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Sample records for canine oral papillomavirus

  1. A retrospective investigation on canine papillomavirus 1 (CPV1 in oral oncogenesis reveals dogs are not a suitable animal model for high-risk HPV-induced oral cancer.

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    Ilaria Porcellato

    Full Text Available CPV1 (also called COPV is a papillomavirus responsible for oral papillomatosis in young dogs. The involvement of this viral type in oral oncogenesis has been hypothesized in oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs, but has never been investigated in other neoplastic and hyperplastic oral lesions of dogs. Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of CPV1 in different neoplastic and hyperplastic lesions in order to assess its role in canine oral oncogenesis; according to the results obtained, a second aim of the study was to define if the dog can be considered a valid animal model for oral high risk HPV-induced tumors. Eighty-eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE canine oral lesions including 78 oral tumors (papillomas, SCCs, melanomas, ameloblastomas, oral adenocarcinomas and 10 hyperplastic lesions (gingival hyperplasia were investigated with immunohistochemistry for the presence of papillomavirus L1 protein and with Real-Time PCR for CPV1 DNA. RT-PCR for RNA was performed on selected samples. All viral papillomas tested were positive for immunohistochemistry and Real-time PCR. In 3/33 (10% SCCs, viral DNA was demonstrated but no viral RNA could be found. No positivity was observed both with immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR in the other hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity of dogs. Even though the finding of CPV1 DNA in few SCCs in face of a negative immunohistochemistry could support the hypothesis of an abortive infection in the development of these lesions, the absence of viral RNA points out that CPV1 more likely represents an innocent bystander in SCC oncogenesis. The study demonstrates a strong association between CPV1 and oral viral papillomas whereas viral contribution to the pathogenesis of other oral lesions seems unlikely. Moreover, it suggests that a canine model of CPV1 infection for HPV-induced oncogenesis could be inappropriate.

  2. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Children.

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    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; Miclăuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; Băbţan, Anida Maria; Mesaros, Anca; Crişan, Bogdan; Câmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2016-02-01

    Oral human papillomavirus infection is rare in children, but the presence of a villous lesion with slow but continuous growth concerns parents, who need information and therapeutic solutions from the physician. All these aspects are discussed based on a case report of a 9-year-old child with an oral human papillomavirus infection. PMID:26588443

  3. Epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus infection

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    Chung, Christine H.; Bagheri, Ashley; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to cause a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. Data regarding oral HPV infection is limited but emerging. HPV infection of the genital tract has been more thoroughly researched and helps inform our understanding of oral HPV infection. In this article we review current data on HPV prevalence, natural history, mode of acquisition, and risk factors for oral HPV infection.

  4. An update on oral human papillomavirus infection

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    Ankit H Bharti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV constitutes the majority of newly acquired sexually transmitted infections (STIs in United States as per the centers for disease control factsheet 2013. Genital HPV is the most common STI with incidence of about 5.5 million world-wide, nearly 75% of sexually active men and women have been exposed to HPV at some point in their lives. Oral Sexual behavior is an important contributor to infection of HPV in the oral mucosa especially in cases known to practice high risk behavior and initiating the same at an early age. HPV infection of the oral mucosa currents is believed to affect 1-50% of the general population, depending on the method used for diagnosis. The immune system clears most HPV naturally within 2 years (about 90%, but the ones that persist can cause serious diseases. HPV is an essential carcinogen being implicated increasingly in association with cancers occurring at numerous sites in the body. Though there does not occur any specific treatment for the HPV infection, the diseases it causes are treatable such as genital warts, cervical and other cancers.

  5. Canine oral biofilms: Cultural, molecular, and in vitro studies.

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    Elliott, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The canine oral microbiota is poorly understood compared to that of humans. The aim of this work was to improve understanding of the canine oral microbiota. This was achieved by surveying the canine oral microbiota, determining coaggregation interactions between its members, and developing a laboratory microcosm. Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaque and saliva of dogs, and isolates were identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 339 isolates, 84 phylotypes belonging to ...

  6. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

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    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  7. Sexual transmission of oral human papillomavirus infection among men.

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    Dahlstrom, Kristina R; Burchell, Ann N; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Rodrigues, Allita; Tellier, Pierre-Paul; Hanley, James; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) and assessed risk factors among young heterosexual men participating in the HPV Infection and Transmission among Couples through Heterosexual Activity (HITCH) study. Oral and genital HPV samples were collected from 222 men and their female partners who were participating in the HITCH study, a longitudinal cohort on HPV transmission among heterosexual couples. Demographic and behavioral data were collected through self-administered computer questionnaires and biologic samples were tested with the Linear Array for HPV. Outcome measures were overall and type-specific prevalence of oral HPV. The prevalence of oral HPV among men was 7.2% and was higher among men who were ever smokers (12.2%), in nonmonogamous relationships (17.9%), or had a partner with oral (28.6%) and/or genital (11.5%) HPV infection. Moreover, prevalence increased with frequency of oral sex among men whose partner who had a genital infection with the same HPV type. Our results provide further evidence that oral HPV may be transmitted through either oral-oral or oral-genital routes. PMID:25392180

  8. Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding

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    Mario A. Brondani; Mario A. Cruz-Cabrera; Cheryle Colombe

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of 150 questionnaires was distributed at specific non-profit health organizations in Vancouver, Canada. Questions included perceived risks ...

  9. Detection of human papillomavirus in oral warts using in situ hybridization

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    Suzana Orsini Machado de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The human papillomavirus is a group of DNA epitheliotrophic viruses associated with the etiology of benign and malignant oral warts. More than 100 types have been identified and among them, 24 have been found into the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to analyze human papillomavirus prevalence and its subtypes in 50 oral warts, of which 20 were squamous papillomas, 17 condylomaacuminatum and 13 verruca vulgaris. Method: In situ hybridization was used with biotinylated DNA probes for wide-spectrum HPV and with specific probes for human papillomavirus 6/11, human papillomavirus 16/18 and human papillomavirus 31/33. Results: Human papillomavirus was present in ten (20% of the 50 oral wart cases, 03 (3/20 squamous papillomas, 05 (5/17 condyloma acuminatum and 02 (2/13 verruca vulgaris. Of these, 8 (16% were positive to the HPV probe 6/11 being 5 condyloma acuminatum, 1 squamous papilloma and 2 verruca vulgaris. Three cases (6% demonstrated positivity to the human papillomavirus probe 16/18, with 2 being cases of condyloma and the other a case of squamous papilloma. Of the six positive cases to the human papillomavirus probe 31/33, (12% 4 were condyloma acuminatum and 2 squamous papillomas. Conclusion: The human papillomavirus expression (20% found in this study was low, but within the average found in the literature. Nonetheless, in addition to in situ hybridization, other methods may be necessary for confirming the presence of human papillomavirus.

  10. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-associated Oral Cancers and Treatment Strategies.

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    Sathish, N; Wang, X; Yuan, Y

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is known to be associated with several types of human cancer, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and head-and-neck cancers. Among these cancers, HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers, inclusive of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC), have recently risen dramatically in men under 50 years old. Within 20 years, the percentage of HPV-positive OSCC in total OSCC went from less than 20% to more than 70% in the United States and some European countries. This article reviews the incidence trend and pathogenesis of HPV-associated head-and-neck cancers as well as current treatment modalities for the disease.

  11. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intention among College Men: What's Oral Sex Got to Do with It?

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    Crosby, Richard A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Nash, Rachel; Younge, Sinead; Head, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify associations between engaging in oral sex and perceived risk of oral cancer among college men. Also, to identify associations, and their moderating factors, between oral sex and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance. Methods: Young men were recruited from 2 university campuses in the South (N = 150). Men completed an…

  12. The role of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Francisco A.Ramírez-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The causative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been established into the aetiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Some authors believe that HPV can determinate the prognosis and module treatment response from this kind of malignancies.Methods: Articles published in the last 10 years, focusing on the role of HPV in the development, molecular biology, prognosis and treatment of OSCC were reviewed.Results: Thirty-nine articles from 252 were selected, highlighting 4 meta-analysis, 3 prospective and 2 retrospective studies. According to its role in the development of cervical cancer, HPV is classified into a high risk for malignant lesions subtype and a low-grade malignant lesions subtype. Epidemiology and prevalence of HPV varies according to the published data: large studies tend to have lower rates of HPV (< 50%) than smaller ones (0-100%). Interestingly, HPV+ patients are usually diagnosed at a younger age, mainly those with oropharyngeal tumours. There is a predilection for the oropharynx and Waldeyer ring tumours. Regarding prognosis, OSCC HPV+ patients tend to have better outcome and treatment response.Conclusion: HPV divides OSCC in two types of tumours with different prognostic and therapeutic implications, with increased survival, better treatment response rates and lower risk of death and recurrences.

  13. Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding

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    Mario A. Brondani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of 150 questionnaires was distributed at specific non-profit health organizations in Vancouver, Canada. Questions included perceived risks for oral sex in terms of HPV infection and oral cancer development, and the frequency with which respondents were asked about oral sexual practices by physicians and dentists. Data were analysed statistically by age group (19– 30, 31–50, 50\\, gender (male, female, and sexual orientation (queer, straight. 110 questionnaires were returned fully completed. For the transmission of HPV, 58% of the participants believed that oral sex is an activity of no or low risk, whereas 72% considered the same activity to be of no risk for the development of oral cancer. There was no statistical difference between gender and sexual orientation. Participants never discussed related health risks in regard to oral sex with their physicians or dentists. In conclusion, although recent attention has been given to the potential links between HPV infection and oral cancer, such links remain mostly unknown by the public. Physicians and dentists could discuss oral sex practices to raise awareness with their patients. This is a small sample size study and the results should be interpreted with caution.

  14. Human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa.

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    Kansky, A A; Poljak, M; Seme, K; Kocjan, B J; Gale, N; Luzar, B; Golouh, R

    2003-01-01

    To elucidate the putative etiologic role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in oral carcinogenesis, a comparative study was carried out on 62 tissue specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and on 62 specimens of histologically normal oral mucosa obtained from the individuals who matched the subjects with OSCC in age, gender, localization of obtained tissue specimens, drinking and smoking habits. Internal control amplification showed that amplifiable DNA was recovered from 59/62 and 61/62 tissue samples of OSCC and normal oral mucosa, respectively. The amplification with two different HPV L1 and one HPV E6 consensus primer sets showed the presence of the HPV DNA genotypes 16, 33, 58 in 5/59 (8.4%) OSCC specimens and HPV genotypes 11, 16, 31, 68 in 4/61 (6.6%) tissue samples of normal oral mucosa tested. In the study in which a comparative examination of the presence of HPV DNA was for the first time performed on the tissue samples of the patients with OSCC and the age- and gender-matched control subjects there was no significant difference in the prevalence of HPV DNA among both study groups. Our results suggest that occasional findings of HPV DNA in OSCC tissue specimens may be the result of an incidental HPV colonization of oral mucosa, rather than of viral infection, and that HPVs play a limited role in the etiopathogenesis of the majority of OSCC.

  15. The canine papillomavirus and gamma HPV E7 proteins use an alternative domain to bind and destabilize the retinoblastoma protein.

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    Jingang Wang

    Full Text Available The high-risk HPV E6 and E7 proteins cooperate to immortalize primary human cervical cells and the E7 protein can independently transform fibroblasts in vitro, primarily due to its ability to associate with and degrade the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein, pRb. The binding of E7 to pRb is mediated by a conserved Leu-X-Cys-X-Glu (LXCXE motif in the conserved region 2 (CR2 of E7 and this domain is both necessary and sufficient for E7/pRb association. In the current study, we report that the E7 protein of the malignancy-associated canine papillomavirus type 2 encodes an E7 protein that has serine substituted for cysteine in the LXCXE motif. In HPV, this substitution in E7 abrogates pRb binding and degradation. However, despite variation at this critical site, the canine papillomavirus E7 protein still bound and degraded pRb. Even complete deletion of the LXSXE domain of canine E7 failed to interfere with binding to pRb in vitro and in vivo. Rather, the dominant binding site for pRb mapped to the C-terminal domain of canine E7. Finally, while the CR1 and CR2 domains of HPV E7 are sufficient for degradation of pRb, the C-terminal region of canine E7 was also required for pRb degradation. Screening of HPV genome sequences revealed that the LXSXE motif of the canine E7 protein was also present in the gamma HPVs and we demonstrate that the gamma HPV-4 E7 protein also binds pRb in a similar way. It appears, therefore, that the type 2 canine PV and gamma-type HPVs not only share similar properties with respect to tissue specificity and association with immunosuppression, but also the mechanism by which their E7 proteins interact with pRb.

  16. Differences in Oral Sexual Behaviors by Gender, Age, and Race Explain Observed Differences in Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection

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    Gypsyamber D'Souza; Kevin Cullen; Janice Bowie; Roland Thorpe; Carole Fakhry

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC). METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors ...

  17. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Anal and Oral Sites Among Patients with Genital Warts

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    Kofoed, Kristian; Sand, Carsten; Forslund, Ola;

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a leading cause of anogenital malignancies and a role of HPV in the aetiology of oro-pharyngeal cancers has been demonstrated. The frequency of oral HPV infection in patients with genital warts and the association between concomitant...

  18. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

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    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  19. Papillomaviruses: Molecular and clinical aspects

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    Howley, P.M.; Broker, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains nine sections, each consisting of several papers. The section headings are : Papillomaviruses and Human Genital Tract Diseases;Papillomaviruses and Human Cutaneous Diseases, Papillomaviruses and Human Oral and Laryngeal Diseases;Therapeutic Approaches to Papillomavirus Infections;Animal Papillomaviruses;Molecular Biology;Transcription, Replication, and Genome Organization;Epithelial Cell Culture;Papillomavirus Transformation;and Viral Vectors.

  20. Oral squamous papilloma and condyloma acuminatum as manifestations of buccal-genital infection by human papillomavirus

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    dos Reis Helena Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital infection by human papillomavirus (HPV, a sexually transmitted disease (STD, has increased considerably due to the changes in sexual behaviour and an increase in the practice of oral sex. HPV, in a parallel manner, has been closely studied due to its oncogenic potential. We present the case of a 27-year-old patient, with a multi-partner sexual history and frequent practice of oral sex, who suffered from warts lesions on the genitalia and tongue. Squamous papilloma was diagnosed from a tongue biopsy. The treatment of the oral lesion was by way of surgery, without relapse in the first two years. Our discussion in this report is regarding the HPV infection in the oral cavity.

  1. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

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    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC. METHODS: This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10 who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69, and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. RESULTS: Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4% and women (83.2% had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001. 60-69 year olds (yo were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001, although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03, and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96 were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8 and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1. In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. CONCLUSION: There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  2. Human papillomavirus-mediated carcinogenesis and HPV-associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Part 2: Human papillomavirus associated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Khammissa Razia AG

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV infection of the mouth and oropharynx can be acquired by a variety of sexual and social forms of transmission. HPV-16 genotype is present in many oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomata. It has an essential aetiologic role in the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a subset of subjects who are typically younger, are more engaged with high-risk sexual behaviour, have higher HPV-16 serum antibody titer, use less tobacco and have better survival rates than in subjects with HPV-cytonegative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. In this subset of subjects the HPV-cytopositive carcinomatous cells have a distinct molecular profile. In contrast to HPV-cytopositive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the causal association between HPV-16 and other high-risk HPV genotypes and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa is weak, and the nature of the association is unclear. It is likely that routine administration of HPV vaccination against high-risk HPV genotypes before the start of sexual activity will bring about a reduction in the incidence of HPV-mediated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This article focuses on aspects of HPV infection of the mouth and the oropharynx with emphasis on the link between HPV and squamous cell carcinoma, and on the limitations of the available diagnostic tests in identifying a cause-and-effect relationship of HPV with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx.

  3. Human papillomavirus infection in lung vs. oral squamous cell carcinomas: a polymerase chain reaction study.

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    Halimi, M; Morshedi Asl, S

    2011-06-01

    The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been suspected in pathogenesis of various malignancies; however, the available data are not conclusive. This study aimed to determine and compare the frequency of HPV infection in oral and lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) by a sensitive method. Sixty specimens of oral and lung SCC (30 cases each one) were reevaluated in Tabriz Imam Reza Centre in a 24 month period. Following genomic DNA extract, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification was performed in presence of specific MY11 and MY09 primers for HPV infection. Three cervical specimens and a combination of PCR solution lacking DNA plus healthy persons' DNA samples were employed as positive and negative controls, respectively. The oral group was significantly older than the lung group (68.90 vs. 56.67 y, p infection in the oral and lung groups were comparable (20 vs. 10%, respectively; p = 0.47). Majority of patients with HPV infection were older than 60 years (88.9%) or male (88.9%). In the oral group, all these cases were well differentiated and the majority was of lower lip origin (83.3%). In the lung group, 66.7% of these specimens were moderately differentiated and the origin was bronchus in all cases. In conclusion, the rate of HPV infection in lung and oral SCC samples is rather lower than the previous reports in the literature. This rate is apparently higher in the oral than the lung SCC specimens. PMID:22235505

  4. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection and Oral Lesions in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Dental Patients

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    Muller, Katia; Kazimiroff, Julie; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Smith, Richard V.; Wiltz, Mauricio; Polanco, Jacqueline; Grossberg, Robert M.; Belbin, Thomas J.; Strickler, Howard D.; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the risk factors associated with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and oral lesions in 161 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients and 128 HIV-negative patients presenting for oral examination at 2 urban healthcare centers. Patients were interviewed on risk factors and provided oral-rinse samples for HPV DNA typing by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical associations were assessed by logistic regression. Oral HPV was prevalent in 32% and 16% of HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative patients, respectively, including high-risk HPV type 16 (8% and 2%, respectively; P = .049) and uncommon HPV types 32/42 (6% and 5%, respectively; P = .715). Among HIV-negative patients, significant risk factors for oral HPV included multiple sex partners (≥21 vs ≤5; odds ratio [OR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–49.3), heavy tobacco smoking (>20 pack-years vs none; OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 1.4–59.4), and marijuana use (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3–12.4). Among HIV-positive patients, lower CD4+ T-cell count only was associated with oral HPV detection (≤200 vs ≥500 cells/mm3; OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.3–15.5). Detection of high-risk HPV was also associated with concurrent detection of potentially cancerous oral lesions among HIV-negative patients but not among HIV-positive patients. The observed risk factor associations with oral HPV in HIV-negative patients are consistent with sexual transmission and local immunity, whereas in HIV-positive patients, oral HPV detection is strongly associated with low CD4+ T-cell counts. PMID:25681375

  5. Alcohol metabolism by oral streptococci and interaction with human papillomavirus leads to malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes.

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    Tao, Lin; Pavlova, Sylvia I; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Jin, Ling; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral hygiene, ethanol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with oral and esophageal cancers. However, the mechanism is not fully known. This study examines alcohol metabolism in Streptococcus and its interaction with HPV-16 in the malignant transformation of oral keratinocytes. The acetaldehyde-producing strain Streptococcus gordonii V2016 was analyzed for adh genes and activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Streptococcus attachment to immortalized HPV-16 infected human oral keratinocytes, HOK (HPV/HOK-16B), human oral buccal keratinocytes, and foreskin keratinocytes was studied. Acetaldehyde, malondialdehyde, DNA damage, and abnormal proliferation among keratinocytes were also quantified. We found that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB, and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and ethanol, respectively. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable aldehyde dehydrogenase. AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde production from permissible Streptococcus species significantly increased the bacterial attachment to keratinocytes, which was associated with an enhanced expression of furin to facilitate HPV infection and several malignant phenotypes including acetaldehyde adduct formation, abnormal proliferation, and enhanced migration through integrin-coated basement membrane by HPV-infected oral keratinocytes. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with no functional aldehyde dehydrogenase contributes to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by oral streptococci. Oral Streptococcus species and HPV may cooperate to transform oral keratinocytes after ethanol exposure. These results suggest a significant clinical interaction, but further validation is warranted.

  6. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

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    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions. PMID:26317688

  7. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

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    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions.

  8. Oral human papillomavirus in men having sex with men: risk-factors and sampling.

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    Tim R H Read

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is becoming more common. We examined prevalence and risk factors for oral HPV among men who have sex with men (MSM and compared sampling and transport methods. METHODS: In 2010, 500 MSM (249 HIV-positive attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre answered a questionnaire, swabbed their mouth and throat and collected a gargled oral rinse sample. Half the oral rinse was transported absorbed in a tampon (to enable postage. HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and genotyped by Roche Linear Array®. Men with HPV 16 or 18 were retested after six months. RESULTS: Any HPV genotype was detected in 19% (95% confidence intervals (CI 15-25% of HIV-infected men and 7% (95% CI 4-11% of HIV-negative men (p100 partners. Lifetime oral-penile sex partner numbers were significantly associated in a separate model: aOR 2.8(1.2-6.3 for 26-100 partners and 3.2(1.4-7.2 for>100 partners. HPV 16 and 18 persisted in 10 of 12 men after a median six months. Sensitivities of sampling methods compared to all methods combined were: oral rinse 97%, tampon-absorbed oral rinse 69%, swab 32%. CONCLUSIONS: Oral HPV was associated with HIV infection, smoking, recent tooth-brushing, and more lifetime tongue-kissing and oral sex partners. The liquid oral rinse sample was more sensitive than a tampon-absorbed oral rinse or a self-collected swab.

  9. Human papillomavirus type 16 and TP53 mutation in oral cancer: matched analysis of the IARC multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, M; Clifford, GM; Calvez, F le; Castellsague, X; Snijders, P.J.F.; Pawlita, M; Herrero, R; Hainaut, P; Franceschi, S

    2004-01-01

    TP53 mutations were analyzed in 35 human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 DNA-positive cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx and in 35 HPV DNA-negative cancers matched by subsite, country, sex, age, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Wild-type TP53 was found more frequently in cancer specimens tha

  10. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

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    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions.  Methods: One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction.  Results: The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%, we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18. All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230. Additionally, 15 (13.1% SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830. The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11. A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity.  Conclusions: More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions.

  11. Oral human papillomavirus infection in men might contribute to HPV serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, S; Waterboer, T; Kero, K; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Grenman, S; Pawlita, M

    2015-02-01

    The prospective Finnish Family HPV Study evaluated the dynamics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection within families. Here, we focused on HPV serology in men. Seroprevalence at baseline, seroconversion and decay of low-risk (LR)-HPV6 and 11, and high risk (HR)-HPV16, 18 and 45 L1 antibodies in 122 men at 12, 24 and 36 months were determined using Luminex-based multiplex HPV serology, and correlated with demographic data. At baseline, seropositivity to HPV6, 11, 16, 18 and 45 was observed in 41.0, 11.5, 23.0, 13.9 and 5.7 % of the men, respectively. In univariate analysis, LR-HPV seropositivity was related to smoking status, history of genital warts and being seropositive to HR-HPV. Oral HR-HPV DNA and baseline LR-HPV seropositivity predicted HR-HPV seropositivity. Seroconversion to HPV6, 11, 16, 18 and 45 antigens during follow-up was found in 24.6, 11.5, 5.7, 5.7 and 0.8 %, respectively. Seroconversion to LR-HPV was negatively related to a higher number of children and oral sex, and positively associated with seroconversion to HR-HPV. In multivariate analysis, the same predictors remained significant except for the number of children. In univariate generalised estimating equations (GEE) for HR-HPV, being seroconverted to LR-HPV was the only predictor, but lost its significance in multivariate analyses. Decay of all HPV L1 antibodies was rare and observed in 0-2 %. The HPV antibody profile in men was dominated by response to HPV6, also showing the highest cumulative seroconversion. Oral HPV infection might affect HPV serology: (1) HPV DNA in oral mucosa is associated with baseline HR-HPV seropositivity and (2) practising oral sex significantly reduces longitudinal seroconversion to HPV6 and/or 11.

  12. Strategies for Developing Oral Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Induced Cancer using Nanoparticle mediated Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kouzi, Samir A; Hussain, Muhammad Delwar

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are a diverse group of small non-enveloped DNA viruses. Some HPVs are classified as low-risk as they are very rarely associated with neoplasia or cancer in the general population, and cause lenient warts. Other HPVs are considered as high-risk types because they are responsible for several important human cancers, including cervical cancer, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Transmission of HPV occurs primarily by skin-to-skin contact. The risk of contracting genital HPV infection and cervical cancer is influenced by sexual activity. Currently two prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil® (Merck, USA) and Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, UK), are available and recommended for mass immunization of adolescents. However, these vaccines have limitations as they are expensive and require cold chain storage and trained personnel to administer them by injection. The use of nano or micro particulate vaccines could address most of these limitations as they are stable at room temperature, inexpensive to produce and distribute to resource poor regions, and can be administered orally without the need for adjuvants in the formulation. Also it is possible to increase the efficiency of these particulate vaccines by decorating the surface of the nano or micro particulates with suitable ligands for targeted delivery. Oral vaccines, which can be delivered using particulate formulations, have the added potential to stimulate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue located in the digestive tract and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, both of which are important for the induction of effective mucosal response against many viruses. In addition, oral vaccines provide the opportunity to reduce production and administration costs and are very patient compliant. This review elaborately discusses different strategies that can be pursued to develop a nano or micro particulate oral vaccine for HPV induced cancers and

  13. Risk Factors for Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeishi, Hideo; Sugiyama, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with oral cancer development. However, few epidemiologic investigations have focused on oral HPV prevalence in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to provide updated information regarding oral HPV prevalence in patients without oral cancer worldwide. Methods We systematically reviewed 29 studies reporting the prevalence of oral HPV infection that included 22,756 subjects (10,124 males, 12,623 females, and nine unknown gender; age range 2 - 89 years) and were published from January 2012 to June 2015. Results The prevalence of overall HPV, low-risk type HPV, high-risk type HPV, and HPV16 in the reported cases was 5.5%, 2.2%, 2.7%, and 1.0%, respectively. The prevalence of overall HPV was considerably higher in males who had sex with males (12.2%) as compared to heterosexual males (4.7%) and females (2.9%). A meta-analysis was performed to elucidate significant risk factors for oral HPV infection, which revealed a significant statistical association for oral sex and smoking with oral HPV infection (odds ratio (OR): 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.51 - 2.39, P oral HPV infection in healthy individuals. PMID:27635177

  14. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 Serum Antibodies and the Risk of Subsequent Oral HPV Acquisition in Men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Viscidi, Raphael P; Torres, B Nelson; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Kreimer, Aimée R; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-07-01

    The role of antibody-mediated immunity in preventing newly acquired oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is not well understood. Among 1618 men participating in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study, we evaluated oral rinses for HPV DNA and baseline sera for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 L1 antibodies. Thirty percent of men (486) were seropositive for ≥1 HPV type, and 25 men developed incident oral HPV infection (HPV-6 was detected in 7, HPV-11 in 0, HPV-16 in 17, and HPV-18 in 1). Cox models revealed that men with circulating antibodies to HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18 were not less likely to acquire type-specific oral HPV than men without antibodies (hazard ratio for the risk of acquiring HPV-6, -11, -16, or -18, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, .56-4.76).

  15. Risk Factors for Acquisition and Clearance of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Strickler, Howard D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Cranston, Ross D.; Burk, Robert D.; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010–2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and “rimming” partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P < 0.05). This helps explain the consistent associations observed between these factors and prevalent oral HPV infection in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:25480823

  16. Cell proliferation and expression of connexins differ in melanotic and amelanotic canine oral melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tarso Felipe; Gentile, Luciana Boffoni; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Mennecier, Gregory; Chaible, Lucas Martins; Cogliati, Bruno; Roman, Marco Antonio Leon; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan

    2014-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm occurring in several animal species, and is the most frequently found tumor in the oral cavity in dogs. Melanomas are classified into two types: melanotic and amelanotic. Prior research suggests that human amelanotic melanomas are more aggressive than their melanotic counterparts. This study evaluates the behavior of canine melanotic and amelanotic oral cavity melanomas and quantifies cell proliferation and the expression of connexins. Twenty-five melanomas (16 melanotic and 9 amelanotic) were collected from dogs during clinical procedures at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. After diagnosis, dogs were followed until death or euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed the gross melanotic or amelanotic characteristics and tumors were classified according to the WHO. HMB45 or Melan A immunostainings were performed to confirm the diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was quantified both by counting mitotic figures and PCNA positive nuclei. Expressions of connexins 26 and 43 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Dogs bearing amelanotic melanomas presented a shorter lifespan in comparison to those with melanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was significantly higher in amelanotic melanomas. Expressions of Connexins 26 and 43 were significantly reduced in amelanotic melanomas. The results presented here suggest that oral cavity melanotic and amelanotic melanomas differ regarding their behavior, cell proliferation and connexin expression in dogs, indicating a higher aggressiveness of amelanotic variants. PMID:24126842

  17. Characterising the Canine Oral Microbiome by Direct Sequencing of Reverse-Transcribed rRNA Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E; Larsen, Niels; Pennington, Andrea; Connolly, John; Wallis, Corrin; Rooks, David J; Hall, Neil; McCarthy, Alan J; Allison, Heather E

    2016-01-01

    PCR amplification and sequencing of phylogenetic markers, primarily Small Sub-Unit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, has been the paradigm for defining the taxonomic composition of microbiomes. However, 'universal' SSU rRNA gene PCR primer sets are likely to miss much of the diversity therein. We sequenced a library comprising purified and reverse-transcribed SSU rRNA (RT-SSU rRNA) molecules from the canine oral microbiome and compared it to a general bacterial 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicon library generated from the same biological sample. In addition, we have developed BIONmeta, a novel, open-source, computer package for the processing and taxonomic classification of the randomly fragmented RT-SSU rRNA reads produced. Direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing revealed that 16S rRNA molecules belonging to the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes, were most abundant in the canine oral microbiome (92.5% of total bacterial SSU rRNA). The direct rRNA sequencing approach detected greater taxonomic diversity (1 additional phylum, 2 classes, 1 order, 10 families and 61 genera) when compared with general bacterial 16S rRNA amplicons from the same sample, simultaneously provided SSU rRNA gene inventories of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and detected significant numbers of sequences not recognised by 'universal' primer sets. Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes were found to be under-represented by PCR-based analysis of the microbiome, and this was due to primer mismatches and taxon-specific variations in amplification efficiency, validated by qPCR analysis of 16S rRNA amplicons from a mock community. This demonstrated the veracity of direct RT-SSU rRNA sequencing for molecular microbial ecology. PMID:27276347

  18. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Eleanor M.; Oomeer, Soonita; Gilson, Richard; Copas, Andrew; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Edmunds, W. John; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) differs from anogenital HPV infection. The impact of HPV vaccination has, to date, largely focussed on anogenital outcomes. Vaccination of MSM in the UK has been recommended and, if implemented, baseline estimates of oral HPV prevalence will be useful. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and psycINFO databases for studies reporting prevalence, incidence, and clearance of oral HPV infection in MSM. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression on prevalence estimates and summarised within-study risk factors for oral HPV DNA detection and incidence/clearance rates. We also performed a meta-analysis of the effect of MSM on oral HPV prevalence compared to heterosexual men. Results 26 publications were identified. The pooled prevalence of oral HPV16 from twelve estimates was 3.0% (95%CI 0.5–5.5) in HIV-negative and 4.7% (95%CI 2.1–7.3) in HIV-positive MSM. Median age of study participants explained 38% of heterogeneity (p<0.01) in HPV prevalence estimates (pooled = 17% and 29% in HIV-negative and HIV-positive, respectively; 22 estimates). Nine studies compared MSM to heterosexual men and found no difference in oral HPV prevalence (pooled OR 1.07 (95%CI 0.65–1.74)). The clearance rate was higher than incidence within studies. Type-specific concordance between oral and anogenital sites was rare. Conclusion There was substantial heterogeneity between estimates of oral HPV prevalence in MSM populations that was partly explained by HIV status and median age. PMID:27384050

  19. Transfection of oral squamous cell carcinoma with human papillomavirus-16 induces proliferative and morphological changes in vitro

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    O'Malley Susan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus has been implicated in virtually all cervical cancers and is believed to be the primary etiological factor that transforms cervical epithelia. The presence of HPV in oral cancers suggests that HPV may play a similar role in transforming the oral epithelia. The prevalence of HPV in oral cancers is highly variable, however, presenting problematic issues regarding the etiology of oral cancers, which must be investigated more thoroughly. Past analyses of HPV in cancers of the oral cavity have largely been confined to retrospective studies of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for HPV16 infection to alter the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro. Results This study found that the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, CAL27, transfected with HPV16, exhibited significantly increased proliferation, compared with non-transfected CAL27. The increased proliferation was observed under low density conditions, even in the absence of serum. Moreover, these effects were specific to proliferation, adhesion, and morphology, while cell viability was not affected. Conclusion This study represents one of the first investigations of the effects of HPV16 infection on the proliferation, adhesion, and morphology of an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line in vitro. The finding that HPV16 has the ability to measurably alter adhesion and proliferative potential is significant, indicating that HPV may have multiple influences on precancerous and cancerous lesions and should be explored as a risk factor and mediator of cancer phenotypes. These measurements and observations will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating the mechanisms of oral cancer transformation and the factors governing carcinogenesis and progression.

  20. Detection of human papillomavirus in normal oral cavity in a group of Pakistani subjects using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichki, Abdul Samad; Buajeeb, Waranun; Doungudomdacha, Sombhun; Khovidhunkit, Siribang-on Pibooniyom

    2012-01-01

    Since there is evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) may play some role in oral carcinogenesis, we investigated the presence of HPV in a group of Pakistani subjects with normal oral cavity using real-time PCR analysis. Two-hundred patients attending the Dental Department, Sandaman Provincial Hospital, Balochistan, Pakistan, were recruited. After interview, oral epithelial cells were collected by scraping and subjected to DNA extraction. The HPV-positive DNA samples were further analyzed using primer sets specific for HPV-16 and -18. It was found that out of 200 DNA samples, 192 were PCR-positive for the β-globin gene and these were subsequently examined for the presence of HPV DNA. Among these, 47 (24.5%) were HPV-positive with the virus copy number ranged between 0.43-32 copies per 1 μg of total DNA (9-99 copies per PCR reaction). There were 4 and 11 samples containing HPV-16 and -18, respectively. Additionally, one sample harbored both types of HPV. Among the investigated clinical parameters, smoking habit was associated with the presence of HPV (p=0.001) while others indicated no significant association. The prevalence of HPV in normal oral cavity in our Pakistani subjects appears to be comparable to other studies. However, the association between the presence of HPV and smoking warrants further investigations whether both of these factors can cooperate in inducing oral cancer in this group of patients.

  1. High-risk human papillomaviruses may have an important role in non-oral habits-associated oral squamous cell carcinomas in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Julia Yu-Fong; Lin, Ming-Chieh; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the etiologic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral carcinogenesis, DNA samples were purified from 103 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 30 normal oral mucosal (NOM) specimens. A nested polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and gene-chip HPV typing were used to identify multiple HPV types in our samples. We found that the positive rates of all HPV types and of high-risk HPV types were significantly higher in OSCC samples (49.5% and 41.7%, respectively) than in NOM samples (6/30 [20%; P oral habits (OH)-associated OSCC samples (31/51 [61%] and 28/51 [55%], respectively) than in OH-associated OSCC samples (20/52 [38%; P < .05] and 15/52 [29%; P < .001], respectively). High-risk HPV types and all HPV types had odds ratios of 3.97 (P = .0097) and 3.92 (P = .006), respectively. Our results suggest that HPVs, particularly high-risk HPVs, might be associated with the development of OSCCs, especially the non-OH-associated OSCCs.

  2. Oral Immunogenicity of Human Papillomavirus-Like Particles Expressed in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Warzecha, Heribert; Mason, Hugh S.; Lane, Christopher; Tryggvesson, Anders; Rybicki, Edward; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Clements, John D.; Rose, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLPs) have shown considerable promise as a parenteral vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. Parenteral vaccines are expensive to produce and deliver, however, and therefore are not optimal for use in resource-poor settings, where most cervical HPV disease occurs. Transgenic plants expressing recombinant vaccine immunogens offer an attractive and potentially inexpensive alternative to vaccination by injection. For exam...

  3. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Subash C B Gopinath; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM ...

  4. Prevalência do papilomavírus humano (HPV na cavidade oral e na orofaringe Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cavity and oropharynx

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    Therezita Peixoto Patury Galvão Castro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência do papilomavírus humano (HPV na cavidade oral e na orofaringe ainda não está bem esclarecida como nos estudos do trato genital, na qual é bem definida. Entretanto, novas pesquisas estão surgindo após o aparecimento dos exames de biologia molecular. Neste estudo foi realizada uma revisão da literatura com o objetivo de verificar a prevalência do papilomavírus humano na cavidade oral e na orofaringe. Os resultados desta pesquisa mostraram uma prevalência do HPV 16 na mucosa oral normal (infecção latente. Já nas lesões benignas orais associadas ao HPV mostraram uma prevalência do HPV 6 e 11 em papilomas de células escamosas e condilomas, e, nas verrugas, uma prevalência do HPV 2 e 57, enquanto na hiperplasia epitelial focal prevaleceram os HPVs 13 e 32, e no câncer oral, principalmente, no carcinoma de células escamosas (CCE, foi evidenciada uma alta prevalência do HPV 16, o que sugere sua participação na carcinogênese oral, apesar de ser um assunto controverso. Constatou-se também uma enorme discrepância nos resultados da prevalência do papilomavírus humano (HPV na mucosa oral normal (infecção latente e no câncer oral, enquanto nas lesões benignas associadas ao vírus, os resultados foram confirmatórios.The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in the oral cavity and oropharynx has not yet been as well studied as its infection of the vaginal tract. However, new study are emerge after the development of molecular biology techniques. The objective of this study is to show the prevalence of HPV in the oral cavity and the oropharynx. An ample bibliographic review was done showing a prevalence of HPV 6, 11 in a normal oral mucous membrane (latent infection. In oral benign lesions associated with HPV, a prevalence of HPV 6 and 11 was observed in squamous cell papilloma (SCP and condylomas acuminatum, while HPV 2 and 57 were more prevalent in verruca vulgaris lesions. As for focal epithelial hyperplasia

  5. Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults

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    Gypsyamber D'Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340 and women (n = 270 aged 18–25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004 and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007 infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10–3.39, number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013 and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06–2.82 were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man.

  6. Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Kluz, Nicole; Wentz, Alicia; Youngfellow, Renee M; Griffioen, Anne; Stammer, Emily; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

    2014-01-01

    Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340) and women (n = 270) aged 18-25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004) and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007) infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10-3.39), number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013) and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06-2.82) were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man.

  7. Oral Human Papillomavirus Detection in Older Adults Who Have Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Chen, Zigui; Bottalico, Danielle; McKinney, Sharod; Ostoloza, Janae; Dunne, Anne; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproducibility of oral rinse self-collection for HPV detection and investigate associations between oral HPV, oral lesions, immune and sociodemographic factors, we performed a cross-sectional study of older adults with HIV infection. Study Design We collected oral rinse samples from 52 subjects at two different times of day followed by an oral examination and interview. We identified HPV using PCR platforms optimized for detection of mucosal and cutaneous types. Results Eighty seven percent of individuals had oral HPV, of which 23% had oncogenic alpha, 40% had non-oncogenic alpha, and 46% had beta or gamma HPV. Paired oral specimens were concordant in all parameters tested. Significant associations observed for oral HPV with increased HIV viral load, hepatitis-C seropositivity, history of sexually transmitted diseases and lifetime number of sexual partners. Conclusions Oral cavity may be a reservoir of subclinical HPV in older adults who have HIV infection. Understanding natural history, transmission and potential implications of oral HPV warrants further investigations. PMID:23375488

  8. DETECTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS DNA SEQUENCES IN ORAL LESIONS USING POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Zarei

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nThe purpose of the present study was to estimate the frequency of HPV DNA in four groups of oral lesions, including oral squamous cell carcinoma. Sixty paraffin-embedded oral tissue samples were examined for the presence of HPV DNAs using the PCR technique. These specimens were obtained from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP, and pyogenic granuloma (PG. Consensus primers for L1 region (MY09 and MY11 and specific primers were used for detection of HPV DNA sequences in this study. we detected HPV DNA in 60% (9 out of 15 of OSCCs, 26.7% (4 out of 15 of leukoplakia, 13.3% (2 out of 15 of OLPs, and 6.7% (1 out of 15 of PGs. Statistical analysis showed that the prevalence of HPV in OSCC was significantly higher than other groups (P < 0.05. The frequency of HPV-16 and 18 detection in OSCC samples were 40% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of these high risk HPVs was significantly higher in OSCC group (P < 0.05. The results of the present study show a successive increase of detection rate of HPV-16 and 18 DNAs from low level in samples of pyogenic granuloma and non-premalignant or questionably premalignant lesions of OLP to premalignant leukoplakia and to OSCC."n "n "n "n "n 

  9. Diversity of beta-papillomavirus at anogenital and oral anatomic sites of men: The HIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Emily Montosa; Sudenga, Staci L; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L; Sichero, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Our goal was to describe prevalence of β-HPVs at three anatomic sites among 717 men from Brazil, Mexico and US enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. β-HPVs were genotyped using Luminex technology. Overall, 77.7%, 54.3% and 29.3% men were positive for any β-HPV at the genitals, anal canal, and oral cavity, respectively. Men from US and Brazil were significantly less likely to have β-HPV at the anal canal than men from Mexico. Older men were more likely to have β-HPV at the anal canal compared to younger men. Prevalence of β-HPV at the oral cavity was significantly associated with country of origin and age. Current smokers were significantly less likely to have β-HPV in the oral cavity than men who never smoked. Lack of associations between β-HPV and sexual behaviors may suggest other routes of contact such as autoinoculation which need to be explored further. PMID:27161202

  10. A comparison of oral and intravenous pimonidazole in canine tumors using intravenous CCI-103F as a control hypoxia marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Pimonidazole HCl is widely used in immunohistochemical analyses of hypoxia in normal and malignant tissues. The present study investigates oral administration as a means of minimizing invasiveness. Methods and Materials: Twelve dogs with confirmed malignancy received 0.5 g/m2 of pimonidazole HCl: 6 by mouth and 6 by i.v. infusion. All dogs received i.v. CCI-103F as a control. Plasma levels of pimonidazole, pimonidazole N-oxide, and CCI-103F were measured. Tumor biopsies were formalin fixed, paraffin embedded, sectioned, immunostained, and analyzed for pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding. pH dependence for pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding was studied in vitro. Results: Pimonidazole and CCI-103F binding in carcinomas and sarcomas was strongly correlated for both oral and i.v. pimonidazole HCl (r 2 = 0.97). On average, the extent of pimonidazole binding exceeded that for CCI-103F by a factor of approximately 1.2, with the factor ranging from 1.0 to 1.65. Binding of both markers was pH dependent, but pimonidazole binding was greater at all values of pH. Conclusions: Oral pimonidazole HCl is effective as a hypoxia marker in spontaneously arising canine tumors. Selective cellular uptake and concomitant higher levels of binding in regions of hypoxia at the high end of pH gradients might account for the greater extent of pimonidazole binding

  11. Human Papillomavirus Infections are Common and Predict Mortality in a Retrospective Cohort Study of Taiwanese Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ang; Huang, Chung-Guei; Tsao, Kuo-Chien; Liao, Chun-Ta; Kang, Chung-Jan; Chang, Kai-Ping; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Yang, Shu-Li; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chang, Tung-Chieh; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are deemed to play a role in the pathogenesis of oral cavity cancer (OCC). However, their exact prevalence and clinical significance remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and prognostic value of HPV infections in a large sample of Taiwanese OCC patients.This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Between 2004 and 2011, we identified 1002 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed OCC who were scheduled for standard treatment. HPV genotyping was performed in tumor specimens using polymerase chain reaction-based HPV blots. To investigate the temporal trends of HPV infections and their impact on 5-year overall survival (OS), patients were divided into 2 cohorts according to calendar periods: "2004 cohort" (2004-2007; n = 466) and "2008 cohort" (2008-2011; n = 536). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were also used to identify the independent predictors of OS in the 2 cohorts. A weighted risk score was assigned to each factor based on the range of their corresponding hazard ratios and validated in both cohorts using the c-statistic.The overall prevalence of HPV infections was 19%, with a trend toward decreasing rates from 2004 to 2011. In patients without risky oral habits, the 5-year OS rate of HPV-positive patients was significantly lower than that of HPV-negative cases (49% vs 80%; P = 0.021). In the 2004 cohort, multivariate analysis identified HPV16, pathological T3/T4, pathological N1/N2, and extracapsular spread as independent adverse prognostic factors for OS. In the 2008 cohort, pathological N1/N2, pathological stage III/IV, and histological tumor depth >8 mm were identified as independent adverse prognostic factors. Using a weighted grading system incorporating HPV16 infection, we devised a prognostic index that identified 4 distinct risk categories with 5-year OS rates ranging from 25% to 89% (c-statistic = 0.76) in the 2004 cohort. The validity of the index was internally

  12. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in 45 Greek Patients with Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kouvousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between HPV and head and neck cancer has recently and extensively been investigated. The purpose of this study was to indentify HPV genotypes, as well as E6/E7 mRNA expression of high-risk HPVs (16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs from 45 Greek patients. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA positive OSCCs was 11.1% (5/45, while high-risk HPV DNA was found in 6.7% (3/45 of OSCCs. E6/E7 mRNA expression was detected in 8.9% (4/45 of the oral cavity samples. Our data indicated that HPV 16 was the commonest genotype identified in HPV-positive OSCCs by both DNA and RNA tests. This study confirms the prevalence of HPV infections among patients with OSCCs. Future analysis and followup of more OSCCs will enable us to correlate HPV detection and clinical outcome.

  13. Nasal, oral and ear swabs for canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis: new practical approaches for detection of Leishmania infantum DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney de Almeida Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of nasal, oral, and ear swabs for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in an endemic urban area in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-two naturally infected and ten healthy dogs were enrolled in this study. Bone marrow aspirates, peripheral blood, skin biopsy, and conjunctival, nasal, oral, and ear swabs were collected. All samples, except blood, were submitted to conventional PCR (cPCR and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR to detect and quantify Leishmania infantum DNA, respectively. All dogs were submitted to thorough clinical analysis and were included based on a combination of serological (ELISA immunoassay and immunofluorescent antibody test and parasitological methods. The cPCR positivity obtained from nasal swab samples was 87% (54/62, equivalent to those from other samples (P>0.05. Positive results were obtained for 79% (22/28 in oral swabs and 43% (12/28 in ear swab samples. A significant difference was observed between these data (P=0.013, and the frequency of positive results from oral swab was equivalent to those from other samples (P>0.05. The use of ear swab samples for cPCR assays is promising because its result was equivalent to skin biopsy data (P>0.05. The qPCR data revealed that parasite loads in mucosal tissues were similar (P>0.05, but significantly lower than the parasite burden observed in bone marrow and skin samples (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal and oral swab samples showed a high potential for the qualitative molecular diagnosis of CVL because their results were equivalent to those observed in samples collected invasively. Considering that mucosae swab collections are painless, noninvasive, fast and practical, the combination of these samples would be useful in massive screening of dogs. This work highlights the potential of practical approaches for molecular diagnosis of CVL and human leishmaniasis infections.

  14. The Magnitude of the Association between Human Papillomavirus and Oral Lichen Planus: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tingting; Liu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in oral lichen planus (OLP) is controversial. Objectives The primary aim of the current study is to calculate the pooled risk estimates of HPV infection in OLP when compared with healthy controls. Methods Bibliographic searches were conducted in three electronic databases. Articles on the association between HPV and OLP were selected from case-control studies or cross-sectional studies, following predefined criteria. Pooled data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Of the 233 publications identified, 22 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. Collectively, 835 cases and 734 controls were available for analysis. The summary estimate showed that OLP patients have significantly higher HPV prevalence (OR: 6.83; 95% CI: 4.15–11.27) than healthy controls. In subgroup analyses, the association of HPV and OLP varied significantly by geographic populations. The ORs ranged from 2.43 to 132.04. The correlation of HPV and erosive-atrophic oral lichen planus (EA-OLP) (OR: 9.34) was comparable and well above that of HPV and non-EA-OLP (OR: 4.32). Among HPV genotypes, HPV 16 showed an extremely strong association with OLP (OR: 11.27), and HPV 18 showed a relatively strong one (OR: 6.54). Conclusion In conclusion, a significant association was found between HPV and OLP. The strength of the association varied across geographic populations, clinical types of OLP, and HPV genotypes. The results suggest that HPV might play an important causal role in OLP and in its malignant to progression. PMID:27571417

  15. Reduced prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV 4 years after bivalent HPV vaccination in a randomized clinical trial in Costa Rica.

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    Rolando Herrero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 7,466 women 18-25 years old were randomized (1∶1 to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%. Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%. Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79% (p versus oral VE = 0·04. There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661.

  16. Systemic Immunization with Papillomavirus L1 Protein Completely Prevents the Development of Viral Mucosal Papillomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzich, Joann A.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Palmer-Hill, Frances J.; White, Wendy I.; Tamura, James K.; Bell, Judith A.; Newsome, Joseph A.; Bennett Jenson, A.; Schlegel, Richard

    1995-12-01

    Infection of mucosal epithelium by papillomaviruses is responsible for the induction of genital and oral warts and plays a critical role in the development of human cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. We have employed a canine model to develop a systemic vaccine that completely protects against experimentally induced oral mucosal papillomas. The major capsid protein, L1, of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was expressed in Sf9 insect cells in native conformation. L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. Vaccinated animals developed circulating antibodies against COPV and became completely resistant to experimental challenge with COPV. Successful immunization was strictly dependent upon native L1 protein conformation and L1 type. Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. Serum immunoglobulins passively transferred from COPV L1-immunized beagles to naive beagles conferred protection from experimental infection with COPV. Our results indicate the feasibility of developing a human vaccine to prevent mucosal papillomas, which can progress to malignancy.

  17. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P; Gopinath, Subash C B; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5(+)/6(+)) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients.

  18. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5+/6+) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients. PMID:27279791

  19. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; de Vos, Christa

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard®, Merial) administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Bayer). Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg) on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same intervals at the recommended concentration. Clinical examinations and deep skin scrapings were performed every month in order to evaluate the effect on mite numbers and the resolution of clinical signs. The percentage reductions of mite counts were 99.2%, 99.9% and 100% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively, in the afoxolaner-treated group, compared to 89.8%, 85.2% and 86.6% on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. Skin condition of the dogs also improved significantly from Day 28 to Day 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group. Mite reductions were significantly higher on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group compared to the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. The results of this study demonstrated that afoxolaner, given orally, was effective in treating dogs with generalised demodicosis within a two-month period. PMID:27012161

  20. Efficacy of oral afoxolaner for the treatment of canine generalised demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of oral treatment with a chewable tablet containing afoxolaner 2.27% w/w (NexGard®, Merial administered orally was assessed in eight dogs diagnosed with generalised demodicosis and compared with efficacy in eight dogs under treatment with a topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®, Bayer. Afoxolaner was administered at the recommended dose (at least 2.5 mg/kg on Days 0, 14, 28 and 56. The topical combination of imidacloprid/moxidectin was given at the same intervals at the recommended concentration. Clinical examinations and deep skin scrapings were performed every month in order to evaluate the effect on mite numbers and the resolution of clinical signs. The percentage reductions of mite counts were 99.2%, 99.9% and 100% on Days 28, 56 and 84, respectively, in the afoxolaner-treated group, compared to 89.8%, 85.2% and 86.6% on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. Skin condition of the dogs also improved significantly from Day 28 to Day 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group. Mite reductions were significantly higher on Days 28, 56 and 84 in the afoxolaner-treated group compared to the imidacloprid/moxidectin-treated group. The results of this study demonstrated that afoxolaner, given orally, was effective in treating dogs with generalised demodicosis within a two-month period.

  1. More men than women make mucosal IgA antibodies to Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 and HPV-18: a study of oral HPV and oral HPV antibodies in a normal healthy population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Der Walt Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown the high prevalence of oral anti-human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 antibodies in women with HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. It was postulated that the HPV antibodies were initiated after HPV antigenic stimulation at the cervix via the common mucosal immune system. The present study aimed to further evaluate the effectiveness of oral fluid testing for detecting the mucosal humoral response to HPV infection and to advance our limited understanding of the immune response to HPV. Methods The prevalence of oral HPV infection and oral antibodies to HPV types 16, 18 and 11 was determined in a normal, healthy population of children, adolescents and adults, both male and female, attending a dental clinic. HPV types in buccal cells were determined by DNA sequencing. Oral fluid was collected from the gingival crevice of the mouth by the OraSure method. HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 antibodies in oral fluid were detected by virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As a reference group 44 women with cervical neoplasia were included in the study. Results Oral HPV infection was highest in children (9/114, 7.9%, followed by adolescents (4/78, 5.1%, and lowest in normal adults (4/116, 3.5%. The predominant HPV type found was HPV-13 (7/22, 31.8% followed by HPV-32 (5/22, 22.7%. The prevalence of oral antibodies to HPV-16, HPV-18 and HPV-11 was low in children and increased substantially in adolescents and normal adults. Oral HPV-16 IgA was significantly more prevalent in women with cervical neoplasia (30/44, 68.2% than the women from the dental clinic (18/69, 26.1% P = 0.0001. Significantly more adult men than women displayed oral HPV-16 IgA (30/47 compared with 18/69, OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.09–12.1, P Conclusion The increased prevalence of oral HPV antibodies in adolescent individuals compared with children was attributed to the onset of sexual activity. The increased prevalence of oral anti-HPV Ig

  2. Papillomaviruses and human disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjanen, K.; Gissman, L.; Koss, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 17 selections. Some of the titles are: Papillomaviruses: particles, genome organization and proteins; Physical state of papillomavirus DNA in tumors; Transforming and regulatory functions of bovine papillomavirus Type 1; and Transcription of papillomavirus genomes.

  3. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  4. Low Prevalence of Oral and Nasal Human Papillomavirus in Employees Performing CO2-laser Evaporation of Genital Warts or Loop Electrode Excision Procedure of Cervical Dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola;

    2015-01-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato......, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal......-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p = 0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts...

  5. PCR-RDB技术检测中国籍OSCC及OLK患者中的HPV%Detection of human papillomavirus in Chinese patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia by PCR-RDB method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潇婕; 孙凯; 蒋伟文

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To detect human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral leuko-plakia (OLK) of Chinese patients. Method:We extracted 35 OSCC and 35 OLK tissue DNA samples. PCR-RDB assay was performed to detect 23 subtypes of HPV,which including HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 42, 43, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68, 73, 81, 82 and 83. Result:All of the 35 OSCC and 35 OLK patients were negative for HPV DNA. Conclusion:HPV infection was not a frequent molecular event in OSCCs and OLKs of Chinese patients.%目的:研究口腔鳞癌(OSCC)及口腔白斑(OLK)中国患者中的人乳头瘤病毒(Human Papillomavirus, HPV)感染率。方法:提取35例OSCC及35例OLK患者病损组织DNA,通过聚合酶链式反应结合反向点杂交技术(Poly-merase Chain Reaction-Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization, PCR-RDB)检测23型HPV DNA,包括HPV6,11,16,18,31,33,35,39,42,43,45,51,52,53,56,58,59,66,68,73,81,82和83。结果:35例OSCC及35例OLK患者中HPV DNA均为阴性。结论:HPV感染在中国的OSCC及OLK患者中非常见分子事件。

  6. Anal and oral human papillomavirus (HPV infection in HIV-infected subjects in northern Italy: a longitudinal cohort study among men who have sex with men

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    Barelli Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study including 166 subjects was performed to investigate the frequency and persistence over a 6-month interval of concurrent oral and anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods Patients with no previously documented HPV-related anogenital lesion/disease were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed to detect HPV from oral and anal swabs and to detect Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8 DNA in saliva on 2 separate specimen series, one collected at baseline and the other collected 6 months later. A multivariate logistic analysis was performed using anal HPV infection as the dependent variable versus a set of covariates: age, HIV plasma viral load, CD4+ count, hepatitis B virus (HBV serology, hepatitis C virus (HCV serology, syphilis serology and HHV-8 viral shedding. A stepwise elimination of covariates with a p-value > 0.1 was performed. Results The overall prevalence of HPV did not vary significantly between the baseline and the follow-up, either in the oral (20.1 and 21.3%, respectively or the anal specimens (88.6 and 86.3%. The prevalence of high-risk (HR genotypes among the HPV-positive specimens was similar in the oral and anal infections (mean values 24.3% and 20.9%. Among 68 patients with either a HR, low-risk (LR or undetermined genotype at baseline, 75% had persistent HPV and the persistence rates were 71.4% in HR infections and 76.7% in LR infections. There was a lack of genotype concordance between oral and anal HPV samples. The prevalence of HR HPV in anus appeared to be higher in the younger patients, peaking (> 25% in the 43-50 years age group. A decrease of the high level of anal prevalence of all genotypes of HPV in the patients > 50 years was evident. HHV-8 oral shedding was positively related to HPV anal infection (p = 0.0046. A significant correlation was found between the

  7. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly.

  8. A frequência do HPV na mucosa oral normal de indivíduos sadios por meio da PCR The frequency of human papillomavirus findings in normal oral mucosa of healthy people by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Esquenazi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os papilomavírus humanos (HPV são DNA vírus pertencentes à família papilomaviridae com grupos de baixo e alto risco que infectam a pele e a mucosa podendo induzir a formação de tumores epiteliais benignos e malignos. Na mucosa oral, estes vírus têm sido associados a papilomas orais, hiperplasias epiteliais focais, leucoplasias e neoplasias orais. OBJETIVO: Estudar a frequência do HPV em mucosa oral de indivíduos normais. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Trabalho prospectivo em coorte transversal. Participaram desse estudo 100 indivíduos voluntários, faixa etária de 20 a 31 anos, estudantes universitários, sem história, queixas ou lesões visíveis ao exame físico de cavidade oral e orofaringe. Foram submetidos a questionário com perguntas referentes à epidemiologia da infecção pelo HPV. Foi colhido material de mucosa oral por raspado com escova e analisado pelo PCR. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram ausência de HPV em todas as amostras. CONCLUSÃO: Parece ter havido participação do alto nível socioeconômico com alimentação rica em carotenoides e vitamina C, baixo consumo tabágico e etílico e comportamento heterossexual predominantemente monogâmico com uso regular de preservativos.The human papillomavirus (HPV is a DNA virus, which belongs to papillomaviridae family, being of low and high risk, which infect the skin and mucous membranes and can induce benign and malign tumor formation. In the oral mucosa they have been associated with oral papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leucoplakia and oral neoplasia. AIM: to study the frequency of HPV finding in oral mucosa of normal people. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective study, cross-sectional cohort. One hundred volunteers, young adults, healthy, aged between 20 and 31 years, university students with no history, no complains, without oral or oropharyngeal lesions. They were submitted to a questionnaire with questions regarding HPV infection epidemiology. The samples were

  9. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer.

  10. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Christine M. Pierce; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O’Keefe, Michael T.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18–64 years (median, 36 years; IQR, 25–42) and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9–49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months (median infection duration, 7.3 months [95% CI, 6.4–NA]). Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (P trend=0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25575501

  11. Determination of human papillomavirus in oral leukoplakia,oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma%白斑、扁平苔藓及口腔癌中人类乳头瘤病毒的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹婕; 金建秋; 邓大君; 刘宏伟

    2016-01-01

    45%(2/58),通过卡方检验差异无统计学意义,P=0.249。结论:没有足够证据证明HPV感染或检测阳性可作为预测OLK癌变的信号;患OLP的患者处于癌前状态,OLP中HPV检出率高于OLK及OSCC,提示OLP患者由于某种原因对HPV易感,可考虑为OLP 患者常规做HPV检测,推荐使用HC-Ⅱ法,同时应对HPV阳性的OLP患者加强随访。%Objective:To investigate the possibility for human papillomavirus (HPV)infection to be a predictable signal for the carcinogenesis of oral mucosa by comparing the prevalences of HPV in each stage of oral mucosal carcinogenesis and to compare the sensitivity differences of the two methods in de-tecting HPV infection in oral cavity.Methods:The hybrid capture (HC-Ⅱ)was used to detect infection of HPV in 255 samples taken from 1 2 cases of healthy oral mucosa,21 1 cases of patients with pathologi-cal diagnosis and 32 cases of patients with clinical diagnosis.The diagnosed cases included 8 cases of be-nign lesions of the oral mucosa,precancerous lesions [74 cases of oral leukoplakia (OLK)with hyper-plasia and 42 cases of OLK with oral epithelial dysplasia (OED)],91 cases of precancerous condition [oral lichen planus (OLP)]and 28 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).And in situ hybri-dization (ISH)was used to detect infection of HPV in 33 cases of OSCC and 76 cases of OLK,including 30 cases of hyperplasia,1 5 cases of mild OED,1 5 cases of moderate OED and 1 6 cases of severe OED. Results:The prevalence of HPV in OLP samples was higher (1 2.1 2%,8/66 )than that of OLK (2.59%,3/1 1 6)(χ2 =4.666,P=0.031 )and OSCC(7.1 4%,2/28,χ2 =0.51 3,P=0.474).The prevalence of HPV in OSCC (7.1 4%,2/28)was higher than that of OLK (2.59%,3/1 1 6),and no significant difference was found.There was only one case of smoke spot and statistical analysis was not carried out.ISH was used to detect type 1 6/1 8 and type 31 /33 HPV DNA in 1 09 cases of oral mucosal lesions in paraffin

  12. Human papillomavirus type 6 and 11 genetic variants found in 71 oral and anogenital epithelial samples from Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Danielewski

    Full Text Available Genetic variation of 49 human papillomavirus (HPV 6 and 22 HPV11 isolates from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP (n = 17, genital warts (n = 43, anal cancer (n = 6 and cervical neoplasia cells (n = 5, was determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR and the E6 and E7 genes. Comparative analysis of genetic variability was examined to determine whether different disease states resulting from HPV6 or HPV11 infection cluster into distinct variant groups. Sequence variation analysis of HPV6 revealed that isolates cluster into variants within previously described HPV6 lineages, with the majority (65% clustering to HPV6 sublineage B1 across the three genomic regions examined. Overall 72 HPV6 and 25 HPV11 single nucleotide variations, insertions and deletions were observed within samples examined. In addition, missense alterations were observed in the E6/E7 genes for 6 HPV6 and 5 HPV11 variants. No nucleotide variations were identified in any isolates at the four E2 binding sites for HPV6 or HPV11, nor were any isolates found to be identical to the HPV6 lineage A or HPV11 sublineage A1 reference genomes. Overall, a high degree of sequence conservation was observed between isolates across each of the regions investigated for both HPV6 and HPV11. Genetic variants identified a slight association with HPV6 and anogenital lesions (p = 0.04. This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of circulating HPV 6 and HPV11 variants within the Australian population and supports the observation that the majority of HPV6 isolates cluster to the HPV6 sublineage B1 with anogenital lesions demonstrating an association with this sublineage (p = 0.02. Comparative analysis of Australian isolates for both HPV6 and HPV11 to those from other geographical regions based on the LCR revealed a high degree of sequence similarity throughout the world, confirming previous observations that there are no geographically specific variants for these

  13. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  14. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  15. Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in youth and cervical HPV prevalence in women attending a youth clinic in Sweden, a follow up-study 2013-2014 after gradual introduction of public HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Nathalie; Ährlund-Richter, Andreas; Franzén, Joar; Mirzaie, Leila; Marions, Lena; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    During 2009-2011, we reported that the oral and cervical prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) was high by international standards at 9.3% and 74%, respectively, in youth aged 15-23 years attending a youth clinic in Stockholm. After gradual introduction of public HPV vaccination during 2007-2012, between 2013 and 2014, when 73% of the women were HPV-vaccinated, but not necessarily before their sexual debut, oral HPV prevalence had dropped to 1.4% as compared with 9.3% in 2009-2011 (p HPV prevalence was high and common cervical high-risk types were HPV51, 56, 59, 73, 16, 39, 52, and 53. However, it was shown that HPV16, 31, and 70 were significantly less common among HPV-vaccinated women than among those who had not received the vaccine.

  16. Study on the role of human papillomavirus in carcinogenesis of oral papillomas by in situ hybridization%口腔鳞状细胞乳头状瘤组织中 HPV DNA的原位杂交研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布静秋; 庞劲凡; 步荣发; 吕雅莉; 陈乐真

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus, HPV)感染与口腔鳞状细胞乳头状瘤(squamous cell papilloma,SCP)的发生之间的关系。方法应用地高辛标记的HPV 6/11和HPV 16/18核酸探针分别在30例口腔SCP组织上进行原位杂交,检测口腔SCP组织中HPV DNA的特征。结果 HPV 6/11 DNA阳性16例(53%),HPV 16/18 DNA未检出,HPV 6/11 DNA阳性细胞多数分布在鳞状上皮的表层、中层和基底层。结论原位杂交方法可以检测口腔SCP组织中HPV DNA的存在并能准确组织定位,进一步支持HPV 6/11感染与口腔SCP的发生密切相关。%Objective To explore the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection on carcinogenesis of oral squmous cell papillomas(SCP). Methods By using digoxin labelled HPV 6/11 and HPV 16/18 probes, through hybridization in situ technique, the HPV DNA sequence in 30 cases of oral SCP were detected. ResultsAmong them, 16 cases (53.3%) were positive for HPV 6/11 DNA. None of cases of SCP were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA. Conclusion Our results show that the frequent finding of HPV 6/11 DNA in oral SCP had close association between oral papillomas and HPV 6/11 infection.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of the novel, orally bioavailable Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE KPT-335 in spontaneous canine cancer: results of a phase I study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE compounds that inhibit the function of the nuclear export protein Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1 against canine tumor cell lines and perform a Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 in dogs with spontaneous cancer to provide a preliminary assessment of biologic activity and tolerability. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Canine tumor cell lines derived from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, mast cell tumor, melanoma and osteosarcoma exhibited growth inhibition and apoptosis in response to nanomolar concentrations of SINE compounds; NHL cells were particularly sensitive with IC50 concentrations ranging from 2-42 nM. A Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 was performed in 17 dogs with NHL (naive or relapsed, mast cell tumor or osteosarcoma. The maximum tolerated dose was 1.75 mg/kg given orally twice/week (Monday/Thursday although biologic activity was observed at 1 mg/kg. Clinical benefit (CB including partial response to therapy (PR, n = 2 and stable disease (SD, n = 7 was observed in 9/14 dogs with NHL with a median time to progression (TTP for responders of 66 days (range 35-256 days. A dose expansion study was performed in 6 dogs with NHL given 1.5 mg/kg KPT-335 Monday/Wednesday/Friday; CB was observed in 4/6 dogs with a median TTP for responders of 83 days (range 35-354 days. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal consisting of anorexia, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea and were manageable with supportive care, dose modulation and administration of low dose prednisone; hepatotoxicity, anorexia and weight loss were the dose limiting toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that the novel orally bioavailable XPO1 inhibitor KPT-335 is safe and exhibits activity in a relevant, spontaneous large animal model of cancer. Data from this study provides critical new information that lays the groundwork for evaluation of SINE compounds in human cancer.

  18. Efficacy of oral calcium pentosan polysulphate for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the canine stifle joint secondary to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, J F; Barr, A R; Sharif, M

    2000-04-01

    The efficacy of calcium pentosan polysulphate (CaPPS) as a slow-acting drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the canine stifle joint, secondary to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency, was tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial over a period of one year. Dogs with the deficiency were treated surgically, matched for bodyweight, and randomly assigned to treatment or placebo groups. Active treatment began six weeks postoperatively and consisted of 10 mg/kg CaPPS orally, once weekly for four weeks, repeated every 12 weeks. The outcome was assessed in terms of function by the dogs' owners, by the radiographical grading of the osteoarthritis, and by the measurement of total sulphated glycosaminoglycans and the 5D4 epitope of keratan sulphate in the synovial fluids of affected joints. There were no differences either in functional outcome or in the radiographical progression of osteoarthritis between the two groups. Fifty-four weeks after surgery, the concentration of 5D4 in synovial fluid (expressed as change from baseline values) had decreased significantly in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (P=0.03). PMID:10811265

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which cancers are caused by HPV? Who gets HPV infections? Can HPV infections be ...

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Page Content Article Body According to ... Control and Prevention, there is an epidemic of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United States. HPV is ...

  1. Manifestações orais associada ao papilomavírus humano (hpv conceitos atuais: revisão bibliográfica Oral manifestations related to papillomavirus (hpv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therezita M.P.G. Castro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus (HPV é um DNA vírus do grupo papovavírus, que é altamente transmissível sexualmente, sendo freqüente na região ano-genital e raro na mucosa oral. A sua implantação oral pode ser por auto-inoculação ou pelo contato oro-sexual. As manifestações orais associadas ao HPV são: papiloma, condiloma acuminado, verruga vulgar, hiperplasia epitelial focal, leucoplasias, líquen plano e carcinoma. O diagnóstico é dado pelo exame da lesão e confirmado pela biópsia, com a identificação do tipo de HPV pelas técnicas de biologia molecular (captura híbrida e PCR. O tratamento, dependendo da lesão, pode ser clínico e/ou cirúrgico, obtendo assim a cura clínica, pois o vírus permanece no epitélio da mucosa mesmo após o tratamento.The human papillomavirus (HPV is a DNA virus, of the papovavirus group, that is highly sexually transmittable. It is common in the anal and genital parts and rarely in the oral mucosa. The oral implantation can be by self-inoculation or by oral-sexual contact. The oral manifestations related to HPV are: papilloma, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris, focal epithelial hyperplasia, leukoplasia, lichen planus, and the squamous cell carcinoma. The diagnosis is performed by lesion exam and confirmed by biopsy, showing the HPV genotype by molecular biology techniques (hybrid capture and PCR. The treatment, depending on the lesion, can be clinical or surgical, allowing clinical cure, because the virus remains in the epithelium of the mucosa even after the treatment.

  2. Cancerl cells 5. Papillomaviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, B.M.; Brandsma, J.L. (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, NY (US)); Taichman, L.B. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (US))

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 selections. Some of the titles are: Elements that Control the Transcription of Genital Human Papillomavirus Type 18; Human Paillomavirus Gene Expression; RNA Probes to Analyze Human Papillomavirus Gene Expression in Squamous Papilloma of the Respiratory Tract; Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type-1 E4 Gene Products in Warts; and Underreplication of Human Papillomavirus Type-1 DNA in Cultures of Foreskin Keratinocytes.

  3. Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosa Garbuglia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is currently considered to be a major etiologic factor, in addition to tobacco and alcohol, for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC development. HPV positive OPCs are epidemiologically distinct from HPV negative ones, and are characterized by younger age at onset, male predominance, and strong association with sexual behaviors. HPV16 is the most prevalent types in oral cavity cancer (OCC, moreover the prevalence of beta, and gamma HPV types is higher than that of alpha HPV in oral cavity.

  4. The diagnostic contribution of computed tomography in intranasal carcinoma with retrobulbar, oral and brain invasion in a canine: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intranasal tumors are uncommon and in most cases are malignant, aggressive and with low to moderate potential for metastasis. Clinical signs are usually caused by progressive obstruction of the upper airways. The test cytopathological also is a diagnosis method, but the definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended to treatment planning. A poodle was attended at the veterinary hospital with a clinical history of epistaxis and nasal and ocular secretions, seizures and severe dyspnoea. The animal underwent to radiographic examination of the chest and skull as well as helical computed tomography of the nasal cavity and brain before and after the administration of intravenous contrast. The CT findings revealed an expansive bilateral nasal cavity neoformation, with involvement of the retrobulbar space, right frontal sinus, brain and oral cavity, suggesting a neoplastic or an infectious process. The CT examination allowed the material collection, directly from the mass, to cytological examination, providing the diagnosis of carcinoma. CT also allowed the determination of the unfavorable prognosis of the patient and the treatment planning which not included the surgical excision of the neoformation. Although CT was not conclusive in the diagnosis of carcinoma, it was essential to accurately define the extent of the lesion, to guide the collection of material directly from the tumor and to determine the prognosis of the animal, proving to be an extremely useful tool in cases of tumors intranasal in dogs. (author)

  5. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  6. Low prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus in normal oral mucosa by hybrid capture 2 Baixa prevalência de papilomavírus humano de alto risco na mucosa oral normal através de Captura Híbrida 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Refugio González-Losa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV are recognized as a necessary factor to development cervical cancer. During the last decade many studies have found HR-HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and normal oral mucosa, however the association between HR-HPV and OSCC is still uncertain. The aim of the study was to determine DNA HR-HPV in normal oral cavity of healthy adults. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 77 patients with normal oral cavity were collected at the Dentistry school, Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV was detected by hybrid capture 2. One sample out of 77(1.2% was positive for HR-PVH. It was from a man of 50 years old. HR-HPV is present in low rate among healthy oral mucosa. Hybrid capture 2 could be a good methodology for large epidemiology studies.Papilomavírus humano de alto risco (HR-HPV é um fator reconhecido como necessário para o desenvolvimento de câncer cervical. Na última década vários estudos encontraram HR-HPV em OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma e em mucosa oral normal, mas a associação entre HR-HPV e OSCC não é bem conhecida. O objetivo desse estudo foi determinar DNA de HR-HPV na cavidade oral normal de adultos saudáveis. Realizou-se um estudo cross-sectional com amostras da cavidade oral normal de 77 pacientes da Escola de Odontologia da Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida, Yucatan, México. HR-HPV foi detectado através de Captura Híbrida 2. Uma amostra em 77 (1,2% foi positiva para HR-PVH e era proveniente de um homem de 50 anos de idade. Concluiu-se que HR-HPV tem baixa prevalência na mucosa oral normal e a Captura Híbrida 2 pode ser um método adequado para estudos epidemiológicos.

  7. 口腔鳞癌组织中人乳头瘤病毒 DNA的原位杂交研究%DETECTION OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS DNA OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMAS BY IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布静秋; 胡敏; 吕雅莉; 陈乐真

    2001-01-01

    By using digoxin labelled human papillomavirus(HPV) 6/11 and HPV16/18 probes,and hybridization in situ technique, the HPV DNA sequence in 50 cases of oral SCC was detected. The results showed that among them ,16 cases(32%) were positive for HPV16/18 DNA, none of the cases of OSCC was positive for HPV6/11 DNA. It was suggested that HPV16/18 in oral SCC was confirmed to be closely related with the cause of OSCC.%应用地高辛标记的HPV6/11和HPV16/18核酸探针分别在50例口腔鳞状细胞癌(OSCC)组织上进行原位杂交,以检测OSCC组织中HPV DNA的特征。结果表明,HPV16/18 DNA阳性16例(32%),HPV16/18 DNA阳性信号散在分布于OSCC的癌细胞核中;而检测HPV6/11 DNA均为阴性。结果提示,原位杂交方法可用来检测OSCC组织中HPV DNA的存在并能准确组织定位;进一步支持高危型HPV16/18感染与OSCC的发生有关。

  8. 16型人乳头状瘤病毒DNA及端粒酶在 口腔粘膜病变中的表达%Research on expression of human papillomavirus type 16 and telomerase in oral lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕提曼; 张志愿; 曹俊; 张铃

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨人乳头状瘤病毒16型(human papillomavirus type 16, HPV16)感染与端粒酶活化在口腔粘膜癌变过程中的关系。方法对口腔粘膜不同阶段病变的82例标本进行HPV16 DNA的聚合酶链反应检测及端粒酶活性催化亚单位( human telomerase reverse transcriptase, hTRT)mRNA的原位杂交检测。结果正常口腔粘膜、上皮单纯性增生、上皮异常增生与鳞状细胞癌的HPV16感染率分别为14.3%(1/7)、42.0%(3/7)、66.6%(20/30)及92.1%(35/38);hTRTmRNA阳性表达率分别为0.0%(0/7)、0.0%(0/7)、30.0%(9/30)及81.6%(31/38)。hTRTmRNA与HPV16协同表达率为67.0%(55/82)。结论 HPV16感染和端粒酶的激活与口腔粘膜恶变关系密切,HPV16可能通过激活端粒酶使口腔上皮细胞癌变。%Objective To define a correlation between human papilllomavirus (HPV) type 16 and telomerase activity during the carcinogenesis of oral mucosa. Methods HPV16 DNA and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTRT) mRNA were detected in 82 cases of paraffin embedded tissues including 7 cases of normal oral mucosa, 7 cases of hyperplasia lesions, 30 cases of oral dysplasia lesions and 38 cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) by PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) respectively. Results HPV16DNA was positive in 14.3% (1/7) of normal oral mucosa, 42.9% (3/7) of hyperplasia lesions, 66.6% (20/30) of dysplasia lesions and 92.1% (35/38) of OSCCs. hTRTmRNA was detectable in 30.0% (9/30) of oral dysplasia lesions and 81.6% (31/35) of OSCCs while normal oral mucosa and hyperplasia lesions were negative. Expression of HPV16DNA and hTRTmRNA were co-ordinate in 67.0% (55/82) cases. Conclusions HPV16 infection may play an important role in carcinogenesis of oral mucosa by activation of telomerase.

  9. Detection of High Risk Human Papillomavirus DNA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma%口腔鳞状细胞癌高危型人乳头状瘤病毒感染的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕提曼; 曹俊; 陈万涛; 张志愿

    2000-01-01

    To ascertain the prevalence of human papillomavirus(HPV) DNA in oral squamous cell carcinomas(OS CCs) and normal oral mucosa and to correlate the virologic data with other factors obtained from patients' records. Methods 113 paraffin embedded tissue blocks including 73 OSCCs and 40 normal oral mucosa were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HPV type 16 and 18 DNA. Medical records of patients were reviewed to obtaine the following factors: age, sex, tobacco and alcohol usage, site oftumor, histologic grade and clinical stage. Results 74%(54/73) ofOSCCsand55%(22/40) of normal o ral mucosa were HPV 16/18 DNA positive. The presence of HPV DNA showed significant difference between OSCCs and normal o ral mucosa ( P= 0.040). Statistical analysis indicated that age (60≤ years) and sex (male) were associated with the presence of HPV16/18 DNA in the tumor. There were no significant association between HPV presence and other factors, include tobacco and alcohol usage, site of tumor, histologic grade and clinical stage. Conclusions High risk HPV genotypes have a significant associa tion with oral squamous cell carcinoma. It is a co-factor in oral carcinogenesis, particularly in male patients and patients under the sixth decade. HPV infection in the oral mucosa is common. HPV is not the single etiological factor responsible for human oral neo plasia.%观察口腔鳞癌及口腔粘膜高危型人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)感染情况,探讨HPV感染与临床及病理资 料的关系。方法用多聚酶链反应(PCR)检测73例口腔鳞癌及40例正常口腔粘膜石蜡包埋组织中HPV16、HPV18 的DNA。统计分析其与临床及病理资料的关系。结果口腔鳞癌HPV16/18 DNA阳性率为74%(54/73),正常口腔 粘膜为55%(22/40)。口腔鳞癌与正常口腔粘膜HPV阳性率存在显著性差异(P=0.040)。统计分析显示:HPV感 染与患者的性别、年龄有关,与其它因素(肿瘤发生部位、嗜烟酒情况、肿瘤病理分级

  10. Human papillomavirus type 16 infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas and leukoplakia%口腔鳞状细胞癌及白斑人乳头瘤病毒16型感染的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛万林; 刘春利

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the association of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV type 16) infection and clinicopathological parameters in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and oral leukoplakia, Materials and. Method: 30 cases of OSCC and 5 cases of oral leukoplakia for HPV type 16 DNA were examined by nest-PCR. Result: No significant correlation was found between HPV type 16 infections and TNM staging. The positive rate of HPV type 16 DNA in young female OSCC patients was significandy higher than that in older female OSCC patients (P =0.024) > but no significant difference was found in the male patitents among age subgroups (p =0.649). Conclusion: These results suggest that the increased HPV type 16 infections in younger females may attribute to the OSCC tumorigenesis.%目的:探讨口腔鳞状细胞癌(OSCC)和白斑(LK)患者人乳头瘤病毒16型(HPV-16)感染和临床病理参数之间的相关性.方法:收集30例OSCC和5例LK患者的组织切片,所有病例均经病理学确诊,提取组织DNA,通过巢式PCR检测HPV-16感染情况.结果:HPV-16与TNM分级之间未见相关性,60岁以下女性患者的HPV-16感染率高于60岁以上女性患者(P =0.024),而男性患者未见HPV-16感染和年龄存在相关性(P =0.649).结论:60岁以下女性OSCC及LK患者中出现较高的HPV-16感染率,提示这可能是新的致癌危险因子.

  11. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You Human Papillomavirus Vaccine HPV Information in Other Languages Women ...

  12. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marizeli Viana de Aragão; Pinheiro, Helder Henrique Costa; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Medeiros, Rita Catarina

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine HPV prevalence in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable lesions and to identify the respective HPV types. A total of 166 samples were analyzed from patients 18 years or older in the State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected by sterile brush scraping in the oral cavity. HPV detection used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infected samples were typed as HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58. HPV was present in 40 samples (24.1%). Three samples (7.5%) were positive for HPV 6, five (12.5%) for HPV 18, and one (2.5%) for HPV 58.

  13. Tratamento da papilomatose canina com Propionibacterium acnes Treatment of canine papillomatosis using Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Megid

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Propionibacterium acnes as immunostimulant in oral canine papillomatosis treatment in 16 animals was studied. Regression of the pappiloma started being observed after the second aplication, with complete resolution in all dogs after the sixth aplication. These results suggest the use of P. acnes as an alternative in oral canine papillomatosis therapy.

  14. Prevalência de achados sugestivos de papilomavírus humano (HPV em biópsias de carcinoma espinocelular de cavidade oral e orofaringe: estudo preliminar Prevalence of histological findings of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma biopsies: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Doria Xavier

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O papilomavírus humano (HPV é universalmente aceito como agente causal do câncer de colo uterino e, recentemente, vem se especulando sobre sua possível relação com câncer oral e de orofaringe. O carcinoma espinocelular (CEC oral representa 90% de todos os tumores malignos que afetam a cavidade bucal. Estudos sobre a prevalência de HPV em pacientes com CEC variam de 0 a 100%. O efeito citopático viral mais conhecido é a coilocitose, considerado "critério maior" na infecção pelo HPV do ponto de vista histopatológico. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de achados sugestivos de HPV - coilocitose - em CEC oral e de orofaringe. FORMA DE ESTUDO: coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram examinadas no microscópio 20 lâminas com o diagnóstico de CEC de cavidade oral ou orofaringe sendo que em 15 delas foi encontrada coilocitose, correspondendo a 75%. RESULTADO: Apesar de termos conhecimento que o método com maior sensibilidade atual para pesquisa de HPV ser a reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR, iniciamos esta pesquisa com a investigação de coilocitose, o que é muito sugestivo de infecção por HPV. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo em questão trata-se de um projeto-piloto pois será dada continuidade a esta pesquisa através da realização de PCR a fim de confirmar a alta prevalência de infecção por HPV em CEC oral e de orofaringe.Human papillomavirus (HPV is considered to be an etiologic agent of cervical cancer and, recently its relation to oral and oropharyngeal cancer has also been investigated. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC represents 90% of all malignant tumors that affect the oral cavity. The prevalence of HPV in patients with SCC ranges from 0 to 100%. The most known viral cytopathic effect is koilocytosis, considered to be a major characteristic of HPV infection. AIM: The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of some peculiar characteristics of HPV - koilocytosis - in oral and

  15. The Nasal Mucosa Contains a Large Spectrum of Human Papillomavirus Types from the Betapapillomavirus and Gammapapillomavirus Genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslund, Ola; Johansson, Hanna; Madsen, Klaus Gregaard;

    2013-01-01

     Human papillomavirus (HPV) types from the Betapapillomavirus and Gammapapillomavirus genera are common at cutaneous sites. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of these HPV types in oral and nasal samples....... Human papillomavirus (HPV) types from the Betapapillomavirus and Gammapapillomavirus genera are common at cutaneous sites. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of these HPV types in oral and nasal samples....

  16. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:27487508

  17. Prevalência de papilomavirus humano (HPV anal, genital e oral, em ambulatório geral de coloproctologia Prevalence of anal, genital and oral human papillomavirus (HPV in general ambulatory for diseases of colon and rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Magi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O Papilomavirus Humano (HPV anal tem alta prevalência e incidência na população. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a prevalência de HPV anal, bucal e genital em ambulatório público de Coloproctologia, com base no exame de captura hibrida. Foram estudados 64 pacientes atendidos no ambulatório geral de Coloproctologia do Hospital Heliópolis, no período de 22/11/2005 a 20/12/2005, onde foram levantados, de forma prospectiva, dados clínicos, pessoais e comportamentais, identificando o perfil do grupo como não sendo de risco para HPV. Nenhum paciente deste grupo veio à consulta com queixa ou apresentando sinais de HPV ou outra doença sexualmente transmissível. Foram colhidos para cada paciente um esfregaço com escova de boca, outro de vulva/pênis e outro do ânus. O resultado mostrou que 15,62% dos pacientes apresentaram HPV anal, bucal ou genital, sendo que 4,68% do total de pacientes apresentavam HPV anal, um paciente de alto risco associado ao HPV genital, outro misto e outro de baixo risco. Trinta por cento dos pacientes HPV+ apresentavam dor anal como queixa principal. A conclusão é que a prevalência de HPV anal, genital e bucal é elevada, sendo que 4,68% apresentavam HPV anal e daqueles HPV positivos 30% apresentavam dor anal na queixa principal.Anal Human Papilomavirus (HPV has a high prevalence and incidence in the population. The purpose of this project is to verify the prevalence of anal, oral and genital HPV at the Coloproctology Clinic, based on the hybrid capture exam. Sixty four patients were assisted at the clinic from November 22nd to December 20th 2005. Clinical, personal and behavioral data of the patients were set up in a prospective way. The group profile was identified as not being a risky one to HPV. No patient of this group, when was assisted, had complained of or had presented any symptoms of HPV or any other sexually transmitted disease (STD. From each patient it was collected a mouth sample, a vulva

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis isolates from canine skin with atopic dermatitis to ketoconazole and itraconazole in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shion; Koike, Anna; Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Chen, Charles; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Topical or oral azole antifungals are commonly used in canine atopic dermatitis (AD), as the lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis exacerbates canine AD. To examine whether canine AD lesions harbor azole-resistant M. pachydermatis isolates in East Asia, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of M. pachydermatis isolates to ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) obtained from AD lesions of canines in Japan, Korea and Taiwan. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of KTZ and ITZ were measured by the E-test using Sabouraud dextrose agar with 0.5% Tween 40. The MICs of KTZ and ITZ for isolates from canines with AD were significantly higher than the MICs for isolates from healthy canines. Our findings suggested that the clinical isolates from canine AD skin lesions were less susceptible to azoles than those from normal canine skin in East Asia. PMID:24334863

  19. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

  20. Identification of a novel bat papillomavirus by metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Tse

    Full Text Available The discovery of novel viruses in animals expands our knowledge of viral diversity and potentially emerging zoonoses. High-throughput sequencing (HTS technology gives millions or even billions of sequence reads per run, allowing a comprehensive survey of the genetic content within a sample without prior nucleic acid amplification. In this study, we screened 156 rectal swab samples from apparently healthy bats (n = 96, pigs (n = 9, cattles (n = 9, stray dogs (n = 11, stray cats (n = 11 and monkeys (n = 20 using a HTS metagenomics approach. The complete genome of a novel papillomavirus (PV, Miniopterus schreibersii papillomavirus type 1 (MscPV1, with L1 of 60% nucleotide identity to Canine papillomavirus (CPV6, was identified in a specimen from a Common Bent-wing Bat (M. schreibersii. It is about 7.5kb in length, with a G+C content of 45.8% and a genomic organization similar to that of other PVs. Despite the higher nucleotide identity between the genomes of MscPV1 and CPV6, maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis of the L1 gene sequence showed that MscPV1 and Erethizon dorsatum papillomavirus (EdPV1 are most closely related. Estimated divergence time of MscPV1 from the EdPV1/MscPV1 common ancestor was approximately 60.2-91.9 millions of years ago, inferred under strict clocks using the L1 and E1 genes. The estimates were limited by the lack of reliable calibration points from co-divergence because of possible host shifts. As the nucleotide sequence of this virus only showed limited similarity with that of related animal PVs, the conventional approach of PCR using consensus primers would be unlikely to have detected the novel virus in the sample. Unlike the first bat papillomavirus RaPV1, MscPV1 was found in an asymptomatic bat with no apparent mucosal or skin lesions whereas RaPV1 was detected in the basosquamous carcinoma of a fruit bat Rousettus aegyptiacus. We propose MscPV1 as the first member of the novel Dyolambda-papillomavirus genus.

  1. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  2. Human papillomavirus gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the role of tissue differentiation on expression of each of the papillomavirus mRNA species identified by electron microscopy, the authors prepared exon-specific RNA probes that could distinguish the alternatively spliced mRNA species. Radioactively labeled single-stranded RNA probes were generated from a dual promoter vector system and individually hybridized to adjacent serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies of condylomata. Autoradiography showed that each of the message species had a characteristic tissue distribution and relative abundance. The authors have characterized a portion of the regulatory network of the HPVs by showing that the E2 ORF encodes a trans-acting enhancer-stimulating protein, as it does in BPV-1 (Spalholz et al. 1985). The HPV-11 enhancer was mapped to a 150-bp tract near the 3' end of the URR. Portions of this region are duplicated in some aggressive strains of HPV-6 (Boshart and zur Hausen 1986; Rando et al. 1986). To test the possible biological relevance of these duplications, they cloned tandem arrays of the enhancer and demonstrated, using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assay, that they led to dramatically increased transcription proportional to copy number. Using the CAT assays, the authors found that the E2 proteins of several papillomavirus types can cross-stimulate the enhancers of most other types. This suggests that prior infection of a tissue with one papillomavirus type may provide a helper effect for superinfection and might account fo the HPV-6/HPV-16 coinfections in condylomata that they have observed

  3. Biology and pathological associations of the human papillomaviruses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, P L; Looi, L M

    1998-06-01

    Historical cottontail rabbit papillomavirus studies raised early indications of a mammalian DNA oncogenic virus. Today, molecular cloning recognises numerous animal and human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and the development of in vitro transformation assays has escalated oncological research in HPVs. Currently, their detection and typing in tissues is usually by Southern blotting, in-situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction methods. The complete papillomavirus virion constitutes a protein coat (capsid) surrounding a circular, double-stranded DNA organised into coding and non-coding regions. 8 early (E1-E8) open reading frames (ORFs) and 2 late (L1, L2) ORFs have been identified in the coding region of all papillomaviruses. The early ORFs encode proteins which interact with the host genome to produce new viral DNA while late ORFs are activated only after viral DNA replication and encode for viral capsid proteins. All papillomaviruses are obligatory intranuclear organisms with specific tropism for keratinocytes. Three possible courses of events can follow papillomaviruses entry into cells: (1) viral DNA are maintained as intranuclear, extrachromosomal, circular DNA episomes, which replicates synchronously with the host cell, establishing a latent infection; (2) conversion from latent into productive infection with assembly of complete infective virions; (3) integration of viral DNA into host cellular genome, a phenomenon seen in HPV infections associated with malignant transformation. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) essentially induce skin and mucosal epithelial lesions. Various skin warts are well known to be HPV-associated (HPVs 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10). Besides HPVs 3 and 10, HPVs 5, 8, 17 and 20 have been recovered from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis lesions. Anogenital condyloma acuminatum, strongly linked with HPVs 6 and 11 are probably sexually transmitted. The same HPVs, demonstrable in recurrent juvenile laryngeal papillomas, are probably transmitted by passage

  4. Canine index – A tool for sex determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar M. Bakkannavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are most useful tools in victim identification in the living as well as the dead in the field of forensic investigations. Their ability to survive in situations like mass disasters makes them constructive devices. Many authors have measured crowns of teeth in both males and females and found certain variations. Canines, reported to survive in air crash and hurricane disasters, are perhaps the most stable teeth in the oral cavity because of the labiolingual thickness of the crown and the root anchorage in the alveolar process of jaws. Measurement of mesiodistal width of the mandibular canines and inter-canine distance of the mandible provides good evidence of sex identification due to dimorphism. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of canine index (CI in the determination of sex.

  5. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  6. Clinical effect on external used chitosan antibacterial film combined oral isatis-root granule treatment on patients with papillomavirus infection%乳头瘤病毒感染患者应用外用壳聚糖抗菌膜联合内服板蓝根颗粒治疗的临床效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琼丽

    2016-01-01

    目的:乳头瘤病毒感染者采用外用壳聚糖抗菌膜联合内服板蓝根颗粒的治疗方案后,对其临床效果进行分析。方法本次研究选取在我院妇科门诊确诊为乳头瘤病毒感染者90例,随机分为A、B、C三组,每组均30例。三组均外用壳聚糖抗菌膜,在此基础上A组同时内服板蓝根颗粒;B组采用物理治疗;C组采用期待治疗方法。对比三组患者在三次随访中的HPV分型、治疗后的临床效果及不良反应情况。结果第一次随访,A组HPV转阴率与B、C两组相比,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);第二、三次随访,A组转阴率均明显优于B组与C组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);经过治疗后,A组HC2改善率明显优于B组与C组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组不良反应发生率明显优于B、C两组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论外用壳聚糖抗菌膜联合内服板蓝根颗粒治疗HPV感染患者疗效较佳,方案安全可靠,患者较为满意。%ObjectiveTo analyze the clinical effect on the treatment method of external used chitosan antibacterial film combined oral isatis-root granule treatment on patients with papillomavirus infection. Methods90 patients with papillomavirus infection,who were diagnosed in outpatient of our hospital,were selected and were randomly divided into A,B,C group,with 30 cases in each group.The three groups were treated with external used chitosan antibacterial film,based on which,A group was treated with oral isatis-root granule at the same time,B group was treated with physical therapy,C group was treated with expectant management.To compare the HPV genotyping of the three follow-up,the clinical effect of post-treatment,and the adverse reactions of patients among the three groups.ResultsThe differences of HPV negative rate of at first follow-up in A group was no statistical significance compared with which in B,C group(P>0.05),which at

  7. Effect of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on human papillomavirus detection in young, unscreened women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Lenselink, C.H.; Quint, W.G.V.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on the prevalence, incidence, and persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted among 2,065 women aged 18-29 years. The women returned a self-collected cervicovagin

  8. The diagnostic contribution of computed tomography in intranasal carcinoma with retrobulbar, oral and brain invasion in a canine: case report; Contribuicao da tomografia computadorizada no diagnostico de carcinoma intranasal com invasao retrobular, oral e cerebral em canino: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardo, Karen Maciel, E-mail: kmz@bol.com.br; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Machado, Vania Maria de Vasconcelos [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria; Zanoni, Diogo Souza; Costa, Denis Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Clinica Veterinaria

    2012-07-01

    Intranasal tumors are uncommon and in most cases are malignant, aggressive and with low to moderate potential for metastasis. Clinical signs are usually caused by progressive obstruction of the upper airways. The test cytopathological also is a diagnosis method, but the definitive diagnosis is made by histopathological. Computed tomography (CT) is recommended to treatment planning. A poodle was attended at the veterinary hospital with a clinical history of epistaxis and nasal and ocular secretions, seizures and severe dyspnoea. The animal underwent to radiographic examination of the chest and skull as well as helical computed tomography of the nasal cavity and brain before and after the administration of intravenous contrast. The CT findings revealed an expansive bilateral nasal cavity neoformation, with involvement of the retrobulbar space, right frontal sinus, brain and oral cavity, suggesting a neoplastic or an infectious process. The CT examination allowed the material collection, directly from the mass, to cytological examination, providing the diagnosis of carcinoma. CT also allowed the determination of the unfavorable prognosis of the patient and the treatment planning which not included the surgical excision of the neoformation. Although CT was not conclusive in the diagnosis of carcinoma, it was essential to accurately define the extent of the lesion, to guide the collection of material directly from the tumor and to determine the prognosis of the animal, proving to be an extremely useful tool in cases of tumors intranasal in dogs. (author)

  9. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  10. The Papillomavirus E2 proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Alison A., E-mail: amcbride@nih.gov

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are pivotal to the viral life cycle and have well characterized functions in transcriptional regulation, initiation of DNA replication and partitioning the viral genome. The E2 proteins also function in vegetative DNA replication, post-transcriptional processes and possibly packaging. This review describes structural and functional aspects of the E2 proteins and their binding sites on the viral genome. It is intended to be a reference guide to this viral protein. - Highlights: • Overview of E2 protein functions. • Structural domains of the papillomavirus E2 proteins. • Analysis of E2 binding sites in different genera of papillomaviruses. • Compilation of E2 associated proteins. • Comparison of key mutations in distinct E2 functions.

  11. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  12. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  13. Infection of human papillomavirus in oral benign epithelial proliferation in children%人乳头状瘤病毒感染与儿童口腔黏膜良性上皮增生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘来奎; 何志秀; 李怡宁; 易新竹

    2003-01-01

    目的探讨儿童口腔黏膜良性上皮增生性病损与人乳头状瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)感染及其类型的关系.方法选取四川大学华西口腔医学院病理科近10年30例儿童口腔黏膜良性上皮增生性病损的病例,复习其临床病理特征及切片,并采用免疫组织化学及原位杂交方法检测HPV共同抗原及其类型. 结果口腔鳞状细胞乳头状瘤(squamous cell papilloma ,SCP)20例(66.7%),尖锐湿疣(condyloma acuminatum,CA)6例(20.0%),口腔黏膜局灶性上皮增生(focal epithelial hyperplasia,FEH)4例(13.3%). HPV检测结果显示:HPV共同抗原阳性者占73.3%(22/30),其中SCP占75.0%(15/20), 6例CA HPV共同抗原均为阳性,4例FEH中仅1例HPV共同抗原为阳性;HPV类型以高危型HPV16/18为主,占77.3%(17/22),其次是HPV6和HPV11. 结论儿童口腔黏膜良性上皮增生性病损与HPV感染关系密切,病毒类型以高危型HPV16/18为主,其病毒类型是否与成人(以HPV6、11为主)不同尚待进一步研究.

  14. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  15. Cellular factors required for papillomavirus DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Melendy, T; Sedman, J; Stenlund, A

    1995-01-01

    In vitro replication of papillomavirus DNA has been carried out with a combination of purified proteins and partially purified extracts made from human cells. DNA synthesis requires the viral E1 protein and the papillomavirus origin of replication. The E2 protein stimulates DNA synthesis in a binding site-independent manner. Papillomavirus DNA replication is also dependent on the cellular factors replication protein A, replication factor C, and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen as well as a ...

  16. Relationship Between Human Papillomavirus Infection and Dendritic Cell Distribution in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma%口腔鳞癌中人乳头瘤病毒感染及树突状细胞分布的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 黄晓峰; 胡勤刚; 蒋文晖; 陈湘华; 王志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨口腔鳞癌(OSCC)中人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染与树突状细胞(DC)分布的关系.方法:采用原位杂交技术(ISH)检测56例OSCC、26例口腔白斑(OLK)和10例正常口腔黏膜中HPV16/18的感染情况,免疫组化EnVision法观察其中DC的分布表达.结果:OSCC和OLK组HPV16/18感染率显著高于正常组(P<0.05),HPV16/18感染与吸烟有一定相关性(P<0.05).HPV16/18感染的OSCC组织中CD1a低表达(P<0.01).结论:ISH是检测HPV较理想的方法,HPV感染是部分口腔鳞癌的病因学因素,HPV感染患者局部免疫功能低下可能导致肿瘤免疫逃逸.%Objective: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus(HPV) infection and dendritic cell(DC) distribution in oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC).Methods: In situ hybridization(ISH) technology was used to detect the infection of HPV16/18 and immunohistochemistry EnVision technique was applied to observe the distribution of DC in 56 cases of OSCC, 26 cases of oral leukoplakia(OLK) and 10 cases of normal oral mucosa.Results: The infection rates of HPV16/18 in OSCC and OLK were obviously higher than that in normal tissues (P<0.05).The infection of HPV16/18 was significantly related with smoking (P<0.05).The expression of CD1a was low in OSCC infected with HPVl6/18(P<0.01).Conclusion: ISH is an ideal method to detect HPV.HPV infection is an etiology factor of some OSCC.The dysfunction of local immunity of the patients infected with HPV may result in immune escape of the tumor.

  17. HPV Prevalence and Concordance in the Cervix and Oral Cavity of Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity.

  18. Manifestações orais associada ao papilomavírus humano (hpv) conceitos atuais: revisão bibliográfica Oral manifestations related to papillomavirus (hpv)

    OpenAIRE

    Therezita M.P.G. Castro; Cícero E. R. Neto; Krysthiane A. Scala; Wanessa A. Scala

    2004-01-01

    O papilomavírus (HPV) é um DNA vírus do grupo papovavírus, que é altamente transmissível sexualmente, sendo freqüente na região ano-genital e raro na mucosa oral. A sua implantação oral pode ser por auto-inoculação ou pelo contato oro-sexual. As manifestações orais associadas ao HPV são: papiloma, condiloma acuminado, verruga vulgar, hiperplasia epitelial focal, leucoplasias, líquen plano e carcinoma. O diagnóstico é dado pelo exame da lesão e confirmado pela biópsia, com a identificação do t...

  19. Meta Analysis of the Relationship between Tumorigenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Human Papillomavirus Infection%口腔鳞癌发生与人类乳头状瘤病毒感染关系的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安训; 许鸿生; 连克乾; 钟小龙

    2004-01-01

    背景与目的:研究显示人类乳头状瘤病毒( human papillomavirus, HPV)的感染与口腔鳞癌的发生密切相关,但由于研究方法不同,结果差异较大,本研究采用 Meta分析法综合评价口腔鳞癌的发生与人类乳头状瘤病毒感染的关系.方法:通过收集 1990年 1月~ 2003年 4月国内报道的有关口腔鳞癌发生与 HPV感染关系的研究文献共 44篇,其中符合研究标准的以聚合酶链反应( polymerase chain reaction, PCR)法检测的病例对照研究共 10篇,采用 Fisher法和 Meta分析法对收集到的文献进行综合的定性和定量研究.结果: Fisher法定性分析显示,口腔鳞癌的发生与 HPV感染存在相关关系( P< 0.01); Meta定量分析显示,口腔鳞癌感染 HPV或 HPV16的合并优势比分别是正常口腔粘膜的 8.89(3.62~ 21.80)和 6.81(2.18~ 21.32)倍,口腔鳞癌 HPV或 HPV16平均检出率分别比正常口腔粘膜高 49.02% (36.48%~ 61.57% )和 45.74% (31.94%~ 59.54% ).结论:人类乳头状瘤病毒感染,尤其是 HPV16,可增加口腔鳞癌发生的危险性.

  20. Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jenkins(University of York, UK)

    2003-01-01

    Of the many types of human papillomavirus (HPV), more than 30 infect the genital tract. The association between certain oncogenic (high-risk) strains of HPV and cervical cancer is well established. Although HPV is essential to the transformation of cervical epithelial cells, it is not sufficient, and a variety of cofactors and molecular events influence whether cervical cancer will develop. Early detection and treatment of precancerous lesions can prevent progression to cervical cancer. Ident...

  1. The Papillomavirus E2 Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Alison A McBride

    2013-01-01

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are pivotal to the viral life cycle and have well characterized functions in transcriptional regulation, initiation of DNA replication and partitioning the viral genome. The E2 proteins also function in vegetative DNA replication, post-transcriptional processes and possibly packaging. This review describes structural and functional aspects of the E2 proteins and their binding sites on the viral genome. It is intended to be a reference guide to ...

  2. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Mooij

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  3. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. R.; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'no...

  4. [Human papillomavirus infection and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Soto, Selene; de la Peña y Carranza, Alejandro Ortiz; Plascencia, Josefina Lira

    2011-04-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus has increased dramatically in recent years. The highest prevalence rates are among adolescents and young women, reflecting changes in sexual behavior associated with biological factors in adolescent development. Adolescents who begin sexual activity early are at greater risk of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. There are adolescents with special circumstances, where no early decision should be delayed cervical cytology and in whom it is important to initiate consultations and periodic reviews with a preventive approach. Cervical cancer can be avoided when the diagnosis and treatment of precursor lesions is early. Despite efforts at sex education based on "safe sex" with the correct use of condoms has not been able to reduce the incidence of infections with human papillomavirus in adolescents. While better than nothing, condom use is not 100% reliable. Studies show that consistent and correct use provides protection against the human papillomavirus only 70%. In Mexico, reported an overall ratio of actual use of condoms from 24.6%. It is clear that the physician who provides care for adolescents plays a fundamental role in sex education. The key to future prevention of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions could be the vaccination. PMID:21966809

  5. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-06

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. [Melanoma and Human Papillomaviruses: Is There an Outlook for Study?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgareva, G M; Mikhaylova, I N; Golovina, D A

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive human malignant tumors. Its incidence and mortality are growing steadily. Ultraviolet irradiation is the main risk factor for melanoma involved in melanomagenesis. The probability of viral etiology of melanoma has been discussed. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been mentioned among candidates for its etiologic agents because some HPV types are the powerful carcinogens causing cervical cancer and other cancers. The review analyses the literature data on the association of melanoma with HPV Several groupsfound HPVin skin melanomas as well as in mucosa; viruses of high oncogenic risk were detected in some cases. For some organs the etiological role of high-risk HPV as inducers of invasive carcinomas is confirmed. These organs require special mention: cervix uteri, vulva, vagina, penis, anal region, and oral cavity. However in the majority of the studies in which viral DNA-positive melanomas were found, testing for viral genome expression was not done while this is the fact of primary importance. HPVare found in normal skin and mucous membranes thus creating justifiable threat of tumor specimen contamination with viral DNA in vivo. There are limited data on aggravation of the disease prognosis in papillomavirus-positive melanomas. However, any systematic observation of a sizeable patient group distinguished by that tumor type has not been performed yet. Viral E6 and E7 oncogenes of high-risk papillomaviruses were shown to be able to transform normal human melanocytes in vitro experiments. Thus, we can assume the presence of the association of melanoma with oncogenic HPV. The clinical significance of this problem is indisputable under the conditions of the steady increase in melanoma incidence and mortality rates in Russia and abroad. The problem requires further study. PMID:27522713

  7. [Prognostic and predictive value of koilocytosis, expression of e6 hpv types 16/18, p16ink4a, p53 in locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx, associated with human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaboshapka, A N

    2014-11-01

    To determine the predictive and prognostic value of koilocytosis, expression of E6 HPV types 16/18, p16INK4a, p53 in patients with locally advanced HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx. In biopsy specimens of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx from 60 patients performed koylocytes count, immunohistochemical detection of HPV 16/18 types E6 protein, proteins p16INK4a and p53. Koilocytosis was detected in 50 patients (83.3%); in all 60 patients (100%) were simultaneous expression of p16INK4a and E6 HPV types 16/18; p53 expression was found in 37 patients (61.7%). After combined treatment (induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy) stable disease (SD) was detected in 11 patients (18.3%), partial response (PR) - in 25 patients (41.7%), complete response (CR) - in 24 patients (40.0%). There were no cases of disease progression. Treatment effect correlated with expression of p16INK4a (ρ = 0.3, p = 0.024) and expression of p53 (ρ = - 0.3, p = 0.019). Patients with a low expression of p16INK4a (2 points) and high expression of p53 (4 "+") had a high level of SD and had no CR. For all patients, the median of overall survival (OS) was 17 months, 1-year cumulative survival rate was 66.7%, 2-year cumulative survival rate - 35.0%. Median of overall survival was correlated with koilocytosis (ρ=0.5, pHPV types 16/18 (ρ=0.9, pHPV 16/18 types have no predictive value. Median of overall survival correlated with koilocytosis, expression of E6 HPV types 16/18 and p16INK4a. P53 expression is an independent predictor of negative prognosis for overall survival. Increase in the level of p53 expression is associated with a reduction in overall survival and cumulative 1- and 2-year survival rate. For patients with low expression of p16INK4a or high p53 expression, surgery is advisable to consider as first stage of treatment.

  8. Radiographic assessment of dental anomalies in patients with ectopic maxillary canines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Budtz; Artmann, Lone; Larsen, Helle Juul;

    2008-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2008 Background. The aetiology of palatally and labially located ectopic maxillary canines is multifactorial. Accordingly, early prediction of this eruptional disturbance is in most cases not possible. Aim. The purpose of this study was to analyse...... dental deviations in cases with either palatal or labial ectopic canines. Design. Panoramic and intra-oral radiographs from 50 patients with palatally located (38 females and 12 males) and 19 patients with labially located ectopic canines (11 females and 8 males), aged 10 years, 2 months-18 years, 1...... month, were analysed. Dental deviations registered were crown and root malformations, agenesis, and eruption deviations. Registrations were performed in the maxillary incisor field and in the dentition in general. Results. The study documented that palatally as well as labially located ectopic canines...

  9. Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity secondary to lower lip trauma. A case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Sala Pérez, Sergi; España Tost, Antonio Jesús; Vidal Bel, A.; Gay Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity is an infrequent benign neoplasm of papillary appearance that originates in the secretory duct of a salivary gland. The etiology is unknown, though some authors have related it to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a tumor of the lower lip mucosa. Histopathological study of the lesion diagnosed inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus DNA detection and typing based on tumo...

  10. High-dose antibiotic therapy is superior to a 3-drug combination of prostanoids and lipid A derivative in protecting irradiated canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Toles, R.E.; Miner, V.L.; Jackson, W.E.; Seed, T.M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2002-12-01

    There is an urgent need to develop non-toxic radioprotectors. We tested the efficacy of a 3-drug combination (3-DC) of iloprost, misoprostol, and 3D-MPL (3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A) and the effects of postirradiation clinical support with high doses of antibiotics and blood transfusion. Canines were given 3-DC or the vehicle and exposed to 3.4 Gy or 4.1 Gy of {sup 60}Co radiation. Canines irradiated at 4.1 Gy were also given clinical support, which consisted of blood transfusion and antibiotics (gentamicin, and cefoxitin or cephalexin). Peripheral blood cell profile and 60-day survival were used as indices of protection. At 3.4 Gy, 3-DC- or vehicle-treated canines without postirradiation clinical support survived only for 10 to 12 days. Fifty percent of the canines treated with 3-DC or vehicle and provided postirradiation clinical support survived 4.1-Gy irradiation. Survival of canines treated with vehicle before irradiation significantly correlated with postirradiation antibiotic treatments, but not with blood transfusion. The recovery profile of peripheral blood cells in 4.1 Gy-irradiated canines treated with vehicle and antibiotics was better than drug-treated canines. These results indicate that therapy with high doses of intramuscular aminoglycoside antibiotic (gentamicin) and an oral cephalosporin (cephalexin) enhanced survival of irradiated canines. Although blood transfusion correlated with survival of 3-DC treated canines, there were no additional survivors with 3-DC treated canines than the controls. (author)

  11. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations HPV (Human Papillomavirus) One family's struggles with HPV We provide this video in a variety of ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  12. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  13. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  14. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  15. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: cancer epidemiology;complications;Canada;epidemiology;Evaluation;Female;Genital Diseases,Female;Humans;Incidence;lifestyle modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Papillomaviridae;Papillomavirus Infections;Risk Factors;Uterine Cervical Neoplasms;virology.

  16. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  17. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Refugio Gonzalez-Losa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%. In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored.

  18. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  19. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell... hepatitis, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (B) If at least 19 of the 20 vaccinates do...

  20. Disagreement between Human Papillomavirus Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller;

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the disagreement in primary cervical screening between four human papillomavirus assays: Hybrid Capture 2, cobas, CLART, and APTIMA. Material from 5,064 SurePath samples of women participating in routine cervical screening in Copenhagen, Denmark, was tested with the four...... assays. Positive agreement between the assays was measured as the conditional probability that the results of all compared assays were positive given that at least one assay returned a positive result. Of all 5,064 samples, 1,679 (33.2%) tested positive on at least one of the assays. Among these, 41......-65 years (n = 2,881), 23% tested positive on at least one assay, and 42 to 58% of these showed positive agreement on any compared pair of the assays. While 4% of primary screening samples showed abnormal cytology, 6 to 10% were discordant on any pair of assays. A literature review corroborated our findings...

  1. The Cytoskeleton in Papillomavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton defines the shape and structural organization of the cell. Its elements participate in cell motility, intracellular transport and chromosome movement during mitosis. Papillomaviruses (PV are strictly epitheliotropic and induce self-limiting benign tumors of skin and mucosa, which may progress to malignancy. Like many other viruses, PV use the host cytoskeletal components for several steps during their life cycle. Prior to internalization, PV particles are transported along filopodia to the cell body. Following internalization, retrograde transport along microtubules via the dynein motor protein complex is observed. In addition, viral minichromosomes depend on the host cell machinery for partitioning of viral genomes during mitosis, which may be affected by oncoproteins E6 and E7 of high-risk human PV types. This mini-review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of papillomavirus’ interactions with the host cell cytoskeletal elements.

  2. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from rough teeth, dentures, or fillings) Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (same virus that causes genital warts ) Taking ... before it has spread to other tissues, the cure rate is nearly 90%. More than half of ...

  3. Examination of oral absorption and lymphatic transport of halofantrine in a triple-cannulated canine model after administration in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing structured triglycerides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, René; Porter, Christopher J H; Edwards, Glenn A;

    2003-01-01

    availability was affected by the triglyceride incorporated into the multi-component delivery system and availabilities of 56.9% (MLM) and 37.2% (LML) were found. These data indicate that the pharmaceutical scientist can use the structure of the lipid to affect the relative contribution of the two absorption...... pathways. The MLM formulation produced a total bioavailability of 74.9%, which is higher than the total absorption previously observed after post-prandial administration. This could indicate the utility of disperse lipid-base formulations based on structured triglycerides for the oral delivery...

  4. 体外共培养环境对犬脂肪干细胞、口腔上皮细胞的影响%The Influence of Vitro Co-culture Environment on Canine Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cell and Oral Keratinocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钦; 田玉景; 程力

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨体外共培养环境对犬脂肪干细胞(ADSC)、口腔上皮细胞(OK)移行速率、增殖速率的影响。方法:获取犬ADSC和OK并鉴定,将两种细胞种植于同一个刻度培养皿内,检测共培养环境下细胞的移行速率,与单一细胞培养环境作对比,观察细胞移行速率的改变。收集两种细胞培养上清,加入到对方培养基中,形成体外模拟混合培养环境,MTT法检测细胞增殖曲线的改变。结果:共培养环境下,OK、ADSC细胞的移行速率均较单一细胞培养环境下高。与常规培养相比,在体外模拟共培养环境下,OK、ADSC细胞的增殖曲线均变陡。结论:在体外共培养环境中, ADSC、OK呈现互相促进、互相吸引、协同增殖态势,细胞的移行速率、增殖速率均得到提高,能够共同用于组织工程口腔黏膜的构建。%Objective:To investigate the influence of vitro co-culture environment on the migration and proliferation patterns of canine adipose-tissue derived stem cell and oral keratinocytes.Method:Obtain canine ADSC,OK and make the identification.Seed the two cell lines onto a scaled dish,record the migration rate of the two cell lines in co-culture environment,and compare it with the record in monoculture environment.Collect the supernatant of the two cell lines,and add it to the other’s culture medium to simulate a co-culture environment.Detect the changes in cell proliferation curves through MTT assay.Result:The migration rate of the ADSC and OK improved in co-culture environment.The proliferation curves of the two cell line were steeper in co-culture environment than in monoculture environment.Conclusion:In vitro co-culture environment,ADSC,OK exhibit mutual promotion,mutual attraction,collaborative proliferation situation,cell migration rate and proliferation rate are improved.They can be used together for the construction of the tissue engineering oral mucosa.

  5. Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Impacted Maxillary Canines Evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Hoseini Zarch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary canines have important roles in facial appearance, development of arch, and functional occlusion. Radiographs are important in evaluating the location and nature of these anomalies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two types of 2D and 3D imaging technique in diagnosis and treatment of maxillary impacted canines. Methods: Thirty eight patients (50 impacted canines were enrolled. An oral radiologist assessed all of patients’ panoramic radiographs and then cone beam computed tomography (CBCT to determine the presence of adjacent teeth root resorption, root dilacerations before dental extraction, dental rotation, and buccolingual localization ofimpacted canine crown and root contact with sinus and nasal cavity.Then using the patient’s radiographs the treatment plan of each impacted canine was determined by an orthodontist. Results: Differences between panoramic radiography and CBCT in diagnosis of root resorption and dental rotation were significant. There was an agreement between panoramic radiographs and CBCT in localization of impacted teeth crown. Only the treatment plans of 20% of impacted canines were different between panoramic radiographs and CBCT and treatment plan of 80% of impacted teeth was similar. Conclusion: These results showed that 2D and 3D images of impacted maxillary canines can produce different diagnoses and treatment plans.  

  6. 长期使用避孕药和宫内节育器妇女生殖道衣原体及人乳头瘤病毒检测%Assay of chlamydia trachomatis and human papillomavirus in genital tract of women long-term using oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉璘; 石慧; 孙志明; 潘丽; 李瑛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the situation of the Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women long-term using combined oral contraceptives (OC) or intrauterine device (IUD), in order to guide quality of care in family planning. Methods Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for women who had long-term taken Combined Norethisterone, or Combined Norgestrel, or had worn the IUD for birth control. 226 women were divided into three groups: Norethisterone group, Norgestrel group and IUD group. Results The total detectable rate of CT was 21.24% in all subjects, the rates were 24.69% in the Norethisterone group, 20.45% in the Norgestrel group and 17.54% in the IUD group. The total detectable rate of HPV was 14.2% in all subjects, the rates were 11.11% in the Norethisterone, 20.45% in the Norgestrel group and 8.77% in the IUD group. The rates of CT and HPV in the two OC groups were higher than that in the IUD group, but had no significant difference (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in clinical symptoms among the three groups (P > 0.05). However, most of women with CT or HPV infections had no clinical symptoms. Conclusion Following up should be strengthened for women who use contraception method for long time. Reproductive health care services, including regular cervical smears, CT and HPV assay should be provided, especially for the long-term users of con -traception methods to improve their physical and mental health.%目的 了解长期使用口服避孕药(OC)及宫内节育器(IUD)避孕妇女生殖道衣原体(CT)及人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)感染的情况,指导计划生育优质服务.方法 采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)检测服用口服避孕药、使用宫内节育器5年以上的妇女226例宫颈分泌物中CT及HPV DNA.研究对象按避孕措施分成1号片组、复方18-甲组和宫内节育器组.结果 三组研究对象的CT总检出率为21.24%,1号片组为24.69%,复方18甲组为20.45%,IUD组为17

  7. Vaccines against papillomavirus infections and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa Luisa Lina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women, the higher incidence being observed in developing countries. Infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV is considered the major risk factor for the development of malignancies in the uterine cervix. However, HPV is considered to be a necessary but not sufficient cause for cervical cancer and, therefore, other factors contribute to the carcinogenic process, both present in the environment and from the host. Studies performed in animals, and more recently in humans, indicate that vaccination against the capsid proteins of the virus can prevent efficiently from infection. Furthermore, therapeutic vaccines are under investigation aiming the regression of papillomavirus induced tumors. The scientific basis for the development of papillomavirus vaccines and present status of clinical trials will be addressed in this chapter.

  8. Global challenges of implementing human papillomavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Amrita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus vaccines are widely hailed as a sweeping pharmaceutical innovation for the universal benefit of all women. The implementation of the vaccines, however, is far from universal or equitable. Socio-economically marginalized women in emerging and developing, and many advanced economies alike, suffer a disproportionately large burden of cervical cancer. Despite the marketing of Human Papillomavirus vaccines as the solution to cervical cancer, the market authorization (licensing of the vaccines has not translated into universal equitable access. Vaccine implementation for vulnerable girls and women faces multiple barriers that include high vaccine costs, inadequate delivery infrastructure, and lack of community engagement to generate awareness about cervical cancer and early screening tools. For Human Papillomavirus vaccines to work as a public health solution, the quality-assured delivery of cheaper vaccines must be integrated with strengthened capacity for community-based health education and screening.

  9. Human papillomavirus in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swan David C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV can cross the placenta resulting in in-utero transmission. The goal of this study was to determine if HPV can be detected in amniotic fluid from women with intact amniotic membranes. Methods Residual amniotic fluid and cultured cell pellets from amniocentesis performed for prenatal diagnosis were used. PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers and GP5+/GP6+ primers were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for HPV. Results There were 146 paired samples from 142 women representing 139 singleton pregnancies, 2 twin pregnancies, and 1 triplet pregnancy. The women were 78% Caucasian, 5% African American, 14% Asian, and 2% Hispanic. The average age was 35.2 years with a range of 23–55 years. All samples were β-globin positive. HPV was not detected in any of the paired samples. Conclusion Given the age range, race, and ethnicity of the study population, one would anticipate some evidence of HPV if it could easily cross the placenta, but there was none.

  10. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  11. Genetic alterations by human papillomaviruses in oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, P A; Gallego, M I; Ballester, S; Feduchi, E

    1992-03-30

    The integration sites in the cellular genome of human papillomavirus are located in chromosomal regions always associated with oncogenes or other known tumor phenotypes. Two regions, 8q24 and 12q13, are common to several cases of cervical carcinoma and can have integrated more than one type of papillomavirus DNA. These two chromosomal regions contain several genes implicated in oncogenesis. These observations strongly imply that viral integration sites of DNA tumor viruses can be used as the access point to chromosomal regions where genes implicated in the tumor phenotype are located, a situation similar to that of non-transforming retroviruses.

  12. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen;

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  13. Human papillomavirus and its influence on head and neck cancer predisposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil H. Nelke

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a virus often infecting humans. It is often present on skin or mucousmembranes. These diverse DNA viruses are often linked to many various benign and malignant neoplasticlesions. Over 40 types of HPV are transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital regionwhich might be secondly transmitted to the oral mucous. Over 150 HPV viruses are defined according tothe invaded site. Oral papillomas are marked with numbers 6, 7, 11, 16 and 32. Squamous cell papillomais often found in laryngeal epithelial tumor associated with HPV-6 and HPV-11 and also HPV-16 in oralsquamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. In the last 15 years OSCC has become more common in children andyoung adults. The role of HPV virus causing oral squamous cell carcinomas is more often realized, butpeople’s lack of knowledge and risky sexual behavior is still the main factor in growing HPV infections.

  14. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified. PMID:20690545

  15. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; Muller, E.E.; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  16. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  17. Successful management of refractory cases of canine demodicosis with homeopathy medicine Graphitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Dua, Kirti; Turkar, Sujata; Singh, Harkirat; Singla, L D

    2014-12-01

    Canine demodicosis is a refractory skin disease caused by excessive proliferation of mite Demodex canis. Despite availability of several treatment options, the disease poses a great challenge to clinicians for its long term management as some drugs may be ineffective or toxic. Present report describes successful treatment of two refractory cases of canine demodicosis using homeopathy medicine. After oral administration of Graphitis 200 C two drops once daily for 2 months, complete cure from the disease was observed. No adverse health effects of the medication were recorded during the treatment. Thus, it may be concluded that homeopathy medicine may be used safely for long-term management of canine demodicosis. PMID:25320495

  18. Human Papillomavirus-Related Cancers Among People Living With AIDS in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Pérez-Irizarry, Javier; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Pérez, Naydi; Cruz, Maritza; Palefsky, Joel; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; de Miranda, Sandra; Colón-López, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)–related cancers and the risk of death (by cancer status) among people living with AIDS (PLWA) in Puerto Rico. We used data from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and Central Cancer Registry (1985–2005). Cancers with highest incidence were cervix (299.6/100,000) for women and oral cavity/oropharynx for men (150.0/100,000); the greatest excess of cancer incidence for men (standardized inci...

  19. Parental acceptance of Human Papillomavirus vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenselink, C.H.; Gerrits, M.M.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Hamont, D. van; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether parents would accept Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their children and which variables may influence their decision, including knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV. STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred and fifty-six parents of children aged 10-12 years were inte

  20. Factors affecting transmission of mucosal human papillomavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Veldhuijzen; P.J. Snijders; P. Reiss; C.J. Meijer; J.H. van de Wijgert

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The effect of HPV on public health is especially related to the burden of anogenital cancers, most notably cervical cancer. Determinants of exposure to HPV are similar to those for most sexually transmitted infections, but

  1. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    2011-01-01

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we revie

  2. Screening for human papillomavirus: is urine useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Hauwers, K.W.M.; Tjalma, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent infection with high-risk Human papillomavirus (hr-HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) is the main risk factor for developing malignant genital lesions. Screening methods and follow-up schedules for cervical cancer are well known. A golden standard to screen and monitor men does not exist yet, bec

  3. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  4. Self-reported Oral Health, Oral Hygiene, and Oral HPV Infection in At-Risk Women in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Tran, Ly Thi-Hai; Markham, Christine M.; Huynh, Thuy Thi-Thu; Tran, Loi Thi; Pham, Vy Thi-Tuong; Tran, Quan Minh; Hoang, Ngoc Hieu; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Sturgis, Erich Madison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to examine the relationship between self-reported oral health, oral hygiene practices, and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women at risk for sexually transmitted infections in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Study design Convenience and referral sampling methods were used in a clinic-based setting to recruit 126 women aged 18–45 years between August–October 2013. Behavioral factors were self-reported. Oral-rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA of two low-risk and 13 high-risk genotypes. Results A higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with poorer self-rated overall oral health (p=.001), reporting oral lesions/problems in the past year (p=.001), and reporting a tooth loss not because of injury (p=.001). Higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was also associated with two measures of oral hygiene: lower frequencies of toothbrush per day (p=.047) and gargling without toothbrush (p=.037). After adjusting for other factors in multivariable logistic regression models, poorer self-rated overall oral health remained statistically associated with oral HPV infection (p=.042); yet, the frequency of toothbrush per day did not (p=.704). Conclusion Results corroborate the association between self-reported poor oral health and oral HPV infection. The effect of oral hygiene on oral HPV infection remains inconclusive. PMID:26093681

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonhemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype V Strain 1, Isolated from the Buccal Cavity of a Canine

    OpenAIRE

    Harden, Leeanne K.; Morales, Karina M.; Hughey, Jeffery R.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence from a nonhemolytic strain of Streptococcus agalactiae from the oral cavity of a canine was assembled. The genome is 2,165,968 bp, contains 2,055 genes, and is classified as group B streptococcus (GBS) serotype V, strain 1. A comparison to other S. agalactiae sequences shows high gene synteny with human and bovine strains.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonhemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype V Strain 1, Isolated from the Buccal Cavity of a Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Leeanne K; Morales, Karina M; Hughey, Jeffery R

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence from a nonhemolytic strain of Streptococcus agalactiae from the oral cavity of a canine was assembled. The genome is 2,165,968 bp, contains 2,055 genes, and is classified as group B streptococcus (GBS) serotype V, strain 1. A comparison to other S. agalactiae sequences shows high gene synteny with human and bovine strains. PMID:26823579

  7. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  8. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154 isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease.

  9. Effect of Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Protein-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies on Papillomavirus DNA Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Kurg, Reet; Parik, Jüri; Juronen, Erkki; Sedman, Tiina; Abroi, Aare; Liiv,Ingrid; Langel, Ülo; Ustav, Mart

    1999-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E2 protein is the master regulator of papillomavirus replication and transcription. We have raised a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the BPV-1 E2 protein and used them to probe the structure and function of the protein. Five MAbs reacted with linear epitopes, and four MAbs recognized conformation-dependent epitopes which mapped within the C-terminal DNA-binding and dimerization domain. MAb 1E2 was able to recognize the replication- and tr...

  10. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Therese Little MBBS, DRANZCOG, FACRRM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been prescribed the oral contraceptive pill to treat menstrual cycle abnormalities prior to investigation and diagnosis. Vaccine research does not present an ovary histology report of tested rats but does present a testicular histology report. Enduring ovarian capacity and duration of function following vaccination is unresearched in preclinical studies, clinical and postlicensure studies. Postmarketing surveillance does not accurately represent diagnoses in adverse event notifications and can neither represent unnotified cases nor compare incident statistics with vaccine course administration rates. The potential significance of a case series of adolescents with idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency following HPV vaccination presenting to a general practice warrants further research. Preservation of reproductive health is a primary concern in the recipient target group. Since this group includes all prepubertal and pubertal young women, demonstration of ongoing, uncompromised safety for the ovary is urgently required. This matter needs to be resolved for the purposes of population health and public vaccine confidence.

  11. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  12. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  13. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  14. Human papillomavirus and tumours of the eye region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution......ophthalmology, lacrimal sac, tear sac, papilloma, carcinoma, papillomavirus, HPV, polymerase chain reaction, PCR, RNA, DNA, in situ hybridisation, aetiology, conjunctiva, dysplasia, sex, age, distribution...

  15. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  16. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  17. Tumourigenesis Driven by the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian-American E6 Variant in a Three-Dimensional Keratinocyte Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Jackson; Melissa Togtema; Lambert, Paul F.; Ingeborg Zehbe

    2014-01-01

    Infection with a transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) such as type 16 (of species Alphapapillomavirus 9) causes ano-genital and oral tumours via viral persistence in human squamous cell epithelia. Epidemiological studies showed that the naturally occurring HPV16 Asian-American (AA) variant (sublineage D2/D3) is found more often than the European Prototype (EP) (sublineage A1) in high-grade cervical neoplasia and tumours compared to non-cancer controls. Just three amino acid changes within ...

  18. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or getting oral HPV? At this time no studies have explored how oral HPV can be prevented. However, it is likely that condoms and dental dams, when used consistently and correctly, will lower the chances of giving ...

  20. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  1. Transplacental transmission of Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafini Eduardo P

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1 in the pregnant woman, (a genital; (b peripheral blood; (2 in the newborn, (a oral cavity, axillary and inguinal regions; (b nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c cord blood; (3 in the placenta. The HPV DNA was identified using two methods: multiplex PCR of human β-globin and of HPV using the PGMY09 and PGMY11 primers; and nested-PCR, which combines degenerated primers of the E6/E7 regions of the HPV virus, that allowed the identification of genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Transplacental transmission was considered when type-specific HPV concordance was found between the mother, the placenta and the newborn or the mother and cord blood. The study included 49 HPV DNA-positive pregnant women at delivery. Twelve placentas (24.5%, n = 12/49 had a positive result for HPV DNA. Eleven newborn were HPV DNA positive in samples from the nasopharyngeal or buccal and body or cord blood. In 5 cases (10.2%, n = 5/49 there was HPV type-specific agreement between genital/placenta/newborn samples. In one case (2%, n = 1/49 there was type specific HPV concordance between genital/cord blood and also suggested transplacental transmission. A positive and significant correlation was observed between transplacental transmission of HPV infection and the maternal variables of immunodepression history (HIV, p = 0.011. In conclusion the study suggests placental infection in 23.3% of the cases studied and transplacental transmission in 12.2%. It is suggested that in future HPV DNA be researched in the normal endometrium of women of reproductive age. The possible consequence of fetal exposure to HPV should be observed.

  2. Oral cancer, HPV infection and evidence of sexual transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hernán, Fátima; Sánchez Hernández, Juan Manuel; Cano Sánchez, Jorge; Campo, Julián; Romero, Jorge del

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and oral cancer is growing worldwide, both in young non-smokers and in young non-drinkers (smoking and drinking are considered the main risk factors). Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong association between the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 and 18 (high oncological risk) which have already demonstrated their etiological role in anal tumours as well as in cervix cancer. There is clear epidemiologic evidence that both types...

  3. Human papillomaviruses vaccine: A dermatologic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyaprakash Anita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV are responsible for both benign anogenital warts and malignant disease in humans, especially cervical cancer. Dermatologists in India recognize a great many cases of anogenital warts, and afflicted individuals may be at increased risk of coinfection with oncogenic HPV types. For this reason, dermatologists are in a position to identify potential carriers of oncogenic HPV types in the population. By targeting these individuals and their partners, as well as unaffected individuals for vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, dermatologists have the ability to impact the morbidity and mortality of cervical cancer in India.

  4. [Infection therapeutic modalities in human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Pacheco, Adia; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino; Hernández Quijano, Tomás; Zárate, Arturo

    2012-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genital it can infect any mucous of the body and to cause cancer of the uterine cervix. Until recently specific treatments did not exist on this infection, for what had to destroy or to remove the injured tissue by diverse procedures, what could have obstetric repercussions in young women. Recently some surgical modalities and topical drugs have arisen, as well as of systemic employment that allow to arrive to the lesions difficult to approach, and have demonstrated good effectiveness to cure the infection for HPV, for what an analysis of the medical treatment of this infection type is made. PMID:23427640

  5. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  6. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  7. Productive infection of bovine papillomavirus type 2 in the urothelial cells of naturally occurring urinary bladder tumors in cattle and water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Papillomaviruses (PVs are highly epitheliotropic as they usually establish productive infections within squamous epithelia of the skin, the anogenital tract and the oral cavity. In this study, early (E and late (L protein expression of bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 in the urothelium of the urinary bladder is described in cows and water buffaloes suffering from naturally occurring papillomavirus-associated urothelial bladder tumors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: E5 protein, the major oncoprotein of the BPV-2, was detected in all tumors. L1 DNA was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced and confirmed to be L1 DNA. The major capsid protein, L1, believed to be only expressed in productive papillomavirus infection was detected by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical investigations confirmed the presence of L1 protein both in the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells of the neoplastic urothelium. Finally, the early protein E2, required for viral DNA replication and known to be a pivotal factor for both productive and persistent infection, was detected by Western blot and immunohistochemically. Electron microscopic investigations detected electron dense particles, the shape and size of which are consistent with submicroscopic features of viral particles, in nuclei of neoplastic urothelium. CONCLUSION: This study shows that both active and productive infections by BPV-2 in the urothelium of the bovine and bubaline urinary bladder can occur in vivo.

  8. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  9. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  10. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  11. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  12. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  13. Despre babesioza canină

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.

  14. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  15. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  16. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  17. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  18. Vaccines and immunization against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Neil D; Budgeon, Lynn R

    2014-01-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic immunization strategies are an effective method to control human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated diseases and cancers. Current protective virus-like particle and capsid-based vaccines are highly protective against vaccine-matched HPV types, and continued improvements in second-generation vaccines will lead to broader protection and cross-protection against the cancer-associated types. Increasing the effectiveness of broadly cross-protective L2-based immunogens will require adjuvants that activate innate immunity to thus enhance adaptive immunity. Therapeutic immunization strategies are needed to control and cure clinical disease and HPV-associated cancers. Significant advances in strategies to improve induction of cell-mediated immunity to HPV early (and capsid) proteins have been pretested in preclinical animal papillomavirus models. Several of these effective protocols have translated into successful therapeutic immune-mediated clearance of clinical lesions. Nevertheless, there are significant challenges in activating immunity to cancer-associated lesions due to various immune downregulatory events that are triggered by persistent HPV infections. A better understanding of immune responses to HPV lesions in situ is needed to optimize immune effector T cells that efficiently locate to sites of infection and which should lead to an effective immunotherapeutic management of this important human viral pathogen. The most effective immunization strategy may well require combination antiviral and immunotherapeutic treatments to achieve complete clearance of HPV infections and associated cancers. PMID:24643192

  19. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  20. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-cervarix.html . CDC review information for HPV Cervarix® ...

  1. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil Vaccine - What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html . CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  2. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  3. Human papillomavirus-related cancers among people living with AIDS in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Pérez-Irizarry, Javier; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suárez, Erick; Pérez, Naydi; Cruz, Maritza; Palefsky, Joel; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Miranda, Sandra; Colón-López, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers and the risk of death (by cancer status) among people living with AIDS (PLWA) in Puerto Rico. We used data from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and Central Cancer Registry (1985-2005). Cancers with highest incidence were cervix (299.6/100,000) for women and oral cavity/oropharynx for men (150.0/100,000); the greatest excess of cancer incidence for men (standardized incidence ratio, 86.8) and women (standardized incidence ratio, 52.8) was for anal cancer. PLWA who developed a cancer had decreased survival and increased risk of death compared with those who did not have cancer. Cancer control strategies for PLWA will be essential for improving their disease survival. PMID:24831284

  4. Oral Insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra Sanjay; Kalra Bharti; Agrawal Navneet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

  5. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Del Puerto, Helen L; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Luciana Moro; Fabiana Alves; Braz, Gissandra F; Almir S. Martins

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus...

  6. Association of Human Papilloma Virus 16 Infection and p53 Polymorphism among Tobacco using Oral Leukoplakia Patients: A Clinicopathologic and Genotypic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Seema Sikka; Pranav Sikka

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) and p53 alterations are speculated to play a role in carcinogenesis. This study was carried out to find out the association of HPV and p53 with precancerous lesions of the oral cavity such as leukoplakia: The objective of this study was to find the association among human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 infections and p53 polymorphism in tobacco using the oral leukoplakia patients. Methods: A total of 91 oral leukoplakia patients and 100 controls were rando...

  7. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  8. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high interobserver

  9. Human papillomavirus and gastrointestinal cancer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Dania; Stracci, Fabrizio; Buonora, Nicola; Masanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils. However, studies of the aetiological role of HPV in colorectal and esophageal malignancies have conflicting results. The aim of this review was to organize recent evidence and issues about the association between HPV infection and gastrointestinal tumours with a focus on esophageal, colorectal and anal cancers. The ultimate goal was to highlight possible implications for prognosis and prevention. PMID:27672265

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: a Mozambique overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzol, Damiano; Putoto, Giovanni; Chhaganlal, Kajal D

    2016-06-01

    Human Papillomavirus is agent of the most common sexually transmitted disease which is able to infect mucosal and cutaneous membranes of the anogenital region, upper aerodigestive tract, and other head and neck mucosal regions. Although mainly HPV infection can be asymptomatic and transient, it may persist and give rise to various lesions such as warts, condyloma dysplasia and cancers depending on low or high risk type of HPV infection. Moreover, growing recent evidence suggests a role of this virus in male and female fertility. To date no effective prevention, test, treatment and control strategies are provided for people in developing countries despite the reported high incidence of HPV both in women and men. This paper reviews the more recent literature about HPV infection highlighting epidemiology, related pathologies and possible fertility effects of HPV in male and female with particular attention to the Mozambique context.

  11. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  12. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion

  13. The Tetraspanin CD151 in Papillomavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze D. Scheffer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPV are non-enveloped DNA tumor viruses that infect skin and mucosa. The most oncogenic subtype, HPV16, causes various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, and head and neck cancers. During the multistep process of infection, numerous host proteins are required for the delivery of virus genetic information into the nucleus of target cells. Over the last two decades, many host-cell proteins such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans, integrins, growth factor receptors, actin and the tetraspanin CD151 have been described to be involved in the process of infectious entry of HPV16. Tetraspanins have the ability to organize membrane microdomains and to directly influence the function of associated molecules, including binding of receptors to their ligands, receptor oligomerization and signal transduction. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on CD151, and CD151-associated partners during HPV infection and discuss the underlying mechanisms.

  14. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  15. A clinical and radiographic study to evaluate the rate of retraction of maxillary canine using nickel-titanium closed coil spring with two different bracket systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Adarsh Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares the efficiency of self-ligating brackets with the conventional preadjusted edgewise (PEA brackets during maxillary canine retraction using nickel-titanium closed coil springs. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised of 20 healthy patients (10 males and 10 females, within age groups 16-26 years (mean, 20 years having Class I malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion. All patients underwent bilateral extraction of the maxillary first bicuspids and retraction of the maxillary canines with fixed self-ligating brackets (3M Smart clip and PEA appliance (3M Gemini. The initial records included standard intra- and extra-oral photographs, study models, lateral cephalograms, and panoramic radiographs. Results: The mean distal movement of canines in self-ligating brackets was 0.89 mm/mo with standard deviation of 0.255 and in preadjusted edgewise brackets, the mean distal movement of canines was 0.87 mm/mo with standard deviation of 0.214. The mean tipping of canine in self-ligating brackets was 7.45 ± 1.050(0 and in PEA brackets it was 7.70° ± 1.21°. The mean rotation of canine in self-ligating brackets was 7.65° ± 3.47° and in preadjusted edgewise appliance it was 12.30° ± 3.08°. Conclusion: The rates of distal movement of the maxillary canines were similar with both conventional and self-ligating brackets. Rotation of the maxillary canines during retraction was minimized with self-ligating brackets in comparison to conventional bracket systems.

  16. Association of human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunosuppression with human papillomavirus infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M J; Stanley, M W; Cruikshank, S; Carson, L

    1989-02-01

    Human papillomavirus infection plays an important causal role in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma. The rate of infection with human papillomavirus as well as the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma are increased in immunosuppressed patients. We report a possible association between infection with human immunodeficiency virus and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with human papillomavirus infection.

  17. Generalized canine discoid lupus erythematosus responsive to tetracycline and niacinamide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Michael A; Messenger, Linda M; Linder, Keith E; Olivry, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a commonly reported canine autoimmune disease that normally presents with a phenotype consisting of erythema, depigmentation, scaling, erosions/ulcers, and scarring over the nasal planum and the proximal dorsal muzzle. Recently, two cases of a generalized variant of this disease have been reported, whose lesions responded to either systemic glucocorticoids or a combination of topical corticosteroids, topical tacrolimus, and the oral antimalarial hydroxychloroquine. The purpose of this report is to describe an 11 yr old shih tzu that presented with skin lesions consisting of multiple annular, erythematous papules and plaques, hyperpigmentation, adherent scaling, and atrophic scars over the caudal dorsum, flanks, craniodorsal thorax, and lateroproximal extremities. A diagnosis of generalized DLE was made based on the clinical presentation, histopathology, laboratory values, and direct immunofluorescence findings. Treatment consisted of oral tetracycline and oral niacinamide, which resulted in complete remission of clinical signs. This is the first documented report of generalized canine DLE responding to the described immunomodulating regimen. Such a combination might therefore be considered as a glucocorticoid and/or antimalarial alternative for the management of generalized DLE.

  18. Key Considerations in Designing Oral Drug Delivery Systems for Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yunmei; Peressin, Karl; Wong, Pooi Yin; Page, Stephen W; Garg, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    The present review discusses the pharmaceutical impact of the anatomy and physiology of the canine gastrointestinal tract to provide a comprehensive guide to the theories and challenges associated with the development of oral drug delivery systems for dogs. Novel pharmaceutical technologies applied to veterinary drugs are discussed indicating the advantages and benefits for animals. There are currently immense research and development efforts being funneled into novel canine health products. Such products are being used to overcome limitations of drugs that display site-dependent absorption or possess poor biopharmaceutical properties. Techniques that are employed to increase bioavailability of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drugs are discussed in this article. Furthermore, an overview of palatable oral formulations for dog care is provided as an approach to easy administration. In vitro and in vivo evaluation and correlation of oral drug formulations in dogs are also addressed. This article assesses the outlook of canine oral drug development recognizing substantial growth forecasts of the dog care market. PMID:27056627

  19. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  20. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  1. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration. PMID:27433532

  2. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  3. Role of Ultraviolet Radiation in Papillomavirus-Induced Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayushi Uberoi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses are causally associated with 5% of human cancers. The recent discovery of a papillomavirus (MmuPV1 that infects laboratory mice provides unique opportunities to study the life cycle and pathogenesis of papillomaviruses in the context of a genetically manipulatable host organism. To date, MmuPV1-induced disease has been found largely to be restricted to severely immunodeficient strains of mice. In this study, we report that ultraviolet radiation (UVR, specifically UVB spectra, causes wild-type strains of mice to become highly susceptible to MmuPV1-induced disease. MmuPV1-infected mice treated with UVB develop warts that progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Our studies further indicate that UVB induces systemic immunosuppression in mice that correlates with susceptibility to MmuPV1-associated disease. These findings provide new insight into how MmuPV1 can be used to study the life cycle of papillomaviruses and their role in carcinogenesis, the role of host immunity in controlling papillomavirus-associated pathogenesis, and a basis for understanding in part the role of UVR in promoting HPV infection in humans.

  4. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: comparison of in vitro leishmanicidal activity of marbofloxacin, meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Rougier, Sandrine; Dugas, Bernard; Pino, Paco; Mazier, Dominique; Woehrlé, Frédérique

    2006-01-30

    The control of canine leishmaniasis largely depends on the success of treatment. Drugs currently available to treat this disease are toxic and partially effective. The curative effect of marbofloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed for veterinarian individual treatment, was evaluated in vitro in the presence of Leishmania infantum promastigotes and dog-monocyte-derived macrophages; meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate were used as comparative treatments. We observed that the killing of Leishmania promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by marbofloxacin was dose-dependent. We demonstrated that successful treatment of canine infected macrophages for 48 h was possible with 500 microg/ml of marbofloxacin. Leishmanicidal activity acted through a TNF-alpha and nitric oxide pathway and correlated with the generation of nitric oxide (NO(2)) production by monocytes derived macrophages from infected (23+/-5 microM) or healthy (21+/-6 microM) dogs, in comparison with NO(2) concentration in infected/non-treated macrophages (Marbofloxacin was shown to be non-toxic at 500 microg/ml in vitro and no cell apoptosis was observed. The molecule was able to induce a parasitic process after significant elimination of amastigotes in leishmania-infected dog macrophages. We propose that marbofloxacin, compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents (meglumine antimoniate and sodium stibogluconate), could be an effective and pragmatic oral route alternative to treat canine leishmaniasis.

  5. Integrating conventional and CAD/CAM digital techniques for establishing canine protected articulation: A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kerdani, Tarek; Nimmo, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Canine protected articulation is widely accepted for patients requiring extensive oral rehabilitation. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorations have been primarily designed in occlusion at the maximum intercuspal position. Designing a virtual articulator that is capable of accepting excursive occlusal records and duplicating the mandibular movements is a challenge for CAD/CAM technology. Modifying tooth shape using composite resin trial restorations to produce esthetic results and later scanning the modified teeth to create milled crowns is becoming a popular use of the CAD/CAM technology. This report describes a technique that combines conventional and CAD/CAM prosthodontic techniques for milling crowns for canine teeth that are designed to establish or improve canine protected articulation. This technique involves designing and fabricating interim restorations based on diagnostic waxing, scanning the designs intraorally, and storing them in software as pretreatment digital records. The scanned designs are then applied to the digital representation of the prepared teeth to fabricate the definitive restorations. PMID:26774319

  6. Treatment of canine atopic dermatitis: 2010 clinical practice guidelines from the International Task Force on Canine Atopic Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; DeBoer, Douglas J; Favrot, Claude; Jackson, Hilary A; Mueller, Ralf S; Nuttall, Tim; Prélaud, Pascal

    2010-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic relapsing pruritic skin disease of dogs for which treatment has varied over time and geographical location. Recent high quality randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have established which drugs are likely to offer consistent benefit. The International Task Force for Canine AD currently recommends a multi-faceted approach to treat dogs with AD. Acute flares should be treated with a combination of nonirritating baths and topical glucocorticoids, once an attempt has been made to identify and remove the suspected causes of the flare. Oral glucocorticoids and antimicrobial therapy must be added when needed. In dogs with chronic AD, a combination of interventions should be considered. Again, factors that trigger flares of AD must be identified and, if possible, avoided. Currently recognized flare factors include food, flea and environmental allergens, Staphylococcus bacteria and Malassezia yeast. Skin and coat hygiene and care must be improved by bathing with nonirritating shampoos and dietary supplementation with essential fatty acids. The severity of pruritus and skin lesions can be reduced with a combination of anti-inflammatory drugs. Currently, medications with good evidence of high efficacy include topical and oral glucocorticoids, and calcineurin inhibitors such as oral ciclosporin and topical tacrolimus. The dose and frequency of administration of these drugs should be tailored to each patient considering each drug's efficacy, adverse effects and cost. Allergen-specific immunotherapy should be offered, whenever feasible, in an attempt to prevent recurrence of clinical signs upon further exposure to environmental allergens to which the patient is hypersensitive. PMID:20456716

  7. Evaluation of the Number of Canals in Mandibular Canines Using Radiographic and Clearing Methods in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Tajik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of knowledge about root canal anatomy can cause mistakes in diagnosis, treatment planning and failure of treatment. Mandibular canine is usually single-rooted it may have two roots or more root canals. The purpose of this study was evaluating the number of root and root-canals of mandibular canine using digital radiography with different angles and comparing it with clearing method.Materials & Methods: This study was a diagnostic test. Two hundred human mandibular canine teeth were studied. Digital radiography of the teeth from mesiodistal, bacculingual and 200 mesial views were prepared. Radiographic evaluation was down by two observers (An oral radiologist and an endodontist separately. Then dental clearing was performed. Data analysis was done using SPSS.Ver.17 software and statistical tests of MC Nemar. P0.001. Findings of digital radiography in mesiodistal view showed that 180 teeth (90% were single-canal and 20 teeth (10% had two canals, which were not different from those of clearing method (P=0.25. In 200 mesial view, 192 teeth (96% were single-canal and 8 teeth (4% had two canals, which were different from those of clearing method (P=0.012.Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence of anatomical variations in mandibular canine in this in vitro study, due to the lack of significant difference of radiographic mesiodistal views compared to that of clearing technique, CBCT modality is recommended for obtaining fast and complete diagnosis of unusual root canal.

  8. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  9. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  10. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  11. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  12. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F;

    2011-01-01

    is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...

  13. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  14. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  15. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  16. Oral cysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunduri, Nagendra S; Goteki, Venkateswarulu; Gelli, Vamsi; Madasu, Krishnaveni

    2013-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a common disease in developing countries, but oral lesions caused by this parasitic infestation are rare. We report here a rare case of oral cysticercosis in a 17 year old male who sought treatment for an asymptomatic nodule of the lower lip that had previously been diagnosed as a mucocele. PMID:23691623

  17. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Khallouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables, and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches.

  18. The evolving definition of carcinogenic human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castle Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thirteen human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes have been judged to be carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic, and the cause of virtually all cervical cancer worldwide. Other HPV genotypes could possibly be involved. Although the inclusion of possibly carcinogenic HPV genotypes may hurt test specificity, it may indirectly increase the reassurance following a negative HPV test (i.e. the negative predictive value of an HPV test for cervical precancer and cancer. The future of cervical cancer screening in low-resource setting, however, may include once-in-a-lifetime, low-cost and rapid HPV testing. However, the tradeoff of more false positives for greater reassurance may not be acceptable if the local infrastructure cannot manage the screen positives. Now is the time for the community of scientists, doctors, and public health advocates to use the data presented at the 100th International Agency for Research on Cancer monograph meeting to rationally decide the target HPV genotypes for the next generation of HPV tests for use in high-resource and low-resource settings. The implications of including possibly HPV genotypes on HPV test performance, also for guidance on the use of these tests for cervical cancer prevention programs, are discussed.

  19. Requiring human papillomavirus vaccine for immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachey, Krista J; Allen, Rebecca H; Nothnagle, Melissa; Boardman, Lori A

    2009-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11- to 12-year-old girls, with catch-up vaccination for girls and women aged 13 to 26 years. Although compulsory HPV vaccination is not currently mandated for any U.S. population, immigrant women aged 11-26 years are now required to receive the first injection of the vaccine (the full series consists of three doses) as a result of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act. According to this law, immigrants applying for visas to enter the United States or to adjust their immigration status must receive the inoculations that the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends for U.S. residents. In the case of HPV, this law represents not only an undue burden on immigrant women, but also raises scientific and ethical questions regarding the benefit of vaccination in this population. Given these issues, immigrant women should not be required to provide documentation of HPV vaccination at the time of visa application or adjustment of immigration status. PMID:20168117

  20. Papillomavirus DNA in sperm from infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gennari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are causative agents of sexually transmitted disease that affect both men and women (6, 7.The genus includes more than 150 types divided in according to different tropism for skin surfaces and paved mucosal epithelia. Although HPV infection has a very high incidence in both sexes, HPV infection in men is often neglected because of its transitory nature and its lack of clinical relevance.The HPV infection in males was found to be borne by the anal region, perineum, scrotum, urethra and glans. The persistence of the virus in these sites of infection has been linked both to male infertility and to the development of neoplasia in genital areas and not. In addition, several studies have documented the presence of HPV in the semen but with conflicting results regarding the location of the virus in the various components of semen (5, 9,10. The objective of this study was to highlight the presence of HPV DNA in the sperm of patients waiting for a Medically Assisted Procreation and to evaluate if there is a correlation between the semen parameters (motility, concentration and morphology of spermatozoa and HPV infection.

  1. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  2. The prevalence of human papillomavirus in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Louise; Thomsen, Louise T; Olesen, Tina Bech;

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal cancer has been widely studied with conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas, and test the potential association.......The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in colorectal cancer has been widely studied with conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in colorectal adenocarcinomas and adenomas, and test the potential association....

  3. Suppression of cellular proliferation by the papillomavirus E2 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowhanick, J J; McBride, A A; Howley, P M

    1995-01-01

    Carcinogenic progression of a human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected cell is often associated with integration of the viral genome in a manner which results in the loss of expression of the viral regulatory protein E2. One function of E2 is the regulation of expression of the viral oncogenes, E6 and E7. Introduction of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) E2 transactivator (E2-TA) in HeLa cells, an HPV type 18 (HPV-18)-positive cervical carcinoma cell line results in growth arrest. In this s...

  4. Evolutionary and biophysical relationships among the papillomavirus E2 proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Blakaj, Dukagjin M.; Fernandez-Fuentes, Narcis; Chen, Zigui; Hegde, Rashmi; Fiser, Andras; Robert D Burk; Brenowitz, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Infection by a human papillomavirus (HPV) may result in a variety of clinical conditions ranging from benign warts to invasive cancer depending on the viral type. The HPV E2 protein represses transcription of the E6 and E7 genes in integrated papillomavirus genomes and together with the E1 protein is required for viral replication. E2 proteins bind with high affinity to palindromic DNA sequences consisting of two highly conserved four base pair sequences flanking a variable ‘spacer’ of identi...

  5. First trials of oral vaccination with rabies SAG2 dog baits in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Darkaoui, Sami; Boué, Franck; Demerson, Jean Michel; Fassi Fihri, Ouafaa; Yahia, Khadija Id Sidi; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Canine rabies is a serious health problem in Morocco and about 22 human deaths are reported yearly. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, Moroccan authorities evaluated oral rabies vaccine baits specially designed for dogs. Materials and Methods The study was performed in Tiflet area. The vaccine strain was SAG2, a modified live oral rabies vaccine strain. Each bait contained an aluminium/PVC capsule filled with a liquid. Two kinds of baits were used: placebo ...

  6. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes. PMID:16261767

  7. Human papillomavirus infection in the oromaxillofacial area: Clinical anatomy and histological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilea, Aranka; Boşca, Bianca; MiclĂuş, Viorel; Rus, Vasile; BĂbţan, Anida Maria; CÂmpian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-11-01

    Clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the head and neck can range from benign lesions, which are the most frequent, to malignant lesions. The prevalence of head and neck cancer is increasing, despite currently decreasing trends in known risk factors such as smoking and alcohol use. A new patient profile has appeared in recent practice: most frequently a middle-aged male patient who does not smoke or drink alcohol, is sexually active (possibly having multiple partners), and presents with oral or cervicofacial lesions requiring diagnosis and treatment. Another risk factor that should be considered in these patients is HPV infection. The association of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) with HPV is a challenge for the medical practitioner. The gold standard for diagnosis is histopathological examination, which can also yield evidence suggesting HPV infection. Determination of the viral genotype provides additional data for assessing the oncological risk of an HPV infection. Treatment of these patients is aimed at removing the lesions, in association or not with antiviral treatment and recurrence control. PMID:26331491

  8. Primary prevention of human papillomavirus-dependent neoplasia: no condom, no sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J

    2005-11-01

    Cervix cancer is one of several neoplastic disorders that arise following transfer of human papillomavirus (HPV) during unprotected sexual intercourse, and like most other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), is largely preventable by consistent condom use. This primary prevention strategy has received little support, however, when compared with massive secondary prevention initiatives involving cervical screening. The reasons for this anomalous situation are complex, and include: (i) the asymptomatic nature of most primary HPV infections; (ii) widespread ignorance concerning the venereal aetiology of HPV-related cancers; (iii) the common but incorrect belief that condom use does not reduce HPV transmission; (iv) the perceived irrelevance of safe sex campaigns based on reducing transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in high-HPV but low-HIV countries such as the Philippines; (v) the promotion of oral contraception by the medical and pharmaceutical sectors as the sexual prophylaxis of choice; and (vi) the assumption that HPV vaccines will solve the problem. Here it is proposed that the high prevalence of non-HIV STDs, including distressing disorders such as genital warts and herpes simplex, can be exploited with greater efficacy as a public health deterrent to unsafe sex and HPV transmission. Targeting a "mutually assured infection" campaign at vulnerable subgroups such as teenagers and oral contraceptive users could help reverse the global expansion of HPV-related cancers. PMID:16223580

  9. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  10. Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoti, Serena; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Abdolreza, Jamilian; Femiano, Felice; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-07-01

    The presence of an impacted mandibular canine is one of the most difficult challenges that an orthodontist will meet. Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dentoskeletal characteristics; the duration, risks, and costs of treatment; patient preferences; and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports an orthodontic treatment of a boy, age 12.9 years, with an impacted mandibular canine in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed. Radiographic analysis indicated a transmigration of the mandibular right canine. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous right canine followed by surgical exposure and ligation of the permanent canine. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct position of the tooth was achieved. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the impacted canine. PMID:26502299

  11. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV screening and detection in healthy patient saliva samples: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Robert C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human papillomaviruses (HPV are a large family of non-enveloped DNA viruses, mainly associated with cervical cancers. Recent epidemiologic evidence has suggested that HPV may be an independent risk factor for oropharyngeal cancers. Evidence now suggests HPV may modulate the malignancy process in some tobacco- and alcohol-induced oropharynx tumors, but might also be the primary oncogenic factor for inducing carcinogenesis among some non-smokers. More evidence, however, is needed regarding oral HPV prevalence among healthy adults to estimate risk. The goal of this study was to perform an HPV screening of normal healthy adults to assess oral HPV prevalence. Methods Healthy adult patients at a US dental school were selected to participate in this pilot study. DNA was isolated from saliva samples and screened for high-risk HPV strains HPV16 and HPV18 and further processed using qPCR for quantification and to confirm analytical sensitivity and specificity. Results Chi-square analysis revealed the patient sample was representative of the general clinic population with respect to gender, race and age (p Conclusions The successful recruitment and screening of healthy adult patients revealed HPV16, but not HPV18, was present in a small subset. These results provide new information about oral HPV status, which may help to contextualize results from other studies that demonstrate oral cancer rates have risen in the US among both females and minorities and in some geographic areas that are not solely explained by rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The results of this study may be of significant value to further our understanding of oral health and disease risk, as well as to help design future studies exploring the role of other factors that influence oral HPV exposure, as well as the short- and long-term consequences of oral HPV infection.

  12. Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity secondary to lower lip trauma. A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; España-Tost, Antoni; Vidal-Bel, August; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-04-01

    Inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity is an infrequent benign neoplasm of papillary appearance that originates in the secretory duct of a salivary gland. The etiology is unknown, though some authors have related it to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with a tumor of the lower lip mucosa. Histopathological study of the lesion diagnosed inverted ductal papilloma of the oral cavity. Human papillomavirus DNA detection and typing based on tumor lesion DNA amplification and posterior hybridization, revealed no presence of viral DNA. The antecedents of trauma reported by the patient could have played an important role in the development of this tumor. Key words:Inverted ductal papilloma, intraductal papilloma, oral papilloma, papillary epidermoid adenoma. PMID:24455058

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  15. Portrait of a Canine Probiotic – from Gut to Gut

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, D.; Murphy, K. Barry; MacSharry, J.; Boileau, T.; Sunvold, G.; Reinhart, G.; Kiely, B.; Shanahan, F; O'Mahony, L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The gastrointestinal environment is a complex interactive system involving the host, ingested dietary components, and numerous microbial species. We hypothesised that isolation and screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria adherent to healthy canine gastrointestinal tissue would yield strains with commensal activity in canines. The aims of this study were 1) to isolate a bank of commensal organisms from the canine gastrointestinal tract; 2) to screen these novel microbi...

  16. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  17. Dried cervical spots for human papillomaviruses identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Valérie; Garrigue, Isabelle; Jaquet, Antoine; Horo, Apollinaire; Minga, Albert; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Dabis, François; Fleury, Hervé

    2013-07-01

    Financial and operational constraints limit low-resource countries in the screening of high-risk genital human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV), the etiological agents of cervical cancer. With its simple storage, conservation and shipping, dried cervical sample (DCS) could represent an efficient tool. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of HPV genotyping from DCS. Cervical samples were obtained from 50 women infected with HIV-1 in Côte d'Ivoire. After DNA extraction from both DCS and matched liquid cervical samples (LCS), HPV genotyping was performed and the concordance of genotyping results was evaluated. HPV prevalence was 88% in LCS and 78% in DCS. Kappa statistic was 0.51 for the presence of any genotype (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77) and 0.73 for HR-HPV (0.45-0.99). Out of 50 samples, 45 were HPV-positive for DCS and/or LCS, and HR-HPV were detected in 37 samples (74%) with 36 HR-HPV multiple infections. Any genotype and HR genotype identification was concordant/compatible in 86% (43/50) and 88% (44/50) of samples, respectively. In most instances, kappa statistics for detection of type-specific HPV was over 0.6 (including HPV-16, -18, -31, -33). An excellent agreement (kappa statistic ≥ 0.81) was found for eight genotypes (HPV-6, -31, -35, -40, -56, -58, -66, and -82). In spite of interfering factors (multiple infections, different HPV loads, amplification competition, different inputs), DCS and LCS led to concordant/compatible results in most cases. DCS could represent an efficient tool for epidemiological field studies in resource-limited settings, and more importantly for improving the screening coverage and care management in women infected with HPV.

  18. Canine gastric emptying of polycarbophil: an indigestible, particulate substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J; Bass, P

    1985-08-01

    We tested whether indigestible solids could empty from the canine stomach independently of gastric burst motor activity. Test meals contained polycarbophil, an indigestible particulate (1-3 mm diameter) substance. Test meals were slurries of 30 or 90 g of radiolabeled polycarbophil particles in saline. Meals were administered via an oral gastric tube. After 4 h, the stomach was drained via a gastric cannula, and the percentage of meal that had emptied into the duodenum was calculated. Antroduodenal motor responses to the meals were monitored with strain-gage force transducers. The motor responses to polycarbophil meals were compared with those after canned food and saline meals. Fifty percent of the 90-g polycarbophil meal emptied by 4 h; this occurred independently of gastric burst motor activity. Both polycarbophil and canned food elicited similar indexed motor responses and both delayed the postprandial reappearance of gastric burst motor activity. We conclude that small indigestible particles can stimulate fed state-like motility and empty from the stomach independently of gastric burst activity.

  19. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was ..., there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid......BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE...

  20. Differences in transcriptional activity of cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Natasa; Nielsen, Lone; Doherty, Geoff;

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between UV-B irradiation and cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been suggested to be of relevance for the development of non-melanoma skin cancers. We investigated the activity within the upstream regulatory region (URR) of the HPV types 8, 38, 92, 93 and 96, as well as th...

  1. Human papillomavirus testing and genotyping in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Mass vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 will, in the long term, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, but screening will remain an important cancer control measure in both vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Since the 1960s, cytology screening has helped to reduc...

  2. Tenacity of Exogenous Human Papillomavirus DNA in Sperm Washing

    OpenAIRE

    Brossfield, Jeralyn E.; Chan, Philip J.; Patton, William C.; King, Alan

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:Sperm cells have been shown to take up exogenous DNA readily. The hypothesis was that sperm washing would remove exogenous viral DNA infecting sperm cells. The objective was to compare three types of sperm washing procedures for their capacity to remove exogenous human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from infected sperm.

  3. Human papillomavirus-associated cancers: A growing global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Anshuma; Singh, Mini P; Rai, Bhavana

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is linked with several cancers such as cancer cervix, vagina, vulva, head and neck, anal, and penile carcinomas. Although there is a proven association of HPV with these cancers, questions regarding HPV testing, vaccination, and treatment of HPV-related cancers continue to remain unanswered. The present article provides an overview of the HPV-associated cancers. PMID:27127735

  4. Human papillomavirus infection among women in South and North Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, TH; Nguyen, T.H.; Herrero, R; Vaccarella, S; Smith, J.S.; Thuy, TT Nguyen; Nguyen, HN; Nguyen, BD; Ashley, R; Snijders, P.J.F.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Munoz, N.; Parkin, DM; Franceschi, S

    2003-01-01

    The incidence rate of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) is 4-fold higher in Ho Chi Minh City, in the South of Vietnam, than in Hanoi, in the North. Thus, we explored the prevalence of and the risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these 2 areas. A population-based random sample of

  5. Development of a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention for Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Spring C.; Davies, Cristyn; McBride, Kate; Blades, Joanna; Stoney, Tanya; Marshall, Helen; Skinner, S. Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Australia has implemented a nation-wide programme providing a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to girls and boys through school-based programmes. Previous research has identified three distinct areas for attention: (1) lack of understanding about HPV and HPV vaccination, (2) young people's desire for involvement in decision-making…

  6. Health-economic modelling of human Papillomavirus vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Tjalke Arend

    2013-01-01

    Vaccinatie van 12-jarige meisjes tegen het humaan papillomavirus (HPV) dat baarmoederhalskanker kan veroorzaken, blijkt effectief en kosteneffectief te zijn. UMCG-onderzoeker Tjalke Westra rekende met behulp van modellen de lange termijn effecten door van verschillende HPV-vaccinatiescenario’s waarv

  7. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intent and Uptake among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A.; Zochowski, Melissa; Peterman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Ernst, Susan; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine intent and the effect of an educational intervention on vaccine uptake among female college students. Participants: Females aged 18 to 26 attending a university health service gynecology clinic (n = 256). Methods: Participants were randomized to receive either HPV-specific education with a…

  8. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian E; Favrot, Claude; Ackermann, Mathias; Gull, Jessica; Vetsch, Elisabeth; Tobler, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota). This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1). It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF) frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9%) and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus) PV1 (55.4%), thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts. PMID:21910860

  9. Novel snake papillomavirus does not cluster with other non-mammalian papillomaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gull Jessica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Papillomaviruses (PVs are associated with the development of neoplasias and have been found in several different species, most of them in humans and other mammals. We identified, cloned and sequenced PV DNA from pigmented papilloma-like lesions of a diamond python (Morelia spilota spilota. This represents the first complete PV genome discovered in a Squamata host (MsPV1. It consists of 7048 nt and contains the characteristic open reading (ORF frames E6, E7, E1, E2, L1 and L2. The L1 ORF sequence showed the highest percentage of sequence identities to human PV5 (57.9% and Caribbean manatee (Trichechus manatus PV1 (55.4%, thus, establishing a new clade. According to phylogenetic analysis, the MsPV1 genome clusters with PVs of mammalian rather than sauropsid hosts.

  10. High level expression of human epithelial β-defensins (hBD-1, 2 and 3 in papillomavirus induced lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Kong T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial defensins including human β-defensins (hBDs and α-defensins (HDs are antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the mucosal defense system. However, the role of defensins in papillomavirus induced epithelial lesions is unknown. Results Papilloma tissues were prospectively collected from 15 patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP and analyzed for defensins and chemokine IL-8 expression by quantitative, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. HBD-1, -2 and -3 mRNAs were detectable in papilloma samples from all RRP patients and the levels were higher than in normal oral mucosal tissues from healthy individuals. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that both hBD-1 and 2 were localized in the upper epithelial layers of papilloma tissues. Expression of hBD-2 and hBD-3 appeared to be correlated as indicated by scatter plot analysis (r = 0.837, p Conclusion Human β-defensins are upregulated in respiratory papillomas. This novel finding suggests that hBDs might contribute to innate and adaptive immune responses targeted against papillomavirus-induced epithelial lesions.

  11. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  12. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  13. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  14. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Effects of extrusion on the feed quality for other animals than pets have been well recognized. Our studies investigated to what extent extrusion and/or drying of a c...

  15. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman Ragnvi; Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie; Fransson Boel A; Bergström Annika; Häggström Jens

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameter...

  16. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  17. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  18. Identification and validation of human papillomavirus encoded microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Qian

    Full Text Available We report here identification and validation of the first papillomavirus encoded microRNAs expressed in human cervical lesions and cell lines. We established small RNA libraries from ten human papillomavirus associated cervical lesions including cancer and two human papillomavirus harboring cell lines. These libraries were sequenced using SOLiD 4 technology. We used the sequencing data to predict putative viral microRNAs and discovered nine putative papillomavirus encoded microRNAs. Validation was performed for five candidates, four of which were successfully validated by qPCR from cervical tissue samples and cell lines: two were encoded by HPV 16, one by HPV 38 and one by HPV 68. The expression of HPV 16 microRNAs was further confirmed by in situ hybridization, and colocalization with p16INK4A was established. Prediction of cellular target genes of HPV 16 encoded microRNAs suggests that they may play a role in cell cycle, immune functions, cell adhesion and migration, development, and cancer. Two putative viral target sites for the two validated HPV 16 miRNAs were mapped to the E5 gene, one in the E1 gene, two in the L1 gene and one in the LCR region. This is the first report to show that papillomaviruses encode their own microRNA species. Importantly, microRNAs were found in libraries established from human cervical disease and carcinoma cell lines, and their expression was confirmed in additional tissue samples. To our knowledge, this is also the first paper to use in situ hybridization to show the expression of a viral microRNA in human tissue.

  19. Microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padhy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections. Materials and Methods: The total wound samples (n=172 taken from both traumatic (140 and post-surgical (32 persistent wounds in canines were processed for routine microbial isolation and identification during a period of 15 months. Results: Staphylococcus intermedius was found to be the predominant isolate from all types of wounds under study. It was followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Pasteurella spp., Corynaebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. From different traumatic wounds of dogs, S. intermedius (92/140=65.7% and from surgical wounds, P. aeruginosa (24/32=75% were found to be the predominant isolates recovered whereas the most commonly isolated bacterial genus in both traumatic and surgical wounds of dogs was Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion: Canine wounds are polymicrobial in nature. Hence proper microbial laboratory diagnosis and presence of multiple organisms in a wound are to be taken into consideration for effective treatment of persistent wound infections in dogs.

  20. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  1. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  2. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  3. Detection and characterisation of papillomavirus in skin lesions of giraffe and sable antelope in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. van Dyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Papillomavirus was detected electron microscopically in cutaneous fibropapillomas of a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger. The virus particles measured 45 nm in diameter. Histopathologically, the lesions showed histopathological features similar to those of equine sarcoid as well as positive immunoperoxidase-staining of tissue sections for papillomavirus antigen. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detected bovine papillomavirus (BPV DNA. Bovine papillomavirus-1 was characterised by real-time PCR in the sable and giraffe, and cloning and sequencing of the PCR product revealed a similarity to BPV-1. As in the 1st giraffe, the lesions from a 2nd giraffe revealed locally malignant pleomorphism, possibly indicating the lesional end-point of papilloma infection. Neither virus particles nor positively staining papillomavirus antigen could be demonstrated in the 2nd giraffe but papillomavirus DNA was detected by real-time PCR which corresponded with BPV-1 and BPV-2.

  4. Identification of a novel papillomavirus in a Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) with viral production in cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, A M; Fish, S; Duerr, R S; Cruz, F N Dela; Pesavento, P A

    2015-05-01

    We report the identification of a novel papillomavirus, Fulmarus glacialis papillomavirus 1 (FgPV1), present within an interdigital foot mass of a Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis). The mass of interest was composed of normal stratified and keratinized epithelium and dense mesenchymal cells with central cartilaginous islands. Within the nuclei of many chondrocytes were loose aggregates or paracrystalline arrays of virions approximately 50 nm in size. Degenerate polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the virus as a putative papillomavirus, and the entire viral genome of 8132 base pairs was subsequently amplified and sequenced. Analysis revealed canonical papillomavirus architecture, including the early open reading frames E6, E7, E1, and E2 and the 2 late proteins L1 and L2. FgPV1 is most closely related to a cluster of avian and reptilian papillomaviruses as visualized by phylogenetic trees. This observation suggests that papillomavirus virion production can occur in mesenchymal cells. PMID:25034110

  5. Association of Bovine Papillomavirus E2 Protein with Nuclear Structures In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Kurg, Reet; Sild, Kristiina; Ilves, Aigi; Sepp, Mari; Ustav, Mart

    2005-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses which have the capacity to establish a persistent infection in mammalian epithelial cells. The papillomavirus E2 protein is a central coordinator of viral gene expression, genome replication, and maintenance. We have investigated the distribution of bovine papillomavirus E2 protein in nuclei of proliferating cells and found that E2 is associated with cellular chromatin. This distribution does not change during the entire cell cycle. The N-terminal transa...

  6. Enhanced transcriptional activation by E2 proteins from the oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovelman, R; Bilter, G K; Glezer, E; Tsou, A Y; Barbosa, M S

    1996-01-01

    A systematic comparison of transcriptional activation by papillomavirus E2 proteins revealed that the E2 proteins from high-risk human papillomaviruses (human papillomavirus type 16 [HPV-16] and HPV-18) are much more active than are the E2 proteins from low-risk HPVs (HPV-6b and HPV-11). Despite the tropism of HPVs for particular epithelial cell types, this difference in transcriptional activation was observed in a number of different epithelial and nonepithelial cells. The enhanced activitie...

  7. Transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, L W; Heilman, C A; Howley, P M

    1983-09-01

    Multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-specific polyadenylated RNA species in a BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. All of the RNA species were transcribed from the same DNA strand of the BPV-1 genome. Five RNA species previously identified in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. These five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the BPV-1 genome, and shared a 3' coterminus at 0.53 map units (m.u.). The 5' ends of the bodies of these distinct transcripts were located at ca. 0.03, 0.09, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.41 m.u. Additional polyadenylated RNA species not present in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were specific for the BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma and measured 1,700, 3,700, 3,800, 6,700, and 8,000 bases. These wart-specific species shared a 3' coterminus at 0.90 m.u. The 5' termini of the bodies of the 1,700- and 3,800-base species mapped at 0.71 and 0.42 m.u., respectively. Exonuclease VII analysis failed to reveal any internal splicing in these two species; however, the presence of small remote 5' leader sequences could not be ruled out. The 3,700-base species hybridized to DNA fragments from the 69% transforming segment as well as from the 31% nontransforming segment of the BPV-1 genome; however, this species was not precisely mapped. The 5' termini of the two largest RNA species (6,700 and 8,000 bases in size) were located at ca. 0.01 and 0.90 m.u., respectively. Since the 5' ends of these mapped adjacent to a TATAAA sequence which could possibly serve as an element of a transcriptional promoter, it is possible that one or both of these species represent nonspliced precursor RNA molecules. PMID:6137574

  8. Persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a population-based cohort of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Kjaer, Susanne K; Munk, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    rarely in cancer cases were also likely to persist. The number of high-risk HPV types and detection of HPV 16 infection at baseline and ever use of oral contraceptives increased the risk for persistence. The risk factor analyses also showed that use of an intrauterine device decreased the risk......Persisting human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a critical step in cervical carcinogenesis. This study was conducted to determine the type-specific HPV persistence and risk factors for persistence of high-risk HPV infections in a large cohort of Danish women. The study was based on a population...... high-risk HPV type at both examinations. Overall, 4.2% of the women had persistent HPV infection, accounting for 26.9% of the initially HPV-positive women. HPV 16, HPV 58, and HPV 31, all from species group alpha 9, were the most persistent types; however, other high-risk HPV types that are detected...

  9. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  10. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  11. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  12. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood samples...

  13. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  14. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  15. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  16. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  17. Interaction between Chronic Inflammation and Oral HPV Infection in the Etiology of Head and Neck Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Tezal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of oral tongue, base of the tongue, and tonsil cancers have been increasing steadily in many parts of the world in spite of declining rates of tobacco use over the last four decades. A better understanding of the etiology, interactions between risk factors, and new approaches to prevention and treatment are necessary to change this course. This paper will present evidence supporting a potential role of chronic inflammation in the etiologies of oral human papillomavirus infection and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and it will discuss the implications for prevention and treatment.

  18. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Saini; Santosh Saini; Sugandha Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

  19. Detection of High Risk Human Papillomavirus DNA Sequences in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Iranian Fanconi Anemia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohseni Meybodi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fanconi anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterizedby congenital malformations, bone marrow failure, development of squamous cellcarcinoma (SCC, and other cancers. Human papillomavirus (HPV in the oral cavityor oropharynx has been associated with an increased risk of laryngeal papillomatosis,invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC and cervicaland other genital cancers. The prevalence of HPV DNA in the oral cavity/oropharynxin FA patients and controls was compared.Materials and Methods: A risk factor questionnaire and oral exfoliated cells werecollected from FA patients. The study group consisted of 22 FA patients with HNSCC(case subjects and 24 patients with HNSCC without FA (control subjects. HPVDNA was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and specific primers thatcovered high risk types of HPV. Moreover, special serological assays were used forthe detection of specific antibodies against HPV in patient’s sera.Results: HPV DNA was detected in 82% of the SCC specimens from the case subjectswhich was statistically higher (p< 0.05 than the SCC specimens from the controlsubjects (62.5%. In all cases, the presence of HPV antibodies in patient’s serahas been shown. Among the case subject specimens, 14 cases, and in the controlsubjects, 11 cases were infected by high risk HPV (hr-HPV.Conclusion: These data confirm that HPV infection, especially with high risk types(16,18, could be one of several risk factors for HNSCC particularly in FA patients.

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  1. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  2. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay for detecting of antibody to canine distemper virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2006-01-01

    Serum neutralisation test (SNT) has been established for evaluating canine distemper vaccination, but until now SNT was rarely used due to the need for continuous tissue culture facilities and requires 3 days to perform. For detecting antibody to canine distemper virus, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is relatively simple and rapid seroassay. ELISA for canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) was developed by using Onderstepoort strain of canine dis...

  4. Bovine Papillomavirus Clastogenic Effect Analyzed in Comet Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Araldi, R. P.; Melo, T. C.; N. Diniz; J. Mazzuchelli-de-Souza; R.F. Carvalho; Beçak, W.; Stocco, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus related to serious livestock diseases. Oncoproteins encoded by BPV are involved in several steps of cellular transformation and have been reported as presenting clastogenic effects in peripheral lymphocytes and primary culture cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clastogenic potential of BPV types 1, 2, and 4 by comet assay. Peripheral blood was collected from 37 bovines, 32 infected with different levels of papillomatosis (12 anim...

  5. RNA Binding Proteins that Control Human Papillomavirus Gene Expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko Kajitani; Stefan Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is strictly linked to the differentiation program of the infected mucosal epithelial cell. In the basal and lower levels of the epithelium, early genes coding for pro-mitotic proteins and viral replication factors are expressed, while terminal cell differentiation is required for activation of late gene expression and production of viral particles at the very top of the epithelium. Such productive infections are normally cleared within 18–24 months. I...

  6. Biology of papillomaviruses and their role in oncogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.T.; Campo, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    A large number of different papillomavirus types have been identified. Several viruses often infect the same species and each virus is associated with a defined tissue. Recent evidence has shown that certain benign lesions can undergo malignant transformation in both animals and humans in response to genetic or environmental factors. Fine mapping of the structure and function of the viral genome may enhance our understanding of the interaction between the virus and the cofactors involved in malignant transformation.

  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L A V; Wardle, J; Grant, N.; J. Waller

    2009-01-01

    Background With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Methods Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data an...

  8. False-positive Human Papillomavirus DNA tests in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Pribac, Igor; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    Based on data from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on primary cervical screening, it has been reported that the problem of more frequent false-positive tests in Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA screening compared to cytology could be overcome. However, these reports predominantly operated with a...... narrow definition of a (false-)positive test. The aim of this paper was to illustrate how the narrow definition affected the measured adverse effects of HPV DNA screening compared with cytology screening....

  9. Human papillomavirus and breast cancer in Iran: a meta- analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Tahoora; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Afshari, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aims to investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and breast cancer using meta- analysis. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified reviewing the national and international databases. We also increased the search sensitivity by investigating the references as well as interview with research centers and experts. Finally, quality assessment and implementation of inclusion/exclusion criteria determined the eligible articles for meta-an...

  10. Adolescent Premature Ovarian Insufficiency Following Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Deirdre Therese; Ward, Harvey Rodrick Grenville

    2014-01-01

    Three young women who developed premature ovarian insufficiency following quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination presented to a general practitioner in rural New South Wales, Australia. The unrelated girls were aged 16, 16, and 18 years at diagnosis. Each had received HPV vaccinations prior to the onset of ovarian decline. Vaccinations had been administered in different regions of the state of New South Wales and the 3 girls lived in different towns in that state. Each had been p...

  11. Introduction of human papillomavirus vaccination in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Rebolj, Matejka; Valentiner-Branth, Palle;

    2012-01-01

    Cervical screening has helped decrease the incidence of cervical cancer, but the disease remains a burden for women. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is now a promising tool for control of cervical cancer. Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden......) are relatively wealthy with predominantly publicly paid health care systems. The aim of this paper was to provide an update of the current status of introduction of HPV vaccine into the childhood vaccination programs in this region....

  12. Cost-effectiveness of different human papillomavirus vaccines in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Vernon J; Tay, Sun Kuie; Teoh, Yee Leong; Tok, Mei Yin

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are widely available and there have been studies exploring their potential clinical impact and cost-effectiveness. However, few studies have compared the cost-effectiveness among the 2 main vaccines available - a bivalent vaccine against HPV 16/18, and a quadrivalent vaccine against 6/11/16/18. We explore the cost-effectiveness of these two HPV vaccines in tropical Singapore. Methods We developed a Markov state-transition model to represent the n...

  13. Factors Influencing Familial Decision-Making Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Heather L.; Klosky, James L; Parra, Gilbert R.; Randolph, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review is to summarize the research regarding Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake among families with adolescent/preadolescent daughters. Methods Literature searches (utilizing PubMed and PsychInfo databases) were conducted and research examining psychological and environmental factors which relate to HPV vaccine uptake and intentions was reviewed. Results Factors such as physician recommendations, perceptions of the beliefs of peers and significant oth...

  14. Cost-effectiveness of different human papillomavirus vaccines in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Tay Sun; Lee Vernon J; Teoh Yee; Tok Mei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are widely available and there have been studies exploring their potential clinical impact and cost-effectiveness. However, few studies have compared the cost-effectiveness among the 2 main vaccines available - a bivalent vaccine against HPV 16/18, and a quadrivalent vaccine against 6/11/16/18. We explore the cost-effectiveness of these two HPV vaccines in tropical Singapore. Methods We developed a Markov state-transition model to repres...

  15. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partner...

  16. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O' Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  17. Lactoferrin in canine sera: a pyometra study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoskova, A; Adlerova, L; Kudlackova, H; Leva, L; Vitasek, R; Faldyna, M

    2009-07-01

    The concentration of lactoferrin was measured in canine sera from groups of healthy male dogs as well as pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs and was compared with that of bitches with pyometra. Lactoferrin concentrations were higher in bitches with pyometra. The role of elevated lactoferrin concentrations in the suppression of lymphocyte activity was examined in sera from bitches with pyometra in a series of investigations. Although the sera from bitches with pyometra were capable of suppressing lymphocyte activity, lactoferrin was not found to be involved in this action. PMID:19754566

  18. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  19. Oral Leukoplakia as It Relates to HPV Infection: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Feller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity and can be categorised according to its clinical appearance as homogeneous or nonhomogenous. Tobacco and areca nut use, either alone or in combination are the most common risk factors for oral leukoplakia, but some oral leukoplakias are idiopathic. Some leukoplakias arise within fields of precancerized oral epithelium in which the keratinocytes may be at different stages of cytogenetic transformation. Leukoplakias may unpredictably regress, may remain stable, or may progress to carcinoma. There is a greater risk of carcinomatous transformation of idiopathic leukoplakia, of non-homogenous leukoplakia, of leukoplakia affecting the floor of the mouth; the ventrolateral surface of the tongue and the maxillary retromolar and adjoining soft palate (collectively called high-risk sites, of leukoplakia with high-grade epithelial dysplasia, and of leukoplakia in which the keratinocytes carry cytogenetic alterations associated with carcinomatous transformation. Although there appears to be some link between human papillomavirus (HPV and oral leukoplakia, there is little evidence to support a causal relationship either between HPV infection and oral leukoplakia or between HPV-infected leukoplakic keratinocytes and their carcinomatous transformation.

  20. Oral cancer knowledge, behavior, and attitude among osteopathic medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22% response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439

  1. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein causes a delay in repair of DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus related (HPV+) head and neck cancers (HNCs) demonstrate improved clinical outcomes compared to traditional HPV negative (HPV−) HNC patients. We have recently shown that HPV+ HNC cells are more sensitive to radiation than HPV− HNC cells. However, roles of HPV oncogenes in regulating the response of DNA damage repair remain unknown. Material and methods: Using immortalized normal oral epithelial cell lines, HPV+ HNC derived cell lines, and HPV16 E7-transgenic mice we assessed the repair of DNA damage using γ-H2AX foci, single and split dose clonogenic survival assays, and immunoblot. The ability of E7 to modulate expression of proteins associated with DNA repair pathways was assessed by immunoblot. Results: HPV16 E7 increased retention of γ-H2AX nuclear foci and significantly decreased sublethal DNA damage repair. While phospho-ATM, phospho-ATR, Ku70, and Ku80 expressions were not altered by E7, Rad51 was induced by E7. Correspondingly, HPV+ HNC cell lines showed retention of Rad51 after γ-radiation. Conclusions: Our findings provide further understanding as to how HPV16 E7 manipulates cellular DNA damage responses that may underlie its oncogenic potential and influence the altered sensitivity to radiation seen in HPV+ HNC as compared to HPV− HNC

  2. The potential impact of prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccination on oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Theresa; Eisele, David W; Fakhry, Carole

    2016-08-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is significantly increasing in the United States. Given that these epidemiologic trends are driven by human papillomavirus (HPV), the potential impact of prophylactic HPV vaccines on the prevention of OPC is of interest. The primary evidence supporting the approval of current prophylactic HPV vaccines is from large phase 3 clinical trials focused on the prevention of genital disease (cervical and anal cancer, as well as genital warts). These trials reported vaccine efficacy rates of 89% to 98% for the prevention of both premalignant lesions and persistent genital infections. However, these trials were designed before the etiologic relationship between HPV and OPC was established. There are differences in the epidemiology of oral and genital HPV infection, such as differences in age and sex distributions, which suggest that the vaccine efficacy observed in genital cancers may not be directly translatable to the cancers of the oropharynx. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy is challenging in the oropharynx because no premalignant lesion analogous to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cervical cancer has yet been identified. To truly investigate the efficacy of these vaccines in the oropharynx, additional clinical trials with feasible endpoints are needed. Cancer 2016;122:2313-2323. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27152637

  3. Induction of neutralizing antibodies by a tobacco chloroplast-derived vaccine based on a B cell epitope from canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2L21 epitope of the VP2 protein from the canine parvovirus (CPV), fused to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-2L21), was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. Mice and rabbits that received protein-enriched leaf extracts by parenteral route produced high titers of anti-2L21 antibodies able to recognize the VP2 protein. Rabbit sera were able to neutralize CPV in an in vitro infection assay with an efficacy similar to the anti-2L21 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 3C9. Anti-2L21 IgG and seric IgA antibodies were elicited when mice were gavaged with a suspension of pulverized tissues from CTB-2L21 transformed plants. Combined immunization (a single parenteral injection followed by oral boosters) shows that oral boosters help to maintain the anti-2L21 IgG response induced after a single injection, whereas parenteral administration of the antigen primes the subsequent oral boosters by promoting the induction of anti-2L21 seric IgA antibodies. Despite the induced humoral response, antibodies elicited by oral delivery did not show neutralizing capacity in the in vitro assay. The high yield of the fusion protein permits the preparation of a high number of vaccine doses from a single plant and makes feasible the oral vaccination using a small amount of crude plant material. However, a big effort has still to be done to enhance the protective efficacy of subunit vaccines by the oral route

  4. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  5. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  6. Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus by cobas 4800 HPV test in urban Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Iwasaki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular tests allow the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus in cervical samples, playing an important role in the prevention of cervical cancer. Objectives: We performed a study to determine the prevalence of HPV 16, HPV 18 and other high-risk human papillomavirus (pool 12 genotypes in Peruvian females from diverse urban areas using the cobas 4800 HPV test. Methods: Routine cervical samples collected in our laboratory were analyzed by cobas 4800 HPV test. Results: A total of 2247 samples from female patients aged 17–79 years were tested. high-risk human papillomavirus was positive in 775 (34.49% samples. Of these, 641 (82.71% were single infections and 134 (17.29% were multiple infections. The positivity rates for HPV 16, HPV 18, and other high-risk human papillomavirus were 10.77%, 2.0%, and 28.08%, respectively. In multiple high-risk human papillomavirus infections, the concomitance of HPV 16 and other high-risk human papillomavirus was more prevalent (13.42%. Conclusion: Our study showed high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus in urban Peru, mainly among young women. In both single and multiple infections other high-risk human papillomavirus were more prevalent than HPV 16 and HPV 18, which might influence vaccine impact in our country. Furthermore, the cobas 4800 HPV test may be considered a useful tool for HPV molecular diagnosis.

  7. CIGARETTE-SMOKING AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS IN PATIENTS WITH REPORTED CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL ABNORMALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BURGER, MPM; HOLLEMA, H; GOUW, ASH; PIETERS, WJLM; QUINT, WGV

    1993-01-01

    Objective-To assess the relation between two risk factors for cervical neoplasia: smoking and infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus. It has been suggested that smoking causes a local immunological defect, which could facilitate the infection and persistence of human papillomavirus. Design-Cr

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Bovine Papillomavirus Genotype 13 from Local Yellow Cattle in Hainan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Feng; Shi, Qiaoyun; Du, Li; Zhao, Tianjing; Cheng, Ying; Jiao, Hanwei; Zhao, Jianguo; Wang, Manchuriga; Rong, Hui; Zhou, Hailong; Wang, Fengyang

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus genotype 13 isolated from local yellow cattle in Hainan, China. The genome is 7,961 bp and contains six early genes and two late genes. This analysis provides important information for the research of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) in China.

  9. Aglepristone efficiency with and without the canine pyometra cloprostenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Molina D

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective. Evaluate the effectiveness of aglepristone with and without cloprostenol for treating canine pyometra. Materials and methods. Ten female French Bulldogs between 3-8 years of age diagnosed with pyometra were divided into two groups, one receiving a 10 mg/kg dose of aglepristone subcutaneously on days 1, 2, 8, 14 and 28, and the other an equal dose on days 1, 3, 8 and 15, as well as a 1 µg/kg dose of cloprostenol subcutaneously on days 3 and 8. Both groups received 5 mg/kg of enrofloxacin orally every 12 hours for 28 days. Hematic profiles were generated on days 1 and 28 and counted days until the next heat, expelling purulent material and of clinical recuperation. Results. There was no statistical difference in the variables of the line red blood cells between times and protocols. The line of white blood cells showed a statistical difference between days of treatment but not between the two groups. Both treatments were effective resulting in complete clinical recuperation. The combination of aglepristone with cloprostenol acted more quickly, decreasing the number of days of secretion, abdominal pain, and the recuperation of normal activity and appetite. All 10 females were bred during their first heat. Three females from the aglepristone group and one from the combined aglepristone with cloprostenol group were impregnated. Conclusions. Both protocols, combined with enrofloxacin, produced complete clinical recuperation in bitches with pyometra, but it was achieved more rapidly when given the combination of both aglepristone and cloprostenol.

  10. Establishment of a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Sen; XIA Sui-sheng; TANG Li-gong; CHENG Jun; CHEN Zhi-shui; ZHENG Shan-gen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation. Methods:12 male dogs were averagely grouped as donors and recipients. A small number of donor canine lymphocytes was infused into different anatomic locations of a paired canine recipient for each time and which was repeated weekly. Specific immune sensitization was monitored by means of Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) and Mixed Lymphocyte Culture (MLC) test. When CDC test conversed to be positive and MLC test showed a significant proliferation of reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients, the right kidneys of the paired dogs were excised and transplanted to each other concurrently. Injury of renal allograft function was scheduled determined by ECT dynamic kidney photography and pathologic investigation. Results :CDC test usually conversed to be positive and reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients were also observed to be proliferated significantly in MLC test after 3 to 4 times of canine donor lymphocyte infusions. Renal allograft function deterioration occurred 4 d post-operatively in 4 of 6 canine recipients, in contrast to none in control dogs. Pathologic changes suggested antibody-mediated rejection (delayed) or acute rejection in 3 excised renal allograft of sensitized dogs. Seven days after operation, all sensitized dogs had lost graft function, pathologic changes of which showed that the renal allografts were seriously rejected. 2 of 3 dogs in control group were also acutely rejected. Conclusion:A convenient method by means of repeated stimulation of canine lymphocyte may induce specific immune sensitization in canine recipients. Renal allografts in sensitized dogs will be earlier rejected and result in a more deteriorated graft function.

  11. Human papillomavirus-related disease in men: not just a women's issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palefsky, Joel M

    2010-04-01

    The most common cause of mortality related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is cervical cancer. However, male HPV infection is also an important concern, both for the disease burden in men and for the risk of transmission to women. HPV is associated with a variety of cancers in men, including anal cancer and a subset of penile and oral cancers. The incidence of anal and oral cancers related to HPV is increasing in the general population and is growing even faster among individuals who are immunocompromised because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Penile HPV infection is very common among heterosexual men and remains high throughout a wide range of ages. Likewise, anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia are very common throughout a wide range of ages in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Other HPV-related diseases of clinical importance in men include condylomata acuminata (genital warts) and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be highly efficacious in the prevention of genital warts in women and precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina. In addition, recent interim data have shown that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is highly effective in reducing external genital lesions in young men. Although the protective efficacy of HPV vaccination in men has not yet been fully established-pending the outcome of public policy discussions and cost-efficacy studies-there may be a strong rationale for vaccinating boys, similar to girls, at an early age when they have had limited or no prior sexual activity. PMID:20307839

  12. Detection of canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeS; PanD; BeraAK; SreevatsavaV; DasSK; DasS; RanaT; BandyopadhyayS; BhattacharyaD

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA method. Methods:During the present investigation experimental infection was established using evaginated worms of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). To check cross reactivity two pups were infected with Taenia hydatigena(T. hydatigena). In order to detect the presence of antigen, hyperimmune sera were raised against excretory-secretory products of adult worms E. chinococcus granulosus. Faecal sample collected either from experimentally infected pups or from other sources were heated at 70℃to detect heat stable soluble antigen. Results:Pups harbouring less than 104 worms showed negative results. Samples collected from 14 days onwards from experimentally infected animals harbouring more than 104 worms showed positive value. The maximum positive samples were detected in samples collected from in and around slaughter house and the least number of samples were detected positive maintained by dog squad. Conclusions:The affinity purified IgG exhibited promising results for detection of canine echinococcosis by indirect ELISA.

  13. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  14. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  15. Canine pluripotent stem cells: Are they ready for clinical applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Harvey Betts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Limei; Song, Xicheng; Li, Guojun

    2015-10-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the United States, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, including oral cavity and oropharynx) is rising in young adults. The reasons have been attributed to changes in sexual behaviors and the increasingly prevalent infection of oncogenic subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type16 and occasionally type18. However, only small proportion of individuals who have contracted HPV infection will develop OSCC, suggesting that there is an inter-individual variation in susceptibility to HPV infection and related OSCC. Identification of susceptible biomarkers for HPV status would be useful to identify those individuals who are susceptible to HPV infection, to refine the prognostication of HPV associated OSCC, and ultimately to improve prevention efforts for OSCC and potentially other HPV-associated diseases. Our public health OSCC prevention paradigm will need to expand beyond tobacco and alcohol control.

  17. Characterization of a novel close-to-root papillomavirus from a Florida manatee by using multiply primed rolling-circle amplification: Trichechus manatus latirostris papillomavirus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Annabel; Bossart, Gregory D; Ghim, Shin-Je; Sundberg, John P; Jenson, A Bennett; Van Ranst, Marc

    2004-11-01

    By using an isothermal multiply primed rolling-circle amplification protocol, the complete genomic DNA of a novel papillomavirus was amplified from a skin lesion biopsy of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), one of the most endangered marine mammals in United States coastal waters. The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Trichechus manatus latirostris papillomavirus type 1 (TmPV-1) were determined. TmPV-1 is the first virus isolated from the order of Sirenia. A phylogenetic analysis shows that TmPV-1 is only distantly related to other papillomavirus sequences, and it appears in our phylogenetic tree as a novel close-to-root papillomavirus genus. PMID:15507660

  18. Clinical and mycological analysis of dog's oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosema Santin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral microbiota of humans and animals is made up of a wide variety of yeasts and bacteria, but microbiota of dogs is not totally described. Although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate oral alterations with the presence of yeasts in oral cavity of female dogs. After clinical evaluation samples from healthy and from dogs with oral diseases were obtained from three different oral sites by swabs, curettes, millimeter periodontal probes and HA membrane tip in cellulose ester. Yeast identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic colony features and biochemical tests. Dental calculus was the most prevalent occurrence in the oral cavity of 59 females. However, the isolation of yeasts was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in animals suffering from halitosis. Eleven yeast species were identified, namely: Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula spp., Candida albicans, C. catenulata, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis, C. intermedia, Trichosporon asahii, T. mucoides and Cryptococcus albidus. It could be concluded that the yeasts are part of the microbiota from the different sites of the oral cavity of the female canines studied without causing any significant alterations except halitosis.

  19. Characterization of a Novel Close-to-Root Papillomavirus from a Florida Manatee by Using Multiply Primed Rolling-Circle Amplification: Trichechus manatus latirostris Papillomavirus Type 1†

    OpenAIRE

    Rector, Annabel; Bossart, Gregory D.; Ghim, Shin-je; John P Sundberg; Jenson, A. Bennett; Van Ranst, Marc

    2004-01-01

    By using an isothermal multiply primed rolling-circle amplification protocol, the complete genomic DNA of a novel papillomavirus was amplified from a skin lesion biopsy of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), one of the most endangered marine mammals in United States coastal waters. The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Trichechus manatus latirostris papillomavirus type 1 (TmPV-1) were determined. TmPV-1 is the first virus isolated from ...

  20. Case Report: Canine Fossa Abscess; A Rare Etiological Factor: The Lower Canine Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Agacayak, K. Serkan; Atılgan, S. Serhat; GORGUN, Belgin; Yaman, Ferhan; Ucan, M. Can; Atalay, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic infection may be dangerous; especially when life-threatening complications occur. Infection spreads through the bone and periosteum toward nearby or more distant structures and spaces. Canine fossa abscess is an odontogenic infection that can lead to life-threatening complications. Successful treatment requires early recognition, determination of etiological factors, and proper medical and surgical management. The aim of this paper is to emphasize different and rare etiological fa...

  1. Oral / response

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela; O'Neill, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The performance ‘Oral/Response’ joins an artist, Angela Bartram and a theorist, Mary O’Neill in research to analyse the dynamic, but often disjointed relationship between the live experience and its documentation by positioning both elements within the performance. Traditionally, the documentation of performance is a record left to stand for the work after the event that demonstrates an out of time viewpoint, which is a problem for ephemeral practice whose intention is to be ‘live’ and in the...

  2. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  3. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  4. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  5. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  6. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, L.V.; Visser, Ilona; Belikov, S.I.; Denikina, N.N.; Harder, Timm; Goatley, L.; Rima, B.; Edginton, B.; Osterhaus, Albert; Barrett, Thomas,

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals in Lake Baikal after the initial epizootic. Three out of 45 brain tissue samples collect...

  7. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Valério Carvalho; Clarisse Vieira Botelho; Caroline Gracielle Torres Ferreira; Paulo Oldemar Scherer; Jamária Adriana Pinheiro Soares-Martins; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida; Abelardo Silva Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availabilit...

  8. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, A; Simmonds, P.; Dubovi, E J; Qaisar, N.; Henriquez, J. A.; J. Medina; S Shields; Lipkin, W. I.

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions...

  9. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Halaswamy V Kambalimath; Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indi...

  10. Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Maeda

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OSA is known to present with highly variable and chaotic karyotypes, including hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy, and increased numbers of metacentric chromosomes. The spectrum of genomic instabilities in canine OSA has significantly augmented the difficulty in clearly defining the biological and clinical significance of the observed cytogenetic abnormalities. In this study, eight canine OSA cell lines were used to investigate telomere fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a peptide nucleotide acid probe. We characterized each cell line by classical cytogenetic studies and cellular phenotypes including telomere associated factors and then evaluated correlations from this data. All eight canine OSA cell lines displayed increased abnormal metacentric chromosomes and exhibited numerous telomere fusions and interstitial telomeric signals. Also, as evidence of unstable telomeres, colocalization of γ-H2AX and telomere signals in interphase cells was observed. Each cell line was characterized by a combination of data representing cellular doubling time, DNA content, chromosome number, metacentric chromosome frequency, telomere signal level, cellular radiosensitivity, and DNA-PKcs protein expression level. We have also studied primary cultures from 10 spontaneous canine OSAs. Based on the observation of telomere aberrations in those primary cell cultures, we are reasonably certain that our observations in cell lines are not an artifact of prolonged culture. A correlation between telomere fusions and the other characteristics analyzed in our study could not be identified. However, it is important to note that all of the canine OSA samples exhibiting telomere fusion utilized in our study were telomerase positive. Pending further research regarding telomerase negative canine OSA cell lines, our findings may suggest telomere fusions can potentially serve as a novel marker for canine OSA.

  11. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Randau; Chris Carbone; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids...

  12. Recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and Giardia infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, M; Hashimoto, M; Ishida, T

    2001-05-01

    Epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. Rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from January to June of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and G. lamblia (48.2%). Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and CPV-2b was the predominant antigenic type. Although canine rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine distemper virus were also detected in a small number of diarrheal cases, no evidence for calicivirus infection was obtained. PMID:11411507

  13. Transmigration of mandibular canine: report of four cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2011-01-01

    Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%-0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine. PMID:22570797

  14. Transmigration of Mandibular Canine: Report of Four Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%–0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine.

  15. Towards understanding oral health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Zaura; J.M. ten Cate

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  16. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  17. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  18. European surveillance for pantropic canine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  19. A canine model of multiple portosystemic shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L M; Boothe, H W; Miller, M W; Boothe, D M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (PSS) similar in nature to spontaneously occurring PSS. Sixteen dogs were used and were divided into a control (n = 6) and a diseased group (n = 10). Dogs of the diseased group were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg of body weight, po) twice weekly, and clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and hepatic scintigraphic findings were recorded during the development of hepatic disease and PSS. Surgery was then performed to permit visual verification of multiple shunts, catheter placement for portography examination, and biopsy of the liver. All diseased dogs developed severe hepatic disease and multiple PSS as documented visually at surgery and on portography. Based on this study, dimethylnitrosamine-induced portosystemic shunting appears to be an appropriate model for spontaneously occurring multiple PSS secondary to portal hypertension. PMID:10741951

  20. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Senhorinho Esteves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars.

  1. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

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    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  2. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Nagayasu; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Griffin, Heather; Doorbar, John

    2015-07-01

    Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted. PMID:26193301

  3. Human Papillomaviruses; Epithelial Tropisms, and the Development of Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagayasu Egawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have evolved over many millions of years to propagate themselves at specific epithelial niches in a range of different host species. This has led to the great diversity of papillomaviruses that now exist, and to the appearance of distinct strategies for epithelial persistence. Many papillomaviruses minimise the risk of immune clearance by causing chronic asymptomatic infections, accompanied by long-term virion-production with only limited viral gene expression. Such lesions are typical of those caused by Beta HPV types in the general population, with viral activity being suppressed by host immunity. A second strategy requires the evolution of sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms, and allows some HPV types to cause prominent and persistent papillomas, even in immune competent individuals. Some Alphapapillomavirus types have evolved this strategy, including those that cause genital warts in young adults or common warts in children. These strategies reflect broad differences in virus protein function as well as differences in patterns of viral gene expression, with genotype-specific associations underlying the recent introduction of DNA testing, and also the introduction of vaccines to protect against cervical cancer. Interestingly, it appears that cellular environment and the site of infection affect viral pathogenicity by modulating viral gene expression. With the high-risk HPV gene products, changes in E6 and E7 expression are thought to account for the development of neoplasias at the endocervix, the anal and cervical transformation zones, and the tonsilar crypts and other oropharyngeal sites. A detailed analysis of site-specific patterns of gene expression and gene function is now prompted.

  4. Immune therapy for human papillomaviruses-related cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, Ricardo; Rosales, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a large family of double strand DNA viruses comprising more than 180 types. Infection with HPV is very common and it is associated with benign and malignant proliferation of skin and squamous mucosae. Many HPVs, considered low-risk such as HPV 6 and 11, produce warts; while high-risk viruses, such as HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, and 58, induce tumors. About 5% of all cancers in men and women are associated with HPV infection. Because there are...

  5. A Century of Shope Papillomavirus in Museum Rabbit Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Escudero Duch; Williams, Richard A. J.; Timm, Robert M.; Javier Perez-Tris; Laura Benitez

    2015-01-01

    Sylvilagus floridanus Papillomavirus (SfPV) causes growth of large horn-like tumors on rabbits. SfPV was described in cottontail rabbits (probably Sylvilagus floridanus) from Kansas and Iowa by Richard Shope in 1933, and detected in S. audubonii in 2011. It is known almost exclusively from the US Midwest. We explored the University of Kansas Natural History Museum for historical museum specimens infected with SfPV, using molecular techniques, to assess if additional wild species host SfPV, an...

  6. Host Cell Sumoylation Level Influences Papillomavirus E2 Protein Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yu-Chieh; Bian, Xue-Lin; Heaton, Phillip R.; G. Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The stability of papillomavirus E2 proteins is regulated by proteasomal degradation, and regulation of degradation could contribute to the higher expression levels E2 proteins observed in suprabasal layers of differentiated skin. We have recently shown that the E2 proteins are modified by sumoylation [Wu Y-C, Roark AA, Bian X-L, Wilson, VG (2008) Virol 378:329–338], and that sumoylation levels are up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation [Deyrieux AF, Rosas-Acosta G, Ozbun MA, Wilson ...

  7. Brd4 Regulation of Papillomavirus Protein E2 Stability▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Gang; Schweiger, Michal-Ruth; Martinez-Noel, Gustavo; Zheng, Leon; Smith, Jennifer A.; Harper, J. Wade; Howley, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The papillomavirus (PV) E2 protein is an important regulator of the viral life cycle. It has diverse roles in viral transcription, DNA replication, and genome maintenance. Our laboratory has previously identified the cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 as a key interacting partner of E2. Brd4 mediates the transcriptional activation function of E2 and plays an important role in viral genome maintenance in dividing cells. E2 interacts with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Brd4, and the CTD function...

  8. Human papillomavirus 52 positive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Olivia Salceanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is strongly associated with several human cancers; the most known genotypes involved being HPV 16 and HPV 18. We report the detection of HPV 52 in a sample taken from a 47-year-old patient with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva of the left eye. The method used for the detection of HPV was real time polymerase chain reaction. The evolution was favorable after surgical removal of the tumor and the patient was explained that long-term follow-up is essential to avoid recurrence.

  9. The moral justification for a compulsory human papillomavirus vaccination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Joseph E

    2009-04-01

    Compulsory human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young girls has been proposed as a public health intervention to reduce the threat of the disease. Such a program would entail a symbiotic relationship between scientific interests in reducing mortality and morbidity and philosophical interests in promoting morality. This proposal raises the issue of whether government should use its police powers to restrict liberty and parental autonomy for the purpose of preventing harm to young people. I reviewed the scientific literature that questions the value of a HPV vaccination. Applying a principle-based approach to moral reasoning, I concluded that compulsory HPV vaccinations can be justified on moral, scientific, and public health grounds.

  10. Porokeratoma: A Possible Association with Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Caseiro Silverio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratoma is a rare, relatively newly described and still unclear entity. Here, we describe the case of a 52-year-old male patient who presented with four well-defined, verrucous and hyperkeratotic lesions. Microscopically, one of the lesions showed acanthopapillomatosis overlying compact orthokeratosis. Prominent broad and confluent cornoid lamellae were present, with no granular layer and some dyskeratotic keratinocytes. PCR sequencing and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 in the lesion. The association of porokeratoma and HPV infection has not previously been reported.

  11. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  12. [Oral pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslama, Lotfi

    2002-02-15

    Pain, a major symptom of stomatological disease, usually leads to a specialist consultation. Most commonly it is caused by dental caries and differs in nature and in intensity according to the stage of disease: dentinitis, pulpitis, desmodontitis and dental abscess. Added to this is peridental pain and the pre- and post-operative pains related to these diseases. Almost all oral-maxillary pathology is painful, be it boney such as in osteomyelitis and fractures, mucosal in gingivo-stomatitis and aphthous ulcers, or tumourous. However, besides the "multidisciplinary" facial pains such as facial neuralgia and vascular pain, two pain syndromes are specific to stomatology: pain of the tempero-mandibular joint associated with problems of the bite and glossodynia, a very common somatic expression of psychological problems.

  13. [Oral contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillat, J C

    1980-04-20

    OC (oral contraception) includes the combined and sequential methods, postcoital and progestin only contraception, mini pills, and macro pills. The mechanism of action of OC modifies the hypothalamo-hypophysary secretion, the uterine mucosa, and the cervical mucus. Effectiveness of OC is nearly 100%; prescription of OC requires a complete clinical and biological evaluation of the patient. Contraindications to OC are any form of cancer, hypertension, vascular or thrombotic antecedents, obesity, tabagism, diabetes. OC users must be checked at least every 6 months, and treatment can last, if there are no evident signs of side effects, until about age 40. The most commonly known side effects of OC are menstruation disorders, cardio- and cerebrovascular effects, hepatic and metabolic effects; there is no evidence that OC can cause carcinogenic effects, but it can increase teratogenic risk. The association of OC with such drugs as Rifampicine, anticonvulsants and/or tranquillizers, can nullify contraceptive effectiveness. PMID:6900393

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral ... Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You ...

  17. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  18. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a ... digestive tract can overgrow and lead to an infection. Candida overgrowth also causes diaper rash and vaginal (yeast) ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an ...

  20. Validation of a Diagnostic Microarray for Human Papillomavirus: Coverage of 102 Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Tuttleton Arron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillomaviruses have been implicated in a variety of human diseases ranging from common warts to invasive carcinoma of the anogenital mucosa. Existing assays for genotyping human papillomavirus are restricted to a small number of types. Here, we present a comprehensive, accurate microarray strategy for detection and genotyping of 102 human papillomavirus types and validate its use in a panel of 91 anal swabs. This array has equal performance to traditional dot blot analysis with the benefits of added genotype coverage and the ability to calibrate readout over a range of sensitivity or specificity values.

  1. Evolutionary variation of papillomavirus E2 protein and E2 binding sites

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletti Peter C; Waltke Mackenzie; Rogers Adam

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In an effort to identify the evolutionary changes relevant to E2 function, within and between papillomavirus genera, we evaluated the E2 binding sites (E2BS)s inside the long-control-region (LCR), and throughout the genomes. We identified E2BSs in the six largest genera of papillomaviruses: Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Lambda, and Xi-papillomaviruses (128 genomes), by comparing the sequences with a model consensus we created from known functional E2BSs (HPV16, HPV18, BPV1). ...

  2. Methylation Patterns of Papillomavirus DNA, Its Influence on E2 Function, and Implications in Viral Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kitai; Garner-Hamrick, Peggy A.; Fisher, Chris; Lee, Denis; Lambert, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    The biological activities of the papillomavirus E2 protein in transcription, replication, and maintenance of the papillomavirus genome rely on the E2 protein's ability to bind that genome specifically. The E2 binding sites (E2BSs), located within the long control region (LCR) of human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes, contain potential sites for 5′methylation at cytosine (CpG) residues. The E2 protein's capacity to bind E2BS in vitro is inhibited by methylation of these cytosines (59). Herein, we...

  3. Expression of the papillomavirus E2 protein in HeLa cells leads to apoptosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Desaintes, C.; Demeret, C; Goyat, S; Yaniv, M; Thierry, F

    1997-01-01

    The papillomavirus E2 protein plays a central role in the viral life cycle as it regulates both transcription and replication of the viral genome. In this study, we showed that transient expression of bovine papillomavirus type 1 or human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E2 proteins in HeLa cells activated the transcriptional activity of p53 through at least two pathways. The first one involved the binding of E2 to its recognition elements located in the integrated viral P105 promoter. E2 bindi...

  4. The recognition of local DNA conformation by the human papillomavirus type 6 E2 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hooley, Elizabeth; Fairweather, Victoria; Clarke, Anthony R.; Gaston, Kevin; Leo Brady, R.

    2006-01-01

    The E2 proteins are transcription/replication factors from papillomaviruses. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can be broadly divided in two groups; low-risk HPV subtypes cause benign warts while high-risk HPVs give rise to cervical cancer. Although a range of crystal structures of E2 DNA-binding domains (DBD) from both high- and low-risk HPV subtypes have been reported previously, structures of E2 DBD:DNA complexes have only been available for high-risk HPV18 and bovine papillomavirus (BPV1). In...

  5. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2) from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudt, Cíntia; da Silva, Flavio RC; Cibulski, Samuel P; Weber, Matheus N; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Varela, Ana Paula M; Roehe, Paulo M; Canal, Cláudio W

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2) from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8) and two late (L1 and L2) genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available. PMID:27074259

  6. Complete genome sequence of Deltapapillomavirus 4 (bovine papillomavirus 2 from a bovine papillomavirus lesion in Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Daudt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequence of bovine papillomavirus 2 (BPV2 from Brazilian Amazon Region was determined using multiple-primed rolling circle amplification followed by Illumina sequencing. The genome is 7,947 bp long, with 45.9% GC content. It encodes seven early (E1, E2,E4, E5, E6,E7, and E8 and two late (L1 and L2 genes. The complete genome of a BPV2 can help in future studies since this BPV type is highly reported worldwide although the lack of complete genome sequences available.

  7. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  8. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  9. Bovine papillomavirus: opening new trends for comparative pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil da Costa, Rui M; Medeiros, Rui

    2014-02-01

    For many years, research on bovine papillomavirus (BPV) has contributed to the understanding of papillomavirus-induced pathology in humans and animals. The present review shows how recent studies on BPV keep providing evidence concerning key points in viral infection, such as the expression of viral proteins in lymphocytes and the occurrence of productive infections of the placenta. Studies on BPV-induced tumours also provide important information concerning the mechanisms of oncogenesis and immune evasion, as in the cases of connexin 43 down-regulation with loss of intercellular gap junctions and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) down-regulation in equine sarcoids. The biological functions of viral proteins are also being further clarified, as in the case of E2, which was recently shown to load BPV genomes into host chromosomes during the S phase, a process mediated by the ChlR1 protein. In the near future, the ongoing efforts to characterize and classify additional emerging BPV types are likely to broaden even further the possibilities for research. PMID:23929231

  10. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  11. Human Papillomavirus Infection Among 2460 Men in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie Buchholt; Munk, Christian; Nøhr, Bugge;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in both men and women, to prevent the increasing HPV-related disease burden in men. Data on HPV prevalence among men in the general population are limited. In this cross-sectional ......BACKGROUND: It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in both men and women, to prevent the increasing HPV-related disease burden in men. Data on HPV prevalence among men in the general population are limited. In this cross...... chain reaction (PCR) assay, Inno-LiPA. The overall and age- and type-specific prevalence of HPV infection with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and the correlation between the 2 assays was assessed. RESULTS: The overall HPV prevalence was 22.2% (95% CI, 20.6-23.9) in the HC2 test and 41.......8% (95% CI, 39.9-43.8) with PCR. Of the PCR-positive samples, 50.9% were negative in the HC2 test. Of 183 PCR-positive samples that could not be genotyped (HPVX), 88.0% (95% CI, 83.2-92.7) were HC2 negative. The most prevalent types were HPV-51, HPV-16, HPV-66, HPV-53, and HPV-6. The prevalence of high...

  12. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. PMID:25680810

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for oral HPV infection in young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Annika; Cornford, Michelle; Perry, Susan; Davis, Marcia; Dunne, Michael P; Whiteman, David C

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancers is increasing, but the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the wider community remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, oral HPV infection in a sample of young, healthy Australians. For this study, we recruited 307 Australian university students (18-35 years). Participants reported anonymously about basic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs use. We collected oral rinse samples from all participants for HPV testing and typing. Seven of 307 (2.3%) students tested positive for oral HPV infection (3 HPV-18, one each of HPV-16, -67, -69, -90), and six of them were males (p = 0.008). Compared to HPV negative students, those with oral HPV infection were more likely to have received oral sex from more partners in their lifetime (p = 0.0004) and in the last year (p = 0.008). We found no statistically significant associations with alcohol consumption, smoking or numbers of partners for passionate kissing or sexual intercourse. In conclusion, oral HPV infection was associated with male gender and receiving oral sex in our sample of young Australians.

  14. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey : article

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, S; A. Acar

    2009-01-01

    Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serumsamples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11), and Akbash dogs (n = 17) and Turkish Greyhounds (n=15) in Es...

  15. Cervical carcinoma in Algiers, Algeria: human papillomavirus and lifestyle risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Doudja; Muñoz, Nubia; Herrero, Rolando; Arslan, Annie; Bouhadef, Anissa; Oublil, Malika; Djedeat, Belhout; Fontanière, Bernard; Snijders, Peter; Meijer, Chris; Franceschi, Silvia

    2005-01-20

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Algiers, Algeria. A total of 198 cervical carcinoma (CC) cases (including 15 adeno- and adenosquamous carcinomas) and 202 age-matched control women were included. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in cervical cells was evaluated using a PCR assay. Odds ratios and corresponding confidence intervals were computed by means of unconditional multiple logistic regression models. HPV infection was detected in 97.7% of CC cases and 12.4% of control women (OR = 635). Nineteen different HPV types were found. HPV 16 was the most common type in both CC cases and control women, followed by HPV 18 and 45. Twelve types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 66 and 73) were found as single infections in CC cases. Multiple HPV infections did not show a higher odds ratio for CC than single infections. In addition to HPV infection, husband's extramarital sexual relationships with other women (OR = 4.8) or prostitutes (OR = 3.2), residing in a rural environment for most of one's life (OR = 4.9) and indicators of poor sanitation or poor hygiene were the strongest risk factors for CC. Oral contraceptive use was unrelated to CC risk, while multiparity emerged as a significant risk factor after adjustment for sexual habits. Intrauterine device users showed a lower CC risk than nonusers. The role of major risk factors, except inside toilet, was confirmed in the analysis restricted to HPV-positive women. The distribution of HPV types in CC cases and control women in Algeria is more similar to the one found in Europe than the one in sub-Saharan Africa, where HPV 16 is less prevalent. A vaccine against HPV 16 and 18 may be effective in more than 3/4 of CCs in Algeria. PMID:15455386

  16. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer in Brazil: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia MB Cavalcanti

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty paraffin-embedded biopsies obtained from female cervical lesions were tested for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV types 6/11,16/18 and 31/33/35 DNA using non-isotopic in situ hybridization. Specimens were classified according to the Bethesda System in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL, high grade SIL (HSIL and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. HPV prevalence ranged from 92.5% in LSIL to 68.5% in SCC. Benign types were prevalent in LSILs while oncogenic types infected predominantly HSILs and SCC. HPV infection showed to be age-dependent, but no significant relation to race has been detected. Patients were analyzed through a five-year period: 20.7% of the lesions spontaneously regressed while 48.9% persisted and 30.4% progressed to carcinoma. Patients submitted to treatment showed a 19.4% recurrence rate. High risk types were present in 78.6% (CrudeOR 13.8, P=0.0003 of the progressive lesions, and in 73.7% of the recurrent SILs (COR 19.3, P=0.0000001. Possible co-factors have also been evaluated: history of other sexually transmitted diseases showed to be positively related either to progression (Adjusted OR 13.0, P=0.0002 or to recurrence (AOR 17.2, P=0.0002 while oral contraceptive use and tobacco smoking were not significantly related to them (P>0.1. Association of two or more co-factors also proved to be related to both progression and recurrence, indicating that they may interact with HPV infection in order to increase the risk of developing malignant lesions.

  17. Risk factors associated with human papillomavirus infection in two populations from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia C Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated human papillomavirus (HPV infection in two female populations from diverse socio-economic strata from the state of Rio de Janeiro and we also investigated the possible co-factors related to infection and the progression to cancer. In Group I, the reference group of this study, 10.7% of the patients presented HPV infection, as detected by generic PCR, while in Group II (low socio-demographic conditions HPV was detected in 31.1% of the samples. HPV16 was the most prevalent virus type found in both Groups I and II (5.3% and 10%, respectively, followed by HPV 18 (1.3% and 4.7%, respectively. Although only a small sample was analysed, we detected differences among the groups regarding the rates of HPV infection, HPV types, age, ethnicity, familial income, schooling, marital status, parity, tobacco smoking and oral contraceptive use. For Group I, the Papanicolaou test was the most powerful independent factor associated with HPV status, followed by an age of under 30 years old, the number of sexual partners and black ethnicity. Our data are in agreement with the co-factors that are typically described for the developed world. For Group II, the Pap test was also the most relevant variable that was analysed, but the history of other sexually transmitted diseases and the use of alcohol were additional factors that were implicated in infection. These findings point out the need for the development of general and specific strategies for HPV screening of all Brazilian women.

  18. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine - what you need to know [Gardasil®-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil-9 Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil-9.html . CDC review information for HPV ...

  19. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in cervical glandular neoplasias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holl, Katsiaryna; Nowakowski, Andrzej M; Powell, Ned;

    2015-01-01

    Cervical glandular neoplasias (CGN) present a challenge for cervical cancer prevention due to their complex histopathology and difficulties in detecting preinvasive stages with current screening practices. Reports of human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type-distribution in CGN vary, providi...

  20. Cloning of monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA integrated within cell DNA from a cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukura, T.; Kanda, T.; Furuno, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kawana, T.; Yoshiike, K.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have molecularly cloned and characterized monomeric human papillomavirus type 16 DNA with flanking cell DNA sequences from a cervical carcinoma. Determination of nucleotide sequence around the junctions of human papillomavirus and cell DNAs revealed that at the site of integration within cell DNA the cloned viral DNA had a deletion between nucleotides 1284 and 4471 (numbering system from K. Seedorf, G. Kraemmer, M. Duerst, S. Suhai, and W.G. Roewkamp), which includes the greater part of E1 gene and the entire E2 gene. In the remaining part of the E1 gene, three guanines were found at the location where two guanines at nucleotides 1137 and 1138 have been recorded. This additional guanine shifted the reading frame and erased an interruption in the E1 gene. The data strongly suggest that, like other papillomaviruses, human papillomavirus type 16 has an uninterrupted E1 gene.

  1. Human Papillomaviruses and Papillomatosis Lesions of the Female Lower Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Liang Fu

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV infections are involved in the development of papillomatosis lesions of the lower female genital tract.

  2. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ni; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Yawei; Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Tongzhang; Dai, Min

    2011-01-01

    Background. Despite an increase in the number of molecular epidemiological studies conducted in recent years to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk of bladder cancer, the studies remain inconclusive.

  3. Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 - a novel deltapapillomavirus inducing endemic papillomatosis in the endangered Visayan spotted deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fux, Robert; Langenmayer, Martin C; Jörgens, Dirk; Schubert, Christina; Heckel, Jens-Ove; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel papillomavirus - Rusa alfredi papillomavirus 1 (RalPV1) - which causes endemic fibropapillomatosis in the European conservation breeding population of the highly endangered Visayan spotted deer (Rusa alfredi). Degenerated papillomavirus-specific primers were used to amplify and sequence parts of the viral DNA. Subsequently, the complete genomic DNA was cloned and the sequence was determined. The RalPV1 genome has a length of 8029 bp, encodes the early proteins E6, E7, E1, E2 and E5, the two late proteins L1 and L2 and contains an upstream regulatory region. Highest sequence identities were observed with two deltapapillomaviruses, the Capreolus capreolus PV1 and Cervus elaphus PV1. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF L1 suggested that RalPV1 is a putative new type of the papillomavirus species Deltapapillomavirus 5. PMID:26555294

  4. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  5. Home-Based or Clinic-Based Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance; Cervical Carcinoma; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2/3; Health Status Unknown; Human Papillomavirus Infection; Low Grade Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Neoplasia; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer

  6. Biomarkers of oral premalignant epithelial lesions for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rajakishore

    2012-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer worldwide, and the majority of cases occur in India and Southeast Asia. Its major risk factors in the western world include smoking and drinking alcohol, whereas in Asia, it is primarily caused by tobacco/areca nut/betel leaf chewing and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Little is known about this type of cancer despite recent advances in cancer biology. The generally asymptomatic nature of the early oral lesions causes them to remain undetected in many cases. Thus, the disease progresses substantially before the patients seek treatment and is a major contributing factor to the severity of this disease. Therefore, there is a great need to create awareness for its prevention and early diagnosis. The application of advanced molecular biological and biochemical methodologies to elucidate its biomarkers may aid in early detection; however, much more work must be done for this information to be effectively applied in the clinical setting. This review focuses on the need for systematic diagnoses in the early detection of oral cancer using molecular and biochemical approaches, thereby reducing the number of advanced cases in the chewing tobacco-dominated oral cancer population. PMID:22342569

  7. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  8. Safety of human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16 and 18 (recombinant): systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luiz Spinelli Coelho; Gustavo Lacerda da Silva Calestini; Fernando Salgueiro Alvo; Jefferson Michel de Moura Freitas; Paula Marcela Vilela Castro; Tulio Konstantyner

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify and quantify the adverse effects associated with the recombinant human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccine in adolescents. Data source: Systematic review of randomized clinical trials from PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases. Articles investigating the safety of the vaccine in subjects under 18 years and comparing the recombinant human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 vaccine with a control group were included. Meta-analyses were performed for the outc...

  9. Human papillomaviruses in anogenital warts in children: typing by in situ hybridisation.

    OpenAIRE

    Padel, A F; Venning, V A; Evans, M. F.; Quantrill, A M; Fleming, K A

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify the types of human papillomaviruses found in anogenital warts in children and to relate these to clinical and social information. DESIGN--In situ hybridisation using biotin labelled DNA probes to 11 types of human papillomavirus was performed on biopsy specimens from 17 children with anogenital warts. SETTING--Nuffield department of pathology and the department of dermatology, Oxford. PATIENTS--Children in one group were referred by general practitioners or paediatricia...

  10. Phosphorylation Regulates Binding of the Human Papillomavirus Type 8 E2 Protein to Host Chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sekhar, Vandana; Alison A McBride

    2012-01-01

    The papillomavirus E2 proteins are indispensable for the viral life cycle, and their functions are subject to tight regulation. The E2 proteins undergo posttranslational modifications that regulate their properties and roles in viral transcription, replication, and genome maintenance. During persistent infection, the E2 proteins from many papillomaviruses act as molecular bridges that tether the viral genomes to host chromosomes to retain them within the host nucleus and to partition them to ...

  11. p53 represses human papillomavirus type 16 DNA replication via the viral E2 protein

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan Iain M; Taylor Ewan R; Kowalczyk Anna M; Brown Craig; Gaston Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA replication can be inhibited by the cellular tumour suppressor protein p53. However, the mechanism through which p53 inhibits viral replication and the role that this might play in the HPV life cycle are not known. The papillomavirus E2 protein is required for efficient HPV DNA replication and also regulates viral gene expression. E2 represses transcription of the HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes and can thereby modulate indirectly host cell prolifera...

  12. Variations in the association of papillomavirus E2 proteins with mitotic chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jaquelline G de Oliveira; Colf, Leremy A.; Alison A McBride

    2006-01-01

    The E2 protein segregates episomal bovine papillomavirus (BPV) genomes to daughter cells by tethering them to mitotic chromosomes, thus ensuring equal distribution and retention of viral DNA. To date, only the BPV1 E2 protein has been shown to bind to mitotic chromosomes. We assessed the localization of 13 different animal and human E2 proteins from seven papillomavirus genera, and we show that most of them are stably bound to chromosomes throughout mitosis. Furthermore, in contrast to the ra...

  13. Brd4-Independent Transcriptional Repression Function of the Papillomavirus E2 Proteins▿

    OpenAIRE

    Schweiger, Michal-Ruth; Ottinger, Matthias; You, Jianxin; Howley, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    The papillomavirus E2 protein is a critical viral regulatory protein with transcription, DNA replication, and genome maintenance functions. We have previously identified the cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 as a major E2-interacting protein and established that it participates in tethering bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 and viral genomes to host cell mitotic chromosomes. We have also shown that Brd4 mediates E2-dependent transcriptional activation, which is strongly inhibited by the disrupt...

  14. Psychological responses to information about human papillomavirus and cervical cancer: methods of evaluating print materials

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, G.

    2012-01-01

    Learning about human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a possible source of negative affect in women, but the extent and nature of these emotions is unclear, along with whether they are associated with negative attitudes and behaviours (particularly with respect to HPV vaccination). The goal of this thesis is to examine the psychological impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) information using measures of knowledge, behavioural intentions, mood, attitudes and implicit a...

  15. Characterization of the Functional Activities of the Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 E2 Protein Single-Chain Heterodimers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kurg, Reet; Tekkel, Helena; Abroi, Aare; Ustav, Mart

    2006-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses which establish persistent infection in the epithelial tissue of various animal species. Three papillomavirus proteins encoded by the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 open reading frame have a common C-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domain and function as dimeric proteins in the regulation of viral gene expression, genome replication, and maintenance. The full-length E2 protein, expressed usually at the lowest level of the three, is an activator, w...

  16. Effect of simulated stages of the canine oestrous cycle on Escherichia coli binding to canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, N; Lodge, K M; Anderson, G A; Browning, G F; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-12-01

    Pyometra, a prevalent infectious uterine disease that affects intact middle-aged bitches, is typically associated with Escherichia coli. Our hypotheses were (i) that bacterial adhesion to canine endometrium differs between different stages of the oestrous cycle and (ii) that the adhesin FimH facilitates this adhesion. Twelve post-pubertal, ovariectomized greyhound bitches were treated with exogenous hormones to simulate different stages of the oestrous cycle. Tissue samples from each uterus were incubated with a pathogenic E. coli strain carrying the fimH gene, but no other adhesin genes (P4-wt)--or an E. coli strain in which fimH was insertionally inactivated (P4-∆fimH::kan)--or with phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control. After washing, tissue samples were homogenized for quantification of adherent bacteria. The differences in binding to canine endometrium at different stages of the oestrous cycle were not significant. However, the mean difference in binding of the P4-wt and the P4-∆fimH::kan across all stages of the simulated oestrous cycle was significant (p dogs might suggest genetic variations or epigenetic differences in FimH receptor expression by the endometrium, unrelated to the stage of the oestrous cycle. PMID:23279531

  17. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

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    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  18. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  19. Nodular Epiescleritis Granulomatous Canine. Case Report

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    Camilo Guarín Patarroyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous epiescleritis nodular disease in canines is a very unusual presentation that affects or external fibrous tunic of the eyeball and conjunctiva, which was an increase similar to a unilateral or bilateral tumor. Suspected immune-mediated disease due to lack of identification of an etiologic agent and the response to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (Couto, 1992. The ideal therapy is the application of steroids via intralesional, topical or systemic, or other immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and azathioprine; it is still advisable to apply antibiotic is the ideal combination of tetracycline and neomycin (Gilger & Whitley, 1999. The diagnostic method of episcleritis is made by histopathology, which is evident in changes similar to chronic granulomatous inflammation. Are claiming a racial bias in Alsatian, Shepherd Collie Shetland Shepherd, Coker Spaniel, Rottweiler and Labrador Retriever (Gough & Thomas, 2004. The following case is a report of a nodular epiescleritis affecting the cornea, sclera, and the corneoscleral limbus, which describes the diagnosis, signology and treatment.

  20. Haematological and biochemical analysis in canine enteritis

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    Abid Ali Bhat

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation screened eighteen clinical cases of canine enteritis for haematological and biochemical analyses. Materials and Methods: Eighteen dogs suffering from enteritis were selected and detailed clinical manifestations were noted. Hematological and biochemical parameters were estimated by using various kits. Blood was also collected from twelve healthy dogs for establishing control values and data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The affected dogs showed anorexia, diarrhoea, depression, varying degree of dehydration and tachycardia. There were significant changes in packed cell volume, neutrophils, lymphocytes and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Biochemical investigation revealed significant decrease in plasma glucose, total plasma protein, albumin and albumin:globulin ratio (A:G ratio. The level of potassium and chloride was markedly decreased. Significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and blood urea nitrogen (BUN was observed. Conclusion: Packed Cell Volume (PCV and Total Erythrocyte Count (TEC remained almost similar between healthy dogs and dogs affected with diarrhoea. Mean Total Leukocyte Count (TLC value was significantly higher as compared to the control group. Hypoglycemia, hypoproteinemia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia and increase in blood urea nitrogen was observed in dogs suffering from enteritis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 380-383

  1. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  2. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E.; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a “butterfly” glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  3. CANINE BUTTERFLY GLIOBLASTOMAS: A NEURORADIOLOGICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Henry Rossmeisl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a ‘butterfly’ glioma (BG. While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics of BG in three dogs, and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented with generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3 or symmetrical (1/3, bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes and associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and FLAIR signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3, and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma (GBM including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation, as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  4. The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 has multiple functions in E2-mediated papillomavirus transcription activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Christine M; Yan, Junpeng; You, Jianxin

    2014-08-01

    The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription activation, is important for E2's transcription activation activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses demonstrate that P-TEFb is recruited to the actual papillomavirus episomes. We also show that E2's interaction with cellular chromatin through Brd4 correlates with its papillomavirus transcription activation function since JQ1(+), a bromodomain inhibitor that efficiently dissociates E2-Brd4 complexes from chromatin, potently reduces papillomavirus transcription. Our study identifies a specific function of Brd4 in papillomavirus gene transcription and highlights the potential use of bromodomain inhibitors as a method to disrupt the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle. PMID:25140737

  5. The Cellular Bromodomain Protein Brd4 has Multiple Functions in E2-Mediated Papillomavirus Transcription Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Helfer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 functions in multiple processes of the papillomavirus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through its interaction with the viral protein, E2. However, the mechanisms by which E2 and Brd4 activate viral transcription are still not completely understood. In this study, we show that recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb, a functional interaction partner of Brd4 in transcription activation, is important for E2’s transcription activation activity. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analyses demonstrate that P-TEFb is recruited to the actual papillomavirus episomes. We also show that E2’s interaction with cellular chromatin through Brd4 correlates with its papillomavirus transcription activation function since JQ1(+, a bromodomain inhibitor that efficiently dissociates E2-Brd4 complexes from chromatin, potently reduces papillomavirus transcription. Our study identifies a specific function of Brd4 in papillomavirus gene transcription and highlights the potential use of bromodomain inhibitors as a method to disrupt the human papillomavirus (HPV life cycle.

  6. Chromosomal assignment of canine THADA gene to CFA 10q25

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    Dolf Gaudenz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal translocations affecting the chromosome 2p21 cluster in a 450 kb breakpoint region are frequently observed in human benign thyroid adenomas. THADA (thyroid adenoma associated was identified as the affected gene within this breakpoint region. In contrast to man tumours of the thyroid gland of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris constitute mainly as follicular cell carcinomas, with malignant thyroid tumours being more frequent than benign thyroid adenomas. In order to elucidate if the THADA gene is also a target of chromosomal rearrangements in thyroid adenomas of the dog we have physically mapped the canine THADA gene to canine chromosome 10. A PCR was established to screen a canine genome library for a BAC clone containing the gene sequence of canine THADA. Further PCR reactions were done using the identified BAC clone as a template in order to verify the corresponding PCR product by sequencing. Canine whole blood was incubated with colcemid in order to arrest the cultured cells in metaphases. The verified BAC DNA was digoxigenin labeled and used as a probe in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Ten well spread metaphases were examined indicating a signal on canine chromosome 10 on both chromatids. A detailed fine mapping was performed indicating the canine THADA gene locus on the q-arm of chromosome 10. Results The canine THADA gene locus was mapped on chromosome 10q25. Our mapping results obtained in this study following the previously described nomenclature for the canine karyotype. Conclusion We analysed whether the THADA gene locus is a hotspot of canine chromosomal rearrangements in canine neoplastic lesions of the thyroid and in addition might play a role as a candidate gene for a possible malignant transformation of canine thyroid adenomas. Although the available cytogenetic data of canine thyroid adenomas are still insufficient the chromosomal region to which the canine THADA has been mapped seems to be no

  7. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  8. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

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    Otávio Valério Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV, which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies.

  9. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

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    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  10. Canine dysautonomia in a litter of Havanese puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Noah C; O'Toole, Donal; Miller, Myrna M; Shoults, Hannah; Deck, Robin; Jones, Warren; Johnson, Gayle C; Shaw, Daniel P; Schumaker, Brant A

    2015-09-01

    Canine dysautonomia is a sporadic, generally fatal disease that rarely affects groups of related animals. Four 10-week-old Havanese puppies from a litter of 5 developed clinical signs of canine dysautonomia. The 4 affected dogs were exposed to an outdoor environment, whereas the fifth littermate was not exposed to the outdoors and remained clinically healthy. Clinical signs of dysautonomia developed 10-16 days after going outside the house. An unrelated dog also developed dysautonomia after exposure to 1 of the affected Havanese littermates. All 5 dogs had morphological changes consistent with dysautonomia (widespread neuronal degeneration in autonomic ganglia, select brainstem nuclei, and ventral horn motor neurons). Differential diagnoses were excluded through negative toxicological evaluation, fecal parasite screening, negative Canine distemper virus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent antibody testing, attempted virus isolation, and electron microscopy. The 5 affected dogs were in the Kansas City, Missouri area, where there is a high incidence of dysautonomia. PMID:26179098

  11. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  12. Distribution of beta-amyloid in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y; White, R G; Bobik, M; Marks, J S; Russell, M J

    1997-03-01

    The distribution of amyloid-beta protein (A beta) in the canine brain was demonstrated by immunochemistry on serially sectioned tissues from 10 aged mixed breed dogs. Summation of quantitative data and relegation to anatomical sites for the 10 dogs showed A beta to be widely distributed in the cortex and hippocampus while completely absent in the brain stem and cerebellum. The highest density of A beta was in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Cortical areas exhibiting the greatest A beta deposition were the posterior and medial suprasylvius gyrus and the proreus gyrus of the frontal lobe. Unlike humans the canine entorhinal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia and olfactory bulbs were rarely affected. This suggested that the highly developed olfactory pathways of the canine are generally spared from A beta deposition. PMID:9141082

  13. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-01-01

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended. PMID:27543040

  14. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of bilateral maxillary canine impaction

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    Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of irregular front teeth. She had a skeletal Class III and Angle′s Class I malocclusion with hyperdivergent growth pattern and bilateral impaction of maxillary canines. Surgical exposure of the impacted teeth and orthodontic alignment was planned. The surgical exposure was done by a minimally invasive modified window technique. Orthodontic treatment of impacted canines without causing significant morbidity to the adjacent teeth and periodontium is a challenge. The bilaterally impacted maxillary canines were successfully aligned and leveled. The depth of the gingival sulcus and clinical crown heights of disimpacted teeth were normal post-treatment and after 1 year of retention.

  15. Complex odontoma associated to a primary maxillary canine: case report

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    Estela Maris LOSSO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Odontomas are malformations of the dental tissues and may interfere with the eruption of the associated tooth. The early diagnosis, followed by a proper treatment at the right time, will result in a favorable prognosis and a desirable occlusion development. Complex odontomas associated to primary teeth are rare. Case report and conclusion: This article describes a case of a complex odontoma in a four-year-old girl that prevented eruption of the left primary canine. The treatment choice was enucleation of the odontoma and the maintenance of the left primary canine.In this case, complete removal of the complex odontoma was successfully conducted, since after one year of follow-up the primary maxillary canine restarted its eruption process.

  16. Characterization of canine platelet adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelagalli, Alessandra; Pero, Maria Elena; Mastellone, Vincenzo; Cestaro, Anna; Signoriello, Simona; Lombardi, Pietro; Avallone, Luigi

    2011-07-01

    Canine platelets have been extensively studied but little is known about specific aspects such as adhesion. Platelet adhesion is a critical step during haemostasis and thrombosis as well as during inflammatory and immunopathogenic responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adhesive properties of canine platelets using fibrinogen and collagen as substrates immobilized on plates. Adhesion was monitored for 120 min and the effect of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) was assayed. The results showed that canine platelets displayed good adhesion activity that was significantly time-dependent. Moreover, ADP was able to enhance platelet adhesion in a dose-dependent manner. The findings aid knowledge of the adhesion process and suggest a specific role of surface platelet receptors in mediating the interaction with extracellular matrix proteins.

  17. Efficacy of different treatment regimens of marbofloxacin in canine visceral leishmaniosis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Sandrine; Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Fournel, Sandrine; Pérès, Sylvie; Woehrlé, Frédérique

    2008-05-31

    This phase II, randomized, open-label field trial was designed to evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of four treatment durations (10, 20, 28 or 40 days) with marbofloxacin administered orally at the dosage of 2mg/kg once a day for canine visceral leishmaniosis. Twenty-four dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniosis and without biochemical disorder evidences of renal insufficiency, were recruited by two Greek veterinarian clinics. They were also randomly assigned to one of the four treatment duration groups, and have been clinically, haematologically, biochemically and parasitologically followed-up regularly for 9 months. Efficacy was achieved for 5/6 dogs treated for 28 days, 4/6 dogs treated for 10 or 20 days and for 3/6 dogs treated for 40 days. Moreover, efficacy was reached more quickly (58.4 days) in dogs treated for 28 days. Improvement of clinical signs tended to be better and faster in the 28 days treatment group too. After 9 months of follow-up, a total of three cases could be considered as relapsing (two dogs treated for 40 days and one dog treated for 28 days). There was a significant reduction in amastigotes density in macrophages after 3 months in the four groups when compared with the parasite density at inclusion. No adverse effects were noticed during this 9 months study. Results obtained with marbofloxacin at the dosage of 2mg/kg once a day for 28 days seem encouraging and may offer a safe alternative for treating canine visceral leishmaniosis.

  18. Exenatide Treatment Alone Improves β-Cell Function in a Canine Model of Pre-Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Hasmik J.; Stefanovski, Darko; Kabir, Morvarid; Iyer, Malini S.; Liu, Huiwen; Castro, Ana V. B.; Wu, Qiang; Broussard, Josiane L.; Kolka, Cathryn M.; Asare-Bediako, Isaac; Bergman, Richard N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exenatide’s effects on glucose metabolism have been studied extensively in diabetes but not in pre-diabetes. Objective We examined the chronic effects of exenatide alone on glucose metabolism in pre-diabetic canines. Design and Methods After 10 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD), adult dogs received one injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 18.5 mg/kg). After induction of pre-diabetes, while maintained on HFD, animals were randomized to receive either exenatide (n = 7) or placebo (n = 7) for 12 weeks. β-Cell function was calculated from the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, expressed as the acute insulin response, AIRG), the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, insulinogenic index) and the graded-hyperglycemic clamp (clamp insulinogenic index). Whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed by the IVGTT. At the end of the study, pancreatic islets were isolated to assess β-cell function in vitro. Results OGTT: STZ caused an increase in glycemia at 120 min by 22.0% (interquartile range, IQR, 31.5%) (P = 0.011). IVGTT: This protocol also showed a reduction in glucose tolerance by 48.8% (IQR, 36.9%) (P = 0.002). AIRG decreased by 54.0% (IQR, 40.7%) (P = 0.010), leading to mild fasting hyperglycemia (P = 0.039). Exenatide, compared with placebo, decreased body weight (Pfood intake, fasting glycemia, insulinemia, glycated hemoglobin A1c, or glucose tolerance. Exenatide, compared with placebo, increased both OGTT- (P = 0.040) and clamp-based insulinogenic indexes (P = 0.016), improved insulin secretion in vitro (P = 0.041), but had no noticeable effect on insulin sensitivity (P = 0.405). Conclusions In pre-diabetic canines, 12-week exenatide treatment improved β-cell function but not glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. These findings demonstrate partial beneficial metabolic effects of exenatide alone on an animal model of pre-diabetes. PMID:27398720

  19. Management of impacted all canines with surgical exposure and alignment by orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Katiyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine impaction is a dental problem very often encountered in orthodontic practice. After the third molar, the canine is the most frequently impacted tooth. Bringing the impacted canine into a normal position is important for functional occlusion and the final esthetics of the orthodontic treatment. This article illustrates a peculiar case, in which all four permanent canines maintained their unerupted status at age of 16 years. All four impacted canines were surgically exposed, attachment bonded, traction given with K-9 spring and ideally positioned with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy.

  20. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses: imaging photoelastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2013-06-01

    Maxillary defects resulting from cancer, trauma, and congenital malformation affect the chewing efficiency and retention of dentures in these patients. The use of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures has improved the self-esteem and quality of life of several subjects. We evaluate the stress distribution of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems by using the photoelastic analysis images. Two photoelastic models of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication were fabricated. One model received three implants on the left side of the alveolar ridge (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) and the other did not receive implants. Afterwards, a conventional palatal obturator denture (control) and two implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems (O-ring; bar-clip) were constructed. Models were placed in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) by using a universal testing machine. The results were photographed and analyzed qualitatively using a software (Adobe Photoshop). The bar-clip system exhibited the highest stress concentration followed by the O-ring system and conventional denture (control). Images generated by the photoelastic method help in the oral rehabilitator planning.

  1. Competitive binding of viral E2 protein and mammalian core-binding factor to transcriptional control sequences of human papillomavirus type 8 and bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, H. M.; Steger, G; Pfister, H

    1997-01-01

    The promoter P7535 of human papillomavirus type 8 and the promoter P7185 of bovine papillomavirus type 1 are negatively regulated by viral E2 proteins via the promoter proximal binding sites P2 and BS1, respectively. Mutations of these E2 binding sites can reduce basal promoter activity. This suggests binding of a transcription-stimulating factor and may indicate that repression by E2 is due to competitive binding of viral and cellular proteins. A computer search revealed putative binding sit...

  2. Motivation to oral hygiene with the donation of toothbrushes to schoolars of Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina da Cruz SILVA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available More and more the market offers toothbrushes with the most varied and attractive infantile designs. The question is if the simple presentation of the commercial product (brush can generate anincentive to the oral hygiene, and therefore, buccal health of children. Thus, this work had as objective to evaluate the children’s motivation to the oral hygiene with the donation of toothbrushes, through the survey of the modified Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (m-SOHI, only for anterior superior teeth (central and lateral incisors, and canines, in children of 7 years of age, of both genders, from a public and a private school. It was concluded that there was a motivation to the oral hygiene in the individuals of both schools, regardless of gender, although the reduction in the plaque accumulation was not very significant.

  3. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend Aage;

    2011-01-01

    and organs in canine cancer patients. FDG PET/CT was performed in 14 dogs including, nine mesenchymal tumors, four carcinomas, and one incompletely excised mast cell tumor. A generally higher FDG uptake was observed in carcinomas relative to sarcomas. Maximum SUV of carcinomas ranged from 7.6 to 27.......0, and for sarcomas from 2.0 to 10.6. The FDG SUV of several organs and tissues, including regional brain uptake is reported, to serve as a reference for future FDG PET studies in canine cancer patients. Several potential pitfalls have been recognized in interpretation of FDG PET images of human patients, a number...

  4. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing. PMID:22041204

  5. Survey of Canine Dirofilaria immitis Infection in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Watier-Grillot, S.; J.-L. Marié; Cabre, O.; Davoust, B

    2011-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a frequent parasitic disease in New-Caledonia. A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection among dogs from the cities of Tontouta, Nandaï and Nouméa, was performed in March 2009 using two antigen test kits; the microwell ELISA test: DiroCHE (Synbiotics Europe) and the Rapid Immuno Migration ( R I M ) test: WITNESS DIROFILARIA (Synbiotics Europe). Blood samples were collected from 64 dogs: 49 strays and 15 military working dogs. The military dogs recei...

  6. Malakoplakia of the esophagus caused by human papillomavirus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Li Yang; Yu-Cheng Xie; Xiao-Ling Li; Jing Guo; Tao Sun; Jing Tang

    2012-01-01

    Malakoplakia is a rare granulomatous disease probably caused by infection and characterized histologically by Michaelis-Gutmann bodies.We report a more rarely seen case esophageal malakoplakia in a 54-year-old woman.She presented with coughing while eating and drinking.Gastroscopy showed yellow nodules in the esophagus,and endoscopic ultrasonography showed a space-occupying lesion in the substratum of the esophageal mucosa.All findings highly resembled esophageal cancer.Histopathological examination finally indentified this space-occupying lesion as malakoplakia and not cancer.Immunohistochemistry showed that she had human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the esophagus,which indicates that infection was responsible for the malakoplakia.This is believed to be the first case of malakoplakia in the esophagus,and more importantly,we established that HPV infection was the initiator of esophageal malakoplakia.

  7. SOME IMMUNOLOGICAL INDICATORS IN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Savchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. To study immunological indices and functional activity of neutrophils in women with human papillomavirus infection (HPV, as well as their dependence on severity of cervical morphological alterations, we examined sixty-seven female patients in their reproductive age. It was found that, regardless of severity of pathological changes in uterine cervix, the women with HPV infection show decreased numbers of NK cells and CD4+ lymphocytes in peripheral blood, along with increased contents of gd T cells. In cases of combined sub-clinical infection with leukoplakia and endocervicosis, more severe disorders of cellular immunity were detectable than in CIN I and CIN II. It is assumed, that initial neoplastic processes with HPV background are accompanied by a more pronounced immune response. Meanwhile, functional activity of neutrophilic granulocytes varies in an inverse manner, being, generally, increased in common HPV infection, followed by most significant changes in CIN I and CIN II.

  8. Young Hispanic Men and Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men.

  9. Human papillomavirus as a target for management, prevention and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Emma J; Kitchener, Henry C

    2012-01-01

    The discovery that human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary causal factor in cervical carcinogenesis has made it a target for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines, as well as a diagnostic tool in cervical screening. Whilst prophylactic vaccination has proven very effective in terms of preventing cervical cancer precursor lesions, therapeutic strategies have presented far greater challenges. HPV testing has shown itself to be extremely valuable in the triage of low grade cytological abnormalities, test of cure following treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and will, over the next 10 years, gradually replace cytology as the mainstay of primary cervical screening. In this review, the latest evidence supporting HPV as both a biomarker of risk for cervical cancer and a target for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination is presented. PMID:22690976

  10. Human papillomavirus: cause of epithelial lacrimal sac neoplasia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Nicolai Christian; von Buchwald, Christian; Cassonnet, Patricia;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac are rare but important entities that may carry grave prognoses. In this study the prevalence and possible role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in epithelial tumours of the lacrimal sac were evaluated. METHODS: Five papillomas and six...... types 6 or 11 were identified in all four lacrimal sac papillomas suitable for PCR analysis and in situ hybridization. Four of six lacrimal sac carcinomas harboured HPV. One carcinoma was positive for HPV 11 only, two carcinomas had concomitant infection with HPV 6 or 11 and high-risk HPV 16, and the...... remaining carcinoma was positive for HPV 16. All specimens of dacryocystitis were betaglobin-positive and HPV-negative. Using DNA ISH, two papillomas and a single carcinoma showed evidence for vegetative HPV 11 DNA replication, whereas no HPV 16 DNA replication was found in the five carcinomas tested. HPV...

  11. An Overview of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vichnin, Michelle; Bonanni, Paolo; Klein, Nicola P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) type 6/11/16/18 vaccine (GARDASIL/SILGARD®) has been licensed in many countries around the world for the prevention of cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers and precancers, as well as external genital warts causally related to HPV types 6....../11/16/18. Across 7 phase 3 clinical trials involving more than 29,000 males and females ages 9-45 years, vaccination was generally well tolerated. Because of its expected public health benefit in reducing cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases, the vaccine has been implemented in the national vaccination...... programs of several countries, with over 178 million doses distributed worldwide. METHODS: Extensive efforts to assess the safety of the vaccine in routine practice have been conducted over the past 9 years since licensure, including more than 15 studies in more than 1 million preadolescents, adolescents...

  12. Regulation of apoptosis by the papillomavirus E6 oncogene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting Li; Li-Na Zhao; Zhi-Guo Liu; Ying Han; Dai-Ming Fan

    2005-01-01

    Infection with human papillomaviruses is strongly associated with the development of multiple cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The HPV E6 gene is essential for the oncogenic potential of HPV.The recgulation of apoptosis by oncogene has been relatel to carcinogenesis closely; therefore, the modulation of E6 on cellular apoptosis has become a hot research topic recently. Inactivation of the pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor p53 by E6 is an important mechanism by which E6promotes cell growth; it is expected that inactivation of p53 by E6 should lead to a reduction in cellular apoptosis,numerous studies showed that E6 could in fact sensitize cells to apoptosis. The molecular basis for apoptosis modulation by E6 is poorly understood. In this article, we will present an overview of observations and current understanding of molecular basis for E6-induced apoptosis.

  13. Human papillomavirus vaccination in the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Astbury, Katharine

    2012-02-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. Although the introduction of comprehensive screening programs has reduced the disease incidence in developed countries, it remains a major problem in the developing world. The recent licensing of 2 vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and HPV-18, the viruses responsible for 70% of cervical cancer cases, offers the hope of disease prevention. In this article, we review the role of HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer and the evidence to support the introduction of vaccination programs in young women and discuss the potential obstacles to widespread vaccination. In addition, we discuss the issues that remain to be elucidated, including the potential need for booster doses of the vaccine and the role of concomitant vaccination in men.

  14. HPV与宫颈癌%Hunum papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁玉兰; 梁新芳

    2008-01-01

    It has been approved that the genital human papillomavirus(HPV) infection is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer.Over two-thirds of cervical cancer cases are associated with infection of either HPV16 or HPV18.The success of HPV prophylactic vaccine development is the milestone of cervical cancer prevention of humankind.%人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的感染已被证实与宫颈癌的发生有密切关系.超过2/3的宫颈癌与HPV16或HPV18感染有关.HPV预防性疫苗研制的成功则是子宫颈癌预防研究的里程碑.

  15. Prevalence of Genital Human Papillomavirus among Men in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie B; Olesen, Tina B; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and causes substantial morbidity in both sexes. Most European countries offer HPV vaccination for girls, but vaccine recommendations for boys are warranted. AIMS: The aims of this study were...... contribute knowledge that may be useful as a baseline measure before the introduction of HPV vaccination for boys in Europe, and add to understanding of the epidemiology of HPV infection in men. Hebnes JB, Olesen TB, Duun-Henriksen AK, Munk C, Norrild B, and Kjaer SK. Prevalence of genital human...... to investigate the prevalence of genital HPV, identify parameters that affect the prevalence, and describe the type-specific prevalence among men in Europe. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature in PubMed and Embase. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Genital HPV prevalence and factors...

  16. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Delany-Moretlwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a significant burden of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and associated disease in men. High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is high. HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital warts and anal, penile and head and neck cancers in men. Despite increasing access to antiretroviral therapy, there appears to be little benefit in preventing the development of these cancers in HIV-positive men, making prevention of infection a priority. New prevention options that are being introduced in many African countries include male circumcision and HPV vaccination. However, more data are needed on the burden of HPV disease in men before boys are included in HPV vaccination programmes.

  17. Progress and prospects for L2-based human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rosie T; Schellenbacher, Christina; Chackerian, Bryce; Roden, Richard B S

    2016-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a worldwide public health problem, particularly in resource-limited countries. Fifteen high-risk genital HPV types are sexually transmitted and cause 5% of all cancers worldwide, primarily cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Skin HPV types are generally associated with benign disease, but a subset is linked to non-melanoma skin cancer. Licensed HPV vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from L1 major capsid antigen of key high risk HPVs are effective at preventing these infections but do not cover cutaneous types and are not therapeutic. Vaccines targeting L2 minor capsid antigen, some using capsid display, adjuvant and fusions with early HPV antigens or Toll-like receptor agonists, are in development to fill these gaps. Progress and challenges with L2-based vaccines are summarized. PMID:26901354

  18. Orthodontic-surgical treatment of four impacted canines in an adult patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Full impaction of canines, in both jaws, is a rare phenomenon. It is usually coupled with the persistence of deciduous canines, or any other irregularity in the dental arch. Case report. Panoramic radiograph of a 24-year-old female patient showed bilateral canine impaction in both jaws. Due to vestibular, apical and medial position of canines in the upper jaw, the surgical approach implied the apically positioned flap technique. The position of impacted mandibular canines was vertical with more coronal position relative to the upper canines, thus requiring a closed eruption technique. Conclusion. Inadequate position of impacted canines in the bone fully justifies the use of orthodontic-surgical treatment.

  19. Health awareness among young women vaccinated against human papillomavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bąk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Genital human papillomavirus (HPV infections are essentials factors in the development of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus vaccines can contribute to reducing the high incidence of this disease, provided that this form of prophylaxis is commonly accepted. Participation in vaccinations is restricted by the belief that their implementation and consequent feeling of safety will reduce women’s participation in other forms of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis and will encourage them to be sexually promiscuous. Aim of the research study : To determine the awareness of cervical carcinoma prophylaxis among young women vaccinated against HPV by comparing them with a group of unvaccinated women. Material and methods: The survey covered a group of 210 young women in the age range 18 to 20 years, who were vaccinated against HPV. Within the framework of comparison, the survey covered a group of 255 young HPV-unvaccinated women, adequately selected in respect of age and education. Results: The HPVvaccinated women declared participation in medical check-ups and cytological tests no less frequently than the unvaccinated women. In both groups, the usage of condoms, sexual partners hygiene, monogamy and smoking abstinence were determined as behaviours limiting the occurrence of cervical carcinoma. Conclusions: Awareness of the application of supplementary prophylaxis of cervical carcinoma was high among the HPV vaccinated woman and did not differ from the unvaccinated woman’s awareness. Young women did not show a tendency for promiscuous behaviours, and were more likely touse condoms in the prevention of cervical carcinoma than were the unvaccinated woman.

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Pfahler

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD and canine elbow dysplasia (CED using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on dog chromosome (CFA 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED.

  1. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) in canine

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo Guarín Patarroyo; Fabian Rodrigo Sánchez Cuervo

    2013-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is a syndrome characterized by bad digestion and poor absorption result of the failure of the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and other substances that facilitate the absorption of dietary nutrients and certain vitamins and minerals necessary for normal digestion food. The goal of treatment is replacement of pancreatic enzymes by oral enzyme extracts when clinical signs appear, which consists of administer enzyme supplements with every meal. In dogs has achie...

  2. HISTOLOGICINVESTIGATION OF PULPAL INFLAMMATION AND NECROSIS ON TRUMATIZED OPEN APEX CAT CANINE TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA KHADEMI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Interoduction. Treatment of trumatized crown fractured teeth with open apex is a major problem in endodontic treatment. Long term stability of such teeth depends upon the maintainace of pulp vitality. The time period between the accident and the treatment affects the pulp vitality as well as the type of treatment and prognosis. The objective of this study was to provide a rough time table of pulpal inflammation and necrosis after the exposure of crow - fractured teeth to oral Environment. Methods. Fourty eight canine teeth in 12 young cats were used in this experiment. To make sure the teeth apecies were all open, they were checked by radiograph. The crown of all the teeth were cut 2mm from the CEJ and the pulps were left open to oral inviornment for periods of 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 90 days. Animals were then sacrificed by vital perfusion fixation technique. Results. The mean depth of pulpal inflammation and necrosis for periods of 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were 1.98, 3.3, 2.39, 2.84, 3.92 and 8.57, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the time periods of 1, 7 and 14 days. Where as, time periods of 14 and 28 days showed significant difference. In 90 day time period, all the teeth showed total pulpal necrosis and was significantly different from all the other groups. Discussion. It appears that, trumatized open apex teeth exposed to oral Enviornment for less than 28 days could be well treated by apexogenesis. Considering the sufficient blood supply to open apex teeth in cases of deep inflammation and necrosis the teeth could be saved by partial pulpectomy. Only cases of total pulp necrosis should be treated by apexification technique.

  3. Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis Hepatozoonose canina brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena O'Dwyer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hepatozoon includes hundreds of species that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. Two species have been described in domestic dogs: H. canis, reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the United States; and H. americanum, which so far has only been diagnosed in the United States. In Brazil, the only species found infecting dogs is H. canis. The objective of this review was to detail some aspects of canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, and the main points of its biology, transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, epidemiology and diagnostic methods, with emphasis on research developed in Brazil.O gênero Hepatozoon compreende centenas de espécies que infectam aves, répteis, anfíbios e mamíferos, em todos os continentes de clima tropical e subtropical. No cão doméstico duas espécies são descritas, H. canis e H. americanum; a primeira presente na Europa, Ásia, África, América do Sul e nos Estados Unidos da América do Norte (EUA, e a segunda, diagnosticada até o momento somente nos EUA. No Brasil, a espécie que infecta o cão foi caracterizada como H. canis. Esta revisão objetiva detalhar alguns aspectos da hepatozoose canina, causada pelo H. canis e principais pontos de biologia, transmissão, patogenia e sintomas, epidemiologia e métodos de diagnóstico, enfatizando as pesquisas desenvolvidas no Brasil.

  4. Radiographic imaging of the canine intercondylar fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intercondylar fossa is believed to play an important role in the pathology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and therefore has received considerable attention in the last decade. Accurate radiographic imaging of the intercondylar fossa requires that the central x-ray beam pass through the center of the intercondylar “tunnel”. The anatomy of the canine intercondylar fossa is similar to humans, however, the orientations of the intercondylar fossa's differ. Consequently, the positioning techniques described for humans are not appropriate for the dog. To pass through the center of the dog, intercondylar fossa, the central x-ray beam should be 12° (S.D. 1.7°) caudal from the femoral diaphysis in the sagittal plane and obliqued caudolateral to craniomedial 7° (S.D. 0.60°) (caudo78°proximo7° lateralcraniodistomedial oblique). Cross table positioning was used with the hip flexed and the radiograph cassette placed on the cranial surface of the stifle. However, superimposition of the tuber ischii and soft tissues caudal to the femur made 15° to 20° the best angle obtainable. There was not a significant difference (p = 0.17) in the notch width index between a 12° versus 20° angle of the central x-ray beam caudal to the femoral diaphysis, both with 7° of external rotation of the stifle. The notch width index of 0.252 obtained from radiographic measurements was not significantly different from measurements obtained grossly of 0.254 (n = 26; p = 0.69). Failure to oblique the central x-ray beam caused a significant (p = 0.0008) decrease in the apparent fossa width radiographically

  5. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Laura La Rovere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal fibres have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterise also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs and responsible for the fibre growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here we isolated SCs from canine somitic (SDM: vastus lateralis, rectus abdominus, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas and presomitic (PSDM: lateral rectus, temporalis and retractor bulbi muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM satellite cells were obtained also from Golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD. We characterised the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with ageing and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD and late (MyHC, Myogenin myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD satellite cells and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.

  6. Comparative activity of pradofloxacin and marbofloxacin against coagulase-positive staphylococci in a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model based on canine pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber-Irrgang, B; Wetzstein, H-G; Bagel-Trah, S; Hafner, D; Kresken, M

    2012-12-01

    Pradofloxacin (PRA), a novel veterinary 8-cyano-fluoroquinolone (FQ), is active against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, the primary cause of canine pyoderma. An in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was used to compare the activities of PRA and marbofloxacin (MAR) against three clinical isolates of S. pseudintermedius and reference strain Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Experiments were performed involving populations of 10(10) CFU corresponding to an inoculum density of approximately 5 × 10(7) CFU/mL. The time course of free drug concentrations in canine serum was modelled, resulting from once daily standard oral dosing of 3 mg of PRA/kg and 2 mg of MAR/kg. In addition, experimentally high doses of 6 mg of PRA/kg and 16 mg of MAR/kg were tested against the least susceptible strain. Viable counts were monitored over 24 h. At concentrations associated with standard doses, PRA caused a faster and more sustained killing than MAR of all strains. The ratios of free drug under the concentration-time curve for 24 h over MIC and the maximum concentration of free drug over MIC were at least 90 and 26, and 8.5 and 2.1 for PRA and MAR, respectively. At experimentally high doses, PRA was superior to MAR in terms of immediate killing. Subpopulations with reduced susceptibility to either FQ did not emerge. We conclude that PRA is likely to be an efficacious therapy of canine staphylococcal infections.

  7. [Oral viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity...) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID:26854091

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), distribution of HPV types, and risk factors for infection in HPV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, M V C; Gurgel, A P A D; Lobo, C D P; Freitas, A C F; Silva-Neto, J C; Silva, L A F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), the distribution of different HPV types, and the putative risk factors for infection among HPV-positive women from the State of Alagoas, Northeast Brazil. We analyzed data from 515 patients attending public and private health centers. HPV DNA from cervical samples was extracted and HPV genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction using MY09/11 consensus primers followed by direct sequencing. The chi-squared test for independence was used to assess statistical differences between the HPV groups. HPV DNA was found in 111 (21.55%) cervical samples. Twenty genotypes were detected: HPV6, 11, 16, 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 53, 54, 58, 61, 62, 66, 70, 72, 81, 82, 83, and 84. In addition, multiple sexual partners (P = 0.002) and the use of oral contraceptives (P = 0.015) were associated with the presence of HPV. These findings may be relevant to the design of screening and vaccination strategies targeting specific groups of women in Northeast Brazil. PMID:27421019

  9. Review of the Clinical and Biologic Aspects of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blitzer, Grace C.; Smith, Molly A. [Department of Human Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Harris, Stephen L. [Radiation Oncology Associates, Manchester, New Hampshire (United States); Kimple, Randall J., E-mail: rkimple@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a known etiology of a subset of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNCs), causes numerous alterations in normal cellular functions. This article reviews the biology, detection, and treatment of HPV-positive HNC. The role of HPV oncoproteins in tumor development, the natural history of HPV infection, and risk factors for and prevention of transmission of oral HPV are considered. Commonly used methods for detecting HPV infection, including limitations of these methods, are discussed to aid the practicing clinician in using these tests in their clinical practice. Clinical characteristics of HPV-positive HNC, including potential explanations for the improved outcomes seen in patients with HPV-positive HNC, are assessed. Ongoing clinical trials specific for patients with HPV-positive HNC are described, and areas in need of additional research are summarized. Until the results of ongoing trials are known, treatment of HPV-positive HNC should not differ in clinical practice from treatment of similar non-HPV related cancers.

  10. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in relation to anatomical site of the tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig E Löfdahl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and role of human papillomavirus (HPV in the aetiology of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma is uncertain. Based on the presence of HPV in the oral cavity and its causal association with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, we hypothesised that HPV is more strongly associated with proximal than distal oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A population-based study comparing HPV infection in relation to tumour site in patients diagnosed with oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas in the Stockholm County in 1999-2006. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction genotyping (PCR with Luminex was conducted on pre-treatment endoscopic biopsies to identify type specify HPV. Carcinogenic activity of HPV was assessed by p16(INK4a expression. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Among 204 patients, 20 (10% had tumours harbouring HPV DNA, almost all (90% of HPV high-risk type, mainly HPV16. Tumours containing HPV were not overrepresented in the upper compared to the middle or lower third of the oesophagus (odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.9. P16(INK4a expression was similarly common (24% and 16% in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups. CONCLUSION: This study found a limited presence of HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma of uncertain oncogenic relevance and did not demonstrate that HPV was more strongly associated with proximal than distal tumours.

  11. Review of the Clinical and Biologic Aspects of Human Papillomavirus-Positive Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), a known etiology of a subset of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNCs), causes numerous alterations in normal cellular functions. This article reviews the biology, detection, and treatment of HPV-positive HNC. The role of HPV oncoproteins in tumor development, the natural history of HPV infection, and risk factors for and prevention of transmission of oral HPV are considered. Commonly used methods for detecting HPV infection, including limitations of these methods, are discussed to aid the practicing clinician in using these tests in their clinical practice. Clinical characteristics of HPV-positive HNC, including potential explanations for the improved outcomes seen in patients with HPV-positive HNC, are assessed. Ongoing clinical trials specific for patients with HPV-positive HNC are described, and areas in need of additional research are summarized. Until the results of ongoing trials are known, treatment of HPV-positive HNC should not differ in clinical practice from treatment of similar non-HPV related cancers

  12. In silico Structural Prediction of E6 and E7 Proteins of Human Papillomavirus Strains by Comparative Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 200 different types of Human papillomavirus (HPV are identified, 40 transmit extensively through sexual contacts affecting the genital tract. HPV strains have been etiologically linked to vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, oral and cervical cancer (99.7% as a result of mutations leading to cell transformations due to interference of E6 and E7 oncoproteins with p53 and pRB tumor suppressor genes respectively, besides other cellular proteins. As structures of E6 and E7 proteins are not available, the simultaneous structural analysis of E6 and E7 proteins of 50 different HPV strains was carried out in detail for prediction and validation, using bioinformatics tools. E6 and E7 proteins sequences were retrieved in FASTA format from NCBI and their structures predicted by comparative modeling using modeller9v6 software. Further, most of the HPV strains showed good stereochemistry results in most favored regions when subjected to PROCHECK analysis and subsequently each protein was validated using ProSA-web tool. The work carried out on comparing and exploring the structural variations in these oncogenic proteins might help in genome based drugs and vaccines designing, beyond their limitations.

  13. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  14. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine... established as follows: (1) Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall...

  15. In vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den J.R.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Walker, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates from clinical cases was studied in the United States and The Netherlands. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the postantibiotic effect, the effect of pH on antimicrobial activity, and the bacterial killing rate tests were de

  16. Biofilm production by clinical staphylococci strains from canine otitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Camila Alencar; de Oliveira, Lis Christina; Mendes, Marina Silveira; Santiago, Thiago de Melo; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the species of 54 staphylococci isolates from canine otitis and their ability to produce biofilm through the Congo red agar method, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The most frequently identified species were S. intermedius and S. simulans. Results showed that 30% of the strains were biofilm producers.

  17. Biofilm production by clinical staphylococci strains from canine otitis

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Camila Alencar; de Oliveira, Lis Christina; Mendes, Marina Silveira; Santiago, Thiago de Melo; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; CARVALHO Cibele Barreto Mano de

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the species of 54 staphylococci isolates from canine otitis and their ability to produce biofilm through the Congo red agar method, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The most frequently identified species were S. intermedius and S. simulans. Results showed that 30% of the strains were biofilm producers.

  18. Biofilm production by clinical Staphylococci strains from canine otitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Alencar Moreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the species of 54 staphylococci isolates from canine otitis and their ability to produce biofilm through the Congo red agar method, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The most frequently identified species were S. intermedius and S. simulans. Results showed that 30% of the strains were biofilm producers.

  19. Biofilm production by clinical Staphylococci strains from canine otitis

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Alencar Moreira; Lis Christina de Oliveira; Marina Silveira Mendes; Thiago de Melo Santiago; Eduardo Bedê Barros; Cibele Barreto Mano de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the species of 54 staphylococci isolates from canine otitis and their ability to produce biofilm through the Congo red agar method, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The most frequently identified species were S. intermedius and S. simulans. Results showed that 30% of the strains were biofilm producers.

  20. Canine distemper virus - a morbillivirus in search of new hosts?

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Timm; Osterhaus, Albert

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) induces a multisystemic, often fatal disease in a wide and seemingly expanding host range among the Carnivora. Several genotypes of an otherwise monotypic virus species co-circulate in a geographically restricted pattern. Interspecies transmissions frequently occur, often leading to devastating epizootics in highly susceptible or immunologically naive populations.

  1. Pneumocystosis associated with canine distemper virus infection in a mink.

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, N W; Schamber, G J

    1999-01-01

    An adult mink from a farm experiencing 100% mortality in affected animals was submitted for diagnostic examination. Clinical history included signs of respiratory disease, oculonasal discharge, and thickening of footpads. Canine distemper virus and Pneumocystis carinii were identified in lung tissue, suggesting immunosuppresion and secondary infection due to morbillivirus disease.

  2. Canine versus human epilepsy: are we up to date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, A; Maestro Saiz, I

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we analyse and compare features of canine and human epilepsy and we suggest new tools for better future understanding of canine epilepsy. The prevalence of epileptic seizures in dogs ranges between 0.5% and 5.7% and between 1% and 3% in the human population. Studies on human epilepsy provide a ready-made format for classification, diagnosis and treatment in veterinary epilepsy. Human studies highlight the value of a thorough seizure classification. Nevertheless, a matter of concern in canine epilepsy is the limited information regarding seizure description and classification because of the lack of EEG-video recording. Establishment of a consensus protocol for ambulatory home video-recording in dogs who suffer from epilepsy, mainly considering indications, duration of monitoring, the sufficient essential training for an optimal interpretation of ictal semiology and the methodology of recordings is needed. The ultimate goal is that the information gathered by these videos will be analysed to describe the epileptic seizures thoroughly, recognize patterns and move towards a better understanding and therefore classification of canine epileptic seizures.

  3. Morphological study of maxillary canine region based on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maxilla is generally known as a site where anatomical limitations make it difficult to obtain sufficient bone volume. A large amount of bone exists in the canine region between the anterior margin of the maxillary sinus and the piriform aperture margin. Although this region is crucial for implant treatments, there have not been any reports on morphological studies of the region. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the canine region based on CT, and also the morphology and position of the maxillary sinus located posterior to the canine region. The results were as follows: In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the higher the level, the smaller the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to become. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to be smaller in female patients than in male patients. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, no significant differences in mesio-distal length and bucco-lingual width were observed between dentulous and edentulous jaws. The morphology of the maxillary sinus was mainly of an inverse-trapezoidal, circular, or triangular form. The position of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus was most frequently found at the site corresponding to the second premolar. Through this study, we have reconfirmed that the canine region is vital for implant treatments in the maxilla. (author)

  4. Canine Leishmaniosis: tools for diagnosis in veterinary practice in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Acero P

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to perform a critical analysis and guide veterinarians in the management of canine Leishmaniosis. A systematic literature review was performed between 2005 and 2014 including scientific papers which take into account experiences and reports of: pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical presentation, treatment, vaccination, prevention and control strategies. We discuss the different aspects of VL management and aspects that should be taken into account depending on the country, after a patient is suspected or confirmed as positive, including the possibility of euthanasia. We describe the different clinical manifestations of the disease, diagnosis, signs and treatment of canine leishmaniosis. Canine leishmaniosis is present in different parts of the country, therefore it must be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in the veterinary clinic, in patients with dermatological and systemic signs that are compatible with various diseases. In Colombia, the patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis could be treated and have a favorable prognosis, whereas in canines with diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis euthanasia should be considered because of the public health implications.

  5. Canine distemper virus - a morbillivirus in search of new hosts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) induces a multisystemic, often fatal disease in a wide and seemingly expanding host range among the Carnivora. Several genotypes of an otherwise monotypic virus species co-circulate in a geographically restricted pattern. Interspecies transmissions fr

  6. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.V. Mamaev; I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); S.I. Belikov; N.N. Denikina; T.C. Harder (Timm); L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Barrett (Thomas)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates

  7. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwencke, M.; Smolders, L.A.; Bergknut, N.; Gustas, P.; Meij, B.P.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Vet Surg. 2012 Oct;41(7):829-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01021.x. Soft tissue artifact in canine kinematic gait analysis. Schwencke M, Smolders LA, Bergknut N, Gustås P, Meij BP, Hazewinkel HA. Source Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals,, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrech

  8. Morphometric analysis of canine in gender determination: Revisited in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Paramkusam

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation and Conclusion: Use of the standard mandibular CI in gender determination is recommended for forensic procedures as it was found to have an acceptable accuracy. MD width of canine may be used in a setup when only the single tooth or a fragment of a jaw is available for analysis, with due consideration to its relatively low accuracy.

  9. Cellular and Phenotypic Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Legare, Jamie Bush, Amanda K. Ashley, Taka Kato, William H. Hanneman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA have many similarities, with the majority of reported cases occurring in the appendicular skeleton, gender predominance noted, high rate of metastasis at the time of presentation, and a lack of known etiology for this devastating disease. Due to poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OSA, we have characterized seven different OSA canine cell lines: Abrams, D17, Grey, Hughes, Ingles, Jarques, and Marisco and compared them to U2, a human OSA cell line, for the following parameters: morphology, growth, contact inhibition, migrational tendencies, alkaline phosphatase staining, heterologous tumor growth, double-strand DNA breaks, and oxidative damage. All results demonstrated the positive characteristics of the Abrams cell line for use in future studies of OSA. Of particular interest, the robust growth of a subcutaneous tumor and rapid pulmonary metastasis of the Abrams cell line in an immunocompromised mouse shows incredible potential for the future use of Abrams as a canine OSA model. Further investigations utilizing a canine cell model of OSA, such as Abrams, will be invaluable to understanding the molecular events underlying OSA, pharmaceutical inhibition of metastasis, and eventual prevention of this devastating disease.

  10. Canine hypertrophic osteopathy associated with extra-thoracic lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Headley Selwyn Arlington; Ribeiro Eduardo Alcântara; Santos Gustavo José Von G. dos; Bettini Carlos Maia; Mattos Júnior Ewaldo

    2005-01-01

    Canine hypertrophic osteopathy is described in a dog that presented extra-thoracic lesions, mainly in the liver. Hepatic lesions were characterized by necrosis, hemorrhage, severe hydropic degeneration of centrolobular hepatocytes, proliferation of epithelial cells of bile ducts, and mild biliary stasis. The disease syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical signs, radiological evaluation, and inspection of macerated bones.

  11. The Human-Canine Bond: Closer than Family Ties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.

    1988-01-01

    Used Family Life Space Diagram to compare relationship between human family members with the human-canine relationship. Subjects were 29 dog enthusiasts, 66 typical pet owners, and 27 elementary school students with dogs. Results suggest that individuals may perceive their relationship with their pet dog as being as close as their relationship…

  12. Prognosis in canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (iIMHA) is one of the most frequently occurring immune-mediated diseases in dogs. A gel-based Coombs' test was shown to perform equally well as a classical Coombs' test. Since the gel-based Coombs' test can be commercially produced and is easy and

  13. Clinical history and hematological findings among canines with monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Rawangchue, Thanakorn; Suphaphiphat, Karuna; Suksusieng, Sineenart; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk

    2014-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick borne disease caused by Ehrlichia canis, an obligate intracellular rickettsial organism belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae. Canine ehrlichiosis causes hemaotological changes among infected animals which could be used as a potential predictor for diagnosing canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ninety-four blood samples were obtained from canines that either presented for a routine health check-up or for clinical illness. A history, physical and laboratory test were conducted on each animal. All samples were examined for E. canis using a 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to confirm CME infection. Thirty-six of the samples were positive for E. canis using PCR and the rest were negative. The Mann-Whitney and chi-square test were used to compare the differences between the PCR-positive and negative animals. PCR-positive animals had a higher mean body temperature than PCR-negative animals. The following were significantly lower in PCR-positive animals: white blood cell count, eosinophil count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and the random distribution of width (RDW) of the red blood cells. We evaluated complete blood cell count findings to determine factors associated with CME using multivariable logistic regression analysis and found thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with CME (OR = 0.085; 95% CI: 0.78-0.92, p < 0.001). For every decrease in the platelet count of 10,000 there was a 15% increase in the likelihood of having CME.

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

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    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  20. Doelmatigheid van Humaan papillomavirus-vaccinatie--schattingen op basis van Nederlandse kosteneffectiviteitanalyses. [Efficiency of human papillomavirus vaccination--estimates based on Dutch cost effectiveness analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, T.A.; Daemen, T.; Postma, M.J.; Wilschut, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Up to now the turnout for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme implemented this year in the Netherlands has been lower than expected. This may be the result of negative publicity and doubts about the efficacy of the vaccination programme. To provide some clarity about the efficacy, t