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Sample records for canine ethnoveterinary medicine

  1. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

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    Lourenco Grant; Brauer Gerhard; Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl; Georges Karla

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies) and British Columbia (Canada). These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant intervi...

  2. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

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    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  3. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

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    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  4. Creole Remedies - Case studies of ethnoveterinary medicine in Trinidad and Tobago

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    Lans, C.

    2001-01-01

    ContextThe popular pharmacopoeia of Trinidad and Tobago is the result of a Creole pan-Caribbean culture, closely linked to history, and the result of a South American Indian, African, European and Asian heritage (Lans, 1996; Moodie-Kublalsingh, 1994; Littlewood, 1988; Simpson, 1962; Niehoff, 1959). Ethnoveterinary medicine in this thesis is the local, mainly plant-based medicines used for animals. Low cost inputs are necessary and important to the future of livestock production in Trinidad an...

  5. Knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine in the Province of Granada, Andalusia, Spain

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    G. Benítez; González-Tejero, M. R.; Molero-Mesa, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper constitutes an important contribution to the knowledge of biological resources used in ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs) in southern Europe, a territory with a clear lack of information on the subject. Our purpose was to catalogue, analyze, and 2.755 JCR (2012) Q1, 3/22 Integrative & complementary medicine, 41/197 Plant sciences; Q2, 24/59 Chemistry, medicinal, 92/261 Pharmacology & pharmacy

  6. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

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    D. van der Merwe; G.E. Swan; C. J. Botha

    2001-01-01

    Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA) methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guid...

  7. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants: Preparation and application methods by traditional healers in selected districts of southern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Romha Eshetu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to document the ethnoveterinary medicinal plants, their preparation, and application methods used by traditional healers in treating different animal diseases, in four districts with different culture and languages in southern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Information of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants was obtained through in-depth direct interview with the local healers and field observations. A descriptive statistics was used to analyze the reported ethnoveterinary medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. The informant consensus factor (ICF was calculated for each category of diseases to identify the agreements of the informants on the reported cures. Preference ranking was used to assess the degree of effectiveness of certain medicinal plants against most prevalent animal diseases in the area. Results: The healers had a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete and none of them was ready to transfer their knowledge either freely or on incentive bases to other people; they need to convey their knowledge only to their selected scions after getting very old. A total of 49 plant species used to treat 26 animal ailments were botanically classified and distributed into 34 families. The most commonly used plant parts for remedy preparations were leaves (38.8%, followed by whole roots (20.4%. Calpurnia aurea (Ait. Benth was the most preferred effective treatment against external parasite and skin problem, which is the most prevalent disease with the highest ICF (0.68. Conclusion: The study suggests that the community of the study districts depend largely on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants for the treatment of different animal ailments though the healers have a very high intention to keep their traditional knowledge secrete. Commonly reported plant species need to be tested for their antimicrobial activities in vitro and validated their active ingredients in order to recommend effective

  8. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada

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    Lourenco Grant

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the commonalities in ethnoveterinary medicine used for horses between Trinidad (West Indies and British Columbia (Canada. These research areas are part of a common market in pharmaceuticals and are both involved in the North American racing circuit. There has been very little research conducted on medicinal plants used for horses although their use is widespread. The data on ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses was obtained through key informant interviews with horse owners, trainers, breeders, jockeys, grooms and animal care specialists in two research areas: Trinidad and British Columbia (BC. A participatory validation workshop was held in BC. An extensive literature review and botanical identification of the plants was also done. In all, 20 plants were found to be used in treating racehorses in Trinidad and 97 in BC. Of these the most-evidently effective plants 19 of the plants used in Trinidad and 66 of those used in BC are described and evaluated in this paper. Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ricinus communis are used in both research areas. More research is needed in Trinidad to identify plants that respondents claimed were used in the past. Far more studies have been conducted on the temperate and Chinese medicinal plants used in BC and therefore these ethnoveterinary remedies reflect stronger evidence of efficacy.

  9. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN)

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    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-01-01

    A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus commu...

  10. ETHNOVETERINARY PRACTICES FOR MEDICINAL PROBLEMS FOLLOWED BY TRIBALS OF SABARKANTHA DISTRICT OF GUJARAT

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    A. S. SHEIKH AND D. V. PARMAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The people of far-flung rural areas still depend to a large extent upon plants and household remedies for curing veterinary ailments. The folk knowledge of ethno-veterinary medicine and its significance has been identified by the traditional communities through a process of experience over hundreds of years. The present paper documented ethno-veterinary practices of tribals related to different medicinal problems in their livestock. The study was conducted in purposively selected Sabarkantha district of Gujarat. A total of 120 tribal families were selected from 8 selected villages of 2 talukas namely Khedbhramha and Vijaynagar. Data were collected through interview and detailed discussion with traditional healers and family members those known about indigenous traditional knowledge. An inventory of 36 practices was prepared in 14 different ailments. Tribals prepared fermented product (alcohol of Mahua (Madhuca indica seed and drench to affected animals for removal of endo-parasites. Traditional healers prepared a paste of haldi (Curcuma longa mixed with linseed (Linum usitatissium oil and apply on ulcers of FMD. A mixture of crushed fruits of Tumba (Citrullus colocynthis along with 2-3 litres chaach (Butter milk drench to the animal at 6 hour interval in 2 doses, tribals reported that  this is very effective for quick eruption of gases of animals suffering from tympany. KEY WORDS: Tribals, Ethno-veterinary practices, Medicinal problems.

  11. Ethnoveterinary medicine in the Arribes del Duero, western Spain.

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    González, José A; García-Barriuso, Mónica; Amich, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Currently, traditional ethnoveterinary practices are rare in Europe and the plants used previously have been replaced by the modern drugs used by national veterinary services. However, in some rural areas of the Mediterranean basin these traditional practices persist. Here we analyze the plant resources still used, or that have been used up until recently, for the treatment of the health and comfort of animals in a region in the central-western part of the Iberian Peninsula, the Arribes del Duero. We document the use of 84 species, belonging to 39 families (with a total of 2243 use-reports), and 62 herbal remedies based on the use of a single plant species (43) and cited by at least three independent informants. The veterinary use of the Ranunculaceae Clematis campaniflora is reported for the first time. We also identify several plants used as bedding or fodder for livestock and discuss the relevance of some toxic plants and some "magical-curative" aspects reported in the territory. PMID:21461643

  12. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

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    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  13. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

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    Brauer Gerhard; Khan Tonya; Turner Nancy; Lans Cheryl; Boepple Willi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a particip...

  14. Medicinal animals used in ethnoveterinary practices of the 'Cariri Paraibano', NE Brazil

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    Lopez Luiz CS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zootherapy is important in various socio-cultural environments, and innumerous examples of the use of animal derived remedies can currently be found in many urban, semi-urban and more remote localities in all parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. However, although a number of ethnobiological inventories concerning the use of medicinal animals in human health care have been compiled in Brazil in recent years, zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM are poorly described and neglected in favor of human ethnomedicine. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to describe the local zootherapeutic practices in ethnoveterinary medicine of semi-arid of NE Brazil (Caatinga biome and to contribute to future research about the validation of the effects and side effects of these animal products Methods The information obtained through semi-structured interviews was complemented by free interviews and informal conversations. A total of 67 people were interviewed (53 men and 14 women about the use and commercialization of medicinal animals. To determine the relative importance of each local known species, their use-values (UV were calculated. Diversity of species utilized was compared, between localities, using rarefaction curves and diversity estimate (Chao2 Results and Conclusions A total of 44 animal species (37 vertebrates and 7 invertebrates, distributed among 6 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 30 different ailments in livestock and pets. The results of our surveys revealed a rich traditional knowledge of local residents about the use of animals in traditional veterinary medicine. Although it is gradually being discontinued, the perceived efficacy, economic and geographic accessibility were main reasons for popularity of zootherapy in studied areas.

  15. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in a tribal society of Sulaiman range.

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    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Ullah, Riaz; Khan, Abdul Latif

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to document ethnoveterinary plants and their formulation techniques in an unexplored region of Pakistan and (ii) to select candidate medicinal plants with high consensus factor and fidelity value for further in vitro investigation. A total of 60 informants were interviewed using semistructured questionnaire. A total of 41 plants belonging to 30 families were used to treat livestock ailments in study area. Mostly leaves (47%) were used in recipes formulation mostly in the form of decoction. Gastrointestinal infections were found more common and majority of the plants were used against cow (31) and buffaloes (24) ailments. Recovery time of majority of the recipes was three to four days. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results have shown a high degree of consensus for gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive (0.95 each) ailments. Fidelity level (FL) results showed that Asparagus gracilis ranked first with FL value 93% followed by Rumex hastatus ranked second (91%) and Tinospora cordifolia ranked third (90%). Aged farmers and nomads had more traditional knowledge as compared to younger ones. Plants with high Fic and FL values could be further investigated in vitro for the search of some novel bioactive compounds and young generation should be educated regarding ethnoveterinary practices. PMID:25405212

  16. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

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    Brauer Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and

  17. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

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    Souto, Wedson M S; Barboza, Raynner R D; Rocha, Michelle S P; Alves, Rômulo R N; Mourão, José S

    2012-09-01

    This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W), Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman), who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89), crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79), common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79), and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758) (UV=0.74). The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use. PMID:22751649

  18. ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINAL USAGE OF FLORA OF GREATER CHOLISTAN DESERT (PAKISTAN

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    FRAZ M. KHAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

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    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses. PMID:17628343

  20. Animal-based medicines used in ethnoveterinary practices in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil

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    Wedson M.S. Souto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work documents the zootherapeutic practices in Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM of Pedra Lavrada (6°45'S, 36°28'W, Northeastern Brazil. We interviewed 23 people (22 men and 1 woman, who provided information on animal species used as remedies, body parts used to prepare the remedies, and illnesses for which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the use-value to determine the most important species. Interviewees cited 11 animal taxa. The main species mentioned were ram - Ovis aries (UV=0.89, crab-eating fox - Cerdocyon thous (UV=0.79, common green iguana - Iguana iguana (UV=0.79, and South American rattlesnake - Caudisona durissa (Linnaeus, 1758 (UV=0.74. The most frequently cited treatments concerned to inflammatory and dermatological ailments or conditions, as well as to obstetric disorders. Similar to other studies, local ethnoveterinary establishes connections with human ethnomedicine. The results suggest that similarities in the repertoire of medicinal resources chosen by local residents reflect the local accessibility/availability of the resources. Our results help to preserve ethnoveterinary knowledge, which is important in enhancing our understanding on the relationship among humans, society and nature, and also to elaborate more effective strategies for conserving natural resources. Other studies for scientific validation of the effects and side effects of these zootherapeutic products are needed before they can be recommended or not for use.Este trabalho registra as práticas zooterapêuticas na medicina etnoveterinária no município de Pedra Lavrada, Nordeste do Brasil. Entrevistaram-se 23 pessoas (22 homens e uma mulher os quais forneceram informações sobre as espécies usadas como remédios, as partes do corpo usadas para preparar os remédios e as doenças tratadas. Calculou-se o Valor de Uso a fim de determinar quais espécies eram mais importantes. Os entrevistados reportaram 11 animais usados medicinalmente. As

  1. Plant Ethnoveterinary Practices in Two Pyrenean Territories of Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula and in Two Areas of the Balearic Islands and Comparison with Ethnobotanical Uses in Human Medicine

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    Esperança Carrió

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical study centred in veterinarian uses in two Catalan Pyrenean regions (Alt Empordà -AE- and High River Ter Valley -AT-, Iberian peninsula and two Balearic Islands areas (Formentera -FO- and northeastern Mallorca -MA-. In the areas studied, 97 plant species have been claimed to be useful for veterinary purposes. A total of 306 veterinary use reports have been gathered and analysed. The ten most reported plants are Tanacetum parthenium (24 use reports, Parietaria officinalis (15, Ranunculus parnassifolius (14, Meum athamanticum (13, Olea europaea (13, Quercus ilex (12, Ruta chalepensis (12, Sambucus nigra (10 and Thymus vulgaris (10. According to comprehensive reviews, a high number of novelties for plant ethnoveterinary are contributed: 34 species and one subspecies, 11 genera, and three families have not been reported in previous works in this field, and 21 species had only been mentioned once. Several ethnoveterinary uses are coincidental with those in human medicine. Although ethnoveterinary practices are less relevant than in the past in the territories considered, as in all industrialised countries, the knowledge on plant properties and applications is still rich and constitutes a large pool of evidence for phytotherapy, both in domestic animals and humans.

  2. An evidence-based approach to the evaluation of ethnoveterinary medicines against strongyle nematodes of equids.

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    Peachey, L E; Pinchbeck, G L; Matthews, J B; Burden, F A; Mulugeta, G; Scantlebury, C E; Hodgkinson, J E

    2015-05-30

    Cyathostomins are the most important gastrointestinal nematode infecting equids. Their effective control is currently under threat due to widespread resistance to the broad spectrum anthelmintics licenced for use in equids. In response to similar resistance issues in other helminths, there has been increasing interest in alternative control strategies, such as bioactive plant compounds derived from traditional ethnoveterinary treatments. This study used an evidence-based approach to evaluate the potential use of plant extracts from the UK and Ethiopia to treat cyathostomins. Plants were shortlisted based on findings from a literature review and additionally, in Ethiopia, the results of a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) in the Oromia region of the country. Systematic selection criteria were applied to both groups to identify five Ethiopian and four UK plants for in vitro screening. These included Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile, Cucumis prophetarum L., Rumex abyssinicus Jacq., Vernonia amygdalina Delile. and Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal from Ethiopia and Allium sativum L. (garlic), Artemisia absinthium L., Chenopodium album L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe. (ginger) from the UK. Plant material was collected, dried and milled prior to hydro-alcoholic extraction. Crude extracts were dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), serially diluted and screened for anthelmintic activity in the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT) and the egg hatch test (EHT). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to identify extracts that had a significant effect on larval migration and/or egg hatch, compared to non-treated controls. The median effective concentration (EC-50) for each extract was calculated using PROBIT analysis. Of the Ethiopian extracts A. nilotica, R. abyssinicus and C. prophetarum showed significant anthelmintic activity. Their lowest EC-50 values were 0.18 (confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.3), 1.1 (CI 0.2-2.2) and 1.1 (CI 0.9-1.4)mg

  3. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

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    Kidane, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Andel, van T.; Asfaw, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment

  4. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis, Aristolochia clematis, Scrophularia deserti, Quercus brantii, Ceracus microcarpa, Echium strigosa, Pistacia atlantica, and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius, Peganum harmala, Salsola rigida, Artemisia herba-alba, Amygdalus arabica, jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica, P. khinjuk, and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption. PMID:23667351

  5. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants among the Lambani community in Chitradurga district, Karnataka, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandra Naik M; Vaishnavi Venugopalan; Preethi Kumaravelayutham; YL Krishnamurthy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore and document ethnomedicinal knowledge of various plants used by the Lambani ethnic group in Chitradurga District of Karnataka, Southern India for traditional veterinary purposes. The area is rich in plant wealth; therefore this study has been made to prepare an inventory of indigenous medicinal plants and to bring traditional knowledge on record. Methods: In accordance to standardized WHO questionnaires, one hundred fourteen informants - consisting of healers, practitioners, farmers and village headman - were interviewed regarding the medicinal use of the local flora in various tribal villages of Chitradurga District, Karnataka during February 2010 to October 2010. Results: Ethno botanical uses of 39 plants belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study for their interesting therapeutic properties for various veterinary ailments such as lack of appetites, bloat, fever, ephemeral fever, diarrhea, cough, foot and mouth disease etc. Of the plants studied, most were trees and leaves contributed mainly to the plant part used for medical purpose. Conclusions:Lambani tribe, who are generally poor and live in remote areas, use ethno veterinary medicine (EVM) for the primary healthcare of their animals. The use of plants reveals their interest in ethnomedicine and further research on these species could lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules for efficient management of diseases.

  6. Ethno-Veterinary Practices Amongst Small-Holder Farmers in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kolawole, O D; Okorie, V. O.; Ogidiowa, M T; Adeogun, M O

    2007-01-01

    This paper aimed at identifying factors influencing the use of ethno-veterinary practices amongst goat and poultry farmers in Ekiti state, Nigeria. It specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of the farmers; identified some diseases of goats and poultry with their corresponding indigenous cures; presented the procedures used in developing some of the ethno-veterinary medicine amongst farmers; identified the reasons for using ethnoveterinary practices; analysed the ecological ...

  7. In-vitro antimicrobial activity screening of some ethnoveterinary medicinal plants traditionally used against mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal tract complication in Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shewit Kalayou; Mekonnen Haileselassie; Gebremedhin Gebre-egziabher; Tsegay Tikue; Samson Sahle; Habtamu Taddele; Mussie Ghezu

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To screen the antibacterial activity of nine ethnoveterinary plants traditionally used for the treatment of mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications. Methods:Hydroalcoholic exctracts of medicinal plants namely, Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera) L. (Family Asparagaceae), Ficus caria (F. caria) (Family Moraceae), Malvi parviflora (M. parviflora) (Family Malvaceae), Vernonia species (V. species) (local name Alakit, Family Asteraceae), Solanum hastifolium (S. hastifolium) (Family Solanaceae), Calpurinia aurea (C. aurea) (Ait) Benth (Family Fabaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (N. tabacum) L. (Family Solanaceae), Ziziphus spina-christi (Z. spina-christi) (Family Rhamnaceae), Croton macrostachys (C. macrostachys) (Family Euphorbiaceae), were screened against clinical bacterial isolates of veterinary importance from October 2007 to April 2009. The antibacterial activity was tested using disc diffusion at two concentrations (200 mg/mL and 100 mg/mL) and broth dilution methods using 70%methanol macerated leaf extracts. Results:With the exception of S. hastifolium all plant extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the medicinal plants tested C. aurea, C. macrostachyus, A. aspera, N. tabacum and vernonia species (Alakit) showed the most promising antimicrobial properties. Conclusions:It can be concluded that many of the tested plants have antibacterial activity and supports the traditional usage of the plants for mastitis, wound and gastrointestinal complications treatment. Further studies into their toxicity and phytochemistry is advocated.

  8. Ethnoveterinary Knowledge of Azarbaijanian People about the Terminology and Pathogenesis of the Animal Infectious Diseases: A Historical and Modern Review of Iranian Native Veterinary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Shayegh; Peyman Mikaili

    2011-01-01

    This a unique report about the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Azarbaijanian people about the terminology and pathogenesis of the animal infectious diseases in folkloric literature and the part of literature which has prolonged among the villagers and conserved its own existence but its terms have not registered in their written forms. Collecting and reviewing these terms about the animal diseases put an apparent persistence on the long experience among native Azerbaijani people (Iran) in its ve...

  9. Canine babesiosis treatment with three different medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is a relatively frequent disease in Croatia. Elevated body temperature, anemia and haemoglobinuria are the most common signs. Diagnosis is rapidly obtained by employing blood smears, as B. canis is present in the red blood cells of affected dogs. Treatment is favourable and without consequences. Blood work was performed initialy, prior to treatment, and on the 1st and the 7th day following treatment. Following history and examination of the dogs blood and urine samples were taken. After confirmation of B. canis in the red blood cells, alltogether 226 dogs were tretated. Out of them 80 were tretaed with Berenil® (diminazen aceturate, Hoechst, 72 were tretated with Imizol® (imidocarb dipropionate, Schering-Plough-Animal-Health and 74 with Oxopirvedin® (fenamidine dizetionate, Merial. Clinical findings, haematological analysis and urine analysis are given and statistically assesed. After tretment with Berenil®, symptoms of babesiosis regressed within 24 hours. Health improved more slowly in the group treated with Oxopirvedin® in comparioson with the group treated with Berenil®. Contrary to the above, Imizol® displayed the slowest regression of the disease and reinfestation with B. canis within 30 days was not noted. That is not the case if treatment was provided by Berenil® and Oxopirvedin®. In all 226 cases of canine babesiosis side effects were not noted, except topically inflammed tissue at the site of subcutaneous application.

  10. Potential of regenerative medicine techniques in canine hepatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotanus, Baukje A; Penning, Louis C; Spee, Bart

    2013-12-01

    Liver cell turnover is very slow, especially compared to intestines and stomach epithelium and hair cells. Since the liver is the main detoxifying organ in the body, it does not come as a surprise that the liver has an unmatched regenerative capacity. After 70% partial hepatectomy, the liver size returns to normal in about two weeks due to replication of differentiated hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Despite this, liver diseases are regularly encountered in the veterinary clinic. Dogs primarily present with parenchymal pathologies such as hepatitis. The estimated frequency of canine hepatitis depends on the investigated population and accounts for 1%-2% of our university clinic referral population, and up to 12% in a general population. In chronic and severe acute liver disease, the regenerative and replicative capacity of the hepatocytes and/or cholangiocytes falls short and the liver is not restored. In this situation, proliferation of hepatic stem cells or hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), on histology called the ductular reaction, comes into play to replace the damaged hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. For unknown reasons the ductular reaction is often too little and too late, or differentiation into fully differentiated hepatocytes or cholangiocytes is hampered. In this way, HPCs fail to fully regenerate the liver. The presence and potential of HPCs does, however, provide great prospectives for their use in regenerative strategies. This review highlights the regulation of, and the interaction between, HPCs and other liver cell types and discusses potential regenerative medicine-oriented strategies in canine hepatitis, making use of (liver) stem cells. PMID:24422896

  11. Medicinal Plants used for Dogs in Trinidad and Tobago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, C.; Harper, T.; Georges, K.; Bridgewater, K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modifie

  12. Animals to heal animals: ethnoveterinary practices in semiarid region, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo RN; Mourão José S; Mendonça Lívia ET; Confessor Maine VA

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Traditional Medicine and this is true in Brazil as well both in rural and urban areas of the country. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine in the country. The use of these natural resources for medical purposes, however, is not restricted to human diseases treatment, being also widely used for the treatment of animal illnesses. Ethnoveterinary is a science that involves...

  13. Successful management of refractory cases of canine demodicosis with homeopathy medicine Graphitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Dua, Kirti; Turkar, Sujata; Singh, Harkirat; Singla, L D

    2014-12-01

    Canine demodicosis is a refractory skin disease caused by excessive proliferation of mite Demodex canis. Despite availability of several treatment options, the disease poses a great challenge to clinicians for its long term management as some drugs may be ineffective or toxic. Present report describes successful treatment of two refractory cases of canine demodicosis using homeopathy medicine. After oral administration of Graphitis 200 C two drops once daily for 2 months, complete cure from the disease was observed. No adverse health effects of the medication were recorded during the treatment. Thus, it may be concluded that homeopathy medicine may be used safely for long-term management of canine demodicosis. PMID:25320495

  14. Documentation of ethnoveterinary practices used in family poultry in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cassius Moreki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To document the use of indigenous plants used by family poultry rearers to treat and control diseases and parasites in 15 villages of Botswana. Materials and Methods: A total of 1000 family poultry rearers in 15 villages were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were also collected through direct observation, village walks, interview of passers-by, group interviews, and meetings with key informants (i.e., traditional leaders, extension agents and chairpersons of village development committees. Results: The ethnoveterinary practices in 15 villages of Botswana were identified and documented. Nineteen plant species representing 15 families were used by family poultry rearers to treat and control poultry diseases and parasites. Most frequently used plants were from Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Liliaceae. Both human and veterinary medications (e.g., vicks, disprin and Compral tablets, blue stones, potassium permanganate, veterinary drugs and vaccines were used in health management. Sixty-six percent of the respondents said they used traditional remedies to control and treat diseases, 19% did not use vaccines or remedies, 2% used vaccines while 13% used drugs to control and treat diseases. Conclusions: Ethnoveterinary medicine predominates in family poultry healthcare. Scientific investigations should be carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of identified plant species used in health management of family poultry. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 18-21

  15. Ethno-veterinary control of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks in Zhombe, Njelele and Shamrock resettlement in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick J

    2013-02-01

    A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the ethno-veterinary practices and other control methods used by smallholder farmers for the management of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed from Njelele, Zhombe communal and Shamrock resettlement areas. Crop production contributed most to livelihoods (83.2 %) while livestock contributed 9.0 %. Over 90 % of the respondents had attended school up to primary level, with 11.4 % undergoing animal health and husbandry training. Treatment of livestock diseases was practised by 96 % of the farmers, and 49.7 % of these farmers used ethno-veterinary medicines. Across the study sites, dermatophilosis was controlled using the following plants: Cissus quadrangularis (59.7 %), Catunaregam spinosa (10.5 %), Pterocarpus angolensis (10.5 %), Kalanchoe lanceolata (5.3 %), Aloe chabaudii (3.5 %), Cassia abbreviata (1.8 %), Dichrostachys cinerea (1.8 %), Urginea sanguinea (1.8 %), Ximenia caffra (1.8 %) and a plant locally called umfanawembila (1.8 %). Carica papaya and two plants, locally called mugimbura and umdungudungu, were used for tick control, and these were reported once from Njelele communal. Other control methods, besides plants or conventional drugs, were used by 28 % of the farmers for the treatment of dermatophilosis and ticks. Some farmers (14.4 %) claimed that ethno-veterinary medicines performed better than conventional drugs. The study revealed that farmers used ethno-veterinary medical practices for the treatment of dermatophilosis but rarely for tick control. PMID:23054800

  16. BSAVA manual of canine and feline behavioural medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Debra; Mills, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    1 Medical and metabolic influences on behavioural disorders Jaume Fatjo & Jon Bowen 2 Behavioural medicine as an integral part of veterinary practice Kendal Sheppard 3 Basic requirementss for good behavioural health and welfare in dogs Claire Corridan 4 Basic requirements for good behavioural health and welfare in cats Irene Rochlitz 5 Training and learning protocols Daniel Mills 6 Preventive behavioural medicine for dogs Wayne Hunthausen 7 Preventive behavioural medic...

  17. Hepatic progenitor cells in canine and feline medicine: potential for regenerative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruitwagen, Hedwig S; Spee, Bart; Schotanus, Baukje A

    2014-01-01

    New curative therapies for severe liver disease are urgently needed in both the human and veterinary clinic. It is important to find new treatment modalities which aim to compensate for the loss of parenchymal tissue and to repopulate the liver with healthy hepatocytes. A prime focus in regenerative medicine of the liver is the use of adult liver stem cells, or hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), for functional recovery of liver disease. This review describes recent developments in HPC research in dog and cat and compares these findings to experimental rodent studies and human pathology. Specifically, the role of HPCs in liver regeneration, key components of the HPC niche, and HPC activation in specific types of canine and feline liver disease will be reviewed. Finally, the potential applications of HPCs in regenerative medicine of the liver are discussed and a potential role is suggested for dogs as first target species for HPC-based trials. PMID:24946932

  18. The Development of a Recombinant scFv Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Canine CD20 for Use in Comparative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Aresu, Luca; Comazzi, Stefano; Shi, Jianguo; Worrall, Erin; Clayton, John; Humphries, William; Hemmington, Sandra; Davis, Paul; Murray, Euan; Limeneh, Asmare A; Ball, Kathryn; Ruckova, Eva; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borek; Fahraeus, Robin; Argyle, David; Hupp, Ted R

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are leading agents for therapeutic treatment of human diseases, but are limited in use by the paucity of clinically relevant models for validation. Sporadic canine tumours mimic the features of some human equivalents. Developing canine immunotherapeutics can be an approach for modeling human disease responses. Rituximab is a pioneering agent used to treat human hematological malignancies. Biologic mimics that target canine CD20 are just being developed by the biotechnology industry. Towards a comparative canine-human model system, we have developed a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (NCD1.2) that binds both human and canine CD20. NCD1.2 has a sub-nanomolar Kd as defined by an octet red binding assay. Using FACS, NCD1.2 binds to clinically derived canine cells including B-cells in peripheral blood and in different histotypes of B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining of canine tissues indicates that the NCD1.2 binds to membrane localized cells in Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma, Marginal Zone Lymphoma, and other canine B-cell lymphomas. We cloned the heavy and light chains of NCD1.2 from hybridomas to determine whether active scaffolds can be acquired as future biologics tools. The VH and VL genes from the hybridomas were cloned using degenerate primers and packaged as single chains (scFv) into a phage-display library. Surprisingly, we identified two scFv (scFv-3 and scFv-7) isolated from the hybridoma with bioactivity towards CD20. The two scFv had identical VH genes but different VL genes and identical CDR3s, indicating that at least two light chain mRNAs are encoded by NCD1.2 hybridoma cells. Both scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into mammalian vectors for secretion in CHO cells and the antibodies were bioactive towards recombinant CD20 protein or peptide. The scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into an ADEPT-CPG2 bioconjugate vector where bioactivity was retained when expressed in bacterial systems. These data identify a recombinant anti-CD20

  19. The Development of a Recombinant scFv Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Canine CD20 for Use in Comparative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Aresu, Luca; Comazzi, Stefano; Shi, Jianguo; Worrall, Erin; Clayton, John; Humphries, William; Hemmington, Sandra; Davis, Paul; Murray, Euan; Limeneh, Asmare A.; Ball, Kathryn; Ruckova, Eva; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borek; Fahraeus, Robin; Argyle, David; Hupp, Ted R.

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are leading agents for therapeutic treatment of human diseases, but are limited in use by the paucity of clinically relevant models for validation. Sporadic canine tumours mimic the features of some human equivalents. Developing canine immunotherapeutics can be an approach for modeling human disease responses. Rituximab is a pioneering agent used to treat human hematological malignancies. Biologic mimics that target canine CD20 are just being developed by the biotechnology industry. Towards a comparative canine-human model system, we have developed a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (NCD1.2) that binds both human and canine CD20. NCD1.2 has a sub-nanomolar Kd as defined by an octet red binding assay. Using FACS, NCD1.2 binds to clinically derived canine cells including B-cells in peripheral blood and in different histotypes of B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining of canine tissues indicates that the NCD1.2 binds to membrane localized cells in Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma, Marginal Zone Lymphoma, and other canine B-cell lymphomas. We cloned the heavy and light chains of NCD1.2 from hybridomas to determine whether active scaffolds can be acquired as future biologics tools. The VH and VL genes from the hybridomas were cloned using degenerate primers and packaged as single chains (scFv) into a phage-display library. Surprisingly, we identified two scFv (scFv-3 and scFv-7) isolated from the hybridoma with bioactivity towards CD20. The two scFv had identical VH genes but different VL genes and identical CDR3s, indicating that at least two light chain mRNAs are encoded by NCD1.2 hybridoma cells. Both scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into mammalian vectors for secretion in CHO cells and the antibodies were bioactive towards recombinant CD20 protein or peptide. The scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into an ADEPT-CPG2 bioconjugate vector where bioactivity was retained when expressed in bacterial systems. These data identify a recombinant anti-CD20

  20. Oncolytic virotherapy in veterinary medicine: current status and future prospects for canine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Sandeep S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oncolytic viruses refer to those that are able to eliminate malignancies by direct targeting and lysis of cancer cells, leaving non-cancerous tissues unharmed. Several oncolytic viruses including adenovirus strains, canine distemper virus and vaccinia virus strains have been used for canine cancer therapy in preclinical studies. However, in contrast to human studies, clinical trials with oncolytic viruses for canine cancer patients have not been reported. An 'ideal' virus has yet to be identified. This review is focused on the prospective use of oncolytic viruses in the treatment of canine tumors - a knowledge that will undoubtedly contribute to the development of oncolytic viral agents for canine cancer therapy in the future.

  1. Evidence-based medicine in canine reproduction: quality of current available literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, S; Dicty, V; Heuwieser, W

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of published literature on reproduction in dogs. A systematic search in online databases revealed 287 papers that met the inclusion criteria. For evaluation a questionnaire comprising 40 criteria regarding materials and methodology, study design, statistics, presentation and information content, applicability and conclusions was developed. In a pre-test including seven independent scientists the applicability and explanatory power of the questionnaire and its results were validated. Out of 287 publications evaluated, 90 (31.4%) were classified as clinical trials. The remaining 197 publications were case reports or contained information based on personal experience. Not a single meta-analysis was found. Sixty (66.7%) of the 90 clinical trials included a control group. Randomization was conducted in 23 and blinding in eight articles respectively. In total five articles were determined as randomized, controlled and blinded clinical trials. Information content of the publications was variable concerning details on included animals, type or dosage of used remedies or conducted interventions. For example, in 99.7% of the articles, the exact number of animals was given, but in 79.8%, housing and feeding of the animals were not described. Statistical procedures of clinical trials were determined adequate in 55.6%. However, the data of 67.9% of the articles were evaluated to be not sufficient to draw valid conclusions. This study revealed evidence of deficits in the field of canine reproduction. The demand for more high quality clinical research is obvious. Requisite for the further implementation of the evidence-based veterinary medicine is an improvement of the quantity and the quality of well-designed, conducted and reported clinical trials. The practitioner should always assess the quality of information before implementing results into practice to provide best available care for the animals. PMID:19563501

  2. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jonna Nykky, Jenni E Tuusa, Sanna Kirjavainen, Matti Vuento, Leona GilbertNanoscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandAbstract: Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK cells and canine fibroma cells (A72 displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.Keywords: canine parvovirus, apoptosis, necrosis, nanoparticle, virotherapy

  3. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

    OpenAIRE

    Sakina Mussarat; Rahila Amber; Akash Tariq; Muhammad Adnan; Naser M. AbdElsalam; Riaz Ullah; Roqaia Bibi

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powderi...

  4. Ethnoveterinary practices and Potential Herbal Materials for the Treatment of Ticks in North Gondar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achenef Melaku

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. This study was conducted to explore ethnoveterinary practices that are performed by livestock owners to control tick infestation in some districts of North Gondar, Ethiopia and to identify potential herbal materials used to control tick infestation in livestock. Materials and methods: Three districts of the zone were selected from each agroecological zones. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and field observation. Sixty randomly selected livestock owners were used as the source of information. Results: Tick infestation is prevalent in all districts. Loss of body condition, disease transmission and damage on the skin were most commonly mentioned effects of tick infestation on the animals. The most commonly used tick control methods were use of acaricides and manual removal, however, use of herbs, washing with soap and cutting with sharp materials were also mentioned by respondents. Nine potential medicinal plants were identified that could be used to kill or repel ticks. Conclusion: Tick infestation is the problem in the districts. Livestock owners use different techniques to remove tick from the animals and their effectiveness has to be evaluated. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 85-90

  5. Ethnoveterinary practices of aborigine tribes in Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bikram K Mallik; Tribhuban Panda; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To record ethnoveterinary information of numerous aboriginal tribes of Kalahandi district of Odisha state, India. Methods: A survey of about 20 hamlets in the district was done with a questioner and personal interviews using the snowball technique in survey and sampling.Results:Seventy-three plants belonging to 41 families (Acanthaceae, Alangiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacadiaceae, Annonaceae, Araceae, Arecaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asteraceae, Bombaceae, Brassicaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Combretaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Loganiaceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Moringaceae, Musaceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae, Umbelliferae, Verbenaceae, Vitaceae and Zingiberaceae) are used by aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district, Odisha, India, for treating ailments of domestic animals. Conclusion: Aborigine tribes of Kalahandi district use about 73 plants for treating ailments of animals.

  6. Prevention of Canine Distemper in Dog with Chinese Herbal Medicine%中医药对犬瘟热的防制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小九; 李石友; 申时先; 施忠芬; 李秀枝

    2013-01-01

    In order to search a method to protect canine distemper of dog.The study of Chinese herbal medicine started at a cultivation farm in Kunming from April.2009 to Oct.2010,the results showed that all of sick dogs that got canine distemper was about 55.56% and 33.33%. most of them manifested symptoms of double-aspect fever,conjunctivitis,respiratory trachea inflammation,digestion disorder and neural symptom. The causes of why the dogs got this disease were relative to many factors, such as ages, immune status, sexes, environment and the seasons.And it can be used as reference for the prevention and cure of canine distemper.%2009年4月~2010年10月在昆明某养犬场进行中草药配方预防犬的犬瘟热的试验,结果表明,犬在未免疫状况下犬瘟热发病率为55.56%(5/9)和33.33%(3/9).中草药配方防犬瘟2号、3号对犬的犬瘟热疾病以及犬其它疾病有一定的预防作用,分别提高20.83%~33.33%和12.70%~ 18.06%.研究的中草药配方防犬瘟1号也对疫苗预防犬的犬瘟热疾病有较明显的加强效果,可提高33.33%.

  7. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  8. Non-experimental validation of ethnoveterinary plants and indigenous knowledge used for backyard pigs and chickens in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Georges, K; Brown, G

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on ethnoveterinary medicines used for backyard pigs and backyard chickens in Trinidad and Tobago. Research data was collected from 1995 to September 2000. Six plants are used for backyard pigs. Crushed leaves of immortelle (Erythrina pallida, E. micropteryx) are used to remove dead piglets from the uterus. Leaf decoctions of bois canôt (Cecropia peltata) and bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) are used for labour pains or leaves are fed as a postpartum cleanser. Boiled green papaya fruit (Carica papaya) is fed to pigs to induce milk let-down. The leaves and flowers of male papaya plants (Carica papaya) are fed to deworm pigs. Sour orange juice (Citrus aurantium) is given to pigs to produce lean meat, and coffee grounds are used for scours. Eyebright and plantain leaves (Plantago major) are used for eye injuries of backyard chickens. Worm grass (Chenopodium ambrosioides) and cotton bush (Gossypium species) are used as anthelmintics. Aloe gel (Aloe vera) is used for internal injuries and the yellow sap from the cut Aloe vera leaf or the juice of Citrus limonia is used to purge the birds. A literature review revealed few toxicity concerns and the potential usefulness of the plants. PMID:17944308

  9. Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewunmi, C O; Agbedahunsi, J M; Adebajo, A C; Aladesanmi, A J; Murphy, N; Wando, J

    2001-09-01

    Trypanosoma congolense and T. brucei bloodstream form parasites were propagated axenically in suitable standard media at 34 degrees C. The effects of 33 plant extracts, fractions and pure compounds were evaluated on two clones of T. brucei and drug-sensitive and multi-drug-resistant clones of T. congolense. The cytotoxic activity of the trypanocidal extracts was also evaluated on calf aorta endothelial cells in vitro. Of the extracts tested, 22% killed T. congolense IL 1180 at a concentration of 100 microg/ml while 18% killed 90-100% of T. brucei ILTat 1.4 at the same concentration. However, 6% of the active extracts killed 93% of a dyskinetoplastid form of T. brucei IL Tat 1.1, indicating that the intact kinetoplast is a target of some of the compounds tested. Of the 12 extracts that displayed activity against drug sensitive trypanosomes, 66.7% had trypanocidal activity on a multi-drug-resistant clone, T. congolense IL 3338. The extracts of Eugenia uniflora, Acacia artaxacantha, Terminalia ivorensis, T. superba and Alchornea cordifolia had median lethal concentrations of between 13 and 69 microg/ml on both the drug-sensitive, IL 1180 and multi-drug-resistant clone, IL 3338. The median lethal doses of the active plant extracts on the calf aorta endothelial cells varied between 112 and 13750 microg/ml while the calculated selective indices ranged between 0.71 and 246.8 indicating bright prospects for the development of some of these extracts as potential trypanocidal agents. PMID:11483373

  10. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of Marajó Island, Eastern Amazonia, Brazil Conhecimento etnoveterinário dos habitantes da Ilha de Marajó, Amazônia Oriental, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vivina Barros Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been ethnoveterinary reports from around the world investigating plant usage in therapeutic protocols; however, there is no information regarding the ethnoveterinary practices in Brazilian Amazonia. The objective of this work was to register and document the ethnoveterinary knowledge of the inhabitants of the Island of Marajó, eastern Amazonia, Brazil. In the study, interviews were conducted with 50 individuals, with the application of semi-structured questionnaires that were quantitatively analyzed using descriptive statistic methods of frequency distribution. Use-value was calculated to determine the most important species. Samples of plants that were reported to have medicinal value were collected and identified by botanical classification. Fifty plants, distributed among 48 genera and 34 families, were indicated for 21 different medicinal uses. The family Asteraceae had the largest number of reported species; Carapa guianensis Aubl., Copaifera martii Hayne, Crescentia cujete L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Jatropha curcas L. and Momordica charantia L. were species with highest use- value. The plant parts that were more commonly utilized for the preparation of ethnoveterinary medicines were the leaves (56%, bark (18%, roots (14%, seeds (14% and fruit (8%. With regard to usage, tea was reported as a usage method by 56% of the informants; most preparations (90.9% utilized only a single plant. In addition to medicinal plants, informants reported using products of animal and mineral origin. The present study contributed to the construction of an inventory of Marajó Island's ethnoveterinary plants, which might be the basis for future scientific validation studies.Em várias partes do mundo existem relatos etnoveterinários sobre a utilização de plantas em protocolos terapêuticos, entretanto não existem informações disponíveis sobre a etnoveterinária praticada na Amazônia brasileira. Desta forma

  11. Diagnosis, classification and grading of canine mammary tumours as a model to study human breast cancer: an Clinico-Cytohistopathological study with environmental factors influencing public health and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee, Radmehr; Javanbakht, Javad; Atyabi, Nahid; Kheradmand, Pegah; Kheradmand, Danial; Bahrami, Alimohammad; Daraei, Hasti; Khadivar, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Background The human “Elston and Ellis grading method” was utilized in dogs with mammary tumor to examine its relation to prognosis in this species, based on a 2-year follow-up period. Although cytopathology is widely used for early diagnosis of human neoplasms, it is not commonly performed in veterinary medicine. Our objectives in this study were to identify cytopathology criteria of malignancy for canine mammary tumors and the frequency of different types of mammary lesions and their relati...

  12. The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Oya Bulut; Orhan Yapici; Oguzhan Avci; Atilla Simsek; Kamil Atli; Irmak Dik; Sibel Yavru; Sibel Hasircioglu; Mehmet Kale; Nuri Mamak

    2013-01-01

    Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random ...

  13. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  14. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

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    Gamal M. H. Rakha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools

  15. Creole Remedies - Case studies of ethnoveterinary medicine in Trinidad and Tobago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, C.

    2001-01-01

    Context

    The popular pharmacopoeia of Trinidad and Tobago is the result of a Creole pan-Caribbean culture, closely linked to history, and the result of a South American Indian, African, European and Asian heritage (Lans, 1996; Moodie-Kublalsingh, 1994; Littlewood, 1988; Simpson, 1962; Niehoff

  16. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  17. Canine mastocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, D.; Mendonça, A; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a mast cell disorder in which its exaggerated proliferation can occur in two forms: systemic and cutaneous (Davis et al., 1992). Because canine mastocytosis is a rare situation of controversial and difficult diagnosis, the goal of this study consists in a current revision of this subject, in order to sensitize the veterinary staff to its severity, with particular focus on the information the veterinary nurse must hold to better apply a specialized nursing care with the hig...

  18. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  19. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  20. Documentation of Ethnoveterinary Practices for Mastitis in Dairy Animals in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Raihan Dilshad, N. U. Rehman*, Nazir Ahmad and A. Iqbal1

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to document the ethnoveterinary practices (EVPs used for the control and treatment of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in the Sargodha district, Pakistan. The information was collected using rapid and participatory rural appraisal techniques through interviews and focused group discussions with 217 traditional veterinary healers (TVHs over a period of 16 months from September 2005 to December 2006. Thus, 25 different plant species belonging to 20 different families were documented from the study area for the treatment and prophylaxis of mastitis in bovines (cattle and bubalines (dairy buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The most frequently reported (≥10 times plant species were Capsicum annuum L. (n = 32, Lepidium sativum L. (n =31, Allium sativum L. (n = 28, Sesamum indicum L. (n = 24, Citrus limon (L. Burm. f (n = 22, Zingiber officinale Roscoe (n = 18, Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad (n = 18, Curcuma longa L. (n = 16, Cuminum cyminum L. (n = 14, Rosa indica L. (n = 13, Centratherum anthelmisticum L. (n = 12, Triticum aestivum L (n = 11, Nigella sativa L. (n = 11 and Peganum harmala L. (n = 11. All the documented plant species were indigenous to the study area. Materials other than plants used for the treatment of this problem included ammonium chloride. The richness of EVPs in the study area and extensive variation in the doses, methods of preparation, indications, and claims regarding efficacy of plants for mastitis merit controlled studies for their validation.

  1. Canine Leishmaniasis, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferroglio, Ezio; Maroli, Michele; Gastaldo, Silvia; Mignone, Walter; Rossi, Luca

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a survey to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis and the presence of sand flies in northwestern Italy, where autochthonous foci of canine leishmaniasis have not been reported. Active foci of canine leishmaniasis were identified, which suggests that the disease is now also endemic in continental climate areas.

  2. Canine pluripotent stem cells: Are they ready for clinical applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Harvey Betts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner.

  3. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rakha, Gamal M. H.; Abdl-Haleem, Mounir M.; Haithem A. M. Farghali; Hitham Abdel-Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 8...

  4. Medicinal plants used to control internal and external parasites in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sanhokwe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants plays a major role in the primary health care of animals in South Africa. A survey was conducted to document medicinal plants used to control parasites in goats in Kwezi and Ntambethemba villages in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Information from 50 farmers and 3 herbalists was obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire, and a snowball sampling technique was used to identify key informants. The obtained data were analysed using PROC FREQ of SAS (2003, and fidelity level values were determined to estimate the healing potential of the mentioned plants. The survey revealed nine plant species belonging to eight families that were used to control parasites in goats. Asphodelaceae (22.22% was the most frequently used plant family. Leaves were the most used plant parts, constituting 60.38%. They were prepared either as infusions or decoctions of single plants or in mixtures. Aloe ferox, Acokanthera oppositifolia and Elephantorrhiza elephantina were the plants having the highest fidelity level for their use to control parasites, each scoring 100%, followed by Albuca setosa (83.33%. The study revealed low knowledge about ethnoveterinary medicine in the study area. It also revealed that information on ethno-veterinary medicine in this area is mostly confined to older people and there is danger that this knowledge can be lost before being passed on to other generations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to document information on these plant species so that the future generation can benefit. Further investigation should be carried out to validate the efficacy and safety of the above-mentioned plants so as to provide cheap alternative ways of controlling parasites.Keywords: ailments; ethno-veterinary practices; small ruminant; traditional medicine

  5. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided.

  6. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated...... larvae may not reflect what happens under field conditions. There is insufficient understanding of the spread of infection and the dynamic consequences of this parasite in the canine population. This review discusses the biology, epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of canine pulmonary...

  7. Some southern African plant species used to treat helminth infections in ethnoveterinary medicine have excellent antifungal activities

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    Adamu Mathew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases caused by microorganisms and parasites remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa to man and livestock. Resistance to available antimicrobials and the high cost or unavailability of antimicrobials complicates matters. Many rural people use plants to treat these infections. Because some anthelmintics e.g. benzimidazoles also have good antifungal activity we examined the antifungal activity of extracts of 13 plant species used in southern Africa to treat gastrointestinal helminth infections in livestock and in man. Methods Antifungal activity of acetone leaf extracts was determined by serial microdilution with tetrazolium violet as growth indicator against Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. These pathogens play an important role in opportunistic infections of immune compromised patients. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT cellular assay. Therapeutic indices were calculated and selectivity for different pathogens determined. We proposed a method to calculate the relation between microbicidal and microbistatic activities. Total activities for different plant species were calculated. Results On the whole, all 13 extracts had good antifungal activities with MIC values as low as 0.02 mg/mL for extracts of Clausena anisata against Aspergillus fumigatus and 0.04 mg/mL for extracts of Zanthoxylum capense, Clerodendrum glabrum, and Milletia grandis, against A. fumigatus. Clausena anisata extracts had the lowest cytotoxicity (LC50 of 0.17 mg/mL, a reasonable therapeutic index (2.65 against A. fumigatus. It also had selective activity against A. fumigatus, an overall fungicidal activity of 98% and a total activity of 3395 mL/g against A. fumigatus. This means that 1 g of acetone leaf extract can be diluted to 3.4 litres and it would still inhibit the growth. Clerodendrum glabrum, Zanthoxylum capense and Milletia grandis extracts also yielded promising results. Conclusions Some plant extracts used for treatment of parasitic infections also have good antifungal activity. Because it is much easier to isolate antifungal compounds by bioassay guided fractionation, this approach may facilitate the isolation of anthelmintic compounds from active plant extracts. The viability of this approach can be tested by isolating the antifungal compounds and then determining its anthelmintic activity. Some of these plant extracts may also be useful in combating fungal infections.

  8. Medicinal plants for helminth parasite control: facts and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadou, S; Githiori, J; Kyriazakis, I

    2007-10-01

    The use of medicinal plants for the prevention and treatment of gastro-intestinal parasitism has its origin in ethnoveterinary medicine. Although until recently the majority of the evidence on the antiparasitic activity of medicinal plants was anecdotal and lacked scientific validity, there is currently an increasing number of controlled experimental studies that aim to verify and quantify such plant activity. There are indeed a large number of plants whose anthelmintic activity has been demonstrated under controlled experimentation, either through feeding the whole plant or administering plant extracts to parasitised hosts. However, contrary to traditional expectation, there are also a great number of plants with purported antiparasitic properties, which have not been reproduced under experimental conditions. In this paper, we discuss the source of such inconsistencies between ethnoveterinary wisdom and scientific experimentation. We focus on the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methodologies used in the controlled studies to determine the activity of antiparasitic plants. We discuss issues like the seasonal and environmental variability of the plant composition, and how this can affect their antiparasitic properties and highlight the importance of identifying the mechanisms of action of such plants and the target parasite species. In addition to their antiparasitic properties, medicinal plants may also have anti-nutritional properties, which can affect animal performance and behaviour. For this reason, we emphasise the need for considering additional dimensions when evaluating medicinal plants. We also question whether using similar criteria as those used for the evaluation of anthelmintics is the way forward. We propose that a holistic approach is required to evaluate the potential of medicinal plants in parasite control and maximise their benefits on parasitised hosts. PMID:22444894

  9. Invitro acaricidal activity of ethnoveterinary plants and green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banumathi, Balan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam

    2016-01-30

    The present study was designed to investigate the invitro acaricidal effects of seven ethnoveterinary plants, zinc acetate and green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles against the Southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The selected ethnoveterinary plants were extracted using ethanol and aqueous (water) solvents at 0.02mg/ml and 0.04mg/ml concentrations. Of these seven plants, Lobelia leschenaultiana showed the highest percentage of tick mortality. The ethanol extracts of L. leschenaultiana showed 93.33% mortality at 0.04mg/ml and its LC50 was 0.05mg/ml. However, zinc acetate exhibited 70% mortality at 0.04mg/ml (LC50: 0.0192mg/ml). Further, we synthesized ZnO nanoparticle using the leaf extracts of L. leschenaultiana and zinc acetate as the precursor material to control R. (B.) microplus. The structural characterization of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (Ll-ZnO NPs) was performed by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microsopy (TEM). UV-vis spectra showed the absorption band at 383nm. XRD analysis clearly showed the crystalline nature of Ll-ZnO NPs with various Bragg's reflection peaks at 100, 002, 101, 102, 110, 103, 200, 201 and 202 planes. FTIR analysis showed the possible functional groups of Ll-ZnO NPs with strong band at 3420.63 and 2922.48cm(-1). SEM and TEM analysis revealed that the Ll-ZnO NPs were spherical and hexagonal in shape with particle size ranging between 20 and 65nm. The mortality of R. (B.) microplus after treatment with Ll-ZnO NPs was 35, 57.5 and 82.5% at 0.001, 0.002 and 0.004mg/ml. On the otherhand, 100% mortality of R. (B.) microplus was observed at 0.008mg/ml (LC50: 0.0017mg/ml). The results indicated that the Ll-ZnO NPs have good acaricidal properties compared to L. leschenaultiana leaf extract and zinc acetate. PMID:26801601

  10. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine or...

  11. Canine neosporosis: perspectives on pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva RC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo C Silva,1 Gustavo P Machado2 1Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Surgery of Small Animals, Dr Munhoz Veterinary Hospital, Itápolis, Brazil Abstract: Canine neosporosis is a worldwide disease caused by the obligate intracellular parasite protozoan Neospora caninum, manifesting mainly neurological symptoms. N. caninum has a heteroxenous life cycle and affects a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The domestic and wild canids are the definitive host of the parasite. They shed oocysts after ingestion of tissue cysts from infected intermediate hosts (ovine, equine, bovine, canine, and many other species, containing bradyzoites, or oocyst-contaminated water and food. The presence of dogs in farms is considered a risk factor for production animals. A wide range of diagnostic methods are currently available, but the most used is serology, ie, indirect fluorescent antibody test specific to the antibody detection in blood serum samples. No vaccine is available, but control strategies should be focused on the vertical and horizontal transmission of the parasite, ie, avoid feeding dogs with raw or undercooked meat, and taking care with water for human and animal consumption. No medicines to control the transplacental transmission are available yet. Keywords: neosporosis, Neospora caninum, pathogenesis, management, dogs

  12. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

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    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  13. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  14. Traditional pharmacopeia in small scale freshwater fish farms in West Java, Indonesia : an ethnoveterinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Domenico; Lusiastuti, A. M.; Taukhid,; Slembrouck, Jacques; Komarudin, O.; Legendre, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The use of plants for herbal medicine in the Indonesian aquaculture is still poorly known. The present study aimed to provide an inventory of the plants used by fish farmers, establishing their respective ethnobotanic importance and identifying the variables that determine the use and the choice of these plants in fish health management. A survey based on a semi-directive questionnaire was conducted using a representative sample of fish farmers (n = 504 from 176 villages) from the province of...

  15. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  16. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

  17. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. R.; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'no...

  18. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina Mussarat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29% were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%. Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81, mastitis (0.82, and dermatological infections (0.80. Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL value (66% followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%. Preference ranking (PR results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species.

  19. Canine mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  20. Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hepatozoon includes hundreds of species that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. Two species have been described in domestic dogs: H. canis, reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the United States; and H. americanum, which so far has only been diagnosed in the United States. In Brazil, the only species found infecting dogs is H. canis. The objective of this review was to detail some aspects of canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, and the main points of its biology, transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, epidemiology and diagnostic methods, with emphasis on research developed in Brazil. PMID:21961746

  1. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Lisa Y., E-mail: lisa.pang@ed.ac.uk; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W.; Argyle, David J. [Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  2. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology

  3. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell... hepatitis, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (B) If at least 19 of the 20 vaccinates do...

  4. The serological and virological investigation of canine adenovirus infection on the dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Oya; Yapici, Orhan; Avci, Oguzhan; Simsek, Atilla; Atli, Kamil; Dik, Irmak; Yavru, Sibel; Hasircioglu, Sibel; Kale, Mehmet; Mamak, Nuri

    2013-01-01

    Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188-54.7%) blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188-45.2%) blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs. PMID:24223508

  5. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  6. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  7. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  8. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  9. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of canine hip dysplasia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachner ER

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emma R Schachner, Mandi J Lopez Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: Canine hip dysplasia (CHD is a polygenic and multifactorial developmental disorder characterized by coxofemoral (hip joint laxity, degeneration, and osteoarthritis (OA. Current diagnostic techniques are largely subjective measures of joint conformation performed at different stages of development. Recently, measures on three-dimensional images generated from computed tomography scans predicted the development of OA associated with CHD. Continued refinement of similar imaging methods may improve diagnostic imaging techniques to identify dogs predisposed to degenerative hip joint changes. By current consensus, joint changes consistent with CHD are influenced by genetic predisposition as well as environmental and biomechanical factors; however, despite decades of work, the relative contributions of each to the development and extent of CHD signs remain elusive. Similarly, despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic underpinnings of CHD for selective breeding programs, relevant genetic loci remain equivocal. As such, prevention of CHD within domestic canine populations is marginally successful. Conservative management is often employed to manage signs of CHD, with lifelong maintenance of body mass as one of the most promising methods. Surgical intervention is often employed to prevent joint changes or restore joint function, but there are no gold standards for either goal. To date, all CHD phenotypes are considered as a single entity in spite of recognized differences in expression and response to environmental conditions and treatment. Identification of distinct CHD phenotypes and targeting evidence-based conservative and invasive treatments for each may significantly advance prevention and management of a prevalent, debilitating condition in canine companions. Keywords: canine

  10. Maxillary canine with two root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh Bolla; Sarath Raj Kavuri

    2011-01-01

    To report a rare case of maxillary canine with two root canals. The case describes the treatment of a maxillary canine with two root canals which was referred from department of prosthodontia for intentional root canal treatment for prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical examination revealed a maxillary canine with carious lesion and responded within normal limits to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination revealed a distal carious lesion (close proximity to pulp) and also appeared to be an...

  11. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael; Wiinberg, Bo; Clausen, Jes T.; Hansen, Jens Jacob; Nichols, Timothy C.; Kjalke, Marianne; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    Canine coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency can be hereditary or acquired and may cause life threatening bleeding episodes if untreated. FVII procoagulant activity can be measured by FVII activity (FVII:C), but assays for measurement of canine specific FVII antigen (FVII:Ag) have not been...... available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...... in the diagnosis of hereditary canine FVII deficiency....

  12. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage. PMID:26280526

  13. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov; Ksenija Ilievska; Plamen Trojacanec; Irena Celeska; Goran Nikolovski; Ivica Gjurovski; Toni Dovenski

    2014-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the...

  14. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  15. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. PMID:25174902

  16. In vitro evaluation of anthelmintic property of ethno-veterinary plant extracts against the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyathilakan, N; Murali, K; Anandaraj, A; Abdul Basith, S

    2012-04-01

    The present study was envisaged to evaluate the efficacy of ethno-medicinal plant aqueous extracts such as Allium sativum, Lawsonia inermis, and Opuntia ficus indica in vitro in comparison with the chemotherapeutic agent, Oxyclozanide on Fasciola gigantica adults. The efficacy was evaluated by gross visual motility and mortality of F. gigantica with score index, light microscopic examination of carmine stained flukes and histopathology of treated flukes. Based on the in vitro trials conducted using above plant extracts at 1 percent, 2.5 percent and 5 percent concentration, the extracts of O. ficus indica showed flukicidal effect at 2.5 and 5% concentration. However A. sativum and L. inermis were effective at 5% concentration only. The study indicated the potential for developing herbal-based anthelmintics to control F. gigantica in livestock. PMID:23543611

  17. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  18. Comparison of cellular and tissue transcriptional profiles in canine mammary tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlowski, K.M.; Krol, M.; Majewska, A.; Badowska-Kozakiewicz, A.; Mol, J. A.; Malicka, E.; Motyl, T.

    2009-01-01

    J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 May;60 Suppl 1:85-94. Comparison of cellular and tissue transcriptional profiles in canine mammary tumor. Pawlowski KM, Krol M, Majewska A, Badowska-Kozakiewicz A, Mol JA, Malicka E, Motyl T. Department of Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW, Poland. Tumor-derived cell lines are widely used as in vitro cancer models. Cell lines historically served as the primary experimental model systems for exploration o...

  19. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  20. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  1. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  2. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  3. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  4. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  5. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  6. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

    2008-09-01

    Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

  7. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis. PMID:19482334

  8. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  9. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  10. Canine angiostrongylosis: recent advances in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Cesare A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Angela Di Cesare, Donato Traversa Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy Abstract: Angiostrongylus vasorum is a parasitic nematode affecting the heart and pulmonary arteries of wild (eg, foxes and domestic canids. The parasite has an indirect life cycle in which slugs and snails act as intermediate hosts. In the last few years the parasite has spread outside the traditional endemic foci, and there is a rise of documented cases of canine angiostrongylosis across Europe. Angiostrongylus vasorum causes cardiopulmonary disorders and coagulopathies, along with different nonspecific clinical signs. Fatal infections are frequently reported. Given the severity of the infection and the recent geographic spreading of the parasite, this article reviews and discusses the current knowledge of A. vasorum, with a special focus on recent insights on diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of dog angiostrongylosis. Keywords: Angiostrongylus vasorum, dog, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, control, therapy

  11. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing. PMID:25632689

  12. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  13. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  14. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F;

    2011-01-01

    associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests that...... the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  15. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009....

  16. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  17. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  18. Propofol attenuates LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and nitric oxide expression in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells possibly through down-regulation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Zengyang; WANG, Jinqiu

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of mortality in intensive care medicine. Propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic, has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties and able to prevent sepsis induced by Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by down-regulating the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, propofol’s anti-inflammatory effects upon canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have not yet been clarified. Here, we isolate canine PBMCs and investigate the ef...

  19. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  20. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  1. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  2. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  3. Canine and feline obesity: a review of pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftus JP

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available John P Loftus, Joseph J Wakshlag Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Canine and feline obesity rates have reached pandemic proportions and are similar to those in humans, with approximately 30%–40% of dogs and cats being overweight to obese. Obesity has been associated with other health problems, including osteoarthritis, renal disease, skin disease, insulin resistance, and neoplasia in dogs, while in cats obesity is associated with dermatological issues, diabetes mellitus, neoplasia, and urolithiasis. The health issues appear to be slightly different across the two species, which may be due to some inherent differences in the hormonal milieu involved in obesity that differs between the dog and the cat. In this review, we discuss the complicated nature of the pathogenesis of obesity, the hormonal stimulus for orexigenic and anorexigenic behavior, adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, and most importantly, clinical management of the number one disease in canine and feline medicine.Keywords: obesity, canine, feline, veterinary

  4. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of canine and human Staphylococcus aureus collected in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J E; Chirino-Trejo, M

    2011-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of infection in people and is increasingly recognized in dogs. The increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is complicating the treatment of these infections. Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a toxin involved in the pathogenesis of necrotic syndromes in people may be partially responsible for the rise of MRSA. Canine and human S. aureus from the same geographic area are genetically similar, indicating a common population and likely transmission. The implications of increasing antimicrobial resistance complicated by interspecies transmission, necessitates including both dogs and humans in S. aureus resistance surveillance studies. A collection of 126 S. aureus isolates from people (n = 99) and dogs (n = 27) were included, minimum inhibitor concentrations to a panel of 33 antimicrobials used in human and veterinary medicine were determined. No resistance to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin or nitrofurantoin was found. A wide range of antibiograms were found; including resistance to 0-12 drugs (0-6 drug classes). Outstanding antibiograms included a canine MRSA resistant to rifampin and a human MRSA resistant to chloramphenicol. Inducible clindamycin resistance was found among 78% and 4% of canine and human MRSA and 17% and 25% of canine colonizing and human methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), respectively. Resistance to mupirocin was only found among human isolates including 20% of MRSA and 4% of MSSA. While no canine isolates were PVL positive, 39% of human MRSA and 2% of MSSA carried the gene. The bidirectional transmission of S. aureus between people and dogs necessitates the inclusion of isolates from both species in future studies. PMID:21824346

  6. Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina: An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luján María C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration. Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating

  7. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Del Puerto, Helen L; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Luciana Moro; Fabiana Alves; Braz, Gissandra F; Almir S. Martins

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus...

  8. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  9. Development of the canine tooth in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla

  10. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  11. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high interobserver

  12. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  13. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  14. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  15. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  16. Efficacy and safety of oncolytic vaccinia virus and Semliki Forest virus in the treatment of canine and feline malignant tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Autio, Karoliina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs, cats and humans. New therapeutic modalities are necessary to improve disease outcome. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. Until now, the only oncolytic virus evaluated in a clinical trial in veterinary medicine has been canine oncolytic adenovirus, but a clinical trial has been started with oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) in pet dogs. In cats, oncolytic viruses have not been evaluated in clinical settings. Tumour treatment...

  17. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  18. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  19. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  20. Frequency and Clinical Epidemiology of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Dogs Infested with Ticks from Sinaloa, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guadalupe Sosa-Gutierrez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsial intracellular obligate bacterial pathogen and agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. The prevalence of this disease in veterinary medicine can vary depending on the diagnostic method used and the geographic location. One hundred and fifty-two canine blood samples from six veterinary clinics and two shelters from Sinaloa State (Mexico were analyzed in this study. All animals were suspected of having Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME. The diagnostic methods used were the ELISA (Snap4Dx, IDEXX together with blood smear and platelet count. From all dogs blood samples analyzed, 74.3% were positive to E. canis by ELISA and 40.1% were positive by blood smear. The sensitivity and specificity observed in the ELISA test were 78.8% and 86.7%. In addition, thrombocytopenia was presented in 87.6% of positive dogs. The predominant clinical manifestations observed were fever, anorexia, depression, lethargy, and petechiae. Consequently, this is the first report in which the morulae were visualized in the blood samples, and E. canis-specific antibodies were detected in dogs from Sinaloa, Northwest of Mexico.

  1. Incidence of dermatophytosis in canine cases presented at Apollo Veterinary College, Rajashtan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Gangil

    Full Text Available Aim: Ring worm are fungal infection relevant to animal and human health. The study was aimed to assess the frequency of dermatophytes infection of the skin of dogs in and around the Jaipur city. Materials and methods: One twenty canine samples were obtained during three years (2008-2011 from dogs suffering from different dermatological disorders and were invitro processed for dermatophytes detection at the Department of Microbiology, Apollo College of veterinary medicine Agra Road, Jaipur. Result: Out of these, eighty nine samples were positive respectively for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. sporadic in 15 samples (0.12%. Retrospective studies of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum and Trichophyton were performed with the sole consideration of public health consequence of the canine ringworm. Conclusion: In the present study samples were found positive for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. Considering the veterinary and public health importance of canine ringworm it would be necessary to assess the prevalence of the dermatophytosis in Rajasthan. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 682-684

  2. Canine fetal heart rate: do accelerations or decelerations predict the parturition day in bitches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, E M U; Garcia, D A A; Giannico, A T; Froes, T R

    2014-10-15

    Ultrasonography is a safe and efficient technique for monitoring fetal development and viability. One of the most important and widely used parameters to verify fetal viability is the fetal heart rate (HR). In human medicine, the fetal HR normally oscillates during labor in transient accelerations and decelerations associated with uterine contractions. The present study investigated whether these variations also occur in canine fetuses and its relationship to parturition. A cohort study was conducted in 15 pregnant bitches undergoing two-dimensional high-resolution ultrasonographic examination during the 8th and 9th week of gestation. Fetal HR was assessed in M-mode for 5 minutes in each fetus in all bitches. In addition, the bitches were monitored for clinical signs of imminent parturition. Associations between the HR, antepartum time, and delivery characteristics were evaluated with a Poisson regression model. Fetal HR acceleration and deceleration occurred in canine fetuses and predicted the optimal time of parturition. These findings can help veterinarians and sonographers better understand this phenomenon in canine fetuses. PMID:24888684

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells with rhBMP-2 inhibits the growth of canine osteosarcoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grassi Rici Rose

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs belong to a unique group of proteins that includes the growth factor TGF-β. BMPs play important roles in cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and inhibition of cell growth. They also participate in the maturation of several cell types, depending on the microenvironment and interactions with other regulatory factors. Depending on their concentration gradient, the BMPs can attract various types of cells and act as chemotactic, mitogenic, or differentiation agents. BMPs can interfere with cell proliferation and the formation of cartilage and bone. In addition, BMPs can induce the differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells into various cell types, including chondroblasts and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of treatment with rhBMP-2 on the proliferation of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSCs and the tumor suppression properties of rhBMP-2 in canine osteocarcoma (OST cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines were isolated from biopsies and excisions of animals with osteosarcoma and were characterized by the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Butantan Institute. The mesenchymal stem cells were derived from the bone marrow of canine fetuses (cMSCs and belong to the University of São Paulo, College of Veterinary Medicine (FMVZ-USP stem cell bank. After expansion, the cells were cultured in a 12-well Transwell system; cells were treated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells associated with rhBMP2. Expression of the intracytoplasmic and nuclear markers such as Caspase-3, Bax, Bad, Bcl-2, Ki-67, p53, Oct3/4, Nanog, Stro-1 were performed by flow citometry. Results We evaluated the regenerative potential of in vitro treatment with rhBMP-2 and found that both osteogenic induction and tumor regression occur in stem cells from canine bone marrow. rhBMP-2 inhibits the proliferation capacity of OST cells by mechanisms of apoptosis and tumor suppression mediated by p

  4. Production of monoclonal antibodies against canine leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; Borges dos Santos, Roberto Robson; Lima, Carla Andrade; Rios de Sousa Gomes, Hilton; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Santos, Patrícia Meira; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Conrado dos-Santos, Washington Luis; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain

    2004-04-01

    A panel of anti-canine leukocyte monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), either resting or stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA). Three out of 28 clones-IH1, AB6, and HG6-screened by ELISA and producing antibody with the highest specificity for canine cell immunostaining, were subjected to three subsequent subcloning steps by limiting dilution, and selected for further characterization. These MAbs belonged to IgG1 (HG6 and IH1) and IgG2a (AB6) isotypes. The distribution of cell populations expressing the antigen recognized by the antibodies was identified by indirect immunoflorescence on canine PBMC and on tissue sections of lymph node, spleen, liver and skin. The possible crossreactivity with human PBMC was also examined in immunocytochemistry. One of the antibodies specifically recognized macrophages. The MAbs presented here can be foreseen as possible valuable diagnostic and research tools to study immune functions in dogs. PMID:15165486

  5. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  6. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  7. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  8. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  9. Case study in canine intestinal lymphangiectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    A 9.52 kg, 9-year-old, spayed female beagle was presented with the chief complaint of abdominal distention of 1 week’s duration. A presumptive diagnosis of canine intestinal lymphangectasia was arrived at by exclusion of other causes for the patient’s ascites. The patient was successfully treated with dietary modification and immunosuppressive therapy.

  10. DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

  11. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned. (S.K.K.)

  12. Identification of canine platelet proteins separated by differential detergent fractionation for nonelectrophoretic proteomics analyzed by Gene Ontology and pathways analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trichler SA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shauna A Trichler,1,* Sandra C Bulla,1,* Nandita Mahajan,1 Kari V Lunsford,2 Ken Pendarvis,3 Bindu Nanduri,4,5 Fiona M McCarthy,3 Camilo Bulla1 1Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, 2Department of Clinical Sciences and Animal Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 3Department of Veterinary Science and Microbiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 4Department of Biological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 5Institute for Genomics, Biocomputing and Biotechnology, Starkville, MS, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: During platelet development, proteins necessary for the many functional roles of the platelet are stored within cytoplasmic granules. Platelets have also been shown to take up and store many plasma proteins into granules. This makes the platelet a potential novel source of biomarkers for many disease states. Approaches to sample preparation for proteomic studies for biomarkers search vary. Compared with traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis systems, nonelectrophoretic proteomics methods that employ offline protein fractionation methods such as the differential detergent fractionation method have clear advantages. Here we report a proteomic survey of the canine platelet proteome using differential detergent fractionation coupled with mass spectrometry and functional modeling of the canine platelet proteins identified. A total of 5,974 unique proteins were identified from platelets, of which only 298 (5% had previous experimental evidence of in vivo expression. The use of offline prefractionation of canine proteins by differential detergent fractionation resulted in greater proteome coverage as compared with previous reports. This initial study contributes to a broader understanding of canine platelet biology and aids functional research

  13. COPD Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AerobiKa® Cardiology Medications Anticoagulant Medicine Anticoagulants and Drug-Food Interactions COPD Medications Bronchodilators Anti-Inflammatories Antibiotics Managing Your Medications Devices ...

  14. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes. PMID:16261767

  15. Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoti, Serena; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Abdolreza, Jamilian; Femiano, Felice; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-07-01

    The presence of an impacted mandibular canine is one of the most difficult challenges that an orthodontist will meet. Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dentoskeletal characteristics; the duration, risks, and costs of treatment; patient preferences; and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports an orthodontic treatment of a boy, age 12.9 years, with an impacted mandibular canine in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed. Radiographic analysis indicated a transmigration of the mandibular right canine. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous right canine followed by surgical exposure and ligation of the permanent canine. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct position of the tooth was achieved. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the impacted canine. PMID:26502299

  16. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  17. Bi-rooted Primary Maxillary Canines: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of bi-rooted primary maxillary canines. A 6-year-old girl presented at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, with the chief complaint of pain in the lower right quadrant of her dentition. Radiographic examination revealed bifurcation of primary maxillary canine roots. This report discusses the possible etiology of bi-rooted canines, implications for the developing dentition, and treatment opt...

  18. Autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in Romania: neglected or (re)emerging?

    OpenAIRE

    Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; MIRCEAN, MIRCEA; Bolfa, Pompei; Györke, Adriana; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. In Romania between 1955 and 2013, no cases of human autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis were reported. Data regarding canine leishmaniasis is similarly scarce. Since the first report of clinical autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in 1935, there were only three sporadic reports of positive dogs all without any clinical signs. Our study reports the first clinical case of autochthonous ...

  19. Portrait of a Canine Probiotic – from Gut to Gut

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, D.; Murphy, K. Barry; MacSharry, J.; Boileau, T.; Sunvold, G.; Reinhart, G.; Kiely, B.; Shanahan, F; O'Mahony, L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The gastrointestinal environment is a complex interactive system involving the host, ingested dietary components, and numerous microbial species. We hypothesised that isolation and screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria adherent to healthy canine gastrointestinal tissue would yield strains with commensal activity in canines. The aims of this study were 1) to isolate a bank of commensal organisms from the canine gastrointestinal tract; 2) to screen these novel microbi...

  20. Canine oral biofilms: Cultural, molecular, and in vitro studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The canine oral microbiota is poorly understood compared to that of humans. The aim of this work was to improve understanding of the canine oral microbiota. This was achieved by surveying the canine oral microbiota, determining coaggregation interactions between its members, and developing a laboratory microcosm. Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaque and saliva of dogs, and isolates were identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 339 isolates, 84 phylotypes belonging to ...

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task of the Expert Committee was to review the technical development and efficacy of nuclear medicine methods and to recommend the best possible means of establishing nuclear medicine services at various levels of medical care in different countries. After reviewing the contributions which nuclear medicine can make, the various types of medical institutions and hospitals in existence, the requirements, organization and funding of nuclear medicine services, and the cost/effectiveness of nuclear medicine, a number of recommendations were made. IAEA and WHO should make information on existing methods of cost/effectiveness analysis widely available; invite governments to include a description of such analysis methods in training programmes of their health officers; assist in the acquisition of the necessary data; and encourage and eventually support actual applications of such analyses to carefully selected nuclear medicine procedures in varying medicosocial environments. They were further recommended to study possible ways of improving reliability and ease of servicing nuclear medicine equipment, and extent of possible local construction; the possibility of making available supplies of matched characterized reagents for radioimmunoassay and related techniques; and to study the advantages of establishing a network of collaborating centres on an international basis

  2. Canine and feline nasal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Christine

    2006-05-01

    Dogs and cats of our society have outgrown their status as merely pets and are now considered our close companions and even family members. This shift in their roles has led to pet owners seeking improved preventative medicine for their four-legged friends. Subsequently, dogs and cats are living longer lives than ever before and developing more old-age-related diseases. One of the most devastating diseases of older animals is cancer. Once a veterinarian has detected cancer in a pet, pet owners seek advice on their next course of action. This article is intended to provide concise information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of intranasal tumors of the dog and cat. This article outlines the forms of nasal tumors that are the most common, the recommended imaging and biopsy techniques to diagnose the tumor, and the most appropriate treatments of them. PMID:16711615

  3. In vitro evaluation of canine leukocytes radiolabeled in whole blood with 99mTc stannous colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Technetium-99m stannous colloid (99mTcSnC)-labeled leukocytes are used to investigate a variety of inflammatory diseases in human medicine. The present study investigates the in vitro behavior of canine leukocytes labeled in whole blood with 99mTcSnC. Methods: Blood samples from 10 healthy dogs were labeled with 99mTcSnC using a standard procedure. The distribution of radioactivity among blood components (plasma, leukocyte layers and erythrocytes) was measured following separation of the radiolabeled samples across Histopaque density gradients. Phagocytic function of labeled and unlabeled leukocytes was estimated using zymosan particles. Labeling retention by leukocytes was determined at 1, 3, 4 and 7 h postlabeling. Results: The mean±standard error percentage of radioactivity associated with plasma, erythrocyte and leukocyte fractions was 2.0±0.21%, 55.5±0.60% and 42.5±0.54%, respectively (the last comprising 70.2±0.83% in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and 29.8±0.83% in mononuclear leukocytes). Labeled canine leukocytes had a phagocytic activity of 91.3±0.28% (control, 91.7±0.26%). The radiolabeled canine leukocytes retained 94.1±0.30% of radioactivity at 7 h postlabeling. Conclusions: Radiolabeling of canine leukocytes in whole blood with 99mTcSnC has minor adverse effect on their phagocytic function. The radiolabeled canine leukocytes retained a large percentage of radioactivity for at least 7 h postlabeling

  4. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  5. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  7. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection. PMID:25294661

  8. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  9. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Effects of extrusion on the feed quality for other animals than pets have been well recognized. Our studies investigated to what extent extrusion and/or drying of a c...

  10. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  11. Ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela J; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Benigni, Livia

    2014-01-01

    There is little published information on the ultrasonographic appearance of canine renal lymphoma. The purpose of this retrospective study was to provide additional information regarding the ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma, suggest ultrasonographic description criteria, and evaluate the role of fine-needle aspirate cytology in the diagnosis of this disease. The ultrasonographic features of confirmed renal lymphoma were reviewed in ten dogs. Pyelectasia was found in all dogs. Other ultrasonographic findings were loss of corticomedullary distinction (9/10 dogs), renomegaly (8/10 dogs), renal deformity (6/10 dogs), hypoechoic lesion(s) (6/10 dogs), and hyperechoic lesion(s) (2/10 dogs). Hypoechoic lesions were described as masses, nodules, and indistinct areas. In 30% of the cases (3/10 dogs) ultrasound revealed only minor abnormalities, including grade 1 pyelectasia, mild renomegaly, and focal loss of corticomedullary definition. Bilateral lesions were seen in nine dogs (90%). Renal fine-needle aspirates were performed in 9/10 dogs, yielding a diagnosis in seven on first attempt (78%). Two dogs had been given a provisional cytological diagnosis of round cell neoplasia; in one dog lymphoma was confirmed by second aspirate and by tissue core biopsy in the other. In 1/10 dogs, lymphoma was found at necropsy. Findings indicated that ultrasonographic signs of canine renal lymphoma may be subtle, canine renal lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when the above ultrasonographic features are observed, and fine-needle aspirate cytology is a useful method for diagnosing this disease. PMID:24629062

  12. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman Ragnvi; Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie; Fransson Boel A; Bergström Annika; Häggström Jens

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameter...

  13. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  14. Recent developments in Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Seisdedos Benzal, Alejandro; Galán Rodríguez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CCD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting aging dogs. CCD is an underdiagnosed disease that involves at least 14% of geriatric dogs, but apparently less than 2% of diseased dogs are diagnosed. There are several physiopathological similarities between Alzheimer disease (AD) and CCD, developing amyloid-β deposits in brain parenchyma and blood vessels, brain atrophy and neuronal loss. The clinical signs lead to behavioural changes. They are ...

  15. Canine epilepsy as a translational model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potschka, Heidrun; Fischer, Andrea; von Rüden, Eva-Lotta; Hülsmeyer, Velia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Dogs with spontaneous diseases can exhibit a striking similarity in etiology, clinical manifestation, and disease course when compared to human patients. Therefore, dogs are intensely discussed as a translational model of human disease. In particular, genetic studies in selected dog breeds serve as an excellent tool to identify epilepsy disease genes. In addition, canine epilepsy is discussed as a translational platform for drug testing. On one hand, epileptic dogs might serve as an interesting model by allowing the evaluation of drug efficacy and potency under clinical conditions with a focus on chronic seizures resistant to standard medication, preventive strategies, or status epilepticus. On the other hand, several limitations need to be considered including owner-based seizure monitoring, species differences in pharmacokinetics and drug interactions, as well as cost-intensiveness. The review gives an overview on the current state of knowledge regarding the etiology, clinical manifestation, pathology, and drug response of canine epilepsy, also pointing out the urgent need for further research on specific aspects. Moreover, the putative advantages, the disadvantages, and limitations of antiepileptic drug testing in canine epilepsy are critically discussed. PMID:23506100

  16. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  17. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  18. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  19. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  20. Folk Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CLPPP CAP Healthy Homes Assessment Tools Lead Health Literacy Initiative Refugee Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and ... As blood lead levels increase, so does lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines ...

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  2. Medicinal Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is becoming a new source of growth in China-Africa trade LIU Tao never expected that his traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products would be so warmly welcomed at the annual Canton Fair last year.His surprise came after a large number of African businessmen expressed a keen interest in importing the products.That knowledge left a broad smile on his face.

  3. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  7. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  8. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  9. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  10. First report of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    TSATCHEV, Illia; KYRIAZIS, Ioannis D.; BOUTSINI, Sofia; Karagouni, Evdokia; Dotsika, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies on canine leishmaniasis in Bulgaria, even in areas where human leishmaniasis has been detected, are controversial. This report describes 2 clinical cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The disease was confirmed by microscopical, serological, and molecular methods. It is, therefore, suggested that infected dogs could constitute the reservoir for human leishmaniasis in the country.

  11. Management of an Unusual Maxillary Canine: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya Nagendra Krishna Muppalla; Krishnamurthy Kavuda; Rajani Punna; Amulya Vanapatla

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to have intimate knowledge and thorough understanding of both pulp chamber and root canal anatomy. They should be aware of possibility of anatomical variations in the root canal system during endodontic treatment. Maxillary canines usually have single root and root canal but rarely may have single root with two root canals. This case describes a lengthier maxillary canine with two root canals.

  12. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... for immunogenicity. The selected virus dose shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  13. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  14. Mesopotamian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots. PMID:17378276

  15. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  16. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay for detecting of antibody to canine distemper virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2006-01-01

    Serum neutralisation test (SNT) has been established for evaluating canine distemper vaccination, but until now SNT was rarely used due to the need for continuous tissue culture facilities and requires 3 days to perform. For detecting antibody to canine distemper virus, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is relatively simple and rapid seroassay. ELISA for canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) was developed by using Onderstepoort strain of canine dis...

  17. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. PMID:14988915

  18. Tibetan traditional medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Tibetan medicine companies in T.A.R can manufacture more than 360 Tibetan patent medicines. There are 18 Tibetan medicine factories in Tibet, and total out value exceeds 3 billion yuan. 24 kinds of Tibetan patent medicines have been incorporated into State Fundamental Medicine List, in which 14 Tibetan patent medicines are listed in national protected traditional medicine category.

  19. Diagnosis and management of canine claw diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S

    1999-11-01

    The diagnostic workup for canine claw disease consists of a good history and complete clinical examination which may provide clues for a possible underlying disorder. In dogs with claw disease but no other clinical or historical signs, further recommended diagnostic procedures include cytological evaluation of impression smears or discharge from the claw fold, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, biopsy of the claw matrix, and an elimination diet for 6 to 8 weeks. If no underlying disease can be identified, trial treatment with essential fatty acid supplementation, vitamin E, or a combination of doxycycline hydrochloride and niacinamide may be useful. In some patients, onychectomy of all claws may be considered. PMID:10563005

  20. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  1. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O' Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  2. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Major; Ariane Schweighauser; Thierry Francey

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of ...

  3. Functional characterization of canine interferon-lambda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Limin; Luo, Tingrong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  4. Study of the Artroscopic Anatomy of the Knee in Canine Cadavers Using 2.4 Mm Diameter Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oswaldo Alonso Cuéllar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mainly by a limited access to new techniques and technologies, veterinary medicine in developing countries, has been far behind from the human medicine. One of the causes is the limited access to technology and specific techniques. Moreover, it is clear that many new technologies have proven their benefits in the two disciplines, making necessary and almost mandatory their massive implementation in humans and animals. The possibility to use human elements for veterinary techniques would improve the technology access and veterinarians training, at lower costs. The purpose of this study is to verify the feasibility to perform a knee arthroscopy in dogs with small human joints arthroscopic lenses. Under protocols established in veterinary 12 knee arthroscopies were performed in canine cadaver, using a wrist and ankle arthroscope human of 2.4 mm in diameter and 30° of angulation. All the structures reported in the literature were possible to visualize using a 2.4 mm arthroscope. In this sense, it is possible to develop training activities and subsequent implementation of endoscopic techniques in canine femorotibiopatellar joint, using a lens of small joints of human medicine.

  5. Managing Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other strategies that don’t use medicine have • Call the ADEAR Center toll-free: 1-800-438-4380 been tried. ... dose, patient’s name, dosage frequency, and expiration date. • ... Disease Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center is a service of the National Institute on ...

  6. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  7. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  8. Nuclear Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Belzberg, Allan S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear medicine utilizes radioisotopes to diagnose and in some cases treat disease. Modern instruments can image their accumulation in an organ and provide quantitative data when indicated. The strength of these procedures is in the unique physiologic information they provide, rather than the presentation of precise anatomic detail.

  9. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document contains two articles dealing with the radioisotope scintigraphy of myocardium and gullet and forty-one abstracts of papers presented at the seminar ''Twenty-nine Days of Nuclear Medicine'' held in Olomovc, September 29 - October 1, 1992. The contributions, all within the INIS subject scope, are input to INIS. (Z.S.)

  10. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  11. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  12. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  13. OA01.24. A study of effect of neem oil on clinical signs of canine atopy

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Shraddha; ,

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Due to growing nuclear nature of urban families, pets like dogs are becoming popular companions. A skin disorder is common in dogs and is a concern for human coming in contact. Natural remedies need to be assessed for long term safety of dogs and humans. There is evidence that in dogs, Neem oil can help with fleas, ticks, intestinal parasites and mange mites. According to Ayurvedic medicine. Neem oil improves the clinical signs of skin disorders. To study its action in canines, furth...

  14. The feline bile salt export pump: a structural and functional comparison with canine and human Bsep/BSEP

    OpenAIRE

    Beusekom, C.D. van; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Schrickx, J.A.; Russel, F G M

    2013-01-01

    Background The bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) is the primary transporter for the excretion of bile acids from hepatocytes into bile. In human, inhibition of BSEP by drugs has been related to drug-induced cholestasis and subsequent cytotoxic effects. The role of BSEP in canine and feline liver diseases has not been studied in detail, but the same mechanism of inhibition by drugs as in humans could play a role in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional ...

  15. Establishment of a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Sen; XIA Sui-sheng; TANG Li-gong; CHENG Jun; CHEN Zhi-shui; ZHENG Shan-gen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation. Methods:12 male dogs were averagely grouped as donors and recipients. A small number of donor canine lymphocytes was infused into different anatomic locations of a paired canine recipient for each time and which was repeated weekly. Specific immune sensitization was monitored by means of Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) and Mixed Lymphocyte Culture (MLC) test. When CDC test conversed to be positive and MLC test showed a significant proliferation of reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients, the right kidneys of the paired dogs were excised and transplanted to each other concurrently. Injury of renal allograft function was scheduled determined by ECT dynamic kidney photography and pathologic investigation. Results :CDC test usually conversed to be positive and reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients were also observed to be proliferated significantly in MLC test after 3 to 4 times of canine donor lymphocyte infusions. Renal allograft function deterioration occurred 4 d post-operatively in 4 of 6 canine recipients, in contrast to none in control dogs. Pathologic changes suggested antibody-mediated rejection (delayed) or acute rejection in 3 excised renal allograft of sensitized dogs. Seven days after operation, all sensitized dogs had lost graft function, pathologic changes of which showed that the renal allografts were seriously rejected. 2 of 3 dogs in control group were also acutely rejected. Conclusion:A convenient method by means of repeated stimulation of canine lymphocyte may induce specific immune sensitization in canine recipients. Renal allografts in sensitized dogs will be earlier rejected and result in a more deteriorated graft function.

  16. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  17. Alpha basic crystallin expression in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Guvenc, Tolga; Gulbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; YARIM, Murat; Kabak, Yonca Betil; Karayigit, Onder; Sozmen, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic and/or diagnostic factors of canine mammary tumors by immunohistochemically analyzing the expression of alpha basic crystallin (αB-c). For this, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of 51 naturally-occurring canine mammary tumors (11 benign and 40 malignant) were used. Tissue from eight normal canine mammary glands were served as a control. Immunohistochemically, in the control mammary tissues, a few luminal epithelial cells were αB-c posit...

  18. High resolution protein electrophoresis of 100 paired canine cerebrospinal fluid and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Sébastien; Trumel, Cathy; Cauzinille, Laurent; Palenché, Florence; Braun, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the diagnostic relevance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) high resolution electrophoresis. The laboratory technique was applied to 100 paired samples of canine CSF and serum, with paired samples tested during the same analytical run, as recommended in human medicine. Ninety four of the dogs had a neurological disease and 6 healthy dogs served as a control group. A strong linear correlation between CSF total protein concentration and the albumin quota (AQ) was found in the control group and in the inflammatory (infectious or noninfectious), neoplastic, and miscellaneous groups: AQ = 0.015 CSF total protein--0.102, r = 0.990. This correlation suggests that an increased CSF total protein concentration can be an indicator of blood brain barrier dysfunction. The highest median AQ value was found in the aseptic suppurative meningitis group, but no statistical differences were found between this and the other groups. The AQ, calculated with this technique, did not provide any additional information. Moreover, although unexpected, the electrophoretic profiles were not characteristic of any particular disease. In conclusion, this study did not confirm high resolution electrophoresis of paired CSF and serum samples to be a valuable ancillary diagnostic tool for canine neurological diseases. PMID:16734104

  19. Isolation and characterization of canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Bum Park

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that amniotic membrane tissue is a rich source of stem cells in humans. In clinical applications, the amniotic membrane tissue had therapeutic effects on wound healing and corneal surface reconstruction. Here, we successfully isolated and identified multipotent stem cells (MSCs from canine amniotic membrane tissue. We cultured the canine amniotic membrane-derived multipotent stem cells (cAM-MSCs in low glucose DMEM medium. cAM-MSCs have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic. We characterized the immunophenotype of cAM-MSCs by flow cytometry and measured cell proliferation by the cumulative population doubling level (CPDL. We performed differentiation studies for the detection of trilineage multipotent ability, under the appropriate culture conditions. Taken together, our results show that cAM-MSCs could be a rich source of stem cells in dogs. Furthermore, cAM-MSCs may be useful as a cell therapy application for veterinary regenerative medicine.

  20. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Veterinary Oncology— A Review with an Emphasis on Canine Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Zandvliet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance (DR is the major limiting factor in the successful treatment of systemic neoplasia with cytotoxic chemotherapy. DR can be either intrinsic or acquired, and although the development and clinical implications are different, the underlying mechanisms are likely to be similar. Most causes for DR are pharmacodynamic in nature, result from adaptations within the tumor cell and include reduced drug uptake, increased drug efflux, changes in drug metabolism or drug target, increased capacity to repair drug‐induced DNA damage or increased resistance to apoptosis. The role of active drug efflux transporters, and those of the ABC‐transporter family in particular, have been studied extensively in human oncology and to a lesser extent in veterinary medicine. Methods reported to assess ABC‐transporter status include detection of the actual protein (Western blot, immunohistochemistry, mRNA or ABC‐transporter function. The three major ABC‐transporters associated with DR in human oncology are ABCB1 or P‐gp, ABCC1 or MRP1, and ABCG2 or BCRP, and have been demonstrated in canine cell lines, healthy dogs and dogs with cancer. Although this supports a causative role for these ABC‐transporters in DR cytotoxic agents in the dog, the relative contribution to the clinical phenotype of DR in canine cancer remains an area of debate and requires further prospective studies.

  1. Application of biodynamic imaging for personalized chemotherapy in canine lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custead, Michelle R.

    Biodynamic imaging (BDI) is a novel phenotypic cancer profiling technology which characterizes changes in cellular and subcellular motion in living tumor tissue samples following in vitro or ex vivo treatment with chemotherapeutics. The ability of BDI to predict clinical response to single-agent doxorubicin chemotherapy was tested in ten dogs with naturally-occurring non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). Pre-treatment tumor biopsy samples were obtained from all dogs and treated with doxorubicin (10 muM) ex vivo. BDI captured cellular and subcellular motility measures on all biopsy samples at baseline and at regular intervals for 9 hours following drug application. All dogs subsequently received treatment with a standard single-agent doxorubicin protocol. Objective response (OR) to doxorubicin and progression-free survival time (PFST) following chemotherapy were recorded for all dogs. The dynamic biomarkers measured by BDI were entered into a multivariate logistic model to determine the extent to which BDI predicted OR and PFST following doxorubicin therapy. The model showed that the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of BDI for predicting treatment outcome were 95%, 91%, and 93%, respectively. To account for possible over-fitting of data to the predictive model, cross-validation with a one-left-out analysis was performed, and the adjusted sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy following this analysis were 93%, 87%, and 91%, respectively. These findings suggest that BDI can predict, with high accuracy, treatment outcome following single-agent doxorubicin chemotherapy in a relevant spontaneous canine cancer model, and is a promising novel technology for advancing personalized cancer medicine.

  2. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  3. Network medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Tony; Linding, Rune

    2008-01-01

    To more effectively target complex diseases like cancer, diabetes and schizophrenia, we may need to rethink our strategies for drug development and the selection of molecular targets for pharmacological treatments. Here, we discuss the potential use of protein signaling networks as the targets...... for new therapeutic intervention. We argue that by targeting the architecture of aberrant signaling networks associated with cancer and other diseases new therapeutic strategies can be implemented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require quantitative measurements of cell...... signaling processes; we will describe how this may be performed and combined with new algorithms to predict the trajectories taken by a cellular system either in time or through disease states. We term this approach, network medicine....

  4. Safe Use of Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Use of Medicines Heath and Aging Safe Use of Medicines Introduction Read this booklet for practical ... Alice talk about medicine safety Related Publications Medicines: Use Them Safely Dietary Supplements Alzheimer's Disease Medications Fact ...

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  6. Medicine partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Partial medication compliance, where patients do not take enough of their prescribed medicine to achieve adequate outcomes, is common. Research using electronic monitoring to assess compliance has shown that people take approximately 75% of doses as prescribed, irrespective of the condition being treated or its severity. Erratic compliance often leads to discontinuation of therapy, as treatment is perceived to be ineffective. Compliance decreases as frequency of dosing increases. Inadequate c...

  7. Personcentreret medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Personcentreret medicin tager udgangspunkt i den person, lægen møder, hvad enten vedkommende er rask eller syg, og bygger på værdier som fortrolighed, kontinuitet, nærvær, tillid og tilgængelighed. Det er patientens dagsorden, der gælder, og lægen kan i fællesskab med patienten (baseret på en...

  8. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  9. Haptic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Cindy; Mason, Earl

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces haptic medicine--healthcare based on loving touch for healing and preventing disease. We describe the effects of loving touch (a square inch of our skin has over 1000 nerves) on the body, brain and mind. We describe two web-based health education and media projects. The first, HYPERLINK "http://www.21stcenturymed.org" www.21stcenturymed.org is a place for health practitioners to start learning about touch and resources. The second project, Humans Without Borders, is a multi-lingual self help education website for everyday people. Teaching materials for these projects are based on our previous work with a form of haptic medicine known as psychophysiophilosophy with patients at Stanford Hospital, Kaiser Permanente and Lucille Packard Children's Hospital. We describe psychophysiophilosophy, relate motherly love to recent discoveries in neurosciences and give hints on ways to increase motherly love in each of us. We present a plan for moving into the future by re-introducing haptic medicine into our daily lives through self-help and as an adjunct for current physician practice. There is an exercise in self-help for the reader and an appendix of recent clinical research with profound benefits on the use of human touch for over 40 conditions. PMID:19745495

  10. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was < 2.4% for 4 tested serum pools analyzed twice daily over 10 days. The method was linear under dilution, and no prozone...... comparison study, there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is...

  11. Case Report: Canine Fossa Abscess; A Rare Etiological Factor: The Lower Canine Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Agacayak, K. Serkan; Atılgan, S. Serhat; GORGUN, Belgin; Yaman, Ferhan; Ucan, M. Can; Atalay, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic infection may be dangerous; especially when life-threatening complications occur. Infection spreads through the bone and periosteum toward nearby or more distant structures and spaces. Canine fossa abscess is an odontogenic infection that can lead to life-threatening complications. Successful treatment requires early recognition, determination of etiological factors, and proper medical and surgical management. The aim of this paper is to emphasize different and rare etiological fa...

  12. Canine index – A tool for sex determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar M. Bakkannavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are most useful tools in victim identification in the living as well as the dead in the field of forensic investigations. Their ability to survive in situations like mass disasters makes them constructive devices. Many authors have measured crowns of teeth in both males and females and found certain variations. Canines, reported to survive in air crash and hurricane disasters, are perhaps the most stable teeth in the oral cavity because of the labiolingual thickness of the crown and the root anchorage in the alveolar process of jaws. Measurement of mesiodistal width of the mandibular canines and inter-canine distance of the mandible provides good evidence of sex identification due to dimorphism. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of canine index (CI in the determination of sex.

  13. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  14. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  15. Influence of chemotherapy for lymphoma in canine parvovirus DNA distribution and specific humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M A; Duarte, A; Nunes, T; Lourenço, A M; Braz, B S; Vicente, G; Henriques, J; Tavares, L

    2014-12-01

    In man, the combination of cancer and its treatment increases patients' susceptibility to opportunistic infections, due to immune system impairment. In veterinary medicine little information is available concerning this issue. In order to evaluate if a similar dysfunction is induced in small animals undergoing chemotherapy, we assessed the complete blood count, leukocytic, plasma and fecal canine parvovirus (CPV) viral load, and anti-CPV protective antibody titers, in dogs with lymphoma treated with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) protocol, before and during chemotherapy. There was no evidence of decreased immune response, either at admission or after two chemotherapy cycles, indicating that the previously established immunity against CPV was not significantly impaired, supporting the idea that immunosuppression as a result of hematopoietic neoplasms and their treatment in dogs requires further investigation and conclusions cannot be extrapolated from human literature. PMID:25467034

  16. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, L.V.; Visser, Ilona; Belikov, S.I.; Denikina, N.N.; Harder, Timm; Goatley, L.; Rima, B.; Edginton, B.; Osterhaus, Albert; Barrett, Thomas,

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals in Lake Baikal after the initial epizootic. Three out of 45 brain tissue samples collect...

  17. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Valério Carvalho; Clarisse Vieira Botelho; Caroline Gracielle Torres Ferreira; Paulo Oldemar Scherer; Jamária Adriana Pinheiro Soares-Martins; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida; Abelardo Silva Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availabilit...

  18. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomal...

  19. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, A.; Simmonds, P.; Dubovi, E. J.; Qaisar, N.; Henriquez, J.A.; Medina, J.; Shields, S.; Lipkin, W. I.

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions...

  20. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Dubovi, Edward J.; Qaisar, Natasha; Henriquez, Jose A.; Medina, Jan; Shields, Shelly; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal “civilization” infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions...

  1. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Randau; Chris Carbone; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids...

  2. Canine Gouging: A Taboo Resurfacing in Migrant Urban Population

    OpenAIRE

    Anila Virani Noman; Ferranti Wong; Ravikiran Ramakrishna Pawar

    2015-01-01

    Cosmopolitan cities have become a pool of migrants from different parts of the world, who carry their cultural beliefs and superstitions with them around the globe. Canine gouging is a kind of infant oral mutilation (IOM) which is widely practiced among rural population of Africa where the primary tooth bud of the deciduous canine is enucleated. The belief is that the life threatening illnesses in children like vomiting, diarrhoea, and fevers are caused by worms which infest on tooth buds. Th...

  3. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, A; Simmonds, P.; Dubovi, E J; Qaisar, N.; Henriquez, J. A.; J. Medina; S Shields; Lipkin, W. I.

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions...

  4. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Halaswamy V Kambalimath; Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indi...

  5. Nutraceuticals for canine liver disease: assessing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Jean-Michel; Cambier, Carole; Gustin, Pascal

    2013-09-01

    Nutraceuticals, or nutritional supplements, have been promoted for the ancillary treatment of liver disease in dogs. However, minimal information is available in the scientific literature about commonly used nutraceuticals, such as S-adenosylmethionine, silymarin, and vitamin E. No strong clinical evidence exists regarding the efficacy of these compounds as hepatoprotectants in canine liver disease. Until this evidence exists, individual veterinarians must assume responsibility for their decision to use nutritional supplements in their canine patients with liver disease. PMID:23890245

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    HANAZONO, Kiwamu; Fukumoto, Shinya; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; ENDO, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; IWANO, Hidetomo; UCHIDE, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction....

  7. Elemental distribution maps and quantitative determination on age-related canine cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In this investigation, we have evaluated the chemical elements and their role in clinical cases of age-related cataract. We have used medical records of all canine patients the Veterinary Hospital at Faculty of Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny from 2000 to 2005. Animals diagnosed as age-related cataract in expert ophthalmologist were selected varying of 9.4 to 13.5 years old. A study was established to determine changes in distribution maps to elements as Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Sr and respective concentration determined to cases of hypermature, mature, and immature cataract. Concentration measurements were performed using an energy-dispersive XRF spectrometer equipped with an X-ray tube. Distribution maps for canine lens were carried out at the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil) from micro SXRF with a polychromatic beam of 100 μm in diameter. We verified a variation in the Fe distribution. An association with others metallic elements such as Zn and Cu also was performed. We have observed alterations associated with inhomogeneity of elemental distributions on lenses due to opacity levels in according to each cataract progression type. Our results are indicative of different mean values according to each cataract type; however the variations in concentration are usually high inside each type of cataract, possibly due to differences in the stages of cataract and the biological variability for each one. The concentration distribution was used to clarify compositional information on the clinical cases established. The authors would like to thank the State of Sao Paulo Research Foundation. The study was in accordance with Ethical Committee of the Brazilian School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sao Paulo.

  8. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  9. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  10. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  11. European surveillance for pantropic canine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  12. A canine model of multiple portosystemic shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L M; Boothe, H W; Miller, M W; Boothe, D M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (PSS) similar in nature to spontaneously occurring PSS. Sixteen dogs were used and were divided into a control (n = 6) and a diseased group (n = 10). Dogs of the diseased group were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg of body weight, po) twice weekly, and clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and hepatic scintigraphic findings were recorded during the development of hepatic disease and PSS. Surgery was then performed to permit visual verification of multiple shunts, catheter placement for portography examination, and biopsy of the liver. All diseased dogs developed severe hepatic disease and multiple PSS as documented visually at surgery and on portography. Based on this study, dimethylnitrosamine-induced portosystemic shunting appears to be an appropriate model for spontaneously occurring multiple PSS secondary to portal hypertension. PMID:10741951

  13. Canine model of contrast medium induced fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection of radiocontrast media into coronary arteries will produce a low incidence of ventricular fibrillation. This study establishes the injection duration (or contact time) required to produce fibrillation during right coronary angiography in dogs using a 370 mg I/ml, meglumine/sodium diatrizoate formulation (Renografin 76, Squibb). The mean contact time required to induce fibrillation was 18.8+-5.8 seconds for 66 injections in 47 dogs. Prolonged ischemia of greater than 170 s did not produce either fibrillation or arrhythmias, therefore fibrillation is caused by properties of the media. The contact time was not significantly influenced by test injections and was not significantly different in repeated experiments. The canine contact time model of contrast media induced ventricular fibrillation is reproducible and will facilitate the study of risk factors that increase the possibility of fibrillation. (orig.)

  14. Canine Hip Dysplasia is Predictable by Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gang; Zhou, Zhengkui; Wang, Yachun; Zhao, Keyan; Zhu, Lan; Lust, George; Hunter, Linda; Friedenberg, Steven; Li, Junya; Zhang, Yuan; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Paul; Sandler, Jody; Krotscheck, Ursula; Todhunter, Rory; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To establish a predictive method using whole genome genotyping for early intervention in canine hip dysplasia (CHD) risk management, for the prevention of the progression of secondary osteoarthritis (OA), and for selective breeding. Design Two sets of dogs (6 breeds) were genotyped with dense SNPs covering the entire canine genome. The first set contained 359 dogs upon which a predictive formula for genomic breeding value (GBV) was derived by using their estimated breeding value (EBV) of the Norberg angle (a measure of CHD) and their genotypes. To investigate how well the formula would work for an individual dog with genotype only (without using EBV or phenotype), a cross validation was performed by masking the EBV of one dog at a time. The genomic data and the EBV of the remaining dogs were used to predict the GBV for the single dog that was left out. The second set of dogs included 38 new Labrador retriever dogs, which had no pedigree relationship to the dogs in the first set. Results The cross validation showed a strong correlation (r>0.7) between the EBV and the GBV. The independent validation showed a strong correlation (r=0.5) between GBV for the Norberg angle and the observed Norberg angle (no EBV was available for the new 38 dogs). Sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive value of the genomic data were all above 70%. Conclusions Prediction of CHD from genomic data is feasible, and can be applied for risk management of CHD and early selection for genetic improvement to reduce the prevalence of CHD in breeding programs. The prediction can be implemented before maturity, at which age current radiographic screening programs are traditionally applied, and as soon as DNA is available. PMID:21215318

  15. Fluorescein angiography of the canine retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The retinal vascular bed was examined in 37 canine eyes by studying 50 retinal fluorangiograms. All angiographic phases could distinctly be visualized by the use of a small intravenous bolus of 10 mg/kg fluorescein. The choroidal phase is characterized by spot-like and lobular filling of the choriocapillaris. By coalescence of the choroidal lobules, this uneven filling progressively disappears in the subsequent phases. The retinal arterial phase is characterized by a hyperfluorescence of the retinal arterioles at the level of the optic disc border. The time interval between the start of the choroidal phase and the retinal arterial phase is very short due to the common origin of the choroidal and retinal arteries from the choroidoretinal arteries. The retinal arterio-venous phase is characterized by a complete filling of the smaller arterioles, capillaries, and venules. During this phase the branching pattern of the retinal blood vessels at the area centralis region can be most easily studied. This also applies to the periarteriolar capillary-free zones and the radial peripapillary capillaries. The retinal early venous phase is characterized by the onset of laminar flow in the larger retinal venules. A homogeneous and complete filling of the larger venules is characteristic for the onset of the late venous phase. During the retinal venous phase the border venule can be observed just posterior to the ora ciliaris retinae. Fluorescein angiography of the canine retinal microvasculature shows that the dog is less suitable as an experimental animal model in ophthalmology, due to the presence of the choroidal tapetum which reflects fluorescent light and thus diminishes the contrast between the retinal blood vessels and the background

  16. Production of antibodies to canine IL-1beta and canine TNF to assess the role of proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Vannozza; Ott, Fabienne; Fischer, René W; Gram, Hermann; Peele, John; Spreng, David; Schmökel, Hugo; Jungi, Thomas W

    2005-08-15

    IL-1 and TNF are important proinflammatory cytokines implicated in both antimicrobial host defense and pathogenesis of diseases with an immune-mediated and/or inflammatory component. Respective studies in the dog have been hampered by the unavailability of reagents allowing the specific measurement of canine cytokine proteins and the effect of canine cytokine neutralization by Ab. Starting with recombinant canine (rcan) IL-1beta and rcanTNF, four polyclonal antisera and 22 mAb specific for rcanIL-1beta and rcanTNF were generated. Their usefulness in neutralization assays was determined. Using cytokine-containing supernatants of canine cells in bioassays, polyclonal antisera neutralized either canine IL-1beta or TNF. TNF was also neutralized by three antibodies developed in this study and one commercial mAb. The usefulness of monoclonal and polyclonal Ab in canine cytokine-specific Ab capture ELISA's was assessed. This resulted in the identification of a commercial mAb combination and one pair developed in this study allowing low levels of TNF to be detected by antibody capture ELISA. The detection limit was 141 pg/ml rcanTNF for both combinations. Using rcanIL-1beta as an antigen allowed the detection of lower concentrations of rcanIL-1beta (20 pg/ml, on the average) by a pair of polyclonal antisera than when monoclonals were used. By using such IL-1beta-specific and TNF-specific ELISA's, the respective cytokines were detected in supernatants of canine PBMC stimulated with LPS or heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes and interferon-gamma combined. Thus, monoclonal and polyclonal reagents were identified allowing the quantitation of canine IL-1beta and TNF production in vitro, and the neutralization of these cytokines. PMID:15982477

  17. GENOMIC MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence. The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others.There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine. For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc..Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine. For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others.We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the disease

  18. Genomic Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Briceño Balcázar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the twilight of the 20th century, genetics was a branch of medicine applied to diseases of rare occurrence.  The advent of the human genome sequence and the possibility of studying it at affordable costs for patients and healthcare institutions, has permitted its application in high-priority diseases like cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s, among others. There is great potential in predictive and preventive medicine, through studying polymorphic genetic variants associated to risks for different diseases. Currently, clinical laboratories offer studies of over 30,000 variants associated with susceptibilities, to which individuals can access without much difficulty because a medical prescription is not required. These exams permit conducting a specific plan of preventive medicine.  For example, upon the possibility of finding a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, the patient can prevent the breast cancer by mastectomy or chemoprophylaxis and in the presence of polymorphisms associated to cardiovascular risk preventive action may be undertaken through changes in life style (diet, exercise, etc.. Legal aspects are also present in this new conception of medicine.  For example, currently there is legislation for medications to indicate on their labels the different responses such medication can offer regarding the genetic variants of the patients, given that similar doses may provoke adverse reactions in an individual, while for another such dosage may be insufficient. This scenario would allow verifying the polymorphisms of drug response prior to administering medications like anticoagulants, hyperlipidemia treatments, or chemotherapy, among others. We must specially mention recessive diseases, produced by the presence of two alleles of a mutated gene, which are inherited from the mother, as well as the father. By studying the mutations, we may learn if a couple is at risk of bearing children with the

  19. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  20. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey : article

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, S; A. Acar

    2009-01-01

    Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serumsamples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11), and Akbash dogs (n = 17) and Turkish Greyhounds (n=15) in Es...

  1. Medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  2. Narrativ medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte; Getz, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Dagens allmänmedicin påverkas av ett växande managementtänkandetillsammans med fragmenterande ekonomiska incitament.Vårdens kvaliteter evalueras med nya metoder som ”värdebaseradvård” där värde räknas i kronor och ören. Produktion går före etik,och det intersubjektiva mötet mellan patient och läk...... läkare håller påatt nedvärderas. Perspektiven från narrativ medicin kan bidra tillatt visa vad som står på spel. Vilken blir annars berättelsen omallmänmedicinen?...

  3. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. PMID:25680810

  4. Respiratory disease outbreak in a veterinary hospital associated with canine parainfluenza virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J Scott; Stull, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A cluster of canine parainfluenza virus infections was identified in a veterinary referral hospital. While hospital-associated outbreaks of canine parainfluenza virus infection have not been previously reported, veterinary hospitals possess some of the same risk factors that may be present in traditional high-risk sites such as kennels. Hospital-associated transmission of canine respiratory pathogens, therefore, must be considered.

  5. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  6. Removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in Kenyan rural Maasai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, J; Amwayi, P; Muriithi, A

    1995-04-01

    The removal of deciduous canine tooth buds in early childhood is a practice that has been documented in Kenya and in neighboring countries. This paper describes the occurrence, rationale and method of this practice amongst rural Kenyan Maasai. In a group of 95 children aged between six months and two years, who were examined in 1991/92, 87% were found to have undergone the removal of one or more deciduous canine tooth buds. In an older age group (3-7 years of age), 72% of the 111 children examined exhibited missing mandibular or maxillary deciduous canines. It was found that the actual removal of a deciduous tooth bud is often performed by middle-aged Maasai women who enucleate the developing tooth using a pointed pen-knife. There exists a strong belief among the Maasai that diarrhoea, vomiting and other febrile illnesses of early childhood are caused by the gingival swelling over the canine region, and which is thought to contain 'worms' or 'nylon' teeth. The immediate and long-term hazards of this practice include profuse bleeding, infection and damage to the developing permanent canines. A multi-disciplinary approach involving social anthropologists in addition to dental and medical personnel, is recommend in order to discourage this harmful operation that appears to be on the increase. PMID:7621751

  7. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Search the NIGMS Website Search the NIGMS Website NIGMS Home Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A ...

  8. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription ... all the medicines, vitamins, minerals, and herbs you use. Share this information with your doctor. Store your ...

  9. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  10. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that is used to diagnose and treat diseases in a safe and painless way. Nuclear medicine procedures permit the determination of medical information ...

  11. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  12. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you ... during sex. Return to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites ...

  13. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  14. The use of zootherapeutics in folk veterinary medicine in the district of Cubati, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da S Mourão José

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries, pigs (Sus scrofa, cattle (Bos taurus, and foxes (Cerdocyon thous were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana, chickens (Gallus domesticus, and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even

  15. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a brief history of nuclear medicine in France and describes the recent developments and equipment of the 3 techniques most used in hospital nuclear departments: 1) gamma-camera, 2) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and 3) positron emission computed tomography (PECT). Concerning gamma-camera, a new design is being studied in a collaboration between the Saint-Gobain company and the LETI (a laboratory of Cea). In this innovative design the scintillator and the photomultiplier are replaced by a matrix of semi-conductor detectors based on CdZnTe crystal combined with an adequate electronic equipment. Concerning SPECT, many different techniques and equipment are used. Most improvements handle with the reduction of the survey time for the patient by using several detectors set on a ring around the patient. Concerning PECT, the developments follow 2 parallel ways: first the use of better scintillating materials for detecting 511 KeV photons (BGO: bismuth germanate, BaF2, LSO: lutetium orthosilicate, or GSO: gadolinium orthosilicate), and secondly the use of beta+ decay radionuclides that are more easily integrated in molecules similar to those present in the humane metabolism (18F through the fluorodeoxyglucose molecule). (A.C.)

  16. Medicines for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With ...

  17. Impact of canine control on the epidemiology of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B; dos Santos, W R; França-Silva, J C; da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Palatnik, M; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O

    2001-11-01

    Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of seropositive infected dogs. This report reviews 60 studies reporting data on the efficacy of these recommended control tools and concludes that in Brazil 1) eradication of the disease in Minas Gerais was achieved by the concomitant use of the three control methods, 2) although seropositivity by an immunofluorescent assay is not completely related to infectiousness, the removal of seropositive dogs leads to a significant reduction of canine and human incidence, 3) improvement of the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used for canine control should optimize the efficacy of control, and 4) although difficult and expensive, the public health dog control campaigns performed in Brazil reduced the incidence of ZVL and should be maintained since treatment of dogs is an unrealistic intervention, both because of its prohibitive cost and relatively poor effectiveness. PMID:11716106

  18. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  19. Effect of simulated stages of the canine oestrous cycle on Escherichia coli binding to canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, N; Lodge, K M; Anderson, G A; Browning, G F; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-12-01

    Pyometra, a prevalent infectious uterine disease that affects intact middle-aged bitches, is typically associated with Escherichia coli. Our hypotheses were (i) that bacterial adhesion to canine endometrium differs between different stages of the oestrous cycle and (ii) that the adhesin FimH facilitates this adhesion. Twelve post-pubertal, ovariectomized greyhound bitches were treated with exogenous hormones to simulate different stages of the oestrous cycle. Tissue samples from each uterus were incubated with a pathogenic E. coli strain carrying the fimH gene, but no other adhesin genes (P4-wt)--or an E. coli strain in which fimH was insertionally inactivated (P4-∆fimH::kan)--or with phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control. After washing, tissue samples were homogenized for quantification of adherent bacteria. The differences in binding to canine endometrium at different stages of the oestrous cycle were not significant. However, the mean difference in binding of the P4-wt and the P4-∆fimH::kan across all stages of the simulated oestrous cycle was significant (p < 0.001 by paired t-test on geometric means). Individual differences in numbers of P4-wt bacteria bound between dogs might suggest genetic variations or epigenetic differences in FimH receptor expression by the endometrium, unrelated to the stage of the oestrous cycle. PMID:23279531

  20. Canine mdr1 gene mutation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Akiko; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2005-11-01

    Frequency of the 4-bp deletion mutant in canine mdr1 gene was examined in 193 dogs of eight breeds in Japan. The mutant allele was found in Collies, Australian Shepherds, and Shetland Sheepdogs, where its respective frequencies were 58.3%, 33.3%, and 1.2%. The MDR1 protein was detected on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a MDR1/MDR1 dog, but not on PBMC from a mdr1-1Delta/mdr1-1Delta Collie. Rhodamine 123 was extruded from MDR1/MDR1 lymphocytes. That excretion was inhibited by a MDR1 inhibitor, verapamil. On the other hand, Rh123 excretion was not observed from lymphocytes derived from a mdr1-1Delta/mdr1-1Delta Collie. These results indicated that the mutant mdr1 allele also existed in Collie-breed dogs in Japan at high rates and that mdr1-1Delta /mdr1-1Delta dogs have no functional MDR1. PMID:16327220

  1. Cryopreservation of canine ovarian and testicular fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Il-Jeoung; Leibo, S P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Dresser, Betsy L; Kim, In-Shik

    2009-01-01

    To derive a practical procedure to store canine somatic cells, fibroblasts isolated from testicular or ovarian tissues were cryopreserved in 1.2 M ethylene glycol or in 1.2 M dimethylsulfoxide prepared in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium as cryoprotectants, and were frozen either in plastic straws or vials. Thawed cells were cultured for 24 hr at 38.5 degree C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 percent CO2 95 percent air, and then their membrane integrity was assayed with a double fluorescent stain, Fertilight. In addition, frozen-thawed fibroblasts were cultured for 4 days, and then their functional survival was measured after staining small colonies with trypan blue. After freezing and thawing, membrane integrity of testicular fibroblasts was 55-70 percent and functional survival ranged from 20-40 percent. With frozen-thawed ovarian cells, the average membrane integrity was 55-75 percent and the average functional survival was 35-40 percent. When frozen in ethylene glycol, functional survival of ovarian fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of testicular cells (P less than 0.05). These methods should prove useful to preserve cells collected from canids in the wild. PMID:19750243

  2. Canine detection odor signatures for explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marc; Johnston, J. M.; Cicoria, Matt; Paletz, E.; Waggoner, L. Paul; Edge, Cindy C.; Hallowell, Susan F.

    1998-12-01

    Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to 1) blank air, 2) a target odor, such as an explosive, and 3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds of the target is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like toe target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT, C-4, and commercial dynamite. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.

  3. Countercurrent exchange of water in canine jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of countercurrent exchange of water molecules in canine intestinal villi has been examined. Tritium-labeled water (3H2O) molecules were introduced either into the fluid lavaging the intestinal lumen or into the arterial blood supply for varying periods of time. Quickly frozen samples of intestinal tissue were sectioned such that isotopic concentrations at the villus tip, midvillus, villus base, and underlying submucosa and muscle could be determined. The villus concentration gradients observed were consistent with the existence of a countercurrent exchange but could also be explained by alternative arrangements. More convincing evidence of a countercurrent was obtained from experiments in which [14C]inulin was introduced simultaneously with 3H2O into the intestinal artery. The villus tip-to-base concentration ratio for 3H2O was less than one while the ratio for inulin was greater than one, thus vitiating the alternative explanations and leading to the conclusion that the labeled water molecules must have undergone a countercurrent exchange

  4. Nodular Epiescleritis Granulomatous Canine. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guarín Patarroyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous epiescleritis nodular disease in canines is a very unusual presentation that affects or external fibrous tunic of the eyeball and conjunctiva, which was an increase similar to a unilateral or bilateral tumor. Suspected immune-mediated disease due to lack of identification of an etiologic agent and the response to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (Couto, 1992. The ideal therapy is the application of steroids via intralesional, topical or systemic, or other immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and azathioprine; it is still advisable to apply antibiotic is the ideal combination of tetracycline and neomycin (Gilger & Whitley, 1999. The diagnostic method of episcleritis is made by histopathology, which is evident in changes similar to chronic granulomatous inflammation. Are claiming a racial bias in Alsatian, Shepherd Collie Shetland Shepherd, Coker Spaniel, Rottweiler and Labrador Retriever (Gough & Thomas, 2004. The following case is a report of a nodular epiescleritis affecting the cornea, sclera, and the corneoscleral limbus, which describes the diagnosis, signology and treatment.

  5. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Nadia; Desario, Costantina; Kadiri, Ahlam; Cavalli, Alessandra; Berrada, Jaouad; Zro, Khalil; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Parisi, Antonio; Elia, Gabriella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Malik, Jamal; Decaro, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Since it first emergence in the mid-1970's, canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) has evolved giving rise to new antigenic variants termed CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which have completely replaced the original strain and had been variously distributed worldwide. In Africa limited data are available on epidemiological prevalence of these new types. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine circulating variants in Morocco. Through TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay, 91 samples, collected from symptomatic dogs originating from various cities between 2011 and 2015, were diagnosed. Positive specimens were characterised by means of minor groove binder (MGB) probe PCR. The results showed that all samples but one (98.9%) were CPV positive, of which 1 (1.1%) was characterised as CPV-2a, 43 (47.7%) as CPV-2b and 39 (43.3%) as CPV-2c. Interestingly, a co-infection with CPV-2b and CPV-2c was detected in 4 (4.4%) samples and 3 (3.3%) samples were not characterised. Sequencing of the full VP2 gene revealed these 3 uncharacterised strains as CPV-2c, displaying a change G4068A responsible for the replacement of aspartic acid with asparagine at residue 427, impacting the MGB probe binding. In this work we provide a better understanding of the current status of prevailing CPV strains in northern Africa. PMID:27083072

  7. CANINE BUTTERFLY GLIOBLASTOMAS: A NEURORADIOLOGICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Henry Rossmeisl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a ‘butterfly’ glioma (BG. While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics of BG in three dogs, and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented with generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3 or symmetrical (1/3, bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes and associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and FLAIR signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3, and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma (GBM including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation, as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  8. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Lea; Mrljak, Vladimir; Curković, Snjezana; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Marinculić, Albert; Beck, Relja

    2009-08-01

    An epizootiological survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatozoonosis in a population of 924 apparently asymptomatic dogs from different regions of Croatia. DNA was isolated from canine blood and screening PCR on the 666 bp fragment of 18S rRNA revealed that 108 (11.8%) of dogs were infected. Positive samples were confirmed by partial sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. The consensus sequences, derived from various sequence data sets, were compared with sequences of 18S ssrRNA of Hepatozoon spp. available in GenBank. The alignments revealed 106 Hepatozoon canis and two Hepatozoon sp. sequences. Among H. canis isolates, we found a certain amount of heterogeneity, while both Hepatozoon sp. isolates were identical to the Spanish isolate (Accession No. AY600625) from Clethrionomys glareolus. On the basis of eight commonly mutated nucleotide positions in the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence, we divided the H. canis isolates into five groups. The results obtained indicate a higher prevalence and significance of hepatozoonosis in Croatia than previously believed and demonstrate that the organisms belonging to H. canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous. PMID:19249302

  9. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. PMID:25525144

  10. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR. PMID:26403490

  11. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E.; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a “butterfly” glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  12. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x109 n/cm2s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x103 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  13. Experimental canine parvovirus infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, R V

    1982-04-01

    In specific pathogen-free dogs, clinical signs of experimental canine parvovirus infection were mild, inconsistent and transient. Clinical signs were more pronounced in conventionally-raised dogs, but the severe disease reported in field cases was not reproduced in either group. A pronounced plasma viremia occurred on the 2nd to 4th day post-infection (d.p.i.) in dogs challenged oronasally. Antibody was detectable on the 5th d.p.i. Marked pyrexia was rare, but a significant temperature rise usually coincided with the appearance of antibody and the cessation of viremia. Significant lymphopenia, but not leukopenia, occurred on the 3rd to 7th d.p.i. Virus could be readily isolated from fecal matter on the 3rd to 8th d.p.i.; a few dogs continued to shed virus for up to 12 days. In dogs challenged parenterally, the onset of elevated temperatures, viral shed and antibody production occurred 24-48 hours sooner. Convalescent dogs were no longer contagious for susceptible contact animals 25 days or longer after challenge, although infectious virus persisted in feces for more than 6 months at room temperature. Active giardiasis seemed to exacerbate the clinical syndrome, although treatment with corticosteroids or anti-thymocyte serum did not. PMID:6211333

  14. Refinement of the canine CD1 locus topology and investigation of antibody binding to recombinant canine CD1 isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjaerff, Mette; Keller, Stefan M; Fass, Joseph; Froenicke, Lutz; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie; Affolter, Verena K; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Moore, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    -specific antibodies. The canine (Canis familiaris) CD1 locus was previously found to contain three functional CD1A genes: canCD1A2, canCD1A6, and canCD1A8, where two variants of canCD1A8, canCD1A8.1 and canCD1A8.2, were assumed to be allelic variants. However, we hypothesized that these rather represented two...... separate genes. Sequencing of three overlapping bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) spanning the entire canine CD1 locus revealed canCD1A8.2 and canCD1A8.1 to be located in tandem between canCD1A7 and canCD1C, and canCD1A8.1 was consequently renamed canCD1A9. Green fluorescent protein (GFP......)-fused canine CD1 transcripts were recombinantly expressed in 293T cells. All proteins showed a highly positive GFP expression except for canine CD1d and a splice variant of canine CD1a8 lacking exon 3. Probing with a panel of anti-CD1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) showed that Ca13.9H11 and Ca9.AG5 only...

  15. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  16. Complex odontoma associated to a primary maxillary canine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Maris LOSSO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Odontomas are malformations of the dental tissues and may interfere with the eruption of the associated tooth. The early diagnosis, followed by a proper treatment at the right time, will result in a favorable prognosis and a desirable occlusion development. Complex odontomas associated to primary teeth are rare. Case report and conclusion: This article describes a case of a complex odontoma in a four-year-old girl that prevented eruption of the left primary canine. The treatment choice was enucleation of the odontoma and the maintenance of the left primary canine.In this case, complete removal of the complex odontoma was successfully conducted, since after one year of follow-up the primary maxillary canine restarted its eruption process.

  17. Canine dysautonomia in a litter of Havanese puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Noah C; O'Toole, Donal; Miller, Myrna M; Shoults, Hannah; Deck, Robin; Jones, Warren; Johnson, Gayle C; Shaw, Daniel P; Schumaker, Brant A

    2015-09-01

    Canine dysautonomia is a sporadic, generally fatal disease that rarely affects groups of related animals. Four 10-week-old Havanese puppies from a litter of 5 developed clinical signs of canine dysautonomia. The 4 affected dogs were exposed to an outdoor environment, whereas the fifth littermate was not exposed to the outdoors and remained clinically healthy. Clinical signs of dysautonomia developed 10-16 days after going outside the house. An unrelated dog also developed dysautonomia after exposure to 1 of the affected Havanese littermates. All 5 dogs had morphological changes consistent with dysautonomia (widespread neuronal degeneration in autonomic ganglia, select brainstem nuclei, and ventral horn motor neurons). Differential diagnoses were excluded through negative toxicological evaluation, fecal parasite screening, negative Canine distemper virus reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent antibody testing, attempted virus isolation, and electron microscopy. The 5 affected dogs were in the Kansas City, Missouri area, where there is a high incidence of dysautonomia. PMID:26179098

  18. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  19. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, [3H]testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with [3H]testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis

  20. The innervation of canine hip joint capsule: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C H; Hou, S M; Yeh, L S

    2013-12-01

    To clarify the contributions of the nerves supplying the canine hip joint capsule for clinical application, cadaver study of six healthy mongrel dogs was performed. The pelvises and hindlimbs of cadavers were dissected and fixed in formaldehyde. Innervation of the joint capsule was investigated with the aid of an operative microscope. As a result, the canine hip joint capsule receives multiple innervations from articular branches of four nerves. They are articular nerve fibres of femoral, obturator, cranial gluteal and sciatic nerves from the cranioventral, caudoventral, craniolateral and dorsolateral directions of the joint, respectively. No branch originating from the caudal gluteal nerve was observed innervating the hip joint capsule. Our data provides useful information for research on the canine hip joint, including pain analysis with hip disorders and surgical nerve blockade to relieve pain. PMID:23410229

  1. The Cost of Canine Rabies on Four Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A; Shwiff, S A

    2015-08-01

    We estimated the economic impacts of canine rabies in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect costs of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis, dog vaccination and control, rabies diagnostic testing and cattle mortality-related costs were accounted for. The number of human deaths was updated from previous estimates based on population growth, and the costs associated with the risk of human mortality were incorporated. We accounted for uncertainty associated with the parameter estimates using a Monte Carlo simulation and estimated that the global burden of canine rabies is approximately $124 billion annually. This result illustrates the potential benefits that could be realized if canine rabies was eliminated and provides an important benchmark against which the cost of any potential elimination campaign can be compared. PMID:24112194

  2. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Valério Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV, which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies.

  3. Distribution of beta-amyloid in the canine brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y; White, R G; Bobik, M; Marks, J S; Russell, M J

    1997-03-01

    The distribution of amyloid-beta protein (A beta) in the canine brain was demonstrated by immunochemistry on serially sectioned tissues from 10 aged mixed breed dogs. Summation of quantitative data and relegation to anatomical sites for the 10 dogs showed A beta to be widely distributed in the cortex and hippocampus while completely absent in the brain stem and cerebellum. The highest density of A beta was in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Cortical areas exhibiting the greatest A beta deposition were the posterior and medial suprasylvius gyrus and the proreus gyrus of the frontal lobe. Unlike humans the canine entorhinal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia and olfactory bulbs were rarely affected. This suggested that the highly developed olfactory pathways of the canine are generally spared from A beta deposition. PMID:9141082

  4. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-01-01

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended. PMID:27543040

  5. Establishing an in vivo model of canine prostate carcinoma using the new cell line CT1258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is a frequent finding in man. In dogs, malignant disease of the prostate is also of clinical relevance, although it is a less common diagnosis. Even though there are numerous differences in origin and development of the disease, man and dog share many similarities in the pathological presentation. For this reason, the dog might be a useful animal model for prostate malignancies in man. Although prostate cancer is of great importance in veterinary medicine as well as in comparative medicine, there are only few cell lines available. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to determine whether the formerly established prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258 is a suitable tool for in vivo testing, and to distinguish the growth pattern of the induced tumours. For characterisation of the in vivo behaviour of the in vitro established canine prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258, cells were inoculated in 19 NOD.CB17-PrkdcScid/J (in the following: NOD-Scid) mice, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. After sacrifice, the obtained specimens were examined histologically and compared to the pattern of the original tumour in the donor. Cytogenetic investigation was performed. The cell line CT 1258 not only showed to be highly tumourigenic after subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal inoculation, but also mimicked the behaviour of the original tumour. Tumours induced by inoculation of the cell line CT1258 resemble the situation in naturally occurring prostate carcinoma in the dog, and thus could be used as in vivo model for future studies

  6. FLT3 mutations in canine acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a commonly mutated protein in a variety of human acute leukemias. Mutations leading to constitutively active FLT3, including internal tandem duplications of the juxtamembrane domain (ITD), result in continuous cellular proliferation, resistance to apoptotic cell death, and a poorer prognosis. A better understanding of the molecular consequences of FLT3 activation would allow improved therapeutic strategies in these patients. Canine lymphoproliferative diseases, including lymphoma and acute leukemias, share evolutionarily conserved chromosomal aberrations and exhibit conserved mutations within key oncogenes when compared to their human counterparts. A small percentage of canine acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALL) also exhibit FLT3 ITD mutations. We molecularly characterized FLT3 mutations in two dogs and one cell line, by DNA sequencing, gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR, and sensitivity to the FLT3 inhibitor lestaurtinib via in vitro proliferation assays. FLT 3 and downstream mediators of FLT3 activation were assessed by Western blotting. The canine B-cell leukemia cell line, GL-1, and neoplastic cells from 2/7 dogs diagnosed cytologically with ALL were found to have FLT3 ITD mutations and FLT3 mRNA up-regulation. Lestaurtinib, a small molecule FLT3 inhibitor, significantly inhibited the growth of GL-1 cells, while not affecting the growth of two other canine lymphoid cell lines without the FLT3 mutation. Finally, western blots were used to confirm the conserved downstream mediators of FLT3 activating mutations. These results show that ALL and FLT3 biology is conserved between canine and human patients, supporting the notion that canine ALL, in conjunction with the GL-1 cell line, will be useful in the development of a relevant large animal model to aid in the study of human FLT3 mutant leukemias

  7. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing. PMID:22041204

  8. Comprehensive characterization of commercially available canine training aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine

  9. Survey of Canine Dirofilaria immitis Infection in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Watier-Grillot, S.; J.-L. Marié; Cabre, O.; Davoust, B

    2011-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a frequent parasitic disease in New-Caledonia. A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection among dogs from the cities of Tontouta, Nandaï and Nouméa, was performed in March 2009 using two antigen test kits; the microwell ELISA test: DiroCHE (Synbiotics Europe) and the Rapid Immuno Migration ( R I M ) test: WITNESS DIROFILARIA (Synbiotics Europe). Blood samples were collected from 64 dogs: 49 strays and 15 military working dogs. The military dogs recei...

  10. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend Aage;

    2011-01-01

    and organs in canine cancer patients. FDG PET/CT was performed in 14 dogs including, nine mesenchymal tumors, four carcinomas, and one incompletely excised mast cell tumor. A generally higher FDG uptake was observed in carcinomas relative to sarcomas. Maximum SUV of carcinomas ranged from 7.6 to 27.......0, and for sarcomas from 2.0 to 10.6. The FDG SUV of several organs and tissues, including regional brain uptake is reported, to serve as a reference for future FDG PET studies in canine cancer patients. Several potential pitfalls have been recognized in interpretation of FDG PET images of human patients, a number...

  11. "Reactivity to stimuli" is a temperamental factor contributing to canine aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Sayaka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Inoue, Mai; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Canine aggression is one of the most frequent problems in veterinary behavioral medicine, which in severe cases may result in relinquishment or euthanasia. As it is important to reveal underlying factors of aggression for both treatment and prevention, we recently developed a questionnaire on aggression and temperamental traits and found that "reactivity to stimuli" was associated with aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs of the Shiba Inu breed. In order to examine whether these associations were consistent in other breeds, we asked the owners of insured dogs of Anicom Insurance Inc. to complete our questionnaire. The top 17 contracted breeds were included. The questionnaire consisted of dogs' general information, four items related to aggression toward owners, children, strangers, and other dogs, and 20 other behavioral items. Aggression-related and behavioral items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. Valid responses (n = 5610) from owners of dogs aged 1 through 10 years were collected. Factor analyses on 18 behavioral items (response rate over 95%) extracted five largely consistent factors in 14 breeds: "sociability with humans," "fear of sounds," "chase proneness," "reactivity to stimuli," and "avoidance of aversive events." By stepwise multiple regression analyses, using the Schwartz's Bayesian information criterion (BIC) method with aggression points as objective variables and general information and temperamental factor points as explanatory variables, "reactivity to stimuli," i.e., physical reactivity to sudden movement or sound at home, was shown to be significantly associated with owner-directed aggression in 13 breeds, child-directed aggression in eight breeds, stranger-directed aggression in nine breeds, and dog-directed aggression in five breeds. These results suggest that "reactivity to stimuli" is simultaneously involved in several types of aggression. Therefore, it would be worth taking "reactivity to stimuli

  12. Ethnoveterinary importance of herbal galactogogues - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mohanty

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Galactogogues elicit pharmacological effects, resulting in increased prolactin concentration through interactions with dopamine receptors and thereby augmenting milk supply. Commercially available synthetic drugs induce adverse effect on the neuro-endocrine axis of lactation physiology. Their prolonged uses have caused toxicity which opens a detrimental platform to normal health status of both human and animals. So the researchers have developed a keen interest in traditional herbs, because these are easily available, cheap and with a hope that they may not leave any toxic residues in milk. Phyto-pharmacological research on natural products can contribute for the discovery of new active compounds with novel structures which may serve as a lead for the development of new galactogogues. Although majority of these herbal preparations have not been evaluated their traditional use suggests that they are safe and effective. The purpose of this review paper was to succinctly review recent progress made in the field of commercially available and tranditional galactogogues.

  13. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Pfahler

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD and canine elbow dysplasia (CED using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on dog chromosome (CFA 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED.

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for canine hip dysplasia and canine elbow dysplasia in Bernese mountain dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfahler, Sophia; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study for canine hip dysplasia (CHD) and canine elbow dysplasia (CED) using the Illumina canine high density bead chip had been performed for 174 Bernese mountain dogs. General and mixed linear model analysis identified two different regions with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on dog chromosome (CFA) 14 significantly associated with CHD and a further significantly CHD-associated region on CFA37. For CED, four SNPs on CFA11 and 27 were significantly associated. The identified SNPs of four associated regions included nearby candidate genes. These possible positional candidates were the genes PON2 on CFA14 and FN1 on CFA37 for CHD and the genes LMNB1 on CFA11 and WNT10B on CFA27 for CED. PMID:23189162

  15. Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis Hepatozoonose canina brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Helena O'Dwyer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hepatozoon includes hundreds of species that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. Two species have been described in domestic dogs: H. canis, reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the United States; and H. americanum, which so far has only been diagnosed in the United States. In Brazil, the only species found infecting dogs is H. canis. The objective of this review was to detail some aspects of canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, and the main points of its biology, transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, epidemiology and diagnostic methods, with emphasis on research developed in Brazil.O gênero Hepatozoon compreende centenas de espécies que infectam aves, répteis, anfíbios e mamíferos, em todos os continentes de clima tropical e subtropical. No cão doméstico duas espécies são descritas, H. canis e H. americanum; a primeira presente na Europa, Ásia, África, América do Sul e nos Estados Unidos da América do Norte (EUA, e a segunda, diagnosticada até o momento somente nos EUA. No Brasil, a espécie que infecta o cão foi caracterizada como H. canis. Esta revisão objetiva detalhar alguns aspectos da hepatozoose canina, causada pelo H. canis e principais pontos de biologia, transmissão, patogenia e sintomas, epidemiologia e métodos de diagnóstico, enfatizando as pesquisas desenvolvidas no Brasil.

  16. Radiographic imaging of the canine intercondylar fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intercondylar fossa is believed to play an important role in the pathology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and therefore has received considerable attention in the last decade. Accurate radiographic imaging of the intercondylar fossa requires that the central x-ray beam pass through the center of the intercondylar “tunnel”. The anatomy of the canine intercondylar fossa is similar to humans, however, the orientations of the intercondylar fossa's differ. Consequently, the positioning techniques described for humans are not appropriate for the dog. To pass through the center of the dog, intercondylar fossa, the central x-ray beam should be 12° (S.D. 1.7°) caudal from the femoral diaphysis in the sagittal plane and obliqued caudolateral to craniomedial 7° (S.D. 0.60°) (caudo78°proximo7° lateralcraniodistomedial oblique). Cross table positioning was used with the hip flexed and the radiograph cassette placed on the cranial surface of the stifle. However, superimposition of the tuber ischii and soft tissues caudal to the femur made 15° to 20° the best angle obtainable. There was not a significant difference (p = 0.17) in the notch width index between a 12° versus 20° angle of the central x-ray beam caudal to the femoral diaphysis, both with 7° of external rotation of the stifle. The notch width index of 0.252 obtained from radiographic measurements was not significantly different from measurements obtained grossly of 0.254 (n = 26; p = 0.69). Failure to oblique the central x-ray beam caused a significant (p = 0.0008) decrease in the apparent fossa width radiographically

  17. Myogenic potential of canine craniofacial satellite cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Laura La Rovere

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The skeletal fibres have different embryological origin; the extraocular and jaw-closer muscles develop from prechordal mesoderm while the limb and trunk muscles from somites. These different origins characterise also the adult muscle stem cells, known as satellite cells (SCs and responsible for the fibre growth and regeneration. The physiological properties of presomitic SCs and their epigenetics are poorly studied despite their peculiar characteristics to preserve muscle integrity during chronic muscle degeneration. Here we isolated SCs from canine somitic (SDM: vastus lateralis, rectus abdominus, gluteus superficialis, biceps femoris, psoas and presomitic (PSDM: lateral rectus, temporalis and retractor bulbi muscles as myogenic progenitor cells from young and old animals. In addition, SDM and PSDM satellite cells were obtained also from Golden retrievers affected by muscular dystrophy (GRMD. We characterised the lifespan, the myogenic potential and functions and oxidative stress of both somitic and presomitic SCs with the aim to reveal differences with ageing and between healthy and dystrophic animals. The different proliferation rate was consistent with higher telomerase activity in PSDM-SCs compared to SDM-SCs, although restricted at early passages. SDM-SCs express early (Pax7, MyoD and late (MyHC, Myogenin myogenic markers differently from PSDM-SCs resulting in a more efficient and faster cell differentiation. Taken together our results showed that PSDM-SCs elicit a stronger stem cell phenotype compared to SDM ones. Finally, myomiR expression profile reveals a unique epigenetic signature in GRMD satellite cells and miR-206, highly expressed in dystrophic SCs, seems to play a critical role in muscle degeneration. Thus, miR-206 could represent a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches.

  18. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.;

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  19. Sleep Medicine Textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetti, Claudio; Dogas, Zoran; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The Sleep Medicine Textbook provides comprehensive, all-in-one educational material (550 pages) structured around the Catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine (Penzel et al. 2014, Journal of Sleep Research). Written by experts in the field and published by the ESRS, it provides an European approach to sleep medicine education, and represents the knowledge-base for the ESRS-endorsed sleep medicine examinations.The book is available at http://www.esrs.eu/esrs/sleep-medicine-textbook...

  20. Canine renal failure syndrome in three dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Won-Il; Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da-Hee; Chung, Jae-Yong; Yang, Hai-Jie; Yuan, Dong-Wei; Hong, Il-Hwa; Park, Jin-Kyu; Goo, Moon-Jung; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2006-01-01

    Three dead dogs were brought to the College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University for study. Clinically, all the dogs showed emaciation, anorexia, depression, hemorrhagic vomiting and diarrhea for 7~10 days before death. All the clinical signs were first noted for about one month after feeding the dogs with commercial diets. At necropsy, all 3 dogs had severe renal damage with the same green-yellowish colored nephroliths in the renal pelvis. They also showed systemic hemorrhag...

  1. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  2. Associations between neurologic dysfunction and lesions in canine fucosidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J L; Taylor, R M

    2016-04-01

    Canine fucosidosis in English Springer spaniels is the only animal model of the neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease fucosidosis available for preclinical therapeutic trials. For this reason, it is crucial to identify critical time points in disease progression, and if there are particular lesions associated with specific aspects of neurologic dysfunction. Historical records of 53 canine fucosidosis cases from 1979 to 2009 containing a neurologic dysfunction score assessing motor, behavioral and sensory dysfunction were interrogated by statistical analysis. Motor and behavioral dysfunction scores assessing gait deficits and apprehensive behavior first significantly increased at 12-17 months, and increased at each 6-month interval thereafter. Sensory dysfunction scores, assessing hearing loss, balance and vision deterioration, did not significantly increase until 18-23 months, and coincided with a rapid decline in neurologic function. Regression analysis incorporating published neuropathology data, measured by image analysis, identified neuroinflammation and apoptotic cell death as significant informative predictors of increasing neurologic dysfunction. These findings indicate that the level of neuropathology required to induce consistent and conspicuous clinical signs in canine fucosidosis is reached by approximately 12 months of age in the absence of other disease processes. Significant association between neuroinflammation and apoptotic cell death also suggests that specifically targeting these lesions combined with enzyme replacement in future studies may reduce disease burden in fucosidosis. Overall, examining this historical clinical data to identify associations between the extent of neuropathology and degree of clinical dysfunction provides a useful reference tool for monitoring disease and evaluating therapeutic trials conducted in canine fucosidosis. PMID:26711085

  3. 9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Seed. (a) The Master Seed shall meet the applicable general requirements prescribed in § 113.200. (b... antibody against canine parvovirus to determine susceptibility. A constant virus-varying serum... vaccination, a second serum sample shall be drawn from each dog and tested for neutralizing antibody to...

  4. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable general requirements prescribed in § 113.300 and the requirements in this section. (b) Each lot of... virus. Blood samples shall also be drawn and individual serum samples tested for neutralizing antibody... are negative for canine parainfluenza antibody at a 1:2 final dilution in a constant...

  5. Canine distemper virus - a morbillivirus in search of new hosts?

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Timm; Osterhaus, Albert

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) induces a multisystemic, often fatal disease in a wide and seemingly expanding host range among the Carnivora. Several genotypes of an otherwise monotypic virus species co-circulate in a geographically restricted pattern. Interspecies transmissions frequently occur, often leading to devastating epizootics in highly susceptible or immunologically naive populations.

  6. Pneumocystosis associated with canine distemper virus infection in a mink.

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, N W; Schamber, G J

    1999-01-01

    An adult mink from a farm experiencing 100% mortality in affected animals was submitted for diagnostic examination. Clinical history included signs of respiratory disease, oculonasal discharge, and thickening of footpads. Canine distemper virus and Pneumocystis carinii were identified in lung tissue, suggesting immunosuppresion and secondary infection due to morbillivirus disease.

  7. Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and nonsurgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappler, Michelle; Moore, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    Canine brachycephalic airway syndrome is a progressive disease that affects many brachycephalic dogs. This article describes the components of this syndrome and focuses on acute emergency management and long-term conservative management of these patients. Surgical management is described in a companion article. PMID:21870353

  8. Compensatory canine angulation in angle Class II and III patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Carlos Agner Busato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of compensation in mesiodistal axial inclinations of canines in skeletal malocclusions patients. The sample consisted of 25 Angle Class II, division 1 malocclusion (group 1 and 19 Angle Class III malocclusion patients (group 2. After measurement of dental angulations through a method that associates plaster model photography and AutoCad software, comparisons between the groups were performed by T-test for independent samples. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between groups, when maxillary canine angulations were compared. Regarding the mandibular canines, there was a statistically significant difference in dental angulation, expressed by 3.2° for group 1 and 0.15° for group 2. An upright position tendency for mandibular canines was observed in the Angle Class III sample. This configures a pattern of compensatory coronary positioning, since the angulation of these teeth makes them occupy less space in the dental arch and consequently mandibular incisors can be in a more retracted position in the sagittal plane.

  9. Selection against canine hip dysplasia: success or failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bethany; Nicholas, Frank W; Thomson, Peter C

    2011-08-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a multifactorial skeletal disorder which is very common in pedigree dogs and represents a huge concern for canine welfare. Control schemes based on selective breeding have been in operation for decades. The aim of these schemes is to reduce the impact of CHD on canine welfare by selecting for reduced radiographic evidence of CHD pathology as assessed by a variety of phenotypes. There is less information regarding the genotypic correlation between these phenotypes and the impact of CHD on canine welfare. Although the phenotypes chosen as the basis for these control schemes have displayed heritable phenotypic variation in many studies, success in achieving improvement in the phenotypes has been mixed. There is significant room for improvement in the current schemes through the use of estimated breeding values (EBVs), which can combine a dog's CHD phenotype with CHD phenotypes of relatives, other phenotypes as they are proven to be genetically correlated with CHD (especially elbow dysplasia phenotypes), and information from genetic tests for population-relevant DNA markers, as such tests become available. Additionally, breed clubs should be encouraged and assisted to formulate rational, evidenced-based breeding recommendations for CHD which suit their individual circumstances and dynamically to adjust the breeding recommendations based on continuous tracking of CHD genetic trends. These improvements can assist in safely and effectively reducing the impact of CHD on pedigree dog welfare. PMID:21727013

  10. Migration of canine neutrophils to chitin and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Y; Okamoto, Y; Minami, S; Matsuhashi, A; Kumazawa, N H; Tanioka, S; Shigemasa, Y

    1994-12-01

    Suspension of chitin and chitosan particles (mean size of 1 micron) were found to attract canine neutrophils chemotactically as determined by a checkerboard assay through polycarbonate filter with 5 microns pore size in Blind well chamber. Suspension of chitin induced chemokinetic migrations of the neutrophils. These evidences might reflect accumulation of neutrophils to chitin- and chitosan-implanted regions in dogs. PMID:7696425

  11. In vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den J.R.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Walker, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    The in vitro activity of difloxacin against canine bacterial isolates from clinical cases was studied in the United States and The Netherlands. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), the postantibiotic effect, the effect of pH on antimicrobial activity, and the bacterial killing rate tests were de

  12. The blood supply to the canine middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Jarrett, Keith; McNulty, Margaret A; Strain, George M

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the anatomy of the blood supply to the canine middle ear are either incomplete or inconsistent, particularly in regards to the vascular branches in close proximity to the temporomandibular articulation (TMJ). To further investigate this blood supply, dissections (n = 9), corrosion casts (n = 4), and computed tomography (n = 8) of canine temporal regions/ears were performed. The goal of this study was to identify and describe branches of the external carotid and maxillary arteries in close proximity to the TMJ that supply the middle ear of the dog. Specific focus was placed on the constancy and origin of the canine rostral tympanic artery since this artery was anticipated to arise from the maxillary artery and enter a foramen at the medial aspect of the mandibular fossa adjacent to the TMJ. New anatomical variations of three canine arteries are described in this study. (1) The rostral tympanic artery is a branch of the temporomandibular ramus and is accommodated by a small foramen located within a depression medial to the temporomandibular joint. (2) A pharyngeal branch of the caudal deep temporal artery was identified. (3) The origin of the caudal auricular artery occurred opposite the lingual artery in 25.8% of dissected specimens, contrary to published descriptions. Anat Rec, 299:907-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27082971

  13. Canine hip dysplasia: significance of early bony spurring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of this study to call attention to new bone production that often occurs early in the sequence of pathological changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. New bone production extending to bony remodeling, as well as femoral head subluxation, both occur in the sequence of pathologic changes associated with canine hip dysplasia. Subluxation is considered primary, while osteoarthrosis is a secondary feature, and both are used in the diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia. This report concerns the significance of the presence of a solitary bony osteophyte, or spur, that is frequently evident on the caudal aspect of the femoral neck as viewed on the conventional ventrodorsal projection. This report utilizes findings from pelvic radiographs of 605 dogs (five breeds). There was a greater frequency (54%)of this bony change in cases diagnosed radiographically as dysplastic than in cases diagnosed as normal(15%).Thus, it is suggested that this minimal radiographic change can be used as an indicator of early canine hip dysplasia, especially in the absence of subluxation of the femoral head

  14. When Reading Gets Ruff: Canine-Assisted Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Holly B.; Zavada, Shannon D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Canine-assisted reading programs show promise as an innovative method for engaging reluctant readers and motivating them to practice. In such programs, specially trained dogs visit classrooms and libraries, and children read to them. Children who struggle with reading may be motivated to read more because they find dogs to be calming and…

  15. Experimental research of covered stent implanted in canine hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of success rate of implantation, post-procedure stenosis rate, apposition ability and endothelialization level, etc. for implantation with balloon-expandable covered stent in canine hepatic artery. Methods: 8 adult canines were implanted with balloon-expendable stents covered by expandable poly Teflon ester membrane (e-PTFEM). Follow-up DSA was performed immediately, 2, 4 and 12 wk after the procedure. The canines were sacrificed for histopathologic examination and statistical analysis with correlation of implantation manenvor and angiographic manifestations. Results: 8 cases were all implanted with the covered stents in proper hepatic artery/right hepatic artery successfully; showing good apposition ability and non-opacification of the separated branches. 2 cases showed intraluminal obvious stenosis( > 50%)of the stent at 2 weeks follow-up, so did 3 cases at 12 weeks follow-up, and the total stenosis rate was 37.5% and 5 cases manifested full endothelialization (3 different locations of the sample all manifested full endothelialization), 3 cased manifested partial endothelialization (at least 1 location of the sample didn't show full endothelialization), and the two terminal parts were easier to get endothelialization than the central part. Before and after the stent implantation, hepatic function of all cases didn't demonstrate any obvious changes. Conclusions: Balloon-expandable covered stent can be implanted in canine hepatic artery. successfully, with good apposition ability, full endothelialization, and no influence on hepatic function. (authors)

  16. Dilated Canine Hearts: A Specimen for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lee Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dilated canine hearts were used to teach undergraduate students internal and external cardiac anatomy. The specimens were dilated using hydrostatic pressure and then fixed using 5% formalin. These specimens provided the students with an alternative to prepackaged embalmed hearts and anatomical models for studying the external and internal cardiac…

  17. Canine Leishmaniosis: tools for diagnosis in veterinary practice in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Acero P

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to perform a critical analysis and guide veterinarians in the management of canine Leishmaniosis. A systematic literature review was performed between 2005 and 2014 including scientific papers which take into account experiences and reports of: pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical presentation, treatment, vaccination, prevention and control strategies. We discuss the different aspects of VL management and aspects that should be taken into account depending on the country, after a patient is suspected or confirmed as positive, including the possibility of euthanasia. We describe the different clinical manifestations of the disease, diagnosis, signs and treatment of canine leishmaniosis. Canine leishmaniosis is present in different parts of the country, therefore it must be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in the veterinary clinic, in patients with dermatological and systemic signs that are compatible with various diseases. In Colombia, the patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis could be treated and have a favorable prognosis, whereas in canines with diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis euthanasia should be considered because of the public health implications.

  18. Canine cancer patients are included in translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Betina; Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Kjær, Andreas; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp

    2014-01-01

    Cancer bearing dogs represent a unique clinical cancer model with a direct potential for accelerating translation into human patients. A research collaboration between the veterinary and human medical facilities at Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet has taken offset in this. Canine cancer...

  19. Cellular and Phenotypic Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Legare, Jamie Bush, Amanda K. Ashley, Taka Kato, William H. Hanneman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA have many similarities, with the majority of reported cases occurring in the appendicular skeleton, gender predominance noted, high rate of metastasis at the time of presentation, and a lack of known etiology for this devastating disease. Due to poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OSA, we have characterized seven different OSA canine cell lines: Abrams, D17, Grey, Hughes, Ingles, Jarques, and Marisco and compared them to U2, a human OSA cell line, for the following parameters: morphology, growth, contact inhibition, migrational tendencies, alkaline phosphatase staining, heterologous tumor growth, double-strand DNA breaks, and oxidative damage. All results demonstrated the positive characteristics of the Abrams cell line for use in future studies of OSA. Of particular interest, the robust growth of a subcutaneous tumor and rapid pulmonary metastasis of the Abrams cell line in an immunocompromised mouse shows incredible potential for the future use of Abrams as a canine OSA model. Further investigations utilizing a canine cell model of OSA, such as Abrams, will be invaluable to understanding the molecular events underlying OSA, pharmaceutical inhibition of metastasis, and eventual prevention of this devastating disease.

  20. Recent advances in canine leptospirosis: focus on vaccine development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaasen HLBM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Henricus LBM (Eric Klaasen,1 Ben Adler2 1Global Companion Animals Research and Development, Merck Sharp and Dohme Animal Health, Boxmeer, the Netherlands; 2Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia Abstract: Leptospirosis is a global infection of humans and animals caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. Leptospirosis is a major zoonosis, with infection acquired from wild and domestic animals. It is also a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and economic loss in production and companion animals. Leptospirosis in dogs is prevalent worldwide and as well as a cause of canine disease, it presents a zoonotic risk to human contacts. Canine leptospirosis does not differ greatly from the syndromes seen in other animal species, with hepatic, renal, and pulmonary involvement being the main manifestations. While the pathogenesis of disease is well documented at the whole animal level, the cellular and molecular basis remains obscure. Killed, whole-cell bacterin vaccines are licensed worldwide and have not changed greatly over the past several decades. Vaccine-induced immunity is restricted to serologically related serovars and is generally short-lived, necessitating annual revaccination. The appearance of new serovars as causes of canine leptospirosis requires constant epidemiological surveillance and tailoring of vaccines to cover emerging serovars. At the present time, there is no realistic prospect of alternative, non-bacterin vaccines in the foreseeable future. Keywords: canine leptospirosis, vaccines, diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis

  1. The Human-Canine Bond: Closer than Family Ties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Sandra B.; Barker, Randolph T.

    1988-01-01

    Used Family Life Space Diagram to compare relationship between human family members with the human-canine relationship. Subjects were 29 dog enthusiasts, 66 typical pet owners, and 27 elementary school students with dogs. Results suggest that individuals may perceive their relationship with their pet dog as being as close as their relationship…

  2. Prognosis in canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (iIMHA) is one of the most frequently occurring immune-mediated diseases in dogs. A gel-based Coombs' test was shown to perform equally well as a classical Coombs' test. Since the gel-based Coombs' test can be commercially produced and is easy and

  3. Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Abdallah; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Mauti, Stephanie; Biarnais, Melanie; Balmer, Oliver; Samaké, Kassim; Kamissoko, Badian; Tembely, Saïdou; Sery, Amadou; Traoré, Abdel K.; Coulibaly, Amy P.; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We genetically characterized 32 canine rabies viruses isolated in Mali during 2006–2013 and identified 3 subgroups that belonged to the Africa 2 lineage. We also detected subgroup F rabies virus. This information should be useful for development of mass vaccination campaigns for dogs and eventual large-scale control programs in this country. PMID:27089307

  4. Morphological study of maxillary canine region based on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maxilla is generally known as a site where anatomical limitations make it difficult to obtain sufficient bone volume. A large amount of bone exists in the canine region between the anterior margin of the maxillary sinus and the piriform aperture margin. Although this region is crucial for implant treatments, there have not been any reports on morphological studies of the region. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the canine region based on CT, and also the morphology and position of the maxillary sinus located posterior to the canine region. The results were as follows: In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the higher the level, the smaller the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to become. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, the mesio-distal length and the bucco-lingual width tended to be smaller in female patients than in male patients. In the area above the anterior nasal spine, no significant differences in mesio-distal length and bucco-lingual width were observed between dentulous and edentulous jaws. The morphology of the maxillary sinus was mainly of an inverse-trapezoidal, circular, or triangular form. The position of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus was most frequently found at the site corresponding to the second premolar. Through this study, we have reconfirmed that the canine region is vital for implant treatments in the maxilla. (author)

  5. Morphometric analysis of canine in gender determination: Revisited in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Paramkusam

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation and Conclusion: Use of the standard mandibular CI in gender determination is recommended for forensic procedures as it was found to have an acceptable accuracy. MD width of canine may be used in a setup when only the single tooth or a fragment of a jaw is available for analysis, with due consideration to its relatively low accuracy.

  6. Canine distemper virus - a morbillivirus in search of new hosts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) induces a multisystemic, often fatal disease in a wide and seemingly expanding host range among the Carnivora. Several genotypes of an otherwise monotypic virus species co-circulate in a geographically restricted pattern. Interspecies transmissions fr

  7. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.V. Mamaev; I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); S.I. Belikov; N.N. Denikina; T.C. Harder (Timm); L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Barrett (Thomas)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates

  8. Ventilation and diaphragm activity during sustained hypoxia in awake canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Naoyuki; Ji, Michael; Jagers, Jenny Suneby; Katagiri, Masato; Easton, Paul A

    2015-10-01

    In humans, isocapnic hypoxia sustained for 20-30 min elicits a biphasic ventilatory response with an initial increased peak followed by a roll-off to a lesser, intermediate plateau. However, it is uncertain if this hypoxic roll-off is common for all mammals, as canines have been a notable exception. We examined the effect of moderate isocapnic hypoxia (SpO2 80%) sustained for 20 min in 13 adult, awake, intact canines. The ventilatory response to sustained isocapnic hypoxia in these canines was not maintained: after an initial brisk response, ventilation declined significantly to an intermediate plateau. The hypoxic ventilatory decline occurred via a decrease in tidal volume, without change in breathing frequency. Distinct from airflow, costal diaphragm EMG showed a concurrent decline during sustained isocapnic hypoxia. However, the change in ventilation during sustained hypoxia in canines was very different from the response in humans. Although some decline in ventilation during sustained hypoxia may be common to all mammals, there are notable differences among species. PMID:26099798

  9. Canine hypertrophic osteopathy associated with extra-thoracic lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Headley Selwyn Arlington; Ribeiro Eduardo Alcântara; Santos Gustavo José Von G. dos; Bettini Carlos Maia; Mattos Júnior Ewaldo

    2005-01-01

    Canine hypertrophic osteopathy is described in a dog that presented extra-thoracic lesions, mainly in the liver. Hepatic lesions were characterized by necrosis, hemorrhage, severe hydropic degeneration of centrolobular hepatocytes, proliferation of epithelial cells of bile ducts, and mild biliary stasis. The disease syndrome was diagnosed based on clinical signs, radiological evaluation, and inspection of macerated bones.

  10. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Del Puerto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein coding region fragment amplification (84 bp. Canine b-actin (93 bp was utilized as the endogenous control for normalization. Quantitative results of real time PCR generated by ABI Prism 7000 SDS Software showed that 54.5% of dogs with asymptomatic canine distemper were positive for canine distemper virus. Dissociation curves confirmed the specificity of the real time PCR fragments. This technique could detect even a few copies of viral RNA and identificate subclinically infected dogs providing accurate diagnosis of this disease at an early stage.A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em tempo real revelou a presença do vírus da cinomose canina em amostra de sangue de cães assintomáticos e não vacinados. Amostra de onze cães domésticos sem nenhum sinal clínico de cinomose e que não foram vacinados no mês da coleta de sangue foram utilizados para análise. Amostra vacinal do vírus da cinomose canina em células VERO foi utilizada como controle positivo. O RNA total foi isolado utilizando-se Trizol®, e tratadas com o Kit TURBO DNA-free. Os iniciadores foram desenhados para amplificar a região do nucleocapsídeo viral com 319pb e 84pb para a PCR convencional e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. O fragmento alvo da b-actina canina com 93pb foi utilizado como controle endógeno e normalizador. Resultados quantitativos da PCR em tempo real gerados pelo programa ABI Prism 7000 SDS demonstraram que 54,5% dos cães assintom

  11. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome. PMID:22647637

  12. Establishment of Canine-Derived Giardia duodenalis Isolates in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tysnes, Kristoffer R; Robertson, Lucy J

    2016-06-01

    Researchers continue to rely on axenic cultivation of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites in vitro to study the life cycle and host-parasite interactions of G. duodenalis and to develop vaccines and drugs to prevent and treat giardiasis. The majority of in vitro studies of G. duodenalis have used a small subset of isolates, mostly of assemblage A, and these isolates are usually originally isolated from humans. The most commonly used isolate for lab studies is known as WB. Canine giardiasis is a disease of veterinary importance, but it may also be of relevance in zoonotic transmission. Few G. duodenalis isolates from dogs have been adapted to in vitro culture, probably because the methods used are not suitable for the canine-specific genotypes that tend to dominate in most dog populations. In the current study, an experimental approach to cultivating canine-derived isolates of G. duodenalis was attempted by modification of the standard protocol based on physiological differences between the human and canine digestive system. An adapted method is described for improving the rate of in vitro excystation of cysts isolated from dogs by chemically weakening the cyst wall. A new canine-derived assemblage A G. duodenalis isolate was successfully adapted to axenic culture by using this method; the dog apparently had a mixed infection of assemblages A and D, but the assemblage A successfully outcompeted the assemblage D under conditions of in vitro culture. Based on the results, reasons regarding why humans do not seem to be suitable hosts for G. duodenalis in assemblages C and D are discussed. PMID:26835750

  13. Release of canine parvovirus from endocytic vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A2 like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA2 activity on CPV entry process. PLA2 activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA2 inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA2 activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA2 activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A1, brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A1, brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA2 activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA2 activity is essential for productive infection and presumably

  14. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman Ragnvi

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12% and one control dog (11% had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The

  15. Survey of canine babesiosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog

  16. A novel derivative of doxorubicin, AD198, inhibits canine transitional cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathore K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kusum Rathore, Maria Cekanova Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic treatments for a wide range of cancers. N-benzyladriamycin-14-valerate (AD198 is a lipophilic anthracycline that has been shown to target conventional and novel isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC in cytoplasm of cells. Because of the adverse effects of DOX, including hair loss, nausea, vomiting, liver dysfunction, and cardiotoxicity, novel derivatives of DOX have been synthesized and validated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DOX and its derivative, AD198, on cell viability of three canine transitional cell carcinoma (K9TCC (K9TCC#1-Lillie, K9TCC#2-Dakota, K9TCC#4-Molly and three canine osteosarcoma (K9OSA (K9OSA#1-Zoe, K9OSA#2-Nashville, K9OSA#3-JJ primary cancer cell lines. DOX and AD198 significantly inhibited cell proliferation in all tested K9TCC and K9OSA cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. AD198 inhibited cell viability of tested K9TCC and K9OSA cell lines more efficiently as compared to DOX at the same concentration using MTS (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2h-tetrazolium assay. AD198 had lower IC50 values as compared to DOX for all tested K9TCC and K9OSA cell lines. In addition, AD198 increased apoptosis in all tested K9TCC and K9OSA cell lines. AD198 increased the caspase activity in tested K9TCC and K9OSA cell lines, which was confirmed by caspase-3/7 assay, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. In addition, AD198 cleaved PKC-δ, which subsequently activated the p38 signaling pathway, resulting in the apoptosis of tested K9TCC and K9OSA cell lines. Inhibition of the p38 signaling pathway by SB203580 rescued DOX- and AD198-induced apoptosis in tested K9TCC and K9OSA cell lines. Our in vitro results suggest

  17. Retrospective radiation dosimetry using electron paramagnetic resonance in canine dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) biodosimetry of human tooth enamel has been widely used for measuring radiation doses in various scenarios. We have now developed EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel extracted from canines. Molars and incisors from canines were cleaned by processing in supersaturated aqueous potassium hydroxide solution. The dosimetric signal in canine tooth enamel was found to increase linearly as a function of laboratory added dose from 0.44±0.02 to 4.42±0.22 Gy. The gamma radiation sensitivity of the canine molar enamel was found to be comparable to that of human tooth enamel. The dosimetric signal in canine enamel has been found to be stable up to at least 6 weeks after in vitro irradiation. A dosimetric signal variation of 10-25% was observed for canines ranging from in age 3 years to 16 year old

  18. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine osteosarcomas, whereas cat samples more often displayed moderate levels. High levels of pro-MMP9, pro-MMP2, and active MMP2 were detected by gelatin zymography in both species, with significantly higher values for active MMP2 in canine osteosarcoma. These findings indicate that MMP2 is probably involved in canine and feline osteosarcoma and their expression and activity could be associated with the different metastatic behavior of canine and feline osteosarcoma. PMID:26733734

  19. Pharmacological effects of a C-phycocyanin-based multicomponent nutraceutical in an in-vitro canine chondrocyte model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Stephanie E; Chen, Yufei; Ho, Emmanuel A; Martinez, Steven A; Davies, Neal M

    2015-07-01

    Multicomponent nutraceuticals are becoming increasingly popular treatments or adjunctive therapies for osteoarthritis in veterinary medicine despite lack of evidence of efficacy for many products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of a commercially available C-phycocyanin-based nutraceutical and select constituent ingredients in an in-vitro model of canine osteoarthritis. Normal canine articular chondrocytes were used in an in-vitro model of osteoarthritis. Inflammatory conditions were induced using interleukin-1β. The nutraceutical preparation as a whole, its individual constituents, as well as carprofen were evaluated at concentrations of 0 to 250 μg/mL for reduction of the following inflammatory mediators and indicators of catabolism of the extracellular matrix: prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TFN-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), nitric oxide, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). Validated, commercially available assay kits were used for quantitation of inflammatory mediators. The antioxidant capacities, as well as cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitory activities of the whole nutraceutical preparation and select constituents, were also assessed using validated commercially available assay kits. The antioxidant capacity of the nutraceutical and constituents was concentration-dependent. The nutraceutical and constituents appear to display anti-inflammatory activity primarily through the inhibition of COX-2. The nutraceutical displayed similar strength to carprofen in reducing TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-3, nitric oxide, and sGAGs at select concentration ranges. The C-phycocyanin (CPC)-based nutraceutical and constituents may be able to mediate 3 primary pathogenic mechanisms of osteoarthritis: inflammation, chondral degeneration, and oxidative stress in vitro. The nutraceutical may be clinically useful in veterinary

  20. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  1. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the United States, most of us, our culture, is that we take antibiotics for seven to ... your medicine and as you take your medicine, cross it out-- put a big "X" through it. ...

  2. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000758.htm Medicines for sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alcohol or illegal drug use Over-the-counter sleep medicines Most over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills ...

  3. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...

  4. Future of Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. The Future of Personalized Medicine, From NIH Director Dr. Francis S. Collins Past Issues / ... five priorities for NIH is to advance personalized medicine. What does this mean for the average American? ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations is ... risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures have been used for ...

  6. Society for Vascular Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and find out! Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine August 2016 The Vascular Laboratory More info for ... Learn more. Trending Now: Hot Topics in Vascular Medicine Video Series Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with Drs. Jeffrey ...

  7. Take Your Medicines Safely

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is approximately $75 billion spent annually on prescription medicine. All too often, however, we overlook the vital ... between prescription and over-the-counter remedies. Prescription medicine is prescribed by a doctor for a specific ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  9. Depression - stopping your medicines

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    ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ... at risk for: Returning symptoms, such as severe depression Increased risk of suicide (for some people) Withdrawal ...

  10. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Agricultural Health and Safety Core Units Children's Center Cultivate Newsletter Journal of Agromedicine Milestones Auction of ... Farm Medicine, Rural Health & Safety National Farm Medicine Center Established in 1981 in response to occupational health ...

  11. ADHD Medicines (for Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Crushes What's a Booger? ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > For Kids > ADHD Medicines Print A A A Text Size ...

  12. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  13. Nuclear energy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear energy on medicine, as well as the basic principles of these applications, are presented. The radiological diagnosis, the radiotherapy, the nuclear medicine, the radiological protection and the production of radioisotopes are studied. (M.A.C.)

  14. Recombinant human thyrotropin in veterinary medicine: current use and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, M; van Hoek, I; Peremans, K; Daminet, S

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) was developed after bovine thyrotropin (bTSH) was no longer commercially available. It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as an aid to diagnostic follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in humans and for thyroid remnant ablation with radioiodine. In addition, rhTSH is used in human medicine to evaluate thyroid reserve capacity and to enhance radioiodine uptake in patients with metastatic thyroid cancer and multinodular goiter. Likewise, rhTSH has been used in veterinary medicine over the last decade. The most important veterinary use of rhTSH is thyroidal functional reserve testing for the diagnosis of canine hypothyroidism. Recent pilot studies performed at Ghent University in Belgium have investigated the use of rhTSH to optimize radioiodine treatment of canine thyroid carcinoma and feline hyperthyroidism. Radioiodine treatment optimization may allow a decreased therapeutic dosage of radioiodine and thus may improve radioprotection. This review outlines the current uses of rhTSH in human and veterinary medicine, emphasizing research performed in dogs and cats, as well as potential future applications. PMID:22676297

  15. Canine Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Promote Functional Recovery in Mice with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Yasutaka; Tani, Kenji; ASARI, Yusuke; Quintanilha, Luiz Fernando; HARAGUCHI, Tomoya; MOMOTA, Yutaka; Katayama, Masaaki; Itamoto, Kazuhito; Nakazawa, Hiroshi; TAURA, Yasuho

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regenerative therapy has begun to be clinically applied in humans and dogs to treat neurological disorders, such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we show the therapeutic potential of transplantation of cultured canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into mice with SCI. Canine BMSC transplantation therapy was performed, immediately after the spinal cord was injured. Canine BMSC therapy enhanced functional recovery of the hind limbs in mice with SCI. Nestin-positive cells were obse...

  16. Distribution and activity levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhard, Christiane; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Miller, Ingrid; Walter, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis dissemination. We investigated whether the contrasting metastatic behavior of feline and canine osteosarcoma is related to levels and activities of MMP2 and MMP9. Zymography and immunohistochemistry were used to determine expression levels of MMP2 and MMP9 in canine and feline osteosarcoma. Using immunohistochemistry, increased MMP9 levels were identified in most canine os...

  17. Optimization of canine interleukin-12 production using a baculovirus insect cell expression system

    OpenAIRE

    de Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo; Pedrosa, Mayara de Oliveira; Teixeira, Naiara Carvalho; Ano Bom, Ana Paula Dinis; van Oers, Monique M.; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-12 is an important cytokine in mediating cellular immune responses. Results Recombinant single-chain canine IL-12 was produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system with the aim of conducting further studies on modulation of immune responses in dogs. To optimize the production of recombinant canine IL-12, a classical baculovirus and a modified vector (chitinase A and v-cathepsin knockout) were used containing a native or an optimized insert of canine IL-12. The optimized ...

  18. Extreme Beta-Cell Deficiency in Pancreata of Dogs with Canine Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Emily J.; Lam, Carol J.; Cox, Aaron R.; Rankin, Matthew M.; Van Winkle, Thomas J.; Hess, Rebecka S.; Kushner, Jake A.

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of canine diabetes remains poorly understood, in part due to enigmatic clinical features and the lack of detailed histopathology studies. Canine diabetes, similar to human type 1 diabetes, is frequently associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at onset or after insulin omission. However, notable differences exist. Whereas human type 1 diabetes often occurs in children, canine diabetes is typically described in middle age to elderly dogs. Many competing theories have been prop...

  19. Orthodontic treatment of the transposition of a maxillary canine and a first premolar: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa, Dinoi Maria; Stefano, Mummolo; Annalisa, Monaco; Enrico, Marchetti; Vincenzo, Campanella; Giuseppe, Marzo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transposition is an anomaly of tooth position, the most frequent of which involves the canine and the first maxillary premolar. We describe the orthodontic treatment of a unilateral transposition of an upper canine and an upper right first premolar in the permanent dentition. Case presentation A 12-year-old Caucasian boy presented with transposition of his upper right canine and upper right first premolar. He had combined surgical-orthodontic treatment to correct the transpositio...

  20. Avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza A viruses in Southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shoujun; Shi, Zhihai; Jiao, Peirong; Zhang, Guihong; Zhong, Zhiwen; Tian, Wenru; Long, Li-Ping; Cai, Zhipeng; Zhu, Xingquan; Liao, Ming; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2010-01-01

    This study reports four sporadic cases of H3N2 canine influenza in southern China, which were identified from sick dogs from May 2006 to October 2007. The evolutionary analysis showed that all eight segments of these four viruses are avian-origin and phylogenetically close to the H3N2 canine influenza viruses reported earlier in South Korea. Systematic surveillance is required to monitor the disease and evolutionary behavior of this virus in canine populations in China.

  1. Evidence-based control of canine rabies: a critical review of population density reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Morters, M.K.; Restif, O.; Hampson, K.; Cleaveland, S.; Wood, J.L.N.; Conlan, A J K; Boots, M.

    2013-01-01

    Control measures for canine rabies include vaccination and reducing population density through culling or sterilization. Despite the evidence that culling fails to control canine rabies, efforts to reduce canine population density continue in many parts of the world. The rationale for reducing population density is that rabies transmission is density-dependent, with disease incidence increasing directly with host density. This may be based, in part, on an incomplete interpretation of historic...

  2. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine ...

  3. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?; Die canine Hypothyreose. Eine diagnostische Herausforderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E. [Klinik fuer Kleintiermedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultaet Zuerich, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen {sup registered}) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  4. Medicines to Treat Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it costs. Ask if they have a drug discount program that can help you pay less for your medicine. Buy your medicine from the pharmacy that gives you the cheapest price.  Sign up for patient assistance programs: Most companies that make medicines have programs that help people ...

  5. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  6. Performing Narrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  7. Cloning and expression of canine interferon-alpha genes in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Osamu; Watanugi, Itsuki; Hagiwara, Yuko; Takahashi, Masaki; Arai, Setsuo; Sato, Hisaaki; Maehara, Nobutoshi

    2005-10-01

    We cloned five new subtypes of cDNA encoding canine interferon-alpha (CaIFN-alpha) from a canine epithelial cell line. CaIFN-alphas were divided into two groups by amino acid sequences and a molecular phylogenic tree. Two subtypes of them were expressed in Escherichia coli, and IFN proteins were purified. Recombinant CaIFN-alphas were highly species-specific and showed antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus and canine adenovirus-1 , but not against canine herpesvirus-1. PMID:16276065

  8. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  9. Dental anomalies in first-degree relatives of transposed canine probands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana Bartolo; Neville Calleja; Fraser McDonald; Simon Camilleri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development.

  10. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner; Felipe Geraldes Pappen; Jerônimo Lopes Ruas; Gilberto D'Ávila Vargas; Geferson Fischer; Telmo Vidor

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous) from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13) of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5) of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8) of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males...

  11. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  12. Sleep medicine in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ning-Hung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Lin, Chia-Mo

    2015-01-01

    The sleep medicine is a young medical science in Taiwan. It began from less than 10 sleep beds 20 years ago in four hospitals all over Taiwan. By the organization of sleep team in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and the initiation of Taiwan Society of Sleep Medicine, sleep medicine becomes a popular medicine in the past decades. The setting of Sleep Society in 2002 is the milestone to promote the sleep medicine, educate the public and professionals, and control of the quality of clinical practic...

  13. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  14. Computed Tomography Imaging of the Topographical Anatomy of Canine Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To investigate the topographical anatomy of canine prostate gland by computed tomography (CT) for diagnostic imaging purposes. ÐœATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven clinically healthy mongrel male dogs at the age of 3−4 years and body weight of 10−15 kg were submitted to transverse computerized axial tomography (CAT) with cross section thickness of 5 mm. RESULTS: The CT image of canine prostate is visualized throughout the scans of the pelvis in the planes through the first sacral vertebra (S1) dorsally; the bodies of iliac bones laterally and cranially to the pelvic brim (ventrally). The body of prostate appears as an oval homogenous relatively hypo dense finding with soft tissue density. The gland is well differentiated from the adjacent soft tissues. CONCLUSION: By means of CT, the cranial part of prostate gland in adult dogs aged 3−4 years exhibited an abdominal localization. (author)

  15. The unerupted maxillary canine - a post-surgical review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dowling, Ian

    2009-10-01

    The orthodontic records of 685 patients referred for surgical exposure of an unerupted impacted maxillary canine tooth were examined. The condition was more common among females than males, slightly less than 2:1. The impacted teeth had a palatal-labial ratio of 3:1. All of the teeth were exposed using the open surgical technique and in 98% of cases the tooth erupted and was orthodontically aligned. In 2% of cases ankylosis occurred and the teeth were subsequently extracted. The presence of peg-shaped lateral incisors associated with the impacted maxillary canine tooth was 3.4% of the total number of impacted teeth and congenital absence was found in 1.7% of impacted teeth.

  16. Survivin and related proteins in canine mammary tumors: immunohistochemical expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, L; Romanucci, M; Malatesta, D; D'Andrea, A; Ciccarelli, A; Della Salda, L

    2015-03-01

    Survivin is reexpressed in most human breast cancers, where its expression has been associated with tumor aggressiveness, poor prognosis, and poor response to therapy. Survivin expression was evaluated in 41 malignant canine mammary tumors (CMTs) by immunohistochemistry, in relation to histological grade and stage, and correlated with that of some related molecules (β-catenin, caspase 3, heat shock proteins) to understand their possible role in canine mammary tumorigenesis. An increase in nuclear survivin expression, compared with healthy mammary glands, was observed in CMTs, where nuclear immunolabeling was related to the presence of necrosis. No statistically significant relation was found between the expression of the investigated molecules and the histological grade or stage. The present study may suggest an important involvement of survivin in CMT tumorigenesis. Its overexpression in most of the cases evaluated might suggest that targeting survivin in CMTs may be a valid anticancer therapy. PMID:24686389

  17. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peremans, Kathelijne [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Goethals, Ingeborg [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Vos, Filip [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Dobbeleir, A. [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bree, Henri [Department of Medical Imaging, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Heeringen, Cees van [Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Kurt [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium) and Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Ghent University, B-9000, Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: kurt.audenaert@ugent.be

    2006-10-15

    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [{sup 123}I]-{beta}-CIT and [{sup 123}I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models.

  18. An Update on Therapeutic Management of Canine Demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine demodicosis is a common noncontagious parasitic dermatosis caused by different spp of Demodex mites including Demodex canis, Demodex injai and D. cornei. Generalized demodicosis can be one of the most frustrating skin diseases, one will ever treat. Conventional and newer miticidal therapies are available to veterinarian to treat this frustrating skin disease. All recognized Demodex mites in dogs appear to respond similarly to mite targeted therapy. Treatment for canine demodicosis includes amitraz, ivermectin, milbemicin oxime, moxidectin, and doramectin. The use of any glucocorticoid-containing products is contraindicated and could favour disease generalization. Conventional treatments will often appear to work however, but it relies heavily on a highly toxic method of treatment. Using natural remedies for mange, on the other hand, can enhance the dog’s immune system, so that the body can fight off the mange mite infection by itself. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 41-44

  19. Measurement of plasma canine C peptide by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for canine C peptide (CCP) was established using synthetic CCP, a specific antiserum, and rabbit anti-guinea pig serum. Radioiodination was performed according to a modified chloramine T method. Tracer preparations have been used for 6 weeks after iodination. The standard curve ranges from 0.028 to 3.0 nmol/l. The intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 3-5% and the inter-assay CV was 6-9% in the optimal range between 0.3 and 0.8 nmol/l. The average recovery of CCP added to plasma samples was 100.6% (n = 9). Canine insulin, porcine proinsulin, bovine proinsulin, and human C peptide exhibited no cross-reactivity. The mean fasting plasma CCP concentration was 0.089 +- 0.021 nmol/l in normal dogs and -0.005 +- 0.007 nmol/l (mean +- SEM) in diabetic dogs, respectively. (author)

  20. Serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter imaging in the canine brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serotonergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in a wide range of emotional and behavioral aspects of animals and humans and are involved in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are designed to block the 5-HT transporter (SERT), thereby increasing the available 5-HT in the brain. Functional imaging with specific SERT and dopamine transporter (DAT) ligands contributes to the study of the SSRI-transporter interaction. First, we evaluated the feasibility of a canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT with the radioligands [123I]-β-CIT and [123I]-FP-CIT as well as single-photon emission computed tomography imaging. Second, we studied the effect of SSRIs (sertraline, citalopram and escitalopram) on the SERT and DAT in two dogs. The position of the canine model in the study of the SERT and DAT is discussed and compared with other animal models

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of canine degenerative lumbar spine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenerative lumbar spine diseases, i.e., sacrolumbar stenosis, intervertebral disk degeneration and protrusion and spondylosis deformans of the canine lumbar spine were studied in eleven canine patients and three healthy controls using radiography and 0.02 T and 0.04 T low field magnetic resonance imaging. The T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in sagittal and transverse planes. The loss of hydration of nucleus pulposus, taken as a sign of degeneration in the intervertebral disks, could be evaluated in both T1 and T2 weighted images. As a noninvasive method magnetic resonance imaging gave more exact information about the condition of intervertebral disks than did radiography. Sacrolumbar stenosis and compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina and surrounding tissue could be evaluated without contrast medium

  2. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors in the canine gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a putative neurotransmitter in both the brain and peripheral tissues. To define possible target tissues of VIP we have used quantitative receptor autoradiography to localize and quantify the distribution of 125I-VIP receptor binding sites in the canine gastrointestinal tract. While the distribution of VIP binding sites was different for each segment examined, specific VIP binding sites were localized to the mucosa, the muscularis mucosa, the smooth muscle of submucosal arterioles, lymph nodules, and the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle of the muscularis externa. These results identify putative target tissues of VIP action in the canine gastrointestinal tract. In correlation with physiological data, VIP sites appear to be involved in the regulation of a variety of gastrointestinal functions including epithelial ion transport, gastric secretion, hemodynamic regulation, immune response, esophageal, gastric and intestinal motility

  3. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  4. Survey of Canine Dirofilaria immitis Infection in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier-Grillot, S; Marié, J-L; Cabre, O; Davoust, B

    2011-01-01

    Canine dirofilariosis is a frequent parasitic disease in New-Caledonia. A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection among dogs from the cities of Tontouta, Nandaï and Nouméa, was performed in March 2009 using two antigen test kits; the microwell ELISA test: DiroCHE (Synbiotics Europe) and the Rapid Immuno Migration (RIM) test: WITNESS DIROFILARIA (Synbiotics Europe). Blood samples were collected from 64 dogs: 49 strays and 15 military working dogs. The military dogs received a permanent chemoprophylaxis (moxidectin). In 11 stray dogs, both tests were positive (22.4%). All the military dogs were negative, showing efficiency of chemoprophaxis. Results were discrepant in 6 dogs, negative with one test and doubtful with the other. Antigen heartworm test kits are available and reliable diagnostic tools. They are useful to evaluate the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis and to detect infected animals in order to treat them and to prevent the spreading of the disease. PMID:21547264

  5. Survey of Canine Dirofilaria immitis Infection in New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watier-Grillot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine dirofilariosis is a frequent parasitic disease in New-Caledonia. A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection among dogs from the cities of Tontouta, Nandaï and Nouméa, was performed in March 2009 using two antigen test kits; the microwell ELISA test: DiroCHE (Synbiotics Europe and the Rapid Immuno Migration (RIM test: WITNESS DIROFILARIA (Synbiotics Europe. Blood samples were collected from 64 dogs: 49 strays and 15 military working dogs. The military dogs received a permanent chemoprophylaxis (moxidectin. In 11 stray dogs, both tests were positive (22.4%. All the military dogs were negative, showing efficiency of chemoprophaxis. Results were discrepant in 6 dogs, negative with one test and doubtful with the other. Antigen heartworm test kits are available and reliable diagnostic tools. They are useful to evaluate the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis and to detect infected animals in order to treat them and to prevent the spreading of the disease.

  6. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in canine mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraguruparan, R; Subapriya, R; Balachandran, C; Manohar, B Murali; Thangadurai, A; Nagini, S

    2006-09-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms in female dogs. The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship between different clinical stages with activities of phase I and phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in canine mammary tumours. The levels of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 and the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and NADPH diaphorase in tumour tissues of 25 bitches was estimated. Enhanced levels of cytochrome P450 and b5 and phase II enzyme activities were observed in tumour tissues compared to the corresponding uninvolved adjacent tissues. The magnitude of the changes in phase I and phase II enzyme status was, however, more pronounced in stages I and II compared to stages III and IV. The results suggest that the balance between phase I carcinogen activation and phase II detoxification systems may play an important role in canine mammary tumour development. PMID:16014333

  7. Canine IgA nephropathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Akira; Shimokawa Miyama, Takako; Kohyama, Moeko; Yamato, Osamu

    2016-04-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) A nephropathy is a rare form of canine glomerular disease. This report describes a case of canine IgA nephropathy showing characteristics typical of human IgA nephropathy. An 8-year-old, spayed female Miniature Dachshund showed persistent severe proteinuria without azotemia. She was receiving long-term glucocorticoid therapy due to chronic gastritis and an intra-abdominal suture granuloma. A renal biopsy demonstrated mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis with predominantly mesangial IgA deposition and electron-dense deposits in the paramesangium. These findings closely resembled those of human IgA nephropathy. Glucocorticoid treatment was discontinued, and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril was administrated as an antiproteinuric agent. The proteinuria subsequently went into remission, and the patient has maintained good condition without recurrence. PMID:26596464

  8. Effects of various drugs on canine tracheal mucociliary transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of dehydration, atropine, terbutaline and N-acetylcysteine on canine tracheobronchial mucus is presented. Mucociliary clearance rates, mucus secretion volumes and mucus rheologic properties were studied. Clearance rates were studied by a radioisotope technique mucus collected by a canine Tracheal pouch method and rheologic studies performed on a microrheometer. Clearance rate was unaffected by dehydration and terbutaline, increased by N-acetylcysteine and decreased by atropine. Secretion volume was increased by terbutaline while dehydration and atropine were without effect. Rheologic factors were increased by dehydration and atropine while terbutaline was without an effect. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on secretion volume and rheologic properties could not be studied because of the nature of the techniques employed

  9. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  10. In vitro effects of Yunnan Baiyao on canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, K A; Kow, K; Salute, M E; Bacon, N J; Milner, R J

    2014-06-29

    Yunnan Baiyao is a Chinese herbal medicine that has been utilized for its anti-inflammatory, haemostatic, wound healing and pain relieving properties in people. It has been utilized in the veterinary profession to control bleeding in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and has been anecdotally reported to prolong survival times in dogs with this neoplasm. This study evaluated the in vitro activity of Yunnan Baiyao against three canine HSA cell lines after treatment with increasing concentrations of Yunnan Baiyao (50, 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 µg mL(-1) ) at 24, 48 and 72 h. Mean half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) at 72 h for DEN, Fitz, SB was 369.9, 275.9 and 325.3 µg mL(-1) , respectively. Caspase-3/7 activity increased in correlation with the IC50 in each cell line which was confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL, APO-BRDU Kit; BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA) assay. VEGF in cell supernatant was also quantified. Overall, the study found that Yunnan Baiyao causes dose and time dependent HSA cell death through initiation of caspase-mediated apoptosis, which supports future studies involving Yunnan Baiyao. PMID:24976212

  11. Clinical risk factors associated with anti-epileptic drug responsiveness in canine epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena M A Packer

    Full Text Available The nature and occurrence of remission, and conversely, pharmacoresistance following epilepsy treatment is still not fully understood in human or veterinary medicine. As such, predicting which patients will have good or poor treatment outcomes is imprecise, impeding patient management. In the present study, we use a naturally occurring animal model of pharmacoresistant epilepsy to investigate clinical risk factors associated with treatment outcome. Dogs with idiopathic epilepsy, for which no underlying cause was identified, were treated at a canine epilepsy clinic and monitored following discharge from a small animal referral hospital. Clinical data was gained via standardised owner questionnaires and longitudinal follow up data was gained via telephone interview with the dogs' owners. At follow up, 14% of treated dogs were in seizure-free remission. Dogs that did not achieve remission were more likely to be male, and to have previously experienced cluster seizures. Seizure frequency or the total number of seizures prior to treatment were not significant predictors of pharmacoresistance, demonstrating that seizure density, that is, the temporal pattern of seizure activity, is a more influential predictor of pharmacoresistance. These results are in line with clinical studies of human epilepsy, and experimental rodent models of epilepsy, that patients experiencing episodes of high seizure density (cluster seizures, not just a high seizure frequency pre-treatment, are at an increased risk of drug-refractoriness. These data provide further evidence that the dog could be a useful naturally occurring epilepsy model in the study of pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

  12. Cell proliferation and expression of connexins differ in melanotic and amelanotic canine oral melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tarso Felipe; Gentile, Luciana Boffoni; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Mennecier, Gregory; Chaible, Lucas Martins; Cogliati, Bruno; Roman, Marco Antonio Leon; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan

    2014-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm occurring in several animal species, and is the most frequently found tumor in the oral cavity in dogs. Melanomas are classified into two types: melanotic and amelanotic. Prior research suggests that human amelanotic melanomas are more aggressive than their melanotic counterparts. This study evaluates the behavior of canine melanotic and amelanotic oral cavity melanomas and quantifies cell proliferation and the expression of connexins. Twenty-five melanomas (16 melanotic and 9 amelanotic) were collected from dogs during clinical procedures at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. After diagnosis, dogs were followed until death or euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed the gross melanotic or amelanotic characteristics and tumors were classified according to the WHO. HMB45 or Melan A immunostainings were performed to confirm the diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was quantified both by counting mitotic figures and PCNA positive nuclei. Expressions of connexins 26 and 43 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Dogs bearing amelanotic melanomas presented a shorter lifespan in comparison to those with melanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was significantly higher in amelanotic melanomas. Expressions of Connexins 26 and 43 were significantly reduced in amelanotic melanomas. The results presented here suggest that oral cavity melanotic and amelanotic melanomas differ regarding their behavior, cell proliferation and connexin expression in dogs, indicating a higher aggressiveness of amelanotic variants. PMID:24126842

  13. Canine Osteosarcoma Treated by Post-Amputation Sequential Accelerated Doxorubicin and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: 38 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimberger, Angela E; Chan, Catherine M; Moore, Antony S

    2016-01-01

    Canine appendicular osteosarcoma is an important clinical problem in veterinary medicine. Current standard therapy includes amputation followed by chemotherapy, which improves outcomes; however the percentage of long-term survival is still relatively low at 15-20%. Established prognostic factors include serum alkaline phosphatase level, histologic grade, and lymphocyte and monocyte counts. We used a protocol with shorter inter-treatment intervals than standard, but which we expected to still be well-tolerated, based on drugs known to be active agents, with the aim of improving outcomes by increasing dose intensity. Thirty-eight dogs with confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma and no pulmonary metastases that underwent amputation followed by this chemotherapy protocol were retrospectively evaluated. The median survival time was 317 days and 1- and 2-yr survival percentages were 43.2% and 13.9%, respectively. Toxicity was comparable to that seen with other standard dose protocols, with 5.2% of dogs hospitalized for complications that resolved with supportive care and no chemotherapy-related mortality. Serum alkaline phosphatase level (normal or high) (p = 0.004) and whether or not chemotherapy was completed (p = 0.001) were found to significantly impact survival time on multivariate analysis. Outcomes were similar to those reported with most other published chemotherapy protocols for dogs with this disease. PMID:27008320

  14. The palliative efficacy of modified Mohs paste for controlling canine and feline malignant skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Yasuhiro; Kawarai, Shinpei; Tezuka, Tetsushi; Kawabata, Atsushi; Maruo, Takuya

    2016-09-01

    In veterinary medicine, the management of malignant skin wounds is highly challenging. We conducted a study on seven case animals (four dogs and three cats) which presented with malignant skin wounds. All seven animals had signs and symptoms which were controlled following treatment with a modified Mohs paste. Upon obtaining informed consent from their owners, the animals requiring management of malignant wounds were enrolled in this study. The modified Mohs paste was prepared by mixing zinc chloride, zinc oxide starch powder, glycerin, and distilled water. The modified Mohs paste was topically applied to and left to remain on the malignant wounds for one hour, under controlled conditions. Once the paste was removed, the wounds were irrigated with a solution of sterile saline. At the first examination, the wounds of each animal were observed for signs of exudate, malodor, and bleeding. In every case, visible improvement was observed immediately after the modified Mohs paste treatment. Specifically, the size of the malignant wounds, and the number of times the dressing gauze required changing, significantly decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The open malignant skin wounds caused by mammary gland tumors disappeared in two cases. The Mohs paste has been shown to be a viable option for the palliative treatment in canine and feline malignant skin wound management. PMID:26828294

  15. Expression Profiling of Circulating MicroRNAs in Canine Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have shown promise as noninvasive biomarkers in cardiac disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the miRNA expression profile in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD. 277 miRNAs were quantified using RT-qPCR from six normal dogs (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Stage A, six dogs with MMVD mild to moderate cardiac enlargement (ACVIM Stage B1/B2 and six dogs with MMVD and congestive heart failure (ACVIM Stage C/D. Eleven miRNAs were differentially expressed (False Discovery Rate < 0.05. Dogs in Stage B1/B2 or C/D had four upregulated miRNAs, including three cfa-let-7/cfa-miR-98 family members, while seven others were downregulated, compared to Stage A. Expression of six of the 11 miRNAs also were significantly different between dogs in Stage C/D and those in Stage B1/B2. The expression changes were greater as disease severity increased. These miRNAs may be candidates for novel biomarkers and may provide insights into genetic regulatory pathways in canine MMVD.

  16. Fundamentals of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazraki, N.P.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    This guidebook for clinical nuclear medicine is written as a description of how nuclear medicine procedures should be used by clinicians in evaluating their patients. It is designed to assist medical students and physicians in becoming acquainted with nuclear medicine techniques for detecting and evaluating most common disorders. The material provides an introduction to, not a textbook of, nuclear medicine. Each chapter is devoted to a particular organ system or topic relevant to the risks and benefits involved in nuclear medicine studies. The emphasis is on presenting the rationales for ordering the various clinical imaging procedures performed in most nuclear medicine departments. Where appropriate, alternative imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography imaging, and radiographic special procedures are discussed. Comparative data between nuclear medicine imaging and other modalities are presented to help guide the practicing clinician in the selection of the most appropriate procedure for a given problem.

  17. Morphologic and biochemical studies of canine mucopolysaccharidosis I.

    OpenAIRE

    Shull, R M; Helman, R. G.; Spellacy, E.; Constantopoulos, G.; Munger, R. J.; Neufeld, E F

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the necropsy and biochemical findings on the first dog to die with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency (mucopolysaccharidosis I, MPS I). Gross pathologic features, light- and electron-microscopic findings, and tissue enzyme, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and sphingolipid levels are compared with the human disease counterpart and the previously described feline model. Results lend further support for the similarities of the canine disease and human MPS I.

  18. Antioxidants in the Canine Model of Human Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, Amy L. S.; Head, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative damage can lead to neuronal dysfunction in the brain due to modifications to proteins, lipids and DNA/RNA. In both human and canine brain, oxidative damage progressively increases with age. In the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, oxidative damage is further exacerbated, possibly due to increased deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in senile plaques. These observations have led to the hypothesis that antioxidants may be beneficial for brain aging and AD. Aged dogs naturally develo...

  19. Acute pancreatitis : a newly recognised potential complication of canine babesiosis

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Möhr; Lobetti, R. G.; J.J. Van der Lugt

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective study describes 4 cases of canine babesiosis with histologically confirmed acute pancreatitis. In addition, 16 dogs with babesiosis are reported with serum amylase (>3500 U/l ) and/or lipase (>650 U/l ) activity elevations of a magnitude that would support a diagnosis of probable acute pancreatitis, although extra-pancreatic sources of the enzymes could not be excluded in these cases. Median time of pancreatitis diagnosis was 2.5 days post-admission, with primarily yo...

  20. Prediction of unerupted canines and premolars in a Syrian sample

    OpenAIRE

    Burhan, Ahmad S; Nawaya, Fehmieh R

    2014-01-01

    Background The current study aimed to evaluate the applicability of the methods of Moyers and of Tanaka and Johnston to estimate the mesiodistal widths of permanent canines and premolars in Syrian individuals, to determine whether the predicting equations differ by sex, and to develop more accurate regression equations using various teeth groups as predictors. Methods A total of 670 pretreatment pairs of casts belonging to 342 female patients and 328 male patients were selected from the archi...

  1. Phylogenetic evidence of canine distemper virus in Serengeti's lions.

    OpenAIRE

    Harder, Timm; Kenter, Marcel; Appel, Max; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Barrett, Thomas,; Osterhaus, Albert

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the Tanzanian Serengeti National Park. A morbillivirus phosphoprotein (P) gene fragment was amplified by PCR from tissue samples of several affected lions. Sequencing of the amplificates and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that a wild-type strain of canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) was involved. Vaccination of the local domestic dog population with proven safe CDV ...

  2. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Na Feng; Yicong Yu; Tiecheng Wang; Peter Wilker; Jianzhong Wang; Yuanguo Li; Zhe Sun; Yuwei Gao; Xianzhu Xia

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possess...

  3. The pathogenesis and diagnosis of canine hip dysplasia: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, C L; Remedios, A M

    1995-01-01

    Hip dysplasia is a common developmental problem affecting the canine population. Despite extensive research into the condition, many questions remain unanswered and numerous misconceptions are present among the general public. The purpose of this paper is to review the current knowledge on the development of hip dysplasia, factors modifying its development, and current diagnostic techniques. A computerized literature search was conducted for the period of January 1983 to April 1985 using the ...

  4. Classification and grading of canine malignant mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Tavasoly; Hannaneh Golshahi; Annahita Rezaie; Mohammad Farhadi

    2013-01-01

    Histological grading is a good parameter to stratify tumors according to their biological aggressiveness. The Elston and Ellis grading method in humans, invasive ductal breast carcinomas and other invasive tumors are routinely used. The aims of this study were classification of mammary gland tumors and also application of a human grading method in canine mammary carcinoma. The samples included 37 tumors of mammary glands. Mammary tumors were carcinomas (n = 32) and sarcomas (n = 5). The carci...

  5. Canine aggression toward people: a guide for practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Karen Lynn C; Malamed, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews the various causes of human-directed aggression in dogs and provides a step-by-step plan guiding the general practitioner through history taking, behavior observations, diagnosis, consultation, treatment, and follow-up care. Charts summarizing how to obtain behavioral information, the client's management options, treatment recommendations, diagnosis and treatment of human-directed aggression, and the clinician's role in preventing human-directed aggression are included. A graphic illustration of canine body language is also provided. PMID:24766702

  6. Feline and canine coronaviruses : common genetic and pathobiological features

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious ...

  7. Polarized entry of canine parvovirus in an epithelial cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, S; Compans, R W

    1989-01-01

    The binding and uptake of canine parvovirus (CPV) in polarized epithelial cells were investigated by growing the cells on a permeable support and inoculating with the virus either from the apical or basolateral surface. Binding of radiolabeled CPV occurred preferentially on the basolateral surface. In contrast, when a similar experiment was carried out on nonpolarized A72 cells, virus binding occurred regardless of the direction of virus input. Binding appeared to be specific for CPV and coul...

  8. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Hideto; Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained fro...

  9. Organization and expression of canine olfactory receptor genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Issel-Tarver, L; Rine, J

    1996-01-01

    Four members of the canine olfactory receptor gene family were characterized. The predicted proteins shared 40-64% identity with previously identified olfactory receptors. The four subfamilies identified in Southern hybridization experiments had as few as 2 and as many as 20 members. All four genes were expressed exclusively in olfactory epithelium. Expression of multiple members of the larger subfamilies was detected, suggesting that most if not all of the cross-hybridizing bands in genomic ...

  10. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  11. Molecular identification of bacteria associated with canine periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Riggio, Marcello P.; Lennon, Alan; Taylor, David J.; Bennett, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of adult dogs, with up to 80% of animals affected. The aetiology of the disease is poorly studied, although bacteria are known to play a major role. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with canine gingivitis and periodontitis and to compare this with the normal oral flora. Swabs were obtained from the gingival margin of three dogs with gingivitis and three orally healthy controls, and subg...

  12. Selection of reference genes in canine uterine tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Wang, X; Yue, Y W; Zhou, P Y; Yao, W; Li, X; Ding, X B; Liu, X F; Guo, H; Ma, W Z

    2016-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is usually employed in gene expression studies in veterinary research, including in studies on canine pyometra. Canine pyometra is a common clinical disease in bitches. When using RT-qPCR, internal standards, such as reference genes, are necessary to investigate relative gene expression by quantitative measurements of mRNA levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of reference genes and select reference genes suitable for canine pyometra studies. We collected 24 bitch uterine tissue samples, including five healthy and 19 pyometra infected samples. These were used to screen the best reference genes of seven candidate genes (18SrRNA, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT, RPL13A, and YWHAZ). The method of KH Sadek and the GeNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder software were used to evaluate the stability of gene expression in both pyometra and healthy uterine samples. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate gene in pyometra and healthy tissues differed. We showed that YWHAZ was the best reference gene, which could be used as an accurate internal control gene in canine pyometra studies. To further validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor gene (IGF1R) was investigated. We found that the expression of IGF1R was significantly altered when different reference genes were used. All reference genes identified in the present study will enable more accurate normalization of gene expression data in both pyometra infected and healthy uterine tissues. PMID:27323194

  13. Aggregative Behavior of Bacteria Isolated from Canine Dental Plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D. R.; Wilson, M; Buckley, C. M. F.; Spratt, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Interbacterial adhesion of bacteria isolated from canine dental plaque was assessed by performing a visual coaggregation assay. Using conditions mimicking those likely to be encountered in vivo, the entire cultivable plaque microbiota from a single dog was assessed, and eight (6.7%) unique coaggregation interactions were detected for 120 crosses. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize several of the bacteria in isolation and as coaggregates, which revealed surface structures t...

  14. Differential Genetic Regulation of Canine Hip Dysplasia and Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengkui Zhou; Xihui Sheng; Zhiwu Zhang; Keyan Zhao; Lan Zhu; Gang Guo; Steve G Friedenberg; Hunter, Linda S.; Vandenberg-Foels, Wendy S.; Hornbuckle, William E.; Ursula Krotscheck; Elizabeth Corey; Moise, Nancy S.; Dykes, Nathan L.; Junya Li

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canine hip dysplasia (HD) is a common polygenic trait characterized by hip malformation that results in osteoarthritis (OA). The condition in dogs is very similar to developmental dysplasia of the human hip which also leads to OA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 721 dogs, including both an association and linkage population, were genotyped. The association population included 8 pure breeds (Labrador retriever, Greyhounds, German Shepherd, Newfoundland, Golden retriever,...

  15. Transmission Dynamics and Prospects for the Elimination of Canine Rabies

    OpenAIRE

    Hampson, Katie; Dushoff, Jonathan; Cleaveland, Sarah; Haydon, Daniel T.; Kaare, Magai; Packer, Craig; Dobson, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology...

  16. Transmission dynamics and prospects for the elimination of canine rabies.

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Hampson; Jonathan Dushoff; Sarah Cleaveland; Haydon, Daniel T.; Magai Kaare; Craig Packer; Andy Dobson

    2009-01-01

    Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology...

  17. Isolation and characterization of canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Helen T; Ito, Daisuke; McCullar, Valarie; Zhang, Bin; Miller, Jeffrey S; Modiano, Jaime F

    2013-09-15

    NK cells are non-T, non-B lymphocytes that kill target cells without previous activation. The immunophenotype and function of these cells in humans and mice are well defined, but canine NK cells remain incompletely characterized. Our objectives were to isolate and culture canine peripheral blood NK cells, and to define their immunophenotype and killing capability. PBMC were obtained from healthy dogs and T cells were depleted by immunomagnetic separation. The residual cells were cultured in media supplemented with IL-2, IL-15 or both, or with mouse embryonic liver (EL) feeder cells. Non-T, non-B lymphocytes survived and expanded in these cultures. IL-2 was necessary and sufficient for survival; the addition of IL-15 was necessary for expansion, but IL-15 alone did not support survival. Culture with EL cells and IL-2 also fostered survival and expansion. The non-T, non-B lymphocytes uniformly expressed CD45, MHC I, and showed significant cytotoxic activity against CTAC targets. Expression of MHC II, CD11/18 was restricted to subsets of these cells. The data show that cells meeting the criteria for NK cells in other species, i.e., non-T, non-B lymphocytes with cytotoxic activity, can be expanded from canine PBMC by T-cell depletion and culture with cytokines or feeder cells. PMID:23876304

  18. Heat shock protein expression in canine malignant mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarli Giuseppe

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal levels of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs have been observed in many human neoplasms including breast cancer and it has been demonstrated that they have both prognostic and therapeutic implications. In this study, we evaluated immunohistochemical expression of HSPs in normal and neoplastic canine mammary glands and confronted these results with overall survival (OS, in order to understand the role of HSPs in carcinogenesis and to establish their potential prognostic and/or therapeutic value. Methods Immunohistochemical expression of Hsp27, Hsp72, Hsp73 and Hsp90 was evaluated in 3 normal canine mammary glands and 30 malignant mammary tumours (10 in situ carcinomas, 10 invasive carcinomas limited to local structures without identifiable invasion of blood or lymphatic vessels, 10 carcinomas with invasion of blood or lymphatic vessels and/or metastases to regional lymph nodes. A semi-quantitative method was used for the analysis of the results. Results Widespread constitutive expression of Hsp73 and Hsp90 was detected in normal tissue, Hsp72 appeared to be focally distributed and Hsp27 showed a negative to rare weak immunostaining. In mammary tumours, a significant increase in Hsp27 (P Conclusion These results suggest that Hsp27, Hsp72 and Hsp90 are involved in canine mammary gland carcinogenesis. In addition, Hsp27 appears to be implicated in tumour invasiveness and its high immunodetection in invasive tumours is indicative of a poorer clinical outcome.

  19. Morphological characteristics of the canine and feline stomach mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, P; Sapundzhiev, E; Pupaki, D; Rashev, P; Palov, A; Todorov, T

    2010-12-01

    The stomach mucosa structure in animals belonging to Order Carnivora indicates some specific characteristics in comparison with the other mammals. Between the bases of the mucosal glands and the lamina muscularis mucosae there is an additional plate which most of the morphologists have defined as lamina subglandularis. In currently used Nomina histologica this layer is indicated as stratum compactum in carnivorous stomach mucosa. The investigation aims were to study and compare canine and feline stomach tunica mucosa characteristics as well as to measure the thickness of stratum compactum and to specify some of the certain collagen types and fibronectin compounds. Conventional and differential histological and ultrastructural methods and immuno-histochemical approaches for investigation of the canine and feline stomach samples were used. The specific organization of the carnivorous stomach wall arrangement was established. In the structure of the canine stomach mucosa, no evidence of stratum compactum was observed. The presence of stratum compactum in feline stomach mucosa was ascertained and measured. Using an immunohistochemical method very high expression of collagen type IV and fibronectin, moderate positive reaction of collagen type III, and a comparatively weakest expression of collagen types I and V in the structure of stratum compactum from cat stomach mucosa was shown. The obtained results clarify the characteristics of the stomach mucosa morphology and could be used as a basis for distinguishing the stomach wall structure of the animal species belonging to Canidae and Felidae families although they are both carnivores. PMID:20825386

  20. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Dubovi, Edward J.; Qaisar, Natasha; Henriquez, Jose A.; Medina, Jan; Shields, Shelly; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal “civilization” infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions. Comparative phylogenetic analysis using various structural and nonstructural proteins of CKoV confirmed it as the animal virus homolog most closely related to human Aichivirus (AiV). Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis suggests a mean recent divergence time of CKoV and AiV within the past 20 to 50 years, well after the domestication of canines. The discovery of CKoV provides new insights into the origin and evolution of AiV and the species specificity and pathogenesis of kobuviruses. PMID:21880761

  1. Characterization of a canine homolog of human Aichivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amit; Simmonds, Peter; Dubovi, Edward J; Qaisar, Natasha; Henriquez, Jose A; Medina, Jan; Shields, Shelly; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-11-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions. Comparative phylogenetic analysis using various structural and nonstructural proteins of CKoV confirmed it as the animal virus homolog most closely related to human Aichivirus (AiV). Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis suggests a mean recent divergence time of CKoV and AiV within the past 20 to 50 years, well after the domestication of canines. The discovery of CKoV provides new insights into the origin and evolution of AiV and the species specificity and pathogenesis of kobuviruses. PMID:21880761

  2. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of canine hip dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogs with hip dysplasia are commonly presented to veterinarians for evaluation. Although many causes of the condition have been proposed, a definitive cause has not been established. The multifactorial nature of canine hip dysplasia can confuse client education and management ofthe disease. The basic concept involved is the biomechanical imbalance between the forces on the coxofemoral joint and the associated muscle mass; the result is joint laxity in young, growing dogs. This laxity leads to incongruity; the eventual result is degenerative joint disease. Canine hip dysplasia can affect any breed but is most often reported in large and giant breeds. Understanding the pathophysiology and biomechanics involved with this developmental disease is important in providing clients with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic information. The selection of treatment is influenced by the following factors:the age, health, and intended use of the patient; clinical signs; diagnostic findings; the availability of treatment; and the financial constraints of the owner. This article discusses the current concepts concerning the pathophysiology and biomechanics of canine hip dysplasia and outlines diagnostic and therapeutic options. The objective of the article is to provide practitioners with a reference for decision making and client education

  3. Does contemporary canine diet cause cancer? ; A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B Gentzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries have discerned the presence of advanced glycation end products (AGEs and their impact on chronic diseases that include cancer in dogs. AGEs are closely allied with chronic systemic inflammation (metaflammation. These two occurrences are observed in many cancers in both humans and dogs. AGEs are exogenous and endogenous. Exogenous AGEs occur from, among other causes, ingestion of food that is affected by the Maillard reaction in its preparation. The result is an accumulation of AGEs and progressive metaflammation that is linked with many cancers in both humans and dogs. Aspects of AGE ingestion and formation are reviewed in association with the contemporary canine diet that is primarily a kibbled meal based diet. Anovel canine diet paradigm is offered as one that diminishes the AGE/ metaflammation axis. This is proposed to be less carcinogenic than the current canine diet in use by much of the civilized world. The proposed paradigm is a unique approach that offers opportunities to be tested for AGE and metaflammation accumulation that results in diminished prevalence and incidence of cancer in dogs. The paradigm diet is suggested as a prevention, treatment, and recovery aide from cancer

  4. Individual human odor fallout as detected by trained canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyplelová, Petra; Vokálek, Václav; Pinc, Ludvík; Pacáková, Zuzana; Bartoš, Luděk; Santariová, Milena; Čapková, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that if odor fallout (the release of a human's odor onto an untouched object) in human subjects exists, then holding a hand above an absorbent will produce a detectable scent which will be subsequently matched in a detection test by trained canines. Scents were collected from seven males to sterile cotton absorbent squares. The left hand was used to get the control scent and the right hand served as the target scent. Each experimental subject was sitting; his left hand was laid down on a cotton square for 3 min. The right hand was held 5 cm above another cotton square for 3 min. The scent identification was done by two specially trained police German shepherds. These canines had routinely performed scent identification line-ups as part of criminal investigation procedures. Both canines performed 14 line-ups and correctly matched the collected scents of all test subjects. The results suggest the existence of human odor fallout, whereby a human scent trace is left by humans even if they do not touch an object. PMID:24378296

  5. The effect of nematode administration on canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Specht, L; Helmer, M; Epe, C; Wolken, S; Denk, D; Majzoub, M; Sauter-Luis, C

    2011-09-27

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common disease and is considered as an animal model of the human disease. Immunomodulation by helminths is reported in several species. The aim of this study was to determine whether nematodes have an immunomodulatory effect on atopic dermatitis in dogs. In the pilot study, 12 atopic dogs were infected with either embryonated eggs of Trichuris vulpis (500 and 2500 eggs in 3 dogs each) or L3 larvae of Uncinaria stenocephala (100, 500 and 2500 eggs in 2 dogs each), respectively, for 3 months. Pruritus was evaluated with visual analogue scales and clinical lesions with the canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI). Skin biopsies were obtained for histopathology at the beginning and end of the study. In the subsequent placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomised study, 21 dogs received either 2500 embryonated T. vulpis eggs or placebo and were evaluated similarly. In addition, allergen-specific serum IgE concentrations were determined. All dogs in the pilot study improved in their lesion scores, most in their pruritus scores. The cutaneous inflammatory infiltrate did not change significantly. In the subsequent randomised study, there was no significant difference between placebo and Trichuris administration in regard to pruritus or CADESI. IgE concentrations also did not change significantly. Infection with T. vulpis did not significantly change clinical signs of canine atopic dermatitis. PMID:21621922

  6. Electrogene therapy with interleukin-12 in canine mast cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast cell tumors (MCT) are the most common malignant cutaneous tumors in dogs with extremely variable biological behaviour. Different treatment approaches can be used in canine cutaneous MCT, with surgical excision being the treatment of choice. In this study, electrogene therapy (EGT) as a new therapeutic approach to canine MCTs, was established. Eight dogs with a total of eleven cutaneous MCTs were treated with intratumoral EGT using DNA plasmid encoding human interleukin-12 (IL-12). The local response to the therapy was evaluated by repeated measurements of tumor size and histological examination of treated tumors. A possible systemic response was assessed by determination of IL-12 and interferon- γ (IFN-γ) in patients’ sera. The occurence of side effects was monitored with weekly clinical examinations of treated animals and by performing basic bloodwork, consisting of the complete bloodcount and determination of selected biochemistry parameters. Intratumoral EGT with IL-12 elicits significant reduction of treated tumors’ size, ranging from 13% to 83% (median 50%) of the initial tumor volume. Additionally, a change in the histological structure of treated nodules was seen. There was a reduction in number of malignant mast cells and inflammatory cell infiltration of treated tumors. Systemic release of IL-12 in four patients was detected, without any noticeable local or systemic side effects. These data suggest that intratumoral EGT with plasmid encoding IL-12 may be useful in the treatment of canine MCTs, exerting a local antitumor effect

  7. [Canine excrement in the urban environment: what is the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizot, X

    1991-09-01

    With the increase in urban dog populations during the 1960s and 1970s, the problem of canine excreta has become more serious, and has become a typical subject of concern for the urban environment and the quality of life. While there may be a discrepancy between the often controversial treatment of the subject by the media and the actual situation for city dwellers, responsibility lies with the local authorities. This article presents the results of ten years of theoretical study and practical applications, undertaken on behalf of the French Association for Information and Studies on Companion Animals (AFIRAC) by experts from many disciplines: doctors, veterinarians, ethologists, teachers, landscape gardeners, town planners and architects, in collaboration with those responsible for open spaces, roadways, urban cleaning, etc. The results obtained are illustrated by the success of programmes implemented by cities such as Grenoble, Le Havre and Mulhouse, and they have led to the establishment of basic principles designed to solve the problem of canine excreta in the urban environment. Details of these principles are provided: the need for an overall approach to animals in towns, a permanent long-term programme under centralised guidance, suitable regulations complemented by information, education, etc. Next there is an account of sanitary equipment specific for dealing with the problem of canine excreta in the urban environment. Cleaning and general maintenance of such equipment are also discussed. PMID:1782423

  8. Surgical treatments of the impacted canine tooth in young dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgical treatments of the impacted canine tooth were carried out in 8 young dogs, and the results were successful in 12 out of 14 cases (85.7%). The treatments consisting of surgical correction by immediate tipping movement, fenestration of the gingiva, and removal of the impacted tooth, were applied to 14 cases radiographically showing the immature tooth root and no abnormalities in the tooth root or alveolar bone. Impacted teeth were seen in 8 regions of the maxilla and 6 regions of the mandible. Mesioversion was seen in almost all maxillary impacted teeth, while linguoversion or lingual mesioversion in all mandibular cases. Surgical correction was carried out by immediate tipping movement after removal of the retained deciduous canine with or without resection of the alveolar bone. Fixation of the moved teeth was done using a wedge made from the deciduous canine root, which was driven into the vacant alveolar cavity after moving. An additional fixation using a steel wire and/or self-curing resin was done, if necessary

  9. Lipids and FA analysis of canine prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Bashi, Nadia M; Orzeszko, Karyn; Slocombe, Ronald F; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    It is widely reported that an association exists between dietary fat intake and the incidence of prostate cancer in humans. To study this association, there is a need for an animal model where prostate carcinogenesis occurs spontaneously. The canine prostate is considered a suitable experimental model for prostate cancer in humans since it is morphologically similar to the human prostate and both humans and dogs have a predisposition to benign and malignant prostate disease. In this study, the FA and lipids profiles of the normal canine prostate tissue from nine dogs were examined. The total lipid content of the canine prostate tissue was 1.7 +/- 0.5% (wet weight). The lipid composition analysis using TLC-FID showed that the two major lipid classes were phospholipids and TAG. Total FA, phospholipid, and TAG FA analysis showed that the major FA were palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). The n-3 FA were present at premium brand dogfoods was <3% (wet weight), and the n-3/n-6 ratio was low. PMID:12934677

  10. Biotinylated dextran amine anterograde tracing of the canine corticospinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Han; Guangming Lv; Huiqun Wu; Dafeng Ji; Zhou Sun; Yaofu Li; Lemin Tang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was microinjected into the left cortical motor area of the canine brain. Fluorescence microscopy results showed that a large amount of BDA-labeled pyramidal cells were visible in the left cortical motor area after injection. In the left medulla oblongata, the BDA-labeled corticospinal tract was evenly distributed, with green fluorescence that had a clear boundary with the surrounding tissue. The BDA-positive corticospinal tract entered into the right lateral funiculus of the spinal cord and descended into the posterior part of the right lateral funiculus, close to the posterior horn, from cervical to sacral segments. There was a small amount of green fluorescence in the sacral segment. The distribution of BDA labeling in the canine central nervous system was consistent with the course of the corticospinal tract. Fluorescence labeling for BDA gradually diminished with time after injection. Our findings indicate that the BDA anterograde tracing technique can be used to visualize the localization and trajectory of the corticospinal tract in the canine central nervous system.

  11. Somatostatin modulates cholinergic neurotransmission in canine antral muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin has been shown to inhibit antral motility in vivo. To examine the effect of somatostatin on cholinergic neurotransmission in the canine antrum, we studied the mechanical response of and the release of [3H]acetylcholine from canine longitudinal antral muscle in response to substance P, gastrin 17, and electrical stimulation. In unstimulated tissues, somatostatin had a positive inotropic effect on spontaneous phasic contractions. In tissues stimulated with substance P and gastrin 17, but not with electrical stimulation, somatostatin inhibited the phasic inotropic response dose dependently. This inhibitory effect was abolished by indomethacin. Somatostatin stimulated the release of prostaglandin E2 radioimmunoreactivity, and prostaglandin E2 inhibited the release of [3H]acetylcholine induced by substance P and electrical stimulation. Somatostatin increased the release of [3H]acetylcholine from unstimulated tissues by a tetrodotoxin-sensitive mechanism but inhibited the release induced by substance P and electrical stimulation. These results suggest that somatostatin has a dual modulatory effect on cholinergic neutrotransmission in canine longitudinal antral muscle. This effect is excitatory in unstimulated tissues and inhibitory in stimulated tissues. The inhibitory effect is partially mediated by prostaglandins

  12. Establishing an in vivo model of canine prostate carcinoma using the new cell line CT1258

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Susanne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is a frequent finding in man. In dogs, malignant disease of the prostate is also of clinical relevance, although it is a less common diagnosis. Even though there are numerous differences in origin and development of the disease, man and dog share many similarities in the pathological presentation. For this reason, the dog might be a useful animal model for prostate malignancies in man. Although prostate cancer is of great importance in veterinary medicine as well as in comparative medicine, there are only few cell lines available. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to determine whether the formerly established prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258 is a suitable tool for in vivo testing, and to distinguish the growth pattern of the induced tumours. Methods For characterisation of the in vivo behaviour of the in vitro established canine prostate carcinoma cell line CT1258, cells were inoculated in 19 NOD.CB17-PrkdcScid/J (in the following: NOD-Scid mice, either subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. After sacrifice, the obtained specimens were examined histologically and compared to the pattern of the original tumour in the donor. Cytogenetic investigation was performed. Results The cell line CT 1258 not only showed to be highly tumourigenic after subcutaneous as well as intraperitoneal inoculation, but also mimicked the behaviour of the original tumour. Conclusion Tumours induced by inoculation of the cell line CT1258 resemble the situation in naturally occurring prostate carcinoma in the dog, and thus could be used as in vivo model for future studies.

  13. Antiviral antibodies stimulate production of reactive oxygen species in cultured canine brain cells infected with canine distemper virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Bürge, T; Griot, C; Vandevelde, M; Peterhans, E

    1989-01-01

    Canine distemper is characterized mainly by respiratory, enteric, and nervous symptoms. Infection of the central nervous system results in demyelination, to which inflammation has been shown to contribute significantly. It has been proposed that macrophages play a major role as effector cells in this process. We report that cultured dog brain cells contain a population of macrophages capable of producing reactive oxygen species as measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. In cultures i...

  14. Genotypic characterization of canine coronaviruses associated with fatal canine neonatal enteritis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, Beth N; Whittaker, Gary R; Dubovi, Edward J; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2014-12-01

    Emerging canine coronavirus (CCoV) variants that are associated with systemic infections have been reported in the European Union; however, CCoV-associated disease in the United States is incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to correlate the clinicopathological findings and viral antigen distribution with the genotypic characteristics of CCoV in 11 puppies from nine premises in five states that were submitted for diagnostic investigation at Cornell University between 2008 and 2013. CCoV antigen was found in epithelial cells of small intestinal villi in all puppies and the colon in 2 of the 10 puppies where colon specimens were available. No evidence of systemic CCoV infection was found. Comparative sequence analyses of viral RNA extracted from intestinal tissues revealed CCoV-II genotype in 9 out of 11 puppies. Of the nine CCoV-IIs, five were subtyped as group IIa and one as IIb, while three CCoVs could not be subtyped. One of the CCoV-IIa variants was isolated in cell culture. Infection with CCoV alone was found in five puppies, of which two also had small intestinal intussusception. Concurrent infections with either parvovirus (n = 1), attaching-effacing Escherichia coli (n = 4), or protozoan parasites (n = 3) were found in the other six puppies. CCoV is an important differential diagnosis in outbreaks of severe enterocolitis among puppies between 4 days and 21 weeks of age that are housed at high population density. These findings will assist with the rapid laboratory diagnosis of enteritis in puppies and highlight the need for continued surveillance for CCoV variants and intestinal viral diseases of global significance. PMID:25253797

  15. Molecular surveillance of traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Larocca, Vittorio; Losurdo, Michele; Lanave, Gianvito; Lucente, Maria Stella; Corrente, Marialaura; Catella, Cristiana; Bo, Stefano; Elia, Gabriella; Torre, Giorgio; Grandolfo, Erika; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2016-08-30

    A molecular survey for traditional and emerging pathogens associated with canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) was conducted in Italy between 2011 and 2013 on a total of 138 dogs, including 78 early acute clinically ill CIRD animals, 22 non-clinical but exposed to clinically ill CIRD dogs and 38 CIRD convalescent dogs. The results showed that canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV) was the most commonly detected CIRD pathogen, followed by canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Mycoplasma cynos, Mycoplasma canis and canine pneumovirus (CnPnV). Some classical CIRD agents, such as canine adenoviruses, canine distemper virus and canid herpesvirus 1, were not detected at all, as were not other emerging respiratory viruses (canine influenza virus, canine hepacivirus) and bacteria (Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus). Most severe forms of respiratory disease were observed in the presence of CPIV, CRCoV and M. cynos alone or in combination with other pathogens, whereas single CnPnV or M. canis infections were detected in dogs with no or very mild respiratory signs. Interestingly, only the association of M. cynos (alone or in combination with either CRCoV or M. canis) with severe clinical forms was statistically significant. The study, while confirming CPIV as the main responsible for CIRD occurrence, highlights the increasing role of recently discovered viruses, such as CRCoV and CnPnV, for which effective vaccines are not available in the market. PMID:27527760

  16. Mass die-Off of Caspian seals caused by canine distemper virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, S.; Kuiken, T.; Jepson, P. D.; Deaville, R.; Forsyth, M.; Barrett, T; van de Bildt, M. W.; Osterhaus, A D; Eybatov, T.; Duck, C.; Kydyrmanov, A; Mitrofanov, I.; Wilson, S

    2000-01-01

    Thousands of Caspian seals (Phoca caspica) died in the Caspian Sea from April to August 2000. Lesions characteristic of morbillivirus infection were found in tissue specimens from dead seals. Canine distemper virus infection was identified by serologic examination, reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing of selected P gene fragments. These results implicate canine distemper virus infection as the primary cause of death.

  17. THE REDUCED CANINE PANCREAS TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF INTRAOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEIJMANS, HJ; MEHTA, D; KLEIBEUKER, JH; SLUITER, WJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ

    1993-01-01

    A canine model is described to study the tolerance of the pancreas to intra-operative radiotherapy (IORT). The canine pancreas is a horseshoe-shaped organ. To create a homogeneous delivery of IORT to the whole pancreas surgical manipulation is necessary which may induce pancreatitis. A resection of

  18. The pathogenesis of H3N8 canine influenza virus in chickens, turkeys and ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canine influenza virus (CIV) of the H3N8 subtype has emerged in dog populations throughout the U.S. where is has become endemic in kennels and animal shelters in some regions. It has not previously been determined whether the canine adapted virus can be transmitted to domestic poultry, which are su...

  19. Infants' Intermodal Perception of Canine ("Canis Familairis") Facial Expressions and Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Whipple, Heather; Hyde, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    From birth, human infants are able to perceive a wide range of intersensory relationships. The current experiment examined whether infants between 6 months and 24 months old perceive the intermodal relationship between aggressive and nonaggressive canine vocalizations (i.e., barks) and appropriate canine facial expressions. Infants simultaneously…

  20. Mandibular Canine Dimorphism in Establishing Sex Identity in the Lebanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. In forensic investigations, mandibular canines provide excellent materials to identify gender since they are more likely to survive disasters. The objective of this study was to investigate gender dimorphism by comparing the mesiodistal width of mandibular permanent canines and intercanine distance in a group of Lebanese population. Methods. Participants consisted of undergraduate students from the Sch...

  1. Clinical nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine appears to be increasingly expanding both in its scope and its direct practical clinical usefullness. In view of the manifold possibilities offered by nuclear medicine this review has intentionally been very rapid and, if one will pardon the pun, a scunning approach to nuclear medicine applications. Only selected highlights in the expanding field of nuclear medicine were discussed. In the past 25 years nuclear medicine has emerged as an integrated medical discipline. It now plays a major role in patient management and has significantly expanded the physicians' diagnostic tools. As illustrated here, radionuclide procedures are currently applied in almost every medical speciality. In any event, the tests that comprise nuclear medicine have succeeded because they are rapid, effective, safe and insexpensive, and can be performed without discomfort for the patient. (orig.)

  2. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

  3. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    prevalence, complete risk assessments, and impleme t timely preventive medicine and other preventive measures. The lower VBD prevalence rate in the canine samples from Fort Buchanan demonstrates the value of responsible pet ownership and importance of preventive medicine and public health. PMID:23817880

  4. Tele-nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanael Sabbah; Sinclair Wynchank

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a description of tele-nuclear medicine and, after outlining its history, a wide, representative range of its applications. Tele-nuclear medicine has benefited greatly from technological progress, which for several decades has provided greater data transfer rates and storage capacity at steadily decreasing cost. Differences in the practice of nuclear medicine between developed and developing countries arise mainly from disparities in their available infrastructure, fundin...

  5. Fundamentals of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazraki, N.P.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with basic science and statistics relevant to nuclear medicine, and specific organ systems are addressed in separate chapters. A section of the text also covers imaging of groups of disease processes (eg, trauma, cancer). The authors present a comparison between nuclear medicine techniques and other diagnostic imaging studies. A table is given which comments on sensitivities and specificities of common nuclear medicine studies. The sensitivities and specificities are categorized as very high, high, moderate, and so forth.

  6. Fundamentals of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book begins with basic science and statistics relevant to nuclear medicine, and specific organ systems are addressed in separate chapters. A section of the text also covers imaging of groups of disease processes (eg, trauma, cancer). The authors present a comparison between nuclear medicine techniques and other diagnostic imaging studies. A table is given which comments on sensitivities and specificities of common nuclear medicine studies. The sensitivities and specificities are categorized as very high, high, moderate, and so forth

  7. Music and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Lippi; Paolo Roberti di Sarsina; John Patrick D’Elios

    2010-01-01

    Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative po...

  8. Children's access to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of a potential molecular therapeutic target for canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Mami; Hoshino, Yuki; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a progressive malignant neoplasm of dogs for which there is currently no effective treatment. A recent study suggested that receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MAPK pathways are all activated in canine and human HSA. The aim of the present study was to investigate the overexpression of these proteins by immunohistochemistry in canine splenic HSA to identify potential molecular therapeutic targets. A total of 10 splenic HSAs and two normal splenic samples surgically resected from dogs were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological diagnosis or analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The expression of RTKs, c-kit, VEGFR-2 and PDGFR-2, as well as PI3K/Akt/m-TOR and MEK was higher in canine splenic HSAs compared to normal spleens. These proteins may therefore be potential therapeutic targets in canine splenic HSA. PMID:26685984

  10. Canine Babesiosis in China Caused by Babesia gibsoni: A Molecular Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Yao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To provide a point of reference to study the epidemiology and clinical expression of canine babesiosis in China.A total of 30 dogs infected with canine babesiosis were evaluated by mean of clinical history, physical examination, hematological, restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR products (PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis.The most prevalent clinical abnormalities were lethargy (100%, anorexia (100%, pale or icteric mucous membranes (80%, fever (70% and dark urine (70%. Hematology parameters revealed that anemia and thrombocytopenia were the major abnormalities in blood of dogs infected with canine babesia. The results of PCR-RFLP and sequencing analysis indicated that B. gibsoni was the main species responsible for canine babesiosis cases at the time of the study in Nanjing, China.The results provide valuable information for better understanding of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis in China.

  11. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies. PMID:26315688

  12. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  13. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  14. Glimpses of Islamic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, S K

    1997-07-01

    The fall of the Roman Empire during the fifth century A.D. Ushered in the beginning of the Dark Ages. After this, in Europe further progress of Greco-Roman medicine originated from Hippocrates was halted. The ideas about medicine and hygiene were kept alive in monasteries only. The Arabs made advances in medicine at a time when the rest of Europe was in the Dark Ages. Islamic system or the rulers of the day actively encouraged scholarship and growth of knowledge. The Islamic gift of the day to the world of medicine was simply unique. PMID:12572570

  15. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  16. Complementary alternative medicine and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complementary alternative medicines (CAMs), including food supplements, are taken widely by patients, especially those with cancer. Others take CAMs hoping to improve fitness or prevent disease. Physicians (and patients) may not be aware of the potential side-effects and interactions of CAMs with conventional treatment. Likewise, their known physiological effects could interfere with radiopharmaceutical kinetics, producing abnormal treatment responses and diagnostic results. Nuclear medicine physicians are encouraged to question patients on their intake of CAMs when taking their history prior to radionuclide therapy or diagnosis. The potential effect of CAMs should be considered when unexpected therapeutic or diagnostic results are found. (orig.)

  17. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed. PMID:24314043

  18. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, January 1, 1985-November 1, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments of improved imaging systems in nuclear medicine are reported with emphasis on development of positron emission tomographs that combine high resolution, with high sensitivity and high count rate capability. A second generation cylindrical analog positron camera design has provided excellent light collection with limited light spread, characteristics needed for high spatial and temporal resolution. Other aspects of the camera development include the design of associated electronics, and provision for data storage and processing. Utilizing the above camera basic studies have been performed to evaluate blood flow in the cat brain stem during auditory stimulation, ventilation in the dog using 13N and blood flow in the canine heart. 2 refs., 2 figs

  19. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Delia R; D'Adamo, Christopher; Amr, Sania

    2015-11-01

    The University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology and Public Health collaborated with the Center for Integrative Medicine at the same institution to develop and implement a unique integrative medicine curriculum within a preventive medicine residency program. Between October 2012 and July 2014, Center for Integrative Medicine faculty provided preventive medicine residents and faculty, and occasionally other Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, with comprehensive exposure to the field of integrative medicine, including topics such as mind-body medicine, nutrition and nutritional supplements, Traditional Chinese Medicine, massage, biofield therapies, manual medicine, stress management, creative arts, and the use of integrative medicine in the inpatient setting. Preventive medicine residents, under the supervision of Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, led integrative medicine-themed journal clubs. Resident assessments included a case-based knowledge evaluation, the Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire, and a qualitative evaluation of the program. Residents received more than 60 hours of integrative medicine instruction, including didactic sessions, experiential workshops, and wellness retreats in addition to clinical experiences and individual wellness mentoring. Residents rated the program positively and recommended that integrative medicine be included in preventive medicine residency curricula. The inclusion of a wellness-focused didactic, experiential, and skill-based integrative medicine program within a preventive medicine residency was feasible and well received by all six preventive medicine residents. PMID:26477900

  20. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  1. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-01

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients. PMID:2142351

  2. Prehistoric Iroquois Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosbach, Richard E.; Doyle, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Study of pre-1750 medicine reveals that Iroquois diagnosis and treatment of disease was more advanced than the medicine of their European counterparts. The Iroquois developed a cure for scurvy, treated hypertension, and head lice, and even designed sauna baths. Indian psychiatry also included modern day techniques such as dream analysis. (MR)

  3. PACS in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is being rapidly spread and installed in many hospitals, but most of the system do not include nuclear medicine field. Although additional costs of hardware for nuclear medicine PACS is low, the complexity in developing viewing software and little market have made the nuclear medicine PACS not popular. Most PACS utilize DICOM 3.0 as standard format, but standard format in nuclear medicine has been Interfile. Interfile should be converted into DICOM format if nuclear images are to be stored and visualized in most PACS. Nowadays, many vendors supply the DICOM option in gamma camera and PET. Several hospitals in Korea have already installed nucler PACS with DICOM, but only the screen captured images are supplied. Software for visualizing pseudo-color with color lookup tables and expressing with volume view should be developed to fulfill the demand of referring physicians and nuclear medicine physicians. PACS is going to integrate not only radiologic images but also endoscopic and pathologic images. Web and PC based PACS is now a trend and is much compatible with nuclear medicine PACS. Most important barrier for nuclear medicine PACS that we encounter is not a technical problem, but indifference of investor such as administrator of hospital or PACS. Now it is time to support and invest for the development of nuclear medicine PACS

  4. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  5. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V V; R S Pal; R N Mishra

    1996-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments.

  6. Genotypes and antibiotic resistance of canine Campylobacter jejuni isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Chantal; Kittl, Sonja; Spreng, David; Thomann, Andreas; Korczak, Bożena M; Burnens, André P; Kuhnert, Peter

    2014-01-10

    Campylobacter jejuni is the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. It is a commensal in many wild and domestic animals, including dogs. Whereas genotypes of human and chicken C. jejuni isolates have been described in some detail, only little information on canine C. jejuni genotypes is available. To gain more information on genotypes of canine C. jejuni and their zoonotic potential, isolates from routine diagnostics of diarrheic dogs as well as isolates of a prevalence study in non-diarrheic dogs were analyzed. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter among non-diarrheic dogs was 6.3% for C. jejuni, 5.9% for Campylobacter upsaliensis and 0.7% for Campylobacter coli. The C. jejuni isolates were genotyped by multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and flaB typing. Resistance to macrolides and quinolones was genetically determined in parallel. Within the 134 genotyped C. jejuni isolates 57 different sequence types (ST) were found. Five STs were previously unrecognized. The most common STs were ST-48 (11.2%), ST-45 (10.5%) and ST-21 (6.0%). Whereas no macrolide resistance was found, 28 isolates (20.9%) were resistant to quinolones. ST-45 was significantly more prevalent in diarrheic than in non-diarrheic dogs. Within the common time frame of isolation 94% of the canine isolates had a ST that was also found in human clinical isolates. In conclusion, prevalence of C. jejuni in Swiss dogs is low but there is a large genetic overlap between dog and human isolates. Given the close contact between human and dogs, the latter should not be ignored as a potential source of human campylobacteriosis. PMID:24210812

  7. Changes of Haematobiochemical Parameters during Canine Parvoviral Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLERINA DOKU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is a highly contagious virus that can affect all dogs, but unvaccinated dogs and puppies younger than four months old are the most at risk. The pathology caused by CPV-2 is very common in Albania despite the existence of an effective vaccine.Changes in haematobiochemical parameters during canine parvoviral enteritiswould be very important for determining the prognosis of the disease. This hypothesis prompted the start of the study. From fecal samples taken from puppies 65 individuals resulted positive. Of all individuals 14 of them (21.5% failed to survive. All puppies presented leukopenia. In individuals that survived the WBC count began to grow in the first 24- 48 hours (p <0.05. In non-survivors the WBC was never higher than 2.1x109 / l at the time of admission in the clinic and in the first 24-48 hours began to decline further (p <0.05. There weren’t significant change in RBC count (p <0.05. In the first 12-24 hours 54% of individuals who did not survive had a PLT count less than 362.28x109 / l compared to only 8% of individuals who survived. Urea and creatinine were higher in survivors compared to nonsurvivors (p <0.05.These parameters reached normal levels after the start of the treatment in individuals that survived. Urea and creatinine levels in non-survivors continued to decrease until they died. The changes observed in leukocyte, platelet, urea and serum creatinine levels duringfirst stages of canine parvoviral enteritiscan be used to determine prognosis.

  8. Integrative medicine is a future medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is given of the modern integrative medicine basis which is the synthesis of: 1. Theology, philosophy and sociology; 2. Physico-mathematical sciences, cybernetics, chemistry and astrology; 3. Medico-biological and clinical experience; 4. Traditional and scientific medicine; 5. Use of traditional and new medical technologies. Problems of 'holistic' medicine which considers Man as a unity of biological, emotional, psychological and social phenomena are exposed. Advantages in combining the drug therapy with modern physiotherapy and physioacupuncture methods seem to be obvious. All visible effects of a disease can de represented in the following forms of changes: information-energy - biochemical - ultrastructure - tissue - clinical diseases. Self-regulation of functional systems has a multilevel structure and needs application of different methods for body recovery. Short-wave irradiation (lasers, magnetotherapy) can be used for energy restoration in functional systems or meridians, and acupuncture plays the role of a 'trigger' which activises the body recovery. Integration of Western and Oriental medicines is the way for achieving the qualitative new level of health protection

  9. Structure of the immediate early gene of canine herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, M; Takiguchi, M; Yasuda, J; Hashimoto, A; Takada, A; Okazaki, K; Kida, H

    1999-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the immediate early (IE) gene of canine herpesvirus was determined. This gene was located in the inverted repeat regions, encoding a polypeptide of 1,383 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence was most closely related to that of the feline herpesvirus 1 IE protein among those of other alphaherpesviruses. DNA binding and transcriptional activation domains were found in the IE protein. A spliced region of the IE gene transcript was determined in its 5' non-coding region. PMID:10470264

  10. Retrospective study of canine epithelial and melanocytic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić-Kovačević Sanja; Kukolj V.; Marinković D.; Knežević Milijana A.

    2005-01-01

    Out of the total number of canine tumors examined at the Department of pathology based on biopsy and section materials over the last five years skin tumors and mammary gland tumors were proved to be the two largest groups diagnosed in 33.4% and 36% of cases, respectively. Cutaneous tumors were diagnosed in 211 cases, i.e., in 123 (58.3%) male dogs and 88 (41.7%) bitches, of different breeds, on average 7 years old. Among the total number of 211 skin tumors, 32 types of cutaneous neoplasms wer...

  11. Effects of x radiation on the canine heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten dogs received a single exposure of 10 MeV x rays to the heart. Five dogs received 1500 rad to the midline and five received 1000 rad. When the dogs expired or were killed 73 to 85 days after irradiation, their hearts were examined pathologicaly. The changes most frequently observed were pericardial effusion in the right atrium, myocardial necrosis, and fibrosis. The data suggest that under the conditions of this experiment, irradiation of the canine heart causes greatest damage to the right atrium

  12. Canine tooth in hand – A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganatha, B.T.; Pawan Kumar, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    The hand plays an important role in day to day activities and is more prone for accidental injuries. Injuries to the hand are frequently associated with foreign body penetration. Many a times the foreign body is not detected at the initial visit and can later present with other complications. We present a case of canine tooth presenting as a retained foreign body in the hand following a dog bite. The article stresses the importance of looking for foreign bodies in penetrating hand injuries, e...

  13. Establishment of a Rescue System for Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gassen, Uta; Collins, Fergal M.; Duprex, W. Paul; Rima, Bert K.

    2000-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) has been rescued from a full-length cDNA clone. Besides Measles virus (MV) and Rinderpest virus, a third morbillivirus is now available for genetic analysis using reverse genetics. A plasmid p(+)CDV was constructed by sequential cloning using the Onderstepoort vaccine strain large-plaque-forming variant. The presence of a T7 promoter allowed transcription of full-length antigenomic RNA by a T7 RNA polymerase, which was provided by a host range mutant of vaccinia v...

  14. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Orlando, FL AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  15. TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR

    OpenAIRE

    Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A; Mrdula, V.

    1997-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments.

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease in its ... abnormalities can be detected with other diagnostic tests. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures use small amounts of radioactive materials – ...

  17. Alternative Medicine and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Parents > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... works. previous continue How CAM Differs From Traditional Medicine CAM is frequently distinguished by its holistic methods, ...

  18. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  19. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...