Clinical observations, body weight and rectal temperature measurements, blood samples for serology and white blood cell counts and faecal samples for virus excretion were collected. Control dogs remained seronegative until challenge; vaccinated dogs seroconverted and were positive for antibodies to CPV2 from day 21. Four days after challenge, clinical signs associated with parvovirus infection (vomiting, paroxysmal shivering, depression, loose stools) were observed in the control dogs. Both animals were withdrawn from the study for welfare reasons one day later. On day 47, leucopenia was observed in controls, with white blood cell counts less than 50 per cent prechallenge values. No specific clinical sign of parvovirus infection were observed in the vaccinated dogs, nor was (detectable) challenge virus shed in faeces suggesting that antibodies generated contributed sterilising immunity. We conclude that vaccination of dogs with Duramune DAPPi+LC protects against challenge with a virulent field strain of CPV 2c.

  3. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  4. Typing of Canine Parvovirus Strains Circulating in North-East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Wang, J; Jiang, Y; Cheng, Y; Lin, P; Zhu, H; Han, G; Yi, L; Zhang, S; Guo, L; Cheng, S

    2017-04-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is highly contagious and is a major cause of haemorrhagic enteritis and myocarditis in dogs. We investigated the genetic variation of emerging CPV strains by sequencing 64 CPV VP2 genes from 216 clinical samples of dogs from Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong and Hebei in 2014. Genetic analysis revealed that CPV-2b was predominant in Hebei and CPV-2a was predominant in the other four provinces. In addition, a CPV-2c strain has emerged in Shandong province. All samples had a Ser-Ala substitution at residue 297 and an Ile-Arg substitution at residue 324. Interestingly, in five separate canine samples, we found a mutation of Gln370 to Arg, until now detected only in isolates from pandas. The phylogenetic analysis showed clear distinctions between epidemic isolates and vaccine strains and between Chinese CPV-2c strains and CPV-2c strains found in other countries. Monitoring recent incidence of CPV strains enables evaluation and implementation of disease control strategies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Do two current canine parvovirus type 2 and 2b vaccines provide protection against the new type 2c variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Laurie J; Schultz, R D

    2008-01-01

    Three groups (n=9 or 10) of 12-week-old canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) antibody-negative puppies were vaccinated: one group with a product containing modified-live CPV-2b (Galaxy DA2PPv; Schering-Plough Animal Health), one group with a product containing modified-live CPV-2 (Continuum DAP, Intervet), and one group (controls) with sterile saline. All puppies receiving CPV-2 and CPV-2b vaccines developed antibody as determined by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. All groups of puppies were challenged with a combination of virulent CPV-2b and CPV-2c 5 weeks after vaccination. All puppies in the CPV-2 and CPV-2b vaccinated groups were protected from disease, whereas all control group puppies developed disease and 50% died or were euthanized. This study demonstrated that the CPV-2 and CPV-2b vaccine components of the Continuum DAP and Galaxy DA2PPv products, respectively, provided protection against the CPV-2b virus and also provided complete protection against the new CPV-2c variant.

  6. Canine parvovirus in asymptomatic feline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog

  7. Development of a novel vaccine against canine parvovirus infection with a clinical isolate of the type 2b strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon Ah; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Kim, Hwi Yool; Lee, Joong-Bok; Lee, Nak-Hyung

    2012-07-01

    In spite of an extensive vaccination program, parvoviral infections still pose a major threat to the health of dogs. We isolated a novel canine parvovirus (CPV) strain from a dog with enteritis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis of the isolate showed that it is a novel type 2b CPV with asparagine at the 426th position and valine at the 555th position in VP2. To develop a vaccine against CPV infection, we passaged the isolate 4 times in A72 cells. The attenuated isolate conferred complete protection against lethal homologous CPV infection in dogs such that they did not develop any clinical symptoms, and their antibody titers against CPV were significantly high at 7-11 days post infection. These results suggest that the virus isolate obtained after passaging can be developed as a novel vaccine against paroviral infection.

  8. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  9. Canine parvovirus type 2c identified from an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis in a litter in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, David; Vinberg, Carina; Gustafsson, Agneta; Pearce, Jacqueline; Greenwood, Neil

    2013-01-01

    A litter of recently-vaccinated puppies in Sweden experienced signs of severe haemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Canine parvovirus (CPV) was suspected as the cause of this outbreak on the basis of the clinical signs and the presence of parvoviral antigen in the faeces from one of the affected pups - confirmed using a commercial in-clinic faecal antigen ELISA test kit. A concern was raised about whether the vaccine (which contained a live, attenuated strain of CPV) could have caused the disease and...

  10. Vaccination with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) protects against challenge with virulent CPV-2b and CPV-2c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedek, Elisabeth M; Schmidt, Holger; Sture, Gordon H; Raue, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in canine parvovirus (CPV) field isolates have created concerns regarding the ability of vaccines containing CPV-2 to protect against infection with the newly identified antigenic types CPV-2b and CPV-2c. To address this concern, the efficacy of CPV-2 strain NL-35-D currently in use as a commercial vaccine was demonstrated against an oral challenge with CPV-2b and CPV-2c, respectively. Clinically healthy specific pathogen free Beagle dogs were either vaccinated or treated with water for injection first at 8-9 weeks of age and again at 11-12 weeks of age. All dogs were challenged either with CPV-2b or CPV-2c three weeks after the second vaccination. During the two week period following challenge, clinical signs, white blood cell counts, serology by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and serum neutralisation tests, and virus shedding by haemagglutination test were assessed. All control dogs developed clinical signs of parvovirosis (including pyrexia and leucopenia) and shed virus. Vaccinated dogs seroconverted (HI titres > or =80), remained healthy throughout the study and shed more than 100 times less virus than controls. In conclusion, vaccination with the low passage, high titre CPV-2 strain NL-35-D cross-protects dogs against virulent challenges with CPV-2b or CPV-2c by preventing disease and substantially reducing viral shedding.

  11. High resolution melting curve analysis as a new tool for rapid identification of canine parvovirus type 2 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingga, Gali; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yujun; Lin, Lifeng; Ding, Shuangyang; Guo, Pengju

    2014-01-01

    A high resolution melting (HRM) curve method was developed to identify canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) strains by nested PCR. Two sets of primers, CPV-426F/426R and CPV-87R/87F, were designed that amplified a 52 bp and 53 bp product from the viral VP2 capsid gene. The region amplified by CPV-426F/426R included the A4062G and T4064A mutations in CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. The region amplified by CPV-87F/87R included the A3045T mutation in the vaccine strains of CPV-2 and CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Faecal samples were obtained from 30 dogs that were CPV antigen-positive. The DNA was isolated from the faecal samples and PCR-amplified using the two sets of primers, and genotyped by HRM curve analysis. The PCR-HRM assay was able to distinguish single nucleotide polymorphisms between CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c using CPV-426F/426R. CPV-2a was distinguished from CPV-2b and CPV-2c by differences in the melting temperature. CPV-2b and CPV-2c could be distinguished based on the shape of the melting curve after generating heteroduplexes using a CPV-2b reference sample. The vaccine strains of CPV-2 were identified using CPV-87F/87R. Conventional methods for genotyping CPV strains are labor intensive, expensive or time consuming; the present PCR-based HRM assay might be an attractive alternative. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MT-PCR panel detection of canine parvovirus (CPV-2): Vaccine and wild-type CPV-2 can be difficult to differentiate in canine diagnostic fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggiolaro, Maira N; Ly, Anna; Rysnik-Steck, Benjamin; Silva, Carolina; Zhang, Joshua; Higgins, Damien P; Muscatello, Gary; Norris, Jacqueline M; Krockenberger, Mark; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) remains an important cause of devastating enteritis in young dogs. It can be successfully prevented with live attenuated CPV-2 vaccines when given at the appropriate age and in the absence of maternal antibody interference. Rapid diagnosis of parvoviral enteritis in young dogs is essential to ensuring suitable barrier nursing protocols within veterinary hospitals. The current diagnostic trend is to use multiplexed PCR panels to detect an array of pathogens commonly responsible for diarrhea in dogs. The multiplexed PCR assays do not distinguish wild from vaccine CPV-2. They are highly sensitive and detect even a low level of virus shedding, such as those caused by the CPV-2 vaccine. The aim of this study was to identify the CPV-2 subtypes detected in diagnostic specimens and rule out occult shedding of CPV-2 vaccine strains. For a total of 21 samples that tested positive for CPV-2 in a small animal fecal pathogens diagnostic multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) panel during 2014-2016 we partially characterized the VP2 gene of CPV-2. Vaccine CPV-2 strain, wild type CPV-2a subtypes and vaccine-like CPV-2b subtypes were detected. High copy number was indicative of wild-type CPV-2a presence, but presence of vaccine-like CPV-2b had a variable copy number in fecal samples. A yardstick approach to a copy number or C t -value to discriminate vaccine strain from a wild type virus of CPV-2 can be, in some cases, potentially misleading. Therefore, discriminating vaccine strain from a wild type subtype of CPV-2 remains ambitious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in Brazil Detecção de parvovírus canino tipo 2c no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Felipe Streck

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2, 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population.No Brasil, a presença do parvovírus canino do tipo 2 (CPV-2, 2a e 2b já havia sido descrita, contudo, ainda não havia sido verificada a presença do tipo 2c. No presente trabalho, sete de nove amostras de cães com diarréia foram caracterizadas como CPV-2c, indicando que este vírus já está circulando na população canina no Brasil.

  14. Three-year rabies duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination with a core combination vaccine against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Gore, Thomas C; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two seronegative pups were vaccinated at 8 weeks of age with modified-live canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2), and canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccine and at 12 weeks with a modified-live CDV, CAV-2, CPV, and killed rabies virus vaccine. An additional 31 seronegative pups served as age-matched, nonvaccinated controls. All test dogs were strictly isolated for 3 years after receiving the second vaccination and then were challenged with virulent rabies virus. Clinical signs of rabies were prevented in 28 (88%) of the 32 vaccinated dogs. In contrast, 97% (30 of 31) of the control dogs died of rabies infection. These study results indicated that no immunogenic interference occurred between the modified-live vaccine components and the killed rabies virus component. Furthermore, these results indicated that the rabies component in the test vaccine provided protection against virulent rabies challenge in dogs 12 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following vaccination.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Emergence of novel canine parvovirus type 2 and its pathogenesis in raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-Yu, Yu; Qian, Zhu; Fei-Fei, Diao; Chuan-Jie, Teng; Hui, Peng; Yuan-Yuan, Shang; Yong-Feng, Zhao; Jian-Li, Wang; Jiang, Shijin; Zhi-Jing, Xie

    2018-03-01

    Three parvoviruses were isolated from the raccoon dogs experiencing severe enteritis, named RDPV-DP1, RDPV-DP2 and RDPV-DP3, respectively. The VP2 genes of the 3 isolates showed 99.9% identity at the nucleotide level, and shared 99.1%-99.5% identity with the reference CPVs. The RDPVs resembled original CPV-2, but with four mutations. The RDPVs displayed S297A of VP2 protein as CPV-2a or CPV-2b prevalent throughout most of the world. Residue N375D was found in the 3 isolates, resembling CPV-2a/2b/2c. And the 3 isolates had a natural mutation of VP2 residue V562L, which is adjacent to residue 564 and 568 and might be involved in host range. Interestingly, VP2 S27T was firstly found in the isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 genes revealed that the RDPVs were clustered into one small evolutionary branch and shared the identical branch with 7 CPV-2 isolates from raccoon dogs and one CPV-2 isolate from fox, not with CPV vaccine viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of NS1 genes demonstrated that the RDPVs shared the identical branch with the reference CPV-2a/2b/2c. Experimental infection showed that RDPV infection caused a high morbidity in raccoon dogs. It implied that the RDPV was virulent to raccoon dogs and continued to evolve in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic tools based on minor groove binder probe technology for rapid identification of vaccinal and field strains of canine parvovirus type 2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2006-12-01

    TaqMan-based diagnostic tests have been developed for the identification of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) strains in the faeces of dogs with diarrhoea, including a minor groove binder (MGB) probe assay for identification of type 2-based vaccines and field strains (types 2a, 2b and 2c). Since type 2b vaccines have been licensed recently in Europe, two novel MGB assays were developed for discrimination between type 2b vaccines and field strains of CPV. Such assays have been found to be highly sensitive, specific and reproducible, allowing for simultaneous detection of type 2b vaccinal and field strains present in the same specimens. These new assays will help resolution of the diagnostic problems related to the detection of a type 2b strain in the faeces of dogs shortly after the administration of a type 2b vaccine.

  18. Efficacy of feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in the treatment of canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M; Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2017-07-01

    This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study aimed to evaluate efficacy of commercially available feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in dogs with canine parvovirus infection. First, cross-protection of feline panleukopenia virus antibodies against canine parvovirus was evaluated in vitro. In the subsequent prospective clinical trial, 31 dogs with clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection and a positive faecal canine parvovirus polymerase chain reaction were randomly assigned to a group receiving feline panleukopenia virus antibodies (n=15) or placebo (n=16). All dogs received additional routine treatment. Clinical signs, blood parameters, time to clinical recovery and mortality were compared between the groups. Serum antibody titres and quantitative faecal polymerase chain reaction were compared on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. In vitro, canine parvovirus was fully neutralised by feline panleukopenia virus antibodies. There were no detected significant differences in clinical signs, time to clinical recovery, blood parameters, mortality, faecal virus load, or viral shedding between groups. Dogs in the placebo group showed a significant increase of serum antibody titres and a significant decrease of faecal virus load between day 14 and day 0, which was not detectable in dogs treated with feline panleukopenia virus antibodies. No significant beneficial effect of passively transferred feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in the used dosage regimen on the treatment of canine parvovirus infection was demonstrated. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. First molecular characterization of canine parvovirus strains in Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Giudici, S; Cubeddu, T; Giagu, A; Sanna, G; Rocca, S; Oggiano, A

    2017-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is responsible of acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in young dogs. CPV-2 emerged in 1978 in the USA, but new antigenic types, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c, have completely replaced the original type. In this study, we analyzed 81 animals collected in Sardinia, Italy. The VP2 sequence analysis of 27 positive samples showed that all antigenic CPV-2 types are circulating. CPV-2b seems to be the most widespread variant, followed by CPV-2a. Furthermore, 12 CPV-2b strains displayed further amino acid substitutions and formed a separate cluster in a phylogenetic tree, indicating regional genetic variation.

  20. Molecular typing of canine parvovirus strains circulating from 2008 to 2012 in an organized kennel in India reveals the possibility of vaccination failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Mitesh; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Mohapatra, J K; Chug, P K; Dubey, Rahul; Upmanuyu, Vikramaditya; Narwal, P S; Kumar, Anil; Churamani, C P; Kanwar, N S

    2014-04-01

    Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), which emerged in 1978, is considered as the major viral enteric pathogen of the canine population. With the emergence of new antigenic variants and incidences of vaccine failure, CPV has become one of the dreaded diseases of the canines worldwide. The present study was undertaken in an organized kennel from North India to ascertain the molecular basis of the CPV outbreaks in the vaccinated dogs. 415 samples were collected over a 5year period (2008-2012). The outbreak of the disease was more severe in 2012 with high incidence of mortality in pups with pronounced clinical symptoms. Molecular typing based on the VP2 gene was carried out with the 11 isolates from different years and compared with the CPV prototype and the vaccine strains. All the isolates in the study were either new CPV-2a (2012 isolates) or new CPV-2b (2008 and 2011 isolates). There were amino acid mutations at the Tyr324Ile and at the Thr440Ala position in five isolates from 2012 indicating new CPV mutants spreading in India. The CPV vaccines used in the present study failed to generate protective antibody titer against heterogeneous CPV antigenic types. The findings were confirmed when the affected pups were treated with hyper-immune heterogeneous purified immunoglobulin's against CPV in dogs of different antigenic types. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmagid, Omar Y; Larson, Laurie; Payne, Laurie; Tubbs, Anna; Wasmoen, Terri; Schultz, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The results of this study confirmed that dogs vaccinated subcutaneously with a commercially available multivalent vaccine containing modified-live canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 2, canine parvovirus type 2b, and canine parainfluenza virus antigens were protected against sequential experimental challenge 55 to 57 months after initial vaccination given at 7 to 8 weeks of age. All 10 vaccinates were protected against clinical diseases and mortality following parvovirus and infectious canine hepatitis experimental infections. All vaccinates were protected against mortality and 90% against clinical disease following distemper challenge. These data support at least a 4-year duration of immunity for these three "core" fractions in the combination vaccine.

  3. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  4. Successful experimental challenge of dogs with canine parvovirus-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Withholding food from dogs for 24 hours prior to, and for 48 hours following oral challenge with a gut mucosal homogenate of canine parvovirus-2, was a successful means of reproducing gastroenteric signs of canine parvovirus-2 infection. Twenty-one of 24 dogs, which had previously received various vaccine preparations of mink enteritis virus or were unvaccinated, and which were starved at challenge, developed soft or liquid feces with large or without large clots of mucus. Altered feces were ...

  5. A minor groove binder probe real-time PCR assay for discrimination between type 2-based vaccines and field strains of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Roperto, Sante; Martella, Vito; Campolo, Marco; Lorusso, Alessio; Cavalli, Alessandra; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2006-09-01

    A minor groove binder (MGB) probe assay was developed to discriminate between type 2-based vaccines and field strains of canine parvovirus (CPV). Considering that most of the CPV vaccines contain the old type 2, no longer circulating in canine population, two MGB probes specific for CPV-2 and the antigenic variants (types 2a, 2b and 2c), respectively, were labeled with different fluorophores. The MGB probe assay was able to discriminate correctly between the old type and the variants, with a detection limit of 10(1) DNA copies and a good reproducibility. Quantitation of the viral DNA loads was accurate, as demonstrated by comparing the CPV DNA titres to those calculated by means of the TaqMan assay recognising all CPV types. This assay will ensure resolution of most diagnostic problems in dogs showing CPV disease shortly after CPV vaccination, although it does not discriminate between field strains and type 2b-based vaccines, recently licensed to market in some countries.

  6. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  7. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus in Vientiane, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannamahaxay, Soulasack; Vongkhamchanh, Souliya; Intanon, Montira; Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Pringproa, Kidsadagon; Chuammitri, Phongsakorn

    2017-05-01

    The global emergence of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) has been well documented. In the present study, 139 rectal swab samples collected from diarrheic dogs living in Vientiane, Laos, in 2016 were tested for the presence of the canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 gene by PCR. The results showed that 82.73% (115/139) of dogs were CPV positive by PCR. The partial VP2 gene was sequenced in 94 of the positive samples; 91 samples belonged to CPV-2c (426Glu) subtype, while 3 samples belonged to the CPV-2a (426Asn) subtype. Notably, phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences revealed a close relationship between Laotian isolates and novel Chinese CPV-2c isolates. In Laotian CPV isolates, aligned protein sequences indicated a high rate of residue substitutions at positions 305, 324, 345, 370, 375, and 426 in the GH loop. The mutation at residue 370 (Q370R), a single mutation, was characterized as a unique mutant residue specific to the Laotian CPV-2c variant.

  8. An insulated isothermal PCR method on a field-deployable device for rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 at points of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Lee, Pei-Yu A; Tsai, Yun-Long; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Chang, Hsiao-Fen G; Wang, Hwa-Tang T

    2015-08-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), including subtypes 2a, 2b and 2c, causes an acute enteric disease in both domestic and wild animals. Rapid and sensitive diagnosis aids effective disease management at points of need (PON). A commercially available, field-deployable and user-friendly system, designed with insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) technology, displays excellent sensitivity and specificity for nucleic acid detection. An iiPCR method was developed for on-site detection of all circulating CPV-2 strains. Limit of detection was determined using plasmid DNA. CPV-2a, 2b and 2c strains, a feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) strain, and nine canine pathogens were tested to evaluate assay specificity. Reaction sensitivity and performance were compared with an in-house real-time PCR using serial dilutions of a CPV-2b strain and 100 canine fecal clinical samples collected from 2010 to 2014, respectively. The 95% limit of detection of the iiPCR method was 13 copies of standard DNA and detection limits for CPV-2b DNA were equivalent for iiPCR and real-time PCR. The iiPCR reaction detected CPV-2a, 2b and 2c and FPV. Non-targeted pathogens were not detected. Test results of real-time PCR and iiPCR from 99 fecal samples agreed with each other, while one real-time PCR-positive sample tested negative by iiPCR. Therefore, excellent agreement (k = 0.98) with sensitivity of 98.41% and specificity of 100% in detecting CPV-2 in feces was found between the two methods. In conclusion, the iiPCR system has potential to serve as a useful tool for rapid and accurate PON, molecular detection of CPV-2. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Saasa, Ngonda; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; M’kandawire, Ethel; Siwila, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibod...

  10. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. © 2014 The Author(s).

  12. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  13. Canine parvovirus in vaccinated dogs: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, C; Thompson, G

    2016-04-16

    The authors report a field study that investigated the canine parvovirus (CPV) strains present in dogs that developed the disease after being vaccinated. Faecal samples of 78 dogs that have been vaccinated against CPV and later presented with clinical signs suspected of parvovirus infection were used. Fifty (64.1 per cent) samples tested positive by PCR for CPV. No CPV vaccine type was detected. The disease by CPV-2b occurred in older and female dogs when compared with that by CPV-2c. The clinical signs presented by infected dogs were similar when any of both variants were involved. In most cases of disease, the resulting infection by field variants occurred shortly after CPV vaccination. Two dogs that had been subjected to a complete vaccination schedule and presented with clinical signs after 10 days of vaccination, had the CPV-2c variant associated. The phylogenetic studies showed a close relationship of the isolates in vaccinated dogs to European field strains. Despite the limited sample size in this study, the findings point to the significance of the continuous molecular typing of the virus as a tool to monitor the prevalent circulating CPV strains and access the efficacy of current vaccines. Adjustments on the vaccine types to be used may have to be evaluated again according to each epidemiological situation in order to achieve the dog's optimal immune protection against CPV.

  14. A modified live canine parvovirus vaccine. II. Immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C; Pollock, R V

    1983-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of an attenuated canine parvovirus (A-CPV) vaccine was evaluated in both experimental and in field dogs. After parenteral vaccination, seronegative dogs developed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers as early as postvaccination (PV) day 2. Maximal titers occurred within 1 week. Immunity was associated with the persistence of HI antibody titers (titers greater than 80) that endured at least 2 years. Immune dogs challenged with virulent CPV did not shed virus in their feces. The A-CPV vaccine did not cause illness alone or in combination with living canine distemper (CD) and canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2) vaccines, nor did it interfere with the immune response to the other viruses. A high rate (greater than 98%) of immunity was engendered in seronegative pups. In contrast, maternal antibody interfered with the active immune response to the A-CPV. More than 95% of the dogs with HI titers less than 10 responded to the vaccine, but only 50% responded when titers were approximately 20. No animal with a titer greater than 80 at the time of vaccination became actively immunized. Susceptibility to virulent CPV during that period when maternal antibody no longer protects against infection, but still prevents active immunization, is the principal cause of vaccinal failure in breeding kennels where CPV is present. Reduction, but not complete elimination, of CPV disease in large breeding kennels occurred within 1-2 months of instituting an A-CPV vaccination program.

  15. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  16. Genetic characterization of type 2a canine parvoviruses from Taiwan reveals the emergence of an Ile324 mutation in VP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV 2) is a major infectious cause of mortality in puppies. The characteristic symptom of CPV 2 disease is intestinal hemorrhage with severe bloody diarrhea. Soon after CPV was first recognized in the late 1970s, the original virus, CPV 2, was replaced in the canine population by strains carrying minor antigenic variants (termed 2a, 2b, and 2c) of the VP2 gene that could be distinguished using monoclonal antibodies and molecular analyses. Here, we provide an updated molecular characterization of the CPV 2 circulating in Taiwan. Methods In this study, 28 isolates of CPV 2 from 144 dogs with suspected CPV infection were obtained from northern, central, and southern Taiwan from 2008 to 2012 and screened by PCR. The 28 isolates were sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene was performed. Results Of the 28 Taiwanese CPV 2 isolates, 15 were identified as new CPV 2a, and 13 were identified as new CPV 2b. Compared to the reference CPV 2a, all 15 of the CPV 2a sequences collected in this study contain an Ile324 mutation caused by a TAT to ATT mutation at nucleotides 970–972 of the VP2 gene. Conclusion Our VP2 sequence data revealed that both types are currently prevalent CPV 2 field strains circulating in Taiwan, and a unique Ile324 VP2 mutation was found in our Taiwanese CPV 2a isolates and recent Asian isolates. CPV 2c was not observed in this study. PMID:24568207

  17. [Adenovirus-mediated canine interferon-gamma expression and its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kao; Jin, Huijun; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Neng, Changai; Chen, Huihui; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia

    2012-11-04

    To construct recombinant adenovirus containing canine interferon-gamma (cIFN-gamma) gene and to investigate its antiviral activity against canine parvovirus in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK). [Methods] The cIFN-gamma gene was inserted into adenovirus shuttle plasmid to construct pShuttle3-cIFN-gamma expression vector, from which the cIFN-gamma expression cassette was transferred into the adenovirus genomic plasmid pAdeno-X by specific restriction sites to generate recombinant adenovirus genomic plasmid pAd-cIFN-gamma. The pAd-cIFN-gamma plasmid was linearized by digestion and transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells to generate the replication-defective cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus (Ad-cIFN-gamma). To analyze its anti-canine parvovirus activity, the MDCK cells were pre-infected by Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus, and then infected by canine parvovirus. The antiviral activity of the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus against parvovirus was analyzed. The recombinant adenovirus containing cIFN-gamma gene was constructed by the ligation method. The recombinant adenovirus could mediates recombinant cIFN-gamma secretory expression in MDCK cells. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus could significantly inhibit canine parvovirus replication in MDCK cells pre-infected with the recombinant adenovirus. These results indicate that the Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus has the potent antiviral activity against canine parvovirus. The Ad-cIFN-gamma recombinant adenovirus was successfully constructed by the ligation method and possessed a powerful antiviral activity against canine parvovirus.

  18. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) codon bias analysis reveals a progressive adaptation to the new niche after the host jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, Giovanni; Tucciarone, Claudia Maria; Cecchinato, Mattia; Drigo, Michele

    2017-09-01

    Based on virus dependence from host cell machinery, their codon usage is expected to show a strong relation with the host one. Even if this association has been stated, especially for bacteria viruses, the linkage is considered to be less consistent for more complex organisms and a codon bias adaptation after host jump has never been proven. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was selected as a model because it represents a well characterized case of host jump, originating from Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). The current study demonstrates that the adaptation to specific tissue and host codon bias affected CPV-2 evolution. Remarkably, FPV and CPV-2 showed a higher closeness toward the codon bias of the tissues they display the higher tropism for. Moreover, after the host jump, a clear and significant trend was evidenced toward a reduction in the distance between CPV-2 and the dog codon bias over time. This evidence was not confirmed for FPV, suggesting that an equilibrium has been reached during the prolonged virus-host co-evolution. Additionally, the presence of an intermediate pattern displayed by some strains infecting wild species suggests that these could have facilitated the host switch also by acting on codon bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) variants circulating in Nigerian dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaa, T. T.; Daly, J. M.; Tarlinton, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a highly contagious viral disease with three variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) currently circulating in dogs worldwide. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalent CPV-2 variant in faecal samples from 53 dogs presenting with acute gastroenteritis suspected to be and consistent with CPV-2 to Nigerian Veterinary Clinics in 2013–2014. Seventy-five per cent of these dogs tested positive for CPV-2 in a commercial antigen test and/or by PCR. Partial sequencing of the VP2 gene of six of these demonstrated them to be CPV-2a. Most of the dogs (60 per cent) were vaccinated, with 74 per cent of them puppies less than six months old. PMID:27933190

  20. [The growth of attenuated strains of canine parvovirus, mink enteritis virus, feline panleukopenia virus, and rabies virus on various types of cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuffa, T

    1987-10-01

    The growth characteristics were studied in the attenuated strains of canine parvovirus CPVA-BN 80/82, mink enteritis virus MEVA-BN 63/82 and feline panleucopenia virus FPVA-BN 110/83 on the stable feline kidney cell line FE, and in the attenuated canine distemper virus CDV-F-BN 10/83 on chicken embryo cell cultures (KEB) and cultures of the stable cell line VERO. When the FE cultures were infected with different parvoviruses in cell suspension at MOI 2-4 TKID50 per cell, the first multiplication of the intracellular virus was recorded 20 hours p. i. In the canine parvovirus, the content of intracellular and extracellular virus continued increasing parallelly until the fourth day; then, from the fourth to the sixth day, the content of extracellular virus still increased whereas that of intracellular virus fell rapidly. In the case of the mink enteritis virus the release of the virus into the culture medium continued parallelly with the production of the cellular virus until the sixth day. In the case of the feline panleucopenia virus the values concerning free virus and virus bound to cells were lower, starting from the second day p. i. When KEB or VERO cultures were infected in cell suspension with the canine distemper virus at MOI about 0.004 per 1 cell, the replicated intracellular virus was first recorded in the KEB cultures five hours after infection but in the VERO cultures only 20 hours after infection, with a timely release of the virus into the culture medium in both kinds of tissue. In the KEB and VERO cultures the highest values of infection titres were recorded on the fourth day p. i., the course of virus multiplication on the cells being parallel with its release into the culture medium.

  1. Evolution of canine parvovirus--a need for new vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truyen, Uwe

    2006-10-05

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a new virus, which is continuing to evolve, giving rise to new antigenic types and virus mutants that spread through the dog population. The most successful mutants, from an evolutionary perspective, appear to be selected by improved binding to the CPV receptor, the canine transferrin receptor, and by an extended host range, which for the newer antigenic types now includes both the dog and the cat. The new viruses also show antigenic differences that can be defined by binding of certain monoclonal antibodies; they also differ in their reactivity in virus neutralisation tests, using immune sera raised against the various antigenic types. These differences may influence the susceptibility of young animals to infection at the time when the level of maternally derived antibody decreases to the minimum protective titre. This minimum protective titre may vary depending on the infecting virus type. There is, however, a high degree of cross-protection between the virus types and the true relevance of the differences in neutralisation titer is currently not known.

  2. Molecular characterisation of canine parvovirus strains circulating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... Canine parvovirus (CPV) was first isolated at 1978 in the USA. Analysis of ... Japan, Australia, Italy and Africa although the proportions of CPV-2a ... T/A clone PCR product cloning Kit (Takara, DaLian, China). Sequencing was ...

  3. DETECTION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS ANTIGEN IN DOGS IN KUMASI, GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folitse, R D; Kodie, D O; Amemor, E; Dei, D; Tasiame, W; Burimuah, V; Emikpe, B O

    2018-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT ® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α 0.05 . We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection.

  4. Risk Factors Associated With Canine Parvovirus Enteritis In Vom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Factors Associated With Canine Parvovirus Enteritis In Vom And Environs. J G Mohammed, AO Ogbe, NJ Zwandor, JU Umoh. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Research International Vol. 2 (3) 2005 pp. 366-368. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. DETECTION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS ANTIGEN IN DOGS IN KUMASI, GHANA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folitse, R. D; Kodie, D.O; Amemor, E.; Dei, D.; Tasiame, W.; Burimuah, V.; Emikpe, B.O

    2018-01-01

    Background: Canine Parvovirus (CPV) in dogs has been documented in many countries. However, evidence of the infection is scanty in Ghana. This study was conducted to detect canine parvovirus antigen in dogs presented with diarrhoea to the Government Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Materials and Methods: Faecal samples from 72 dogs presented with diarrhoea were tested for the presence of canine parvovirus antigen using commercially available rapid test kit (BIT® Rapid Colour Canine Parvovirus Ag Test Kit, BIOINDIST Co. Ltd, Korea) based on the principle of immunochromatography. Influence of breed, sex, age, vaccination history and the nature of diarrhoea were assessed. Data obtained was analysed with SPSS and subjected to the chi-square test. Significance was at α0.05 Results: We found 61.11% tested positive (44/72) for CPV. Based on sex, 61.54% of males (20/33) and 60.61% of females tested positive (24/39). A total of 65.67% of samples from puppies below 6 months were positive. 56.25% of CPV vaccinated dogs and 70.83% of unvaccinated dogs were positive respectively. 69.05% of samples from haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs and 50.00% from non-haemorrhagic diarrhoeic dogs were positive of CPV. Conclusion: The study is the first documented evidence of the existence of CPV in Ghana. It also revealed that absence of bloody diarrhoea does not necessarily rule out CPV infection. PMID:29302647

  6. Canine parvovirus: the worldwide occurrence of antigenic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-09-01

    The most important enteric virus infecting canids is canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). CPV is the aetiologic agent of a contagious disease, mainly characterized by clinical gastroenteritis signs in younger dogs. CPV-2 emerged as a new virus in the late 1970s, which could infect domestic dogs, and became distributed in the global dog population within 2 years. A few years later, the virus's original type was replaced by a new genetic and antigenic variant, called CPV-2a. Around 1984 and 2000, virus variants with the single change to Asp or Glu in the VP2 residue 426 were detected (sometimes termed CPV-2b and -2c). The genetic and antigenic changes in the variants have also been correlated with changes in their host range; in particular, in the ability to replicate in cats and also host range differences in canine and other tissue culture cells. CPV-2 variants have been circulating among wild carnivores and have been well-documented in several countries around the world. Here, we have reviewed and summarized the current information about the worldwide distribution and evolution of CPV-2 variants since they emerged, as well as the host ranges they are associated with.

  7. Occurrence of severe gastroenteritis in pups after canine parvovirus vaccine administration: a clinical and laboratory diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Desario, Costantina; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Lorusso, Alessio; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-26

    A total of 29 faecal samples collected from dogs with diarrhoea following canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination were tested by minor groove binder (MGB) probe assays for discrimination between CPV vaccine and field strains and by diagnostic tests for detection of other canine pathogens. Fifteen samples tested positive only for CPV field strains; however, both vaccine and field strains were detected in three samples. Eleven samples were found to contain only the vaccine strain, although eight of them tested positive for other pathogens of dogs. Only three samples were found to contain the vaccine strain without evidence of canine pathogens. The present study confirms that most cases of parvovirus-like disease occurring shortly after vaccination are related to infection with field strains of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) rather than to reversion to virulence of the modified live virus contained in the vaccine.

  8. Release of canine parvovirus from endocytic vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Antila, Mia; Jaatinen, Anne; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Vuento, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A 2 like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA 2 activity on CPV entry process. PLA 2 activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA 2 inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA 2 activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA 2 activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A 1 , brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A 1 , brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA 2 activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA 2 activity is essential for productive infection and

  9. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in dogs in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timurkan, Mehmet; Oğuzoğlu, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    This study provides data about canine parvovirus (CPV) types circulating among dogs in Turkey. Sixty-five samples from dogs with and without clinical signs of parvovirus infection were collected between April 2009 and February 2010. The samples were subsequently tested for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-five samples (38.4%) were positive; when positive samples were characterized by sequence analysis, results showed that both CPV-2a (17/25, 68%) and CPV-2b (8/25, 32%) strains are circulating among domestic dogs in Turkey. This is the first molecular characterization study of CPVs from dogs based on partial VP2 gene sequences in Turkey.

  10. Vaccination of dogs with canine parvovirus type 2b (CPV-2b) induces neutralising antibody responses to CPV-2a and CPV-2c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen; Illambas, Joanna; Siedek, Elisabeth; Stirling, Catrina; Thomas, Anne; Plevová, Edita; Sture, Gordon; Salt, Jeremy

    2014-09-22

    Since the identification of canine parvovirus type 2, three variants have subsequently been observed differing from the historical CPV-2 and each other by 1-2 amino acids only. As a result there has been considerable research into differential diagnostics, with some researchers indicating there is a need for new vaccines containing different strains of CPV-2. In this study we investigated whether vaccination with a CPV-2b containing vaccine would induce cross-reactive antibody responses to the other CPV-2 variants. Two studies where dogs were vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine, subsequently challenged with CPV-2b and sera samples analysed are presented. Six week old pups with defined serological status were vaccinated twice, three weeks apart and challenged either 5 weeks (MDA override study) or one year after vaccination (duration of immunity study). Sera samples were collected before each vaccination and at periods throughout each study. In each study the antibody profiles were very similar; serological responses against CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c were higher than those for CPV-2. Nevertheless, responses against CPV-2 were well above levels considered clinically protective. In each study dogs also showed a rapid increase in antibody titres following vaccination, reached a plateau following second vaccination with a slight decline to challenge after which rapid anamnestic responses were seen. Evaluation of the serological responses suggests vaccination with CPV-2b would cross-protect against CPV-2a and CPV-2c, as well as against CPV-2 which is now extinct in the field. In conclusion we have demonstrated that vaccination of minimum aged dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing the CPV-2b variant strain will induce serological responses which are cross-reactive against all currently circulating field strains, CPV-2a and CPV-2c, and the now extinct field strain CPV-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of Canine parvovirus 2 variants circulating in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntafis, Vasileios; Xylouri, Eftychia; Kalli, Iris; Desario, Costantina; Mari, Viviana; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) variants currently circulating in Greece. Between March 2008 and March 2009, 167 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different regions of Greece. Canine parvovirus 2 was detected by standard polymerase chain reaction, whereas minor groove binder probe assays were used to distinguish genetic variants and discriminate between vaccine and field strains. Of 84 CPV-2-positive samples, 81 CPV-2a, 1 CPV-2b, and 2 CPV-2c were detected. Vaccine strains were not detected in any sample. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene of the 2 CPV-2c viruses revealed up to 100% amino acid identity with the CPV-2c strains previously detected in Europe. The results indicated that, unlike other European countries, CPV-2a remains the most common variant in Greece, and that the CPV-2c variant found in Europe is also present in Greece.

  12. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  13. A rapid method for establishment of a reverse genetics system for canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongle; Su, Jun; Wang, Jigui; Xi, Ji; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Liu, Weiquan

    2017-12-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important and highly prevalent pathogen of dogs that causes acute hemorrhagic enteritis disease. Here, we describe a rapid method for the construction and characterization of a full-length infectious clone (rCPV) of CPV. Feline kidney (F81) cells were transfected with rCPV incorporating an engineered EcoR I site that served as a genetic marker. The rescued virus was indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus in its biological properties.

  14. Analysis of the full-length VP2 protein of canine parvoviruses circulating in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cságola, Attila; Varga, Szilvia; Lőrincz, Márta; Tuboly, Tamás

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the number of cases of disease caused by canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) in vaccinated dogs has increased. The aim of the present study was to identify CPV-2 strains present in Hungary. Forty-two out of 50 faecal specimens examined were positive, and 25 VP2 sequences were determined and analysed. Based on the current classification, the Hungarian viruses belong to New CPV-2a type, except two viruses that are recombinants of vaccine viruses and CPV-2a strains. The Tyr324Ile alteration was detected for the first time in Europe, and a "Hungarian-specific" substitution (Ala516Thr) was also identified in this study. The immunologically important parts of the currently spreading canine parvoviruses were examined and found to differ greatly from the vaccine strains that are widely used in Hungary.

  15. One-step triplex PCR/RT-PCR to detect canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and canine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dafei; Liu, Fei; Guo, Dongchun; Hu, Xiaoliang; Li, Zhijie; Li, Zhigang; Ma, Jianzhang; Liu, Chunguo

    2018-01-23

    To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 10 2.1 TCID 50 for CDV, 10 1.9 TCID 50 for CPV and 10 3 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.

  16. [Biological characteristics of a chimeric rabies virus expressing canine parvovirus VP2 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Zhao-Jin; Shi, He-He; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Bido; Sun, Jing-Chen; Guo, Xiao-Feng

    2009-09-01

    To obtain a bivalence vaccine against canine rabies virus and canine parvovirus, a chimeric rabies virus expressing canine parvovirus VP2 protein was generated by the technique of reverse genetics. It was shown that the chimeric virus designated as HEP-Flury (VP2) grew well on BHK-21 cells and the VP2 gene could still be stably expressed after ten passages on BHK-21 cells. Experiments on the mice immunized with the chimeric virus HEP-Flury (VP2) demonstrated that specific antibodies against rabies virus and canine parvovirus were induced in immunized mice after vaccination with the live chimeric virus.

  17. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing.

  18. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saasa, Ngonda; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; M'kandawire, Ethel; Siwila, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated). The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated ( p vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions.

  19. Short communication, Co-infection with feline and canine parvovirus in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Battilani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we reported a case of co-infection with canine parvovirus (CPV type 2a and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV in a 3-month-old male kitten, with the presence of a parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between CPV and FPV. The report of a viral variant which contained FPV- and CPV-specific epitopes stresses the importance of the mechanism of multistep mutation in the production of new variants and in the emergence of new viruses. This type of multistep adaptation has already been documented during the emergence of CPV and on the basis of our results, it was hypothesized that CPV had presumably started a new process of readaptation in the feline host, confirming the importance of viral host switching as a mechanism for the emergence of new viruses.

  20. Hematologic improvement in dogs with parvovirus infection treated with recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, A; Dow, S; Ogilvie, G; Rao, S; Hackett, T

    2010-08-01

    Previously, dogs with canine parvovirus-induced neutropenia have not responded to treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). However, recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) has not been previously evaluated for treatment of parvovirus-induced neutropenia in dogs. We assessed the effectiveness of rcG-CSF in dogs with parvovirus-induced neutropenia with a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized clinical trial. Endpoints of our study were time to recovery of WBC and neutrophil counts, and duration of hospitalization. 28 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia were treated with rcG-CSF and outcomes were compared to those of 34 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia not treated with rcG-CSF. We found that mean WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (P parvovirus infection, but indicate the need for additional studies to evaluate overall safety of the treatment.

  1. Detection and genetic characterization of Canine parvovirus and Canine coronavirus strains circulating in district of Tirana in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Alessandra; Desario, Costantina; Kusi, Ilir; Mari, Viviana; Lorusso, Eleonora; Cirone, Francesco; Kumbe, Ilirjan; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Decaro, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    An epidemiological survey for Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was conducted in Albania. A total of 57 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic dogs in the District of Tirana during 2011-2013. The molecular assays detected 53 and 31 CPV- and CCoV-positive specimens, respectively, with mixed CPV-CCoV infections diagnosed in 28 dogs. The most frequently detected CPV type was 2a, whereas IIa was the predominant CCoV subtype. A better comprehension of the CPV-CCoV epidemiology in eastern European countries will help to assess the most appropriate vaccination strategies to prevent disease due to infections with these widespread agents of acute gastroenteritis in the dog.

  2. Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup

    OpenAIRE

    Headley,Selwyn Arlington; Saito,Taís Berelli

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...

  3. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  4. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  5. Prevalence of canine parvovirus infection in Grand Tunis, Tunisia

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    Ghada Tagorti

    2018-03-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of CPV-2 was 32.14% (n=54/168. A total number of 54 young dogs, aging 1 to 7 months, of American Staffordshire terrier, German shepherd, Rottweiler and Spaniel breeds were affected. There was no sex predisposition and German shepherd was the over-represented breed (n=33/54; 61.11%. The prevalence of clinical cases below the three months old was 70.37% (n=38/54 with autumn (n=27/54; 50% as the most common season of infection. Furthermore, the study showed that 87.04% (n=47/54 of CPV-2 unvaccinated young dogs were positive. Conclusion: This work was a new descriptive study concerning canine parvovirus infection in the Grand Tunis; further studies are required to better characterize the epidemiology of CPV-2 infection in Tunisia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 93-97

  6. Genetic characterization of canine parvovirus from dogs in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, M Z; Sohail, M U; Chaudhary, U N; Yaqub, W; Rashid, I; Saleem, M H; Munir, M

    Canine parvoviruses (CPV) exist as antigenic variants with varying frequencies and genetic variabilities across the globe. Given the endemicity and high prevalence in Pakistan, we characterized the CPVs originating from dogs-population to elucidate viral diversity and evolution. Fecal samples from clinically diseased pups (n = 17) of different breeds and age (2-6 months) were processed for hemagglutination assay (HA), and later for partial amplification of VP2 gene sequence and amino acid analysis. A total of 11 samples (64.71%) were found positive both in hemagglutination and PCR assays. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis demonstrated higher genetic heterogeneity in studied strains and constituted seven clusters within the CPV-2a group, however, they shared high level of identity with Chinese strains. Further studies are necessary to elucidate genetic analysis and epidemiology of CPV variants across a wide geographical area of the country.

  7. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n = 174) and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n = 56). Each dog's age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated). The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples (p < 0.0001) but not within breed (p = 0.098) or sex (p = 0.572). Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions. PMID:27699205

  8. Seroprevalence of Canine Parvovirus in Dogs in Lusaka District, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngonda Saasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV enteritis is a highly contagious enteric disease of young dogs. Limited studies have been done in Zambia to investigate the prevalence of CPV in dogs. Blood was collected from dogs from three veterinary clinics (clinic samples, n=174 and one township of Lusaka (field samples, n=56. Each dog’s age, sex, breed, and vaccination status were recorded. A haemagglutination assay using pig erythrocytes and modified live parvovirus vaccine as the antigen was used. Antibodies to CPV were detected in 100% of dogs (unvaccinated or vaccinated. The titres ranged from 160 to 10240 with a median of 1280. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher antibody titres compared to unvaccinated (p<0.001. There was a significant difference in titres of clinic samples compared to field samples (p<0.0001 but not within breed (p=0.098 or sex (p=0.572. Multiple regression analysis showed that only age and vaccination status were significant predictors of antibody titres. The presence of antibody in all dogs suggests that the CPV infection is ubiquitous and the disease is endemic, hence the need for research to determine the protection conferred by vaccination and natural exposure to the virus under local conditions.

  9. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

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    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  10. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, J; Bingham, J; van Vuuren, M; Burroughs, R E J; Stylianides, E

    2002-03-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictuis (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  11. [Genetic variation analysis of canine parvovirus VP2 gene in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Yan, Xi-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ke; Luo, Bin

    2009-11-01

    To recognize the molecular biology character, phylogenetic relationship and the state quo prevalent of Canine parvovirus (CPV), Faecal samnples from pet dogs with acute enteritis in the cities of Beijing, Wuhan, and Nanjing were collected and tested for CPV by PCR and other assay between 2006 and 2008. There was no CPV to FPV (MEV) variation by PCR-RFLP analysis in all samples. The complete ORFs of VP2 genes were obtained by PCR from 15 clinical CPVs and 2 CPV vaccine strains. All amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the VP2 sequences showed that clinical CPVs both belong to CPV-2a subtype, and could be classified into a new cluster by amino acids contrasting which contains Tyr-->Ile (324) mutation. Besides the 2 CPV vaccine strains belong to CPV-2 subtype, and both of them have scattered variation in amino acids residues of VP2 protein. Construction of the phylogenetic tree based on CPV VP2 sequence showed these 15 CPV clinical strains were in close relationship with Korea strain K001 than CPV-2a isolates in other countries at early time, It is indicated that the canine parvovirus genetic variation was associated with location and time in some degree. The survey of CPV capsid protein VP2 gene provided the useful information for the identification of CPV types and understanding of their genetic relationship.

  12. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted fo...

  13. Long-term effects of canine parvovirus infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Elena; Suchodolski, Jan S; Hartmann, Katrin; Mueller, Ralf S; Wess, Gerhard; Unterer, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease. Dogs that had been treated at the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, LMU Munich, for CPV infection for which a follow-up of at least 12 months was available, were included in the study. Owners completed a questionnaire on the presence of chronic gastrointestinal and cutaneous signs, cardiac disease, and other potential disorders. An identical questionnaire was sent to owners of matched control dogs during the same time period. Seventy-one questionnaires of dogs with CPV infection and 67 of control dogs were analyzed. Significantly more CPV-infected dogs (30/71) compared to control dogs (8/67) had developed chronic gastrointestinal signs later in their lives (P < 0.001). No significant differences were observed regarding skin diseases (P = 1), cardiac problems (P = 0.160), or any other diseases (P = 0.173) later in life. Results of this study suggest that dogs that survive CPV infection have a significantly higher risk (odds ratio = 5.33) for developing a chronic gastrointestinal disease. Further prospective studies to identify the trigger for the development of chronic diarrhoea and possible targeted treatment strategies are needed.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in southern India

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    V. M. Vivek Srinivas,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize canine parvovirus circulating in Southern India by genetic analysis of VP2 capsid protein gene.Materials and Methods: In this study, 128 samples were collected from nine different locations covering five Southern Indian states (Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka . Out of 128 samples, 69 samples were found to be positive by PCR assay. Out of 69 positive samples, 36 were randomly selected and processed for virus isolation. Twenty viruses could be isolated successfully and 18 randomly selected isolate were subjected to VP2 gene sequence analysis along with 6 random clinical samples.Result: Seventeen isolates and 5 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala. But one isolate and one clinical sample had amino acids variations which were characteristics of New CPV-2b. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that one of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2b strains of India; rest other sequences was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a reference strains of Japan, China, Thailand and India.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the predominant CPV strain circulating in Southern India is New CPV-2a. There is also enough indication of New CPV-2b strain from different states of Southern India.

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Canine Parvovirus VP2 Gene in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, L; Tong, M; Cheng, Y; Song, W; Cheng, S

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a total of 37 samples (58.0%) were found through PCR assay to be positive for canine parvovirus (CPV) of 66 suspected faecal samples of dogs collected from various cities throughout China. Eight CPV isolates could be obtained in the CRFK cell line. The sequencing of the VP2 gene of CPV identified the predominant CPV strain as CPV-2a (Ser297Ala), with two CPV-2b (Ser297Ala). Sequence comparison revealed homologies of 99.3-99.9%, 99.9% and 99.3-99.7% within the CPV 2a isolates, within the CPV 2b isolates and between the CPV 2a and 2b isolates, respectively. In addition, several non-synonymous and synonymous mutations were also recorded. The phylogenetic tree revealed that most of the CPV strains from different areas in China were located in the formation of a large branch, which were grouped together along with the KU143-09 strain from Thailand and followed the same evolution. In this study, we provide an updated molecular characterization of CPV 2 circulation in China. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  17. Factors affecting the occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Carvalheira, Júlio; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2015-10-22

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus infecting canids worldwide. The purpose of this study was to detect CPV in naturally infected dogs from several veterinary clinics distributed throughout Portugal between 2012 and 2014 and to identify risk factors associated with CPV infection. From 209 dogs suspected of being infected with CPV, historical data and clinical signs were collected. Fecal samples were screened for CPV by PCR assay and those positive were confirmed by sequencing. The data was analyzed using logistic regression to investigate associations between each of the predisposing factors and CPV status. Of the samples collected, 77.5% tested CPV-positive. Statistical analysis showed that animals in the three age categories (pdogs be infected with CPV. On the other hand, clinical signs such as depression [OR=4.4, p=0.02] and dehydration status [OR=2.38, p=0.001] made dogs more likely to be CPV-infected. The results indicate that although having a high morbidity, only 18% of the Portuguese dog population died in the study. Some of the risk factors identified in this study have not been commonly reported, yet they are easy to obtain and can be used as prognostic indicators in the veterinary practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic analysis of canine parvovirus from dogs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meers, J; Kyaw-Tanner, M; Bensink, Z; Zwijnenberg, R

    2007-10-01

    To determine the genetic variants of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV) present in domestic dogs in Australia and to investigate 26 cases of apparent vaccine failure. Thirty-three samples of faeces or intestinal tissues and 16 cell culture virus isolates collected over a period from 1980 to 2005 from five Australian states were analysed. Procedure DNA was extracted from the samples and a 1975 bp fragment of the VP1/2 gene of CPV was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequences were compared to published strains of CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Forty-one of 43 PCR-positive samples contained CPV-2a viruses. One sample collected in 2002 from a pup in northern NSW contained a CPV-2b virus. One sample that had been included in the study as a CPV-antigen negative control sample contained a CPV-2 virus. CPV-2a remains the predominant genetic variant of CPV in dogs in Australia and has not been replaced by CPV-2b or CPV-2c as in many other countries. The vaccine failures investigated in the study were likely caused not by genetic variation of field viruses but by maternal antibody interference in the response of pups to vaccination.

  19. Molecular characterisation and nucleotide sequence analysis of canine parvovirus strains in vaccines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukdeb Nandi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV‑2 is one of the most important viruses that causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis of dogs worldwide. The picture has been complicated further due to the emergence of new mutants of CPV, namely: CPV‑2a, CPV‑2b and CPV‑2c. In this study, the molecular characterisation of strains present in the CPV vaccines available on the Indian market was performed using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The VP1/VP2 genes of two vaccine strains and a field strain (Bhopal were sequenced and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. The results indicated that the isolate belonged to CPV type 2b and the strains in the vaccines belonged to type CPV‑2. From the study, it is inferred that the CPV strain used in commercially available vaccine preparation differed from the strains present in CPV infection in dogs in India

  20. Molecular characterisation and nucleotide sequence analysis of canine parvovirus strains in vaccines in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sukdeb; Anbazhagan, Rajendra; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is one of the most important viruses that causes haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and myocarditis of dogs worldwide. The picture has been complicated further due to the emergence of new mutants of CPV, namely: CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. In this study, the molecular characterisation of strains present in the CPV vaccines available on the Indian market was performed using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. The VP1/VP2 genes of two vaccine strains and a field strain (Bhopal) were sequenced and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared. The results indicated that the isolate belonged to CPV type 2b and the strains in the vaccines belonged to type CPV-2. From the study, it is inferred that the CPV strain used in commercially available vaccine preparation differed from the strains present in CPV infection in dogs in India.

  1. Analysis of the VP2 protein gene of canine parvovirus strains from affected dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Takehisa; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Ohinata, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Hara, Motonobu

    2013-04-01

    To clarify the evolution of canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) that has recently been epidemic in Japan, VP2 gene sequences at positions 3556-4166 were analyzed in 107 CPV-2 strains obtained from rectal swabs of diarrheic dogs from 2009 to 2011. CPV-2b (95 strains) was more frequently detected than CPV-2a (nine strains), while CPV-2c was not detected. Remaining three strains were identified as the original type CPV-2, which should be derived from vaccines. These findings are similar to the previous results involving Japanese strains, suggesting there has been no great change in the recent CPV-2 epidemic in Japan. This epidemic is the same as that in Taiwan. Furthermore, a 324-lle mutant, which has been reported in Korean and Chinese strains, was detected in 66.7% of CPV-2a strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of three laboratorial tests for diagnosis of canine parvovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.O. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rapid tests currently used for canine parvovirus (CPV diagnosis: hemagglutination test (HA, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A total of 112 fecal samples collected from diarrheic puppies up to one year of age were tested. The EIA was able to detect CPV antigen in 44 samples. By HA, 32 samples tested highly positive with titers >128, eight tested weakly positive (titers 32 and 64 and 72 were negative (titers <16. Using PCR, 57 samples were found positive including 13 EIA-negative and 19 HA-negative samples. The best correlation was observed between EIA and PCR (88.4%. These tests were able to detect all types of CPV, including CPV-2c. Considering that 23%-33% of dogs presenting enteritis did not show infection by EIA nor HA, negative results from the antigen detection tests should be confirmed through molecular methods.

  3. Inactivated recombinant plant virus protects dogs from a lethal challenge with canine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J.P.M.; Brennan, F.R.; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    A vaccine based upon a recombinant plant virus (CPMV-PARVO1), displaying a peptide derived from the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV), has previously been described. To date, studies with the vaccine have utilized viable plant chimaeric particles (CVPs). In this study, CPMV-PARVO1...

  4. Purification of infectious canine parvovirus from cell culture by affinity chromatography with monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Groen (Jan); N. Juntti; J.S. Teppema; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractImmuno affinity chromatography with virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, directed to the haemagglutinating protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) was used to purify and concentrate CPV from infected cell culture. The procedure was monitored by testing the respective fractions in an

  5. High local genetic diversity of canine parvovirus from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaz, Jaime; García-Díaz, Juan; Calleros, Lucía; Sosa, Katia; Iraola, Gregorio; Marandino, Ana; Hernández, Martín; Panzera, Yanina; Pérez, Ruben

    2013-09-27

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) that are distributed globally with different frequencies and levels of genetic variability. CPVs from central Ecuador were herein analyzed to characterize the strains and to provide new insights into local viral diversity, evolution, and pathogenicity. Variant prevalence was analyzed by PCR and partial sequencing for 53 CPV-positive samples collected during 2011 and 2012. The full-length VP2 gene was sequenced in 24 selected strains and a maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was constructed using both Ecuadorian and worldwide strains. Ecuadorian CPVs have a remarkable genetic diversity that includes the circulation of all three variants and the existence of different evolutionary groups or lineages. CPV-2c was the most prevalent variant (54.7%), confirming the spread of this variant in America. Ecuadorian CPV-2c strains clustered in two lineages, which represent the first evidence of polyphyletic CPV-2c circulating in South America. CPV-2a strains constituted 41.5% of the samples and clustered in a single lineage. The two detected CPV-2b strains (3.8%) were clearly polyphyletic and appeared related to Ecuadorian CPV-2a or foreign CPV-2b strains. Besides the substitution at residue 426 that is used to identify the variants, two amino acid changes occurred in Ecuadorian strains: Val139Iso and Thr440Ser. Ser(440) occurred in a biologically relevant domain of VP2 and is here described for the first time in CPV. The associations of Ecuadorian CPV-2c and CPV-2a with clinical symptoms indicate that dull mentation, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and hypothermia occurred more frequently in infection with CPV-2c than with CPV-2a. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A phylogenetic study of canine parvovirus type 2c in midwestern Brazil Estudo filogenético do parvovírus canino tipo 2c no Centro-Oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúbia S. Fontana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1970s, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 has emerged as a causative agent of fatal severe acute hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. To date, three antigenic types of CPV-2 were described worldwide (CPV-2a/b/c. This study was conducted to determine the variants of CPV-2 circulating in dogs from the Cuiabá Municipality in Midwestern Brazil. Out of 50 fecal samples, collected between 2009 and 2011, 27 tested positive for CPV-2. A 583 bp fragment of the VP2 gene was amplified by PCR, 13 representative samples were analyzed further by DNA sequencing. All strains were characterized as CPV-2c, displayed a low genetic variability although observed several amino acid substitution. These findings indicated that CPV-2c has been circulating in dogs from the Cuiabá Municipality in Midwestern Brazil.Desde o final dos anos de 1970, o parvovírus canino tipo 2 (CPV-2 tem emergido como agente de severa e fatal enterite hemorrágica, principalmente em cães com idade inferior a seis meses. Três variantes antigênicas de CPV-2 foram descritas mundialmente (CPV-2a/b/c. O objetivo do estudo foi determinar a presença do CPV-2 e suas variantes circulantes em cães no Município de Cuiabá, Centro-oeste, Brasil. Das 50 amostras fecais, coletadas entre 2009 e 2011, 27 foram positivas para CPV-2 na PCR, sendo 13 analisadas pelo sequenciamento de um fragmento de 583 pares de base do gene VP2. Todas as cepas foram caracterizadas como CPV-2c e apresentaram baixa variabilidade genética. Estes achados indicaram que o CPV-2c está circulando na população canina do Município de Cuiabá, Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil.

  7. Efficacy of an inactivated feline panleucopenia virus vaccine against a canine parvovirus isolated from a domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamoh, K; Senda, M; Inoue, Y; Itoh, O

    2005-09-03

    Canine parvovirus type 2a (CPV-2a) and type 2b (CPV-2b) have recently been isolated from cats throughout the world, and CPV-2b strain FP84 has been reported to be virulent in domestic cats. Although live feline panleucopenia virus (FPLV) vaccines protect domestic cats from CPV infection, the efficacy of inactivated FPLV vaccines has not been established. In this study, two domestic cats were vaccinated with a commercial inactivated FPLV vaccine and challenged with CPV-2b strain FP84 isolated from a domestic cat. The cats were protected against CPV-2b strain FP84 infection and their clinical signs were suppressed, although the two unvaccinated cats showed the typical clinical signs of parvovirus infection.

  8. First Isolation of New Canine Parvovirus 2a from Tibetan Mastiff and Global Analysis of the Full-Length VP2 Gene of Canine Parvoviruses 2 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2 was first identified in 1978, and is responsible for classic parvoviral enteritis. Despite the widespread vaccination of domestic carnivores, CPVs have remained important pathogens of domestic and wild carnivores. In this study, we isolated CPV-2 from Tibetan mastiffs and performed a global analysis of the complete VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 strains in China. Six isolates were typed as new CPV-2a, according to key amino acid positions. On a phylogenetic tree, these six sequences formed a distinct clade. Five isolates occurred on the same branch as KF785794 from China and GQ379049 from Thailand; CPV-LS-ZA1 formed a separate subgroup with FJ435347 from China. One hundred ninety-eight sequences from various parts of China and the six sequences isolated here formed seven distinct clusters, indicating the high diversity of CPVs in China. Of 204 VP2 sequences, 183 (91.04% encoded the mutation Ser297Ala, regardless of the antigenic type, implying that most Chinese CPV-2 strains contain the VP2 mutation Ser297Ala. However, the biological significance of this change from prototype CPV-2a/2b to new CPV-2a/2b types remains unclear. This study is the first to isolate new CPV-2a from the Tibetan mastiff. Our data show that new CPV-2a/2b variants are now circulating in China.

  9. First Isolation of New Canine Parvovirus 2a from Tibetan Mastiff and Global Analysis of the Full-Length VP2 Gene of Canine Parvoviruses 2 in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhijun; Liang, Luqi; Zhao, Juan; Xu, Xiaoyang; Cao, Xuefeng; Liu, Xuehan; Zhou, Ziyao; Ren, Zhihua; Shen, Liuhong; Geng, Yi; Gu, Xiaobin; Peng, Guangneng

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) was first identified in 1978, and is responsible for classic parvoviral enteritis. Despite the widespread vaccination of domestic carnivores, CPVs have remained important pathogens of domestic and wild carnivores. In this study, we isolated CPV-2 from Tibetan mastiffs and performed a global analysis of the complete VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 strains in China. Six isolates were typed as new CPV-2a, according to key amino acid positions. On a phylogenetic tree, these six sequences formed a distinct clade. Five isolates occurred on the same branch as KF785794 from China and GQ379049 from Thailand; CPV-LS-ZA1 formed a separate subgroup with FJ435347 from China. One hundred ninety-eight sequences from various parts of China and the six sequences isolated here formed seven distinct clusters, indicating the high diversity of CPVs in China. Of 204 VP2 sequences, 183 (91.04%) encoded the mutation Ser297Ala, regardless of the antigenic type, implying that most Chinese CPV-2 strains contain the VP2 mutation Ser297Ala. However, the biological significance of this change from prototype CPV-2a/2b to new CPV-2a/2b types remains unclear. This study is the first to isolate new CPV-2a from the Tibetan mastiff. Our data show that new CPV-2a/2b variants are now circulating in China. PMID:25007818

  10. Canine parvovirus VP2 protein expressed in silkworm pupae self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity.

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    Hao Feng

    Full Text Available The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease.

  11. Canine parvovirus VP2 protein expressed in silkworm pupae self-assembles into virus-like particles with high immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hao; Hu, Gui-qiu; Wang, Hua-lei; Liang, Meng; Liang, Hongru; Guo, He; Zhao, Pingsen; Yang, Yu-jiao; Zheng, Xue-xing; Zhang, Zhi-fang; Zhao, Yong-kun; Gao, Yu-wei; Yang, Song-tao; Xia, Xian-zhu

    2014-01-01

    The VP2 structural protein of parvovirus can produce virus-like particles (VLPs) by a self-assembly process in vitro, making VLPs attractive vaccine candidates. In this study, the VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) was expressed using a baculovirus expression system and assembled into parvovirus-like particles in insect cells and pupae. Electron micrographs of VLPs showed that they were very similar in size and morphology when compared to the wild-type parvovirus. The immunogenicity of the VLPs was investigated in mice and dogs. Mice immunized intramuscularly with purified VLPs, in the absence of an adjuvant, elicited CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses and were able to elicit a neutralizing antibody response against CPV, while the oral administration of raw homogenates containing VLPs to the dogs resulted in a systemic immune response and long-lasting immunity. These results demonstrate that the CPV-VLPs stimulate both cellular and humoral immune responses, and so CPV-VLPs may be a promising candidate vaccine for the prevention of CPV-associated disease.

  12. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089666

  13. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Two potential recombinant rabies vaccines expressing canine parvovirus virion protein 2 induce immunogenicity to canine parvovirus and rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Shi, Hehe; Tan, Yeping; Niu, Xuefeng; Long, Teng; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-17

    Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro. The expression of VP2 in Crandell feline kidney cells post-infection by rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with antibody against VP2. Immunogenicity of recombinant rabies viruses was tested in Kunming mice. Both rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 induced high levels of rabies antibody compared with HEP-Flury. Mice immunized with rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 both had a high level of antibodies against VP2, which can protect against CPV infection. A challenge experiment indicated that more than 80% mice immunized with recombinant RABVs survived after infection of challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24). Together, this study showed that recombinant RABVs expressing VP2 induced protective immune responses to RABV and CPV. Therefore, rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 might be potential combined vaccines for RABV and CPV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterisation of canine parvovirus strains isolated from cats with feline panleukopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Desario, Costantina; Amorisco, Francesca; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Terio, Valentina; Elia, Gabriella; Lucente, Maria Stella; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-10-01

    Unlike the original canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), CPV-2 variants have gained the ability to replicate in vivo in cats but there is limited information on the disease patterns induced by these variants in the feline host. During 2008, two distinct cases of parvoviral infection were diagnosed in our laboratories. A CPV-2a variant was identified in a 3-month-old Persian kitten displaying clinical sign of feline panleukopenia (FPL) (acute gastroenteritis and marked leukopenia) and oral ulcerations, that died eight days after the onset of the disease. Two pups living in the same pet shop as the cat were found to shed a CPV-2a strain genetically identical to the feline virus and were likely the source of infection. Also, non-fatal infection by a CPV-2c strain occurred in a 2.5-month-old European shorthair kitten displaying non-haemorrhagic diarrhoea and normal white blood cell counts. By sequence analysis of the major capsid protein (VP2) gene, the feline CPV-2c strain showed 100% identity to a recent canine type-2c isolate. Both kittens had been administered multivalent vaccines against common feline pathogens including FPL virus. Whether and to which extent the FPL vaccines can protect cats adequately from the antigenic variants of CPV-2 should be assessed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Duration of Immunity to an Inactivated Adjuvanted Canine Parvovirus Vaccine. A 52 and 64 Week Postvaccination Challenge Study

    OpenAIRE

    Povey, R. C.; Carman, P. S.; Ewert, E.

    1983-01-01

    Dogs were successfully isolated for a period of either 52 or 64 weeks following vaccination with an inactivated, adjuvanted canine parvovirus-2 vaccine. Antibody persisted in all ten vaccinated dogs, although in one case by 52 weeks postvaccination only virus neutralizing antibody, and not hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody, could be detected. Sentinel unvaccinated dogs housed alongside the vaccinated dogs throughout the study remained free of canine parvovirus-2 antibody until challenged. ...

  17. Development of a Vaccine Incorporating Killed Virus of Canine Origin for the Prevention of Canine Parvovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, C.

    1982-01-01

    A parvovirus of canine origin, cultured in a feline kidney cell line, was inactivated with formalin. Three pilot serials were produced and three forms of finished vaccine (nonadjuvanted, single adjuvanted and double adjuvanted) were tested in vaccination and challenge trials. A comparison was also made with two inactivated feline panleukopenia virus vaccines, one of which has official approval for use in dogs. The inactivated canine vaccine in nonadjuvanted, adjuvanted or double adjuvanted form was immunogenic in 20 of 20 vaccinated dogs. The double adjuvanted vaccine is selected as the one of choice on the basis of best and most persistent seriological response. PMID:7039811

  18. Full-length VP2 gene analysis of canine parvovirus reveals emergence of newer variants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookala, Mangadevi; Mukhopadhyay, Hirak Kumar; Sivaprakasam, Amsaveni; Balasubramanian, Brindhalakshmi; Antony, Prabhakar Xavier; Thanislass, Jacob; Srinivas, Mouttou Vivek; Pillai, Raghavan Madhusoodanan

    2016-12-01

    The canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a highly contagious and serious enteric disease of dogs with high fatality rate. The present study was taken up to characterize the full-length viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of CPV of Indian origin along with the commercially available vaccines. The faecal samples from parvovirus suspected dogs were collected from various states of India for screening by PCR assay and 66.29% of samples were found positive. Six CPV-2a, three CPV-2b, and one CPV-2c types were identified by sequence analysis. Several unique and existing mutations have been noticed in CPV types analyzed indicating emergence of newer variants of CPV in India. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the field CPV types were grouped in different subclades within two main clades, but away from the commercial vaccine strains. CPV-2b and CPV-2c types with unique mutations were found to be establishing in India apart from the prevailing CPV-2a type. Mutations and the positive selection of the mutants were found to be the major mechanism of emergence and evolution of parvovirus. Therefore, the incorporation of local strain in the vaccine formulation may be considered for effective control of CPV infections in India.

  19. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species.

  20. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

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    Jason T Kaelber

    Full Text Available Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  1. Evolutionary reconstructions of the transferrin receptor of Caniforms supports canine parvovirus being a re-emerged and not a novel pathogen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelber, Jason T; Demogines, Ann; Harbison, Carole E; Allison, Andrew B; Goodman, Laura B; Ortega, Alicia N; Sawyer, Sara L; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses exploit transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR) for cellular entry in carnivores, and specific interactions are key to control of host range. We show that several key mutations acquired by TfR during the evolution of Caniforms (dogs and related species) modified the interactions with parvovirus capsids by reducing the level of binding. These data, along with signatures of positive selection in the TFRC gene, are consistent with an evolutionary arms race between the TfR of the Caniform clade and parvoviruses. As well as the modifications of amino acid sequence which modify binding, we found that a glycosylation site mutation in the TfR of dogs which provided resistance to the carnivore parvoviruses which were in circulation prior to about 1975 predates the speciation of coyotes and dogs. Because the closely-related black-backed jackal has a TfR similar to their common ancestor and lacks the glycosylation site, reconstructing this mutation into the jackal TfR shows the potency of that site in blocking binding and infection and explains the resistance of dogs until recent times. This alters our understanding of this well-known example of viral emergence by indicating that canine parvovirus emergence likely resulted from the re-adaptation of a parvovirus to the resistant receptor of a former host.

  2. Prevalence of protective antibody titers for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Elizabeth S; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Edinboro, Charlotte H; Dubovi, Edward J; Caligiuri, Randy

    2010-06-15

    To determine the proportion of dogs entering an animal shelter with protective antibody titers (PATs) for canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and identify factors associated with having a PAT. Cross-sectional study. 431 dogs admitted to an open-admission municipal animal shelter in north central Florida with a history of infectious disease outbreaks. Blood was collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were measured by virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. Age, sex, neuter status, address of origin, source (stray or previously owned), health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, euthanasia, or reclaimed by owner) data were also collected. Overall, 64.5% (278/431) of dogs had insufficient titers for antibodies against CDV, CPV, or both. A total of 153 (35.5%) dogs had PATs for both CDV and CPV, 33 (7.7%) had PATs for CDV but not CPV, 136 (31.5%) had PATs for CPV but not CDV, and 109 (25.3%) did not have PATs for either virus. Older dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV and CPV. Neutered dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV. Factors not associated with having a PAT included source, health status, and type of community from which the dog originated. Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.

  3. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of canine parvovirus 2c infection in dogs from southern Brazil

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    Pablo S.B. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c emerged in Europe in the early 2000’s and rapidly spread out worldwide. Clinical and molecular data have demonstrated its circulation in Brazilian dogs, yet detailed descriptions of cases are still lacking. This article describes the epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of 24 cases of CPV-2c-associated disease in dogs submitted to veterinary clinics and laboratory diagnosis in southern Brazil (2014-2016. Most affected dogs presented signs/lesions suggestive of parvovirus enteritis: diarrhea, vomiting, hyperemia and hemorrhage of the serous membrane of the small intestine, diffuse segmental granulation, atrophy of the villi, necrosis and fusion of crypts, squamous metaplasia and epithelial syncytia. A number of cases presented features divergent from the classical presentations, including a wide variation in the color of feces (reddish and/or yellowish, light-brownish, orange-brown and brownish, involvement of adults (4/24 and vaccinated dogs (12/24, extensive involvement of the small intestine (8/20 and the presence of pulmonary edema (7/24 and convulsions (3/24. Feces and intestinal fragments submitted to PCR for the CPV-2 VP2 gene and to virus isolation in cell culture yielded positive results in 100% and 58.3% (14/24 of the cases, respectively. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a high nucleotide identity in VP2 (99.4 to 100% and a consistent mutation at amino acid 426 (asparagine to glutamic acid, considered a signature of CPV-2c. These results confirm the involvement of CPV-2c in the described cases and demonstrate the importance of CPV-2c infection among Brazilian dogs, calling attention of veterinarians to correctly diagnose the disease, mainly considering the frequent atypical presentations.

  4. The Role of Evolutionary Intermediates in the Host Adaptation of Canine Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucker, Karla M.; Pagan, Israel; Cifuente, Javier O.; Kaelber, Jason T.; Lillie, Tyler D.; Hafenstein, Susan; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    The adaptation of viruses to new hosts is a poorly understood process likely involving a variety of viral structures and functions that allow efficient replication and spread. Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged in the late 1970s as a host-range variant of a virus related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). Within a few years of its emergence in dogs, there was a worldwide replacement of the initial virus strain (CPV type 2) by a variant (CPV type 2a) characterized by four amino acid differences in the capsid protein. However, the evolutionary processes that underlie the acquisition of these four mutations, as well as their effects on viral fitness, both singly and in combination, are still uncertain. Using a comprehensive experimental analysis of multiple intermediate mutational combinations, we show that these four capsid mutations act in concert to alter antigenicity, cell receptor binding, and relative in vitro growth in feline cells. Hence, host adaptation involved complex interactions among both surface-exposed and buried capsid mutations that together altered cell infection and immune escape properties of the viruses. Notably, most intermediate viral genotypes containing different combinations of the four key amino acids possessed markedly lower fitness than the wild-type viruses. PMID:22114336

  5. Isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2c circulating in Uruguay Isolamento e caracterização da cepa tipo 2c do parvovirus canino circulante no Uruguai

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    Andrea Blanc Pintos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research reports the first CPV-2c isolation in cell culture (canine fibroma cell line A-72 in Uruguay. The isolates were obtained from 13 rectal swabs of Uruguayan dogs with parvovirosis. Samples were submitted to PCR with two sets of primers, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, partial sequencing of the gene encoding for VP2 capsid protein and phylogenetic characterization. The strain isolated was confirmed as CPV-2c. These results contribute to a better knowledge of CPV strains circulating in Uruguay and promote an evaluation of the efficacy of heterologous vaccines used to protect against the circulating strains.Este trabalho relata o primeiro isolamento do CPV-2c em cultura de células (linhagem celular de fibroma canino A-72, no Uruguai. Os isolados foram obtidos a partir de 13 suabes retais de cães uruguaios com parvovirose. As amostras foram submetidas à reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR com dois pares de primers, polimorfismo de comprimento de fragmentos de restrição (RFLP, sequenciamento parcial do gene que codifica a proteína capsidial VP2 e caracterização filogenética. A cepa isolada foi confirmada como CPV-2c. Os resultados contribuem para um melhor conhecimento das cepas do CPV circulantes no Uruguai e incitam uma maior investigação sobre a eficácia das vacinas produzidas com cepas heterólogas utilizadas atualmente para proteger contra cepas circulantes.

  6. The relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index, rainfall and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika-Heke, Tamara; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the association between climate, weather and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly average rainfall (mm) data were used as indices for climate and weather, respectively. Case data were extracted from a voluntary national companion animal disease surveillance resource. Climate and weather data were obtained from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. During the 4-year study period (January 2010-December 2013), a total of 4742 canine parvovirus cases and 8417 tick paralysis cases were reported. No significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations were found between the SOI and parvovirus, canine tick paralysis or feline tick paralysis. A significant (P parvovirus occurrence and rainfall in the same month (0.28), and significant negative cross-correlations (-0.26 to -0.36) between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall 4-6 months previously. Significant (P canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 1-3 months previously, and significant positive cross-correlations (0.29-0.47) between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 7-10 months previously. Significant positive cross-correlations (0.37-0.68) were found between cases of feline tick paralysis and rainfall 6-10 months previously. These findings may offer a useful tool for the management and prevention of tick paralysis and canine parvovirus, by providing an evidence base supporting the recommendations of veterinarians to clients thus reducing the impact of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of canine parvovirus with the Q370R point mutation in the VP2 gene from a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2 genes from twelve canine parvovirus (CPV) strains obtained from eleven domestic dogs and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. A novel canine parvovirus (CPV) was detected from the giant panda in China. Results Nucleotide and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein VP2 gene classified the CPV as a new CPV-2a type. Substitution of Gln for Arg at the conserved 370 residue in CPV presents an unusual variation in the new CPV-2a amino acid sequence of the giant panda and is further evidence for the continuing evolution of the virus. Conclusions These findings extend the knowledge on CPV molecular epidemiology of particular relevance to wild carnivores. PMID:23706032

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene of canine parvovirus and comparison with Indian and world isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, G; Chandra, M; Dwivedi, P N

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) causes hemorrhagic enteritis, especially in young dogs, leading to high morbidity and mortality. It has four main antigenic types CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c. Virus protein 2 (VP2) is the main capsid protein and mutations affecting VP2 gene are responsible for the evolution of various antigenic types of CPV. Full length VP2 gene from field isolates was amplified and cloned for sequence analysis. The sequences were submitted to the GenBank and were assigned Acc. Nos., viz. KP406928.1 for P12, KP406927.1 for P15, KP406930.1 for P32, KP406926.1 for Megavac-6 and KP406929.1 for NobivacDHPPi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the samples were forming a separate clad with vaccine strains. When the samples were compared with the world and Indian isolates, it was observed that samples formed a separate node indicating regional genetic variation in CPV.

  9. Resurgence of canine parvovirus 2a strain in the domestic dog population from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Marina Gallo; Romanutti, Carina; Wilda, Maximiliano; D' Antuono, Alejandra; Keller, Leticia; Giacomodonato, Mónica N; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, José

    2015-09-15

    Ninety-three rectal swab samples were taken, from dogs suspected of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection and analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the VP2 gene, was amplified in 41 (44%) of them, resulting CPV positive samples. Sequencing analysis of these PCR products showed that 37 samples (90.2%) belonged to the CPV2c type, whereas four samples (9.8%) were identified as CPV2a, which has not been found since 2008. It was also found that 24 out of 37 CPV2c samples (65%), carried the mutation Thr440Ala, whereas this mutation was absent in the four CPV2a strains reported herein. Using phylogenetic analysis of the full length VP2 gene, which was amplified by PCR in six local samples, it was seen that CPV2a Argentine strains reported in this study, were genetically closer to a previous local CPV2a isolate (year 2003) and to a South African CPV2a strain, than to any of the recently reported Uruguayan CPV2a strains. The results obtained in this work, together with those reported previously in Uruguay strongly suggest that, in spite of the geographical proximity, wild type CPV strains undergo different evolutive pathways in each country, resulting in the prevalence of different strains in related dog populations. Further extensive epidemiological studies are needed in order to improve the understanding of CPV evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates from Sichuan and Gansu provinces of China in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Guo, H-C; Wei, Y-Q; Shu, L; Wang, J; Li, J-S; Cao, S-Z; Sun, S-Q

    2015-02-01

    Canine parvovirus causes serious disease in dogs. Study of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is important for disease control strategy. The antigenic property of CPV is connected with specific amino acid changes, mainly in the capsid protein VP2. This study was carried out to characterize VP2 gene of CPV viruses from two provinces of China in 2011. The complete VP2 genes of the CPV-positive samples were amplified and sequenced. Genetic analysis based on the VP2 genes of CPV was conducted. All of the isolates screened and sequenced in this study were typed as CPV-2a except GS-K11 strain, which was typed as CPV-2b. Sequence comparison showed nucleotide identities of 98.8-100% among CPV strains, whereas the Aa similarities were 99.6-100%. Compared with the reference strains, there are three distinctive amino acid changes at VP2 gene residue 267, 324 and 440 of the strains isolated in this study. Of the 27 strains, fourteen (51.85%) had the 267 (Phe-Tyr) and 440 (Thr-Ala) substitution, all the 27 (100%) had 324 (Tyr-Ile) substitution. Phylogenetically, all of the strains isolated in this study formed a major monophyletic cluster together with one South Korean isolate, two Thailand isolates and four Chinese former isolates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Epidemiological evolution of canine parvovirus in the Portuguese domestic dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Parrish, Colin R; Thompson, Gertrude

    2016-02-01

    Since its emergence, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) has caused disease pandemics with severe gastroenteritis signs, infecting especially puppies. As a consequence of CPV rapid evolution a variety of genetic and antigenic variants have been reported circulating worldwide. The detection of additional variants of CPV circulating in the dog population in Portugal suggests monitoring of the disease is useful. The objectives of this study were to further detect and characterize circulating field variants from suspected CPV diseased dogs that were admitted to veterinary clinics distributed throughout the country, during 2012-2014. Of the 260 fecal samples collected, 198 were CPV positive by PCR, and CPV antigen was detected in 61/109 samples by Immunochromatographic (IC) test. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 167 samples revealed that 86 were the CPV-2c. Sequence analysis of the 198 strains confirmed that CPV-2c were the dominant variant (51.5%), followed by CPV-2b (47.5%) and CPV-2a (1%). The variants were irregularly distributed throughout the country and some were detected with additional non-synonymous mutations in the VP2 gene. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolates were similar to other European strains, and that this virus continues to evolve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Full-length genomic characterization and molecular evolution of canine parvovirus in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Tang, Qinghai; Shi, Lijun; Kong, Miaomiao; Liang, Lin; Mao, Qianqian; Bu, Bin; Yao, Lunguang; Zhao, Kai; Cui, Shangjin; Leal, Élcio

    2016-06-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) can cause acute haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs and myocarditis in puppies. This disease has become one of the most serious infectious diseases of dogs. During 2014 in China, there were many cases of acute infectious diarrhoea in dogs. Some faecal samples were negative for the CPV-2 antigen based on a colloidal gold test strip but were positive based on PCR, and a viral strain was isolated from one such sample. The cytopathic effect on susceptible cells and the results of the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay, PCR, and sequencing indicated that the pathogen was CPV-2. The strain was named CPV-NY-14, and the full-length genome was sequenced and analysed. A maximum likelihood tree was constructed using the full-length genome and all available CPV-2 genomes. New strains have replaced the original strain in Taiwan and Italy, although the CPV-2a strain is still predominant there. However, CPV-2a still causes many cases of acute infectious diarrhoea in dogs in China.

  13. Evolutionary and genetic analysis of the VP2 gene of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gairu; Ji, Senlin; Zhai, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yuxiang; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Mengyan; Zhou, Jiyong; Su, Shuo

    2017-07-17

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2 emerged in 1978 in the USA and quickly spread among dog populations all over the world with high morbidity. Although CPV is a DNA virus, its genomic substitution rate is similar to some RNA viruses. Therefore, it is important to trace the evolution of CPV to monitor the appearance of mutations that might affect vaccine effectiveness. Our analysis shows that the VP2 genes of CPV isolated from 1979 to 2016 are divided into six groups: GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, and GVI. Amino acid mutation analysis revealed several undiscovered important mutation sites: F267Y, Y324I, and T440A. Of note, the evolutionary rate of the CPV VP2 gene from Asia and Europe decreased. Codon usage analysis showed that the VP2 gene of CPV exhibits high bias with an ENC ranging from 34.93 to 36.7. Furthermore, we demonstrate that natural selection plays a major role compared to mutation pressure driving CPV evolution. There are few studies on the codon usage of CPV. Here, we comprehensively studied the genetic evolution, codon usage pattern, and evolutionary characterization of the VP2 gene of CPV. The novel findings revealing the evolutionary process of CPV will greatly serve future CPV research.

  14. Genetic analysis of the VP2-encoding gene of canine parvovirus strains from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogonyaro, Banenat B; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Sibeko, Kgomotso P; Venter, Estelle H; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2013-08-30

    Since the emergence of canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) in the early 1970s, it has been evolving into novel genetic and antigenic variants (CPV-2a, 2b and 2c) that are unevenly distributed throughout the world. Genetic characterization of CPV-2 has not been documented in Africa since 1998 apart from the study carried out in Tunisia 2009. A total of 139 field samples were collected from South Africa and Nigeria, detected using PCR and the full length VP2-encoding gene of 27 positive samples were sequenced and genetically analyzed. Nigerian samples (n=6), South Africa (n=19) and vaccine strains (n=2) were compared with existing sequences obtained from GenBank. The results showed the presence of both CPV-2a and 2b in South Africa and only CPV-2a in Nigeria. No CPV-2c strain was detected during this study. Phylogenetic analysis showed a clustering not strictly associated with the geographical origin of the analyzed strains, although most of the South African strains tended to cluster together and the viral strains analyzed in this study were not completely distinct from CPV-2 strains from other parts of the world. Amino acid analysis showed predicted amino acid changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Löfling, Jonas [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R. [Baker Institute for Animal Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Varki, Ajit, E-mail: a1varki@ucsd.edu [Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Glycobiology Research and Training Center, Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny, 9500 Gilman Drive, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-05-25

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH.

  16. Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Löfling, Jonas; Michael Lyi, Sangbom; Parrish, Colin R.; Varki, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a pathogen whose canine-adapted form (canine parvovirus (CPV)) emerged in 1978. These viruses infect by binding host transferrin receptor type-1 (TfR), but also hemagglutinate erythrocytes. We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 sialyltransferase did not change binding, indicating that both α2-3 and α2-6 linkages are recognized. However, Neu5Gc expression on target cells did not enhance CPV or FPV infection in vitro. Thus, the conserved Neu5Gc-binding preference of these viruses likely plays a role in the natural history of the virus in vivo. Further studies must clarify relationships between virus infection and host Neu5Gc expression. As a first step, we show that transcripts of CMAH (which generates Neu5Gc from Neu5Ac) are at very low levels in Western dog breed cells. - Highlights: ► Feline and canine parvoviruses recognize Neu5Gc but not Neu5Ac, which differ by one oxygen atom. ► The underlying linkage of these sialic acids does not affect recognition. ► Induced Neu5Gc expression on target cells that normally express Neu5Ac did not enhance infection. ► Thus, the conserved binding preference plays an important yet unknown role in in vivo infections. ► Population and breed variations in Neu5Gc expression occur, likely by regulating the gene CMAH

  17. Evidence for natural recombination between mink enteritis virus and canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jianke

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A virus was isolated from mink showing clinical and pathological signs of enteritis in China. This virus, designated MEV/LN-10, was identified as mink enteritis virus (MEV based on its cytopathic effect in the feline F81 cell line, the hemagglutination (HA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI assay, electron microscopy (EM and animal infection experiments. The complete viral genome was cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses on the complete MEV/LN-10 genome showed evidence of recombination between MEV and canine parvovirus (CPV. The genome was composed of the NS1 gene originating from CPV while the VP1 gene was of MEV origin. This is the first demonstration of recombination between a CPV and MEV in nature. Our findings not only provide valuable evidence indicating that recombination is an important genetic mechanism contributing to the variation and evolution of MEV, but also that heterogeneous recombination can occur in the feline parvovirus subspecies.

  18. The Prospect of Immunoglobulin Y for Therapy of Canine parvovirus Infection in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is a highly infectious virus. The virus causes death in dogs worldwide. The mortality rate due to infection of CPV in dog reaches 91%. Prevention of CPV infection in puppies has been done by vaccination which is effectively proven. Protective mechanisms of maternal antibodies contribute to the failure of vaccination. Highly stable characteristics of parvovirus enable the virus still exist in the environment. Various therapies are performed only to suppress the clinical symptoms but can not reduce puppy mortalities. This review discusses CPV alternative therapy and the advantages using immunoglobulin Y (IgY specific antibodies isolated from chicken egg yolk. Immunoglobulin Y will neutralize the virus, so it can not infect host cells. Intravenous IgY therapy has shown to suppress the spread of CPV infection and prevent death.

  19. Circulation of canine parvovirus among dogs living in human-wildlife interface in the Atlantic forest biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia V. Vieira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of the role of domestic dogs as reservoirs for threatening viral diseases for wild carnivores, few studies have focused to identify circulation of viruses among dogs living in human/wildlife interfaces. To identify canine parvovirus (CPV types circulating in dogs living in an Atlantic forest biome, faecal samples (n = 100 were collected at the same period (one week corresponding to each of four areas, during 2014 to 2016 and corresponded to 100 different individuals. CPV was isolated in cell culture from 67 out 100 (67% samples from healthy dogs. Cytopathic effects were characterized by total or partial cell culture lysis. Genome sequences of CPV-2a (10%, CPV-2b (7% and CPV-2c (50% were concomitantly detected by PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The current study addresses the importance of monitoring CPV circulation among dogs presenting potential contact with wildlife species.

  20. Isolation of Canine parvovirus with a view to identify the prevalent serotype on the basis of partial sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate Canine parvovirus (CPV from suspected dogs on madin darby canine kidney (MDCK cell line and its confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and nested PCR (NPCR. Further, VP2 gene of the CPV isolates was amplified and sequenced to determine prevailing antigenic type. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 rectal swabs were collected from dogs showing signs of gastroenteritis, processed and subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line. The samples showing cytopathic effects (CPE were confirmed by PCR and NPCR. These samples were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene of CPV, sequenced and analyzed to study the prevailing antigenic types of CPV. Results: Out of the 60 samples subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line five samples showed CPE in the form of rounding of cells, clumping of cells and finally detachment of the cells. When these samples and the two commercially available vaccines were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene, a 1710 bp product was amplified. The sequence analysis revealed that the vaccines belonged to the CPV-2 type and the samples were of CPV-2b type. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that out of a total of 60 samples 5 samples exhibited CPE as observed in MDCK cell line. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene among the samples and vaccine strains revealed that samples belonged to CPV-2b type and vaccines belonging to CPV-2.

  1. Isolation of Canine parvovirus with a view to identify the prevalent serotype on the basis of partial sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Chandra, Mudit; Dwivedi, P N; Sharma, N S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate Canine parvovirus (CPV) from suspected dogs on madin darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and its confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR (NPCR). Further, VP2 gene of the CPV isolates was amplified and sequenced to determine prevailing antigenic type. A total of 60 rectal swabs were collected from dogs showing signs of gastroenteritis, processed and subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line. The samples showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were confirmed by PCR and NPCR. These samples were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene of CPV, sequenced and analyzed to study the prevailing antigenic types of CPV. Out of the 60 samples subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line five samples showed CPE in the form of rounding of cells, clumping of cells and finally detachment of the cells. When these samples and the two commercially available vaccines were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene, a 1710 bp product was amplified. The sequence analysis revealed that the vaccines belonged to the CPV-2 type and the samples were of CPV-2b type. It can be concluded from the present study that out of a total of 60 samples 5 samples exhibited CPE as observed in MDCK cell line. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene among the samples and vaccine strains revealed that samples belonged to CPV-2b type and vaccines belonging to CPV-2.

  2. Preliminary development of a live attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine from an isolate of British origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, A E

    1987-04-04

    Canine parvovirus isolated from a case of haemorrhagic enteritis in a breeding kennel in England was passaged and cloned in cultured feline and canine cells. No significant evidence of pathogenicity was found during six serial passages of the modified virus back through young dogs. The attenuated virus was excreted by inoculated animals and spread rapidly to uninoculated animals held in contact. When high titre attenuated virus was given to the six-week-old offspring of a seropositive dam a prompt seroconversion was observed. When the attenuated virus was used as an experimental vaccine in 108 pups in an infected breeding colony a highly significant improvement was obtained in the accumulated morbidity and mortality compared with a parallel group vaccinated with modified live feline panleucopenia virus.

  3. Presence of infectious RD-114 virus in a proportion of canine parvovirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Sato, Eiji; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    We recently found that certain canine live attenuated vaccines produced using `non-feline' cell lines were contaminated with an infectious feline endogenous retrovirus, termed RD-114 virus. We suspected that RD-114 virus may have contaminated the seed stock of canine parvovirus (CPV) during the production of the contaminated vaccines. In this study, we collected stock viruses of CPVs propagated in a feline cell line, and checked the presence of infectious RD-114 virus. Consequently, we found that RD-114 viral RNA was present in all stock viruses, and 7 out of 18 stock viruses were contaminated with infectious RD-114 virus. We also found that RD-114 virus was stable physically and is capable of retaining its infectivity for a long period at -80°C.

  4. Induction and characterization of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies reactive with idiotopes of canine parvovirus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. van Es (Johan); G.A. Drost; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractMonoclonal anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (Ab2) were generated against idiotypes (Id) of canine parvovirus (CPV) specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). The binding of most of these anti-Id antibodies to their corresponding Id could be inhibited by antigen, thus classifying these

  5. Delineation of canine parvovirus T cell epitopes with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cell clones from immunized dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); M.C.M. Poelen (Martien); R.H. Meloen; J. Carlson; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThree synthetic peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of VP2 of canine parvovirus (CPV) which were recently shown to represent three distinct T cell epitopes for BALB/c mice could prime BALB/c mice for a CPV-specific proliferative T cell response upon immunization. Proliferative

  6. First peptide vaccine providing protection against viral infection in the target animal: studies of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. Langeveld; J.I. Casal; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); E. Cortes; R.L. de Swart (Rik); C. Vela (Carmen); K. Dalsgaard (Kristian); W.C. Puijk (Wouter); W.M.M. Schaaper (Wim); R.H. Meloen

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA synthetic peptide vaccine which protects dogs against challenge with virulent canine parvovirus is described. The amino acid sequence used was discovered in previous studies on the immunogenic properties of previously mapped antigenic sites and represents the amino-terminal region of

  7. Molecular detection of canine parvovirus in flies (Diptera) at open and closed canine facilities in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Clarence; Isdell, Allen E; Thiruvaiyaru, Dharma S; Brisbin, I Lehr; Sanchez, Susan

    2014-06-01

    More than thirty years have passed since canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a significant pathogen and it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. Published information suggests that flies (Diptera) may play a role in spreading this virus; however, they have not been studied extensively and the degree of their involvement is not known. This investigation was directed toward evaluating the vector capacity of such flies and determining their potential role in the transmission and ecology of CPV. Molecular diagnostic methods were used in this cross-sectional study to detect the presence of CPV in flies trapped at thirty-eight canine facilities. The flies involved were identified as belonging to the house fly (Mucidae), flesh fly (Sarcophagidae) and blow/bottle fly (Calliphoridae) families. A primary surveillance location (PSL) was established at a canine facility in south-central South Carolina, USA, to identify fly-virus interaction within the canine facility environment. Flies trapped at this location were pooled monthly and assayed for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. These insects were found to be positive for CPV every month from February through the end of November 2011. Fly vector behavior and seasonality were documented and potential environmental risk factors were evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted to compare the mean numbers of each of the three fly families captured, and after determining fly CPV status (positive or negative), it was determined whether there were significant relationships between numbers of flies captured, seasonal numbers of CPV cases, temperature and rainfall. Flies were also sampled at thirty-seven additional canine facility surveillance locations (ASL) and at four non-canine animal industry locations serving as negative field controls. Canine facility risk factors were identified and evaluated. Statistical analyses were conducted on the number of CPV cases reported within the past year

  8. Genotyping and pathobiologic characterization of canine parvovirus circulating in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanbing; Lin, Yan; Zeng, Xujian; Lu, Chengping; Hou, Jiafa

    2013-08-29

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen that causes acute enteric disease in dogs. It has mutated and spread throughout the world in dog populations. We provide an update on the molecular characterization of CPV that circulated in Nanjing, a provincial capital in China between 2009 and 2012. Seventy rectal swab samples were collected from the dogs diagnosed with CPV infection in 8 animal hospitals of Nanjing. Sequence analysis of VP2 genes of 31 samples revealed that 29 viral strains belonged to CPV-2a subtype, while other two strains were classified into CPV-2b. To investigate the pathogenicity of the prevalent virus, we isolated CPV-2a and performed the animal experiment. Nine beagles were inoculated with 105.86 of 50% tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50) of the virus. All the experimentally infected beagles exhibited mild to moderate mucoid or watery diarrhea on day 4 post-infection (p.i.). On day 9 p.i., characteristic histopathological lesions were clearly observed in multiple organs of infected dogs, including liver, spleen, kidney, brain and all segments of the small and large intestines, while viral DNA and antigen staining could be detected in the sampled tissues. It is notable that canine parvovirus was isolated in one from two brain samples processed. Our results indicated that CPV-2a is the predominant subtype in Nanjing of China. And this virus caused extensive lesions in a variety of tissues, including the brain.

  9. Antibodies against canine parvovirus of wolves of Minnesota: A serologic study from 1975 through 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S.M.; Mech, L.D.; Rademacher, R.A.; Khan, M.A.; Seal, U.S.

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples (n = 137) from 47 wild wolves (Canis lupus; 21 pups and 26 adults) were evaluated from 1975 to 1985 for antibodies against canine parvovirus, using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. In addition, several blood samples (n = 35) from 14 of these wolves (6 pups and 8 adults) were evaluated simultaneously for erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, and for hemoglobin and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. Sixty-nine (50%) of the serum samples (35 wolves) had HI titers of greater than or equal to 256, whereas 68 (50%) of the samples (16 wolves) had HI titers of less than or equal to 128. Significant differences in the geometric mean titers were not found between pups and adults or between males and females. Of the 47 wolves evaluated, 12 (25%) developed a greater than or equal to fourfold increase in antibody titers during the 11-year period, with 2 wolves developing serologic conversions in 1976. The data indicate that canine parvovirus may have begun infecting wolves before or at the same time that it began infecting the dog population in the United States.

  10. Preparation, characterization and immunological evaluation: canine parvovirus synthetic peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Serap; Mustafaeva, Zeynep Akdeste; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Bagirova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil

    2015-10-20

    Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) remains a significant worldwide canine pathogen and the most common cause of viral enteritis in dogs. The 1 L15 and 7 L15 peptides overlap each other with QPDGGQPAV residues (7-15 of VP2 capsid protein of CPV) is shown to produce high immune response. PLGA nanoparticles were demonstrated to have special properties such as; controlled antigen release, protection from degradation, elimination of booster-dose and enhancing the cellular uptake by antigen presenting cells. Nevertheless, there is no study available in literature, about developing vaccine based on PLGA nanoparticles with adjuvant properties against CPV. Thus, the aim of the present study was to synthesize and characterize high immunogenic W-1 L19 peptide (from the VP2 capsid protein of CPV) loaded PLGA nanoparticle and to evaluate their in vitro immunogenic activity. PLGA nanoparticles were produced with 5.26 ± 0.05 % loading capacity and high encapsulation efficiency with 81.2 ± 3.1 %. Additionally, it was evaluated that free NPs and W-1 L19 peptide encapsulated PLGA nanoparticles have Z-ave of 183.9 ± 12.1 nm, 221.7 ± 15.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.107 ± 0.08, 0.135 ± 0.12 respectively. It was determined that peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles were successfully phagocytized by macrophage cells and increased NO production at 2-folds (*P vaccine candidate against Canine Parvovirus. Studies targeting PLGA nanoparticles based delivery system must be maintained in near future in order to develop new and more effective nano-vaccine formulations.

  11. A comparison between PCR and Immunochromatography assay (ICA in diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis caused by Canine parvovirus

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    Vakili , N.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 is one of the most common viruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. A rapid and accurate diagnosis of CPV-2 infection is especially important in kennels in order to isolate infected dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare two laboratory tests i.e., Polymerase Change Reaction (PCR and Immunochromatography assay (ICA most commonly used for the diagnosis of canine parvovirus infection in companion dogs. Fecal samples were collected from fifty five dogs (50=hemorrhagic diarrheic and 5= healthy between 2011 and 2012 in Ahvaz district, southwest of Iran. The studied dogs were divided into two age groups (6 months, four different breeds (Terriers, German shepherds, Doberman pinschers and Mixed and based on environment into two groups (open and close also. All samples were tested by ICA and PCR methods and the results were analyzed by using Kappa test, Mc Nemar and Chi-square analysis. ICA and PCR were able to detect CPV-2 antigen or nucleic acid in 33 and 50 of the hemorrhagic diarrheic samples, respectively. Samples of healthy dogs were negative by both tests. Although sensitivity of ICA compared with PCR method was determined to be 66% (PCR more sensitive than ICA, nevertheless statistical analysis showed that the difference between two techniques were not significant (P>0.05. Kappa test was obtained 0.38 between two techniques. CBC showed that most infected dogs had leucopenia, lymphopenia and neutropenia also (82%; 41 out of 50 samples.Obtained results of this survey showed that accurate standardization of laboratory tests is required to provide veterinarian with an effective tool for a precise etiological diagnosis of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis due to CPV infection. Although Immunochromatography is a simple and quick method for screening of fecal samples of dogs suspected of CPV infection, but PCR is more sensitive and reliable than ICA. Moreover, the subtypes of the virus determined by

  12. Molecular characterisation of canine parvovirus strains circulating in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... emergence of CPV (CPV-2) it evolved to give rise to new antigenic types, which were designated CPV types 2a, 2b and 2c. These new types have replaced the original CPV type 2, although the proportions of each of the new antigenic types vary in different countries. In China, CPV infections were first observed in 1982, ...

  13. Recombination between vaccine and field strains of canine parvovirus is revealed by isolation of virus in canine and feline cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masami; Ohshima, Takahisa; Une, Yumi; Yachi, Akiko

    2008-12-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV) is a pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with a high fatality rate in pups worldwide. Since CPV emerged in the late 1970s, its origin has been explored with the conclusion that CPV originated from feline panleukopenia virus or a closely related virus. Both high mutation rate and recombination are assumed to be key factors in the evolution of parvoviruses. Here we provide evidence for natural recombination in CPV isolated from dogs in cell culture. Antigenic and genetic properties of isolates from 10 diseased pups were elucidated. Six pups had been vaccinated beforehand with live combined vaccine containing original antigenic type CPV (CPV-2). Six isolates recovered from 4 vaccinated pups in cell cultures were found to contain either CPV-2 or CPV-2-like viruses. The other isolates, including all those from non-vaccinated pups, were CPV-2b viruses. Antigenic typing of two CPV-2-like isolates, 03-029/M and 1887/f, with a monoclonal antibody panel suggested they were a mixture of CPV-2 and CPV-2a (03-029/M) and a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2b (1887/f). Genetic analysis of the VP1 gene indicated that isolate 03-029/M was a mixture of CPV-2, CPV-2a and a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2a viruses, while isolate 1887/f was composed of a recombinant of CPV-2 and CPV-2b viruses. This is the first demonstration of natural CPV recombination in the field and suggests that recombination in the evolution of CPV is a more frequent and important process than previously believed.

  14. Occurrence of canine parvovirus in dogs from Henan province of China in 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqin; Liu, Huisheng; Ding, Ke; Peng, Chunping; Xue, Qiao; Yu, Zuhua; Xue, Yun

    2016-07-04

    There is no information concerning the genotype of Canine parvovirus (CPV) currently circulating in Henan province, China. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to provide insights into the epidemiology and molecular characterization of CPV circulating in Henan province from 2009 to 2014. Nineteen thousand nine hundred seven dogs from pet hospitals in the cities of Luoyang, Anyang, Jiaozuo, Sanmenxia, Xinxiang, Zhengzhou in Henan province between 2009 and 2014 were investigated. Over the 6-year period, 1169 CPV-positive cases were identified and the morbidity of CPV infection ranged from 4.16 to 8.06 %, although morbidity was not significant (P > 0.05) between 2009 and 2014. Factors associated with morbidity included sampling season, dog age, breed, vaccination status, and sex. CPV co-infection with coccidium (10.00 %), canine distemper virus (4.79 %), hookworm (2.40 %), canine coronavirus (1.11 %), roundworm (1.03 %), tapeworm (0.17 %) and Babesia spp. (0.09 %) were observed. The new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent than the new CPV-2b variant in Henan province. CPV 2c was not observed in this study. The epidemiology of CPV infection and identification of the circulating genotypes in Henan province, China from 2009 to 2014 determined that the new CPV-2a variant was more prevalent.

  15. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Phylogeny Reveal Complex Spatial Dynamics in Areas Where Canine Parvovirus Is Endemic ▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S. R.; Coyne, K. P.; Parker, J.; Dawson, S.; Godsall, S. A.; Pinchbeck, G.; Cripps, P. J.; Gaskell, R. M.; Radford, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a severe enteric pathogen of dogs, causing high mortality in unvaccinated dogs. After emerging, CPV-2 spread rapidly worldwide. However, there is now some evidence to suggest that international transmission appears to be more restricted. In order to investigate the transmission and evolution of CPV-2 both nationally and in relation to the global situation, we have used a long-range PCR to amplify and sequence the full VP2 gene of 150 canine parvoviruses obtained from a large cross-sectional sample of dogs presenting with severe diarrhea to veterinarians in the United Kingdom, over a 2-year period. Among these 150 strains, 50 different DNA sequence types (S) were identified, and apart from one case, all appeared unique to the United Kingdom. Phylogenetic analysis provided clear evidence for spatial clustering at the international level and for the first time also at the national level, with the geographical range of some sequence types appearing to be highly restricted within the United Kingdom. Evolution of the VP2 gene in this data set was associated with a lack of positive selection. In addition, the majority of predicted amino acid sequences were identical to those found elsewhere in the world, suggesting that CPV VP2 has evolved a highly fit conformation. Based on typing systems using key amino acid mutations, 43% of viruses were CPV-2a, and 57% CPV-2b, with no type 2 or 2c found. However, phylogenetic analysis suggested complex antigenic evolution of this virus, with both type 2a and 2b viruses appearing polyphyletic. As such, typing based on specific amino acid mutations may not reflect the true epidemiology of this virus. The geographical restriction that we observed both within the United Kingdom and between the United Kingdom and other countries, together with the lack of CPV-2c in this population, strongly suggests the spread of CPV within its population may be heterogeneously subject to limiting factors. This cross

  17. Influence of chemotherapy for lymphoma in canine parvovirus DNA distribution and specific humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M A; Duarte, A; Nunes, T; Lourenço, A M; Braz, B S; Vicente, G; Henriques, J; Tavares, L

    2014-12-01

    In man, the combination of cancer and its treatment increases patients' susceptibility to opportunistic infections, due to immune system impairment. In veterinary medicine little information is available concerning this issue. In order to evaluate if a similar dysfunction is induced in small animals undergoing chemotherapy, we assessed the complete blood count, leukocytic, plasma and fecal canine parvovirus (CPV) viral load, and anti-CPV protective antibody titers, in dogs with lymphoma treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) protocol, before and during chemotherapy. There was no evidence of decreased immune response, either at admission or after two chemotherapy cycles, indicating that the previously established immunity against CPV was not significantly impaired, supporting the idea that immunosuppression as a result of hematopoietic neoplasms and their treatment in dogs requires further investigation and conclusions cannot be extrapolated from human literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Parsing demographic effects of canine pParvovirus on a Minnesota wolf population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 35 years of relationships among wolf (Canis lupus) pup survival, population change and canine parvovirus (CPV) seroprevalence in Northeastern Minnesota to determine when CPV exerted its strongest effects. Using correlation analysis of data from five periods of 7-years each from 1973 through 2007, we learned that the strongest effect of CPV on pup survival (r = -0.73) and on wolf population change (r = -0.92) was during 1987 to 1993. After that, little effect was documented despite a mean CPV seroprevalence from 1994 of 2007 of 70.8% compared with 52.6% during 1987 to 1993. We conclude that after CPV became endemic and produced its peak effect on the study population, that population developed enough immunity to withstand the disease.

  19. Performance of high titre attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtonboy, S; Charlier, P; Hertoghs, J; Lobmann, M; Wiseman, A; Woods, S

    1991-04-20

    The performance of live, attenuated, homologous, canine parvovirus vaccines was studied in 140 puppies aged from four to 11 weeks. In the presence of maternally derived antibody the ability of the vaccines to elicit a serological response, as determined by the haemagglutination inhibition test and a standardised ELISA, was found to be dose (infectious titre) related. An experimental vaccine containing 10(7.0) TCID50 of virus induced seroconversion rates of 95, 89, 82 and 44 per cent in dogs with haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres of less than or equal to 8, 16, 32 and greater than 32, respectively. The standardised ELISA appeared to be better than the haemagglutination inhibition test with respect to variability and subjectivity, especially when titres were low.

  20. Epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

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    Monalisa Behera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in dogs in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha was conducted between December 2012 to March 2013 and prevalence rate was studied on the basis of age, breed, and sex. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 fecal samples from suspected diarrheic dogs were collected in sterile phosphate buffer saline (10% W/V and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of canine parvo virus infection, followed by epidemiological study in relation to age, breed, and sex. Results: Of 71 samples analyzed, 29 (40.85% were found to be positive by PCR assay. The infection was higher in Deshi/local breeds (34.48%, followed by German shepherd (17.24%, equal incidences in mixed and Labrador retriever (10.34%, Rottweiler and German spitz showed 6.90% each and finally lower incidences in four breeds (3.45% such as Dalmatians, Nea politan mastiff, Pug and Great Dane. Age-wise prevalence study revealed the infection being more in the age group of 3-6 months (41.37%, followed by equal incidences of 27.59% in 1-3 months and 6-12 months age group, and a low incidence in age groups above 12 months (3.45%. The incidence was predominantly higher in males (86.21% than females (13.79%. Conclusions: The epidemiological analysis revealed that the breed wise prevalence was found to be more in Deshi breeds as compared to others, age groups below 6 months were found to be more prone to parvovirus infection and males were mostly infected.

  1. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CANINE PARVOVIRUS IN SYMPATRIC FREE-RANGING WILD CARNIVORES IN PORTUGAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carla; Santos, Nuno; Parrish, Colin; Thompson, Gertrude

    2017-10-01

    Since its emergence in the 1970s, canine parvovirus (CPV) has been reported in domestic and nondomestic carnivores worldwide with severe implications on their health and survival. Here, we aim to better understand CPV circulation in multihost-pathogens systems by characterizing CPV DNA or viruses in 227 free-ranging wild carnivores of 12 species from Portugal. Collected samples during 1995-2011 were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis. The canine parvovirus DNA was detected in 4 (2%) animals of two species, namely in wolves (Canis lupus; 3/63, 5%, 95% confidence interval=1.6-3.15) and in a stone marten (Martes foina; 1/36, 3%, 95% confidence interval=0.5-14.2). Viruses in two wolves had VP2 residue 426 as aspartic acid (so-called CPV-2b) and the third had VP2 residue 426 as asparagine (CPV-2a), while the virus in the stone marten uniquely had VP2 residue 426 as glutamic acid (CPV-2c). The comparative analysis of the full-length VP2 gene of our isolates showed other nonsynonymous mutations. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequences from wolves clustered together, showing a close relationship with European domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and wolf strains while the viral sequence from the stone marten grouped with other viruses contained the glutamic acid VP2 426 along with raccoon (Procyon lotor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic dog strains. This study confirmed that wild carnivores in Portugal are infected by CPV variants, strongly suggesting viral transmission between the wild and domestic populations and suggesting a need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease and its management in wild populations.

  2. Experiments with a homologous, inactivated canine parvovirus vaccine in vaccination programmers for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J H; Hermann-Dekkers, W M

    1982-01-01

    The significance of canine parvovirus (CPV) infections as a permanent threat susceptible dogs, in particular pups, made the authors develop three liquid homologous inactivated adjuvant CPV vaccines that were compatible with existing canine vaccines and could be incorporated in current vaccination programmes. On vaccine (Kavak Parvo) contained only the CPV component, the second product (Kavak i-LP) also contained two inactivated leptospiral antigens, and the third vaccine (Kavak i-HLP) contained in addition an inactivated canine hepatitis virus. This paper reports on the studies conducted to test the safety and efficacy of the three products. They were used as such and as diluents for freeze dried vaccines containing live attenuated measles, distemper, and hepatitis viruses. The study was performed in a breeding kennel where all dogs were free from CPV antibodies and the nonvaccinated sentinels remained so for the course of the study. All vaccines proved to be safe in dogs of all ages, including pregnant bitches. The efficacy of the CPV component was studied both by monitoring antibody titres for more than a year and by challenge exposure of some dogs to virulent CPV. The results obtained from these studies prove that the CPV component used in the three vaccines can be incorporated as indicated in the recommended canine vaccination programmes. The observations that the inactivated CPV and hepatitis components do induce an active immunity in pups that are still protected by low levels of maternally derived antibodies against these viruses, make those vaccines very suitable in breeding kennels. Additional studies on a comparative basis are being continued in edemically CPV infected breeding kennels to quantify the significance of these observations in these special conditions.

  3. Genome Sequence of Canine Parvovirus Strain SC02/2011, Isolated from a Puppy with Severe Diarrhea in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Ji, Yikuan; Wang, Yu; Sun, Leilei; Huang, Jiaxin

    2012-01-01

    A widespread hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in young dogs occurred in South China. A virulent field canine parvovirus (CPV) strain, SC02/2011, was isolated from a puppy showing enteric signs in Guangdong, China. The genome of CPV strain SC02/2011 was sequenced and analyzed, which will promote a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of CPV field isolates in South China. PMID:23166228

  4. First peptide vaccine providing protection against viral infection in the target animal: studies of canine parvovirus in dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Langeveld, J P; Casal, J I; Osterhaus, A D; Cortés, E; de Swart, R; Vela, C; Dalsgaard, K; Puijk, W C; Schaaper, W M; Meloen, R H

    1994-01-01

    textabstractA synthetic peptide vaccine which protects dogs against challenge with virulent canine parvovirus is described. The amino acid sequence used was discovered in previous studies on the immunogenic properties of previously mapped antigenic sites and represents the amino-terminal region of viral protein VP2. As with marker vaccines, it is possible to discriminate between vaccinated dogs that have not been exposed to the virus and dogs that have been infected with the virus. The protec...

  5. Detection and RFLP Analysis of Canine Parvovirus (CPV) DNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZKUL, Aykut

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) in a fecal sample from a dog with enteritis was performed for the first time using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Turkey. The final PCR product was analyzed using the restriction fragment length polymorphysm (RFLP) technique. RFLP analysis using Apa LI and Eco RV restriction endonucleases revealed homology in the nucleotide sequence in at least the VP2 coding region of the virus DNAs detected in the fecal specimen and prepared fr...

  6. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jonna Nykky, Jenni E Tuusa, Sanna Kirjavainen, Matti Vuento, Leona GilbertNanoscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandAbstract: Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK cells and canine fibroma cells (A72 displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.Keywords: canine parvovirus, apoptosis, necrosis, nanoparticle, virotherapy

  7. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and distemper virus in wolves in the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brynn; Hebblewhite, Mark; Ezenwa, Vanessa; Shury, Todd; Merrill, Evelyn H; Paquet, Paul C; Schmiegelow, Fiona; Seip, Dale; Skinner, Geoff; Webb, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Wild carnivores are often exposed to diseases via contact with peridomestic host species that travel through the wildland-urban interfaces. To determine the antibody prevalences and relationships to human activity for two common canid pathogens, we sampled 99 wolves (Canis lupus) from 2000 to 2008 for antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) in Banff and Jasper National Parks and surrounding areas of the Canadian Rockies. This population was the source for wolves reintroduced into the Northern Rockies of the US. Of 99 wolves sampled, 94 had detectable antibody to CPV (95%), 24 were antibody-positive for CDV (24%), and 24 had antibodies to both pathogens (24%). We tested whether antibody prevalences for CPV and CDV were higher closer to human activity (roads, town sites, First Nation reserves) and as a function of sex and age class. Wolves ≥2 yr old were more likely to be have antibodies to CPV. For CDV, male wolves, wolves ≥2 yr, and those closer to First Nation reserves were more likely to have antibodies. Overall, however, we found minimal support for human influence on antibody prevalence for CDV and CPV. The similarity between our antibody prevalence results and results from recent studies in Yellowstone National Park suggests that at least in the case of CDV, and perhaps CPV, these could be important pathogens with potential effects on wolf populations.

  8. Use of modified live feline panleukopenia virus vaccine to immunize dogs against canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, R V; Carmichael, L E

    1983-02-01

    Modified live feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) vaccine protected dogs against canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. However, unlike the long-lived (greater than or equal to 20-month) immunity engendered by CPV infection, the response of dogs to living FPLV was variable. Doses of FPLV (snow leopard strain) in excess of 10(5.7) TCID50 were necessary for uniform immunization; smaller inocula resulted in decreased success rates. The duration of immunity, as measured by the persistence of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody, was related to the magnitude of the initial response to vaccination; dogs with vigorous initial responses resisted oronasal CPV challenge exposure 6 months after vaccination, and hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies persisted in such dogs for greater than 1 year. Limited replication of FPLV in dogs was demonstrated, but unlike CPV, the feline virus did not spread to contact dogs or cats. Adverse reactions were not associated with living FPLV vaccination, and FPLV did not interfere with simultaneous response to attenuated canine distemper virus.

  9. Detection of the Canine Parvovirus 2c Subtype in Australian Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Lucy; Crocker, Paul; Bobrowski, Hannah; Baker, Trevor; Hemmatzadeh, Farhid

    2017-06-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is an important cause of hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. In Australia the disease has been associated with CPV-2a and CPV-2b variants. A third more recently emerged variant overseas, CPV-2c, has not been detected in surveys of the Australian dog population. In this study, we report three cases of canine parvoviral enteritis associated with CPV-2c infection; case 1 occurred in an 8-week-old puppy that died following acute hemorrhagic enteritis. Cases 2 and 3 were an 11-month-old female entire Saint Bernard and a 9-month-old male entire Siberian husky, respectively, both which had completed vaccination schedules and presented with vomiting or mild diarrhea only. Full genomic sequencing of parvoviral DNA from cases 1, 2, and 3 revealed greater than 99% homology to known CPV-2c variants and predicted protein sequences from the VP2 region of viral DNA from all three cases identified; glutamic acid residues at the 426 amino acid residue, characteristic of the CPV-2c variant. Veterinary professionals should be aware that CPV-2c is now present in Australia, detected in a puppy and vaccinated young adult dogs in this study. Further characterization of CPV-2c-associated disease and its prevalence in Australian dogs requires additional research.

  10. Prevalence of serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer L; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Paul, April L

    2017-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of dogs hospitalized in an intensive care unit (ICU) with serum antibody titers against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV). DESIGN Prospective observational study. ANIMALS 80 dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs hospitalized in an ICU for > 12 hours between February 1 and June 1, 2015, that had at least 0.25 mL of serum left over from diagnostic testing were eligible for study inclusion. Dogs with serum antibody titers > 1:32 (as determined by serum neutralization) and > 1:80 (as determined by hemagglutination inhibition) were considered seropositive for CDV and CPV, respectively. The date of last vaccination was obtained from the medical record of each dog. RESULTS Of the 80 dogs, 40 (50%) and 65 (81%) dogs were seropositive for CDV and CPV, respectively. Of the 40 dogs that were seronegative for CDV, 27 had been vaccinated against CDV within 3 years prior to testing. Of the 15 dogs that were seronegative for CPV, 3 had been vaccinated against CPV within 3 years prior to testing. Ten dogs were seronegative for both CDV and CPV. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated the prevalence of dogs hospitalized in an ICU that were seropositive for CDV and CPV was lower than expected given the high vaccination rate reported for dogs. Although the antibody titer necessary to prevent disease caused by CDV or CPV in critically ill dogs is unknown, adherence to infectious disease control guidelines is warranted when CDV- or CPV-infected dogs are treated in an ICU.

  11. Study of canine parvovirus evolution: comparative analysis of full-length VP2 gene sequences from Argentina and international field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Calderón, Marina; Wilda, Maximiliano; Boado, Lorena; Keller, Leticia; Malirat, Viviana; Iglesias, Marcela; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The continuous emergence of new strains of canine parvovirus (CPV), poorly protected by current vaccination, is a concern among breeders, veterinarians, and dog owners around the world. Therefore, the understanding of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is crucial for the design of disease control strategies, including vaccines. In this paper, we obtained the sequences of the full-length gene encoding for the main capsid protein (VP2) of 11 canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) Argentine representative field strains, selected from a total of 75 positive samples studied in our laboratory in the last 9 years. A comparative sequence analysis was performed on 9 CPV-2c, one CPV-2a, and one CPV-2b Argentine strains with respect to international strains reported in the GenBank database. In agreement with previous reports, a high degree of identity was found among CPV-2c Argentine strains (99.6-100% and 99.7-100% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively). However, the appearance of a new substitution in the 440 position (T440A) in four CPV-2c Argentine strains obtained after the year 2009 gives support to the variability observed for this position located within the VP2, three-fold spike. This is the first report on the genetic characterization of the full-length VP2 gene of emerging CPV strains in South America and shows that all the Argentine CPV-2c isolates cluster together with European and North American CPV-2c strains.

  12. Polymerase spiral reaction (PSR): a novel, visual isothermal amplification method for detection of canine parvovirus 2 genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vikas; Chakravarti, Soumendu; Chander, Vishal; Majumder, Saurabh; Bhat, Shabir Ahmad; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2017-07-01

    Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), which is ubiquitously distributed worldwide, causes severe and often fatal gastroenteritis in dogs. Accurate, differential and rapid diagnosis of canine parvoviral enteritis remains a challenge for clinicians. A recently developed isothermal amplification technique, polymerase spiral reaction (PSR), was optimized for the first time for a viral pathogen with reference recombinant plasmid standards from different CPV-2 antigenic variants (CPV-2, CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c) and subsequently validated using clinical samples. Addition of chromogenic substrate SYBR Green I after the completion of the reaction resulted in bright green fluorescence in positive samples, while negative samples and a no-template control remained orange. These results were further substantiated through visualization of a laddering pattern of the PSR-amplified product in an agarose gel in positive cases and the absence of this pattern in no-template control and negative samples. The PSR assay was found to be highly specific, as it did not react with other putative canine pathogens (canine adenovirus 1 and canine distemper virus). The sensitivity of the newly developed PSR technique was compared with that of conventional PCR, real-time PCR and LAMP, using a serial tenfold dilution of canine parvovirus DNA. The detection limit of PSR was found to be at the femtogram level, which is comparable with that of real-time PCR and LAMP, which are ten times more sensitive than conventional PCR. The assay was validated using 90 clinical samples, of which 54 were found positive, while only 45 samples were positive in conventional PCR. This novel assay, which is fully compliant with the 'ASSURED' concept for disease diagnosis, provides a simple, rapid, specific, sensitive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of canine parvoviral enteritis in veterinary clinics.

  13. MicroRNA expression analysis of feline and canine parvovirus infection in vivo (felis.

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    Pei Zhou

    Full Text Available Feline panleukopenia is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality. At present, feline parvovirus (FPV and canine parvovirus (CPV variants are the pathogens of feline panleukopenia. Many studies have shown that miRNAs are involved in virus-host interactions. Nevertheless, miRNA expression profiling of FPV (original virus or CPV-2b (new virus in cats has not been reported. To investigate these profiles, three 10-week-old cats were orally inoculated with 106 TCID50 of the viruses (FPV and CPV-2b, and the jejunums of one cat in each group were sectioned for miRNA sequencing at 5 days post-inoculation (dpi. This study is the first attempt to use miRNA analysis to understand the molecular basis of FPV and CPV infection in cats. The miRNA expression profiles of the jejunums of cats infected with FPV and CPV were obtained, and a subset of miRNAs was validated by real-time qPCR. The results show that a variety of metabolism-related pathways, cytokine- and pathogen-host interaction-related pathways, and pathology- and cellar structure-related pathways, as well as others, were affected. Specifically, the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, which is critical for cytokines and growth factors, was enriched. This description of the miRNAs involved in regulating FPV and CPV infection in vivo provides further insight into the mechanisms of viral infection and adaptation and might provide an alternative antiviral strategy for disease control and prevention.

  14. Canine parvovirus in Australia: A comparative study of reported rural and urban cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourkas, Elaine; Ward, Michael P; Kelman, Mark

    2015-12-31

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious and often fatal disease reported worldwide. Outbreaks occur throughout Australia, and it has been suggested that disproportionally more CPV cases occur in rural locations. However, evidence to support this suggestion-and possible reasons for such a predisposition-has not existed until now. In this study a total of 4870 CPV cases reported from an Australian disease surveillance system between September 2009 and July 2014 were analysed. Australian postcodes were classified as rural or urban (based on human population density) and reported CPV cases were then categorised as rural or urban based on their reported home postcode. Parvovirus cases were predominately young (<12 months), entire, unvaccinated, mixed-breed dogs. More than twice as many of the reported cases were from a rural area (3321 cases) compared to an urban area (1549 cases). The overall case fatality rate was 47.2%; it was higher for those CPV cases reported from urban areas (50.6%) than rural areas (45.5%). A greater proportion of rural cases were younger, entire dogs compared to urban cases. The final multivariable model of CPV cases being reported from a rural area included age (<12 months) and vaccination status (never vaccinated) as significant predictors. Poor socioeconomic status might be a reason for the decision of rural owners not to vaccinate their dogs as readily as urban owners. The excess reporting of rural CPV cases compared to urban cases and the predictive risk factors identified in this study can be used by veterinarians to reduce the incidence of CPV by educating owners about the disease and promoting better vaccination programs in rural areas. This study also supports that the increased risk of CPV in rural areas may necessitate a need for increased vigilance around preventing CPV disease spread, additional care with puppies which are the most susceptible to this disease and tighter vaccination protocols, compared to urban areas

  15. Duration of immunity in red wolves (Canis rufus) following vaccination with a modified live parvovirus and canine distemper vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie; Case, Allison; Woodie, Kathleen; Waddell, William; Reed, Holly H

    2014-09-01

    There is growing information available regarding duration of immunity for core vaccines in both domestic and nondomestic species. Vaccination protocols in nondomestic canids have frequently followed guidelines developed for the domestic dog; however, these protocols can be inappropriate for nondomestic canids such as the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), leaving some animals susceptible to infectious disease and others at risk for contracting vaccine-induced disease. In this study, red wolves (Canis rufus) were vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and vaccination titers were followed annually for 3 yr. One hundred percent of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CDV for 3 yr and 96.9% of wolves developed and maintained a positive titer to CPV for 3 yr. Seroconversion for canine adenovirus was sporadic. The results of this study support decreasing the frequency of vaccine administration in the red wolf population to a triennial basis.

  16. Genetic diversity of the VP1/VP2 gene of canine parvovirus type 2b amplified from clinical specimens in Brazil Diversidade genética no gene VP1/VP2 do parvovirus canino tipo 2b amplificado de material clínico no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. D. Pereira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the genetic diversity in the VP1/VP2 gene of CPV type 2b isolates from symptomatic dogs in Brazil. A total of 21 isolates collected from 1990 through 1995 previously typed as CPV2b by PCR assay were studied. Overall we found a high degree of similarity among sequences from different CPV clinical isolates collected. Genetic analysis of this selected region gave no indication of a specific Brazilian parvovirus lineage.Neste estudo foi avaliada a diversidade genética no gene VP1/VP2 do parvovírus canino tipo 2b a partir de amostras isoladas de cães sintomáticos no Brasil. Foram estudadas 21 amostras coletadas no período de 1990 à 1995, previamente caracterizadas como CPV 2b pela técnica de PCR. Observou-se alto grau de similaridade entre as seqüências estudadas e a análise genética da região selecionada não indicou a presença de uma linhagem brasileira específica.

  17. Prevalence of increased canine pancreas-specific lipase concentrations in young dogs with parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalli, Irida V; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Patsika, Michael N; Pardali, Dimitra; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Menexes, George; Brellou, Georgia D; Rallis, Timoleon S

    2017-03-01

    Pancreatic abnormalities during canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis have not been studied prospectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of canine serum pancreas-specific lipase (Spec cPL) concentration in dogs with CPV enteritis for the presence of acute pancreatitis (AP). Puppies with naturally occurring CPV enteritis were recruited and prospectively allocated into 2 groups according to normal or increased serum Spec cPL concentration. Clinical signs, laboratory findings, and pancreas-associated variables were compared between groups, and the impact of possible AP on disease course, duration of hospitalization, and outcome was assessed. Serum Spec cPL concentration in 35 puppies was above the upper limit of the RI in 17/35 (48.6%) dogs (Group A) and within the RI in 18 dogs (Group B). An increased serum lipase activity was present in 29/35 (82.9%) dogs, and Group A dogs had a higher serum lipase activity than Group B (P = .006). Serum Spec cPL in Group A dogs was positively correlated with serum lipase activity at the day of presentation (r = .667; P = .003) and day of discharge (r = .628; P = .007). No statistically significant difference was found between groups (P = .233) for the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (6/17 or 35.3% dogs Group A, and 8/18 or 44.4% dogs Group B), the disease course, duration of hospitalization, or outcome between groups. Increased serum Spec cPL is relatively common in dogs with CPV enteritis. However, such increases do not seem to correlate with the outcome of disease. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Canine parvovirus-like particles, a novel nanomaterial for tumor targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destito Giuseppe

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Specific targeting of tumor cells is an important goal for the design of nanotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Recently, viruses have been explored as nano-containers for specific targeting applications, however these systems typically require modification of the virus surface using chemical or genetic means to achieve tumor-specific delivery. Interestingly, there exists a subset of viruses with natural affinity for receptors on tumor cells that could be exploited for nanotechnology applications. For example, the canine parvovirus (CPV utilizes transferrin receptors (TfRs for binding and cell entry into canine as well as human cells. TfRs are over-expressed by a variety of tumor cells and are widely being investigated for tumor-targeted drug delivery. We explored whether the natural tropism of CPV to TfRs could be harnessed for targeting tumor cells. Towards this goal, CPV virus-like particles (VLPs produced by expression of the CPV-VP2 capsid protein in a baculovirus expression system were examined for attachment of small molecules and delivery to tumor cells. Structural modeling suggested that six lysines per VP2 subunit are presumably addressable for bioconjugation on the CPV capsid exterior. Between 45 and 100 of the possible 360 lysines/particle could be routinely derivatized with dye molecules depending on the conjugation conditions. Dye conjugation also demonstrated that the CPV-VLPs could withstand conditions for chemical modification on lysines. Attachment of fluorescent dyes neither impaired binding to the TfRs nor affected internalization of the 26 nm-sized VLPs into several human tumor cell lines. CPV-VLPs therefore exhibit highly favorable characteristics for development as a novel nanomaterial for tumor targeting.

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus and reaction to vaccination in client-owned, healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, M; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Hartmann, K

    2015-12-12

    The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to assess current prevalence of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV) in adult, healthy dogs, including risk factors associated with lack of antibodies, and reaction to revaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). One hundred dogs routinely presented for vaccination were included in the study and vaccinated with a single dose of a combined MLV. Information was collected on signalment, origin, environment, vaccination history and side effects. Prevaccination and postvaccination antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition. Univariate analysis, followed by multivariate logistic regression, was used to investigate association between different variables and presence of antibodies as well as titre increase. Protective CPV antibodies were present in 86.0 per cent of dogs. Intervals of more than four years since the last vaccination and rare contacts with other dogs were determined as main risk factors for the absence of antibodies. An increase in titres only occurred in 17.0 per cent of dogs. Dogs without protective titres before vaccination or with bodyweight <10 kg were more likely to have an adequate titre increase. Based on these findings, antibody status should be determined instead of periodic vaccinations to ensure reliable protection without unnecessary vaccinations in adult dogs. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Revealed Splenic Targeting of Canine Parvovirus Capsid Protein VP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Wang, Haiming; Yan, Dan; Wei, Yanquan; Cao, Yuhua; Yi, Peiwei; Zhang, Hailu; Deng, Zongwu; Dai, Jianwu; Liu, Xiangtao; Luo, Jianxun; Zhang, Zhijun; Sun, Shiqi; Guo, Huichen

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious infectious virus, whose infectious mechanism remains unclear because of acute gastroenteritis and the lack of an efficient tool to visualize the virus in real time during virology research. In this study, we developed an iron oxide nanoparticle supported by graphene quantum dots (GQD), namely, FeGQD. In this composite material, GQD acts as a stabilizer; thus, vacancies are retained on the surface for further physical adsorption of the CPV VP2 protein. The FeGQD@VP2 nanocomposite product showed largely enhanced colloidal stability in comparison with bare FeGQD, as well as negligible toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The composite displayed high uptake into transferrin receptor (TfR) positive cells, which are distinguishable from FeGQD or TfR negative cells. In addition, the composite developed a significant accumulation in spleen rather than in liver, where bare FeGQD or most iron oxide nanoparticles gather. As these evident targeting abilities of FeGQD@VP2 strongly suggested, the biological activity of CPV VP2 was retained in our study, and its biological functions might correspond to CPV when the rare splenic targeting ability is considered. This approach can be applied to numerous other biomedical studies that require a simple yet efficient approach to track proteins in vivo while retaining biological function and may facilitate virus-related research.

  1. The isolation of canine parvovirus and pathological changes of infected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to isolate canine parvovirus (CPV from the field case and to evaluate its histological aspects in CPV infected dogs. Samples were collected from intestine, intestine contained and mucose, as well as dogs feses from diarrhoea and blood diarrhoea. The suspension of those specimen was inoculated into Feline Kidney cells and observed for cythopathic effect (CPE. The presence of CPE indicated that there was viral isolate and continued to further identification using Haemaglutination (HA test with pig red blood cells. Samples with positif in HA test were further identification using Haemaglutination Inhibition (HI test against reference CPV antisera. Isolation result showed that from 81 samples processed, 10 samples indicated CPE in cell cultures, and had agglutinated in pig red blood cells and neutralised reference CPV antisera as the same titer of reference CPV antisera. Nine isolates were obtained from feces and 1 isolate was obtained from Mucose intestine from bloody diarrhoea dogs. Those isolates were also obtained from 1 to 2 days post blood diarrhea clinical signs. Two from 10 cadavers examined showed histological changes to CPV infection. Isolate of CPV, originally from feces, was also obtained from one of the two cadavers. Based on the results it was concluded that more CPV viral isolates can be obtained from bloody diarrhea feces.

  2. Full-length genomic and molecular characterization of Canine parvovirus in dogs from North of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S P; Silva, L N P P; Rodrigues, E D L; Cardoso, J F; Tavares, F N; Souza, W M; Santos, C M P; Martins, F M S; Jesus, I S; Brito, T C; Moura, T P C; Nunes, M R T; Casseb, L M N; Silva Filho, E; Casseb, A R

    2017-09-21

    With the objective of characterizing Canine parvovirus (CPV) from some suspected fecal samples of dogs collected from the Veterinarian Hospital in Belém city, five positive samples were found by PCR assay and an update molecular characterization was provided of the CPV-2 circulation in Belém. Through sequencing of the complete DNA sequences (NS1, NS2, VP1, and VP2 genes), the CPV-2 strain was identified as CPV-2b (Asn426Asp) circulating in Belém. The CPV-2b strain with a different change at the position Tyr324Leu was detected in all samples assessed and thus reported for the first time for the scientific community. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Belém CPV-2b and CPV-2a strains would be related to a cluster with samples after the 1990s, suggesting that CPV-2b in Belém originated from CPV-2a circulating in Brazil after the 1990s. Potential recombination events were analyzed using RDP4 and SplitsTree4; therefore, results suggest that CPV-2 sequences here described were not potentially recombination events. Continuous monitoring and molecular characterization of CPV-2 samples are needed not only to identify possible genetic and antigenic changes that may interfere with the effectiveness of vaccines but also to bring a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of CPV-2 in Brazil.

  3. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of a mutant canine parvovirus isolated in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Tang, Jingyu; Chen, Zongyan; Li, Qi; Huang, Zhenhua; Wang, Quan; Meng, Chunchun; Wang, Yong; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-02-01

    A field canine parvovirus (CPV) strain, CPV-SH14, was previously isolated from an outbreak of severe gastroenteritis in Shanghai in 2014. The complete genome of CPV-SH14 was determined by using PCR with modified primers. When compared to other CPV-2 strains, several insertions, deletions, and point mutations were identified in the 5' and 3' UTR, with key amino acid (aa) mutations (K19R, E572K in NS1 and F267Y, Y324I and T440A in VP2) also being observed in the coding regions of CPV-SH14. These results indicated that significant and unique genetic variations have occurred at key sites or residues in the genome of CPV-SH14, suggesting the presence of a novel genetic variant of new CPV-2a. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene revealed that CPV-SH14 may have the potential to spread worldwide. In conclusion, CPV-SH14 may be a novel genetic variant of new CPV-2a, potentially with a selective advantage over other strains.

  4. Immunocapture loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for the detection of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Ling; Yen, Chon-Ho; Tu, Ching-Fu

    2017-11-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was used for rapid canine parvovirus (CPV) diagnosis. To reduce the time required and increase the sensitivity of the assay, an immunocapture (IC) technique was developed in this study to exclude the DNA extraction step in molecular diagnostic procedures for CPV. A polyclonal rabbit anti-CPV serum was produced against VP2-EpC that was cloned via DNA recombination. The polyclonal anti-VP2-EpC serum was used for virus capture to prepare microtubes. IC-LAMP was performed to amplify a specific CPV target gene sequence from the CPV viral particles that were captured on the microtubes, and the amplicons were analyzed using agarose electrophoresis or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IC-LAMP-ELISA) and lateral-flow dipstick (IC-LAMP-LFD). The detection sensitivities of IC-LAMP, IC-LAMP-ELISA, and IC-LAMP-LFD were 10 -1 , 10 -1 , and 10 -1 TCID 50 /mL, respectively. Using the IC-LAMP-ELISA and IC-LAMP-LFD assays, the complete CPV diagnostic process can be achieved within 1.5h. Both of the developed IC-LAMP-based assays are simple, direct visual and efficient techniques that are applicable to the detection of CPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inactivated recombinant plant virus protects dogs from a lethal challenge with canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, J P; Brennan, F R; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Jones, T D; Boshuizen, R S; Vela, C; Casal, J I; Kamstrup, S; Dalsgaard, K; Meloen, R H; Bendig, M M; Hamilton, W D

    2001-06-14

    A vaccine based upon a recombinant plant virus (CPMV-PARVO1), displaying a peptide derived from the VP2 capsid protein of canine parvovirus (CPV), has previously been described. To date, studies with the vaccine have utilized viable plant chimaeric particles (CVPs). In this study, CPMV-PARVO1 was inactivated by UV treatment to remove the possibility of replication of the recombinant plant virus in a plant host after manufacture of the vaccine. We show that the inactivated CVP is able to protect dogs from a lethal challenge with CPV following parenteral immunization with the vaccine. Dogs immunized with the inactivated CPMV-PARVO1 in adjuvant displayed no clinical signs of disease and shedding of CPV in faeces was limited following CPV challenge. All immunized dogs elicited high titres of peptide-specific antibody, which neutralized CPV in vitro. Levels of protection, virus shedding and VP2-specific antibody were comparable to those seen in dogs immunized with the same VP2- peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). Since plant virus-derived vaccines have the potential for cost-effective manufacture and are not known to replicate in mammalian cells, they represent a viable alternative to current replicating vaccine vectors for development of both human and veterinary vaccines.

  6. Efficacy of vaccination at 4 and 6 weeks in the control of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cramer, K G M; Stylianides, E; van Vuuren, M

    2011-04-21

    Seroconversion after early vaccination at four weeks against canine parvovirus (CPV) using a high antigen titre vaccine was evaluated in 121 puppies from three breeds of dogs housed in kennels representative of the private practitioner's environment. The trial included 52 German shepherd pups, 25 Rottweiler pups and 44 Boerboel pups. From each group 11, 4, and 18 puppies acted as control dogs, respectively. Depending on the different groups, puppies were vaccinated at 4, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. The experimental group differed from the control group in that they received the high titre vaccine at 4 weeks of age, whereas the control group was not vaccinated at 4 weeks. Blood was collected from all pups prior to vaccination to measure maternally derived colostral antibody. The results indicated that vaccination at 4 weeks of age in pups with high maternally derived antibody levels, results in seroconversion rates that may lead to a reduction in the window of susceptibility with respect to CPV infection. The implications of the findings with respect to dogs in heavily contaminated environments are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term viremia and fecal shedding in pups after modified-live canine parvovirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Desario, Costantina; Cavalli, Alessandra; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Ventrella, Gianpiero; Rizzi, Stefania; Aulicino, Stefano; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-06-24

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known. With the aim to fill this gap, 26 dogs were administered two commercial vaccines containing a CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain and monitored for 28 days after vaccination. By using real-time PCR, vaccine-induced viremia and shedding were found to be long lasting for both vaccinal strains. Vaccinal CPV-2b shedding was detected for a shorter period than CPV-2 (12 against 19 mean days) but with greater viral loads, whereas viremia occurred for a longer period (22 against 19 mean days) and with higher titers for CPV-2b. Seroconversion appeared as early as 7 and 14 days post-vaccination for CPV-2b and CPV-2 vaccines, respectively. With no vaccine there was any diagnostic interference using in-clinic or hemagglutination test, since positive results were obtained only by fecal real-time PCR testing. The present study adds new insights into the CPV vaccine persistence in the organism and possible interference with diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A modified live canine parvovirus strain with novel plaque characteristics. I. Viral attenuation and dog response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, L E; Joubert, J C; Pollock, R V

    1981-10-01

    A canine parvovirus (CPV) strain (C-780916) was found attenuated for pups at 80, but not after 51 serial passages in dog kidney cell (DKC) cultures. A variant viral population ('large plaque') emerged after prolonged cultivation in DKC cultures that may be associated with reduced native virulence. Dogs vaccinated with modified CPV developed high hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) antibody titers within 4 days of incoluation and antibody persisted. Vaccinated animals shed small amounts of virus in the feces that spread to contact dogs. After five back-passages in dogs the modified strain was not pathogenic for pups and the plaque characteristics of the virus isolated from the feces were typical of the attenuated strain. The modified live CPV did not cause infection of the fetus when inoculated parenterally into pregnant bitches at various stages of gestation. It was not pathogenic for neonatal pups. These results suggest that a safe and effective live homologous (CPV) vaccine has been developed which should aid substantially in controlling CPV infection.

  9. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus strains in Argentina: Detection of the pathogenic variant CPV2c in vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Marina Gallo; Mattion, Nora; Bucafusco, Danilo; Fogel, Fernando; Remorini, Patricia; La Torre, Jose

    2009-08-01

    PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers was used to detect canine parvovirus (CPV) DNA in 38 rectal swabs from Argentine domestic dogs with symptoms compatible with parvovirus disease. Twenty-seven out of 38 samples analyzed were CPV positive. The classical CPV2 strain was not detected in any of the samples, but nine samples were identified as CPV2a variant and 18 samples as CPV2b variant. Further sequence analysis revealed a mutation at amino acid 426 of the VP2 gene (Asp426Glu), characteristic of the CPV2c variant, in 14 out of 18 of the samples identified initially by PCR as CPV2b. The appearance of CPV2c variant in Argentina might be dated at least to the year 2003. Three different pathogenic CPV variants circulating currently in the Argentine domestic dog population were identified, with CPV2c being the only variant affecting vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs during the year 2008.

  10. Effects of canine parvovirus strain variations on diagnostic test results and clinical management of enteritis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovich, Jessica E; Stucker, Karla M; Carr, Alaina H; Harbison, Carole E; Scarlett, Janet M; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-07-01

    To estimate the prevalence of canine parvovirus (CPV) strains among dogs with enteritis admitted to a referral hospital in the southwestern United States during an 11-month period and to compare diagnostic test results, disease severity, and patient outcome among CPV strains. Prospective observational study. 72 dogs with histories and clinical signs of parvoviral enteritis. For each dog, a fecal sample or rectal swab specimen was evaluated for CPV antigen via an ELISA. Subsequently, fecal samples (n = 42 dogs) and pharyngeal swab specimens (16) were obtained and tested for CPV antigen via an ELISA and CPV DNA via a PCR assay. For specimens with CPV-positive results via PCR assay, genetic sequencing was performed to identify the CPV strain. 56 dogs tested positive for CPV via ELISA or PCR assay. For 42 fecal samples tested via both ELISA and PCR assay, 27 had positive results via both assays, whereas 6 had positive PCR assay results only. Ten pharyngeal swab specimens yielded positive PCR assay results. Genetic sequencing was performed on 34 fecal or pharyngeal swab specimens that had CPV-positive PCR assay results; 25 (73.5%) were identified as containing CPV type-2c, and 9 (26.5%) were identified as containing CPV type-2b. No association was found between CPV strain and disease severity or clinical outcome. CPV type-2b and CPV type-2c posed similar health risks for dogs; therefore, genetic sequencing of CPV does not appear necessary for clinical management of infected patients. The diagnostic tests used could detect CPV type-2c.

  11. The administration of a single dose of a multivalent (DHPPiL4R) vaccine prevents clinical signs and mortality following virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus or canine parvovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Wilson; Joanna Illambas; Elisabeth Siedek; Anne Thomas; Vickie King; Catrina Stirling; Edita Plevová; Jeremy Salt; Gordon Sture

    2014-01-01

    Four challenge studies following vaccination of dogs with a multivalent vaccine containing canine parvovirus (CPV-2b), adenovirus (CAV-1/-2) and distemper (CDV) are described. Six week old puppies received a single vaccination while non-vaccinated control dogs received water. In each respective trial, groups of dogs were challenged 21 days after vaccination with heterologous viral isolates. Clinical observations, rectal temperature measurements, and blood and swab samples for analysis were co...

  12. Use of real-time PCR to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Almberg, Emily S; Smith, Douglas; Goyal, Sagar; Singer, Randall S

    2012-04-01

    Using real-time PCR, we tested 15 wolf (Canis lupus) feces from the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota, USA, and 191 from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 DNA. We also tested 20 dog feces for CPV-2 DNA. The PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific with a minimum detection threshold of 10(4) 50% tissue culture infective dose. Virus was detected in two winter specimens but none of the summer specimens. We suggest applying the technique more broadly especially with winter feces.

  13. Use of real-time PCR to detect canine parvovirus in feces of free-ranging wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Almberg, Emily S.; Smith, Douglas; Goyal, Sagar; Singer, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    Using real-time PCR, we tested 15 wolf (Canis lupus) feces from the Superior National Forest (SNF), Minnesota, USA, and 191 from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), USA, collected during summer and 13 during winter for canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 DNA. We also tested 20 dog feces for CPV-2 DNA. The PCR assay was 100% sensitive and specific with a minimum detection threshold of 104 50% tissue culture infective dose. Virus was detected in two winter specimens but none of the summer specimens. We suggest applying the technique more broadly especially with winter feces.

  14. Display of neutralizing epitopes of Canine parvovirus and a T-cell epitope of the fusion protein of Canine distemper virus on chimeric tymovirus-like particles and its use as a vaccine candidate both against Canine parvo and Canine distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Dev; Shahana, Pallichera Vijayan; Rani, Gudavelli Sudha; Sugumar, Parthasarthy; Shankar, Chinchkar Ramchandra; Srinivasan, Villuppanoor Alwar

    2009-12-10

    Expression of Physalis mottle tymovirus coat protein in Escherichia coli was earlier shown to self-assemble into empty capsids that were nearly identical to the capsids formed in vivo. Amino acid substitutions were made at the N-terminus of wild-type Physalis mottle virus coat protein with neutralizing epitopes of Canine parvovirus containing the antigenic sites 1-2, 4 and 6-7 and T-cell epitope of the fusion protein of Canine distemper virus in various combinations to yield PhMV1, PhMV2, PhMV3, PhMV4 and PhMV5. These constructs were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The chimeric proteins self-assembled into chimeric tymovirus-like particles (TVLPs) as determined by electron microscopy. The TVLPs were purified by ultracentrifugation and injected into guinea pigs and dogs to determine their immunogenicity. Initial immunogenicity studies in guinea pigs indicated that PhMV3 gave a higher response in comparison to the other TVLPs for both CPV and CDV and hence all further experiments in dogs were done with PhMV3. HI was done against different isolates obtained from various parts of the country. Protective titres indicated the broad spectrum of the vaccine. In conclusion the study indicated that the above chimeric VLP based vaccine could be used in dogs to generate a protective immune response against diseases caused by both Canine parvo and Canine distemper virus.

  15. Evolution of canine parvovirus in Argentina between years 2003 and 2010: CPV2c has become the predominant variant affecting the domestic dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Marina Gallo; Romanutti, Carina; D' Antuono, Alejandra; Keller, Leticia; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, Jose

    2011-04-01

    The current frequency of Canine Parvovirus variants (CPV2a, CPV2b and CPV2c) in the Argentine dog population was investigated by PCR amplification of a 583 bp fragment in the VP2 gene. From a total of 79 rectal swab samples that have been submitted to our laboratory since 2008, 55 (69.6%) resulted positive and were further analyzed by direct DNA sequencing. Fifty positives samples (91%) were characterized as CPV2c variant, which appeared in Argentina in the year 2003 and has been the prevalent type since 2008, whereas CPV2a and CPV2b, still found in Argentine dogs, were represented in 3.6% and 5.4% of the population, respectively. Considering that CPV2c is spreading worldwide, and that this variant is also affecting vaccinated dogs, efforts should be made towards the development of new matched CPV vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the use of serum C-reactive protein concentration to predict outcome in puppies infected with canine parvovirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClure, Vanessa; van Schoor, Mirinda; Thompson, Peter N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective-To evaluate associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration with duration of hospitalization and with outcome in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis. Design-Prospective observational study. Animals-79 client-owned puppies with naturally acquired canine parvovirus...... infection. Procedures-All puppies received supportive care. Serum CRP concentration was measured at the time of admission, approximately every 10 to 12 hours for the first 48 hours, and then every 24 hours until discharge from the hospital or death. Associations between outcome and CRP concentration...... at various time points or changes in CRP concentration over time were assessed via multiple logistic regression. Associations of CRP concentration with survival time and duration of hospitalization among survivors were estimated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Use of CRP concentration to predict...

  17. A synthetic peptide derived from the animo acid sequence of canine parvovirus structural proteins which defines a B cell epitope and elicits antiviral antibody in BALB c mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. Carlson; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides, recombinant fusion proteins and mouse monoclonal antibodies were used to delineate a B cell epitope of the VP'2 structural protein of canine parvovirus (CPV). Although this epitope is not preferentially recognized in the normal antibody response to CPV, virus-specific

  18. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on monoclonal antibodies for the serology and antigen detection in canine parvovirus infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); N. Juntti; B. Klingeborn; J. Groen (Jan); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractAn enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system was developed for the detection of canine parvovirus (CPV) or CPV antigen in dog faeces and two other ELISA systems were developed for the detection of CPV-specific antibodies in dog sera. The ELISA's were based on the use of

  19. Establishment and characterization of canine parvovirus-specific murine CD4+ T cell clones and their use for the delineation of T cell epitopes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.W.J. van der Heijden (Roger); E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); M.C.M. Poelen (Martien); J. Carlson; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractCanine parvovirus (CPV)-specific T cell clones were generated by culturing lymph node cells from CPV-immunized BALB/c mice at limiting dilutions in the presence of CPV antigen and interleukin-2 (IL-2). All isolated T cell clones exhibited the cell surface phenotype Thy1+, CD4+, CD8- and

  20. The failure of an inactivated mink enteritis virus vaccine in four preparations to provide protection to dogs against challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Carman, S; Povey, C

    1982-01-01

    Four experimental vaccine preparations comprising a strain of mink enteritis virus inactivated by either formalin or beta-propiolactone, and either adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted, failed to stimulate a consistent serum antibody response in 20 vaccinated dogs and failed to protect all but one of these dogs against oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2.

  1. Near-Atomic Resolution Structure of a Highly Neutralizing Fab Bound to Canine Parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Lindsey J; Lee, Hyunwook; Iketani, Sho; Huang, Kai; Ashley, Robert E; Makhov, Alexander M; Conway, James F; Parrish, Colin R; Hafenstein, Susan

    2016-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe disease in dogs and wildlife. Previously, a panel of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) raised against CPV was characterized. An antibody fragment (Fab) of MAb E was found to neutralize the virus at low molar ratios. Using recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we determined the structure of CPV in complex with Fab E to 4.1 Å resolution, which allowed de novo building of the Fab structure. The footprint identified was significantly different from the footprint obtained previously from models fitted into lower-resolution maps. Using single-chain variable fragments, we tested antibody residues that control capsid binding. The near-atomic structure also revealed that Fab binding had caused capsid destabilization in regions containing key residues conferring receptor binding and tropism, which suggests a mechanism for efficient virus neutralization by antibody. Furthermore, a general technical approach to solving the structures of small molecules is demonstrated, as binding the Fab to the capsid allowed us to determine the 50-kDa Fab structure by cryo-EM. Using cryo-electron microscopy and new direct electron detector technology, we have solved the 4 Å resolution structure of a Fab molecule bound to a picornavirus capsid. The Fab induced conformational changes in regions of the virus capsid that control receptor binding. The antibody footprint is markedly different from the previous one identified by using a 12 Å structure. This work emphasizes the need for a high-resolution structure to guide mutational analysis and cautions against relying on older low-resolution structures even though they were interpreted with the best methodology available at the time. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Quantum Dots Encapsulated with Canine Parvovirus-Like Particles Improving the Cellular Targeted Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yan

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs have a promising prospect in live-cell imaging and sensing because of unique fluorescence features. QDs aroused significant interest in the bio-imaging field through integrating the fluorescence properties of QDs and the delivery function of biomaterial. The natural tropism of Canine Parvovirus (CPV to the transferrin receptor can target specific cells to increase the targeting ability of QDs in cell imaging. CPV virus-like particles (VLPs from the expression of the CPV-VP2 capsid protein in a prokaryotic expression system were examined to encapsulate the QDs and deliver to cells with an expressed transferrin receptor. CPV-VLPs were used to encapsulate QDs that were modified using 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Gel electrophoresis, fluorescence spectrum, particle size, and transmission electron microscopy verified the conformation of a complex, in which QDs were encapsulated in CPV-VLPs (CPV-VLPs-QDs. When incubated with different cell lines, CPV-VLPs-QDs significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of QDs and selectively labeled the cells with high-level transferrin receptors. Cell-targeted labeling was achieved by utilizing the specific binding between the CPV capsid protein VP2 of VLPs and cellular receptors. CPV-VLPs-QDs, which can mimic the native CPV infection, can recognize and attach to the transferrin receptors on cellular membrane. Therefore, CPV-VLPs can be used as carriers to facilitate the targeted delivery of encapsulated nanomaterials into cells via receptor-mediated pathways. This study confirmed that CPV-VLPs can significantly promote the biocompatibility of nanomaterials and could expand the application of CPV-VLPs in biological medicine.

  3. Phylogenetic characterization of Canine Parvovirus VP2 partial sequences from symptomatic dogs samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienius, D; Lelešius, R; Kavaliauskis, H; Stankevičius, A; Šalomskas, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to detect canine parvovirus (CPV) from faecal samples of clinically ill domestic dogs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by VP2 gene partial sequencing and molecular characterization of circulating strains in Lithuania. Eleven clinically and antigen-tested positive dog faecal samples, collected during the period of 2014-2015, were investigated by using PCR. The phylogenetic investigations indicated that the Lithuanian CPV VP2 partial sequences (3025-3706 cds) were closely related and showed 99.0-99.9% identity. All Lithuanian sequences were associated with one phylogroup, but grouped in different clusters. Ten of investigated Lithuanian CPV VP2 sequences were closely associated with CPV 2a antigenic variant (99.4% nt identity). Five CPV VP2 sequences from Lithuania were related to CPV-2a, but were rather divergent (6.8 nt differences). Only one CPV VP2 sequence from Lithuania was associated (99.3% nt identity) with CPV-2b VP2 sequences from France, Italy, USA and Korea. The four of eleven investigated Lithuanian dogs with CPV infection symptoms were vaccinated with CPV-2 vaccine, but their VP2 sequences were phylogenetically distantly associated with CPV vaccine strains VP2 sequences (11.5-15.8 nt differences). Ten Lithuanian CPV VP2 sequences had monophyletic relations among the close geographically associated samples, but five of them were rather divergent (1.0% less sequence similarity). The one Lithuanian CPV VP2 sequence was closely related with CPV-2b antigenic variant. All the Lithuanian CPV VP2 partial sequences were conservative and phylogenetically low associated with most commonly used CPV vaccine strains.

  4. Efficacy of the paramunity inducer PIND-ORF in the treatment of canine parvovirus infection.

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    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2014-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a common and severe disease particularly affecting young dogs. The paramunity inducer PIND-ORF is reported to stimulate the innate immune system and, if used as a supplementary medication, might lead to a more rapid improvement in clinical signs in dogs with CPV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PIND-ORF in dogs with CPV infection in a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial using 38 dogs randomly assigned to two groups. Inclusion criteria were clinical signs consistent with CPV infection and a positive faecal CPV PCR. Dogs received either PIND-ORF (n = 20) or placebo (n = 18) and additional symptomatic treatment. Time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between the two groups. Clinical signs, complete blood counts (CBC), and serum protein and albumin concentrations were evaluated daily during hospitalisation and on day 14. Viral shedding and antibody titres were measured by faecal CPV PCR and serum neutralisation assay. There was no significant difference in time to recovery, clinical signs, blood parameters, duration of virus shedding, and antibody titres between the two groups. The only significant difference was an increase in lymphocyte counts and antibody titres observed in the PIND-ORF group only. Three dogs receiving placebo did not survive, but the mortality rate was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.097). No significant effect of PIND-ORF on recovery and outcome could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emergence of canine parvovirus subtype 2b (CPV-2b) infections in Australian dogs.

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    Clark, Nicholas J; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat; Al-Alawneh, John; Harper, Gavin; McDonagh, Phillip; Meers, Joanne

    2018-03-01

    Tracing the temporal dynamics of pathogens is crucial for developing strategies to detect and limit disease emergence. Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is an enteric virus causing morbidity and mortality in dogs around the globe. Previous work in Australia reported that the majority of cases were associated with the CPV-2a subtype, an unexpected finding since CPV-2a was rapidly replaced by another subtype (CPV-2b) in many countries. Using a nine-year dataset of CPV-2 infections from 396 dogs sampled across Australia, we assessed the population dynamics and molecular epidemiology of circulating CPV-2 subtypes. Bayesian phylogenetic Skygrid models and logistic regressions were used to trace the temporal dynamics of CPV-2 infections in dogs sampled from 2007 to 2016. Phylogenetic models indicated that CPV-2a likely emerged in Australia between 1973 and 1988, while CPV-2b likely emerged between 1985 and 1998. Sequences from both subtypes were found in dogs across continental Australia and Tasmania, with no apparent effect of climate variability on subtype occurrence. Both variant subtypes exhibited a classical disease emergence pattern of relatively high rates of evolution during early emergence followed by subsequent decreases in evolutionary rates over time. However, the CPV-2b subtype maintained higher mutation rates than CPV-2a and continued to expand, resulting in an increase in the probability that dogs will carry this subtype over time. Ongoing monitoring programs that provide molecular epidemiology surveillance will be necessary to detect emergence of new variants and make informed recommendations to develop reliable detection and vaccine methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Serologic evidence of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs, wild carnivores, and marsupials in the Argentinean Chaco.

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    Orozco, María Marcela; Miccio, Luciano; Enriquez, Gustavo Fabián; Iribarren, Fabián Eduardo; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The transmission of pathogens between domestic dogs and generalist wildlife species may be modified by environmental degradation, biodiversity losses, host densities, and increased contact rates in remnant forest patches. A serologic survey of canine parvovirus (CPV) in rural domestic dogs and wild mammals was conducted in two neighboring rural areas (disturbed and protected) from Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 174 domestic dogs and 26 wild mammals-4 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), 3 crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), 17 white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), and 2 gray four-eyed opossums (Philander opossum)-were examined for antibodies to CPV using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Domestic dogs were numerous and their movements unrestricted. The main function of dogs differed significantly between areas, with more dogs used for herding or hunting around the protected area. The seroprevalence of antibodies to CPV in dogs from both areas was very high (93.9-94.6%) and increased steeply with age. Nearly all carnivores and marsupials showed high exposure to CPV. Although a higher exposure to CPV was expected in wild mammals from disturbed areas as a result of enhanced contact between dogs and wildlife, no significant differences were found between areas. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to document exposure to CPV of free-ranging Pr. cancrivorus, D. albiventris, and Ph. opossum, and include a detailed demographic study of the domestic dog populations living in the area. This study highlights that dogs and wildlife have potential opportunities for contact and shows that the edges of the protected area may be as suitable as other fragmented areas for the transmission of CPV. Rural domestic dogs may pose serious threats to the health and conservation of wild carnivores in both disturbed and protected areas, especially in the Gran Chaco, where habitat fragmentation is severely

  7. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

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    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Canine parvovirus 2 in diarrheic dogs in Colombia, South America: A possible new CPV-2a is emerging?

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    Duque-García, Yeison; Echeverri-Zuluaga, Manuela; Trejos-Suarez, Juanita; Ruiz-Saenz, Julian

    2017-03-01

    Since its identification in 1978, Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) has been considered a pathogen of great importance in the canine population because it causes severe enteritis with high mortality rates in pups. CPV-2 is a virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae. Currently, there are three described antigenic variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c). CPV-2c is an emerging virus that is seen as a global health hazard. The objective of this work was to confirm the presence of CPV-2 in dogs with acute gastroenteritis compatible with parvovirus and to molecularly characterize the antigenic variants circulating in two regions of Colombia. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted with fecal samples collected from 71 dogs showing signs of acute diarrhea. The samples were processed and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP), sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was performed to detect and characterize CPV. A total of 70.42% of the individuals were confirmed positive for CPV-2. Statistically differences were found in the presentation of CPV-2 between the evaluated regions. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of the antigenic variants CPV-2a/2b. Moreover, we found the presence of two conserved substitutions Asn428Asp and Ala514Ser in the VP2 protein suggesting the presence of a possible new CPV-2a variant circulating in Colombia. This study demonstrates the importance of the CPV 2a/2b in the region and highlights the importance of performing molecular studies for the early detection of new antigenic variants of CPV-2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Substitutions at residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein serve as the minimal determinant of attenuation for canine parvovirus vaccine strain 9985-46.

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    Sehata, Go; Sato, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Morimasa; Takahashi, Takuo; Kainuma, Risa; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Oshima, Sho; Noro, Taichi; Oishi, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Identifying molecular determinants of virulence attenuation in live attenuated canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccines is important for assuring their safety. To this end, we identified mutations in the attenuated CPV 9985-46 vaccine strain that arose during serial passage in Crandell-Rees feline kidney cells by comparison with the wild-type counterpart, as well as minimal determinants of the loss of virulence. Four amino acid substitutions (N93K, G300V, T389N and V562L) in VP2 of strain 9985-46 significantly restricted infection in canine A72 cells. Using an infectious molecular clone system, we constructed isogenic CPVs of the parental virulent 9985 strain carrying single or double mutations. We observed that only a single amino acid substitution in VP2, G300V or T389N, attenuated the virulent parental virus. Combinations of these mutations further attenuated CPV to a level comparable to that of 9985-46. Strains with G300V/T389N substitutions did not induce clinical symptoms in experimentally infected pups, and their ability to infect canine cells was highly restricted. We found that another G300V/V562L double mutation decreased affinity of the virus for canine cells, although its pathogenicity to dogs was maintained. These results indicate that mutation of residue 300, which plays a critical role in host tropism, is not sufficient for viral attenuation in vivo, and that attenuation of 9985-46 strain is defined by at least two mutations in residues 300 and 389 of the VP2 capsid protein. This finding is relevant for quality control of the vaccine and provides insight into the rational design of second-generation live attenuated vaccine candidates.

  10. Partial VP2 sequencing of canine parvovirus (CPV strains circulating in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: detection of the new variant CPV-2c

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    T.X. Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is the most important enteric virus for dogs and it seems to be undergoing continuous evolution, generating new genetic and antigenic variants throughout the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CPV variants from 1995 to 2009 and to investigate the circulation of the new variant CPV-2c in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, the clinical features of CPV infection were also reported. After CPV laboratorial confirmation by HA/HI and PCR, thirty-two fecal samples were analyzed by sequencing a 583-bp fragment of the VP2 gene. One sample, collected in 2008 was typed as the new type CPV-2c. All samples from 1995 to 2003 were identified as "new CPV-2a". From 2004 to 2006, both "new CPV-2a" and CPV-2b were observed. From 2006 to 2009, most of the samples were characterized as CPV-2b. The classical signs of CPV enteritis were observed in 16/18 CPV-2a and 5/13 CPV-2b infected puppies. These results show that continuous epidemiological surveillance of CPV strain distribution is essential for studying the patterns of CPV-2a and 2b spread and for determining whether the new variant CPV-2c has become permanently established in Brazilian canine population.

  11. Evaluation of a Community's Risk for Canine Parvovirus and Distemper Using Antibody Testing and GIS Mapping of Animal Shelter Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, Miranda E; Krecic, Matthew R; Slater, Margaret R; Vigil, Nicole

    2018-03-20

    This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions. Dogs were excluded if trained personnel were concerned health would be compromised by phlebotomy. Blood samples were collected within 24 hours of entry. Four hundred and twenty-seven (40%) dogs had positive antibody test results for both viruses, 422 (40%) were positive for CPV, 37 (4%) were positive for CDV, and 170 (16%) were negative for both. Mapping revealed geographic patterns for dogs with negative antibody tests. This shelter admitted dogs with negative CPV and/or CDV antibody tests from defined community areas. Targeting vaccination efforts in communities to areas where dogs with negative antibody tests originate could be an effective wellness strategy.

  12. Molecular epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs and cats in Beijing, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Gao, Xin-Tao; Hou, Shao-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Xue-Shong; Yuan, Wei-Feng; Xin, Ting; Zhu, Hong-Fei; Jia, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Fifty-five samples (15.62%) collected from dogs and cats were identified as canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in Beijing during 2010-2013. The nucleotide identities and aa similarities were 98.2-100% and 97.7-100%, respectively, when compared with the reference isolates. Also, several synonymous and non-synonymous mutations were also recorded for the first time. New CPV-2a was dominant, accounting for 90.90% of the samples. Two of the 16 samples collected from cats were identified as new CPV-2a (12.5%), showing nucleotide identities of 100% with those from dogs. Twelve samples (15.78%) collected from completely immunized dogs were found to be new CPV-2a, which means CPV-2 vaccines may not provide sufficient protection for the epidemic strains.

  13. Development of a PCR-RFLP assay for the detection and differentiation of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanmei; Yu, Yongle; Yang, Haiyan; Li, Guimei; Yu, Zekun; Zhang, Hongliang; Shan, Hu

    2014-12-15

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay has been developed to detect and differentiate between canine parvovirus (CPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV). Eight CPV and three MEV epidemic strains isolated from 28 pathological samples from dogs and minks suspected of being infected with parvovirus were amplified by PCR using a pair of specific primers designed based on the CPV-N strain (M19296). PCR amplified a fragment of 1016bp from the genomic DNA of both MEV and CPV. The MEV-derived fragment could be digested with the restriction enzyme BSP1407I into three fragments of 102bp, 312bp and 602bp, while the fragment amplified from the CPV genomic DNA was digested into only two fragments of 414bp and 602bp. The lowest DNA concentration of CPV and MEV that could be detected using this assay was 0.004μg/ml and 0.03μg/ml, respectively. The PCR-RFLP assay developed in the present study can, therefore, be used to detect and differentiate MEV from CPV with high specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune responses to rAAV6: The influence of canine parvovirus vaccination and neonatal administration of viral vector

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    Andrea L H Arnett

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV vectors promote long-term gene transfer in many animal species. Significant effort has focused on the evaluation of rAAV delivery and the immune response in both murine and canine models of neuromuscular disease. However, canines provided for research purposes are routinely vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV. rAAV and CPV possess significant homology and are both parvoviruses. Thus, any immune response generated to CPV vaccination has the potential to cross-react with rAAV vectors. In this study, we investigated the immune response to rAAV6 delivery in a cohort of CPV-vaccinated canines and evaluated multiple vaccination regimens in a mouse model of CPV-vaccination. We show that CPV-vaccination stimulates production of neutralizing antibodies with minimal cross-reactivity to rAAV6. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the magnitude of the rAAV6-directed immune response between CPV-vaccinated animals and controls. Moreover, CPV-vaccination did not inhibit rAAV6-mediated transduction. We also evaluated the immune response to early rAAV6-vaccination in neonatal mice. The influence of maternal hormones and cytokines leads to a relatively permissive state in the neonate. We hypothesized that immaturity of the immune system would permit induction of tolerance to rAAV6 when delivered during the neonatal period. Mice were vaccinated with rAAV6 at 1 or 5 days of age, and subsequently challenged with rAAV6 exposure during adulthood via two sequential IM injections, one month apart. All vaccinated animals generated a significant neutralizing antibody response to rAAV6-vaccination that was enhanced following IM injection in adulthood. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the immune response raised against rAAV6 is distinct from that which is elicited by the standard parvoviral vaccines and is sufficient to prevent stable tolerization in neonatal mice.

  15. Evidence of canine parvovirus transmission to a civet cat (Paradoxurus musangus in Singapore

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    Ian H. Mendenhall

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-species transmission can often lead to deleterious effects in incidental hosts. Parvoviruses have a wide host range and primarily infect members of the order Carnivora. Here we describe juvenile common palm civet cats (Paradoxurus musangus that were brought to the Singapore zoo and fell ill while quarantined. The tissues of two individual civets that died tested PCR-positive for parvovirus infection. Phylogenetic analysis revealed this parvovirus strain falls in a basal position to a clade of CPV that have infected dogs in China and Uruguay, suggesting cross-species transmission from domestic to wild animals. Our analysis further identified these viruses as genotype CPV-2a that is enzootic in carnivores. The ubiquity of virus infection in multiple tissues suggests this virus is pathogenic to civet cats. Here we document the cross-species transmission from domestic dogs and cats to wild civet populations, highlighting the vulnerability of wildlife to infectious agents in companion animals.

  16. Epidemiology of canine distemper and canine parvovirus in domestic dogs in urban and rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile.

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    Acosta-Jamett, G; Surot, D; Cortés, M; Marambio, V; Valenzuela, C; Vallverdu, A; Ward, M P

    2015-08-05

    To assess whether the seroprevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) in domestic dogs is higher in urban versus rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile and risk factors for exposure, a serosurvey and questionnaire survey at three, urban-rural paired sites was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Overall, 1161 households were interviewed of which 71% were located in urban areas. A total of 501 blood samples were analysed. The overall CDV and CPV seroprevalences were 61% (CI 90%: 58-70%) and 47% (CI 90%: 40-49%), and 89% (CI 90%: 85-92%) and 72% (CI 90%: 68-76%) in urban and rural areas, respectively. The higher seroprevalence in domestic dogs in urban areas suggests that urban domestic dogs might be a maintenance host for both CDV and CPV in this region. Due to the presence of endangered wild canids populations in areas close to these domestic populations, surveillance and control of these pathogens in urban dog populations is needed a priority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of two assays for detection of antibodies against canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus in dogs admitted to a Florida animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lauren K; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Dubovi, Edward J

    2012-05-01

    To compare 2 assays for use in the identification of dogs with a protective antibody titer (PAT) against canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV). Prospective cross-sectional study. 431 dogs admitted to a municipal animal shelter in north central Florida. Blood samples were collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Serum was obtained, criterion-referenced assays were used to identify dogs that had PATs against CPV (titers ≥ 80; hemagglutination inhibition assay) and CDV (titers ≥ 32; virus neutralization assay), and results were compared with results of a semiquantitative ELISA and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For correct identification of dogs that had PATs against viruses, the ELISA had significantly higher specificity for CPV (98%) and CDV (95%) than did the IFA (82% and 70%, respectively) and had significantly lower sensitivity for CDV (88%) than did the IFA (97%); the sensitivity for CPV was similar (ELISA, 98%; IFA, 97%). Overall diagnostic accuracy was significantly greater with the ELISA than with the IFA. Predictive value of a positive result for PATs was significantly higher with the ELISA for CPV (99%) and CDV (93%) than with the IFA (92% and 71%, respectively). The ELISA had fewer false-positive results than did the IFA and could be performed on-site in shelters in < 1 hour. Accuracy and practicality of the ELISA may be useful for identifying the infection risk of dogs exposed during outbreaks attributable to CPV and CDV infections in shelters.

  18. Accuracy of a point-of-care ELISA test kit for predicting the presence of protective canine parvovirus and canine distemper virus antibody concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, A L; Pressler, B; Volpe, A; Dubovi, E

    2012-08-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) are highly infectious and often fatal diseases with worldwide distributions, and are important population management considerations in animal shelters. A point-of-care ELISA test kit is available to detect serum antibodies to CPV and CDV, and presumptively to predict protective status. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the test compared to CPV hemagglutination inhibition titers and CDV serum neutralization titers determined by a reference laboratory, using sera collected from dogs housed at animal shelters. The ELISA test was used under both field and laboratory conditions and duplicate specimens were processed using an extra wash step. The test kit yielded accurate results (CPV: sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 93.5%; CDV: sensitivity 75.7%, specificity 91.8%) under field conditions. CDV sensitivity was improved by performing the test under laboratory conditions and using an optical density (OD) meter (laboratory performed 94.0%; OD 88.1%). Point-of-care ELISA testing for serum CPV and CDV antibody titers was demonstrated to be a useful tool for determining antibody status when making decisions regarding the need for CPV and/or CDV vaccination and also in animal shelters for population management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effects of canine IL-2 and IL-7 genes on enhancing immunogenicity of canine parvovirus VP2 gene vaccine in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huihui; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Lu; Sun, Yan; Neng, Changai; Zhang, Kao; Li, Wenyan; Wen, Jiexia

    2012-11-04

    To investigate the effects of canine interleukin-2 (cIL-2) and cIL-7 genes on enhancing the immunogenicity of canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 DNA vaccine. The bicistronic vectors of cIL-2 and cIL-7 genes were constructed using the eukaryotic expression vector containing internal ribosome entry site (IRES). The cIL-2/ cIL-7 dicistronic vector plus previously constructed vectors, including CPV VP2 DNA vaccine vector, cIL-2 vector and cIL-7 vector, were used to co-immunize mice with different combinations, consisting of VP2 alone, VP2 + cIL-2, VP2 + cIL-7 and VP2 + cIL-2/cIL-7. The VP2-specific antibody levels in immunized mice were measured by ELISA at different time post-immunization. The proliferation indices and interferon-gamma expression were measured by lymphocyte proliferation assay and ELISA, respectively. The cIL-2/cIL-7 bicistronic vector was correct and could mediate cIL-2 and cIL-7 gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Immunization results revealed that the antibody titers and the neutralizing antibody levels of the mice co-immunized with VP2 + cIL-7/cIL-2 vectors were significantly higher than that with either VP2 + cIL-2 vectors or VP2 + cIL-7 vectors (P vaccine.

  20. Utility of a rapid immunochromatographic strip test in detecting canine parvovirus infection compared with polymerase chain reaction

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    Sundaran S. Tinky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV in fecal samples of diarrheic dogs by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR and immunochromatographic (IC strip test and to compare the diagnostic potential of these tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 fecal samples collected from diarrheic dogs suspected for CPV infection were subjected to PCR using CPV-555 primer amplifying the gene coding for the VP1 protein. These samples were also tested by IC strip test using a commercial rapid Ag test kit. The results were statistically analyzed using McNemar test. Results: A total of 22 samples (44% were detected as positive by PCR, which yielded a specific amplicon of 583 bp. In IC strip test, 18 (36% samples were found to be positive. The sensitivity of the test as compared to PCR was found to be 72.22% and specificity was 92.86%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IC strip test was found to be 88.89% and 81.25%, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results of PCR and IC assay using McNemar test revealed no significant difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: The IC strip test could be employed as a rapid field level diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of canine parvoviral diarrhea.

  1. Continuing evolution of canine parvovirus in China: Isolation of novel variants with an Ala5Gly mutation in the VP2 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianke; Lin, Peng; Zhao, Hang; Cheng, Yuening; Jiang, Zhong; Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Hua; Cheng, Shipeng

    2016-03-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) type 2c is a new antigenic variant of CPV-2. Since the year 2000 it has spread to several countries, causing severe hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. In 2014 and 2015, 58 fecal samples were collected from dogs in Beijing with suspected CPV infection. Regardless of the vaccination status of the dogs, 43 samples were found positive for CPV according to PCR results; i.e., 18, 7, and 18 respectively belonged to antigenic types new CPV-2a, new CPV-2b, and CPV-2c. A phylogenetic tree based on their VP2 gene sequences indicated that the Chinese CPV-2c strains form a separate cluster. In addition to synonymous mutations, the CPV-2c strains also contain a unique coding mutation in VP2 that leads to glycine at residue 5, instead of the highly conserved alanine at this position in all other CPV-2c strains sequenced to date. Using F81 cells, several novel isolates of CPV-2c, each with the Ala5Gly mutation, were obtained. One of these was used to infect experimentally beagle dogs, which subsequently developed the typical clinical symptoms of CPV infection. Hence, it appears that CPV-2c is still evolving in China, a finding that warrants continuous surveying and the eventual adaptation of current vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c based on the VP2 gene in affected domestic dogs in Ecuador

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    David De la Torre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the presence of the variants of canine parvovirus (CPV-2 in the city of Quito, Ecuador, due to the high domestic and street-type canine population, and to identify possible mutations at a genetic level that could be causing structural changes in the virus with a consequent influence on the immune response of the hosts. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five stool samples from different puppies with characteristic signs of the disease and positives for CPV through immunochromatography kits were collected from different veterinarian clinics of the city. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the mutations in residue 426 of the VP2 gene, which determines the variants of CPV-2; in addition, four samples were chosen for complete sequencing of the VP2 gene to identify all possible mutations in the circulating strains in this region of the country. Results: The results revealed the presence of the three variants of CPV-2 with a prevalence of 57.1% (20/35 for CPV-2a, 8.5% (3/35 for CPV-2b, and 34.3% (12/35 for CPV-2c. In addition, complete sequencing of the VP2 gene showed amino acid substitutions in residues 87, 101, 139, 219, 297, 300, 305, 322, 324, 375, 386, 426, 440, and 514 of the three Ecuadorian variants when compared with the original CPV-2 sequence. Conclusion: This study describes the detection of CPV variants in the city of Quito, Ecuador. Variants of CPV-2 (2a, 2b, and 2c have been reported in South America, and there are cases in Ecuador where CVP-2 is affecting even vaccinated puppies.

  3. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) based on the VP2 gene in affected domestic dogs in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Torre, David De; Mafla, Eulalia; Puga, Byron; Erazo, Linda; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete; Ferreira, Antonio Piantino

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the presence of the variants of canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 in the city of Quito, Ecuador, due to the high domestic and street-type canine population, and to identify possible mutations at a genetic level that could be causing structural changes in the virus with a consequent influence on the immune response of the hosts. Thirty-five stool samples from different puppies with characteristic signs of the disease and positives for CPV through immunochromatography kits were collected from different veterinarian clinics of the city. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the mutations in residue 426 of the VP2 gene, which determines the variants of CPV-2; in addition, four samples were chosen for complete sequencing of the VP2 gene to identify all possible mutations in the circulating strains in this region of the country. The results revealed the presence of the three variants of CPV-2 with a prevalence of 57.1% (20/35) for CPV-2a, 8.5% (3/35) for CPV-2b, and 34.3% (12/35) for CPV-2c. In addition, complete sequencing of the VP2 gene showed amino acid substitutions in residues 87, 101, 139, 219, 297, 300, 305, 322, 324, 375, 386, 426, 440, and 514 of the three Ecuadorian variants when compared with the original CPV-2 sequence. This study describes the detection of CPV variants in the city of Quito, Ecuador. Variants of CPV-2 (2a, 2b, and 2c) have been reported in South America, and there are cases in Ecuador where CVP-2 is affecting even vaccinated puppies.

  4. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus variants (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) based on the VP2 gene in affected domestic dogs in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Torre, David De; Mafla, Eulalia; Puga, Byron; Erazo, Linda; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete; Ferreira, Antonio Piantino

    2018-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to determine the presence of the variants of canine parvovirus (CPV)-2 in the city of Quito, Ecuador, due to the high domestic and street-type canine population, and to identify possible mutations at a genetic level that could be causing structural changes in the virus with a consequent influence on the immune response of the hosts. Materials and Methods Thirty-five stool samples from different puppies with characteristic signs of the disease and positives for CPV through immunochromatography kits were collected from different veterinarian clinics of the city. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to determine the mutations in residue 426 of the VP2 gene, which determines the variants of CPV-2; in addition, four samples were chosen for complete sequencing of the VP2 gene to identify all possible mutations in the circulating strains in this region of the country. Results The results revealed the presence of the three variants of CPV-2 with a prevalence of 57.1% (20/35) for CPV-2a, 8.5% (3/35) for CPV-2b, and 34.3% (12/35) for CPV-2c. In addition, complete sequencing of the VP2 gene showed amino acid substitutions in residues 87, 101, 139, 219, 297, 300, 305, 322, 324, 375, 386, 426, 440, and 514 of the three Ecuadorian variants when compared with the original CPV-2 sequence. Conclusion This study describes the detection of CPV variants in the city of Quito, Ecuador. Variants of CPV-2 (2a, 2b, and 2c) have been reported in South America, and there are cases in Ecuador where CVP-2 is affecting even vaccinated puppies. PMID:29805214

  5. Canine Parvovirus (CPV) Vaccination: Comparison of Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Pups after Inoculation with CPV2 or CPV2b Modified Live Virus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Tempesta, Maria; Decaro, Nicola; Carmichael, Leland Eugene; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2001-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) emerged in 1978 as causative agent of a new disease of dogs. New antigenic variants (biotypes), designated CPV2a and CPV2b, became widespread during 1979 to 1980 and 1984, respectively. At the present time the original CPV2 has disappeared in the dog population and has been replaced by the two new viruses. In the present study the comparison of neutralizing antibody titers in two groups of pups (18 pups in each group) inoculated with CPV2 and CPV2b modified live virus vaccines is reported. Using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, relevant differences between antibody titers, against either the homologous or the heterologous virus, were not constantly observed. Using the neutralization (Nt) test, however, the pups inoculated with CPV2 had antibody titers which were approximately 30 times higher to the homologous virus (mean, 4,732) than to the heterologous virus (CPV2b) (mean, 162). The results of these experiments support two conclusions: (i) the HI test may not always accurately evaluate the true immune status of dogs with respect to CPV, and (ii) dogs inoculated with CPV2 vaccine develop relatively low Nt antibody titers against the heterologous virus (CPV2b). These data may suggest an advantage for new vaccines, considering that most presently licensed vaccines are produced with CPV2, which no longer exists in the dog population. PMID:11329467

  6. Canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccination: comparison of neutralizing antibody responses in pups after inoculation with CPV2 or CPV2b modified live virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, A; Cavalli, A; Martella, V; Tempesta, M; Decaro, N; Carmichael, L E; Buonavoglia, C

    2001-05-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) emerged in 1978 as causative agent of a new disease of dogs. New antigenic variants (biotypes), designated CPV2a and CPV2b, became widespread during 1979 to 1980 and 1984, respectively. At the present time the original CPV2 has disappeared in the dog population and has been replaced by the two new viruses. In the present study the comparison of neutralizing antibody titers in two groups of pups (18 pups in each group) inoculated with CPV2 and CPV2b modified live virus vaccines is reported. Using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, relevant differences between antibody titers, against either the homologous or the heterologous virus, were not constantly observed. Using the neutralization (Nt) test, however, the pups inoculated with CPV2 had antibody titers which were approximately 30 times higher to the homologous virus (mean, 4,732) than to the heterologous virus (CPV2b) (mean, 162). The results of these experiments support two conclusions: (i) the HI test may not always accurately evaluate the true immune status of dogs with respect to CPV, and (ii) dogs inoculated with CPV2 vaccine develop relatively low Nt antibody titers against the heterologous virus (CPV2b). These data may suggest an advantage for new vaccines, considering that most presently licensed vaccines are produced with CPV2, which no longer exists in the dog population.

  7. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus and canine enteric coronavirus in diarrheic dogs on the island of St. Kitts: First report from the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ryan; Nair, Rajeev; Peda, Andrea; Aung, Meiji Soe; Ashwinie, G S; Gallagher, Christa A; Malik, Yashpal S; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Ghosh, Souvik

    2017-08-15

    Although canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV) are important enteric pathogens of dogs and have been studied extensively in different parts of the world, there are no reports on these viruses from the Caribbean region. During 2015-2016, a total of 104 diarrheic fecal samples were collected from puppies and adult dogs, with or without hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts (KNA). By PCR, 25 (24%, n=104) samples tested positive for CPV. Based on analysis of the complete deduced VP2 amino acid sequences, 20 of the KNA CPV strains were assigned to new CPV-2a (also designated as CPV-2a-297A). On the other hand, the VP2 genes of the remaining 5 strains were partially characterized, or could not be sequenced. New CPV-2a was the predominant CPV variant in St. Kitts, contrasting the molecular epidemiology of CPV variants reported in most studies from nearby North and South American countries. By RT-PCR, CCoVs were detected in 5 samples (4.8%, n=104). Based on analysis of partial M-protein gene, the KNA CCoV strains were assigned to CCoV-I genotype, and were closely related to CCoV-I strains from Brazil. To our knowledge, this is the first report on detection and genetic diversity of CPV and CCoV in dogs from the Caribbean region, and underscores the importance of similar studies in the other Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup Infecção simultânea por vírus da cinomose e da parvovirose associada à necrose cardíaca em um canino

    OpenAIRE

    Selwyn Arlington Headley; Taís Berelli Saito

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a...

  9. Evaluation of Chicken IgY Generated Against Canine Parvovirus Viral-Like Particles and Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Assay for Canine Parvovirus Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxin; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Shiqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies were generated against canine parvovirus virus-like particles (CPV-VLPs) antigen using chickens. Anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY was extracted from hen egg yolk and used for developing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of CPV in dog feces. The cutoff negative values for anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY were determined using negative fecal samples (already confirmed by polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). In both ELISA and ICA, there was no cross-reaction with other diarrheal pathogens. Thirty-four fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea, of which 26.47% were confirmed as CPV-positive samples by PCR, while 29.41% and 32.35% of the samples were found to be positive by ELISA and ICA, respectively. The developed ELISA and ICA exhibited 97.06% and 94.12% conformity with PCR. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed for IgY-based ELISA and ICA. Thus, they could be suitable for routine use in the diagnosis of CPV in dogs.

  10. Exposure of Free-Ranging Wild Carnivores and Domestic Dogs to Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in the Cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Hayashi, Erika Midori Kida; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Coelho, Claudio José; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Megid, Jane; Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Silveira, Leandro; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2016-09-01

    Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP. Serological tests showed that 10.6% of wild carnivores (maned wolves, crab-eating foxes and ocelots) and 71.4% of domestic dogs were exposed to CDV, and 56.8% of wild carnivores, including all species sampled except coatis, and 57.1% of domestic dogs were exposed to parvovirus. This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

  11. Canine Circovirus 1 (CaCV-1) and Canine Parvovirus 2 (CPV-2): Recurrent Dual Infections in a Papillon Breeding Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiwong, T; Wise, A G; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of sudden death and bloody diarrhea were reported in March 2013 and February 2014 in a breeding colony of Papillon dogs. During the first outbreak, 1 adult dog and 2 eight-month-old puppies died. During the second outbreak, 2 ten-week-old puppies died. One puppy from the first outbreak and 2 puppies from the second outbreak were examined at necropsy. Histologically, all 3 puppies had severe segmental crypt necrosis of the small intestine and marked lymphoid follicle depletion in the spleen and Peyer's patches. Real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) demonstrated abundant canine parvovirus (CPV-2) DNA (Ctcanine circovirus 1 (CaCV-1). Very high levels of CaCV-1 DNA (Ct<13) were detected in small intestine, lymph nodes, and spleen. In situ hybridization for CaCV-1 detected rare positive nuclei of regenerating crypt epithelium but abundant amounts of CaCV-1 nucleic acid in the cytoplasm and nuclei of histiocytes in all lymphoid tissues, including granulomatous inflammatory foci and hepatic Kupffer cells. Significant levels of CaCV-1 DNA were detected in blood and serum (Ct as low as 13) but not feces from 3 surviving dogs at 2 months or 1 year after the outbreak, respectively. We hypothesize that CPV-2 infection predisposed dogs to CaCV-1 infection and ultimately resulted in more severe clinical disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Induction of neutralizing antibodies by a tobacco chloroplast-derived vaccine based on a B cell epitope from canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Andrea; Veramendi, Jon; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra

    2005-11-25

    The 2L21 epitope of the VP2 protein from the canine parvovirus (CPV), fused to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-2L21), was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. Mice and rabbits that received protein-enriched leaf extracts by parenteral route produced high titers of anti-2L21 antibodies able to recognize the VP2 protein. Rabbit sera were able to neutralize CPV in an in vitro infection assay with an efficacy similar to the anti-2L21 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 3C9. Anti-2L21 IgG and seric IgA antibodies were elicited when mice were gavaged with a suspension of pulverized tissues from CTB-2L21 transformed plants. Combined immunization (a single parenteral injection followed by oral boosters) shows that oral boosters help to maintain the anti-2L21 IgG response induced after a single injection, whereas parenteral administration of the antigen primes the subsequent oral boosters by promoting the induction of anti-2L21 seric IgA antibodies. Despite the induced humoral response, antibodies elicited by oral delivery did not show neutralizing capacity in the in vitro assay. The high yield of the fusion protein permits the preparation of a high number of vaccine doses from a single plant and makes feasible the oral vaccination using a small amount of crude plant material. However, a big effort has still to be done to enhance the protective efficacy of subunit vaccines by the oral route.

  13. Immunogenicity of a DNA-launched replicon-based canine parvovirus DNA vaccine expressing VP2 antigen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shyam S; Saini, Mohini; Kumar, Pankaj; Gupta, Praveen K

    2012-10-01

    A replicon-based DNA vaccine encoding VP2 gene of canine parvovirus (CPV) was developed by cloning CPV-VP2 gene into a replicon-based DNA vaccine vector (pAlpha). The characteristics of a replicon-based DNA vaccine like, self-amplification of transcripts and induction of apoptosis were analyzed in transfected mammalian cells. When the pAlpha-CPV-VP2 was injected intradermal as DNA-launched replicon-based DNA vaccine in dogs, it induced CPV-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. The virus neutralization antibody and lymphocyte proliferative responses were higher than conventional CPV DNA vaccine and commercial CPV vaccine. These results indicated that DNA-launched replicon-based CPV DNA vaccine was effective in inducing both CPV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses and can be considered as effective alternative to conventional CPV DNA vaccine and commercial CPV vaccine. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Induction of neutralizing antibodies by a tobacco chloroplast-derived vaccine based on a B cell epitope from canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Andrea; Veramendi, Jon; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    The 2L21 epitope of the VP2 protein from the canine parvovirus (CPV), fused to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-2L21), was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. Mice and rabbits that received protein-enriched leaf extracts by parenteral route produced high titers of anti-2L21 antibodies able to recognize the VP2 protein. Rabbit sera were able to neutralize CPV in an in vitro infection assay with an efficacy similar to the anti-2L21 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 3C9. Anti-2L21 IgG and seric IgA antibodies were elicited when mice were gavaged with a suspension of pulverized tissues from CTB-2L21 transformed plants. Combined immunization (a single parenteral injection followed by oral boosters) shows that oral boosters help to maintain the anti-2L21 IgG response induced after a single injection, whereas parenteral administration of the antigen primes the subsequent oral boosters by promoting the induction of anti-2L21 seric IgA antibodies. Despite the induced humoral response, antibodies elicited by oral delivery did not show neutralizing capacity in the in vitro assay. The high yield of the fusion protein permits the preparation of a high number of vaccine doses from a single plant and makes feasible the oral vaccination using a small amount of crude plant material. However, a big effort has still to be done to enhance the protective efficacy of subunit vaccines by the oral route

  15. Virus neutralizing antibody response in mice and dogs with a bicistronic DNA vaccine encoding rabies virus glycoprotein and canine parvovirus VP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patial, Sonika; Chaturvedi, V K; Rai, A; Saini, M; Chandra, Rajesh; Saini, Y; Gupta, Praveen K

    2007-05-16

    A bicistronic DNA vaccine against rabies and parvovirus infection of dogs was developed by subcloning rabies glycoprotein and canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 genes into a bicistronic vector. After characterizing the expression of both the proteins in vitro, the bicistronic DNA vaccine was injected in mice and induced immune response was compared with monocistronic DNA vaccines. There was no significant difference in ELISA and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody responses against rabies and CPV in mice immunized with either bicistronic or monocistronic DNA vaccine. Further, there was significantly similar protection in mice immunized with either bicistronic or monocistronic rabies DNA vaccine on rabies virus challenge. Similarly, dogs immunized with monocistronic and bicistronic DNA vaccines developed comparable VN antibodies against rabies and CPV. This study indicated that bicistronic DNA vaccine can be used in dogs to induce virus neutralizing immune responses against both rabies and CPV.

  16. Full protection in mink against mink enteritis virus with new generation canine parvovirus vaccines based on synthetic peptide or recombinant protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeveld, J. P.; Kamstrup, Søren; Uttenthal, Åse

    1995-01-01

    Two recently developed vaccines—one based on synthetic peptide and one based on recombinant capsid protein—fully protected dogs against heavy experimental canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. The high sequence homology (>98%) and antigenic similarity between CPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV), feline...... on inactivated virus. Surprisingly, this protection was obtained after only a single injection. Furthermore, the vaccinal dose of 150 μg of conjugated peptide or 3 μg of recombinant VP2 particles per animal, are sufficiently low to be cost-effective and applicable on a large scale....

  17. An oral Sindbis virus replicon-based DNA vaccine containing VP2 gene of canine parvovirus delivered by Escherichia coli elicits immune responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, S S; Saini, M; Kumar, P; Gupta, P K

    2011-01-01

    A Sindbis virus replicon-based DNA vaccine containing VP2 gene of canine parvovirus (CPV) was delivered by Escherichia coli to elicit immune responses. The orally immunized dogs developed CPV-specific serum IgG and virus neutralizing antibody responses. The cellular immune responses analyzed using lymphocyte proliferation test and flow cytometry indicated CPV-specific sensitization of both CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes. This study demonstrated that the oral CPV DNA vaccine delivered by E. coli can be considered as a promising approach for vaccination of dogs against CPV.

  18. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine...

  19. Adeno-associated virus type 2 enhances goose parvovirus replication in embryonated goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkinson, Mertyn; Winocour, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The autonomous goose parvovirus (GPV) and the human helper-dependent adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) share a high degree of homology. To determine if this evolutionary relationship has a biological impact, we studied viral replication in human 293 cells and in embryonated goose eggs coinfected with both viruses. Similar experiments were performed with the minute virus of mice (MVM), an autonomous murine parvovirus with less homology to AAV2. In human 293 cells, both GPV and MVM augmented AAV2 replication. In contrast, AAV2 markedly enhanced GPV replication in embryonated goose eggs under conditions where a similar effect was not observed with MVM. AAV2 did not replicate in embryonated goose eggs and AAV2 inactivated by UV-irradiation also enhanced GPV replication. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a human helper-dependent member of the Parvoviridae can provide helper activity for an autonomous parvovirus in a natural host

  20. Are licensed canine parvovirus (CPV2 and CPV2b) vaccines able to elicit protection against CPV2c subtype in puppies?: A systematic review of controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Blanco, Beatriz; Catala-López, Ferrán

    2015-10-22

    Severe gastroenteritis caused by canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) is a serious life-threatening disease in puppies less than 4-months of age. The emergence of new variants has provoked some concern about the cross-protection elicited by licensed canine parvovirus modified-live type 2 (CPV2) and type 2b (CPV2b) vaccines against the most recent subtype CPV2c. A systematic review was carried out to assess the efficacy of commercial vaccines. We conducted a literature search of Pub Med/MEDLINE from January 1990 to May 2014. This was supplemented by hand-searching of related citations and searches in Google/Google Scholar. Controlled clinical trials in which vaccinated puppies were challenged with CPV2c virus were evaluated. Reporting of outcome measures and results for vaccine efficacy were critically appraised through a variety of clinical signs, serological tests, virus shedding and the ability to overcome maternally derived antibodies (MDA) titres. Six controlled clinical trials were included in the review. In most cases, the results of the selected studies reported benefits in terms of clinical signs, serological tests and virus shedding. However, MDA interference was not considered or evaluated in 5 of the selected trials. No accurate definitions of baseline healthy status and/or clinical outcomes were provided. Methods of randomization, allocation concealment and blinding were usually poorly reported. As a result of the limited number of included studies matching the inclusion criteria, the small sample sizes, short follow-up and the methodological limitations observed, it was not possible to reach a final conclusion regarding the cross-protection of licensed CPV2 and CPV2b vaccines against the subtype 2c in puppies. Further and specifically designed trials are required in order to elucidate whether cross-protection is acquired from licensed CPV vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and sequence analysis of the complete NS1 and VP2 genes of canine parvovirus from domestic dogs in 2013 and 2014 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Li, Qian; Zhao, Guoxing; Cheng, Nan; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhao, Yongkun; Li, Ling; Cao, Zengguo; Yan, Feihu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tiecheng; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-02-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) can cause severe disease in animals and continuously generates new variant and recombinant strains in dogs that have a strong impact on sanitation. It is therefore necessary to investigate epidemic CPV strains to improve our understanding of CPV transmission and epidemic behavior. However, most studies have focused on the analysis of VP2, and therefore, information about recombination and relationships between strains is still lacking. Here, 14 strains of CPV were isolated from domestic dogs suspected of hosting CPV between 2013 and 2014 in China. The complete NS1 and VP2 genes were sequenced and analyzed. The results suggest that the new CPV-2a and new CPV-2b types are the prevalent strains in China. In addition to a few mutations (residues 19, 544, 545, 572 and 583 of NS1 and residues 267, 370, 377 and 440 of VP2) that were preserved during transmission, new mutations (residues 60, 630 of NS1, and residues 21, 310 of VP2) were found in the isolated strains. A phylogenetic tree based on VP2 sequences illustrated that the new CPV-2a and new CPV-2b strains from China form single clusters that are distinct from lineages from other countries. Moreover, recombination between the new CPV-2a and new CPV-2b types was also identified in the isolated strains. Due to differences in selection pressures or recombination, there were a small number of inconsistencies between the phylogenetic trees for VP2 and NS1, which indicated that phylogenetic relationships based on VP2 might not be representative of those based on NS1. The data indicated that mutations and recombination are constantly occurring along with the spread of CPV in China.

  2. Potencial antiviral da quercetina sobre o parvovírus canino Antiviral potencial of quercetin in canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Carvalho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do flavonoide quercetina na replicação do parvovírus canino in vitro por meio do ensaio de determinação da atividade virucida (ensaio 1, ensaio de determinação da atividade sobre a célula (ensaio 2 e ensaio de tempo de adição das drogas em diferentes etapas do ciclo replicativo viral (ensaio 3. A quercetina apresentou significante atividade antiviral, com valores máximos de redução do título viral de 96,3% no ensaio 1, 90% no ensaio 2 e 90% no ensaio 3. Os efeitos mais expressivos ocorreram nas etapas de adsorção e penetração viral. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem a importância da quercetina para a medicina veterinária.The in vitro effect of the flavonoid quercetin against canine parvovirus was evaluated. The antiviral activity of quercetin was evaluated by determining the virucidal activity (assay 1, determining the activity on the cell (assay 2 and using the time of addition assay to test the inhibition of the viral replication cycle (assay 3. Quercetin showed a significant antiviral activity, with maximum viral titer reduction of 96.3% in assay 1, 90% in assay 2 and 90% in assay 3. The most expressive effects occurred in the stages of viral adsorption and penetration. The results show the importance of quercetin for veterinary medicine.

  3. Influence of clinical and laboratory variables on faecal antigen ELISA results in dogs with canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2015-06-01

    False negative faecal canine parvovirus (CPV) antigen ELISA results in dogs with CPV infection are common, but the factors that lead to these false negative results are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dogs with a false negative faecal CPV antigen ELISA result have milder clinical signs and laboratory changes, a lower faecal virus load, higher faecal and serum CPV antibody titres and a faster recovery than dogs with a positive result. Eighty dogs with CPV infection, confirmed by the presence of clinical signs and a positive faecal CPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assigned to two groups according to their faecal antigen ELISA result. Time until presentation, severity of symptoms, laboratory parameters, faecal virus load, faecal and serum antibody titres, and CPV sequencing data were compared between both groups. In 38/80 dogs that were hospitalised until recovery, the time to recovery, mortality, and the course of the disease were compared between dogs with positive and negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Of the 80 dogs included, 41 (51.3%) had a false negative faecal antigen ELISA result. ELISA-negative dogs had a significantly shorter time until presentation, lower frequency of defaecation, lower faecal virus load, and higher serum antibody concentrations than ELISA-positive dogs. Laboratory changes, CPV shedding, and outcomes were not associated with faecal antigen ELISA results. In conclusion, low faecal CPV load and antibodies binding to CPV antigen in faeces are likely to be important reasons for false negative faecal antigen ELISA results. Dogs with clinical signs of CPV infection should be retested by faecal PCR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunogenicity of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, C M; DeBouck, P; Wiseman, A

    1997-02-01

    The study evaluated the ability of a low-passage, high-titer modified live canine parvovirus (CPV) vaccine to produce seroconversion in pups with maternally derived hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers ranging from attenuated and therefore more infective than conventional modified live CPV strains in order to overcome relatively greater levels of maternally derived antibodies, the principal cause of CPV vaccine failures in pups. To assess vaccine performance under field conditions, healthy pups presented at five private veterinary clinics were used as test animals. A single dose of vaccine was given to 59 pups at 12 weeks of age (Group A). To accommodate the protocol of clinics where earlier CPV vaccination was practiced, 87 other pups were vaccinated with two doses, the first at 8-10 weeks of age, and the second at 12 weeks of age (Group B). Geometric mean HI titers were measured for blood samples obtained at the time of vaccination and at 14 weeks of age. Seroconversion was considered to have occurred if pups developed a fourfold or greater increase in HI titer to a level > or = 64. Of the 59 pups in Group A, 100% seroconverted following the single vaccine dose at 12 weeks of age. Of the 87 Group B pups, 82 (94.3%) seroconverted following either of the two vaccine doses. A geometric mean HI titer of 4828 was measured for Group A, and a geometric mean HI titer of 2028 was measured for Group B. An overall seroconversion rate of 96.5% was achieved in pups with maternally derived HI titers < or = 256.

  5. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of canine parvovirus capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli and application as virus-like particle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Guo, Hui-Chen; Wei, Yan-Quan; Dong, Hu; Han, Shi-Chong; Ao, Da; Sun, De-Hui; Wang, Hai-Ming; Cao, Sui-Zhong; Sun, Shi-Qi

    2014-04-01

    Canine parvovirus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by canine parvovirus (CPV). Current commercial vaccines are mainly attenuated and inactivated; as such, problems concerning safety may occur. To resolve this problem, researchers developed virus-like particles (VLPs) as biological nanoparticles resembling natural virions and showing high bio-safety. This property allows the use of VLPs for vaccine development and mechanism studies of viral infections. Tissue-specific drug delivery also employs VLPs as biological nanomaterials. Therefore, VLPs derived from CPV have a great potential in medicine and diagnostics. In this study, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) fusion motif was utilized to express a whole, naturalVP2 protein of CPV in Escherichia coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the CPV VP2 protein has self-assembled into VLPs. The VLPs had a size and shape that resembled the authentic virus capsid. However, the self-assembly efficiency of VLPs can be affected by different pH levels and ionic strengths. The mice vaccinated subcutaneously with CPV VLPs and CPV-specific immune responses were compared with those immunized with the natural virus. This result showed that VLPs can effectively induce anti-CPV specific antibody and lymphocyte proliferation as a whole virus. This result further suggested that the antigen epitope of CPV was correctly present on VLPs, thereby showing the potential application of a VLP-based CPV vaccine.

  6. Pengobatan infeksi parvovirus pada anjing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IKW Sardjana D Kusumawati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatments of canine Parvovirus have already done to 22 dogs. There were 16 dogs, one month to one years of age and 6 dogs twoyears to seven years of age. The results of the theraphy, were ten dogs survived and twelve dogs died due to Parvovirus infection. Fluidtheraphy supported by antibiotic, antiemetic or antacids administrations were essential for Parvovirus infection in dogs. The recoveryrate of this dogs was 45%.

  7. Demographic effects of canine parvovirus on a free-ranging wolf population over 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.; Paul, W.J.; Newton, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    We followed the course of canine parvovinis (CPV) antibody prevalence in a subpopulation of wolves (Canis 1upus) in northeastern Minnesota from 1973, when antibodies were first detected, through 2004. Annual early pup survival was reduced by 70%, and wolf population change was related to CPV antibody prevalence. In the greater Minnesota population of 3,000 wolves, pup survival was reduced by 40-60%. This reduction limited the Minnesota wolf population rate of increase to about 4% per year compared with increases of 16-58% in other populations. Because it is young wolves that disperse, reduced pup survival may have caused reduced dispersal and reduced recolonization of new range in Minnesota. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  8. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV, Canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5 of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8 of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males. Eleven canids (84.6% presented antibodies against CPV, 80% (4/5 were from P. gymnocercus and 87.5% (7/8 were from C. thous. There was no difference in positivity rate against CPV between gender and age. Antibodies against CCoV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples, with 60% (3/5 of positivity in P. gymnocercus and 25% (2/8 in C. thous. The frequency of antibodies against CCoV was higher among the adults and males. The study showed that these canids were exposed to CDV, CPV and CCoV.Foi investigada a ocorrência de exposição em 13 canídeos não domésticos de vida livre (cinco graxains-do-campo - Pseudalopex gymnocercus e oito graxains-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous da região sul do Brasil ao vírus da cinomose canina (CDV, parvovírus canino (CPV e coronavírus canino (CCoV. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras. Haviam anticorpos anti-CDV em 60% (3/5 dos P. gymnocercus e em 25% (2/8 dos C. thous. A freqüência foi maior entre machos e adultos. Para CPV, 11 canídeos (84,6% apresentaram anticorpos, 80% (4/5 eram da espécie P. gymnocercus e 87,5% (7/8 eram C. thous. Não houve diferença de positividade para o CPV entre sexos e idades. Anticorpos contra o CCoV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras, sendo 60% (3/5 de positividade entre os P. gymnocercus e 25% (2/8 entre os C. thous. A freqüência de anticorpos para CCoV foi maior entre os machos e adultos. O estudo revelou que estes canídeos foram expostos ao CDV, CPV

  9. Effects of subclinical inflammation on C-reactive protein and haptoglobin levels as well as specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated against canine distemper and parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romiszewski, Przemysław; Kostro, Krzysztof; Lisiecka, Urszula

    2018-03-05

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of subclinical inflammation on specific humoral immunity in dogs vaccinated with Nobivac® DHP based on serum levels of CRP and Hp. Dogs from the group I were administered Nobivac® DHP, the vaccine against distemper, infectious hepatitis and parvovirus whereas group II animals received subcutaneous turpentine oil to induce subclinical inflammation, followed by Nobivac® DHP after 24 h. Animals in group III received only turpentine oil in the way and amount identical to that as in group II. Nobivac DHP relatively poorly induced the immune inflammatory response showing good immunogenic properties, which was evidenced by only a double increase in mean CRP and Hp levels associated with antigenic stimulation in group I. In group II, serum neutralization (SN) and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) results were quite closely correlated with serum levels of CPR and Hp. Our findings suggest that the efficacy of vaccinations in dogs can be significantly affected by subclinical inflammations, which is indicated by a correlation between serum CRP and Hp levels versus antibody titres for canine distemper and parvovirus in both experimental groups of dogs (group I and II). The correlation of mean CRP and Hp values in dogs with subclinical inflammation and after vaccination with the kinetics of increasing antibody titres against distemper and parvovirus in group II dogs reflects the severity of inflammatory response and the extent of specific humoral immunity. Routine determinations of serum CRP and Hp levels as the indices of inflammation severity can be the essential biochemical markers for assessment of dogs' health in the period preceding specific immunoprophylaxis and efficacy of the vaccine.

  10. Diagnostic performance of a rapid in-clinic test for the detection of Canine Parvovirus under different storage conditions and vaccination status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantere, Maria C; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Kontos, Vassilios; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios C; Tsokana, Constantina N; Billinis, Charalambos

    2015-04-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common causes of acute haemorrhagic enteritis in young dogs, while clinical diagnosis is often indecisive. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an in-clinic rapid test in the detection of CPV infection in dogs. To this end, we compared the Rapid Diagnostic Kit of Canine Parvovirus, Coronavirus and Rotavirus antigen (Quicking(®)) to PCR, which is considered as the most reliable diagnostic method. A total of 78 duplicated faecal samples were collected from diarrhoeic dogs. Vaccination history within a month prior to the onset of diarrhoea was reported for 12 of the sampled dogs. The rapid diagnostic test was performed in 23 of the faecal samples directly, while the rest were placed into a sterile cotton tipped swab suitable for collection and transportation of viruses (Sigma Σ-VCM(®)) and stored at -20 °C. The sensitivity of the Quicking rapid diagnostic test compared to PCR in the total number of samples, in samples from non-vaccinated dogs and in samples tested directly after collection were 22.22% (95% CI: 13.27-33.57%), 26.67% (95% CI: 16.08-39.66%) and 76.47% (95% CI: 50.10-93.04%) respectively, while the specificity of the test was 100% in any case. In conclusion, negative results do not exclude parvoenteritis from the differential diagnosis, especially in dogs with early vaccination history, but a positive result almost certainly indicates CPV infection. An improved sensitivity may be expected when the test is performed immediately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extinct type of human parvovirus B19 persists in tonsillar B cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pyöriä, Lari; Toppinen, Mari; Mantyla, Elina; Hedman, Lea; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Ilmarinen, Taru; Soderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus; Perdomo, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) DNA persists lifelong in human tissues, but the cell type harbouring it remains unclear. We here explore B19V DNA distribution in B, T and monocyte cell lineages of recently excised tonsillar tissues from 77 individuals with an age range of 2?69 years. We show that B19V DNA is most frequent and abundant among B cells, and within them we find a B19V genotype that vanished from circulation >40 years ago. Since re-infection or re-activation are unlikely with this virus type...

  12. Rhabdomyolysis associated with human parvovirus B19 infection in a patient with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Aki; Yoto, Yuko; Ohya, Kazuhiro; Tsugawa, Takeshi; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2014-07-01

    Patients with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy sometimes experience transient exacerbations of muscle weakness. We took care of a 9-year-old boy with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy who presented with acute respiratory failure and decreased exercise ability with marked elevation of serum creatine kinase indicating rhabdomyolysis. At that time, his younger sister suffered from erythema infectiosum. Although he had no particular symptoms, he was tested and proven to have acute human parvovirus B19 infection based on detection of anti-B19 IgM and parvovirus B19 DNA in his serum. His acute rhabdomyolysis was possibly triggered by human parvovirus B19 infection. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. SURVEILLANCE FOR ANTIBODIES AGAINST SIX CANINE VIRUSES IN WILD RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Emiko; Soma, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2017-10-01

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus. No samples were found to be seropositive for canine parainfluenza virus. Seropositivity rates for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus type 2 were significantly different between areas, and younger raccoons (Canis lupus familiaris), our results suggest that they can act as reservoirs for some of these important canine viruses and might be involved in viral transmission. Further study should include isolation and analysis of canine viruses in wild raccoons from a wider area.

  14. Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, E T; Ijaopo, O K; Okonko, I O

    2016-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value of using the immunoblot ELISA assay for the rapid detection of anti-CPV IgG antibody.

  15. Autonomous parvoviruses neither stimulate nor are inhibited by the type I interferon response in human normal or cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C; Andres, Wells; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2014-05-01

    Members of the genus Parvovirus are small, nonenveloped single-stranded DNA viruses that are nonpathogenic in humans but have potential utility as cancer therapeutics. Because the innate immune response to parvoviruses has received relatively little attention, we compared the response to parvoviruses to that of several other types of viruses in human cells. In normal human glia, fibroblasts, or melanocytes, vesicular stomatitis virus evoked robust beta interferon (IFN-β) responses. Cytomegalovirus, pseudorabies virus, and Sindbis virus all evoked a 2-log-unit or greater upregulation of IFN-β in glia; in contrast, LuIII and MVMp parvoviruses did not evoke a detectable IFN-β or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG; MX1, oligoadenylate synthetase [OAS], IFIT-1) response in the same cell types. The lack of response raised the question of whether parvoviral infection can be attenuated by IFN; interestingly, we found that IFN did not decrease parvovirus (MVMp, LuIII, and H-1) infectivity in normal human glia, fibroblasts, or melanocytes. The same was true in human cancers, including glioma, sarcoma, and melanoma. Similarly, IFN failed to attenuate transduction by the dependovirus vector adeno-associated virus type 2. Progeny production of parvoviruses was also unimpaired by IFN in both glioma and melanoma, whereas vesicular stomatitis virus replication was blocked. Sarcoma cells with upregulated IFN signaling that show high levels of resistance to other viruses showed strong infection by LuIII. Unlike many other oncolytic viruses, we found no evidence that impairment of innate immunity in cancer cells plays a role in the oncoselectivity of parvoviruses in human cells. Parvoviral resistance to the effects of IFN in cancer cells may constitute an advantage in the virotherapy of some tumors. Understanding the interactions between oncolytic viruses and the innate immune system will facilitate employing these viruses as therapeutic agents in cancer patients. The cancer

  16. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visual Detection of Canine Parvovirus Based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and with Lateral Flow Dipstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, Yu-Ling; YEN, Chon-Ho; TU, Ching-Fu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAMP–ELISA) and with lateral flow dipstick (LAMP–LFD) are rapid, sensitive and specific methods for the visual detection of clinical pathogens. In this study, LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD were developed for the visual detection of canine parvovirus (CPV). For LAMP, a set of four primers (biotin-labeled forward inner primers) was designed to specifically amplify a region of the VP2 gene of CPV. The optimum time and temperature for LAMP were 60 min and 65°C, respectively. The specific capture oligonucleotide probes, biotin-labeled CPV probe for LAMP–ELISA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled CPV probe for LAMP–LFD were also designed for hybridization with LAMP amplicons on streptavidin-coated wells and LFD strips, respectively. For the comparison of detection sensitivity, conventional PCR and LAMP for CPV detection were also performed. The CPV detection limits by PCR, PCR–ELISA, LAMP, LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD were 102, 102, 10−1, 10−1 and 10−1 TCID50/ml, respectively. In tests using artificially contaminated dog fecal samples, the samples with CPV inoculation levels of ≥1 TCID50/ml gave positive results by both LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD. Our data indicated that both LAMP–ELISA and LAMP–LFD are promising as rapid, sensitive and specific methods for an efficient diagnosis of CPV infection. PMID:24334855

  18. Phylogenetic and genome-wide deep-sequencing analyses of canine parvovirus reveal co-infection with field variants and emergence of a recent recombinant strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Pérez

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV, a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population and a major recombinant strain (86.7%. The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity.

  19. Phylogenetic and Genome-Wide Deep-Sequencing Analyses of Canine Parvovirus Reveal Co-Infection with Field Variants and Emergence of a Recent Recombinant Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ruben; Calleros, Lucía; Marandino, Ana; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Grecco, Sofia; Blanc, Hervé; Vignuzzi, Marco; Isakov, Ofer; Shomron, Noam; Carrau, Lucía; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Sosa, Katia; Tomás, Gonzalo; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV), a fast-evolving single-stranded DNA virus, comprises three antigenic variants (2a, 2b, and 2c) with different frequencies and genetic variability among countries. The contribution of co-infection and recombination to the genetic variability of CPV is far from being fully elucidated. Here we took advantage of a natural CPV population, recently formed by the convergence of divergent CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains, to study co-infection and recombination. Complete sequences of the viral coding region of CPV-2a and CPV-2c strains from 40 samples were generated and analyzed using phylogenetic tools. Two samples showed co-infection and were further analyzed by deep sequencing. The sequence profile of one of the samples revealed the presence of CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains that differed at 29 nucleotides. The other sample included a minor CPV-2a strain (13.3% of the viral population) and a major recombinant strain (86.7%). The recombinant strain arose from inter-genotypic recombination between CPV-2c and CPV-2a strains within the VP1/VP2 gene boundary. Our findings highlight the importance of deep-sequencing analysis to provide a better understanding of CPV molecular diversity. PMID:25365348

  20. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Shang-jin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV. A pair of primers (P1 and P4 specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV, canine parvovirus (CPV, canine coronavirus (CCV, rabies virus (RV, or canine adenovirus (CAV. The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  1. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1 and P4) specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV), rabies virus (RV), or canine adenovirus (CAV). The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. PMID:20433759

  2. Simultaneous canine distemper encephalitis and canine parvovirus infection with distemper-associated cardiac necrosis in a pup Infecção simultânea por vírus da cinomose e da parvovirose associada à necrose cardíaca em um canino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arlington Headley

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus associated with distemper myocardial degeneration and necrosis is described in a pup. The dog demonstrated myoclonus, nystagmus, enamel hypoplasia, abdominal pustules, and bilateral corneal ulceration clinically. Demyelinating encephalitis, myocardial degeneration and necrosis with mineralization, and necrosis, hemorrhage and fusion of intestinal villi were observed. The lesions observed in this dog are characteristic of a dual infection of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus.Descreve-se a infecção simultânea de cinomose e parvovirose associada à degeneração e necrose do miocárdio em um cão. Clinicamente, o cão apresentou mioclonias, nistagmo, hipoplasia do esmalte dentário, pústulas abdominais e ulceração bilateral da córnea. Foram observadas encefalite desmielinzante, degeneração e necrose do miocárdio com mineralização, e necrose, hemorragia e fusão das vilosidades intestinais. As lesões observadas neste cão são características com uma infecção pelos vírus da cinomose e da parvovirose.

  3. [Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immune response against canine parvovirus VP2 in mice immunized by VP2 DNA vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xingxing; Pan, Sumin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) B subunit (LTB) gene on canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 gene vaccine. The LTB gene was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of E. coli 44815 strain. The VP2-70 fragment (210 bp) encoding major epitope of VP2 (70 amino acids) was amplified by PCR from a plasmid encoding VP2 gene. VP2-70 and LTB genes were inserted into the eukaryotic vector to construct VP2-70 gene,LTB gene and VP2-70-LTB fused gene vectors. The mice were immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB fused vector, or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector, respectively. The antibody titers at the different time were measured by using ELISA method. The spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity was analyzed by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The sequence of VP2-70 and LTB genes was identified. The recombinant VP2-70 and LTB proteins could be expressed in HEK293T cells in a secretory manner. The mice immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB vector or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector could generate the specific antibody against VP2 protein. The antibody titer immunized with VP2-70-LTB vector reached 1:5120 at 35 d post immunization, significantly higher than that of other two groups (P vaccine in mice.

  4. Poly (I:C) enhances the anti-tumor activity of canine parvovirus NS1 protein by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Yadav, Pavan Kumar; Tiwari, A K; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Sahoo, A P

    2016-09-01

    The canine parvovirus NS1 (CPV2.NS1) protein selectively induces apoptosis in the malignant cells. However, for an effective in vivo tumor treatment strategy, an oncolytic agent also needs to induce a potent anti-tumor immune response. In the present study, we used poly (I:C), a TLR3 ligand, as an adjuvant along with CPV2.NS1 to find out if the combination can enhance the oncolytic activity by inducing a potent anti-tumor immune response. The 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were used to induce mammary tumor in Balb/c mice. The results suggested that poly (I:C), when given along with CPV2.NS1, not only significantly reduced the tumor growth but also augmented the immune response against tumor antigen(s) as indicated by the increase in blood CD4+ and CD8+ counts and infiltration of immune cells in the tumor tissue. Further, blood serum analysis of the cytokines revealed that Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) were significantly upregulated in the treatment group indicating activation of cell-mediated immune response. The present study reports the efficacy of CPV2.NS1 along with poly (I:C) not only in inhibiting the mammary tumor growth but also in generating an active anti-tumor immune response without any visible toxicity. The results of our study may help in developing CPV2.NS1 and poly (I: C) combination as a cancer therapeutic regime to treat various malignancies.

  5. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of post-vaccination immunity to canine distemper and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Key words: Immunoblot ELISA, post-vaccination immunity, canine distemper, parvoviruses. INTRODUCTION. Canine ..... NGOs and other government agencies to fund and intensify ... Vaccination Programs for Dogs. In: recent ...

  7. Níveis de anticorpos contra o vírus da cinomose canina e o parvovírus canino em cães não vacinados e vacinados Antibodies levels against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hass

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Antibody titres to canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parvovirus (CPV were measured in 132 dogs: 80 had been vaccinated at least once, 22 had not been vaccinated, and 30 had unknown vaccination history. Serum antibody titers were measured by means of serum neutralization (CDV or hemagglutination inhibition (CPV. Serum CDV titers >20 and serum CPV titers >80 were considered protective. Protective antibodies to CDV were present in 40.1% of the population: 39.8% of the vaccinated dogs, 31.8% unvaccinated, and in 46.6% of the dogs with unknown vaccination history. Protective antibodies to CPV were present in 90.9% of the dogs: 93.7% of the vaccinated dogs, 90.9% of the unvaccinated, and 83.3% of the dogs with unknown vaccination history.

  8. Long-lived immunity to canine core vaccine antigens in UK dogs as assessed by an in-practice test kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killey, R; Mynors, C; Pearce, R; Nell, A; Prentis, A; Day, M J

    2018-01-01

    To determine the utility of an in-practice test kit to detect protective serum antibody against canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus type 2 in a sample of the UK dog population. Serum samples from 486 dogs, last vaccinated between less than 1 month and 124 months previously, were tested with the VacciCheck™ test kit for protective antibodies against distemper, adenovirus and parvovirus type 2. A high proportion of the dogs tested (93·6%) had protective antibody against all three of the core vaccine antigens: 95·7% of the dogs were seropositive against canine distemper virus, 97·3% against canine adenovirus and 98·5% against canine parvovirus type 2. The small number of dogs that were seronegative for one or more of the antigens (n = 31) may have had waning of previous serum antibody or may have been rare genetic non-responders to that specific antigen. UK veterinarians can be reassured that triennial revaccination of adult dogs with core vaccines provides long-lived protective immunity. In-practice serological test kits are a valuable tool for informing decision-making about canine core revaccination. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  9. Evidence for porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) in Brazilian swine herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Porcine bocaviruses were recently identified among swine co-infected with PCV2 (2,3) and suffering an acute-onset disease of high mortality in the United States, in pigs with PMWS in Sweden (1), and in pigs with reproductive and neurological disease in China (4). Parvoviruses are smal...

  10. Human Parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994

  11. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspe...

  12. Role of multiple hosts in the cross-species transmission and emergence of a pandemic parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B; Harbison, Carole E; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M; Kaelber, Jason T; Brown, Justin D; Ruder, Mark G; Keel, M Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J; Holmes, Edward C; Parrish, Colin R

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence.

  13. Role of Multiple Hosts in the Cross-Species Transmission and Emergence of a Pandemic Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B.; Harbison, Carole E.; Pagan, Israel; Stucker, Karla M.; Kaelber, Jason T.; Brown, Justin D.; Ruder, Mark G.; Keel, M. Kevin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence. PMID:22072763

  14. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Andrew; Fiske, Laurie; Erger, Kirsten; Cossette, Travis; Verstegen, John; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Struck, Maggie B.; Lee, Young Mok; Chou, Janice Y.; Byrne, Barry J.; Correia, Catherine E.; Mah, Cathryn S.; Weinstein, David A.; Conlon, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size,...

  15. Glycogen storage disease type Ia in canines: a model for human metabolic and genetic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Andrew; Fiske, Laurie; Erger, Kirsten; Cossette, Travis; Verstegen, John; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Struck, Maggie B; Lee, Young Mok; Chou, Janice Y; Byrne, Barry J; Correia, Catherine E; Mah, Cathryn S; Weinstein, David A; Conlon, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including "lactic acidosis", larger size, and longer lifespan compared to other animal models. Use of this model in preclinical trials of gene therapy is described and briefly compared to the murine model. Although the canine model offers a number of advantages for evaluating potential therapies for GSDIa, there are also some significant challenges involved in its use. Despite these challenges, the canine model of GSDIa should continue to provide valuable information about the potential for generating curative therapies for GSDIa as well as other genetic hepatic diseases.

  16. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Specht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size, and longer lifespan compared to other animal models. Use of this model in preclinical trials of gene therapy is described and briefly compared to the murine model. Although the canine model offers a number of advantages for evaluating potential therapies for GSDIa, there are also some significant challenges involved in its use. Despite these challenges, the canine model of GSDIa should continue to provide valuable information about the potential for generating curative therapies for GSDIa as well as other genetic hepatic diseases.

  17. A comparative study between mixed-type tumours from human salivary and canine mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genelhu, Marisa CLS; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Gobbi, Helenice; Cassali, Geovanni D

    2007-01-01

    In comparative pathology, canine mammary tumours have special interest because of their similarities with human breast cancer. Mixed tumours are uncommon lesions in the human breast, but they are found most frequently in the mammary gland of the female dogs and in the human salivary glands. The aim of the study was to compare clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features of human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours, in order to evaluate the latter as an experimental model for salivary gland tumours. Ten examples of each mixed tumour type (human pleomorphic adenoma and carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas and canine mixed tumour and metaplastic carcinoma) were evaluated. First, clinical and morphologic aspects of benign and malignant variants were compared between the species. Then, streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin, p63 protein, estrogen receptor, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. After standardization, similar age and site distributions were observed in human and canine tumours. Histological similarities were identified in the comparison of the benign lesions as well. Metaplastic carcinomas also resembled general aspects of carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenomas in morphological evaluation. Additionally, immunohistochemical staining further presented similar antigenic expression between lesions. There are many similar features between human salivary and canine mammary gland mixed tumours. This observation is of great relevance for those interested in the study and management of salivary gland tumours, since canine lesions may constitute useful comparative models for their investigations

  18. In silico comparative study of epitopes predicted from different strains of genus parvovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul B. Chamute; Mahadev A. Jadhav; Anant Patil

    2011-01-01

    Parvoviruses are typically linear, non-segmented single-stranded DNA viruses, with an average genome size of 5000 nucleotides. Parvoviruses are some of the smallest viruses found in nature. Some have been found as small as 23 nm. Many types of mammalian species have a strain of parvovirus associated with them. Parvoviruses tend to be specific about the taxon of animal they will infect, but this is a somewhat flexible characteristic. Thus, all strains of parvovirus will affect dogs, wolves, an...

  19. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Yu, Chi-Ho; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2010-01-01

    Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE) and spermatocytic seminoma (SS). Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD) being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns) were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used for various statistical analyses. The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8%) and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%). All SE cases (8/8, 100%) were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%), 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%), and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7%) types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels were a correlated vascular parameter. Although

  20. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Hyuk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE and spermatocytic seminoma (SS. Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Methods Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program was used for various statistical analyses. Results The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8% and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%. All SE cases (8/8, 100% were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%, 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%, and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7% types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels

  1. Structural Characterization of H-1 Parvovirus: Comparison of Infectious Virions to Empty Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sujata; Nam, Hyun-Joo; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Vogel, Michèle; Dinsart, Christiane; Salomé, Nathalie; McKenna, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The structure of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) packaging H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV), which is being developed as an antitumor gene delivery vector, has been determined for wild-type (wt) virions and noninfectious (empty) capsids to 2.7- and 3.2-Å resolution, respectively, using X-ray crystallography. The capsid viral protein (VP) structure consists of an α-helix and an eight-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel with large loop regions between the strands. The β-barrel and loops form the capsid core and surface, respectively. In the wt structure, 600 nucleotides are ordered in an interior DNA binding pocket of the capsid. This accounts for ∼12% of the H-1PV genome. The wt structure is identical to the empty capsid structure, except for side chain conformation variations at the nucleotide binding pocket. Comparison of the H-1PV nucleotides to those observed in canine parvovirus and minute virus of mice, two members of the genus Parvovirus, showed both similarity in structure and analogous interactions. This observation suggests a functional role, such as in capsid stability and/or ssDNA genome recognition for encapsulation. The VP structure differs from those of other parvoviruses in surface loop regions that control receptor binding, tissue tropism, pathogenicity, and antibody recognition, including VP sequences reported to determine tumor cell tropism for oncotropic rodent parvoviruses. These structures of H-1PV provide insight into structural features that dictate capsid stabilization following genome packaging and three-dimensional information applicable for rational design of tumor-targeted recombinant gene delivery vectors. PMID:23449783

  2. Comparison of three laboratorial tests for diagnosis of canine parvovirus infection Comparação de três testes laboratoriais para diagnóstico da infecção pelo parvovírus canino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.O. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rapid tests currently used for canine parvovirus (CPV diagnosis: hemagglutination test (HA, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A total of 112 fecal samples collected from diarrheic puppies up to one year of age were tested. The EIA was able to detect CPV antigen in 44 samples. By HA, 32 samples tested highly positive with titers >128, eight tested weakly positive (titers 32 and 64 and 72 were negative (titers Avaliaram-se os métodos rápidos rotineiramente utilizados para diagnóstico da infecção por parvovírus canino (CPV: teste de hemaglutinação (HA, ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE e reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR. Um total de 112 amostras fecais de cães diarreicos com até um ano de idade foi testado. O EIE foi capaz de detectar o antígeno do CPV em 44 amostras. Por HA, 32 amostras foram consideradas fortemente positivas com títulos >128, oito fracamente positivas (títulos 32 e 64 e 72 negativas (títulos <16. Por PCR, 57 amostras foram positivas incluindo 13 EIE-negativas e 19 HA-negativas. A melhor correlação foi observada entre EIE e PCR (88,4%. Os testes foram capazes de detectar todos os tipos de CPV, incluindo o CPV-2c. Considerando-se que em 23%-33% dos filhotes com enterite a infecção por CPV não foi diagnosticada pelos testes de EIE e HA, os resultados negativos nos testes de detecção de antígeno devem ser confirmados por meio de métodos moleculares.

  3. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Thierry; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2) biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1)-deleted to helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors. PMID:21994722

  4. The effects of two different types of bandage contact lenses on the healthy canine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braus, Barbara Katharina; Riedler, Daniela; Tichy, Alexander; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse

    2018-02-06

    To compare two types of bandage contact lenses on the healthy canine eye. Six healthy Beagles. Two different types of bandage contact lenses (single sized human silicone contact lens 'PureVision 2' (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA) and specially designed veterinary hydrogel contact lens 'AcriVet Pat D' (Bausch & Lomb Incorporated) were placed in 12 eyes of healthy Beagle dogs. Retention times and the effects of the lenses regarding irritation of the eye, changes in tear production, impact of contact lenses on tonometric readings, and cytologic and microbiological alterations of the canine eye were investigated. Mean retention times for veterinary hydrogel lenses with special dimensions were significantly shorter (2 days) than for one size human silicon lenses (8.8 days). Irritation scores were overall low for both types of lenses apart from one human lens causing severe irritation and keratoconjunctivitis as a sequel to folding and displacement. Tear production remained stable in human contact lenses. Intraocular pressure readings with a contact lens in place were only slightly altered; the most accurate readings were obtained through a human lens with an applanation tonometer. Cytology revealed a slight, nonsignificant increase in neutrophilic granulocytes with both types of lenses; the microflora did not change significantly. Human silicone lenses have significantly longer retention times and are less expensive than veterinary hydrogel lenses. In regard to irritation, bacterial growth and inflammation, both types of lenses can be recommended for use in canine eyes. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Clinical, hematological, and biochemical findings in puppies with coronavirus and parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Tatiana X.; Cubel Garcia, Rita de Cássia N.; Gonçalves, Luciana P. S.; Costa, Erika M.; Marcello, Gracy C.G.; Labarthe, Norma V.; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya

    2013-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory findings in puppies naturally infected with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus (CPV) were compared with findings in uninfected puppies. Lymphopenia was the only parameter related to CCoV infection that was statistically significant; vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, hemorrhagic fluid diarrhea, leukopenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypoglycemia, and hypoproteinemia were correlated with CPV infection. PMID:24155496

  6. Drugs prescription pattern in dogs diagnosed with parvovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine parvovirus enteritis affects predominantly puppies with a high prevalence rate in Nigeria and is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia and leucopenia. Treatment is non-specific; hence array of medications are usually prescribed to manage the condition symptomatically. Irrational drugs prescription has been ...

  7. Establishment of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection and differentiation of canine distemper virus infected and vaccinated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Fei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Tian, Jin; Jiang, Yi-Tong; Zhang, Xiao-Zhan; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Tian-Kuo; Yin, Xiu-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Liu, Ming; Hua, Yu-Ping; Qu, Lian-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Although widespread vaccination against canine distemper virus (CDV) has been conducted for many decades, several canine distemper outbreaks in vaccinated animals have been reported frequently. In order to detect and differentiate the wild-type and vaccine strains of the CDV from the vaccinated animals, a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method was developed. A set of four primers-two internal and two external-were designed to target the H gene for the specific detection of wild-type CDV variants. The CDV-H RT-LAMP assay rapidly amplified the target gene, within 60 min, using a water bath held at a constant temperature of 65°C. The assay was 100-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 10(-1)TCID50ml(-1). The system showed a preference for wild-type CDV, and exhibited less sensitivity to canine parvovirus, canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2, canine coronavirus, and canine parainfluenza virus. The assay was validated using 102 clinical samples obtained from vaccinated dog farms, and the results were comparable to a multiplex nested RT-PCR assay. The specific CDV-H RT-LAMP assay provides a simple, rapid, and sensitive tool for the detection of canines infected with wild-type CDV from canines vaccinated with attenuated vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Análise imuno-histoquímica de cães naturalmente infectados pelo parvovírus canino Immunohistochemical analysis of dogs infected naturally by canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C. Oliveira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Noventa e seis cães com lesões macroscópicas sugestivas de parvovirose canina foram necropsiados no Setor de Patologia Veterinária da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul no período de março de 2005 a novembro de 2006. Tecidos destes caninos foram analisados através de histologia e imuno-histoquímica. Aumento das placas de Peyer do intestino delgado e hiperemia da mucosa e serosa intestinal foram os achados macroscópicos mais observados. Microscopicamente, foi visualizada enterite necrótica em 77% dos cães. Em 17,7% as alterações histológicas do intestino delgado ficaram prejudicadas pela autólise, dificultando a interpretação. O teste de imuno-histoquímica em cortes de intestino delgado, linfonodo mesentérico, timo, baço, tonsila, língua e medula óssea de todos os 96 casos, foi positivo em 91,6% (88/96 dos casos. O intestino delgado demonstrou o melhor resultado, obtendo-se marcações em 77% (74/96 dos casos. A análise final do exame paramétrico de Fisher demonstrou uma fraca associação entre autólise intestinal e resultado positivo da imuno-histoquímica onde as chances de um intestino delgado autolisado histologicamente apresentar resultado positivo na imuno-histoquímica é 0,33 vezes menor (OR=0,33; 95%IC: 0,10-1,17 quando comparada a um intestino delgado não autolisado.Ninety-six dogs with gross lesions suggestive of canine parvovirus infection were selected and necropsied in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, between March 2005 and November 2006. The main gross lesions were enlargement of the Peyer's patches in the small intestine and hyperemia in the intestinal mucosa and serosa. Microscopically, the small intestine showed necrotizing enteritis in 77% (74/96 of the dogs examined. However, in 17.7% of the histological evaluation in the small intestine were damaged due to autolytic changes making it difficult to obtain an appropriate interpretation. The

  9. Molecular analysis of partial VP-2 gene amplified from rectal swab samples of diarrheic dogs in Pakistan confirms the circulation of canine parvovirus genetic variant CPV-2a and detects sequences of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nisar; Riaz, Adeel; Zubair, Zahra; Saqib, Muhammad; Ijaz, Sehrish; Nawaz-Ul-Rehman, Muhammad Shah; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed; Mubin, Muhammad

    2018-03-15

    The infection in dogs due to canine parvovirus (CPV), is a highly contagious one with high mortality rate. The present study was undertaken for a detailed genetic analysis of partial VP2 gene i.e., 630 bp isolated from rectal swab samples of infected domestic and stray dogs from all areas of district Faisalabad. Monitoring of viruses is important, as continuous prevalence of viral infection might be associated with emergence of new virulent strains. In the present study, 40 rectal swab samples were collected from diarrheic dogs from different areas of district Faisalabad, Pakistan, in 2014-15 and screened for the presence of CPV by immunochromatography. Most of these dogs were stray dogs showing symptoms of diarrhea. Viral DNA was isolated and partial VP2 gene was amplified using gene specific primer pair Hfor/Hrev through PCR. Amplified fragments were cloned in pTZ57R/T (Fermentas) and completely sequenced. Sequences were analyzed and assembled by the Lasergene DNA analysis package (v8; DNAStar Inc., Madison, WI, USA). The results with immunochromatography showed that 33/40 (82%) of dogs were positive for CPV. We were able to amplify a fragment of 630 bp from 25 samples. In 25 samples the sequences of CPV-2a were detected showing the amino acid substitution Ser297Ala and presence of amino acid (426-Asn) in partial VP2 protein. Interestingly the BLAST analysis showed the of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) sequences in 3 samples which were already positive for new CPV-2a, with 99% sequence homology to other FPV sequences present in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of partial CPV-VP-2 gene with viruses from China, India, Japan and Uruguay identifying a new variant, whereas the 3 FPV sequences showed immediate ancestral relationship with viruses from Portugal, South Africa and USA. Interesting observation was that CPV are clustering away from the commercial vaccine strains. In this work we provide a better understanding of CPV prevailing in Pakistan

  10. Concomitant canine distemper, infectious canine hepatitis, canine parvoviral enteritis, canine infectious tracheobronchitis, and toxoplasmosis in a puppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Fritzen, Juliana Torres Tomazi; Garcia, João Luis; Weissenböck, Herbert; da Silva, Ana Paula; Bodnar, Livia; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The concomitant infections of Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine adenovirus A types 1 (CAdV-1) and 2 (CAdV-2), Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), and Toxoplasma gondii are described in a 43-day-old mixed-breed puppy. Clinically, there were convulsions and blindness with spontaneous death; 14 siblings of this puppy, born to a 10-month-old dam, which was seropositive (titer: 1,024) for T. gondii, also died. Necropsy revealed unilateral corneal edema (blue eye), depletion of intestinal lymphoid tissue, non-collapsible lungs, congestion of meningeal vessels, and a pale area in the myocardium. Histopathology demonstrated necrotizing myocarditis associated with intralesional apicomplexan protozoa; necrotizing and chronic hepatitis associated with rare intranuclear inclusion bodies within hepatocytes; necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis; interstitial pneumonia associated with eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within epithelial cells; atrophy and fusion of intestinal villi with cryptal necrosis; and white matter demyelination of the cerebrum and cerebellum associated with intranuclear inclusion bodies within astrocytes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified the partial fragments (bp) of the CDV N gene (290 bp), CPV-2c VP2 capsid protein gene (583 bp), and CAdV-1 (508 bp) and CAdV-2 (1,030 bp) E gene from urine and tissue samples. The PCR assays demonstrated that the apicomplexan protozoa observed within several organs contained DNA specific for T. gondii; genotyping revealed T. gondii type III. The findings support the characterization of concomitant infections of CDV, CAdV-1, CAdV-2, CPV-2, and T. gondii in this puppy. Further, seroreactivity to T. gondii of the dam in association with the systemic disease observed in the puppy described herein is suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis.

  11. Testing of Some Canine Blood Types in Transfusion Compatibility Assessment

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    L Ognean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood types were determined using SHIGETA (n=136 and DEA1.1 (n=25 kits, in two groups of dogs, consisting of patients that underwent blood transfusions and healthy donors. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the manufacturers, using specific monoclonal antibodies kits, heparinized blood for the tube agglutination (TUBE and slide (SLIDE methods, and EDTA treated blood for the CARD and chromatographic (CHROM methods. The clear expression of tube agglutination reaction in the SHIGETA kit provided a good detection of antigens. Positive reactions with anti-DEA1.1 were clear and evident with the CHROM test. SHIGETA tests revealed a predominance 1.1B (47.05% of blood type, common in Rotweilers (81.81% and Romanian Shepherds (73.68% and group 1(-B (24.26%, frequently found in German Shepherds (54.16%, these also representing an important source of compatible blood. DEA1.1 type test, revealed a high frequency of positive dogs (75%, associated with lower number of potential donors. Extrapolation of SHIGETA groups into the DEA system, confirmed the 1(-B positive dogs as DEA 1.1 negative, and their prevalence in German Shepherds also confirmed their known tendency to be “ideal donors”. The CHROME test showed a good efficiency in auto agglutination control and detecting DEA1.1 positive dogs, including patients with severe forms of anemia.

  12. Role of mitochondria in parvovirus pathology.

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    Jonna Nykky

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of the mitochondria is crucial for the survival of the cell. Viruses are able to interfere with mitochondrial functions as they infect the host cell. Parvoviruses are known to induce apoptosis in infected cells, but the role of the mitochondria in parvovirus induced cytopathy is only partially known. Here we demonstrate with confocal and electron microscopy that canine parvovirus (CPV associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane from the onset of infection. During viral entry a transient depolarization of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increase in ROS level was detected. Subsequently, mitochondrial homeostasis was normalized shortly, as detected by repolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and decrease of ROS. Indeed, activation of cell survival signalling through ERK1/2 cascade was observed early in CPV infected cells. At 12 hours post infection, concurrent with the expression of viral non-structural protein 1, damage to the mitochondrial structure and depolarization of its membrane were apparent. Results of this study provide additional insight of parvovirus pathology and also more general information of virus-mitochondria association.

  13. Parvovirus Capsid Structures Required for Infection: Mutations Controlling Receptor Recognition and Protease Cleavages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Heather M; Feng, Kurtis H; Lee, Donald W; Allison, Andrew B; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan; Parrish, Colin R

    2017-01-15

    Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in infection or transduction

  14. Parvovirus Capsid Structures Required for Infection: Mutations Controlling Receptor Recognition and Protease Cleavages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Heather M.; Feng, Kurtis H.; Lee, Donald W.; Pinard, Melissa; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Hafenstein, Susan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parvovirus capsids are small but complex molecular machines responsible for undertaking many of the steps of cell infection, genome packing, and cell-to-cell as well as host-to-host transfer. The details of parvovirus infection of cells are still not fully understood, but the processes must involve small changes in the capsid structure that allow the endocytosed virus to escape from the endosome, pass through the cell cytoplasm, and deliver the single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) genome to the nucleus, where viral replication occurs. Here, we examine capsid substitutions that eliminate canine parvovirus (CPV) infectivity and identify how those mutations changed the capsid structure or altered interactions with the infectious pathway. Amino acid substitutions on the exterior surface of the capsid (Gly299Lys/Ala300Lys) altered the binding of the capsid to transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR), particularly during virus dissociation from the receptor, but still allowed efficient entry into both feline and canine cells without successful infection. These substitutions likely control specific capsid structural changes resulting from TfR binding required for infection. A second set of changes on the interior surface of the capsid reduced viral infectivity by >100-fold and included two cysteine residues and neighboring residues. One of these substitutions, Cys270Ser, modulates a VP2 cleavage event found in ∼10% of the capsid proteins that also was shown to alter capsid stability. A neighboring substitution, Pro272Lys, significantly reduced capsid assembly, while a Cys273Ser change appeared to alter capsid transport from the nucleus. These mutants reveal additional structural details that explain cell infection processes of parvovirus capsids. IMPORTANCE Parvoviruses are commonly found in both vertebrate and invertebrate animals and cause widespread disease. They are also being developed as oncolytic therapeutics and as gene therapy vectors. Most functions involved in

  15. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico

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    Ariadna Flores Ortega

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe.

  16. Identification of co-infection by rotavirus and parvovirus in dogs with gastroenteritis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ariadna Flores; Martínez-Castañeda, José Simón; Bautista-Gómez, Linda G; Muñoz, Raúl Fajardo; Hernández, Israel Quijano

    This is the first report on circulating canine rotavirus in Mexico. Fifty samples from dogs with gastroenteritis were analyzed used polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in order to identify parvovirus and rotavirus, respectively; 7% of dogs were infected with rotavirus exclusively, while 14% were co-infected with both rotavirus and parvovirus; clinical signs in co-infected dogs were more severe. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vector Generation via I-Sce1-Mediated Intracellular Genome Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanes, Sandy; Kremer, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    When canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, or also commonly referred to as CAV-2) vectors are injected into the brain parenchyma they preferentially transduce neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent regions, and allow transgene expression for at last >1 yr. Yet, translating these data into a user-friendly vector platform has been limited because CAV-2 vector generation is challenging. Generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors often requires transfection of linear DNA fragments of >30 kb containing the vector genome into an E1-transcomplementing cell line. In contrast to human adenovirus type 5 vector generation, CAV-2 vector generation is less efficient due, in part, to a reduced ability to initiate replication and poor transfectibility of canine cells with large, linear DNA fragments. To improve CAV-2 vector generation, we generated an E1-transcomplementing cell line expressing the estrogen receptor (ER) fused to I-SceI, a yeast meganuclease, and plasmids containing the I-SceI recognition sites flanking the CAV-2 vector genome. Using transfection of supercoiled plasmid and intracellular genome release via 4-OH-tamoxifen-induced nuclear translocation of I-SceI, we improved CAV-2 vector titers 1,000 fold, and in turn increased the efficacy of CAV-2 vector generation. PMID:23936483

  18. Canine adenovirus type 2 vector generation via I-Sce1-mediated intracellular genome release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Ibanes

    Full Text Available When canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, or also commonly referred to as CAV-2 vectors are injected into the brain parenchyma they preferentially transduce neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent regions, and allow transgene expression for at last >1 yr. Yet, translating these data into a user-friendly vector platform has been limited because CAV-2 vector generation is challenging. Generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors often requires transfection of linear DNA fragments of >30 kb containing the vector genome into an E1-transcomplementing cell line. In contrast to human adenovirus type 5 vector generation, CAV-2 vector generation is less efficient due, in part, to a reduced ability to initiate replication and poor transfectibility of canine cells with large, linear DNA fragments. To improve CAV-2 vector generation, we generated an E1-transcomplementing cell line expressing the estrogen receptor (ER fused to I-SceI, a yeast meganuclease, and plasmids containing the I-SceI recognition sites flanking the CAV-2 vector genome. Using transfection of supercoiled plasmid and intracellular genome release via 4-OH-tamoxifen-induced nuclear translocation of I-SceI, we improved CAV-2 vector titers 1,000 fold, and in turn increased the efficacy of CAV-2 vector generation.

  19. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-12-03

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central nervous system, or for inducing a wide range of protective immune responses, from humoral to cellular immunity. Nowadays, CAV2 represents one of the most appealing nonhuman adenovirus for use as a vaccine vector. This protocol describes a simple method to construct, produce and titer recombinant CAV2 vectors. After cloning the expression cassette of the gene of interest into a shuttle plasmid, the recombinant genomic plasmid is obtained by homologous recombination in the E. coli BJ5183 bacterial strain. The resulting genomic plasmid is then transfected into canine kidney cells expressing the complementing CAV2-E1 genes (DK-E1). A viral amplification enables the production of a large viral stock, which is purified by ultracentrifugation through cesium chloride gradients and desalted by dialysis. The resulting viral suspension routinely has a titer of over 10(10) infectious particles per ml and can be directly administrated in vivo.

  20. The role of nuclear localization signal in parvovirus life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-04-14

    Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an approximately 5.0 kb, single-stranded DNA genome. Usually, the parvovirus capsid gene contains one or more nuclear localization signals (NLSs), which are required for guiding the virus particle into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. However, several classical NLSs (cNLSs) and non-classical NLSs (ncNLSs) have been identified in non-structural genes, and the ncNLSs can also target non-structural proteins into the nucleus. In this review, we have summarized recent research findings on parvovirus NLSs. The capsid protein of the adeno-associated virus has four potential nuclear localization sequences, named basic region 1 (BR), BR2, BR3 and BR4. BR3 was identified as an NLS by fusing it with green fluorescent protein. Moreover, BR3 and BR4 are required for infectivity and virion assembly. In Protoparvovirus, the canine parvovirus has a common cNLS located in the VP1 unique region, similar to parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) and porcine parvovirus. Moreover, an ncNLS is found in the C-terminal region of MVM VP1/2. Parvovirus B19 also contains an ncNLS in the C-terminal region of VP1/2, which is essential for the nuclear transport of VP1/VP2. Approximately 1 or 2 cNLSs and 1 ncNLS have been reported in the non-structural protein of bocaviruses. Understanding the role of the NLS in the process of parvovirus infection and its mechanism of nuclear transport will contribute to the development of therapeutic vaccines and novel antiviral medicines.

  1. Capacity of wild-type and chemokine-armed parvovirus H-1PV for inhibiting neo-angiogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavie, Muriel [Tumor Virology Division, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Struyf, Sofie [Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Rommelaere, Jean [Tumor Virology Division, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Van Damme, Jo [Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, K.U. Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Dinsart, Christiane, E-mail: c.dinsart@dkfz.de [Tumor Virology Division, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumor growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors. - Highlights: • The oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. • Abortive viral cycle upon infection of endothelial cells with H-1PV. • Inhibition of VEGF expression and KS-IMM tumor growth by H-1PV.

  2. Capacity of wild-type and chemokine-armed parvovirus H-1PV for inhibiting neo-angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, Muriel; Struyf, Sofie; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Rommelaere, Jean; Van Damme, Jo; Dinsart, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumor growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors. - Highlights: • The oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. • Abortive viral cycle upon infection of endothelial cells with H-1PV. • Inhibition of VEGF expression and KS-IMM tumor growth by H-1PV

  3. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  4. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2009-07-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper is still a problem worldwide. The broad host range of CDV creates a constant viral reservoir among wildlife animals. Our results demonstrated early humoral and cell-mediated immune responses (IFN-gamma) in DNA vaccinated mink compared to mock-vaccinated mink after challenge with a Danish wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccine-induced immunity protected the natural host against disease development.

  5. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...

  6. Feline coronavirus type II strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 originate from a double recombination between feline coronavirus type I and canine coronavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Herrewegh, A.A.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Groot, R.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the type II feline coronavirus (FCoV) strains 79-1146 and 79-1683 have arisen from a homologous RNA recombination event between FCoV type I and canine coronavirus (CCV). In both cases, the template switch apparently took place between the S and M genes, giving rise to

  7. Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile in parvovirus-positive dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Figueiredo, Henrique Cesar Pereira; Costa, Érica Azevedo; Pelicia, Vanessa; Ribeiro, Bruna Letícia Devidé; Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia; Paes, Antonio Carlos; Megid, Jane; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in 82 diarrheic dogs positive for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV). Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A was isolated from three (3.6%) dogs. One (1.2%) strain was also positive for NetE- and NetF-encoding genes, which are commonly associated with diarrhea in dogs. Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from one animal (1.2%), which was also positive for A/B toxins. The present study identified C. difficile and C. perfringens infection in CPV-positive dogs. Further studies are necessary to clarify if clostridial infections may predispose or potentiate CPV-infection in dogs or vice versa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of type II thyroplasty on phonatory physiology in an excised canine larynx model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Erin E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Type II thyroplasty is an alternative treatment for spasmodic dysphonia, addressing hyperadduction by incising and lateralizing the thyroid cartilage. We quantified the effect of lateralization width on phonatory physiology using excised canine larynges. Methods Normal closure, hyperadduction, and type II thyroplasty (lateralized up to 5mm at 1mm increments with hyperadducted arytenoids) were simulated in excised larynges (N=7). Aerodynamic, acoustic, and videokymographic data were recorded at three subglottal pressures relative to phonation threshold pressure (PTP). One-way repeated measures ANOVA assessed effect of condition on aerodynamic parameters. Random intercepts linear mixed effects models assessed effects of condition and subglottal pressure on acoustic and videokymographic parameters. Results PTP differed across conditions (p<0.001). Condition affected percent shimmer (p<0.005) but not percent jitter. Both pressure (p<0.03) and condition (p<0.001) affected fundamental frequency. Pressure affected vibratory amplitude (p<0.05) and intra-fold phase difference (p<0.05). Condition affected phase difference between the vocal folds (p<0.001). Conclusions Hyperadduction increased PTP and worsened perturbation compared to normal, with near normal physiology restored with 1mm lateralization. Further lateralization deteriorated voice quality and increased PTP. Acoustic and videokymographic results indicate that normal physiologic relationships between subglottal pressure and vibration are preserved at optimal lateralization width, but then degrade with further lateralization. The 1mm optimal width observed here is due to the small canine larynx size. Future human trials would likely demonstrate a greater optimal width, with patient-specific value potentially determined based on larynx size and symptom severity. PMID:27223665

  9. Genetic complexity and multiple infections with more Parvovirus species in naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Mara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parvoviruses of carnivores include three closely related autonomous parvoviruses: canine parvovirus (CPV, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV and mink enteritis virus (MEV. These viruses cause a variety of serious diseases, especially in young patients, since they have a remarkable predilection for replication in rapidly dividing cells. FPV is not the only parvovirus species which infects cats; in addition to MEV, the new variants of canine parvovirus, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c have also penetrated the feline host-range, and they are able to infect and replicate in cats, causing diseases indistinguishable from feline panleukopenia. Furthermore, as cats are susceptible to both CPV-2 and FPV viruses, superinfection and co-infection with multiple parvovirus strains may occur, potentially facilitating recombination and high genetic heterogeneity. In the light of the importance of cats as a potential source of genetic diversity for parvoviruses and, since feline panleukopenia virus has re-emerged as a major cause of mortality in felines, the present study has explored the molecular characteristics of parvovirus strains circulating in cat populations. The most significant findings reported in this study were (a the detection of mixed infection FPV/CPV with the presence of one parvovirus variant which is a true intermediate between FPV/CPV and (b the quasispecies cloud size of one CPV sample variant 2c. In conclusion, this study provides new important results about the evolutionary dynamics of CPV infections in cats, showing that CPV has presumably started a new process of readaptation in feline hosts.

  10. Molecular detection of canine distemper virus (CDV, canine adenovirus A type 1 and 2 (CAdV-1 and CAdV-2, and canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 in the urine of naturally infected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine babesiosis is an important disease of cattle where Rhipicephalus microplus acts as a vector for the two causal organisms Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina. A total of 22 calves were randomly monitored during three years by semi-nested PCR assay and ELISA test to determine prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina. The overall prevalence of B. bovis and B. bigemina was 30% and 35% by nested PCR (nPCR, and 70% and 75% by ELISA, respectively. Statistical analysis of the characteristics of animals showed that age and tick infestations (p<0.05 might play an important role in the spread of babesiosis as animal less than 6 months old. A high correlation (Kappa index of 0.70 for B. bovis and 0.65 for B. bigemina, respectively between serological and molecular tests suggests that the combination of the utilized techniques in the present study is suitable for babesiosis diagnosis in an endemic unstable area.

  11. Establishment of a canine model of human type 2 diabetes mellitus by overexpressing phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Woo; Lee, Geun-Shik; Kim, Joung Joo; Park, Sun Woo; Ko, Kyeong Hee; Kang, Mina; Kim, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eui-Man; Hyun, Sang Hwan; Shin, Taeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2012-08-01

    Dogs are useful models for studying human metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus due to similarities in physiology, anatomy and life styles with humans. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) facilitates the production of transgenic dogs. In this study, we generated transgenic dogs expressing the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene, which is closely involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, we assessed the cloning efficiency associated with adult or fetal (cloned or natural mating) fibroblasts as a nuclear source. Cloning efficiency was determined by the fusion, pregnancy and cloning rates. The fusion rates were significantly high for fibroblasts from cloned fetuses, but the pregnancy and cloning rates were relatively high for cells from normal fetuses. Based on these data, fetal fibroblasts were selected as the nuclear donor for SCNT and genetically engineered to overexpress the PEPCK gene and dual selection marker genes controlled by the PEPCK promoter. The transgenic cells were introduced into oocytes and transferred into five recipient dogs, resulting in two pregnancies. Finally, three puppies were born and confirmed by microsatellite analysis to be genetically identical to the donor. One puppy successfully overexpressed PEPCK mRNA and protein in the liver. This canine disease model may be useful for studying the pathogenesis and/or therapeutic targets of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Capacity of wild-type and chemokine-armed parvovirus H-1PV for inhibiting neo-angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Muriel; Struyf, Sofie; Stroh-Dege, Alexandra; Rommelaere, Jean; Van Damme, Jo; Dinsart, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has been recognized as a powerful potential strategy for impeding the growth of various tumors. However no major therapeutic effects have been observed to date, mainly because of the emergence of several resistance mechanisms. Among novel strategies to target tumor vasculature, some oncolytic viruses open up new prospects. In this context, we addressed the question whether the rodent parvovirus H-1PV can target endothelial cells. We show that cultures of human normal (HUVEC) and immortalized (KS-IMM) endothelial cells sustain an abortive viral cycle upon infection with H-1PV and are sensitive to H-1PV cytotoxicity. H-1PV significantly inhibits infected KS-IMM tumor growth. This effect may be traced back by the virus ability to both kill proliferating endothelial cells and inhibit VEGF production Recombinant H-1PV vectors can also transduce tumor cells with chemokines endowed with anti-angiogenesis properties, and warrant further validation for the treatment of highly vascularized tumors. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for the serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. Groen (Jan); H.F. Egberink (Herman); G.H.A. Borst (Gerrit); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractComplex trapping blocking (CTB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. Double antibody sandwich ELISAs for the detection of CPV-,

  14. Characterisation of a protective linear B cell epitope against feline parvoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.P.; Martinez Torrecuadrada, J.; Boshuizen, R.S.; Meloen, R.H.; Ignacio Casal, J.

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 3C9 was the starting material in the definition of the epitope that led to the synthesis of the first efficient peptide vaccine against a viral disease (canine parvovirus) in the natural host (dog). In this report, we have analysed the specificity of the antibody at the single

  15. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Correction of a Canine Model of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, David A.; Correia, Catherine E.; Conlon, Thomas; Specht, Andrew; Verstegen, John; Onclin-Verstegen, Karine; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet; Mirian, Layla; Cossette, Holly; Falk, Darin J.; Germain, Sean; Clement, Nathalie; Porvasnik, Stacy; Fiske, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    This study by the groups of Drs. Barry Byrne and Cathryn Mah at the University of Florida examines the safety and efficacy of AAV-mediated gene delivery in a canine model of glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa). The authors find that intraportal delivery of AAV8 encoding glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase) followed 20 weeks later by intraportal administration of AAV1 encoding G6Pase led to significant correction of the GSDIa phenotype.

  16. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1)

    OpenAIRE

    István Mészáros; Ferenc Olasz; Attila Cságola; Peter Tijssen; Zoltán Zádori

    2017-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on t...

  17. Chronic hepatitis caused by persistent parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogensen Trine H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human infection with parvovirus B19 may lead to a diverse spectrum of clinical manifestations, including benign erythema infectiosum in children, transient aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, and congenital hydrops foetalis. These different diseases represent direct consequences of the ability of parvovirus B19 to target the erythroid cell lineage. However, accumulating evidence suggests that this virus can also infect other cell types resulting in diverse clinical manifestations, of which the pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. This has prompted important questions regarding the tropism of the virus and its possible involvement in a broad range of infectious and autoimmune medical conditions. Case Presentation Here, we present an unusual case of persistent parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of chronic hepatitis. This patient had persistent parvovirus B19 viraemia over a period of more than four years and displayed signs of chronic hepatitis evidenced by fluctuating elevated levels of ALAT and a liver biopsy demonstrating chronic hepatitis. Other known causes of hepatitis and liver damage were excluded. In addition, the patient was evaluated for immunodeficiency, since she had lymphopenia both prior to and following clearance of parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusions In this case report, we describe the current knowledge on the natural history and pathogenesis of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the existing evidence of parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute and chronic hepatitis. We suggest that parvovirus B19 was the direct cause of this patient's chronic hepatitis, and that she had an idiopathic lymphopenia, which may have predisposed her to persistent infection, rather than bone marrow depression secondary to infection. In addition, we propose that her liver involvement may have represented a viral reservoir. Finally, we suggest that clinicians should be aware of parvovirus B19 as an unusual

  18. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-10-01

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.

  19. Effect of vaccination on parvovirus antigen testing in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Erin V; Reese, Michael J; Tucker, Sylvia J; Dubovi, Edward J; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K

    2007-02-01

    To determine the frequency and duration of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) vaccine-induced interference with fecal parvovirus diagnostic testing in cats. Prospective controlled study. Sixty-four 8- to 10-week-old specific-pathogen-free kittens. Kittens were inoculated once with 1 of 8 commercial multivalent vaccines containing modified-live virus (MLV) or inactivated FPV by the SC or intranasal routes. Feces were tested for parvovirus antigen immediately prior to vaccination, then daily for 14 days with 3 tests designed for detection of canine parvovirus. Serum anti-FPV antibody titers were determined by use of hemagglutination inhibition prior to vaccination and 14 days later. All fecal parvovirus test results were negative prior to vaccination. After vaccination, 1 kitten had positive test results with test 1, 4 kittens had positive results with test 2, and 13 kittens had positive results with test 3. Only 1 kitten had positive results with all 3 tests, and only 2 of those tests were subjectively considered to have strongly positive results. At 14 days after vaccination, 31% of kittens receiving inactivated vaccines had protective FPV titers, whereas 85% of kittens receiving MLV vaccines had protective titers. Animal shelter veterinarians should select fecal tests for parvovirus detection that have high sensitivity for FPV and low frequency of vaccine-related test interference. Positive parvovirus test results should be interpreted in light of clinical signs, vaccination history, and results of confirmatory testing. Despite the possibility of test interference, the benefit provided by universal MLV FPV vaccination of cats in high-risk environments such as shelters outweighs the impact on diagnostic test accuracy.

  20. Polymerase chain reaction based epidemiological investigation of canine parvoviral disease in dogs at Bareilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobin Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the suspected samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and epidemiological analysis of positive cases of canine parvovirus type2. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dogs suspected for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 and viral DNA was extracted. Primers were designed, and PCR was done with all extracted DNA samples. Age, sex and breed wise distribution of positive cases were analyzed. Results: Out of a total 44 collected fecal samples, 23 were found to be positive for CPV-2 by developed PCR. The disease was found to be more common in Labrador male pups of 3-6 months of age. The percentage of positive cases in vaccinated dogs was found to be around 17.4%. Conclusion: Almost half (52.3% of total collected samples were found to be positive by PCR. However, number of field samples are needed to further validate this test and additionally sequence analysis needs to be done to ensure the prevalent field strain of CPV-2.

  1. Antibodies to parvovirus, distemper virus and adenovirus conferred to household dogs using commercial combination vaccines containing Leptospira bacterin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, M; Namikawa, K; Maruo, T; Lynch, J; Sahara, H

    2010-12-11

    To examine how the inclusion (+) or exclusion (-) of inactivated Leptospira antigens in a vaccine for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2) affects antibody titres to CPV-2, CDV and CAdV-1 antigens, household dogs were vaccinated with commercially available vaccines from one of three manufacturers. CPV-2, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titres were measured 11 to 13 months later and compared within three different age groups and three different bodyweight groups. There were significant differences between CPV-2 antibody titres in dogs vaccinated with (+) vaccine and those vaccinated with (-) vaccine for two products in the two-year-old group and for one product in the greater than seven-year-old group; no significant differences were seen that could be attributed to bodyweight. No differences in CDV antibody titres were observed within age groups, but a significant difference was seen in the 11 to 20 kg weight group for one product. Significant differences in CAdV-1 antibody titres were seen for one product in both the two-year-old group and the ≤10 kg weight group.

  2. Role of canine circovirus in dogs with acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Hartmann, K; Leutenegger, C M; Proksch, A L; Mueller, R S; Unterer, S

    2017-06-03

    Canine circovirus (CanineCV) has been detected in some dogs with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea, but its pathogenic role is unclear. This study evaluated a suspected association between the presence of CanineCV and acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome (AHDS) in dogs. The prevalence of CanineCV in dogs with AHDS was compared with that in healthy dogs and those infected with canine parvovirus (CPV). Additionally, time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between CanineCV-positive and CanineCV-negative dogs. Faecal samples of dogs with AHDS (n=55), healthy dogs (n=66) and dogs infected with CPV (n=54) were examined by two real-time TaqMan PCR assays targeting the replicase and capsid genes of CanineCV. CanineCV was detected in faecal samples of two dogs with AHDS, three healthy controls and seven dogs infected with CPV. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in prevalence of CanineCV. CPV-infected animals that were coinfected with CanineCV had a significantly higher mortality rate compared with those negative for CanineCV. CanineCV does not appear to be the primary causative agent of AHDS in dogs, but might play a role as a negative co-factor in disease outcome in dogs with CPV infection. British Veterinary Association.

  3. LuIII parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2012-07-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons.

  4. Parvovirus induced alterations in nuclear architecture and dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu O Ihalainen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus of interphase eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized structure containing the three-dimensional network of chromatin and numerous proteinaceous subcompartments. DNA viruses induce profound changes in the intranuclear structures of their host cells. We are applying a combination of confocal imaging including photobleaching microscopy and computational methods to analyze the modifications of nuclear architecture and dynamics in parvovirus infected cells. Upon canine parvovirus infection, expansion of the viral replication compartment is accompanied by chromatin marginalization to the vicinity of the nuclear membrane. Dextran microinjection and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP studies revealed the homogeneity of this compartment. Markedly, in spite of increase in viral DNA content of the nucleus, a significant increase in the protein mobility was observed in infected compared to non-infected cells. Moreover, analysis of the dynamics of photoactivable capsid protein demonstrated rapid intranuclear dynamics of viral capsids. Finally, quantitative FRAP and cellular modelling were used to determine the duration of viral genome replication. Altogether, our findings indicate that parvoviruses modify the nuclear structure and dynamics extensively. Intranuclear crowding of viral components leads to enlargement of the interchromosomal domain and to chromatin marginalization via depletion attraction. In conclusion, parvoviruses provide a useful model system for understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced intranuclear modifications.

  5. Verspreiding parvovirus onderzocht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysman, C.

    1991-01-01

    Op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij werden gedurende een periode van 31 maanden de gevolgen van infecties met het parvovirus bekeken bij de zeugen van verschillende worpnummers. Bij de eersteworps zeugen bleek de groep zeugen, die een infectiedoormaakte tijdens de dracht 0,9 levend geboren

  6. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Pedro; Duarte, Ana; Gil, Solange; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Malta, Manuel; Vieira, Sara; Tavares, Luis

    2014-04-23

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88).From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from

  7. Frequent cross-species transmission of parvoviruses among diverse carnivore hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Fox, Karen A.; Brown, Justin D.; Gerhold, Richard W.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dubovi, Edward J.; Parrish, Colin R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Although parvoviruses are commonly described in domestic carnivores, little is known about their biodiversity in nondomestic species. A phylogenetic analysis of VP2 gene sequences from puma, coyote, gray wolf, bobcat, raccoon, and striped skunk revealed two major groups related to either feline panleukopenia virus (“FPV-like”) or canine parvovirus (“CPV-like”). Cross-species transmission was commonplace, with multiple introductions into each host species but, with the exception of raccoons, relatively little evidence for onward transmission in nondomestic species.

  8. The fusion protein of wild-type canine distemper virus is a major determinant of persistent infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plattet, Philippe; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Zuber, BenoIt; Brunner, Jean-Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Wittek, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    The wild-type A75/17 canine distemper virus (CDV) strain induces a persistent infection in the central nervous system but infects cell lines very inefficiently. In contrast, the genetically more distant Onderstepoort CDV vaccine strain (OP-CDV) induces extensive syncytia formation. Here, we investigated the roles of wild-type fusion (F WT ) and attachment (H WT ) proteins in Vero cells expressing, or not, the canine SLAM receptor by transfection experiments and by studying recombinants viruses expressing different combinations of wild-type and OP-CDV glycoproteins. We show that low fusogenicity is not due to a defect of the envelope proteins to reach the cell surface and that H WT determines persistent infection in a receptor-dependent manner, emphasizing the role of SLAM as a potent enhancer of fusogenicity. However, importantly, F WT reduced cell-to-cell fusion independently of the cell surface receptor, thus demonstrating that the fusion protein of the neurovirulent A75/17-CDV strain plays a key role in determining persistent infection

  9. Genome Sequences of Three Vaccine Strains and Two Wild-Type Canine Distemper Virus Strains from a Recent Disease Outbreak in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Angelika K; Du Plessis, Morné; Dalton, Desiré Lee; Mitchell, Emily; Venter, Estelle H

    2017-07-06

    Canine distemper virus causes global multihost infectious disease. This report details complete genome sequences of three vaccine and two new wild-type strains. The wild-type strains belong to the South African lineage, and all three vaccine strains to the America 1 lineage. This constitutes the first genomic sequences of this virus from South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Loots et al.

  10. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  11. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the

  12. Parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Marie Louise

    2016-06-01

    Primary parvovirus B19 infection is an infrequent, but serious and treatable, cause of chronic anemia in immunocompromised hosts. Many compromised hosts have preexisting antibody to B19 and are not at risk. However, upon primary infection, some patients may be able to mount a sufficient immune response to terminate active parvovirus B19 infection of erythroid precursors. The most common consequence of B19 infection in the compromised host is pure red-cell aplasia, resulting in chronic or recurrent anemia with reticulocytopenia. Anemia persists until neutralizing antibody is either produced by the host or passively administered. Parvovirus B19 should be suspected in compromised hosts with unexplained or severe anemia and reticulocytopenia, or when bone-marrow examination shows either giant pronormoblasts or absence of red-cell precursors. Diagnosis is established by detection of B19 DNA in serum in the absence of IgG antibody to B19. In some cases, IgG antibody is detected but is not neutralizing. Anti-B19 IgM may or may not be present. Therapy includes any or all of the following: red-cell transfusion, adjustment in medications to restore or improve the patient's immune system, and administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Following treatment, patients should be closely monitored, especially if immunosuppression is unchanged or increased. Should hematocrit trend downward and parvovirus DNA trend upward, the therapeutic options above should be revisited. In a few instances, monthly maintenance IVIG may be indicated. Caregivers should be aware that B19 variants, though rarely encountered, can be missed or under-quantitated by some real-time polymerase-chain reaction methods.

  13. Influence of maternally-derived antibodies in 6-week old dogs for the efficacy of a new vaccine to protect dogs against virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, adenovirus or parvovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Stephen; Siedek, Elisabeth; Thomas, Anne; King, Vickie; Stirling, Catrina; Plevová, Edita; Salt, Jeremy; Sture, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The results from three studies determining the efficacy of a canine multivalent vaccine in the presence of maternal antibodies are reported. Each study used 15 six week old dogs; five dogs were sero-negative; the remaining 10 had maternally derived antibodies to CDV, CAV and CPV. The five MDA-negative dogs and five of the MDA-positive dogs were vaccinated twice with the vaccine while the remaining 5 MDA-positive dogs were administered sterile water. According to EU guidelines for MDA studies ...

  14. Functional Characterization of Canine Interferon-Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2′5′-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  15. Spatial distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 in normal canine central and peripheral nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Freundt-Revilla

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is a regulatory pathway consisting of two main types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids. The CB1 receptor is highly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems (PNS in mammalians and is involved in neuromodulatory functions. Since endocannabinoids were shown to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of epileptic dogs, knowledge about the species specific CB receptor expression in the nervous system is required. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the normal canine CNS and PNS. Immunohistochemistry of several regions of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves from a healthy four-week-old puppy, three six-month-old dogs, and one ten-year-old dog revealed strong dot-like immunoreactivity in the neuropil of the cerebral cortex, Cornu Ammonis (CA and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and grey matter of the spinal cord. Dense CB1 expression was found in fibres of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra surrounding immunonegative neurons. Astrocytes were constantly positive in all examined regions. CB1 labelled neurons and satellite cells of the dorsal root ganglia, and myelinating Schwann cells in the PNS. These results demonstrate for the first time the spatial distribution of CB1 receptors in the healthy canine CNS and PNS. These results can be used as a basis for further studies aiming to elucidate the physiological consequences of this particular anatomical and cellular distribution.

  16. Aktivitas Biologis Imunoglobulin Yolk Anti Parvovirus Setelah Perlakuan Suhu (BIOLOGY ACTIVITIES OF IgY PARVOVIRUS AFTER HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Suartini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the biological activity of various crude and precipitate specific Immunoglobulin (IgY Canine parvovirus (CPV. Hiperimun serum conducted on Isa Brown chickens injected with antigen CPV. Crude yolk Ig preparations derived from chicken serum without purification while the yolk Ig preparations precipitates obtained by the chicken serum was precipitated with ammonium sulfate and dialyzed. Both types of Ig yolk given treatment temperature 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC for 15 minutes. To test Gel Precipitation Test (AGPT is performed to determine whether there is a specific IgY CPV in the serum of chickens. Biological activity of both types of Ig detected with Barriers Haemagglutination test (HI. The design used in this study is completely randomized design factorial. The results of this study indicate that the temperature was highly significant on the activities of IgY crude and precipitates. Activities IgY crude and precipitate down to the treatment temperature of 50ºC, 60ºC, 70ºC, and 80ºC. Geometric Mean Titer crude IgY respectively - were 26.67, 26, 25.33, and <2º Unit HI while IgY precipitates are respectively 26.33, 25.67, 24, and <2º Unit HI. Based on the results of this study concluded that the biological activity of crude IgY better than IgY precipitates after treatment of a wide range of temperatures.

  17. Human parvovirus B19: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, L D; Mokhtari-Azad, T; Kabir, M H; Rezaei, F

    2014-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus of the family Parvoviridae, the subfamily Parvovirinae, the genus Erythrovirus and Human parvovirus B19 type species. It is a common community-acquired respiratory pathogen without ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, age or geographic boundaries. Moreover, the epidemiological and ecological relationships between human parvovirus B19, man and environment have aroused increasing interest in this virus. B19V infection is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, some of which were well established and some are still controversial, however, it is also underestimated from a clinical perspective. B19V targets the erythroid progenitors in the bone marrow by binding to the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4), leading to large receptor-induced structural changes triggering cell death either by lysis or by apoptosis mediated by the nonstructural (NS)1 protein. The pattern of genetic evolution, its peculiar properties and functional profile, the characteristics of its narrow tropism and restricted replication, its complex relationship with the host and its ample pathogenetic potential are all topics that are far from a comprehensive understanding. The lack of efficient adaptation to in vitro cellular cultures and the absence of animal models have limited classical virological studies and made studies on B19V dependent on molecular biology. The present review looks at the nature of this virus with the view to provide more information about its biology, which may be useful to the present and future researchers. human parvovirus B19; respiratory pathogen; biology; genome; fifth disease; transient aplastic crisis; anemia.

  18. Successful nonsurgical endodontic outcome of a severely affected permanent maxillary canine with dens invaginatus Oehlers type 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Ribera, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The morphogenic complexities of dens invaginatus (DI) Oehlers type 3 in maxillary canines offer significant endodontic challenges. A case report is provided of a 14-year-old female patient who presented with an anomalous-looking permanent maxillary canine associated with a sinus tract. Pulp testing revealed a normal response on the distal aspect of the tooth, whereas the mesial segment tested nonresponsive. A radiolucent lesion was seen on the mesiolateral radicular area adjacent to the severely distended pulp chamber. A gutta-percha point inserted into the sinus tract traced to this same region. The diagnosis was normal pulp coincident with DI Oehlers type 3 with pulp necrosis and chronic apical abscess. Despite a concerted effort to limit the root canal therapy to only the necrotic canal, its proximity to the normal canal obviated this possibility, entailing endodontic treatment of the entire root canal system. The necrotic pulp space was subjected to sustained irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and then completed with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. A bolus of gutta-percha was used to create an apical barrier, and then the remainder of the enlarged pulp space was obturated with injectable thermoplasticized gutta-percha. At a 4.5-year recall, there was no clinical and radiographic evidence of infection. Endodontic success was accomplished with meticulous efforts of disinfection. Thermoplasticized gutta-percha can offer utility for obturation of anatomically complicated pulp spaces. The use of the dental operating microscope is an invaluable aid for discernment of the intricacies of teeth affected with DI type 3 variant and can enhance clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mészáros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine parvovirus (PPV is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology.

  20. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, István; Olasz, Ferenc; Cságola, Attila; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology. PMID:29261104

  1. Homologous and heterologous antibody responses of mice immunized with purified feline herpesvirus type 1 and canine herpesvirus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcumpao, J A; Horimoto, T; Xuan, X N; Tohya, Y; Azetaka, M; Takahashi, E; Mikami, T

    1991-06-01

    The three glycoproteins each of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) were purified by affinity chromatography using glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and used individually or in combination in immunizing mice to determine their relative immunogenicity. All the glycoproteins induced detectable virus neutralizing antibodies to the homologous virus but FHV-1 gp143/108 and its cross-reacting counterpart, CHV gp145/112, elicited the highest titers not only to the homologous virus but to the heterologous virus as well. The production of ELISA antibodies after glycoprotein immunization was variable, while hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies were produced by only 1 out of 10 FHV-1 gp60-inoculated mice. In general, the antibody titers induced by CHV glycoproteins were lower than those by FHV-1 glycoproteins. These results indicate that these glycoproteins may be useful as subunit vaccines against FHV-1 and CHV infections.

  2. Recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing TgROP16 provides partial protection against acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Zhen; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Anchang, Kenneth Yongabi; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Tu, Liqing; Wang, Xiaohu; Xia, Lijun; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Feng, Weili; Lu, Chunxia; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Zi-Guo

    2016-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. Intramuscular immunisation of BALB/c mice with CAV-2-ROP16 was performed to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune responses. This vaccination triggered significant humoral and cellular responses, including ROP16-stimulated lymphoproliferation (P0.05), revealing that a predominant Th1-type response had developed. The cell-mediated cytotoxic activity with high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly increased in both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell compartments in the mice immunised with CAV-2-ROP16 (Pdays post infection compared with control mice that all died within seven days (Pvaccination until now. Our work presents the successful use of recombinant virus CAV-2-ROP16 in vaccination protocols to protect against intraperitoneal challenge with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. This system was shown to be extremely efficient in eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses that led to a significant improvement in survival time in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a combined canine distemper virus specific RT-PCR protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven Chinese strains demonstrated in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Shipeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Jianke; Cheng, Yuening; Yang, Shen; Luo, Bin

    2012-01-01

    A combined reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of the canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1/P2) was used to detect both CDV wild-type strains and vaccines. Another pair (P3/P4) was used to detect only CDV wild-type strains. A 335bp fragment was amplified from the genomic RNA of the vaccine and wild-type strains. A 555bp fragment was amplified specifically from the genomic RNA of the wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for the uninfected cells, cells infected with canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, or canine adenovirus. The combined RT-PCR method detected effectively and differentiated the CDV wild-type and vaccine strains by two separate RT-PCRs. The method can be used for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of the local wild-type CDV strains revealed that the seven local isolates all belonged to the Asia-1 lineage, and were clustered closely with one another at the same location. These results suggested that the CDV genotype Asia-1 is circulating currently in domestic dogs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phylogenetic similarity of the canine parvovirus wild-type isolates on the basis of VP1/VP2 gene fragment sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypul, K; Chmielewski, R; Smielewska-Loś, E; Klimentowski, S

    2002-04-01

    Biological material was taken from dogs with diarrhoea. Faecal samples were taken from within live animals and intestinal tract fragments (i.e. small intestine, and stomach) were taken from dead animals. In total, 18 specimens were investigated from dogs housed alone or in large groups. To test for the presence of the virus, latex (On Site Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden) and direct immunofluorescence tests were performed. At the same time, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers complementary to a conservative region of VP1/VP2 was carried out. The products of amplification were analysed on 2% agarose gel. The purified products were cloned with the Template Generation System (Finnzymes, Espoo, Finland) using a transposition reaction and positive clones were searched using the 'colony screening by PCR' method. The sequencing gave 12 sequences of VP1/VP2 gene fragments that were of high similarity. Among the 12 analysed sequences, six exhibited 88% similarity, four exhibited 100% similarity and two exhibited 71% similarity.

  5. Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H G; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-08-23

    The efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines and a live PCV1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, PCV2-positive piglets using a PCV2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-porcine parvovirus (PPV) coinfection challenge model. Seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. Pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) of age. All vaccine regimens tested were effective in reducing naturally occurring PCV2 viremia at 16 weeks of age and after PCV2 challenge, demonstrating the capability of the products to induce a lasting protective immunity despite the presence of PCV2 viremia at the time of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Canine parvoviral enteritis: an update on the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mylonakis ME

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mathios E Mylonakis, Iris Kalli, Timoleon S Rallis Companion Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece  Abstract: Canine parvovirus type 2 is the cause of a highly contagious acute enteritis associated with high morbidity and mortality, with very low survival rates in untreated dogs. Although severe clinical disease typically occurs in dogs younger than 6 months of age, adults with insufficient immunity may potentially be affected. In this article, the current state of knowledge is reviewed regarding the diagnostic aspects of parvoviral enteritis, with special emphasis placed on the clinical relevance of the detection of viral antigens in the feces, detection of viral antibodies in the serum, or the polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of the viral DNA in the feces. In addition, the components of the supportive and symptomatic treatment aiming to optimize the outcome of the disease in the clinical setting are thoroughly reviewed. Immunization guidelines for the prevention of the disease are also updated. Keywords: dog, parvovirus type 2, acute enteritis, treatment, vaccination

  7. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  8. Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Correction of a Canine Model of Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, David A.; Correia, Catherine E.; Conlon, Thomas; Specht, Andrew; Verstegen, John; Onclin-Verstegen, Karine; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Dhaliwal, Gurmeet; Mirian, Layla; Cossette, Holly; Falk, Darin J.; Germain, Sean; Clement, Nathalie; Porvasnik, Stacy; Fiske, Laurie; Struck, Maggie; Ramirez, Harvey E.; Jordan, Juan; Andrutis, Karl; Chou, Janice Y.; Byrne, Barry J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa; von Gierke disease; MIM 232200) is caused by a deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Patients with GSDIa are unable to maintain glucose homeostasis and suffer from severe hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic acidosis. The canine model of GSDIa is naturally occurring and recapitulates almost all aspects of the human form of disease. We investigated the potential of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-based therapy to treat the canine model of GSDIa. After delivery of a therapeutic rAAV2/8 vector to a 1-day-old GSDIa dog, improvement was noted as early as 2 weeks posttreatment. Correction was transient, however, and by 2 months posttreatment the rAAV2/8-treated dog could no longer sustain normal blood glucose levels after 1 hr of fasting. The same animal was then dosed with a therapeutic rAAV2/1 vector delivered via the portal vein. Two months after rAAV2/1 dosing, both blood glucose and lactate levels were normal at 4 hr postfasting. With more prolonged fasting, the dog still maintained near-normal glucose concentrations, but lactate levels were elevated by 9 hr, indicating that partial correction was achieved. Dietary glucose supplementation was discontinued starting 1 month after rAAV2/1 delivery and the dog continues to thrive with minimal laboratory abnormalities at 23 months of age (18 months after rAAV2/1 treatment). These results demonstrate that delivery of rAAV vectors can mediate significant correction of the GSDIa phenotype and that gene transfer may be a promising alternative therapy for this disease and other genetic diseases of the liver. PMID:20163245

  9. Effects of processing delay, temperature, and transport tube type on results of quantitative bacterial culture of canine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Carly A; Bishop, Micah A; Pack, Julie D; Cook, Audrey K; Lawhon, Sara D

    2016-01-15

    To determine the impact of processing delay, temperature, and transport tube type on results of quantitative bacterial culture (QBC) of canine urine. Diagnostic test evaluation. 60 mL of pooled urine from 4 dogs, divided into six 10-mL aliquots. Urine aliquots were spiked with bacteria from 1 of 6 independent Escherichia coli cultures to achieve a target bacterial concentration of 10(5) CFUs/mL. One milliliter from each aliquot was transferred into 5 silicone-coated clot tubes (SCTs) and 5 urine transport tubes (UTTs). Samples were stored at 4°C (39°F) and 25°C (77°F) for 0, 8, and 24 hours, and then standard QBCs were performed. Median bacterial concentration for urine samples stored in a UTT for 24 hours at 4°C was lower than that for samples stored in an SCT under the same conditions. Conversely, a substantial decrease in median bacterial concentration was identified for samples stored for 24 hours in an SCT at 25°C, compared with the median concentration for samples stored in a UTT under the same conditions. Median bacterial concentration in samples stored in an SCT at 25°C for 24 hours (275 CFUs/mL) was less than the cutoff typically used to define clinically important bacteriuria by use of urine samples obtained via cystocentesis (ie, > 1,000 CFUs/mL). Canine urine samples submitted for immediate QBC should be transported in plain sterile tubes such as SCTs. When prolonged (24-hour) storage at room temperature is anticipated, urine samples should be transported in UTTs.

  10. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in DNA immunized mink challenged with wild-type canine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the different phases of the immune response after DNA immunization with the hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein genes from canine distemper virus (CDV). Although attenuated live CDV vaccines have effectively reduced the incidence of disease, canine distemper...

  11. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of canine parvovirus (CPV enteritis in the State of Rio de Janeiro: 1995 - 2004 Aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da enterite por parvovírus canino (CPV no estado do Rio de Janeiro: 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.X. Castro

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates the clinical and epidemiological aspects of canine parvovirus infection (CPV in the State of Rio de Janeiro from April 1995 to March 2004. A total of 341 fecal samples were collected from up to 6-months-old puppies with gastroenteritis. The diagnosis of CPV infection was confirmed by hemagglutination/ hemagglutination inhibition tests, enzyme immunoassay, virus isolation in cell culture or polymerase chain reaction. One hundred and fifty-seven samples (46% were positive for CPV. No correlation among sex, breed or age and the occurrence of CPV infection was observed. The classical signs of parvoviral enteritis (anorexia, lethargy, vomiting and hemorrhagic fluid diarrhea were observed in 70% of CPV-positive and in 60% of CPV-negative puppies. Although CPV could be detected throughout the studied period, its occurrence was significantly higher from June to September and November to December. These results show that CPV is still circulating in the State of Rio de Janeiro.Este trabalho relata os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da infecção pelo CPV no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de abril de 1995 a março de 2004. Coletaram-se 341 amostras fecais de cães com até seis meses de idade que apresentavam gastrenterite. O diagnóstico da infecção pelo CPV foi confirmado através dos testes de hemaglutinação/inibição da hemaglutinação, ensaio imunoenzimático, isolamento viral em cultura de células ou reação em cadeia pela polimerase. Cento e cinqüenta e sete amostras (46% foram consideradas positivas para CPV. Não foi observada correlação entre sexo, raça ou idade e a ocorrência da infecção por CPV. Os sinais clínicos clássicos de parvovirose (vômito, anorexia, apatia e diarréia líquida hemorrágica foram observados em 70% dos animais positivos e 60% dos animais negativos para CPV. O CPV foi detectado ao longo do período estudado, entretanto observou-se um aumento do número de casos positivos

  12. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.

  13. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  14. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  15. Soroprevalência das infecções por parvovírus, adenovírus, coronavírus canino e pelo vírus da cinomose em cães de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Seroprevalence of parvovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and canine distemper virus infections in dogs of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dezengrini

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As infecções pelo vírus da cinomose (CDV, por parvovírus (CPV, adenovírus (CAV e coronavírus (CCoV são importantes causas de morbidade e de mortalidade em cães de todo o mundo, porém pouco se sabe sobre a sua incidência e prevalência no Brasil. Para determinar-se a prevalência dessas infecções na população canina de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 817 cães não-vacinados de 14 bairros do município e testadas para a presença de anticorpos específicos. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 27,3% (223/817 das amostras, contra o CPV em 68,7% (561/817, contra o CAV em 43% (353/817 e contra o CCoV em 50,4% (412/817 dos cães. Observou-se um aumento gradativo da prevalência de anticorpos de acordo com a idade para o CDV, o CAV e o CCoV. Os índices de positividade para o CPV, o CAV e o CCoV foram um pouco superiores entre machos, e semelhantes entre os sexos para o CDV. Os animais que convivem com outros cães em casa ou na rua apresentaram prevalência maior de anticorpos para o CDV e o CCoV do que cães sem contato ou convívio, enquanto que, para o CPV e o CAV, não houve diferença. Esses resultados demonstram que esses vírus estão difundidos na população canina dos bairros da cidade. Por outro lado, demonstram também que uma parte considerável da população é soronegativa e, portanto, está desprotegida frente a esses agentes, indicando a necessidade de se ampliar a cobertura vacinal.Canine distemper virus (CDV, parvovirus (CPV, adenovirus (CAV and coronavirus (CCoV infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality among dogs worldwide yet very little is known about these infections in Brazil. As to determine the prevalence of these infections in the canine population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, 817 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated dogs of 14 neighborhoods and tested for specific antibodies. Antibodies to CDV were detected in 27.3% (223/817 of

  16. DNA vaccines encoding proteins from wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Line; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Kristensen, Birte; Jensen, Tove Dannemann; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Lund, Morten; Aasted, Bent; Blixenkrone-Møller, Merete

    2012-10-01

    Immunity induced by DNA vaccines containing the hemagglutinin (H) and nucleoprotein (N) genes of wild-type and attenuated canine distemper virus (CDV) was investigated in mink (Mustela vison), a highly susceptible natural host of CDV. All DNA-immunized mink seroconverted, and significant levels of virus-neutralizing (VN) antibodies were present on the day of challenge with wild-type CDV. The DNA vaccines also primed the cell-mediated memory responses, as indicated by an early increase in the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing lymphocytes after challenge. Importantly, the wild-type and attenuated CDV DNA vaccines had a long-term protective effect against wild-type CDV challenge. The vaccine-induced immunity induced by the H and N genes from wild-type CDV and those from attenuated CDV was comparable. Because these two DNA vaccines were shown to protect equally well against wild-type virus challenge, it is suggested that the genetic/antigenic heterogeneity between vaccine strains and contemporary wild-type strains are unlikely to cause vaccine failure.

  17. Detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus by a duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X Y; Li, W H; Zhu, J L; Liu, W J; Zhao, M Q; Luo, Y W; Chen, J D

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is the cause of canine distemper (CD) which is a severe and highly contagious disease in dogs. In the present study, a duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of CDV. Four primers were designed to detect and discriminate the two viruses by generating 638- and 781-bp cDNA products, respectively. Furthermore, the duplex RT-PCR method was used to detect 67 field samples suspected of CD from Guangdong province in China. Results showed that, 33 samples were to be wild-type-like. The duplex RT-PCR method exhibited high specificity and sensitivity which could be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type and vaccine CDV, indicating its use for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  18. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Fan, Jinghui; Gerber, Priscilla F; Biernacka, Kinga; Stadejek, Tomasz; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    Porcine parvovirus type 1 is a major causative agent of swine reproductive failure. During the past decade, several new parvoviruses have been discovered in pigs. Porcine parvovirus type 6 (PPV6), recently identified, has been reported in pigs in China and in the USA while the PPV6 status in the European pig population remains undetermined. In the present study, PPV6 DNA was identified in serum samples collected from domestic pigs in Poland. In investigated herds, the prevalence of PPV6 was 14.9 % (15/101 samples). Sequencing was conducted, and 11 nearly complete PPV6 genomes were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PPV6 sequences cluster into four distinct groups, and the Polish PPV6 strains from three individual farms were present in three of these four groups. In addition, the Polish PPV6 strain P15-1 was identified as a putative recombination of an ORF1 from US stains and an ORF2 from Chinese strains. This is the first identification of PPV6 in Europe, and this finding will encourage future epidemiological studies on parvoviruses in European pigs.

  19. Enrofloxacin enhances the effects of chemotherapy in canine osteosarcoma cells with mutant and wild-type p53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, D; Withers, S S; Watson, K D; Seo, K W; Rebhun, R B

    2017-09-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival time in dogs receiving adequate local control for appendicular osteosarcoma, but most dogs ultimately succumb to metastatic disease. The fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin has been shown to inhibit survival and proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Others have reported that fluoroquinolones may modulate cellular responses to DNA damaging agents and that these effects may be differentially mediated by p53 activity. We therefore determined p53 status and activity in three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and examined the effects of enrofloxacin when used alone or in combination with doxorubicin or carboplatin chemotherapy. Moresco and Abrams canine osteosarcoma cell lines contained mutations in p53, while no mutations were identified in the D17 cells or in a normal canine osteoblast cell line. The addition of enrofloxacin to either doxorubicin or carboplatin resulted in further reductions in osteosarcoma cell viability; this effect was apparent regardless of p53 mutational status or downstream activity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Polymicrogyria and Congenital Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant S. Schulert

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fetal parvovirus B19 infection causes anemia, hydrops, and pregnancy loss but is generally not considered teratogenic. Nevertheless, disturbances of neuronal migration have been described with congenital parvovirus infection. We evaluated a term infant with congenital parvovirus disease and polymicrogyria. We compared this case with four other reports of central nervous system disease after birth to parvovirus-infected mothers. After an extensive diagnostic evaluation, this infant was found to have congenital parvovirus disease with severe anemia and nonimmune hydrops as well as extensive polymicrogyria. Although rare, this report and literature review suggest that parvovirus B19 has the potential to disrupt normal neurodevelopment. We suggest that infants with severe congenital parvovirus infection have close developmental surveillance and if symptomatic undergo neuroimaging to assess for disorders of neuromigration.

  1. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing H3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Cristina; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Metzger, Stephan M; Hoelzer, Karin; Dubovi, Edward J; Kim, Sung G; Parrish, Colin R; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2008-05-02

    In 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and found to be closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). We generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses H3 of a recent isolate of EIV using equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. This EHV-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable EIV H3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, upon challenge with the recent CIV isolate A/canine/PA/10915-07, protection of vaccinated dogs could be demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical sings, and, more importantly, by a significant reduction in virus shedding. We concluded that the EHV-1/H3 recombinant vector can be a valuable alternative for protection of dogs against clinical disease induced by CIV and can significantly reduce virus spread.

  3. Diagnóstico e estudo sorológico da infecção pelo parvovírus canino em cães de Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Diagnosis and serological study of canine parvovirus infection in dogs from Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Maria Strottmann

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR e o ensaio de hemaglutinação (HA foram comparados para a identificação de parvovírus canino (CPV em fezes de cães com gastrenterite. A prevalência de anticorpos anti-CPV em uma população de cães sem histórico de vacinação foi avaliada pelo ensaio de inibição da hemaglutinação (HI. A variabilidade fenotípica entre uma amostra vacinal e isolados de campo foi investigada utilizando soro hiperimune. Trinta amostras fecais foram obtidas de cães com diarréia e submetidas à PCR e ao HA, e 185 amostras de soro de cães foram submetidas à HI para detectar anticorpos anti-CPV. Considerando-se somente como positivas as amostras que apresentaram HA na diluição igual ou superior a 1:64, detectou-se CPV em 9 (30% das amostras fecais. Nove amostras fecais apresentaram HA nas diluições entre 1:2 e 1:32 e foram consideradas negativas nesse teste. Todas as amostras que apresentaram HA na diluição igual ou superior a 1:64 foram positivas pela PCR e, das nove amostras que apresentaram HA nas diluições entre 1:2 e 1:32, seis também foram positivas para CPV na amplificação pela PCR. A pesquisa sorológica de amostras de soros caninos indicou que 178 (96,2% cães tiveram contato prévio com o vírus. Os soros hiperimunes produzidos em cobaias contra a cepa vacinal e dois isolados de campo indicaram possíveis diferenças fenotípicas entre isolados.The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and hemaglutination (HA assay were used to detect canine parvovirus (CPV in feces from young dogs with gastroenteritis. The hemaglutination inhibition (HI assay was used to detect the prevalence of anti-CPV antibodies in a non-vaccinated dog population. In addition, hiperimmune serum was used to investigate the phenotypic variability of a vaccine strain and two field isolates of CPV. Thirty fecal samples obtained from dogs with diarrhea were submitted to PCR and HA, and 185 serum samples were submitted to HI to detect

  4. DNA vaccine encoding nucleocapsid and surface proteins of wild type canine distemper virus protects its natural host against distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherpillod, P; Tipold, A; Griot-Wenk, M; Cardozo, C; Schmid, I; Fatzer, R; Schobesberger, M; Zurbriggen, R; Bruckner, L; Roch, F; Vandevelde, M; Wittek, R; Zurbriggen, A

    2000-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a member of the genus Morbillivirus induces a highly infectious, frequently lethal disease in dogs and other carnivores. Current vaccines against canine distemper consisting of attenuated viruses have been in use for many years and have greatly reduced the incidence of distemper in the dog population. However, certain strains may not guarantee adequate protection and others can induce post vaccinal encephalitis. We tested a DNA vaccine for its ability to protect dogs, the natural host of CDV, against distemper. We constructed plasmids containing the nucleocapsid, the fusion, and the attachment protein genes of a virulent canine distemper virus strain. Mice inoculated with these plasmids developed humoral and cellular immune responses against CDV antigens. Dogs immunized with the expression plasmids developed virus-neutralizing antibodies. Significantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against challenge with virulent CDV, whereas unvaccinated animals succumbed to distemper.

  5. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K.; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-01-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistr...

  6. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  7. Detection by hemi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and genetic characterization of wild type strains of Canine distemper virus in suspected infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Cristina E; Di Francesco, Daniela; Di Martino, Barbara; Speranza, Roberto; Santori, Domenico; Boari, Andrea; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    A new highly sensitive and specific hemi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was applied to detect nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Canine distemper virus (CDV) in samples collected from dogs showing respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological signs. Thirty-eight out of 86 samples were positive suggesting that despite the vaccination, canine distemper may still represent a high risk to the canine population. The 968 base pair (bp) fragments from the hemagglutinin (H) gene of 10 viral strains detected in positive samples were amplified and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using AluI and PsiI enzymes in order to differentiate among vaccine and wild-type CDV strains and to characterize the field viral strains. The products of the both enzymatic digestions allowed identification all viruses as wild strains of CDV. In addition, the RFLP analysis with AluI provided additional information about the identity level among the strains analyzed on the basis of the positions of the cleavage site in the nucleotide sequences of the H gene. The method could be a more useful and simpler method for molecular studies of CDV strains.

  8. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...

  9. Characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type I protein identified in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Orengiani, Anne-Laure Pham-Hung d'Alexandry; Duarte, Lidia; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie

    2015-04-16

    ORF3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype I canine strain (CCoV-I) and some atypical feline FCoV strains. In these latter hosts, the ORF3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-Δ1 and gp3-Δ2. As deletions in CoV accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in canine and feline cell. All proteins oligomerise through covalent bonds, are N-glycosylated and are maintained in the ER in non-infected but also in CCoV-II infected cells, without any specific retention signal. However, deletions influence their level of expression. In canine cells, all proteins are expressed with similar level whereas in feline cells, the expression of gp3-Δ1 is higher than the two other forms of gp3. None of the gp3 proteins modulate the viral replication cycle of heterologous genotype II CCoV in canine cell line, leading to the conclusion that the gp3 proteins are probably advantageous only for CCoV-I and atypical FCoV strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  11. Parvovirus B19 viraemia in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation

  12. Characterization of a canine model of glycogen storage disease type IIIa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Yi

    2012-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE in liver and muscle. The disorder is clinically heterogeneous and progressive, and there is no effective treatment. Previously, a naturally occurring dog model for this condition was identified in curly-coated retrievers (CCR. The affected dogs carry a frame-shift mutation in the GDE gene and have no detectable GDE activity in liver and muscle. We characterized in detail the disease expression and progression in eight dogs from age 2 to 16 months. Monthly blood biochemistry revealed elevated and gradually increasing serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities; serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK activity exceeded normal range after 12 months. Analysis of tissue biopsy specimens at 4, 12 and 16 months revealed abnormally high glycogen contents in liver and muscle of all dogs. Fasting liver glycogen content increased from 4 months to 12 months, but dropped at 16 months possibly caused by extended fibrosis; muscle glycogen content continually increased with age. Light microscopy revealed significant glycogen accumulation in hepatocytes at all ages. Liver histology showed progressive, age-related fibrosis. In muscle, scattered cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were present in most cells at 4 months, but large, lake-like accumulation developed by 12 and 16 months. Disruption of the contractile apparatus and fraying of myofibrils was observed in muscle at 12 and 16 months by electron microscopy. In conclusion, the CCR dogs are an accurate model of GSD IIIa that will improve our understanding of the disease progression and allow opportunities to investigate treatment interventions.

  13. Genomic Knockout of Endogenous Canine P-Glycoprotein in Wild-Type, Human P-Glycoprotein and Human BCRP Transfected MDCKII Cell Lines by Zinc Finger Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Delzer, Jürgen; Laplanche, Loic; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Sydor, Jens; Fricker, Gert

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to specifically suppress the expression and function of endogenous canine P-glycoprotein (cPgp) in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cells (MDCKII) transfected with hPGP and breast cancer resistance protein (hBCRP) by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) producing sequence specific DNA double strand breaks. Wild-type, hPGP-transfected, and hBCRP-transfected MDCKII cells were transfected with ZFN targeting for cPgp. Net efflux ratios (NER) of Pgp and Bcrp substrates were determined by dividing efflux ratios (basal-to-apical / apical-to-basal) in over-expressing cell monolayers by those in wild-type ones. From ZFN-transfected cells, cell populations (ko-cells) showing knockout of cPgp were selected based on genotyping by PCR. qRT-PCR analysis showed the significant knock-downs of cPgp and interestingly also cMrp2 expressions. Specific knock-downs of protein expression for cPgp were shown by western blotting and quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Endogenous canine Bcrp proteins were not detected. For PGP-transfected cells, NERs of 5 Pgp substrates in ko-cells were significantly greater than those in parental cells not transfected with ZFN. Similar result was obtained for BCRP-transfected cells with a dual Pgp and Bcrp substrate. Specific efflux mediated by hPGP or hBCRP can be determined with MDCKII cells where cPgp has been knocked out by ZFN.

  14. The genetic evolution of canine parvovirus - A new perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Zhou

    Full Text Available To trace the evolution process of CPV-2, all of the VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 and FPV (from 1978 to 2015 from GenBank were analyzed in this study. Then, several new ideas regarding CPV-2 evolution were presented. First, the VP2 amino acid 555 and 375 positions of CPV-2 were first ruled out as a universal mutation site in CPV-2a and amino acid 101 position of FPV feature I or T instead of only I in existing rule. Second, the recently confusing nomenclature of CPV-2 variants was substituted with a optional nomenclature that would serve future CPV-2 research. Third, After check the global distribution of variants, CPV-2a is the predominant variant in Asia and CPV-2c is the predominant variant in Europe and Latin America. Fourth, a series of CPV-2-like strains were identified and deduced to evolve from modified live vaccine strains. Finally, three single VP2 mutation (F267Y, Y324I, and T440A strains were caught concern. Furthermore, these three new VP2 mutation strains may be responsible for vaccine failure, and the strains with VP2 440A may become the novel CPV sub-variant. In conclusion, a summary of all VP2 sequences provides a new perspective regarding CPV-2 evolution and the correlative biological studies needs to be further performed.

  15. The genetic evolution of canine parvovirus - A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Zeng, Weijie; Zhang, Xin; Li, Shoujun

    2017-01-01

    To trace the evolution process of CPV-2, all of the VP2 gene sequences of CPV-2 and FPV (from 1978 to 2015) from GenBank were analyzed in this study. Then, several new ideas regarding CPV-2 evolution were presented. First, the VP2 amino acid 555 and 375 positions of CPV-2 were first ruled out as a universal mutation site in CPV-2a and amino acid 101 position of FPV feature I or T instead of only I in existing rule. Second, the recently confusing nomenclature of CPV-2 variants was substituted with a optional nomenclature that would serve future CPV-2 research. Third, After check the global distribution of variants, CPV-2a is the predominant variant in Asia and CPV-2c is the predominant variant in Europe and Latin America. Fourth, a series of CPV-2-like strains were identified and deduced to evolve from modified live vaccine strains. Finally, three single VP2 mutation (F267Y, Y324I, and T440A) strains were caught concern. Furthermore, these three new VP2 mutation strains may be responsible for vaccine failure, and the strains with VP2 440A may become the novel CPV sub-variant. In conclusion, a summary of all VP2 sequences provides a new perspective regarding CPV-2 evolution and the correlative biological studies needs to be further performed.

  16. Evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing H3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Cristina; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R.; Metzger, Stephan M.; Hoelzer, Karin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Kim, Sung G.; Parrish, Colin R.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and is closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). We generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses H3 of a recent isolate of EIV using equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. This EHV-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable EIV H3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or subcut...

  17. Generation of a parvovirus B19 vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Sumana; Medina-Selby, Angelica; Coit, Doris; Schaefer, Mary; Spencer, Terika; Brito, Luis A; Zhang, Pu; Otten, Gillis; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C

    2013-08-20

    Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of fifth disease in children, aplastic crisis in those with blood dyscrasias, and hydrops fetalis. Previous parvovirus B19 virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine candidates were produced by co-infection of insect cells with two baculoviruses, one expressing wild-type VP1 and the other expressing VP2. In humans, the VLPs were immunogenic but reactogenic. We have developed new VLP-based parvovirus B19 vaccine candidates, produced by co-expressing VP2 and either wild-type VP1 or phospholipase-negative VP1 in a regulated ratio from a single plasmid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These VLPs are expressed efficiently, are very homogeneous, and can be highly purified. Although VP2 alone can form VLPs, in mouse immunizations, VP1 and the adjuvant MF59 are required to elicit a neutralizing response. Wild-type VLPs and those with phospholipase-negative VP1 are equivalently potent. The purity, homogeneity, yeast origin, and lack of phospholipase activity of these VLPs address potential causes of previously observed reactogenicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fifth Disease (Parvovirus B19) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifth Disease (parvovirus B19) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby with a ... infectiosum, is a viral illness caused by human parvovirus B19. It occurs most commonly in children ages 4 ...

  19. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Eveline P.; de Haan, Timo R.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Beersma, Matthias F. C.; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J.

    2006-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a small single-stranded DNA virus and a potent inhibitor of erythropoiesis, due to its cytotoxicity to erythroid progenitor cells. Infection with parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can cause several serious complications in the fetus, such as fetal anemia, neurological anomalies,

  20. Parvovirus infection-induced DNA damage response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yong; Qiu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Parvoviruses are a group of small DNA viruses with ssDNA genomes flanked by two inverted terminal structures. Due to a limited genetic resource they require host cellular factors and sometimes a helper virus for efficient viral replication. Recent studies have shown that parvoviruses interact with the DNA damage machinery, which has a significant impact on the life cycle of the virus as well as the fate of infected cells. In addition, due to special DNA structures of the viral genomes, parvoviruses are useful tools for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying viral infection-induced DNA damage response (DDR). This review aims to summarize recent advances in parvovirus-induced DDR, with a focus on the diverse DDR pathways triggered by different parvoviruses and the consequences of DDR on the viral life cycle as well as the fate of infected cells. PMID:25429305

  1. A comparison of the immune responses of dogs exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) — Differences between vaccinated and wild-type virus exposed dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Danielle; Bender, Scott; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific immune response was measured in different dog populations. Three groups of vaccinated or wild-type virus exposed dogs were tested: dogs with a known vaccination history, dogs without a known vaccination history (shelter dogs), and dogs with potential exposure to wild-type CDV. The use of a T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated a detectable CDV-specific T-cell response from both spleen and blood lymphocytes of dogs. Qualitatively, antibody assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization assay] predicted the presence of a T-cell response well, although quantitatively neither antibody assays nor the T-cell assay correlated well with each other. An interesting finding from our study was that half of the dogs in shelters were not vaccinated (potentially posing a public veterinary health problem) and that antibody levels in dogs living in an environment with endemic CDV were lower than in vaccinated animals. PMID:20885846

  2. A comparison of the immune responses of dogs exposed to canine distemper virus (CDV) - Differences between vaccinated and wild-type virus exposed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Danielle; Bender, Scott; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific immune response was measured in different dog populations. Three groups of vaccinated or wild-type virus exposed dogs were tested: dogs with a known vaccination history, dogs without a known vaccination history (shelter dogs), and dogs with potential exposure to wild-type CDV. The use of a T-cell proliferation assay demonstrated a detectable CDV-specific T-cell response from both spleen and blood lymphocytes of dogs. Qualitatively, antibody assays [enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and neutralization assay] predicted the presence of a T-cell response well, although quantitatively neither antibody assays nor the T-cell assay correlated well with each other. An interesting finding from our study was that half of the dogs in shelters were not vaccinated (potentially posing a public veterinary health problem) and that antibody levels in dogs living in an environment with endemic CDV were lower than in vaccinated animals.

  3. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine distemper virus by one-tube reverse transcription-insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Tsai, Yun-Long; Lee, Pei-Yu; Lee, Fu-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been associated with outbreaks of canine infectious respiratory disease in shelters and boarding kennel environments. POCKITTM Nucleic Acid Analyzer is a field-deployable device capable of generating automatically interpreted insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) results from extracted nucleic acid within one hour. In this study, reverse transcription iiPCR (RT-iiPCR) was developed to facilitate point-of-need diagnosis of CDV infection. Analytical sensitivity (limit of detection 95%) of the established CDV RT-iiPCR was about 11 copies of in vitro transcribed RNA per reaction. CDV RT-iiPCR generated positive signals from CDV, but not Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parvovirus, canine herpesvirus, canine adenovirus 2, canine influenza virus (subtype H3N8), canine parainfluenza virus, and canine respiratory coronavirus. To evaluate accuracy of the established reaction in canine distemper clinical diagnosis, 110 specimens from dogs, raccoons, and foxes suspected with CDV infection were tested simultaneously by CDV RT-iiPCR and real-time RT-PCR. CDV RT-iiPCR demonstrated excellent sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%), compared to real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated an excellent correlation between RT-iiPCR and a reference real time RT-PCR method. Working in a lyophilized format, the established method has great potential to be used for point-of-care diagnosis of canine distemper in animals, especially in resource-limited facilities.

  4. High frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, Anders; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is now a routine analysis and serves as a diagnostic marker as well as a complement or alternative to B19 serology. The clinical significance of a positive B19 DNA finding is however dependent on the type of tissue or body fluid...... analysed and of the immune status of the patient. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone marrow samples from rheumatic patients. STUDY DESIGN: Parvovirus B19 DNA was analysed in paired bone marrow and serum samples by nested PCR technique. Serum was also analysed...... negative group. A high frequency of parvovirus B19 DNA was thus detected in bone marrow samples in rheumatic patients. The clinical data does not support a direct association between B19 PCR positivity and rheumatic disease manifestation. Therefore, the clinical significance of B19 DNA positivity in bone...

  5. Complete protection of cats against feline panleukopenia virus challenge by a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing VP2 from FPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Qiao, Jun; Liu, Quan; Chang, Shuang; Xie, Zhijing; Ju, Huiyan; Zou, Xiaohuan; Gao, Yuwei

    2008-03-10

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is an important infectious pathogen of all members of the family Felidae. Here, we describe construction of a replication-competent recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) expressing the VP2 protein of FPV (CAV-2-VP2) by transfection of MDCK cells with recombinant CAV-2 genome carrying a VP2 expression cassette. Ten 3-month-old cats were vaccinated with the recombinant virus with two boosters at 15-day intervals. All cats developed neutralizing antibodies of titers 1:16-1:32 by day 15 post-primary vaccination, increasing to 1:64-1:128 by day 45. Examination for clinical signs and viral presence, and total white blood cell counts in peripheral blood following FPV challenge, showed that all were completely protected. This recombinant virus appears to provide an effective alternative to attenuated and inactivated vaccines in immunizing cats against feline panleukopenia.

  6. Molecular typing of canine distemper virus strains reveals the presence of a new genetic variant in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarute, Nicolás; Pérez, Ruben; Aldaz, Jaime; Alfieri, Amauri A; Alfieri, Alice F; Name, Daniela; Llanes, Jessika; Hernández, Martín; Francia, Lourdes; Panzera, Yanina

    2014-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV, Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the causative agent of a severe infectious disease affecting terrestrial and marine carnivores worldwide. Phylogenetic relationships and the genetic variability of the hemagglutinin (H) protein and the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) allow for the classification of field strains into genetic lineages. Currently, there are nine CDV lineages worldwide, two of them co-circulating in South America. Using the Fsp-coding region, we analyzed the genetic variability of strains from Uruguay, Brazil, and Ecuador, and compared them with those described previously in South America and other geographical areas. The results revealed that the Brazilian and Uruguayan strains belong to the already described South America lineage (EU1/SA1), whereas the Ecuadorian strains cluster in a new clade, here named South America 3, which may represent the third CDV lineage described in South America.

  7. Parvovirus-induced dyserythropoeisis in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepali

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Most persons with parvovirus B19 infection are asymptomatic or exhibit mild, nonspecific, cold-like symptoms. However, hematologic problems associated with the infection include transient aplastic crisis, chronic red cell aplasia, mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. A rare hematologic manifestation is in the form of dyserythropoeisis. Herein, we present the case of a 9-year-old female with severe dyserythropoeisis associated with parvovirus infection.

  8. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  9. [Parvovirus B19 infection after kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodin-Sartorius, Albane; Mekki, Yahia; Bloquel, Bénédicte; Rabant, Marion; Legendre, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Prevalence for human parvovirus B19 infection is estimated to be between 2% and 30% in renal transplant recipients. In post-transplant settings, parvovirus B19 infection may occur either as a primary infection or a reactivation. Parvovirus transmission most commonly occurs through respiratory tract but may also result from graft or blood packs contamination. Co-infections with HHV-6 and CMV viruses are frequent. The hallmark symptom is anemia, more rarely pancytopenia and hemophagocytic syndrome. In respect to renal involvement, parvovirus B19 infection has been associated with graft dysfunction in 10% of cases. Both thrombotic microangiopathies and collapsing glomerulopathies have been reported concomitantly with parvovirus B19 infection but the causal link remains unclear. Other complications are seldomly reported, including hepatitis, encephalitis, and myocarditis. Diagnosis is based on pre and post-transplant serological status. In addition, the management of parvovirus B19 infection in immunocompromised patients requires quantitative assessment of blood viral load by PCR. The treatment relies primarily on reduction of immunosuppression combined with intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. Relapses occur in 30% of cases. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Intra-articular enzyme replacement therapy with rhIDUA is safe, well-tolerated, and reduces articular GAG storage in the canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Y; Aminian, Afshin; McEntee, Michael F; Kan, Shih-Hsin; Simonaro, Calogera M; Lamanna, William C; Lawrence, Roger; Ellinwood, N Matthew; Guerra, Catalina; Le, Steven Q; Dickson, Patricia I; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Treatment with intravenous enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I does not address joint disease, resulting in persistent orthopedic complications and impaired quality of life. A proof-of-concept study was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of intra-articular recombinant human iduronidase (IA-rhIDUA) enzyme replacement therapy in the canine MPS I model. Four MPS I dogs underwent monthly rhIDUA injections (0.58 mg/joint) into the right elbow and knee for 6 months. Contralateral elbows and knees concurrently received normal saline. No intravenous rhIDUA therapy was administered. Monthly blood counts, chemistries, anti-rhIDUA antibody titers, and synovial fluid cell counts were measured. Lysosomal storage of synoviocytes and chondrocytes, synovial macrophages and plasma cells were scored at baseline and 1 month following the final injection. All injections were well-tolerated without adverse reactions. One animal required prednisone for spinal cord compression. There were no clinically significant abnormalities in blood counts or chemistries. Circulating anti-rhIDUA antibody titers gradually increased in all dogs except the prednisone-treated dog; plasma cells, which were absent in all baseline synovial specimens, were predominantly found in synovium of rhIDUA-treated joints at study-end. Lysosomal storage in synoviocytes and chondrocytes following 6 months of IA-rhIDUA demonstrated significant reduction compared to tissues at baseline, and saline-treated tissues at study-end. Mean joint synovial GAG levels in IA-rhIDUA joints were 8.62 ± 5.86 μg/mg dry weight and 21.6 ± 10.4 μg/mg dry weight in control joints (60% reduction). Cartilage heparan sulfate was also reduced in the IA-rhIDUA joints (113 ± 39.5 ng/g wet weight) compared to saline-treated joints (142 ± 56.4 ng/g wet weight). Synovial macrophage infiltration, which was present in all joints at baseline, was

  11. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling

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    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ho Young [Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Manbok [Department of Medical Science, Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Department of Biological Sciences, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [BK21+, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-03

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells.

  12. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF) confers resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNA receptor-mediated signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaowinn, Sirichat; Cho, Il-Rae; Moon, Jeong; Jun, Seung Won; Kim, Chang Seok; Kang, Ho Young; Kim, Manbok; Koh, Sang Seok; Chung, Young-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, plays a crucial role in the development of pancreatic cancer, including its metastasis and proliferation. Therefore, PAUF-expressing pancreatic cancer cells could be important targets for oncolytic virus-mediated treatment. Panc-1 cells expressing PAUF (Panc-PAUF) showed relative resistance to parvovirus H-1 infection compared with Panc-1 cells expressing an empty vector (Panc-Vec). Of interest, expression of type I IFN-α receptor (IFNAR) was higher in Panc-PAUF cells than in Panc-Vec cells. Increased expression of IFNAR in turn increased the activation of Stat1 and Tyk2 in Panc-PAUF cells compared with that in Panc-Vec cells. Suppression of Tyk2 and Stat1, which are important downstream molecules for IFN-α signaling, sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. Further, constitutive suppression of PAUF sensitized Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells to parvovirus H-1 infection. Taken together, these results suggested that PAUF conferred resistance to pancreatic cancer cells against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection through IFNAR-mediated signaling. - Highlights: • PAUF confers resistance against oncolytic parvovirus H-1 infection. • PAUF enhances the expression of IFNAR in Panc-1 cells. • Increased activation of Tyk2 or Stat1 by PAUF provides resistance to parvovirus H-1-mediated apoptosis. • Constitutive inhibition of PAUF enhances parvovirus H-1-mediated oncolysis of Bxpc3 pancreatic cancer cells

  13. Occurrence of human bocaviruses and parvovirus 4 in solid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norja, Päivi; Hedman, Lea; Kantola, Kalle; Kemppainen, Kaisa; Suvilehto, Jari; Pitkäranta, Anne; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Seppänen, Mikko; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2012-08-01

    Human bocaviruses 1-4 (HBoV1-4) and parvovirus 4 (PARV4) are recently discovered human parvoviruses. HBoV1 is associated with respiratory infections of young children, while HBoV2-4 are enteric viruses. The clinical manifestations of PARV4 remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether the DNAs of HBoV1-4 and PARV4 persist in human tissues long after primary infection. Biopsies of tonsillar tissue, skin, and synovia were examined for HBoV1-4 DNA and PARV4 DNA by PCR. Serum samples from the tissue donors were assayed for HBoV1 and PARV4 IgG and IgM antibodies. To obtain species-specific seroprevalences for HBoV1 and for HBoV2/3 combined, the sera were analyzed after virus-like particle (VLP) competition. While HBoV1 DNA was detected exclusively in the tonsillar tissues of 16/438 individuals (3.7%), all of them ≤8 years of age. HBoV2-4 and PARV4 DNAs were absent from all tissue types. HBoV1 IgG seroprevalence was 94.9%. No subject had HBoV1 or PARV4 IgM, nor did they have PARV4 IgG. The results indicate that HBoV1 DNA occurred in a small proportion of tonsils of young children after recent primary HBoV1 infection, but did not persist long in the other tissue types studied, unlike parvovirus B19 DNA. The results obtained by the PARV4 assays are in line with previous results on PARV4 epidemiology. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Parvovirus Family Conundrum: What Makes a Killer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailasan, Shweta; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Parrish, Colin R

    2015-11-01

    Parvoviruses infect a wide variety of hosts, and their ancestors appear to have emerged tens to hundreds of millions of years ago and to have spread widely ever since. The diversity of parvoviruses is therefore extensive, and although they all appear to descend from a common ancestor and share common structures in their capsid and nonstructural proteins, there is often low homology at the DNA or protein level. The diversity of these viruses is also seen in the widely differing impacts they have on their hosts, which range from severe and even lethal disease to subclinical or nonpathogenic infections. In the past few years, deep sequencing of DNA samples from animals has shown just how widespread the parvoviruses are in nature, but most of the newly discovered viruses have not yet been associated with any disease. However, variants of some parvoviruses have altered their host ranges to create new epidemic or pandemic viruses. Here, we examine the properties of parvoviruses and their interactions with their hosts that are associated with these disparate pathogenic outcomes.

  15. Canine thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsohn, M.

    1985-01-01

    Thymoma is an uncommon canine neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. It is seen in various breeds but may occur more frequently in German Shepherd Dogs. Middle-aged or older dogs can be affected and no sex predilection exists. A paraneoplastic syndrome of myasthenia gravis, nonthymic malignant tumors, and/or polymyositis occurs in a significant number of dogs with thymoma. Clinical signs are variable and are related to a space-occupying cranial mediastinal mass and/or manifestations of the paraneo-plastic syndrome. Dyspnea is the most common presenting clinical sign. Thoracic radiographs usually show a cranial mediastinal mass. Lymphoma is the main differential diagnosis. A definitive diagnosis may be made by closed biopsy but is more likely to be confirmed by thoracotomy. Thymomas may be completely contained within the thymic capsule or may spread by local invasion or metastasis. A staging system allows for an accurate prognosis and a therapeutic plan. Surgical removal of encapsulated thymomas may result in long-term survival or cure. Invasive or metastatic thymomas carry a guarded prognosis. Manifestations of the paraneoplastic syndrome complicate treatment. Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy may be of value for advanced cases; however, adequate clinical trials have not been done in the dog

  16. Canine parvovirus infection, canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis: inclination to vaccinate and antibody response in the Swedish dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P; Hedhammar, A; Klingeborn, B

    1996-01-01

    The inclination of dog owners to vaccinate was investigated by sending a questionnaire to randomly selected Swedish dog-owning households. According to the owners (n = 538), 86.7% of the dogs had been vaccinated against CPV and 95.8% had been vaccinated against CD/ICH. The inclination to vaccinate mixed breeds was significantly lower than the inclination to vaccinate pure-bred dogs. In a second study titres of CPV, CD and CAV-1 virus antibodies were measured in 176 randomly selected dogs with known vaccination histories. CPV antibody titres > or = 1:80 were detected in 70.9% of the CPV vaccinated dogs. There was a significant difference in the fraction of dogs with CPV titre > or = 1:80 between the group last vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine and the group last vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Titres of CD and CAV-1 virus antibodies > or = 1:16 were found in 86.1% and 91.6% of the vaccinated dogs respectively. The fraction of dogs with CAV-1 antibody titres > or = 1:16 was significantly greater in the group that received inactivated CAV-1 vaccine than in the group vaccinated with attenuated live CAV-2 vaccine. Approximately 50% of the dogs were booster vaccinated against all 3 diseases at one year of age.

  17. Acute parvovirus B19 infection in adults: a retrospective study of 49 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Bandera, A I; Mayor Arenal, M; Vorlicka, K; Ruiz Bravo-Burguilllos, E; Montero Vega, D; Vidaurrázaga Díaz-Arcaya, C

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of acute parvovirus B19 infection in adults. This study describes all cases of acute parvovirus B19 infection in patients older than 18 years of age who were treated at Hospital Universitario La Paz in Madrid, Spain, in 2012. Forty-nine adults were treated for acute parvovirus B19 infection. Most were young women who were infected in the spring or early summer. In over half the cases skin lesions were key diagnostic signs.We saw the full range of types of rash of purplish exanthems that were fairly generalized; vasculitis was relatively common (in >18%). Mild or moderate abnormalities in blood counts and indicators of liver dysfunction resolved spontaneously in all but 2 immunocompromised patients, who developed chronic anemia. This is the largest case series of acute parvovirus B19 infection published to date. This infection should be suspected on observing signs of purplish skin rashes, no matter the location or pattern of distribution, or vasculitis, especially if accompanied by fever and joint pain in young women in the spring. Measures to avoid infection should be recommended to individuals at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  18. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Parvovirus B19 and Hashimato Thyroiditis

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    Gulfem Ece

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hashimato thyroiditis also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis or autoimmune thyroiditis is characterized by lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration of thyroid follicles causing destruction and atrophy in thyroid tissue. Reports on coexistence of several HLA antigen types in Hashimoto thyroiditis may indicate genetic predisposition. Parvovirus B19 is a prevalent and single stranded DNA virus that can cause disease in humans. Parvovirus B 19 infection may be responsible for autoimmune disorders or trigger them. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between Parvovirus B19 and Hashimato thyroiditis. Material and Method: Fifity patients with Hashimato thyroiditis that were admitted to our Internal Medicine outpatient clinic and thirty healthy subjects were included in this study. Parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG were studied by EIA (Virion/Serion, Germany. Statistical analysis of the data was studied with chi-square test at Izmir University School of Medicine Department of Biostatistics . p0.05. IgG levels in patient group was statistically significant (p

  19. Prevalence and evolution of human parvoviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Norja, Päivi

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses are minute single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of mammalians and invertebrates. Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) was discovered in the 1970s and was soon found to cause several diseases, including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemias, fetal hydrops, and fetal death. The B19V titer in blood is high during acute infection. After primary infection, B19V has been shown to persist in tissues of symptomatic and asymptomatic persons. Prior to the commencement of this w...

  20. Phylo-typing of clinical Escherichia coli isolates originating from bovine mastitis and canine pyometra and urinary tract infection by means of quadruplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müştak, Hamit Kaan; Günaydin, Elçin; Kaya, İnci Başak; Salar, Merve Özdal; Babacan, Orkun; Önat, Kaan; Ata, Zafer; Diker, Kadir Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis worldwide, and is typically associated with acute, clinical mastitis. Besides this, E. coli strains which belong to the extra-intestinal pathogenic group are also the major cause of urinary tract infections and pyometra in dogs. In this study, it was aimed to investigate phylo-groups/subgroups in 155 E. coli isolates obtained from acute bovine mastitis, 43 from urinary tract infections of dogs and 20 from canine pyometra by a formerly described triplex PCR and recently described new quadruplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Group A1 (n = 118; 76%) and B1 (n = 71; 46%) were found to be the most prevalent groups by triplex and quadruplex PCR assays in mastitis isolates, respectively. Phylo-typing of 43 urinary tract isolates also revealed that most of the isolates belonged to A1 (n = 23; 54%) by triplex and B2 (n = 36; 84%) by quadruplex PCR assays. The isolates assigned as group A1 (n = 17; 85%) by triplex PCR could not be classified by quadruplex PCR in pyometra isolates. The results support the hypothesis that E. coli strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases are environmental. Also, groups C, E and F were identified as new phylo-groups for the first time in acute bovine mastitis cases. The comparison of triplex PCR with quadruplex PCR results revealed that most of the groups assigned in triplex PCR were altered by quadruplex PCR assay.

  1. Establishment of a novel high-affinity IgE receptor-positive canine mast cell line with wild-type c-kit receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagai, Yosuke; Tanaka, Akane; Ohmori, Keitaro; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Much is known regarding participations of mast cells with innate and acquired immunity by secreting various cytokines and chemical mediators. However, details of mast cell biology still remain unclear. In this study, we successfully established a novel growth factor-independent mast cell line (MPT-1) derived from canine mast cell tumor. MPT-1 cells manifested factor-independent proliferation as floating cells containing a large amount of histamine, as well as chymase-like dog mast cell protease 3, in cytosolic granules. Particularly, MPT-1 cells expressed high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI) and wild-type c-kit receptors. Degranulation of MPT-1 cells was induced not only by stimulation with calcium ionophore but also by cross-linkage of the surface IgE. Given that MPT-1 is the first mast cell line with FcεRI which has no c-kit mutations, MPT-1 cells may provide great contribution for investigation of IgE-mediated activation mechanisms of mast cells, leading to development of effective treatment for allergic disorders

  2. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  3. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Joan; Mundle, William; Boucoiran, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the effects of parvovirus B19 on the pregnant woman and fetus, and discusses the management of women who are exposed to, who are at risk of developing, or who develop parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy. The outcomes evaluated were maternal outcomes including erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, anemia, and myocarditis, and fetal outcomes including spontaneous abortion, congenital anomalies, hydrops fetalis, stillbirth, and long-term effects. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and The Cochrane Library on July 8, 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (MeSH terms "parvovirus" and "pregnancy") and key words (parvovirus, infection, pregnancy, hydrops). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date restrictions but results were limited to English or French language materials. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Recommendations 1. Investigation for parvovirus B19 infection is recommended apart of the standard workup for fetal hydrops or intrauterine fetal death. (II-2A) 2. Routine screening for parvovirus immunity in low-risk pregnancies is not recommended. (II-2E) 3. Pregnant women who are exposed to, or who develop symptoms of, parvovirus B19 infection should be assessed to determine whether they are susceptible to infection (non-immune) or have a current infection by determining their parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M status. (II-2A) 4. If parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin G is present and immunoglobulin M

  4. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Sanchez, Elena; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors' laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10(-1) TCID(50)). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.

  5. Immunohistochemical Characterization of Canine Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana CORA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphomas occur by clonal expansion of lymphoid cells and have distinctive morphological and immunophenotypic features. Determination of canine lymphoma immunophenotype is useful for accurate prognosis and further therapy. In the suggested study, we performed an immunohistochemical evaluation of some cases with canine lymphoma diagnosed in the Department of Pathology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, in order to characterize them. The investigation included 39 dogs diagnosed with different anatomical forms of lymphoma, following necropsy analysis or assessment of biopsies. The diagnosis of lymphoma was confirmed by necropsy and histopathology (Hematoxylin-eosin stain examinations. The collected specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique (automatic method using the following antibodies: CD3, CD20, CD21 and CD79a. The analyzed neoplasms were characterized as follows: about 64.10% of cases were diagnosed as B-cell lymphomas, 33.34% of cases as T-cell lymphomas, whereas 2.56% of cases were null cell type lymphomas (neither B nor T. Most of multicentric (80%, mediastinal (60% and primary central nervous system lymphomas (100% had B immunophenotype, while the majority of cutaneous (80% and digestive (100% lymphomas had T immunophenotype. Immunohistochemical description of canine lymphomas can deliver some major details concerning their behavior and malignancy. Additionally, vital prognosis and efficacy of some therapeutic protocols are relying on the immunohistochemical features of canine lymphoma.

  6. First identification of porcine parvovirus 7 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiulin; Zhou, Han; Tong, Ling; Chen, Yao; Sun, Yankuo; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong

    2018-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) are small, non-enveloped and single-stranded DNA viruses, taxonomically classifiable within the family Parvoviridae. Seven PPV genotypes (PPV1 to PPV7) have been identified to date. PPV7, the most recently discovered PPV genotype, was first reported in US pigs in 2016. To explore PPV7 status in Chinese pig populations a total of 64 serum samples collected from two commercial farms in Guangdong province in 2014 were analyzed. PPV7 DNA was detected in 32.8% (21/64) of tested samples. On the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) positive farm, the prevalence rate of PPV7 was 65.5% (19/29) which was significantly higher than that on the PCV2 negative farm (2/35, 5.7%), indicating a possible association between PCV2 and PPV7 infections. The sequences of three PPV7 strains were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified PPV7 strains circulating in China shared 98.7%-99.7% nucleotide homology with the US strain. Further sequence comparison analysis indicated that GD-2014-2 and GD-2014-3 possess a consecutive 9-nt deletion in the VP gene. This is the first report of the existence of PPV7 in China and this finding will strengthen understanding of the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus in Chinese pigs.

  7. Parvovirus infection: an immunohistochemical study using fetal and placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing Jing; Henwood, Tony; Van Hal, Sebastian; Charlton, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection causes 5% to 15% of cases of nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of immunohistochemistry in diagnosing parvovirus infection in fetal and placental tissue during routine fetal and perinatal autopsies. Histology slides of 20 cases of confirmed parvovirus infection were reviewed, and immunohistochemistry was applied to selected blocks of fetal and placental tissue. Immunohistochemistry was positive in all 20 cases, and histologic viral inclusions were seen in 19 cases. Immunohistochemical staining was closely correlated with histology and was more sensitive than histology in detecting virally infected cells, especially in autolyzed tissue. All cases also had confirmatory evidence of parvovirus infection by polymerase chain reaction of fetal liver and positive maternal serology, where it was available. We conclude that parvovirus immunohistochemistry is a reliable method for diagnosing parvovirus infection, especially in autolyzed tissue where histologic assessment may be suboptimal.

  8. Host-Specific Parvovirus Evolution in Nature Is Recapitulated by In Vitro Adaptation to Different Carnivore Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Andrew B.; Kohler, Dennis J.; Ortega, Alicia; Hoover, Elizabeth A.; Grove, Daniel M.; Holmes, Edward C.; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that >95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR), the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range. PMID:25375184

  9. Host-specific parvovirus evolution in nature is recapitulated by in vitro adaptation to different carnivore species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Allison

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV, a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR, the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range.

  10. Coping with parvovirus infections in mice: health surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.

  11. Parvovirus B19 is a bystander in adult myocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Scott A; Anderson, Daniel R; Radio, Stanley J

    2012-01-01

    The genomic DNA of parvovirus B19, a small single-stranded DNA virus of the genus Erythrovirus, has been shown to persist in solid tissues of constitutionally healthy, immunocompetent individuals. Despite these data, many case reports and series have linked the presence of parvovirus B19 genomic DNA, detected through nucleic acid amplification testing, with myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Herein, we use multiple tools to better assess the relationship between parvovirus B19 and myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Nucleic acid amplification testing, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy were used to assess the location and activity of parvovirus B19 in cases of myocarditis and in cases with no significant cardiac disease. Nucleic acid amplification testing for parvovirus B19 genomic DNA was positive in 73% of patients with myocarditis/cardiomyopathy and in 26% of patients with no significant disease. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that, in cases with amplifiable parvovirus B19 DNA, parvovirus B19 genomic DNA and viral protein production were present in rare mononuclear cells. In a majority of cases of myocarditis and a significant number of otherwise normal hearts, nucleic acid amplification testing detected persistent parvovirus B19 genomic DNA that did not play a significant pathogenic role. The source of parvovirus B19 DNA appeared to be interstitial mononuclear inflammatory cells and not myocardial or endothelial cells. Therefore, nucleic acid amplification testing alone is not diagnostically helpful for determining the etiology of adult myocarditis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Atypical Papular Purpuric Eruption Induced by Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeyma Kayalı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 infection’s most common dermatological manifestation is erythema infectiosum as also known the fifth disease. Rare clinical presentations of parvovirus B 19 like papulopurpuric gloves and socks syndrome and acropetechial syndrome has also been described re­cently. This study presents report of a case with atypical feature and distribution of rash due to parvovirus B19 in­fection. We want to emphasize that pediatricians should consider parvovirus B19 infection of any patient who has leukopenia presenting with petechial/purpuric eruption of an unclear origin.

  13. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu; Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwano, Hidetomo; Uchide, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P 3 H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM. These findings suggest that LAT1 could be a new therapeutic target for MM

  14. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  15. Vaccine-induced canine distemper in a lesser panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M; Montali, R J; Brownstein, D; James, A E; Appel, M J

    1976-11-01

    A fatal disease occurred in a lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) 2 weeks after vaccination with modified live distemper vaccine. The disease clinically resembled canine distemper. Pathologically there was giant cell pneumonia, with canine distemper viral inclusion bodies in pulmonary and digestive tract epithelium. Viral isolates were indicative of an attenuated strain rather than virulent types.

  16. Pathogenesis of growth failure and partial reversal with gene therapy in murine and canine Glycogen Storage Disease type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Little, Dianne; Arumugam, Ramamani; Sun, Baodong; Curtis, Sarah; Demaster, Amanda; Maranzano, Michael; Jackson, Mark W; Kishnani, Priya; Freemark, Michael S; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2013-06-01

    Glycogen Storage Disease type Ia (GSD-Ia) in humans frequently causes delayed bone maturation, decrease in final adult height, and decreased growth velocity. This study evaluates the pathogenesis of growth failure and the effect of gene therapy on growth in GSD-Ia affected dogs and mice. Here we found that homozygous G6pase (-/-) mice with GSD-Ia have normal growth hormone (GH) levels in response to hypoglycemia, decreased insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 levels, and attenuated weight gain following administration of GH. Expression of hepatic GH receptor and IGF 1 mRNAs and hepatic STAT5 (phospho Y694) protein levels are reduced prior to and after GH administration, indicating GH resistance. However, restoration of G6Pase expression in the liver by treatment with adeno-associated virus 8 pseudotyped vector expressing G6Pase (AAV2/8-G6Pase) corrected body weight, but failed to normalize plasma IGF 1 in G6pase (-/-) mice. Untreated G6pase (-/-) mice also demonstrated severe delay of growth plate ossification at 12 days of age; those treated with AAV2/8-G6Pase at 14 days of age demonstrated skeletal dysplasia and limb shortening when analyzed radiographically at 6 months of age, in spite of apparent metabolic correction. Moreover, gene therapy with AAV2/9-G6Pase only partially corrected growth in GSD-Ia affected dogs as detected by weight and bone measurements and serum IGF 1 concentrations were persistently low in treated dogs. We also found that heterozygous GSD-Ia carrier dogs had decreased serum IGF 1, adult body weights and bone dimensions compared to wild-type littermates. In sum, these findings suggest that growth failure in GSD-Ia results, at least in part, from hepatic GH resistance. In addition, gene therapy improved growth in addition to promoting long-term survival in dogs and mice with GSD-Ia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Canine distemper infections, with special reference to South Africa, with a review of the literature : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Leisewitz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridaethat causes severe disease in dogs and a range of wild mammals. The clinical signs relate essentially to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. In South Africa, infection with Ehrlichia canis and canine parvovirus may present similarly. Many dogs will initially present with a wide range of central nervous system signs without any history of systemic disease. A recent South African study evaluating ante mortem diagnosis highlighted the importance of recognising clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid IgG titres, serum IgM titres and immunocytochemistry of epithelial tissue. A 2-year retrospective evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital indicates that distemper infection is common, and this disease should routinely be suspected in cases of diverse neurological disease in dogs. The South African dog population is specifically at high risk for the disease because of the large pool of unvaccinated, reproductively-active dogs that expose the wildlife resources of the country to risk of fatal disease. Outbreaks of disease in dogs continue to occur in developed and developing communities in both vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs worldwide, and have also been described in a wide range of free-ranging wildlife, including seals, dolphins and lions, and in endangered zoo animals. Modified live virus vaccines have contributed markedly to disease control in the dog population but have caused mortality in some wild carnivores. New recombinant vaccines are being developed that will be safe in wild animals. The pathogenesis of CNS demyelination has been compared to various important demyelinating diseases in humans and, amongst other things, relates to down-regulation of the oligodendrocyte gene coding for myelin synthesis and non-immunocyte CNS cell expression of type II

  18. Long-term safety and efficacy of AAV gene therapy in the canine model of glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Mok; Conlon, Thomas J; Specht, Andrew; Coleman, Kirsten E; Brown, Laurie M; Estrella, Ana M; Dambska, Monika; Dahlberg, Kathryn R; Weinstein, David A

    2018-05-25

    Viral mediated gene therapy has progressed after overcoming early failures, and gene therapy has now been approved for several conditions in Europe and the USA. Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type Ia, caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α, has been viewed as an outstanding candidate for gene therapy. This follow-up report describes the long-term outcome for the naturally occurring GSD-Ia dogs treated with rAAV-GPE-hG6PC-mediated gene therapy. A total of seven dogs were treated with rAAV-GPE-hG6PC-mediated gene therapy. The first four dogs were treated at birth, and three dogs were treated between 2 and 6 months of age to assess the efficacy and safety in animals with mature livers. Blood and urine samples, radiographic studies, histological evaluation, and biodistribution were assessed. Gene therapy improved survival in the GSD-Ia dogs. With treatment, the biochemical studies normalized for the duration of the study (up to 7 years). None of the rAAV-GPE-hG6PC-treated dogs had focal hepatic lesions or renal abnormalities. Dogs treated at birth required a second dose of rAAV after 2-4 months; gene therapy after hepatic maturation resulted in improved efficacy after a single dose. rAAV-GPE-hG6PC treatment in GSD-Ia dogs was found to be safe and efficacious. GSD-Ia is an attractive target for human gene therapy since it is a monogenic disorder with limited tissue involvement. Blood glucose and lactate monitoring can be used to assess effectiveness and as a biomarker of success. GSD-Ia can also serve as a model for other hepatic monogenic disorders.

  19. Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, M E; Martin, D A; Oie, K L; Huhtanen, M E; Costello, F; Wolfinbarger, J B; Hayes, S F; Agbandje-McKenna, M

    1997-01-01

    The capsid proteins of the ADV-G isolate of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) were expressed in 10 nonoverlapping segments as fusions with maltose-binding protein in pMAL-C2 (pVP1, pVP2a through pVP2i). The constructs were designed to capture the VP1 unique sequence and the portions analogous to the four variable surface loops of canine parvovirus (CPV) in individual fragments (pVP2b, pVP2d, pVP2e, and pVP2g, respectively). The panel of fusion proteins was immunoblotted with sera from mink infected with ADV. Seropositive mink infected with either ADV-TR, ADV-Utah, or ADV-Pullman reacted preferentially against certain segments, regardless of mink genotype or virus inoculum. The most consistently immunoreactive regions were pVP2g, pVP2e, and pVP2f, the segments that encompassed the analogs of CPV surface loops 3 and 4. The VP1 unique region was also consistently immunoreactive. These findings indicated that infected mink recognize linear epitopes that localized to certain regions of the capsid protein sequence. The segment containing the hypervariable region (pVP2d), corresponding to CPV loop 2, was also expressed from ADV-Utah. An anti-ADV-G monoclonal antibody and a rabbit anti-ADV-G capsid antibody reacted exclusively with the ADV-G pVP2d segment but not with the corresponding segment from ADV-Utah. Mink infected with ADV-TR or ADV-Utah also preferentially reacted with the pVP2d sequence characteristic of that virus. These results suggested that the loop 2 region may contain a type-specific linear epitope and that the epitope may also be specifically recognized by infected mink. Heterologous antisera were prepared against the VP1 unique region and the four segments capturing the variable surface loops of CPV. The antisera against the proteins containing loop 3 or loop 4, as well as the anticapsid antibody, neutralized ADV-G infectivity in vitro and bound to capsids in immune electron microscopy. These results suggested that regions of the ADV capsid proteins

  20. The Sero-Prevalence of Parvovirus Antibodies among Children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parvovirus is an erythrovirus that infects red cell precursors in individuals with conditions characterised by a high red cell turnover like sickle cell anaemia and thalassaemia. Arthritis, vasculitis, carditis, bone marrow failure, and the slapped cheek appearance have been associated with Parvovirus B19 infection. Recurrent ...

  1. Host specificity and phylogenetic relationships of chicken and turkey parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous reports indicate that the newly discovered chicken parvoviruses (ChPV) and turkey parvoviruses (TuPV) are very similar to each other, yet they represent different species within a new genus of Parvoviridae. Currently, strain classification is based on the phylogenetic analysis of a 561 bas...

  2. New parvovirus in child with unexplained diarrhea, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pothier, Pierre; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2014-11-01

    A divergent parvovirus genome was the only eukaryotic viral sequence detected in feces of a Tunisian child with unexplained diarrhea. Tusavirus 1 shared 44% and 39% identity with the nonstructural protein 1 and viral protein 1, respectively, of the closest genome, Kilham rat parvovirus, indicating presence of a new human viral species in the Protoparvovirus genus.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); R. Hapsari (Rebriarina); A.R. García (Ana Rubio); G.J. Sá Nchez Contreras (Guillermo J.); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); M. de Graaf (Miranda); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the

  4. Passive and active immunity against parvovirus infection in piglets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the given results, we conclude that colostral immunity to parvovirus infection in swine lasts for about one month and that antibodies found in the blood serum of piglets after the first month of life are a result of the activation of the immune system. Keywords: Porcine parvovirus, colostral immunity, reproductive ...

  5. The RNA profile of porcine parvovirus 4, a Boca-like virus, is unique among the Parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phylogenetically, porcine parvovirus 4 (PPV4) is most related to bovine parvovirus 2 that has two open reading frames (ORFs), but its genome organization resembles that of members of the Bocavirus genus that has three ORFs. Although PPV4 transcribes its genome from a single promoter and the transcri...

  6. Novel Parvoviruses from Wild and Domestic Animals in Brazil Provide New Insights into Parvovirus Distribution and Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marciel de Souza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Parvoviruses (family Parvoviridae are small, single-stranded DNA viruses. Many parvoviral pathogens of medical, veterinary and ecological importance have been identified. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing (HTS to investigate the diversity of parvoviruses infecting wild and domestic animals in Brazil. We identified 21 parvovirus sequences (including twelve nearly complete genomes and nine partial genomes in samples derived from rodents, bats, opossums, birds and cattle in Pernambuco, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states. These sequences were investigated using phylogenetic and distance-based approaches and were thereby classified into eight parvovirus species (six of which have not been described previously, representing six distinct genera in the subfamily Parvovirinae. Our findings extend the known biogeographic range of previously characterized parvovirus species and the known host range of three parvovirus genera (Dependovirus, Aveparvovirus and Tetraparvovirus. Moreover, our investigation provides a window into the ecological dynamics of parvovirus infections in vertebrates, revealing that many parvovirus genera contain well-defined sub-lineages that circulate widely throughout the world within particular taxonomic groups of hosts.

  7. A new treatment for human malignant melanoma targeting L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1): A pilot study in a canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Shinya; Hanazono, Kiwamu [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Fu, Dah-Renn; Endo, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi [Veterinary Oncology, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Iwano, Hidetomo [Veterinary Biochemistry, Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan); Uchide, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: uchide@rakuno.ac.jp [Veterinary Internal Medicine, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501 (Japan)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •LAT1 is highly expressed in tumors but at low levels in normal tissues. •We examine LAT1 expression and function in malignant melanoma (MM). •LAT1 expression in MM tissues and cell lines is higher than those in normal tissues. •LAT1 selective inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake and cell growth in MM cells. •New chemotherapeutic protocols including LAT1 inhibitors are effective for treatment. -- Abstract: L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), an isoform of amino acid transport system L, transports branched or aromatic amino acids essential for fundamental cellular activities such as cellular growth, proliferation and maintenance. This amino acid transporter recently has received attention because of its preferential and up-regulated expression in a variety of human tumors in contrast to its limited distribution and low-level expression in normal tissues. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using LAT1 inhibitor as a new therapeutic agent for human malignant melanomas (MM) using canine spontaneous MM as a model for human MM. A comparative study of LAT expression was performed in 48 normal tissues, 25 MM tissues and five cell lines established from MM. The study observed LAT1 mRNA levels from MM tissues and cell lines that were significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in normal tissues. Additionally, MM with distant metastasis showed a higher expression than those without distant metastasis. Functional analysis of LAT1 was performed on one of the five cell lines, CMeC-1. [{sup 3}H]L-Leucine uptake and cellular growth activities in CMeC-1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by selective LAT1 inhibitors (2-amino-2-norbornane-carboxylic acid, BCH and melphalan, LPM). Inhibitory growth activities of various conventional anti-cancer drugs, including carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, dacarbazine, doxorubicin, mitoxantrone, nimustine, vinblastine and vincristine, were significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced by combination use with BCH or LPM

  8. A Single Base Pair Mutation Encoding a Premature Stop Codon in the MIS type II receptor is Responsible for Canine Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiufeng; Wan, Shengqin; Pujar, Shashikant; Haskins, Mark E.; Schlafer, Donald H.; Lee, Mary M.; Meyers-Wallen, Vicki N.

    2008-01-01

    Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a secreted glycoprotein in the Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of growth factors, mediates regression of the Müllerian ducts during embryonic sex differentiation in males. In Persistent Müllerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), rather than undergoing involution, the Müllerian ducts persist in males, giving rise to the uterus, Fallopian tubes, and upper vagina. Genetic defects in MIS or its receptor (MISRII) have been identified in patients with PMDS. The phenotype in the canine model of PMDS derived from the miniature schnauzer breed is strikingly similar to that of human patients. In this model, PMDS is inherited as a sex-limited autosomal recessive trait. Previous studies indicated that a defect in the MIS receptor or its downstream signaling pathway was likely to be causative of the canine syndrome. In this study the canine PMDS phenotype and clinical sequelae are described in detail. Affected and unaffected members of this pedigree are genotyped, identifying a single base pair substitution in MISRII that introduces a stop codon in exon 3. The homozygous mutation terminates translation at 80 amino acids, eliminating much of the extracellular domain and the entire transmembrane and intracellular signaling domains. Findings in this model may enable insights to be garnered from correlation of detailed clinical descriptions with molecular defects, which are not otherwise possible in the human syndrome. PMID:18723470

  9. A rare case of canine anomaly - a possible algorithm for treating it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaida, Ligia; Todor, Bianca Ioana; Corega, Claudia; Băciuţ, Mihaela; Băciuţ, Grigore

    2014-01-01

    Canine transmigration is a very rare dental anomaly in which an unerupted mandibular canine migrates, crossing the mandibular midline. This unusual condition is most often diagnosed by chance during a routine X-ray examination. The most common clinical signs announcing the presence of this anomaly are over-retention of the deciduous canine and the absence of permanent canine from the dental arch after its physiological period of eruption. In this paper, we present a clinical case, 10-year-old boy, who was diagnosed with mandibular right canine transmigration at three years after the start of orthodontic treatment, during which we were expecting the eruption of mandibular canines. The orthopantomograph revealed the mandibular right canine to be in a horizontal position under the apices of the incisors - type 2 transmigration pattern classified by Mupparapu (2002). Based on cone-beam computer tomography examination, we recommended a surgical exposure of the canine and orthodontic alignment. Due to the risk of root resorption of the mandibular right lateral incisor during orthodontic movement phase of canine transmigrated to the dental arch, we decided to align the mandibular right canine in a transposition, between the two mandibular right incisors. Then we resorted to adapting the mandibular right lateral incisor coronary morphology to simulate a canine and also to reshaping the canine coronary morphology to resemble a lateral incisor. This therapeutic approach allowed us to restore morphologically and functionally the mandibular dento-alveolar arch, preserving the entire dental system.

  10. Parvovirus b19 DNA CpG dinucleotide methylation and epigenetic regulation of viral expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bonvicini

    Full Text Available CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression.The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections.The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19.

  11. Parvovirus B19 DNA CpG Dinucleotide Methylation and Epigenetic Regulation of Viral Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Di Furio, Francesca; De Falco, Luisa; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    CpG DNA methylation is one of the main epigenetic modifications playing a role in the control of gene expression. For DNA viruses whose genome has the ability to integrate in the host genome or to maintain as a latent episome, a correlation has been found between the extent of DNA methylation and viral quiescence. No information is available for Parvovirus B19, a human pathogenic virus, which is capable of both lytic and persistent infections. Within Parvovirus B19 genome, the inverted terminal regions display all the characteristic signatures of a genomic CpG island; therefore we hypothesised a role of CpG dinucleotide methylation in the regulation of viral genome expression. The analysis of CpG dinucleotide methylation of Parvovirus B19 DNA was carried out by an aptly designed quantitative real-time PCR assay on bisulfite-modified DNA. The effects of CpG methylation on the regulation of viral genome expression were first investigated by transfection of either unmethylated or in vitro methylated viral DNA in a model cell line, showing that methylation of viral DNA was correlated to lower expression levels of the viral genome. Then, in the course of in vitro infections in different cellular environments, it was observed that absence of viral expression and genome replication were both correlated to increasing levels of CpG methylation of viral DNA. Finally, the presence of CpG methylation was documented in viral DNA present in bioptic samples, indicating the occurrence and a possible role of this epigenetic modification in the course of natural infections. The presence of an epigenetic level of regulation of viral genome expression, possibly correlated to the silencing of the viral genome and contributing to the maintenance of the virus in tissues, can be relevant to the balance and outcome of the different types of infection associated to Parvovirus B19. PMID:22413013

  12. Single Mutations in the VP2 300 Loop Region of the Three-Fold Spike of the Carnivore Parvovirus Capsid Can Determine Host Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Lindsey J.; Zhang, Sheng; Hafenstein, Susan L.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sylvatic carnivores, such as raccoons, have recently been recognized as important hosts in the evolution of canine parvovirus (CPV), a pandemic pathogen of domestic dogs. Although viruses from raccoons do not efficiently bind the dog transferrin receptor (TfR) or infect dog cells, a single mutation changing an aspartic acid to a glycine at capsid (VP2) position 300 in the prototype raccoon CPV allows dog cell infection. Because VP2 position 300 exhibits extensive amino acid variation among the carnivore parvoviruses, we further investigated its role in determining host range by analyzing its diversity and evolution in nature and by creating a comprehensive set of VP2 position 300 mutants in infectious clones. Notably, some position 300 residues rendered CPV noninfectious for dog, but not cat or fox, cells. Changes of adjacent residues (residues 299 and 301) were also observed often after cell culture passage in different hosts, and some of the mutations mimicked changes seen in viruses recovered from natural infections of alternative hosts, suggesting that compensatory mutations were selected to accommodate the new residue at position 300. Analysis of the TfRs of carnivore hosts used in the experimental evolution studies demonstrated that their glycosylation patterns varied, including a glycan present only on the domestic dog TfR that dictates susceptibility to parvoviruses. Overall, there were significant differences in the abilities of viruses with alternative position 300 residues to bind TfRs and infect different carnivore hosts, demonstrating that the process of infection is highly host dependent and that VP2 position 300 is a key determinant of host range. IMPORTANCE Although the emergence and pandemic spread of canine parvovirus (CPV) are well documented, the carnivore hosts and evolutionary pathways involved in its emergence remain enigmatic. We recently demonstrated that a region in the capsid structure of CPV, centered around VP2 position 300

  13. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Candidate Parvovirus B19 Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, David I; El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A; Wolff, Mark; Simone, Gina; Segawa, Claire; Wong, Susan; Shelly, Daniel; Young, Neal S; Dempsey, Walla

    2011-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is an important human pathogen causing erythema infectiosum, transient aplastic crisis in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders and hydrops fetalis. We therefore evaluated a parvovirus B19 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of a 25 μg dose of parvovirus B19 recombinant capsid; 2.5 and 25 μg doses of the recombinant capsid given with MF59; and saline placebo were assessed in healthy adults. Because of 3 unexplained cutaneous events the stu...

  14. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures.

  15. Snapshot of Viral Infections in Wild Carnivores Reveals Ubiquity of Parvovirus and Susceptibility of Egyptian Mongoose to Feline Panleukopenia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Margarida D.; Henriques, Ana Margarida; Barros, Sílvia Carla; Fagulha, Teresa; Mendonça, Paula; Carvalho, Paulo; Monteiro, Madalena; Fevereiro, Miguel; Basto, Mafalda P.; Rosalino, Luís Miguel; Barros, Tânia; Bandeira, Victor; Fonseca, Carlos; Cunha, Mónica V.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure of wild carnivores to viral pathogens, with emphasis on parvovirus (CPV/FPLV), was assessed based on the molecular screening of tissue samples from 128 hunted or accidentally road-killed animals collected in Portugal from 2008 to 2011, including Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon, n = 99), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, n = 19), stone marten (Martes foina, n = 3), common genet (Genetta genetta, n = 3) and Eurasian badger (Meles meles, n = 4). A high prevalence of parvovirus DNA (63%) was detected among all surveyed species, particularly in mongooses (58%) and red foxes (79%), along with the presence of CPV/FPLV circulating antibodies that were identified in 90% of a subset of parvovirus-DNA positive samples. Most specimens were extensively autolysed, restricting macro and microscopic investigations for lesion evaluation. Whenever possible to examine, signs of active disease were not present, supporting the hypothesis that the parvovirus vp2 gene fragments detected by real-time PCR possibly correspond to viral DNA reminiscent from previous infections. The molecular characterization of viruses, based on the analysis of the complete or partial sequence of the vp2 gene, allowed typifying three viral strains of mongoose and four red fox’s as feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) and one stone marten’s as newCPV-2b type. The genetic similarity found between the FPLV viruses from free-ranging and captive wild species originated in Portugal and publicly available comparable sequences, suggests a closer genetic relatedness among FPLV circulating in Portugal. Although the clinical and epidemiological significance of infection could not be established, this study evidences that exposure of sympatric wild carnivores to parvovirus is common and geographically widespread, potentially carrying a risk to susceptible populations at the wildlife-domestic interface and to threatened species, such as the wildcat (Felis silvestris) and the critically

  16. Parvovirus B19 induced lupus-like syndrome with nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Elodie; Rihova, Zuzana; Cmejla, Radek; Decleire, Pierre-Yves; Langen, Corinne

    2016-12-01

    We report a case of a 65-year-old man who developed an acute illness with fever, arthralgia and nephritic syndrome. Antinuclear antibodies were slightly positive and complement levels were low. Renal biopsy showed exudative diffuse proliferative endocapillary glomerulonephritis with diffuse immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) and complement deposition (C3d, C4d, C1q) on immunofluorescence. The patient was first treated with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil for suspected lupus with WHO class IV glomerulonephritis. The diagnosis was questioned and a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated nephritis was made based on elevation of serum IgM antibodies for parvovirus B19 and detection of parvovirus B19 DNA on renal biopsy. The immunosuppressive treatment was stopped and progressive spontaneous regression of clinical and laboratory abnormalities was observed. We conclude that human parvovirus B19 infection should be considered as a cause of lupus-like symptomatology and acute glomerulonephritis.

  17. Neurologiske symptomer og akut hepatitis associeret til parvovirus B19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giørtz-Carlsen, Birgitte; Rittig, Søren; Thelle, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of symptoms correlated to parvovirus B19 infections has expanded greatly during the past years. We report a case of anaemia, encephalitis-like symptoms and acute hepatitis in a 15-months-old Danish girl associated with parvovirus B19, verified by positive serum IgM og IgG antibodies....... She presented with non-febrile seizures and decreased level of consciousness. Later she developed signs of acute hepatitis. The course was benign. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov-19...

  18. Generalized edema associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J. Vlaar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Generalized edema is a rare presentation of human parvovirus B19 infection. The etiology of this edema is unclear, particularly because signs of heart or renal failure are often not present. We report the case of a young adult presenting with generalized edema with serological and PCR evidence of parvovirus B19 infection, and discuss the potential mechanisms of edema based on the previous literature.

  19. Isolated velopalatine paralysis associated with parvovirus B19 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Fernandes João P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of isolated velopalatine paralysis in an 8-year-old boy is presented. The symptoms were sudden-onset of nasal speech, regurgitation of liquids into the nose and dysphagia. Brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examination were normal. Infectious serologies disclosed an antibody arrangement towards parvovirus B19 that was typical of recent infection. In the absence of other positive data, the possibility of a correlation between the tenth nerve palsy and parvovirus infection is discussed.

  20. [Observations on human parvovirus B19 infection diagnosed in 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihály, Ilona; Trethon, András; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Lukács, Adrienne; Kolozsi, Tímea; Prinz, Gyula; Marosi, Anikó; Lovas, Nóra; Dobner, Ilona Sarolta; Prinz, Géza; Szalai, Zsuzsanna; Pék, Tamás

    2012-12-09

    The incidence of human parvovirus B19 infection is unknown. A retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory findings was carried out in patients diagnosed with human parvovirus B19 infection in 2011 in a virologic laboratory of a single centre in Hungary. Clinical and laboratory data of patients with proven human parvovirus B19 infection were analysed using in- and out-patient files. In 2011, 72 patients proved to have human parvovirus B19 infection with the use of enzyme immunoassay. The clinical diagnoses of these patients were as follows: human parvovirus B19 infection (30.6%), transient aplastic crisis (16.7%), arthritis (8.3%) and acute hepatitis (4.1%). Symptoms of each of the four phases of the infection occurred in various combinations with the exception of the monophase of cheek exanthema. This occurred without the presence of other symptoms in some cases. Leading symptoms and signs were exanthema (in 74.6% of cases), haematological disorders (in 69% of cases), fever (in 54.9% of cases) and arthritis (in 33.8% of cases). Several atypical dermatological symptoms were also observed. Acute arthritis without exanthema was noted in 8 patients. Of the 72 patients with proven human parvovirus B19 infection there were 7 pregnant women, and one of them had hydrops foetalis resulting spontaneous abortion. In 16 patients (22.5%) human parvovirus B19 IgG was undetectable despite an optimal time for testing. The observations of this study may contribute to a better recognition of clinical symptoms of human parvovirus B19 infection.

  1. Parvovirus transmission by blood products - a cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norja, Päivi; Lassila, Riitta; Makris, Mike

    2012-11-01

    The introduction of dual viral inactivation of clotting factor concentrates has practically eliminated infections by viruses associated with significant pathogenicity over the last 20 years. Despite this, theoretical concerns about transmission of infection have remained, as it is known that currently available viral inactivation methods are unable to eliminate parvovirus B19 or prions from these products. Recently, concern has been raised following the identification of the new parvoviruses, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) and new genotypes of parvovirus B19, in blood products. Parvoviruses do not cause chronic pathogenicity similar to human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus, but nevertheless may cause clinical manifestations, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Manufacturers should institute measures, such as minipool polymerase chain reaction testing, to ensure that their products contain no known viruses. So far, human bocavirus, another new genus of parvovirus, has not been detected in fractionated blood products, and unless their presence can be demonstrated, routine testing during manufacture is not essential. Continued surveillance of the patients and of the safety of blood products remains an important ongoing issue. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Analysis of Evolutionary Processes of Species Jump in Waterfowl Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wentao; Sun, Zhaoyu; Shen, Tongtong; Xu, Danning; Huang, Kehe; Zhou, Jiyong; Song, Suquan; Yan, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl parvoviruses are classified into goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) according to their antigenic features and host preferences. A novel duck parvovirus (NDPV), identified as a new variant of GPV, is currently infecting ducks, thus causing considerable economic loss. This study analyzed the molecular evolution and population dynamics of the emerging parvovirus capsid gene to investigate the evolutionary processes concerning the host shift of NDPV. Two important amino acids changes (Asn-489 and Asn-650) were identified in NDPV, which may be responsible for host shift of NDPV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the currently circulating NDPV originated from the GPV lineage. The Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo tree indicated that the NDPV diverged from GPV approximately 20 years ago. Evolutionary rate analyses demonstrated that GPV evolved with 7.674 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, and the data for MDPV was 5.237 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year, whereas the substitution rate in NDPV branch was 2.25 × 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Meanwhile, viral population dynamics analysis revealed that the GPV major clade, including NDPV, grew exponentially at a rate of 1.717 year-1. Selection pressure analysis showed that most sites are subject to strong purifying selection and no positively selected sites were found in NDPV. The unique immune-epitopes in waterfowl parvovirus were also estimated, which may be helpful for the prediction of antibody binding sites against NDPV in ducks. PMID:28352261

  3. Seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Gupta, R M; Sen, Sourav; Sarkar, R S; Philip, J; Kotwal, Atul; Sumathi, S H

    2013-07-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is an emerging transfusion transmitted infection. Although parvovirus B19 infection is connected with severe complications in some recipients, donor screening is not yet mandatory. To reduce the risk of contamination, plasma-pool screening and exclusion of highly viraemic donations are recommended. In this study the prevalence of parvovirus B19 in healthy blood donors was detected by ELISA. A total of 1633 samples were screened for IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 by ELISA. The initial 540 samples were screened for both IgM and IgG class antibodies and remaining 1093 samples were screened for only IgM class antibodies by ELISA. Net prevalence of IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19 in our study was 7.53% and prevalence of IgG antibodies was 27.96%. Dual positivity (IgG and IgM) was 2.40%. The seroprevalence of human parvovirus B19 among blood donor population in our study is high, and poses an adverse transfusion risk especially in high-risk group of patients who have no detectable antibodies to B19. Studies with large sample size are needed to validate these results.

  4. Placental abruption possibly due to parvovirus B19 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Ayaka; Takai, Yasushi; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Samejima, Kouki; Seki, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    There is concern about the development of anemia-associated fetal hydrops associated with maternal parvovirus B19 infection. Parvovirus B19 infection occurs via the globoside (P antigen) receptor, the main glycolipid of erythroid cells, which induces apoptosis. Similar findings have been reported for the P antigen of globoside-containing placental trophoblast cells. A 32-year-old woman was infected with human parvovirus B19 at week 32 of pregnancy, and had severe anemia at week 34. At week 37, an emergency cesarean section was performed because of sudden abdominal pain and fetal bradycardia; placental abruption was found. A live male infant was delivered with no sign of fetal hydrops or fetal infection. Placental tissue was positive for parvovirus B19 according to polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical analysis using caspase-related M30 CytoDEATH monoclonal antibody revealed M30 staining of the placental villous trophoblasts. Placental trophoblasts and erythroid precursor cells have been reported to express globoside (P antigen), which is necessary for parvovirus B19 infectivity, and to show apoptotic activity as a result of infection. Placentas from three other pregnancies with documented abruption showed no M30 staining. The present case strongly suggests an association between placental abruption and apoptosis resulting from parvovirus B19 infection.

  5. Antibody Response against Parvovirus in Patients with Inflammatory Rheumatological Diseases

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    SH Raeisi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some viral infections have been suggested to trigger or cause autoimmune diseases. One of these viruses is parvovirus B19 which can have various rheumatologic manifestations. In this study we investigated the association between parvovirus and rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosis(SLE, systemic sclerosis(SSc and undifferentiated arthritis at the Rheumatological Clinic, Imam Khomeini hospital. Methods: In this sectional case-control study, IgM and IgG antibodies against parvovirus B19 were measured with ELISA in 41 patients with RA, 28 patients with SLE, 13 patients with SSc, 8 patients with undifferentiated arthritis as well as 90 healthy controls. The ELISA kit (DRG, Germany was semi-quantitative and qualititative. Results: Parvovirus B19 IgM was detected in one patient with RA, one with SSc and four in the control group. IgG anti- B19-specific antibody was detected in 58.5% of RA patients, 67.9% of SLE patients, 69. 2% of SSc patients, 87.5% of undifferentiated arthritis patients as compared to 53.3% of controls. The results were compared between the patient and control groups(p>0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, there was no significant correlation for the antibody titer against parvovirus B19 in the patient and control group. The highly positive response of IgG against parvovirus in undifferentiated arthritis implies the need for more research.

  6. Acute human parvovirus b19 infection: cytologic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik

    2014-09-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR.

  7. Human parvovirus B19 and parvovirus 4 among Iranian patients with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Davod; Ziaee, Masood; Ghaffari, Hadi; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan; Tavakoli, Ahmad; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-12-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is one of the smallest DNA viruses and shows great resistance to most disinfectants. Therefore, it is one of the common contaminant pathogens present in blood and plasma products. Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is a newly identified parvovirus, which is also prevalent in parenteral transmission. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of B19V and PARV4 DNA among patients with hemophilia in Birjand County in eastern Iran. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study comprising nearly all people with hemophilia in this region. Whole blood samples were taken after patient registration and sent for plasma isolation. After nucleic acid extraction, B19V was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction, PARV4 DNA was then detected using sensitive semi-nested PCR. In total, there were 86 patients with hemophilia, with mean age 28.5±1.5 years. Of these, 90.7% were men and 9.3% women; 84.9% had hemophilia A and 7.0% had hemophilia B. We found 11 patients (12.8%) were positive for B19V DNA and 8 were positive (9.3%) for PARV4 DNA. The prevalence of B19V was higher in middle-aged groups rather than younger people, whereas PARV4 infection was more common in younger patients ( P B19 virus, imposing more precautionary measures for serum and blood products is recommended.

  8. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  9. A live-attenuated chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine is transmitted to contact pigs but is not upregulated by concurrent infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and is efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T; Shen, H G; Pal, N; Ramamoorthy, S; Huang, Y W; Lager, K M; Beach, N M; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J

    2011-08-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure.

  10. A Live-Attenuated Chimeric Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Vaccine Is Transmitted to Contact Pigs but Is Not Upregulated by Concurrent Infection with Porcine Parvovirus (PPV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Is Efficacious in a PCV2b-PRRSV-PPV Challenge Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, T.; Shen, H. G.; Pal, N.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Huang, Y. W.; Lager, K. M.; Beach, N. M.; Halbur, P. G.; Meng, X. J.

    2011-01-01

    The live chimeric porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine with the capsid gene of the emerging subtype 2b cloned in the genomic backbone of the nonpathogenic PCV1 is attenuated in vivo and induces protective immunity against PCV2. To further determine the safety and efficacy of this experimental vaccine, we tested for evidence of pig-to-pig transmission by commingling nonvaccinated and vaccinated pigs, determined potential upregulation by simultaneous vaccination and infection with porcine parvovirus (PPV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and determined vaccine efficacy by challenging pigs 4 weeks after vaccination with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV. Forty-six 21-day-old, PCV2-naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of six groups. Twenty-nine of 46 pigs were challenged with PCV2b, PRRSV, and PPV at day 28, 8/46 remained nonvaccinated and nonchallenged and served as negative controls, and 9/46 remained nonchallenged and served as vaccination controls. All animals were necropsied at day 49. PCV1-PCV2 viremia was detected in nonvaccinated contact pigs commingled with vaccinated pigs, indicating pig-to-pig transmission; however, PCV1-PCV2 DNA levels remained low in all vaccinated and contact pigs regardless of concurrent infection. Finally, vaccination 28 days before challenge resulted in significantly (P attenuated chimeric PCV2 vaccine, although transmissible to contact pigs, remains attenuated in pigs concurrently infected with PRRSV and PPV and induces protective immunity against PCV2b when it is administered 28 days before PCV2 exposure. PMID:21653745

  11. Perspectives on the Evolution of Porcine Parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Woo-Taek; Kim, Ri-Yeon; Nguyen, Van-Giap; Chung, Hee-Chun; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2017-07-26

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is one of the main causes of porcine reproductive failure. It is important for swine industries to understand the recent trends in PPV evolution. Previous data show that PPV has two genetic lineages originating in Germany. In this study, two more genetic lineages were defined, one of which was distinctly Asian. Additionally, amino acid substitutions in European strains and Asian strains showed distinct differences in several regions of the VP2 gene. The VP1 gene of the recent PPV isolate (T142_South Korea) was identical to that of Kresse strain isolated in the USA in 1985, indicating that modern PPV strains now resemble the original strains (Kresse and NADL-2). In this study, we compared strains isolated in the 20th century to recent isolates and confirmed the trend that modern strains are becoming more similar to previous strains.

  12. Parvovirus Infection Is Associated With Myocarditis and Myocardial Fibrosis in Young Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jordan; McEndaffer, Laura; Renshaw, Randall; Molesan, Alex; Kelly, Kathleen

    2017-11-01

    Perinatal parvoviral infection causes necrotizing myocarditis in puppies, which results in acute high mortality or progressive cardiac injury. While widespread vaccination has dramatically curtailed the epidemic of canine parvoviral myocarditis, we hypothesized that canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) myocardial infection is an underrecognized cause of myocarditis, cardiac damage, and/or repair by fibrosis in young dogs. In this retrospective study, DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 40 cases and 41 control dogs under 2 years of age from 2007 to 2015. Cases had a diagnosis of myocardial necrosis, inflammation, or fibrosis, while age-matched controls lacked myocardial lesions. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing targeting the VP1 to VP2 region detected CPV-2 in 12 of 40 cases (30%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-45%) and 2 of 41 controls (5%; 95% CI, 0.1%-16%). Detection of CPV-2 DNA in the myocardium was significantly associated with myocardial lesions ( P = .003). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR amplifying VP2 identified viral messenger RNA in 12 of 12 PCR-positive cases and 2 of 2 controls. PCR results were confirmed by in situ hybridization, which identified parvoviral DNA in cardiomyocytes and occasionally macrophages of juvenile and young adult dogs (median age 61 days). Myocardial CPV-2 was identified in juveniles with minimal myocarditis and CPV-2 enteritis, which may indicate a longer window of cardiac susceptibility to myocarditis than previously reported. CPV-2 was also detected in dogs with severe myocardial fibrosis with in situ hybridization signal localized to cardiomyocytes, suggesting prior myocardial damage by CPV-2. Despite the frequency of vaccination, these findings suggest that CPV-2 remains an important cause of myocardial damage in dogs.

  13. Molecular Epidemiology of Seal Parvovirus, 1988–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J.; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00×10−4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15×10−4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses. PMID:25390639

  14. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Hapsari, Rebriarina; Rubio García, Ana; Sánchez Contreras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; de Graaf, Miranda; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-01-01

    A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV) infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8%) of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5%) of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4) for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4) for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of seal parvovirus, 1988-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available A novel parvovirus was discovered recently in the brain of a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina with chronic meningo-encephalitis. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus indicated that it belongs to the genus Erythroparvovirus, to which also human parvovirus B19 belongs. In the present study, the prevalence, genetic diversity and clinical relevance of seal parvovirus (SePV infections was evaluated in both harbor and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus that lived in Northwestern European coastal waters from 1988 to 2014. To this end, serum and tissue samples collected from seals were tested for the presence of seal parvovirus DNA by real-time PCR and the sequences of the partial NS gene and the complete VP2 gene of positive samples were determined. Seal parvovirus DNA was detected in nine (8% of the spleen tissues tested and in one (0.5% of the serum samples tested, including samples collected from seals that died in 1988. Sequence analysis of the partial NS and complete VP2 genes of nine SePV revealed multiple sites with nucleotide substitutions but only one amino acid change in the VP2 gene. Estimated nucleotide substitution rates per year were 2.00 × 10(-4 for the partial NS gene and 1.15 × 10(-4 for the complete VP2 gene. Most samples containing SePV DNA were co-infected with phocine herpesvirus 1 or PDV, so no conclusions could be drawn about the clinical impact of SePV infection alone. The present study is one of the few in which the mutation rates of parvoviruses were evaluated over a period of more than 20 years, especially in a wildlife population, providing additional insights into the genetic diversity of parvoviruses.

  16. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  17. Infection of cats with atypical feline coronaviruses harbouring a truncated form of the canine type I non-structural ORF3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poder, Sophie; Pham-Hung d'Alexandry d'Orangiani, Anne-Laure; Duarte, Lidia; Fournier, Annie; Horhogea, Cristina; Pinhas, Carine; Vabret, Astrid; Eloit, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV, respectively) are common pathogens of cats and dogs sometimes leading to lethal infections named feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and canine pantropic coronavirus infection. FCoV and CCoV are each subdivided into two serotypes, FCoV-I/II and CCoV-I/II. A phylogenetic relationship is evident between, on one hand, CCoV-I/FCoV-I, and on the other hand, CCoV-II/FCoV-II, suggesting that interspecies transmission can occur. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of coronavirus (CoV)-infected cats according to their contact with dogs and to genetically analyse the CoV strains infecting cats. From 2003 to 2009, we collected 88 faecal samples from healthy cats and 11 ascitic fluids from FIP cats. We investigated the possible contact with dog in the household and collected dogs samples if appropriate. Out of 99 cat samples, 26 were coronavirus positive, with six cats living with at least one dog, thus showing that contact with dogs does not appear as a predisposing factor for cats CoV infections. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of FCoV strains were conducted using partial N and S sequences. Six divergent strains were identified with the N gene clustering with CCoV-I whereas the 3' end of S was related to FCoV-I. Further analysis on those six samples was attempted by researching the presence of the ORF3 gene, the latter being peculiar to CCoV-I to date. We succeeded to amplify the ORF3 gene in five samples out of six. Thus, our data strongly suggest the circulation of atypical FCoV strains harbouring the CCoV-I ORF3 gene among cats. Moreover, the ORF3 genes recovered from the feline strains exhibited shared deletions, never described before, suggesting that these deletions could be critical in the adaptation of these strains to the feline host. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Porcine parvovirus flocculation and removal in the presence of osmolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Maria F; Pearson, Eric; Heldt, Caryn L

    2014-09-30

    Viruses can be modified into viral vaccines or gene therapy vectors in order to treat acquired or genetic diseases. To satisfy the current market demand, an improvement in current vaccine manufacturing is needed. Chromatography and nanofiltration are not suitable for all types of viruses. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation with osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as a potential virus purification process. We hypothesize that osmolytes strongly bind to water, thus leading to the formation of a hydration layer around the virus particles and stimulation of aggregation. We have discovered that osmolytes, including sugars, sugar alcohols and amino acids, preferentially flocculate porcine parvovirus (PPV), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm filter while leaving model proteins in solution. This large pore size filter increases the flux and decreases the transmembrane pressure of typical virus filters. The best flocculants were tested for their ability to aggregate PPV at different concentrations, shear stress, pH and ionic strength. We were able to remove 96% of PPV in 3.0M glycine at a pH of 5. Glycine is also an excipient, and therefore may not require removal later in the process. Virus flocculation using osmolytes, followed by microfiltration could be used as an integrated process for virus purification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Intelligence in Military Working Dogs: Canine Cohort, Canine Intelligence Assessment Regimen, Genome-Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Typing, and Unsupervised Classification Algorithm for Genome-Wide Association Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    SNP Array v2. A ‘proof-of-concept’ advanced data mining algorithm for unsupervised analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset was... Opal F AUS Yes U141 Peggs F AUS Yes U142 Taxi F AUS Yes U143 Riso MI MAL Yes U144 Szarik MI GSD Yes U145 Astor MI MAL Yes U146 Roy MC MAL Yes... mining of genetic studies in general, and especially GWAS. As a proof-of-concept, a classification analysis of the WG SNP typing dataset of a

  20. Molecular Study of Parvovirus B19 Infection in Children with

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat Abou El-Khier, Noha; Darwish, Ahmad; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa

    2018-02-26

    Background: Parvovirus B19 is a common viral infection in children. Nearby evidences are present about its association with acute leukemia, especially acute lymphoblast leukemia. Nevertheless, scanty reports have discussed any role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Purpose: To evaluate the frequency of virological markers of B19 infection including its DNA along with specific immunoglobulins G (IgG) and M (IgM) among children with newly diagnosed AML. Besides, describing the clinical importance of Parvovirus B19 infection in those patients. Patients and methods: A case-control retrospective study was conducted on 48 children recently diagnosed with AML before and during chemotherapy induction and 60 healthy control. Specific serum IgM and IgG levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Parvovirus DNA was detected in 20 patients with AML. IgM was found in sera of four patients and one case had positive DNA and IgG (5%). Patients with recent parvovirus B19 infection had a significantly reduced hemoglobin levels, RBCs counts, platelet counts, neutrophil counts and absolute lymphocytosis (p=0.01, p=0.0001, p=0.01, p=0.02, p=0.0003, respectively). There were no clinical findings with statistically significant association to recent infection. Half of the patients with AML had positive PCR and/or IgM for parvovirus B19. Among children with AML under chemotherapy, there were reduced hemoglobin levels (P=0.03), reduced platelet counts (P=0.0001) and absolute neutropenia (mean±SD, 1.200 ±1.00) in those with parvovirus B19 infection. More than half of patients with parvovirus B19 (72.2%) had positive PCR and/or IgM and 36.4% of them had positive IgG. Conclusion: This study highlights that parvovirus B19 is common in children with AML either at diagnosis or under chemotherapy. There are no clinical manifestations that can be used as markers for its presence, but hematological laboratory

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate parvovirus B19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; El Sahly, Hana M; Keitel, Wendy A; Wolff, Mark; Simone, Gina; Segawa, Claire; Wong, Susan; Shelly, Daniel; Young, Neal S; Dempsey, Walla

    2011-10-06

    Parvovirus B19 is an important human pathogen causing erythema infectiosum, transient aplastic crisis in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders and hydropsfetalis. We therefore evaluated a parvovirus B19 virus like particle (VLP) vaccine. The safety and immunogenicity of a 25 μg dose of parvovirus B19 recombinant capsid; 2.5 and 25 μg doses of the recombinant capsid given with MF59; and saline placebo were assessed in healthy adults. Because of 3 unexplained cutaneous events the study was halted after enrollment of 43 subjects and before any subject received their third scheduled dose. The rashes developed 5-9 days after the first or second injection and were seen in one placebo recipient (without an injection site lesion) and two vaccine recipients (with injection site reactions). No clear cause was established. Other safety evaluations revealed mostly injection site reactions that were mild to moderate with an increase in pain in subjects receiving vaccine and MF59. After dose 2 the majority of vaccine recipients developed ELISA and neutralizing antibody to parvovirus B19. Given the possible severe consequences of parvovirus B19 infection, further development of a safe and effective vaccine continues to be important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Virotherapy of digestive tumors with rodent parvovirus: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, Cherif; Aprahamian, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Toolan's H-1 parvovirus (H-1PV) exerts a cytotoxic/oncolytic effect, predominantly mediated by its non-structural protein (NS1). This rat parvovirus is harmless, unlike other parvoviruses, and its antitumor potential may be useful to clinicians as its oncolytic action appears to be true in numerous non-digestive and digestive cancers. After a brief review of parvovirus genus and biology, we summarize the proposed mechanisms to explain the cytotoxicity of H-1PV to tumors which results in dysregulation of cell transcription, cell-cycle arrest, termination of cell replication, activation of cellular stress response and induction of cell death. Viral oncolysis induces a strong tumor-specific immune response leading to the recognition and elimination of minimal residual disease. As the action of H-1PV is not limited to the digestive tract, we initially analyse studies performed in non-digestive cancers such as glioma (as the virus is able to cross the blood brain barrier), and then focused more particularly on the results in digestive cancers. Based on the results of studies showing little H-1PV toxicity to living bodies, we advocate for the use of the parvovirus in cancers such as melanoma, glioma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in addition to conventional chemotherapy.

  3. Studies of parvovirus vaccination in the dog: the performance of live attenuated feline parvovirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, H; McCandlish, I A; Cornwell, H J; Macartney, L; Maxwell, N S; Weipers, A F; Wills, I R; Black, J A; Mackenzie, A C

    1988-04-16

    The performance of three live attenuated feline parvovirus vaccines licensed for use in the dog was studied. At the end of the primary vaccination course 67 per cent of dogs had inadequate antibody levels (less than or equal to 32) as measured by a haemagglutination inhibition test. Interference by maternal antibody accounted for some of the failures but the fact that there was no significant difference in performance between dogs vaccinated at 12 weeks or 16 weeks of age indicated that maternal antibody was not the only factor.

  4. Molecular and structural characterization of fluorescent human parvovirus B19 virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Leona; Toivola, Jouni; White, Daniel; Ihalainen, Teemu; Smith, Wesley; Lindholm, Laura; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Although sharing a T = 1 icosahedral symmetry with other members of the Parvoviridae family, it has been suggested that the fivefold channel of the human parvovirus B19 VP2 capsids is closed at its outside end. To investigate the possibility of placing a relatively large protein moiety at this site of B19, fluorescent virus-like particles (fVLPs) of B19 were developed. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was inserted at the N-terminus of the structural protein VP2 and assembly of fVLPs from this fusion protein was obtained. Electron microscopy revealed that these fluorescent protein complexes were very similar in size when compared to wild-type B19 virus. Further, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy showed that an average of nine EGFP domains were associated with these virus-like structures. Atomic force microscopy and immunoprecipitation studies showed that EGFP was displayed on the surface of these fVLPs. Confocal imaging indicated that these chimeric complexes were targeted to late endosomes when expressed in insect cells. The fVLPs were able to efficiently enter cancer cells and traffic to the nucleus via the microtubulus network. Finally, immunoglobulins present in human parvovirus B19 acute and past-immunity serum samples were able to detect antigenic epitopes present in these fVLPs. In summary, we have developed fluorescent virus-like nanoparticles displaying a large heterologous entity that should be of help to elucidate the mechanisms of infection and pathogenesis of human parvovirus B19. In addition, these B19 nanoparticles serve as a model in the development of targetable vehicles designed for delivery of biomolecules

  5. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae.

  6. The structure and host entry of an invertebrate parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Geng; Zhang, Xinzheng; Plevka, Pavel; Yu, Qian; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The 3.5-Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of mature cricket parvovirus (Acheta domesticus densovirus [AdDNV]) has been determined. Structural comparisons show that vertebrate and invertebrate parvoviruses have evolved independently, although there are common structural features among all parvovirus capsid proteins. It was shown that raising the temperature of the AdDNV particles caused a loss of their genomes. The structure of these emptied particles was determined by cryo-electron microscopy to 5.5-Å resolution, and the capsid structure was found to be the same as that for the full, mature virus except for the absence of the three ordered nucleotides observed in the crystal structure. The viral protein 1 (VP1) amino termini could be externalized without significant damage to the capsid. In vitro, this externalization of the VP1 amino termini is accompanied by the release of the viral genome.

  7. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. Moreover, T3 was found to up-modulate the level of cell sensitivity to parvovirus attack. These data suggest an interconnection between T3 signalling and NS cytotoxic pathways. Images PMID:8230488

  8. Parvovirus B19 VLP recognizes globoside in supported lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Waqas; Nilsson, Jonas; Olofsson, Sigvard; Bally, Marta; Rydell, Gustaf E

    2014-05-01

    Studies have suggested that the glycosphingolipid globoside (Gb4Cer) is a receptor for human parvovirus B19. Virus-like particles bind to Gb4Cer on thin-layer chromatograms, but a direct interaction between the virus and lipid membrane-associated Gb4Cer has been debated. Here, we characterized the binding of parvovirus B19 VP1/VP2 virus-like particles to glycosphingolipids (i) on thin-layer chromatograms (TLCs) and (ii) incorporated into supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) acting as cell-membrane mimics. The binding specificities of parvovirus B19 determined in the two systems were in good agreement; the VLP recognized both Gb4Cer and the Forssman glycosphingolipid on TLCs and in SLBs compatible with the role of Gb4Cer as a receptor for this virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. American Canine Hepatozoonosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Panciera, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    American canine hepatozoonosis (ACH) is a tick-borne disease that is spreading in the southeastern and south-central United States. Characterized by marked leukocytosis and periosteal bone proliferation, ACH is very debilitating and often fatal. Dogs acquire infection by ingesting nymphal or adult Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum) that, in a previous life stage, ingested the parasite in a blood meal taken from some vertebrate intermediate host. ACH is caused by the apicomplexan Hepatozoon americanum and has been differentiated from Old World canine hepatozoonosis caused by H. canis. Unlike H. canis, which is transmitted by the ubiquitous brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), H. americanum is essentially an accidental parasite of dogs, for which Gulf Coast ticks are not favored hosts. The geographic portrait of the disease parallels the known distribution of the Gulf Coast tick, which has expanded in recent years. Thus, the endemic cycle of H. americanum involves A. maculatum as definitive host and some vertebrate intermediate host(s) yet to be identified. Although coyotes (Canis latrans) are known to be infected, it is not known how important this host is in maintaining the endemic cycle. This review covers the biology of the parasite and of the tick that transmits it and contrasts ACH with classical canine hepatozoonosis. Clinical aspects of the disease are discussed, including diagnosis and treatment, and puzzling epidemiologic issues are examined. Brief consideration is given to the potential for ACH to be used as a model for study of angiogenesis and of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. PMID:14557294

  10. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostaric-Zuckermann, Ivan C; Borel, Nicole; Kaiser, Carmen; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Pospischil, Andreas

    2011-09-09

    There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  11. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  12. Interconnection between thyroid hormone signalling pathways and parvovirus cytotoxic functions.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanacker, J M; Laudet, V; Adelmant, G; Stéhelin, D; Rommelaere, J

    1993-01-01

    Nonstructural (NS) proteins of autonomous parvoviruses can repress expression driven by heterologous promoters, an activity which thus far has not been separated from their cytotoxic effects. It is shown here that, in transient transfection assays, the NS-1 protein of the parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMp) activates the promoter of the human c-erbA1 gene, encoding the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor alpha. The endogenous c-erbA1 promoter is also a target for induction upon MVMp infection. M...

  13. High-yield production of canine parvovirus virus-like particles in a baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Bing; Fu, Yu; Chen, Xianping; Wang, Huihui; Xia, Zhenqiang

    2016-03-01

    An optimized VP2 gene from the current prevalent CPV strain (new CPV-2a) in China was expressed in a baculovirus expression system. It was found that the VP2 proteins assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) with antigenic properties similar to those of natural CPV and with an especially high hemagglutination (HA) titer (1:2(20)). Dogs intramuscularly or orally immunized with VLPs produced antibodies against CPV with >1:80 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) units for at least 3 months. The CPV VLPs could be considered for use as a vaccine against CPV or as a platform for research on chimeric VLP vaccines against other diseases.

  14. Monitoring of canine parvovirus (CPV) strains detected in vaccinated puppies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T X; Costa, E M; Leite, J P; Labarthe, N V; Cubel Garcia, R C N

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate, by partial sequencing of VP2 protein, the variability of CPV detected in 37 fecal samples collected from vaccinated puppies with enteritis. Laboratorial diagnosis of CPV was confirmed by HA/HI and PCR and, for sequencing analyses, two different regions of the VP2 gene were amplified by PCR. From 1995 to 2004, all strains were characterized as CPV-2a. After that, both CPV-2a and CPV-2b were detected. All CPV-2a showed a non-synonymous mutation in the residue 297 (Ser→Ala). A synonymous substitution at the AA 574 was also observed in 15/37 samples. Our findings indicate that the cases of vaccine failure are most likely not associated to the mutations detected in the sequenced regions. However, the monitoring of genotyping mutations that led to new CPV strains is essential to determinate if current vaccines will keep providing protection against all new future variants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CpG dinucleotide frequencies reveal the role of host methylation capabilities in parvovirus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Mohita; Samal, Jasmine; Kandpal, Manish; Vasaikar, Suhas; Biswas, Banhi; Gomes, James; Vivekanandan, Perumal

    2013-12-01

    Parvoviruses are rapidly evolving viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including vertebrates and invertebrates. Extensive methylation of the parvovirus genome has been recently demonstrated. A global pattern of methylation of CpG dinucleotides is seen in vertebrate genomes, compared to "fractional" methylation patterns in invertebrate genomes. It remains unknown if the loss of CpG dinucleotides occurs in all viruses of a given DNA virus family that infect host species spanning across vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the link between the extent of CpG dinucleotide depletion among autonomous parvoviruses and the evolutionary lineage of the infected host. We demonstrate major differences in the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides among autonomous parvoviruses which share similar genome organization and common ancestry, depending on the infected host species. Parvoviruses infecting vertebrate hosts had significantly lower relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides than parvoviruses infecting invertebrate hosts. The strong correlation of CpG dinucleotide depletion with the gain in TpG/CpA dinucleotides and the loss of TpA dinucleotides among parvoviruses suggests a major role for CpG methylation in the evolution of parvoviruses. Our data present evidence that links the relative abundance of CpG dinucleotides in parvoviruses to the methylation capabilities of the infected host. In sum, our findings support a novel perspective of host-driven evolution among autonomous parvoviruses.

  16. Bilateral supernumerary primary maxillary canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Mukhopadhyay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are more common in the permanent than in primary dentition. In the primary dentition, the anomaly is most frequently observed in the maxillary lateral incisor region, followed by the maxillary midline where they are termed as mesiodens. Supernumerary teeth in the primary canine region are rare. This paper describes a rare case of nonsyndromic supernumerary primary maxillary canine distributed bilaterally in a 4-year-old boy. Both the supernumeraries resembled size and shape of normal primary canine. The right supplemental canine is high labially placed, whereas the left one is seen normally aligned in the dental arch distal to lateral incisor. One of the most significant sequelae of primary supernumerary teeth is their duplication in the permanent series. Radiographic examination of supernumerary primary canine did not indicate any such anomaly in the permanent dentition. The patient was kept under observation.

  17. Vaccination with an Attenuated Mutant of Ehrlichia chaffeensis Induces Pathogen-Specific CD4+ T Cell Immunity and Protection from Tick-Transmitted Wild-Type Challenge in the Canine Host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi L McGill

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Transmitted by the Amblyomma americanum tick, E. chaffeensis also causes disease in several other vertebrate species including white-tailed deer and dogs. We have recently described the generation of an attenuated mutant strain of E. chaffeensis, with a mutation in the Ech_0660 gene, which is able to confer protection from secondary, intravenous-administered, wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in dogs. Here, we extend our previous results, demonstrating that vaccination with the Ech_0660 mutant protects dogs from physiologic, tick-transmitted, secondary challenge with wild-type E. chaffeensis; and describing, for the first time, the cellular and humoral immune responses induced by Ech_0660 mutant vaccination and wild-type E. chaffeensis infection in the canine host. Both vaccination and infection induced a rise in E. chaffeensis-specific antibody titers and a significant Th1 response in peripheral blood as measured by E. chaffeensis antigen-dependent CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production. Further, we describe for the first time significant IL-17 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from both Ech_0660 mutant vaccinated animals and control animals infected with wild-type E. chaffeensis, suggesting a previously unrecognized role for IL-17 and Th17 cells in the immune response to rickettsial pathogens. Our results are a critical first step towards defining the role of the immune system in vaccine-induced protection from E. chaffeensis infection in an incidental host; and confirm the potential of the attenuated mutant clone, Ech_0660, to be used as a vaccine candidate for protection against tick-transmitted E. chaffeensis infection.

  18. Genomic clones of bovine parvovirus: Construction and effect of deletions and terminal sequence inversions on infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, B.C.; Chen, K.C.; Lederman, M.; Stout, E.R.; Bates, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Genomic clones of the autonomous parvovirus bovine parvovirus (BPV) were constructed by blunt-end ligation of reannealed virion plus and minus DNA strands into the plasmid pUC8. These clones were stable during propagation in Escherichia coli JM107. All clones tested were found to be infectious by the criteria of plaque titer and progressive cytophathic effect after transfection into bovine fetal lung cells. Sequencing of the recombinant plasmids demonstrated that all of the BPV inserts had left-end (3')-terminal deletions of up to 34 bases. Defective genomes could also be detected in the progeny DNA even though the infection was initiated with homogeneous, cloned DNA. Full-length genomic clones with 3' flip and 3' flop conformations were constructed and were found to have equal infectivity. Expression of capsid proteins from tranfected genomes was demonstrated by hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cell lysates. Use of appropriate antiserum for immunoprecipitation showed the synthesis of BPV capsid and noncapsid proteins after transfection. Independently, a series of genomic clones with increasingly larger 3'-terminal deletions was prepared from separately subcloned 3'-terminal fragments. Transfection of these clones into bovine fetal lung cells revealed that deletions of up to 34 bases at the 3' end lowered but