WorldWideScience

Sample records for canine coronaviruses related

  1. European Surveillance for Pantropic Canine Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J.; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5′ end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  2. Feline and canine coronaviruses: common genetic and pathobiological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poder, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV) will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  3. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  4. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious ...

  5. Canine coronaviruses: Epidemiology, evolution and pathobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decaro, N.

    2009-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs; order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae) are viruses exceptionally prone to genetic evolution through the continual accumulation of mutations and by homologous recombination between related members. CoVs are organised into three antigenic groups of which group 1 is subdivided in

  6. Feline coronavirus type II strains 79-1683 and 79-1146 originate from a double recombination between feline coronavirus type I and canine coronavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Herrewegh, A.A.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Groot, R.J. de

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the type II feline coronavirus (FCoV) strains 79-1146 and 79-1683 have arisen from a homologous RNA recombination event between FCoV type I and canine coronavirus (CCV). In both cases, the template switch apparently took place between the S and M genes, giving rise to r

  7. Genomic organization and expression of the 3' end of the canine and feline enteric coronaviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennema, H; Rossen, J W; Wesseling, J; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J

    1993-01-01

    The genomic organization at the 3' end of canine coronavirus (CCV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) was determined by sequence analysis and compared to that of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) of swine. Comparison of the latter two has pr

  8. Canine Enteric Coronaviruses: Emerging Viral Pathogens with Distinct Recombinant Spike Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth N. Licitra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Canine enteric coronavirus (CCoV is an alphacoronavirus infecting dogs that is closely related to enteric coronaviruses of cats and pigs. While CCoV has traditionally caused mild gastro-intestinal clinical signs, there are increasing reports of lethal CCoV infections in dogs, with evidence of both gastrointestinal and systemic viral dissemination. Consequently, CCoV is now considered to be an emerging infectious disease of dogs. In addition to the two known serotypes of CCoV, novel recombinant variants of CCoV have been found containing spike protein N-terminal domains (NTDs that are closely related to those of feline and porcine strains. The increase in disease severity in dogs and the emergence of novel CCoVs can be attributed to the high level of recombination within the spike gene that can occur during infection by more than one CCoV type in the same host.

  9. Genotypic characterization of canine coronaviruses associated with fatal canine neonatal enteritis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, Beth N; Whittaker, Gary R; Dubovi, Edward J; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2014-12-01

    Emerging canine coronavirus (CCoV) variants that are associated with systemic infections have been reported in the European Union; however, CCoV-associated disease in the United States is incompletely characterized. The purpose of this study was to correlate the clinicopathological findings and viral antigen distribution with the genotypic characteristics of CCoV in 11 puppies from nine premises in five states that were submitted for diagnostic investigation at Cornell University between 2008 and 2013. CCoV antigen was found in epithelial cells of small intestinal villi in all puppies and the colon in 2 of the 10 puppies where colon specimens were available. No evidence of systemic CCoV infection was found. Comparative sequence analyses of viral RNA extracted from intestinal tissues revealed CCoV-II genotype in 9 out of 11 puppies. Of the nine CCoV-IIs, five were subtyped as group IIa and one as IIb, while three CCoVs could not be subtyped. One of the CCoV-IIa variants was isolated in cell culture. Infection with CCoV alone was found in five puppies, of which two also had small intestinal intussusception. Concurrent infections with either parvovirus (n = 1), attaching-effacing Escherichia coli (n = 4), or protozoan parasites (n = 3) were found in the other six puppies. CCoV is an important differential diagnosis in outbreaks of severe enterocolitis among puppies between 4 days and 21 weeks of age that are housed at high population density. These findings will assist with the rapid laboratory diagnosis of enteritis in puppies and highlight the need for continued surveillance for CCoV variants and intestinal viral diseases of global significance.

  10. Coronavirus Genomics and Bioinformatics Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Yung Yuen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The drastic increase in the number of coronaviruses discovered and coronavirus genomes being sequenced have given us an unprecedented opportunity to perform genomics and bioinformatics analysis on this family of viruses. Coronaviruses possess the largest genomes (26.4 to 31.7 kb among all known RNA viruses, with G + C contents varying from 32% to 43%. Variable numbers of small ORFs are present between the various conserved genes (ORF1ab, spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid and downstream to nucleocapsid gene in different coronavirus lineages. Phylogenetically, three genera, Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus and Gammacoronavirus, with Betacoronavirus consisting of subgroups A, B, C and D, exist. A fourth genus, Deltacoronavirus, which includes bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12 and munia coronavirus HKU13, is emerging. Molecular clock analysis using various gene loci revealed that the time of most recent common ancestor of human/civet SARS related coronavirus to be 1999-2002, with estimated substitution rate of 4´10-4 to 2´10-2 substitutions per site per year. Recombination in coronaviruses was most notable between different strains of murine hepatitis virus (MHV, between different strains of infectious bronchitis virus, between MHV and bovine coronavirus, between feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and canine coronavirus generating FCoV type II, and between the three genotypes of human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1. Codon usage bias in coronaviruses were observed, with HCoV-HKU1 showing the most extreme bias, and cytosine deamination and selection of CpG suppressed clones are the two major independent biological forces that shape such codon usage bias in coronaviruses.

  11. Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2015-02-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have evolved complex relationships with their host cells, and modulate their lipid composition, lipid synthesis and signalling. Lipid rafts, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and associated proteins, are special plasma membrane microdomains involved in several processes in viral infections. The extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to lipid rafts. Because cholesterol-rich microdomains appear to be a general feature of the entry mechanism of non-eneveloped viruses and of several coronaviruses, the purpose of this study was to analyse the contribution of lipids to the infectivity of canine coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV life cycle is closely connected to plasma membrane cholesterol, from cell entry to viral particle production. The methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) was employed to remove cholesterol and to disrupt the lipid rafts. Cholesterol depletion from the cell membrane resulted in a dose-dependent reduction, but not abolishment, of virus infectivity, and at a concentration of 15 mM, the reduction in the infection rate was about 68 %. MβCD treatment was used to verify if cholesterol in the envelope was required for CCoV infection. This resulted in a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, and at a concentration of 9 mM MβCD, infectivity was reduced by about 73 %. Since viral entry would constitute a target for antiviral strategies, inhibitory molecules interacting with viral and/or cell membranes, or interfering with lipid metabolism, may have strong antiviral potential. It will be interesting in the future to analyse the membrane microdomains in the CCoV envelope.

  12. Comparative properties of feline coronaviruses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeirnan, A J; Evermann, J F; Davis, E V; Ott, R L

    1987-04-01

    Two feline coronaviruses were characterized to determine their biological properties in vitro and their antigenic relatedness to a previously recognized feline infectious peritonitis virus and canine coronavirus. The viruses, designated WSU 79-1146 and WSU 79-1683, were shown to have comparable growth curves with the prototype feline infectious peritonitis virus. Treatment of the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains with 0.25% trypsin indicated that they were relatively resistant to proteolytic inactivation when compared with the feline enteric coronavirus strain. This observation may serve as a useful in vitro marker to distinguish closely related members of the feline coronavirus group. Plaque assay results indicated that the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains produced large homogeneous plaques in comparison to the feline enteric coronavirus strain and canine coronavirus, which showed a heterogenous plaque size distribution. No naturally temperature sensitive mutants were detected in either of the feline coronavirus populations. Both of the viruses were antigenically related to feline infectious peritonitis virus and to a lesser extent to canine coronavirus by virus neutralization.

  13. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV), Canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV)

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner; Felipe Geraldes Pappen; Jerônimo Lopes Ruas; Gilberto D'Ávila Vargas; Geferson Fischer; Telmo Vidor

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous) from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV) and Canine coronavirus (CCoV) was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13) of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5) of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8) of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males...

  14. Serological survey on canine coronavirus antibodies in giant pandas by virus neutralization test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOJun; XIAXian-zhu; YANGSong-tao; LIDe-sheng; HUGui-xue; GAOYu-wei; SUNHe-ting; ZHAOZhong-pen; XlEZhi-jing; YANFang; HEWen-qi; HUANGGen

    2004-01-01

    In order to survey the infectious situation of canine coronavirus (CCV) in giant panda population, a virus neutralization test detecting specific antibodies against CCV in giant panda's sera was established by using two-fold dilutions of serum and 100 TCID50 of the virus. The 62 sera samples of giant pandas, which were gathered from zoos and reserve region of Sichuan Province, China were detected. The neutralization antibody titer of 1:4 was recognized as the positive criterion, 8 sera samples were detected to be positive, and the positive rate was 12.9%. The titers of neutralizing antibody ranged from 1:8 to 1:32. It was the first comprehensive investigation on neutralization antibodies against CCV in giant panda population in China. The results of study showed that the infection of CCV in giant panda population was universal, which has posed a threat to the health of giant panda. Therefore, it is incumbent on us to study safe and effective vaccines to protect giant panda against CCV infection.

  15. Infection of cats with atypical feline coronaviruses harbouring a truncated form of the canine type I non-structural ORF3 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Poder, Sophie; Pham-Hung d'Alexandry d'Orangiani, Anne-Laure; Duarte, Lidia; Fournier, Annie; Horhogea, Cristina; Pinhas, Carine; Vabret, Astrid; Eloit, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV, respectively) are common pathogens of cats and dogs sometimes leading to lethal infections named feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and canine pantropic coronavirus infection. FCoV and CCoV are each subdivided into two serotypes, FCoV-I/II and CCoV-I/II. A phylogenetic relationship is evident between, on one hand, CCoV-I/FCoV-I, and on the other hand, CCoV-II/FCoV-II, suggesting that interspecies transmission can occur. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of coronavirus (CoV)-infected cats according to their contact with dogs and to genetically analyse the CoV strains infecting cats. From 2003 to 2009, we collected 88 faecal samples from healthy cats and 11 ascitic fluids from FIP cats. We investigated the possible contact with dog in the household and collected dogs samples if appropriate. Out of 99 cat samples, 26 were coronavirus positive, with six cats living with at least one dog, thus showing that contact with dogs does not appear as a predisposing factor for cats CoV infections. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of FCoV strains were conducted using partial N and S sequences. Six divergent strains were identified with the N gene clustering with CCoV-I whereas the 3' end of S was related to FCoV-I. Further analysis on those six samples was attempted by researching the presence of the ORF3 gene, the latter being peculiar to CCoV-I to date. We succeeded to amplify the ORF3 gene in five samples out of six. Thus, our data strongly suggest the circulation of atypical FCoV strains harbouring the CCoV-I ORF3 gene among cats. Moreover, the ORF3 genes recovered from the feline strains exhibited shared deletions, never described before, suggesting that these deletions could be critical in the adaptation of these strains to the feline host. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feline and canine coronaviruses are released from the basolateral side of polarized epithelial LLC-PK1 cells expressing the recombinant feline aminopeptidase-N cDNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Kouame, J; Goedheer, A J; Vennema, H; Rottier, P J

    2001-01-01

    In this study feline (FECV and FIPV) and canine (CCoV) coronavirus entry into and release from polarized porcine epithelial LLC-PK1 cells, stably expressing the recombinant feline aminopeptidase-N cDNA, were investigated. Virus entry appeared to occur preferentially through the apical membrane, simi

  17. Comparative properties of feline coronaviruses in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    McKeirnan, A J; Evermann, J F; Davis, E. V.; Ott, R L

    1987-01-01

    Two feline coronaviruses were characterized to determine their biological properties in vitro and their antigenic relatedness to a previously recognized feline infectious peritonitis virus and canine coronavirus. The viruses, designated WSU 79-1146 and WSU 79-1683, were shown to have comparable growth curves with the prototype feline infectious peritonitis virus. Treatment of the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains with 0.25% trypsin indicated that they were relatively resistant to pr...

  18. Epidemiology of canine parvovirus and coronavirus in dogs presented with severe diarrhoea to PDSA PetAid hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsall, S A; Clegg, S R; Stavisky, J H; Radford, A D; Pinchbeck, G

    2010-08-07

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine enteric coronavirus (CECoV) are often cited as causes of diarrhoea in dogs. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of CPV and CECoV in dogs presenting with severe diarrhoea to PDSA PetAid hospitals throughout the UK. A total of 355 samples were collected from the PDSA between 2006 and 2008. All samples were tested for CPV using a long range PCR and for CECoV using RT-PCR. The prevalence of CPV was 58 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 52 to 63 per cent), with some evidence for regional variation. The prevalence of CECoV was 7.9 per cent (95 per cent CI 5.1 to 10.7 per cent). Analysis showed that animals with no history of vaccination were more likely to be CPV positive, with greatest effect in younger animals. CPV-positive animals were more likely to present with depression/lethargy than CPV-negative cases. The volume of diarrhoea and the presence of haemorrhage did not appear to be associated with the likelihood of detecting CPV. This study shows that CPV is a common finding in dogs presenting to PDSA hospitals with severe diarrhoea, and that CECoV is a less common but still potentially important pathogen. It also confirms that young and unvaccinated animals appear to be more at risk of presenting with CPV.

  19. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, P; Moving, V; Svansson, V

    1992-01-01

    Antibodies to a transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)-related coronavirus have been demonstrated in mink sera by indirect immunofluorescence, peroxidase-linked antibody assays and immunoblotting. This is the first serological evidence of a specific coronavirus infection in mink. The putative......-reacted with N and M polypeptides of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Thus MCV may occupy an intermediate position between the TGEV group of coronaviruses and PEDV. The possibility that MCV may be associated with syndromes of acute enteritis in preweaning mink is discussed....

  20. Canine coronavirus (CCoV) in dogs vaccinated and unvaccinated domiciliated in Pelotas, RS, Brazil
    Coronavirus canino (CCoV) em cães vacinados e não vacinados domiciliados em Pelotas, RS

    OpenAIRE

    Geferson Fischer; Gilberto D'Avila Vargas; Cristina Freitas Nunes; Paula Fonseca Finger; Juciane Maria Johann; Clarissa Caetano de Castro; Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2010-01-01

    Canine coronavirus (CCoV) has been reported causing enteric disease mainly in young pups. In this study, to investigate immunity and exposure to CCoV, was estimated the frequency of serum antibodies to CCoV in 121 dogs in the Pelotas, South of Brazil, by serum neutralization test (SN): 22 had not been vaccinated, 69 had been vaccinated at least once, and 30 had unknown vaccination history. Antibodies were present in 47,8% (33/69) of the vaccinated dogs, in 45,5% (10/22) of the unvaccinated, a...

  1. Involvement of FOXO transcription factors, TRAIL-FasL/Fas, and sirtuin proteins family in canine coronavirus type II-induced apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Marfè

    Full Text Available n our previous study, we have shown that canine coronavirus type II (CCoV-II activates both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathway in a canine fibrosarcoma cell line (A-72 cells. Herein we investigated the role of Sirtuin and Forkhead box O (FOXO families in this experimental model using Nortern Blot and Western Blot analysis. Our results demonstrated that mitochondrial SIRT3 and SIRT4 protein expression increased from 12 and 24 h post infection (p.i. onwards, respectively, whereas the nuclear SIRT1 expression increased during the first 12 h p.i. followed by a decrease after 36 h p.i., reaching the same level of control at 48 h p.i. Sirtuins interact with/and regulate the activity of FOXO family proteins, and we herein observed that FOXO3A and FOXO1 expression increased significantly and stably from 12 h p.i. onwards. In addition, CCoV-II induces a remarkable increase in the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, while we observed a slight up-regulation of FasL/Fas at 36 p.i. with a decrease of both proteins at the end of infection. Furthermore, we found that virus infection increased both bax translocation into mitochondria and decreased bcl-2 expression in cytosol in a time-dependent manner.These data suggest that FOXO transcription factors mediate pro-apoptotic effects of CCoV-II, in part due to activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathway, while some Sirtuin family members (such as SIRT3 and SIRT4 may be involved in intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these results propose that TRAIL is an important mediator of cell death induced by CCoV-II during in vitro infection.

  2. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in dogs of an MF59™-adjuvanted vaccine against recombinant canine/porcine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Mari, Viviana; Sciarretta, Rossana; Colao, Valeriana; Losurdo, Michele; Catella, Cristiana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-03-03

    Recently, canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains with putative recombinant origin with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were shown to be widespread in Europe. In this study, a killed vaccine against TGEV-like CCoV strains, included in the new subtype CCoV-IIb, was developed through inactivation with betapropiolactone and emulsification with MF59™ adjuvant. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the developed vaccine were evaluated in vivo. Five 10-week-old beagle pups were administered (three weeks apart) two vaccine doses, whereas two animals served as unvaccinated controls. The vaccine was shown to be safe as no local neither systemic reactions were observed after first and second dose administration. Serum antibodies against CCoV were detected in vaccinates starting from study day 14 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) or 28 (by virus neutralisation test). Subsequent challenge with virulent CCoV-IIb resulted in the development of mild gastroenteric disease in control pups, whereas vaccinates did not display clinical signs. Faecal shedding of the challenge virus occurred in both treatment groups, but vaccinated dogs were found to shed very low viral titres in comparison to controls. The developed vaccine may help control the CCoV-IIb-induced disease (and active virus circulation) in environments, such as kennels and shelters, where the pathogenic potential of this virus is greater as a consequence of predisposing factors and concurrent infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure of pampas fox (Pseudalopex gymnocercus and crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous from the Southern region of Brazil to Canine distemper virus (CDV, Canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Oliveira Hübner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The exposure of 13 Brazilian free-ranging nondomestic canids (five pampas fox - Pseudalopex gymnocercus and eight crab-eating fox -Cerdocyon thous from Southern region of Brazil, to Canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus (CPV and Canine coronavirus (CCoV was investigated. Antibodies against CDV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples. There were anti-CDV antibodies in 60% (3/5 of P. gymnocercus and in 25% (2/8 of C. thous. The frequency was higher among the adults and males. Eleven canids (84.6% presented antibodies against CPV, 80% (4/5 were from P. gymnocercus and 87.5% (7/8 were from C. thous. There was no difference in positivity rate against CPV between gender and age. Antibodies against CCoV were detected in 38.5% (5/13 of the samples, with 60% (3/5 of positivity in P. gymnocercus and 25% (2/8 in C. thous. The frequency of antibodies against CCoV was higher among the adults and males. The study showed that these canids were exposed to CDV, CPV and CCoV.Foi investigada a ocorrência de exposição em 13 canídeos não domésticos de vida livre (cinco graxains-do-campo - Pseudalopex gymnocercus e oito graxains-do-mato - Cerdocyon thous da região sul do Brasil ao vírus da cinomose canina (CDV, parvovírus canino (CPV e coronavírus canino (CCoV. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras. Haviam anticorpos anti-CDV em 60% (3/5 dos P. gymnocercus e em 25% (2/8 dos C. thous. A freqüência foi maior entre machos e adultos. Para CPV, 11 canídeos (84,6% apresentaram anticorpos, 80% (4/5 eram da espécie P. gymnocercus e 87,5% (7/8 eram C. thous. Não houve diferença de positividade para o CPV entre sexos e idades. Anticorpos contra o CCoV foram detectados em 38,5% (5/13 das amostras, sendo 60% (3/5 de positividade entre os P. gymnocercus e 25% (2/8 entre os C. thous. A freqüência de anticorpos para CCoV foi maior entre os machos e adultos. O estudo revelou que estes canídeos foram expostos ao CDV, CPV

  4. Characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type I protein identified in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Orengiani, Anne-Laure Pham-Hung d'Alexandry; Duarte, Lidia; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie

    2015-04-16

    ORF3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype I canine strain (CCoV-I) and some atypical feline FCoV strains. In these latter hosts, the ORF3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-Δ1 and gp3-Δ2. As deletions in CoV accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in canine and feline cell. All proteins oligomerise through covalent bonds, are N-glycosylated and are maintained in the ER in non-infected but also in CCoV-II infected cells, without any specific retention signal. However, deletions influence their level of expression. In canine cells, all proteins are expressed with similar level whereas in feline cells, the expression of gp3-Δ1 is higher than the two other forms of gp3. None of the gp3 proteins modulate the viral replication cycle of heterologous genotype II CCoV in canine cell line, leading to the conclusion that the gp3 proteins are probably advantageous only for CCoV-I and atypical FCoV strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-Circulation of Canine Coronavirus I and IIa/b with High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Wang

    Full Text Available To trace the evolution of canine coronavirus (CCoV, 201 stool samples from diarrheic dogs in northeast China were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs targeting the partial M and S genes of CCoV, followed by an epidemiological analysis. M gene RT-PCRs showed that 28.36% (57/201 of the samples were positive for CCoV; of the 57 positive samples, CCoV-I and CCoV-II accounted for 15.79% (9/57 and 84.21% (48/57, respectively. A sequence comparison of the partial M gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 88.4%-100% among the 57 CCoV strains, and 88.7%-96.2% identity between the 57 CCoV strains and the Chinese reference strain HF3. The CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains exhibited genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. The 57 CCoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with canine kobuvirus (CaKV (33.33% and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2 (31.58%. The CCoV prevalence in diarrheic dogs differed significantly with immunization status, regions, seasons, and ages. Moreover, 28 S genes were amplified from the 57 CCoV-positive samples, including 26 CCoV-IIa strains, one CCoV-IIb strain, and one CCoV-I strain. A sequence comparison of the partial S gene revealed 86.3%-100% nucleotide identity among the 26 CCoV-IIa strains, and 89.6%-92.2% identity between the 26 CCoV-IIa strains and the Chinese reference strain V1. The 26 CCoV-IIa strains showed genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. Our data provide evidence that CCoV-I, CCoV-IIa, and CCoV-IIb strains co-circulate in the diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China, high co-infection rates with CaKV and CPV-2 were observed, and the CCoV-II strains exhibited high prevalence and genetic diversity.

  6. Effects of air temperature and relative humidity on coronavirus survival on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Jeon, Soyoung; Rutala, William A; Weber, David J; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4 degrees C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20 degrees C than at 4 degrees C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days, and the slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40 degrees C than at 20 degrees C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces.

  7. Effects of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity on Coronavirus Survival on Surfaces▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Jeon, Soyoung; Rutala, William A.; Weber, David J.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the risks posed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) on surfaces requires data on survival of this virus on environmental surfaces and on how survival is affected by environmental variables, such as air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH). The use of surrogate viruses has the potential to overcome the challenges of working with SARS-CoV and to increase the available data on coronavirus survival on surfaces. Two potential surrogates were evaluated in this study; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) were used to determine effects of AT and RH on the survival of coronaviruses on stainless steel. At 4°C, infectious virus persisted for as long as 28 days, and the lowest level of inactivation occurred at 20% RH. Inactivation was more rapid at 20°C than at 4°C at all humidity levels; the viruses persisted for 5 to 28 days, and the slowest inactivation occurred at low RH. Both viruses were inactivated more rapidly at 40°C than at 20°C. The relationship between inactivation and RH was not monotonic, and there was greater survival or a greater protective effect at low RH (20%) and high RH (80%) than at moderate RH (50%). There was also evidence of an interaction between AT and RH. The results show that when high numbers of viruses are deposited, TGEV and MHV may survive for days on surfaces at ATs and RHs typical of indoor environments. TGEV and MHV could serve as conservative surrogates for modeling exposure, the risk of transmission, and control measures for pathogenic enveloped viruses, such as SARS-CoV and influenza virus, on health care surfaces. PMID:20228108

  8. Canine coronavirus (CCoV in dogs vaccinated and unvaccinated domiciliated in Pelotas, RS, Brazil Coronavirus canino (CCoV em cães vacinados e não vacinados domiciliados em Pelotas, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine coronavirus (CCoV has been reported causing enteric disease mainly in young pups. In this study, to investigate immunity and exposure to CCoV, was estimated the frequency of serum antibodies to CCoV in 121 dogs in the Pelotas, South of Brazil, by serum neutralization test (SN: 22 had not been vaccinated, 69 had been vaccinated at least once, and 30 had unknown vaccination history. Antibodies were present in 47,8% (33/69 of the vaccinated dogs, in 45,5% (10/22 of the unvaccinated, and in 43,3% (13/30 of the dogs with unknown historical vaccination. There was no significant relationship between these antibodies and sex, age, habitat, and season of collection. The results proved the circulation of the CCoV among this dog population and indicated that the infection affects a significant group of animals. The large proportion of seronegative vaccinated dogs indicates failure of CCoV vaccine in inducing neutralizing antibodies, suggesting that immunizations to CCoV should be reevaluated. The authors indicate the need for further studies in order to evaluate the impact of the infection caused by CCoV, as well as to propose and evaluate preventive measures. Coronavírus canino (CCoV foi relatado como causa de doença entérica principalmente em cães jovens. Nesse estudo, para investigar imunidade e exposição ao CCoV, foi estimado a frequência de anticorpos em 121 cães de Pelotas, sul do Brasil, pelo teste de soro-neutralização (SN: 22 não haviam sido vacinados, 69 haviam sido vacinados com pelo menos uma dose, e 30 possuíam histórico de vacinação desconhecido. Foram detectados anticorpos em 47,8% (33/69 dos cães vacinados, em 45,5% (10/22 dos não vacinados, e em 43,3% (13/30 dos cães com histórico de vacinação desconhecido. Não houve associação significativa entre os anticorpos e sexo, idade, habitação e estação da coleta. Os resultados confirmam a circulação do CCoV entre essa população de cães e indicam que a infec

  9. Use of heliox delivered via high-flow nasal cannula to treat an infant with coronavirus-related respiratory infection and severe acute air-flow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherwin E; Vukin, Kirissa; Mosakowski, Steve; Solano, Patti; Stanton, Lolita; Lester, Lucille; Lavani, Romeen; Hall, Jesse B; Tung, Avery

    2014-11-01

    Heliox, a helium-oxygen gas mixture, has been used for many decades to treat obstructive pulmonary disease. The lower density and higher viscosity of heliox relative to nitrogen-oxygen mixtures can significantly reduce airway resistance when an anatomic upper air-flow obstruction is present and gas flow is turbulent. Clinically, heliox can decrease airway resistance in acute asthma in adults and children and in COPD. Heliox may also enhance the bronchodilating effects of β-agonist administration for acute asthma. Respiratory syndromes caused by coronavirus infections in humans range in severity from the common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome associated with human coronavirus OC43 and other viral strains. In infants, coronavirus infection can cause bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia in variable combinations and can produce enough air-flow obstruction to cause respiratory failure. We describe a case of coronavirus OC43 infection in an infant with severe acute respiratory distress treated with heliox inhalation to avoid intubation.

  10. Identification of Aminopeptidase N as a Cellular Receptor for Human Coronavirus-229E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-12

    feline enteric coronav irus feline infectious peritonitis virus hUman adult intestine hUman aminopeptidase N human aminopeptidase with 39 amino...coronavirus (TCV), rat coronavirus (RCV), cat feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), and the hUman coronaviruses. These include the slow, patchy...While the cat, dog and pig serve as natural hosts for the other coronavirus group 1 viruses, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), canine

  11. Reverse genetics of SARS-related coronavirus using vaccinia virus-based recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd H E van den Worm

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV. Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs. In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs.

  12. Reverse Genetics of SARS-Related Coronavirus Using Vaccinia Virus-Based Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenhoven, Jessika C.; Weber, Friedemann; Züst, Roland; Kuri, Thomas; Dijkman, Ronald; Chang, Guohui; Siddell, Stuart G.; Snijder, Eric J.; Thiel, Volker; Davidson, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) that emerged in 2002 to become a global health concern. Although the original outbreak was controlled by classical public health measures, there is a real risk that another SARS-CoV could re-emerge from its natural reservoir, either in its original form or as a more virulent or pathogenic strain; in which case, the virus would be difficult to control in the absence of any effective antiviral drugs or vaccines. Using the well-studied SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849, we developed a vaccinia virus-based SARS-CoV reverse genetic system that is both robust and biosafe. The SARS-CoV genome was cloned in separate vaccinia virus vectors, (vSARS-CoV-5prime and vSARS-CoV-3prime) as two cDNAs that were subsequently ligated to create a genome-length SARS-CoV cDNA template for in vitro transcription of SARS-CoV infectious RNA transcripts. Transfection of the RNA transcripts into permissive cells led to the recovery of infectious virus (recSARS-CoV). Characterization of the plaques produced by recSARS-CoV showed that they were similar in size to the parental SARS-CoV isolate HKU-39849 but smaller than the SARS-CoV isolate Frankfurt-1. Comparative analysis of replication kinetics showed that the kinetics of recSARS-CoV replication are similar to those of SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1, although the titers of virus released into the culture supernatant are approximately 10-fold less. The reverse genetic system was finally used to generate a recSARS-CoV reporter virus expressing Renilla luciferase in order to facilitate the analysis of SARS-CoV gene expression in human dendritic cells (hDCs). In parallel, a Renilla luciferase gene was also inserted into the genome of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Using this approach, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV is not able to mediate efficient heterologous gene expression in hDCs. PMID:22412934

  13. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K H; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S M; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C; Lam, Carol S F; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S Y; Chan, Jasper F W; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-01

    Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS-CoV ORF8

  14. Dental anomalies in first-degree relatives of transposed canine probands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana Bartolo; Neville Calleja; Fraser McDonald; Simon Camilleri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development.

  15. Dental anomalies in first-degree relatives of transposed canine probands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Adriana; Calleja, Neville; McDonald, Fraser; Camilleri, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the inheritance pattern and prevalence of inheritable dental anomalies in a sample of patients with maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and their first-degree relatives with a sample of palatally displaced canine families. Thirty-five consecutive maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands and 111 first-degree relatives were matched to 35 consecutive palatally displaced canine probands and 115 first-degree relatives. These were assessed for palatally displaced canines and incisor-premolar hypodontia. Parental age at birth of the proband was also noted. The results revealed that (i) there is no difference in the overall prevalence of palatally displaced canine or incisor-premolar hypodontia between the groups of relatives; (ii) first-degree relatives of bilateral palatally displaced canine probands have a higher prevalence of palatally displaced canine and incisor-premolar hypodontia than those with unilateral palatally displaced canine; and (iii) maternal age at birth of the maxillary canine—first premolar transposition probands was significantly higher than that of the palatally displaced canine probands. The results suggest that maxillary canine—first premolar transposition and palatally displaced canine are unlikely to be different genetic entities and also indicate environmental or epigenetic influences on dental development. PMID:25634123

  16. Genomic prediction of traits related to canine hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eSanchez-Molano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased concern for the welfare of pedigree dogs has led to development of selection programs against inherited diseases. An example is canine hip dysplasia (CHD, which has a moderate heritability and a high prevalence in some large-sized breeds. To date, selection using phenotypes has led to only modest improvement, and alternative strategies such as genomic selection may prove more effective. The primary aims of this study were to compare the performance of pedigree- and genomic-based breeding against CHD in the UK Labrador retriever population and to evaluate the performance of different genomic selection methods. A sample of 1179 Labrador Retrievers evaluated for CHD according to the UK scoring method (hip score, HS was genotyped with the Illumina CanineHD BeadChip. Twelve functions of HS and its component traits were analyzed using different statistical methods (GBLUP, Bayes C and Single-Step methods, and results were compared with a pedigree-based approach (BLUP using cross-validation. Genomic methods resulted in similar or higher accuracies than pedigree-based methods with training sets of 944 individuals for all but the untransformed HS, suggesting that genomic selection is an effective strategy. GBLUP and Bayes C gave similar prediction accuracies for HS and related traits, indicating a polygenic architecture. This conclusion was also supported by the low accuracies obtained in additional GBLUP analyses performed using only the SNPs with highest test statistics, also indicating that marker-assisted selection would not be as effective as genomic selection. A Single-Step method that combines genomic and pedigree information also showed higher accuracy than GBLUP and Bayes C for the log-transformed HS, which is currently used for pedigree based evaluations in UK. In conclusion, genomic selection is a promising alternative to pedigree-based selection against CHD, requiring more phenotypes with genomic data to improve further the accuracy

  17. Breed- and age-related differences in canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Ha-Young; Shin, Jong-Il; Seung, Byung-Joon; Ju, Jung-Hyung; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2016-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2). It is an important and clinically relevant condition as it has a poor prognosis and is difficult to treat. Basal-like triple-negative cancer is highly prevalent in both African-Americans and adolescents. We therefore examined whether such a cancer likewise occurs in specific breeds and age groups in dogs, focusing on basal-like triple-negative cancer in particular. In this study, 181 samples from dogs with malignant mammary carcinoma from the 5 most common breeds and 2 age groups in Korea were analyzed. Histological classification and molecular subtyping, including assessment of immunohistochemical findings, were carried out. Twenty-five of 28 (89.3%) triple-negative carcinomas were identified as basal-like triple-negative carcinomas. Analysis of associations of classified factors revealed that the shih tzu breed (9/25, 36.0%) and advanced-age (19/25, 76.0%) groups were characterized by higher prevalence of basal-like triple-negative tumors with diverse histological types and of a higher grade. These results suggest that breed- and age-related differences can be identified in canine mammary carcinoma and, notably, in the shih tzu breed and at older ages. Further investigation of these distinguishing characteristics of the shih tzu breed is warranted.

  18. Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensman, H.; Goransson, H.; Leuchowius, K.J.; Stromberg, S.; Ponten, F.; Isaksson, A.; Rutteman, G.R.; Heldin, N.; Pejler, G.; Hellmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas Journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment Publisher Springer Netherlands ISSN 0167-6806 (Print) 1573-7217 (Online) Issue Volume 118, Number 2 / November, 2009 Category Preclinical Study DOI 10.1007/s10549-008-0

  19. Canine pyometra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melanie HAAS; Franz-Josef KAUP; Stephan NEUMANN

    2016-01-01

    .... Thus, we used naturally occurring canine pyometra as a model of inflammation, in order to examine the behavior of serum CXCL8 in relation to the disease intensity and commonly analyzed inflammatory mediators...

  20. Soroprevalência das infecções por parvovírus, adenovírus, coronavírus canino e pelo vírus da cinomose em cães de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Seroprevalence of parvovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and canine distemper virus infections in dogs of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dezengrini

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As infecções pelo vírus da cinomose (CDV, por parvovírus (CPV, adenovírus (CAV e coronavírus (CCoV são importantes causas de morbidade e de mortalidade em cães de todo o mundo, porém pouco se sabe sobre a sua incidência e prevalência no Brasil. Para determinar-se a prevalência dessas infecções na população canina de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 817 cães não-vacinados de 14 bairros do município e testadas para a presença de anticorpos específicos. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 27,3% (223/817 das amostras, contra o CPV em 68,7% (561/817, contra o CAV em 43% (353/817 e contra o CCoV em 50,4% (412/817 dos cães. Observou-se um aumento gradativo da prevalência de anticorpos de acordo com a idade para o CDV, o CAV e o CCoV. Os índices de positividade para o CPV, o CAV e o CCoV foram um pouco superiores entre machos, e semelhantes entre os sexos para o CDV. Os animais que convivem com outros cães em casa ou na rua apresentaram prevalência maior de anticorpos para o CDV e o CCoV do que cães sem contato ou convívio, enquanto que, para o CPV e o CAV, não houve diferença. Esses resultados demonstram que esses vírus estão difundidos na população canina dos bairros da cidade. Por outro lado, demonstram também que uma parte considerável da população é soronegativa e, portanto, está desprotegida frente a esses agentes, indicando a necessidade de se ampliar a cobertura vacinal.Canine distemper virus (CDV, parvovirus (CPV, adenovirus (CAV and coronavirus (CCoV infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality among dogs worldwide yet very little is known about these infections in Brazil. As to determine the prevalence of these infections in the canine population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, 817 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated dogs of 14 neighborhoods and tested for specific antibodies. Antibodies to CDV were detected in 27.3% (223/817 of

  1. Two Canine Papillomaviruses Associated With Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Two Related Basenji Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, J; Rowland, P; Mader, M; Orr, C; Yuan, H

    2016-11-01

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are associated with benign mucosal and cutaneous epithelial proliferations. In dogs, PV-associated pigmented plaques and papillomas can undergo malignant transformation, but this is rare, and most cases of canine squamous cell carcinoma do not arise from PV-induced precursor lesions. We describe herein the progression of pigmented plaques to invasive and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma associated with 2 canine papillomaviruses (CPV) in 2 related Basenji dogs. Immunohistochemistry for PV antigen revealed strong nuclear immunoreactivity within keratinocytes from pigmented plaques from both dogs, consistent with a productive viral infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the L1 gene revealed PV DNA sequences from 2 different CPVs. In situ hybridization for CPV revealed strong hybridization signals within the pigmented plaques and neoplastic squamous epithelial cells from both dogs. We report here progression of PV-associated pigmented plaques to metastatic squamous cell carcinoma within 2 Basenji dogs associated with 2 different CPVs.

  2. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  3. MERS: Emergence of a novel human coronavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.S. Raj (Stalin); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA novel coronavirus (CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans, emerged in the Middle East region in 2012. This virus, named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, is phylogenetically related to bat CoVs, but other animal species like dromedary camels ma

  4. Coronavirus antibodies in African bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Paweska, Janusz T; Leman, Patricia A; Drosten, Christian; Grywna, Klaus; Kemp, Alan; Braack, Leo; Sonnenberg, Karen; Niedrig, Matthias; Swanepoel, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.

  5. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for the serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. Groen (Jan); H.F. Egberink (Herman); G.H.A. Borst (Gerrit); F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractComplex trapping blocking (CTB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and indirect ELISAs for the detection of antibodies to canine parvovirus (CPV), canine coronavirus (CCV) and rotavirus in sera of dogs were established. Double antibody sandwich ELISAs for the detection of CPV-,

  6. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C

    2016-03-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  7. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C.; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H.; Groutas, William C.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  8. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjeong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV. The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for

  9. SARS and MERS: recent insights into emerging coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Emmie; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Falzarano, Darryl; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-08-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population in the twenty-first century. The continuing introductions of MERS-CoV from dromedary camels, the subsequent travel-related viral spread, the unprecedented nosocomial outbreaks and the high case-fatality rates highlight the need for prophylactic and therapeutic measures. Scientific advancements since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) pandemic allowed for rapid progress in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV and the development of therapeutics. In this Review, we detail our present understanding of the transmission and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and discuss the current state of development of measures to combat emerging coronaviruses.

  10. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru.

  11. Coronavirus spike-receptor interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, H.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses cause important diseases in humans and animals. Coronavirus infection starts with the virus binding with its spike proteins to molecules present on the surface of host cells that act as receptors. This spike-receptor interaction is highly specific and determines the virus’ cell, tissue

  12. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Li, Fang (Cornell); (UMM-MED); (Colorado)

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.

  13. Severe acute respiratory syndrome vaccine development: experiences of vaccination against avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2003-12-01

    Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response

  14. From SARS coronavirus to novel animal and human coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Hung, Ivan F N; Chan, Jasper F W; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused one of the most devastating epidemics known to the developed world. There were two important lessons from this epidemic. Firstly, coronaviruses, in addition to influenza viruses, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. Secondly, bats can serve as the origin and natural animal reservoir of deadly human viruses. Since then, researchers around the world, especially those in Asia where SARS-CoV was first identified, have turned their focus to find novel coronaviruses infecting humans, bats, and other animals. Two human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63, were identified shortly after the SARS-CoV epidemic as common causes of human respiratory tract infections. In 2012, a novel human coronavirus, now called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in the Middle East to cause fatal human infections in three continents. MERS-CoV human infection is similar to SARS-CoV in having a high fatality rate and the ability to spread from person to person which resulted in secondary cases among close contacts including healthcare workers without travel history to the Middle East. Both viruses also have close relationships with bat coronaviruses. New cases of MERS-CoV infection in humans continue to occur with the origins of the virus still unknown in many cases. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control this evolving MERS-CoV outbreak. Source identification requires detailed epidemiological studies of the infected patients and enhanced surveillance of MERS-CoV or similar coronaviruses in humans and animals. Early diagnosis of infected patients and appropriate infection control measures will limit the spread in hospitals, while social distancing strategies may be necessary to control the outbreak in communities if it remained uncontrolled as in the SARS epidemic.

  15. Coronavirus avian infectious bronchitis virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2007-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the coronavirus of the chicken (Gallus gallus), is one of the foremost causes of economic loss within the poultry industry, affecting the performance of both meat-type and egg-laying birds...

  16. Coronavirus Attachment and Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-28

    synthesis during RNA replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 49:303-309. Pedersen, N.C. 1976a. Feline infectious peritonitis: Something old...receptors on intestinal brush border membranes from normal host species were developed for canine (CCV), feline (FIPV), porcine (TGEV), human (HCV...gastroenteritis receptor on pig BBMs ...... ................. ... 114 Feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor on cat BBMs ... .............. 117 Human

  17. Molecular phylogeny of coronaviruses including human SARS-CoV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Phylogenetic tree of coronaviruses (CoVs) including the human SARS-associated virus is reconstructed from complete genomes by using our newly developed K- string composition approach. The relation of the human SARS-CoV to other coronaviruses, i.e. the rooting of the tree is suggested by choosing an appropriate outgroup. SARS-CoV makes a separate group closer but still distant from G2 (CoVs in mammalian host). The relation between different isolates of the human SARS virus is inferred by first constructing an ultrametric distance matrix from counting sequence variations in the genomes. The resulting tree is consistent with clinic relations between the SARS-CoV isolates. In addition to a larger variety of coronavirus genomes these results provide phylogenetic knowledge based on independent novel methodology as compared to recent phylogenetic studies on SARS-CoV.

  18. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R.; Simmons, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess, whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  19. Canine Parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a way to limit spread of canine parvovirus infection as well as other diseases that can ... Although this brochure provides basic information about canine parvovirus, your veterinarian is always your best source of ...

  20. Involvement of Autophagy in Coronavirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Britton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are single stranded, positive sense RNA viruses, which induce the rearrangement of cellular membranes upon infection of a host cell. This provides the virus with a platform for the assembly of viral replication complexes, improving efficiency of RNA synthesis. The membranes observed in coronavirus infected cells include double membrane vesicles. By nature of their double membrane, these vesicles resemble cellular autophagosomes, generated during the cellular autophagy pathway. In addition, coronavirus infection has been demonstrated to induce autophagy. Here we review current knowledge of coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements and the involvement of autophagy or autophagy protein microtubule associated protein 1B light chain 3 (LC3 in coronavirus replication.

  1. Impact of canine overweight and obesity on health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, P S; Butowski, C F; Chitty, J L; Naughton, G; Wiseman-Orr, M L; Parkin, T; Reid, J

    2016-05-01

    Canine obesity is increasing in prevalence in the UK and raises concerns about dog welfare. This study compares the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of dogs of varying body condition: overweight and obese (BCS 4 and 5) versus non-overweight dogs (BCS 2 and 3), obese (BCS 5) versus non-overweight (BCS 2 and 3) and an overall comparison between all four BCS (BCS 2, 3, 4 and 5) using a novel, validated HRQL instrument which is both web and mobile tablet/phone app based. Of 271 dog owners who were approached, 174 completed a web-based instrument (2013) or a mobile tablet app instrument (2014) during the summers of 2013 and 2014. Automatically generated scores in four domains of HRQL (energetic/enthusiastic, happy/content, active/comfortable, calm/relaxed) were compared for dogs with each of the body condition scores (BCS 2-5). For all body condition scores a statistically significant difference was found between the HRQL scores in two of the domains: energetic/enthusiastic (p=0.02) and active comfortable (p=0.004). When BCS 2 and 3 were compared to BCS 4 and 5, statistical significance was found in the same two domains - energetic/enthusiastic (p=0.01) and active comfortable (p=0.001) - as it was in comparison of non-overweight (BCS 2 and 3) compared to obese dogs (BCS 5): energetic/enthusiastic (p=0.012) and active comfortable (p=0.004). These results suggest that overweight and obese dogs have a reduced HRQL in two of the domains compared to non-overweight dogs, and that differences in HRQL are detectable between BCS scores 2, 3, 4 and 5.

  2. Coronaviruses in polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Bekker, C P; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; Van der Ende, A; Strous, G J; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Coronaviruses have a marked tropism for epithelial cells. In this paper the interactions of the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) with epithelial cells are compared. Porcine (LLC-PK1) and murine (mTAL) epithelial cells were grown on permeable supp

  3. Extensive expression of craniofacial related homeobox genes in canine mammary sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Wensman, Helena; Göransson, Hanna; Leuchowius, Karl-Johan; Strömberg, Sara; Pontén, Fredrik; Isaksson, Anders; Rutteman, Gerard Roel; Heldin, Nils-Erik; Pejler, Gunnar; Hellmén, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The global gene expression in three types of canine mammary tumors: carcinoma, fibrosarcoma and osteosarcoma were investigated by Affymetrix gene array technology. Unsupervised clustering analysis revealed a close clustering of the respective tumor types, with fibrosarcomas clustering close to the osteosarcomas and the carcinomas clustering closer to non-malignant mammary tissues (NMTs). A number of epithelial markers were expressed in both carcinomas and NMTs, whereas the...

  4. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Heli S; Nayak, J B; Patel, B M; Bhadesiya, C M

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara) of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents) were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1). Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**), mass-media exposure (r=0.205*) and management orientation (r=0.264**) had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic disease-awareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures.

  5. Xenodiagnosis on dogs with visceral leishmaniasis: Canine and sand fly aspects related to the parasite transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Junior, Jairo Torres; Mota, Tiago Feitosa; Porfirio-Passos, Gabriela; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria

    2016-06-15

    One of the main limitations for the effective control of canine leishmaniasis in endemic areas is the difficulty in identifying infectious dogs. The objective of this study was to determine factors, related to dogs and to parasite detection in sand flies, which are associated with the positive xenodiagnosis of Leishmania infantum using the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. The xenodiagnosis was performed in 50 owned dogs residing in endemic areas, which were divided into three different groups: G1-26 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of VL clinical signs on physical examination; G2-15 dogs proved to be infected and classified by severity of clinical signs and intensity of laboratory abnormalities; G3-nine dogs that were seropositive for anti-Leishmania IgG in ELISA tests. Parasite search in the sand flies after having fed on dogs in the xenodiagnosis was performed by both methodologies, PCR and dissection followed by microscopy. In G1, 58% (15/26) of dogs were able to transmit Leishmania to the vector, when parasite detection in sand flies were performed by PCR technique, 5 days after blood meal, whereas in G2, 53% (8/15) transmitted the parasite to the vector, however, confirmation was performed by direct observation of parasite through optical miscroscopy held 10 days after blood meal. Rate of infectiousness of dogs to sand flies was positively associated to severity of disease (p=0.042 and p=0.040), regardless the method used for clinical classification or for parasite detection in sand flies after xenodiagnosis. In G1 30% (3/10) of dogs with subclinical infection were infectious to the vector, while 80% (12/16) of dogs with clinical disease were also infectious. Even more, 17% (1/6) of dogs that had moderate disease were infectious to the sand flies, while 78% (7/9) of dogs with severe disease were infectious in G2. Still in G2, the proportion of sand flies infected (grade of infectiousness) was significantly lower (p=0.0098) when they fed on

  6. Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Breborowicz, Anna; Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, Alicja; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2013-09-01

    Coronaviruses have been demonstrated to contribute substantially to respiratory tract infections among the child population. Though infected children commonly present mild upper airway symptoms, in high-risk patients with underlying conditions, particularly in immunocompromised children these pathogens may lead to severe lung infection and extrapulmonary disorders. In this paper, we provide the first report of the case of a 15-month-old child with severe combined immunodeficiency and coronavirus HKU1-related pneumonia with fatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  7. Prevalence of Canine Obesity, Obesity-Related Metabolic Dysfunction, and Relationship with Owner Obesity in an Obesogenic Region of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Tvarijonaviciute

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of canine obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunction (ORMD in the obesogenic area in Spain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among owners of obese pets was also evaluated. In the sample population studied (93 client-owned dogs, 40.9% of dogs presented obesity (body condition score 7–9/9, 40.9% of dogs presented hypertension, 20.4% of dogs presented fasting hypertriglyceridemia, 20.4% fasting hypercholesterolemia, and 5.4% of dogs presented fasting hyperglycemia. The overall prevalence of ORMD was of 22.6%. Seventy-eight percent of overweight/obese owners had overweight/obese dogs (P < 0.001 including all dogs diagnosed with ORMD. In conclusion, in the studied obesogenic region of Spain, the prevalence of canine obesity and ORMD was shown to be elevated and related to the presence of overweight/obesity in owners. All dogs with ORMD were owned by overweight/obese persons. These results provide new inputs for future studies highlighting the relationship between owner and pet obesity and indicating the need of further efforts to control and reduce obesity prevalence in both.

  8. Zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in relation to knowledge level of dog owners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli S. Raval

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to understand the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis with special reference to the knowledge level of dog owners in urban areas of Gujarat. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in randomly selected 120 dog owners of 3 urban cities (viz., Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara of Gujarat state, India. Dog owners (i.e., respondents were subjected to a detailed interview regarding the zoonotic importance of canine scabies and dermatophytosis in dogs. Ex-post-facto research design was selected because of the independent variables of the selected respondent population for the study. The crucial method used in collecting data was a field survey to generate null hypothesis (Ho1. Available data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The three independent variables, viz., extension contact (r=0.522**, mass-media exposure (r=0.205* and management orientation (r=0.264** had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Other independent variables, viz., education, experience in dog keeping and housing space were observed to have negative and non-significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners about zoonotic diseases. Conclusion: Extension contact, exposure to extension mass-media, management orientation and innovation proneness among dog owners of 3 urban cities of Gujarat state had significant relationship with knowledge of dog owners on zoonotic aspects of canine scabies and dermatophytosis. Data provided new insights on the present status of zoonotic diseaseawareness, which would be an aid to plan preventive measures.

  9. Canine gestation length: variation related to time of mating and fertile life of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, P; Whaley, S; Lein, D; Wissler, R

    1983-10-01

    Variation in canine gestation length was studied in a Beagle colony (n = 290) in which apparent gestation length, estimated as the interval from the day of first mating to the day of parturition, ranged from 57 to 72 days, and averaged 65.3 +/- 0.2 days. The interval from the day of the peak in luteinizing hormone (LH) to parturition was less variable and ranged from 64 to 66 days and averaged 65.1 +/- 0.1 days (n = 54). Apparent gestation lengths less than or equal to 61 days all resulted from mating greater than or equal to 3 days after the LH peak; those greater than or equal to 68 days all followed initial or single matings occurring greater than or equal to 2 days before the LH peak. Fertile single matings 3 days before the LH peak provided evidence that the potential postcoital fertile longevity of canine sperm is at least 6 days and thus contributed, along with variability in the onset of estrus, to the observed variation in apparent gestation length in the dog. The limited range in the interval from the day of the preovulatory LH peak to the day of parturition (64, 65, or 66 days) demonstrates a considerable regularity in the sequential events of gestation in the dog.

  10. Proteolytic Activation of the Coronavirus Fusion Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicht, O.

    2014-01-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome. They have been isolated from various mammals and birds and can cause severe diseases among farm and companion animals. Cross-species transmission of animal viruses and genuine human coronavirus infections pose a potential

  11. Prevalence and phylogeny of coronaviruses in wild birds from the Bering Strait area (Beringia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaman Muradrasoli

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses (CoVs can cause mild to severe disease in humans and animals, their host range and environmental spread seem to have been largely underestimated, and they are currently being investigated for their potential medical relevance. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV belongs to gamma-coronaviruses and causes a costly respiratory viral disease in chickens. The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of IBV is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined 1,002 cloacal and faecal samples collected from 26 wild bird species in the Beringia area for the presence of CoVs, and then we performed statistical and phylogenetic analyses. We detected diverse CoVs by RT-PCR in wild birds in the Beringia area. Sequence analysis showed that the detected viruses are gamma-coronaviruses related to IBV. These findings suggest that wild birds are able to carry gamma-coronaviruses asymptomatically. We concluded that CoVs are widespread among wild birds in Beringia, and their geographic spread and frequency is higher than previously realised. Thus, Avian CoV can be efficiently disseminated over large distances and could be a genetic reservoir for future emerging pathogenic CoVs. Considering the great animal health and economic impact of IBV as well as the recent emergence of novel coronaviruses such as SARS-coronavirus, it is important to investigate the role of wildlife reservoirs in CoV infection biology and epidemiology.

  12. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infects wild canids (e.g. foxes, wolves, coyotes), raccoons, skunks, and ferrets. How is Canine Distemper virus ... dogs should always be avoided. Similarly, contact with raccoons, foxes, skunks, and other potentially infected wildlife should ...

  13. Influence of guidance concept in complete dentures on oral health related quality of life - Canine guidance vs. bilateral balanced occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierz, Oliver; Reissmann, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    To compare the impact of canine guided vs. bilateral balanced occlusion on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) as a patient-reported outcome measure. In this randomized single-blind crossover trial, 19 patients have been provided with new complete dentures in the maxilla and mandible. OHRQoL was assessed using the 49-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-49) before the start of the prosthodontic treatment (B), 3 months after insertion of the new dentures (T1), and 3 months after rework into the alternative concept (T2). Multilevel mixed-effect linear regression models were computed to determine the effect provided by the new set of dentures and the specific impact of the occlusal concept on OHRQoL using summary scores of the OHIP-49 and of a 19-items subset specific for edentulous patients (OHIP-EDENT). At baseline, participants' OHRQoL was substantially impaired indicated by an average OHIP-49 score of 42.1 points and an OHIP-EDENT score of 21.1 points. The effect of provision of a new set of complete dentures was a statistically significant decrease of 8.3 points (OHIP-49) and 4.0 points (OHIP-EDENT), respectively, representing a clinically relevant improvement in OHRQoL. When wearing dentures with bilateral balanced occlusion, participants showed on average 1.6 points higher OHIP-49 scores and 0.9 points higher OHIP-EDENT scores compared to canine guided dentures. This effect of the occlusal concept was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Both investigated occlusal concepts for complete dentures were comparable in their effect on patients' perceptions with none being considerably superior in terms of OHRQoL. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom Nikolaj

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the passing of more than a year since the first outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS, efficient counter-measures are still few and many believe that reappearance of SARS, or a similar disease caused by a coronavirus, is not unlikely. For other virus families like the picornaviruses it is known that pathology is related to proteolytic cleavage of host proteins by viral proteinases. Furthermore, several studies indicate that virus proliferation can be arrested using specific proteinase inhibitors supporting the belief that proteinases are indeed important during infection. Prompted by this, we set out to analyse and predict cleavage by the coronavirus main proteinase using computational methods. Results We retrieved sequence data on seven fully sequenced coronaviruses and identified the main 3CL proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins using alignments. A neural network was trained to recognise the cleavage sites in the genomes obtaining a sensitivity of 87.0% and a specificity of 99.0%. Several proteins known to be cleaved by other viruses were submitted to prediction as well as proteins suspected relevant in coronavirus pathology. Cleavage sites were predicted in proteins such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-1, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified which might be important to elucidate coronavirus pathology. Furthermore, the method might assist in design of proteinase inhibitors for treatment of SARS and possible future diseases caused by coronaviruses. It is made available for public use at our website: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCorona/.

  15. Full genome analysis of a novel type II feline coronavirus NTU156.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Nan; Chang, Ruey-Yi; Su, Bi-Ling; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2013-04-01

    Infections by type II feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) have been shown to be significantly correlated with fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Despite nearly six decades having passed since its first emergence, different studies have shown that type II FCoV represents only a small portion of the total FCoV seropositivity in cats; hence, there is very limited knowledge of the evolution of type II FCoV. To elucidate the correlation between viral emergence and FIP, a local isolate (NTU156) that was derived from a FIP cat was analyzed along with other worldwide strains. Containing an in-frame deletion of 442 nucleotides in open reading frame 3c, the complete genome size of NTU156 (28,897 nucleotides) appears to be the smallest among the known type II feline coronaviruses. Bootscan analysis revealed that NTU156 evolved from two crossover events between type I FCoV and canine coronavirus, with recombination sites located in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and M genes. With an exchange of nearly one-third of the genome with other members of alphacoronaviruses, the new emerging virus could gain new antigenicity, posing a threat to cats that either have been infected with a type I virus before or never have been infected with FCoV.

  16. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  17. Breed-related differences in altered BRCA1 expression, phenotype and subtype in malignant canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Keum-Soon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Na-Hyun; Lim, Ha-Young; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2013-03-01

    BRCA1 is a high-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene and BRCA1-associated breast cancer has a high familial prevalence that is more common among certain populations of humans. A similar high prevalence also exists for canine mammary tumors (CMTs) and the objective of this study was to determine the breed-related differences in malignant CMTs. Comparative analyses of the expression of various prognostic factors for CMTs, including BRCA1, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) were conducted on 139 malignant CMT cases from five breeds with the highest prevalence of CMTs in Korea. Significant breed-related differences were observed in the expression of BRCA1 (P=0.003), histological grade (P=0.038), and extensive lymphatic invasion (P=0.042). The Shih Tzu breed had the highest proportion of dogs with malignant CMT and strong overexpression of BRCA1. Cytoplasmic and membranous expression of BRCA1 was associated with the ER negative (P=0.004), PR negative (P=0.046), and triple negative (ER, PR, and HER-2 negative; P=0.016) phenotype and the basal-like molecular subtype (P=0.019) in Shih Tzu dogs. Since these features are similar to BRCA1-related human breast cancer, dogs with BRCA1-associated CMT, particularly Shih Tzu dogs, may serve as a suitable spontaneous model, although additional molecular studies are needed.

  18. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Milewska

    Full Text Available To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1 circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC, and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S F; Tsang, Alan K L; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 10(8) copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5'-UCUAAAC-3'. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed rabbit sera tested by an N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits.

  20. Unraveling the Mysteries of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-11

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC coronavirus epidemiologist, discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.  Created: 3/11/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/11/2014.

  1. A simple and rapid approach for screening of SARS-coronavirus genotypes: an evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yongjie

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS was a newly emerged infectious disease which caused a global epidemic in 2002–2003. Sequence analysis of SARS-coronavirus isolates revealed that specific genotypes predominated at different periods of the epidemic. This information can be used as a footprint for tracing the epidemiology of infections and monitor viral evolution. However, direct sequencing analysis of a large number of clinical samples is cumbersome and time consuming. We present here a simple and rapid assay for the screening of SARS-coronavirus genotypes based on the use of fluorogenic oligonucleotide probes for allelic discrimination. Methods Thirty SARS patients were recruited. Allelic discrimination assays were developed based on the use of fluorogenic oligonucleotide probes (TaqMan. Genotyping of the SARS-coronavirus isolates obtained from these patients were carried out by the allelic discrimination assays and confirmed by direct sequencing. Results Genotyping based on the allelic discrimination assays were fully concordant with direct sequencing. All of the 30 SARS-coronavirus genotypes studied were characteristic of genotypes previously documented to be associated with the latter part of the epidemic. Seven of the isolates contained a previously reported major deletion but in patients not epidemiologically related to the previously studied cohort. Conclusion We have developed a simple and accurate method for the characterization and screening of SARS-coronavirus genotypes. It is a promising tool for the study of epidemiological relationships between documented cases during an outbreak.

  2. Receptor-Dependent Coronavirus Infection of Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian C.; Hemmila, Erin M.; Beauchemin, Nicole; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2004-01-01

    In several mammalian species, including humans, coronavirus infection can modulate the host immune response. We show a potential role of dendritic cells (DC) in murine coronavirus-induced immune modulation and pathogenesis by demonstrating that the JAW SII DC line and primary DC from BALB/c mice and p/p mice with reduced expression of the murine coronavirus receptor, murine CEACAM1a, are susceptible to murine coronavirus infection by a receptor-dependent pathway. PMID:15113927

  3. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this ...

  4. Potent inhibition of feline coronaviruses with peptidyl compounds targeting coronavirus 3C-like protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunjeong; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2013-02-01

    Feline coronavirus infection is common among domestic and exotic felid species and usually associated with mild or asymptomatic enteritis; however, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of cats that is caused by systemic infection with a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a variant of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for FIP despite the importance of FIP as the leading infectious cause of death in young cats. During the replication process, coronavirus produces viral polyproteins that are processed into mature proteins by viral proteases, the main protease (3C-like [3CL] protease) and the papain-like protease. Since the cleavages of viral polyproteins are an essential step for virus replication, blockage of viral protease is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Previously, we reported the generation of broad-spectrum peptidyl inhibitors against viruses that possess a 3C or 3CL protease. In this study, we further evaluated the antiviral effects of the peptidyl inhibitors against feline coronaviruses, and investigated the interaction between our protease inhibitor and a cathepsin B inhibitor, an entry blocker, against a feline coronavirus in cell culture. Herein we report that our compounds behave as reversible, competitive inhibitors of 3CL protease, potently inhibited the replication of feline coronaviruses (EC(50) in a nanomolar range) and, furthermore, combination of cathepsin B and 3CL protease inhibitors led to a strong synergistic interaction against feline coronaviruses in a cell culture system.

  5. Surveillance for Antibodies Against Six Canine Viruses in Wild Raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Emiko; Soma, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Sasai, Kazumi

    2017-07-17

    Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type (CPV), 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus. No samples were found to be seropositive for canine parainfluenza virus. Seropositivity rates for CDV and CPV were significantly different between areas, and younger raccoons (raccoons. Because raccoons belong to the suborder Caniformia, similar to dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), our results suggest that they can act as reservoirs for some of these important canine viruses and might be involved in viral transmission. Further study should include isolation and analysis of canine viruses in wild raccoons from a wider area.

  6. Coronavirus infection, ER stress and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TO SING eFUNG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR, a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus-host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases activation, autophagy, apoptosis and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling.

  7. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  8. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sarparast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV infection is an emerging human disease that has been reported from the Arabian Peninsula and Middle East countries since 2012. Although zoonotic transmission was postulated, virological and serological finding suggest that the dromedary camels act as the potential reservoirs of MERS-CoV infection to humans. As October 2014, a totally 855 confirmed cases with 333 related deaths were reported to WHO. All cases occurred in or epidemiologically linked to affected countries. The virus ability to induce a pandemic attack is limited. The clinical presentations vary and range from asymptomatic infection to severe respiratory disease and death. However, most severe disease occurs in elderly and in those with underlying conditions. Infection prevention and control measures are critical to prevent the possible spread of MERS-CoV infection is health care facilities and in the community. The WHO encourages all member states to perform surveillance of patients with acute severe respiratory infection and to carefully monitor any unusual patterns. This paper aims to review the current key characteristics of MERS-CoV infection in human and update the WHO recommendations about this illness.

  9. Detection of feline coronavirus using microcantilever sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velanki, Sreepriya; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2006-11-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility of detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using microcantilever technology by showing that the feline coronavirus (FIP) type I virus can be detected by a microcantilever modified by feline coronavirus (FIP) type I anti-viral antiserum. A microcantilever modified by FIP type I anti-viral antiserum was developed for the detection of FIP type I virus. When the FIP type I virus positive sample is injected into the fluid cell where the microcantilever is held, the microcantilever bends upon the recognition of the FIP type I virus by the antiserum on the surface of the microcantilever. A negative control sample that does not contain FIP type I virus did not cause any bending of the microcantilever. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 µg ml-1 when the assay time was <1 h.

  10. The Canine Sand Maze: An Appetitive Spatial Memory Paradigm Sensitive to Age-Related Change in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvin, Hannah E.; McGreevy, Paul D.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Aged dogs exhibit a spectrum of cognitive abilities including a syndrome similar to Alzheimer's disease. A major impediment to research so far has been the lack of a quick and accurate test of visuospatial memory appropriate for community-based animals. We therefore report on the development and validation of the Canine Sand Maze. A 4.5-m-diameter…

  11. Clinical Forms of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Naturally Leishmania infantum–Infected Dogs and Related Myelogram and Hemogram Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Bouillet, Leoneide Erica Maduro; Lemos, Denise Silveira; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum–infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum–infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+), asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive), oligosymptomatic (OD), and symptomatic (SD). Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID). The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia), that contribute to CVL prognosis. PMID:24376612

  12. A comparative study to evaluate the vertical position of maxillary central incisor and canine in relation to incisive papilla line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the vertical distance of maxillary central incisor (CI and maxillary canine (CA from the incisive papilla (IP line and their variation with age and sex. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 dentulous subjects following the inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly selected from the local population. On the basis of gender and age, subjects were divided into four groups: M a , M b , F a and F b . Maxillary impressions of selected subjects were made and corresponding casts were retrieved. The cast was positioned on the surveyor and the center of IP was transferred to the labial side of maxillary right CI and CA regions with the help of analyzing rod of the surveyor and a line was drawn in this region which was referred to as "IP line." The measurements were made from the IP line to the mesio-incisal line angle of right maxillary CI-IP and cusp tip of right maxillary CA with the help of digital vernier caliper (CA to IP. Result: The mean vertical distance of maxillary CI-IP ranged from 6.31 ± 0.74 mm to 7.04 ± 0.87 mm and the mean vertical distance of maxillary CA-IP ranged from 5.83 ± 0.80 mm to 6.30 ± 0.82 mm. Conclusion: The CA position in relation to the IP line is more stable to its position than the CI position irrespective of age and sex.

  13. Clinical forms of canine visceral Leishmaniasis in naturally Leishmania infantum-infected dogs and related myelogram and hemogram changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney de Carvalho Nicolato

    Full Text Available Hematological analysis has limited applications for disease diagnosis in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs, but it can be very important in evaluating the clinical forms of the disease and in understanding the evolution of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL pathogenesis. Recently, we demonstrated that alterations in leucopoiesis and erythropoiesis are related to clinical status and bone marrow parasite density in dogs naturally infected by L. infantum. To further characterize these alterations, we evaluated the association between the hematological parameters in bone marrow and peripheral blood alterations in groups of L. infantum-infected dogs: asymptomatic I (AD-I: serum negative/PCR+, asymptomatic II (AD-II: serum positive, oligosymptomatic (OD, and symptomatic (SD. Results were compared with those from noninfected dogs (NID. The SD group was found to present a decrease in erythropoietic lineage with concomitant reductions in erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit parameters, resulting in anemia. The SD group also had increased neutrophils and precursors and decreased band eosinophils and eosinophils, leading to peripheral blood leucopenia. In the AD-II group, lymphocytosis occurred in both the peripheral blood and the bone marrow compartments. The SD group exhibited lymphocytosis in the bone marrow, with lymphopenia in the peripheral blood. In contrast, the AD-I group, showed no significant changes suggestive of CVL, presenting normal counts in bone marrow and peripheral blood. Our results showed for the first time that important changes in hematopoiesis and hematological parameters occur during ongoing CVL in naturally infected dogs, mainly in symptomatic disease. Taken together, our results based on myelogram and hemogram parameters enable better understanding of the pathogenesis of the anemia, lymphocytosis, and lymphopenia, as well as the leucopenia (eosinopenia and monocytopenia, that contribute to CVL prognosis.

  14. An Outbreak of Human Coronavirus OC43 Infection and Serological Cross-Reactivity with SARS Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In summer 2003, a respiratory outbreak was investigated in British Columbia, during which nucleic acid tests and serology unexpectedly indicated reactivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV.

  15. Structural Characterization of Human Coronavirus NL63 N Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelazek, Bozena; Kabala, Wojciech; Kus, Krzysztof; Zdzalik, Michal; Twarda-Clapa, Aleksandra; Golik, Przemyslaw; Burmistrz, Michal; Florek, Dominik; Wladyka, Benedykt; Pyrc, Krzysztof; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    Coronaviruses are responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. It is estimated that 1 to 10% of the population suffers annually from cold-like symptoms related to infection with human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), an alphacoronavirus. The nucleocapsid (N) protein, the major structural component of the capsid, facilitates RNA packing, links the capsid to the envelope, and is also involved in multiple other processes, including viral replication and evasion of the immune system. Although the role of N protein in viral replication is relatively well described, no structural data are currently available regarding the N proteins of alphacoronaviruses. Moreover, our understanding of the mechanisms of RNA binding and nucleocapsid formation remains incomplete. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of the N- and C-terminal domains (NTD, residues 10 to 140, and CTD, residues 221 to 340, respectively) of the N protein of HCoV-NL63, both at a 1.5-Å resolution. Based on our structure of NTD solved here, we proposed and experimentally evaluated a model of RNA binding. The structure of the CTD reveals the mode of N protein dimerization. Overall, this study expands our understanding of the initial steps of N protein-nucleic acid interaction and may facilitate future efforts to control the associated infections.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are responsible for the common cold and other respiratory tract infections in humans. According to multiple studies, 1 to 10% of the population is infected each year with HCoV-NL63. Viruses are relatively simple organisms composed of a few proteins and the nucleic acids that carry the information determining their composition. The nucleocapsid (N) protein studied in this work protects the nucleic acid from the environmental factors during virus transmission. This study investigated the structural arrangement of N protein, explaining the first steps of its interaction with nucleic acid at the initial stages of

  16. Proteolytic Activation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Coronavirus Spike Fusion Protein by Trypsin in Cell Culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicht, Oliver|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32291177X; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J; Wubbolts, Richard W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181688255; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156614723; Rottier, Peter J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068451954; Bosch, Berend Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infec

  17. Proteolytic Activation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Coronavirus Spike Fusion Protein by Trypsin in Cell Culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J; Wubbolts, Richard W; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Rottier, Peter J M; Bosch, Berend Jan

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infec

  18. A Structural analysis of M protein in coronavirus assembly and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Neuman, Benjamin; Kiss, Gabriella; H. Kunding, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The M protein of coronavirus plays a central role in virus assembly, turning cellular membranes into workshops where virus and host factors come together to make new virus particles. We investigated how M structure and organization is related to virus shape and size using cryo-electron microscopy...

  19. A Structural analysis of M protein in coronavirus assembly and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    W. Neuman, Benjamin; Kiss, Gabriella; H. Kunding, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The M protein of coronavirus plays a central role in virus assembly, turning cellular membranes into workshops where virus and host factors come together to make new virus particles. We investigated how M structure and organization is related to virus shape and size using cryo-electron microscopy...... protein functions to promote virus assembly....

  20. MHC class II polymorphism is associated with a canine SLE-related disease complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbe, Maria; Jokinen, Päivi; Hermanrud, Christina; Kennedy, Lorna J; Strandberg, Erling; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Lohi, Hannes; Andersson, Göran

    2009-08-01

    Nova Scotia duck tolling retrievers are predisposed to a SLE-related disease complex including immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD) and steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA). IMRD involves symptoms that resemble those seen in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE, or SLE-related diseases, in humans. This disease complex involves persistent lameness, stiffness, mainly after resting, and palpable pain from several joints of extremities. The majority of affected dogs display antinuclear autoantibody (ANA)-reactivity. SRMA is manifested in young dogs with high fever and neck stiffness and can be treated with corticosteroids. We have investigated the possible role of MHC class II as a genetic risk factor in IMRD and SRMA etiology. We performed sequence-based typing of the DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci in a total of 176 dogs including 51 IMRD (33 ANA-positive), 49 SRMA cases, and 78 healthy controls (two dogs were both IMRD- and SRMA-affected). Homozygosity for the risk haplotype DRB1*00601/DQA1*005011/DQB1*02001 increased the risk for IMRD (OR = 4.9; ANA-positive IMRD: OR = 7.2) compared with all other genotypes. There was a general heterozygote advantage, homozygotes had OR = 4.4 (ANA-positive IMRD: OR = 8.9) compared with all heterozygotes. The risk haplotype contains the five amino acid epitope RARAA, known as the shared epitope for rheumatoid arthritis. No association was observed for SRMA. We conclude that DLA class II is a highly significant genetic risk factor for ANA-positive IMRD. The results indicate narrow diversity of DLA II haplotypes and identify an IMRD-related risk haplotype, which becomes highly significant in homozygous dogs.

  1. MERS-coronavirus: From discovery to intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Widagdo; N. Okba (Nisreen); V. Stalin Raj; B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) still causes outbreaks despite public awareness and implementation of health care measures, such as rapid viral diagnosis and patient quarantine. Here we describe the current epidemiological picture of MERS-CoV, focusing on humans a

  2. Dynamics of the coronavirus replicative structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemeijer, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoV) are positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses that are important infectious agents in both animals and man. Upon infection, CoVs generate large multicomponent protein complexes, consisting of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp’s) and yet to be identified cellular proteins, dedicated to the

  3. Coronavirus infection of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Horzinek, M C; Rottier, P J

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial cells are the first host cells to be infected by incoming c oronaviruses. Recent observations in vitro show that coronaviruses are released from a specific side of these polarized cells, and this polarized release might be important for the spread of the infection in vivo. Mechanisms for

  4. Interactions of Rodent Coronaviruses with Cellular Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-08

    eel to block binding of S to its receptor on various mouse cell lines and then challenged these cells with an HE expressing strain of MEV to...MAb-CCl an MEV iii strain expressing, HE could not infect mouse fibroblast cell lines or primary brain cells. Although murine coronavirus (MHV) and...Cell Cultures .. Virus Propagation and Purification ...............• Plaque assay .................... .... ............. . Hemagglutination Assay

  5. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sasaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication.

  6. A Review of Coronavirus Infections in Avain%禽源冠状病毒感染情况概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄青叶; 陈继明; 王楷宬

    2015-01-01

    Based on epidemiological investigation,surveillance,gene analysis of coronaviruses in birds in the world,coronavirus infections and the related diseases in avian were summarized in this paper. Avian-origin coronavirus has a very complex population with abundant diversity,involving viruses in Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus at least. Avian infectious bronchitis virus existed and was endemic in almost all chicken-producing countries. Turkey coronavirus,duck coronavirus,goose coronavirus,pigeon coronavirus were already detected in avian and some of these were pandemic. A few other Deltacoronavirus were only detected in wildfowl .%以国内外对冠状病毒在禽类中的流行病学调查、监测和基因分析等研究报道为基础,从病毒分类学角度,对各“种”冠状病毒在禽类中的感染情况和引起的相关疾病进行简要概述。全球在禽类中发现的冠状病毒种类较多,至少涉及丙型和丁型冠状病毒属。其中,鸡传染性支气管炎病毒几乎在全球所有养鸡国家中存在,并呈地方性流行;火鸡冠状病毒、鸭冠状病毒、鹅冠状病毒、鸽冠状病毒也在禽类中被发现,部分病毒已在禽群中流行;其他丁型冠状病毒属病毒仅在少数野鸟中被发现。

  7. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen, Nerea; Firth, Andrew E; Jones, Joshua D; Chung, Betty Y-W; Siddell, Stuart G; Brierley, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global "snap-shot" of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  8. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Irigoyen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV, are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global "snap-shot" of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59, a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the

  9. The emerging novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: The “knowns” and “unknowns”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel lineage C betacoronavirus, originally named human coronavirus EMC/2012 (HCoV-EMC and recently renamed Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, that is phylogenetically closely related to Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5, which we discovered in 2007 from bats in Hong Kong, has recently emerged in the Middle East to cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-like infection in humans. The first laboratory-confirmed case, which involved a 60-year-old man from Bisha, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, who died of rapidly progressive community-acquired pneumonia and acute renal failure, was announced by the World Health Organization (WHO on September 23, 2012. Since then, a total of 70 cases, including 39 fatalities, have been reported in the Middle East and Europe. Recent clusters involving epidemiologically-linked household contacts and hospital contacts in the Middle East, Europe, and Africa strongly suggested possible human-to-human transmission. Clinical and laboratory research data generated in the past few months have provided new insights into the possible animal reservoirs, transmissibility, and virulence of MERS-CoV, and the optimal laboratory diagnostic options and potential antiviral targets for MERS-CoV-associated infection.

  10. Establishment of a fluorescent polymerase chain reaction method for the detection of the SARS-associated coronavirus and its clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴新伟; 程钢; 狄飚; 尹爱华; 何蕴韶; 王鸣; 周新宇; 何丽娟; 罗凯; 杜琳

    2003-01-01

    Objective To establish a fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (F-PCR) method for detecting the coronavirus related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and to evaluate its value for clinical application. Methods The primers and the fluorescence-labeled probe were designed and synthesized according to the published sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus genes. A F-PCR diagnosis kit for detecting the coronavirus was developed, and 115 clinical nasopharyngeal gargling liquid samples were tested. Results The sequence of PCR amplified products completely matched the related sequence of the SARS-associated coronavirus genome. Forty-nine out of 67 samples from identified SARS patients and 8 of 18 samples from persons having close contact with SARS patients showed positive results. All 30 samples from healthy controls were negative. Conclusion The F-PCR method established may be a rapid, accurate and efficient way for screening and for the early diagnosis of SARS patients.

  11. Pathogenic characteristics of persistent feline enteric coronavirus infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Liesbeth; Van der Lubben, Mariken; te Lintelo, Eddie G; Bekker, Cornelis P J; Geerts, Tamara; Schuijff, Leontine S; Grinwis, Guy C M; Egberink, Herman F; Rottier, Peter J M

    2010-01-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) comprise two biotypes: feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis viruses (FIPV). FECV is associated with asymptomatic persistent enteric infections, while FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a usually fatal systemic disease in domestic cats and some wild Felidae. FIPV arises from FECV by mutation. FCoV also occur in two serotypes, I and II, of which the serotype I viruses are by far the most prevalent in the field. Yet, most of our knowledge about FCoV infections relates to serotype II viruses, particularly about the FIPV, mainly because type I viruses grow poorly in cell culture. Hence, the aim of the present work was the detailed study of the epidemiologically most relevant viruses, the avirulent serotype I viruses. Kittens were inoculated oronasally with different doses of two independent FECV field strains, UCD and RM. Persistent infection could be reproducibly established. The patterns of clinical symptoms, faecal virus shedding and seroconversion were monitored for up to 10 weeks revealing subtle but reproducible differences between the two viruses. Faecal virus, i.e. genomic RNA, was detected during persistent FECV infection only in the large intestine, downstream of the appendix, and could occasionally be observed also in the blood. The implications of our results, particularly our insights into the persistently infected state, are discussed.

  12. Anti-SARS coronavirus agents: a patent review (2008 - present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vathan; Jung, Young-Sik; Liang, Po-Huang

    2013-10-01

    A novel coronavirus (CoV), unlike previous typical human coronaviruses (HCoVs), was identified as causative agent for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SARS first surfaced as a pandemic in late 2002 and originated in southern China. SARS-CoV rapidly spread to > 30 countries by 2003, infecting nearly 8,000 people and causing around 800 fatalities. After 10 years of silence, a 2012 report alarmed researchers about the emergence of a new strain of CoV causing SARS-like disease. To combat SARS, scientists applied for patents on various therapeutic agents, including small-molecule inhibitors targeting the essential proteases, helicase and other proteins of the virus, natural products, approved drugs, molecules binding to the virus, neutralizing antibodies, vaccines, anti-sense RNA, siRNA and ribozyme against SARS-CoV. In this article, the patents published from 2008 to the present for the new therapeutics that could potentially be used in the prophylaxis and treatment of SARS are reviewed. The therapeutic interventions or prophylaxis discussed in this review seems to offer promising solutions to tackle SARS. Rather than being complacent about the results, we should envisage how to transform them into drug candidates that may be useful in combating SARS and related viral infections in the future.

  13. Understanding bat SARS-like coronaviruses for the preparation of future coronavirus outbreaks - Implications for coronavirus vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2017-01-02

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) first emerged in 2003, causing the SARS epidemic which resulted in a 10% fatality rate. The advancements in metagenomic techniques have allowed the identification of SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) sequences that share high homology to the human SARS-CoV epidemic strains from wildlife bats, presenting concrete evidence that bats are the origin and natural reservoir of SARS-CoV. The application of reverse genetics further enabled that characterization of these bat CoVs and the prediction of their potential to cause disease in humans. The knowledge gained from such studies is valuable in the surveillance and preparation of a possible future outbreak caused by a spill-over of these bat SL-CoVs.

  14. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Little, Zoë R; Keevil, C William

    2015-11-10

    severe infections with high mortality, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and, more recently, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). We show here that a closely related human coronavirus, 229E, which causes upper respiratory tract infection in healthy individuals and serious disease in patients with comorbidities, remained infectious on surface materials common to public and domestic areas for several days. The low infectious dose means that this is a significant infection risk to anyone touching a contaminated surface. However, rapid inactivation, irreversible destruction of viral RNA, and massive structural damage were observed in coronavirus exposed to copper and copper alloy surfaces. Incorporation of copper alloy surfaces in conjunction with effective cleaning regimens and good clinical practice could help to control transmission of respiratory coronaviruses, including MERS and SARS. Copyright © 2015 Warnes et al.

  15. MERS Coronaviruses in Dromedary Camels, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Daniel K. W.; Poon, Leo L.M.; Gomaa, Mokhtar M.; Shehata, Mahmoud M.; Perera, Ranawaka A. P. M.; Abu Zeid, Dina; El Rifay, Amira S.; Siu, Lewis Y.; Guan, Yi; Webby, Richard J; Mohamed A Ali; Peiris, Malik; Kayali, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    We identified the near-full-genome sequence (29,908 nt, >99%) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a nasal swab specimen from a dromedary camel in Egypt. We found that viruses genetically very similar to human MERS-CoV are infecting dromedaries beyond the Arabian Peninsula, where human MERS-CoV infections have not yet been detected.

  16. Characterisation of human coronavirus-NL63 nucleocapsid protein

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... Coronavirus N is a multifunctional protein that plays an essential role in enhancing the efficiency of .... HCoV-NL63 was shown to be most similar to the human ... evolution of these coronaviruses and gave rise to the.

  17. Interferon-Beta 1a and SARS Coronavirus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    ribavirin remains uncertain because it has no activity against SARS-CoV in vitro. Molecular modeling studies suggest that rhinovirus 3Cpro inhibitors...coronavirus. Science 2003;300:1399–404. 3. Anand K, Ziebuhr J, Wadhwani P, Mesters JR, Hilgenfeld R. Coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) structure

  18. Development of animal models against emerging coronaviruses: From SARS to MERS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Troy C; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-05-01

    Two novel coronaviruses have emerged to cause severe disease in humans. While bats may be the primary reservoir for both viruses, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) likely crossed into humans from civets in China, and MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been transmitted from camels in the Middle East. Unlike SARS-CoV that resolved within a year, continued introductions of MERS-CoV present an on-going public health threat. Animal models are needed to evaluate countermeasures against emerging viruses. With SARS-CoV, several animal species were permissive to infection. In contrast, most laboratory animals are refractory or only semi-permissive to infection with MERS-CoV. This host-range restriction is largely determined by sequence heterogeneity in the MERS-CoV receptor. We describe animal models developed to study coronaviruses, with a focus on host-range restriction at the level of the viral receptor and discuss approaches to consider in developing a model to evaluate countermeasures against MERS-CoV. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H; Mazet, Jonna K; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2013-11-28

    The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.

  20. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES FOR SELECTED CANINE PATHOGENS AMONG WOLVES (CANIS LUPUS) FROM THE ALASKA PENINSULA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dominique E; Benson, Anna-Marie

    2016-07-01

    We collected blood samples from wolves ( Canis lupus ) on the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, US, 2006-11 and tested sera for antibodies to canine adenovirus (CAV), canine coronavirus (CCV), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine parainfluenza (CPI), canine parvovirus (CPV), Neospora caninum , and Toxoplasma gondii . Detected antibody prevalence was 90% for CAV, 28% for CCV, 12% for CDV, 93% for CHV, 0% for CPI, 20% for CPV, 0% for N. caninum, and 86% for T. gondii . Prevalence of CCV antibodies suggested a seasonal pattern with higher prevalence during spring (43%) than in fall (11%). Prevalence of CCV antibodies also declined during the 6-yr study with high prevalence during spring 2006-08 (80%, n=24) and low prevalence during spring 2009-11 (4%, n=24). Prevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii antibodies were highly variable in the study area during 2006-11. Results suggested that some pathogens might be enzootic on the Alaska Peninsula (e.g., CAV and CHV) while others may be epizootic (e.g., CCV, N. caninum , T. gondii ).

  1. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  2. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  3. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  4. Expression Profile of Drug and Nutrient Absorption Related Genes in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK Cells Grown under Differentiation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvinder S. Vig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expression levels of genes involved in drug and nutrient absorption were evaluated in the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK in vitro drug absorption model. MDCK cells were grown on plastic surfaces (for 3 days or on Transwell® membranes (for 3, 5, 7, and 9 days. The expression profile of genes including ABC transporters, SLC transporters, and cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes was determined using the Affymetrix® Canine GeneChip®. Expression of genes whose probe sets passed a stringent confirmation process was examined. Expression of a few transporter (MDR1, PEPT1 and PEPT2 genes in MDCK cells was confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall gene expression profile was strongly influenced by the type of support the cells were grown on. After 3 days of growth, expression of 28% of the genes was statistically different (1.5-fold cutoff, p < 0.05 between the cells grown on plastic and Transwell® membranes. When cells were differentiated on Transwell® membranes, large changes in gene expression profile were observed during the early stages, which then stabilized after 5–7 days. Only a small number of genes encoding drug absorption related SLC, ABC, and CYP were detected in MDCK cells, and most of them exhibited low hybridization signals. Results from this study provide valuable reference information on endogenous gene expression in MDCK cells that could assist in design of drug-transporter and/or drug-enzyme interaction studies, and help interpret the contributions of various transporters and metabolic enzymes in studies with MDCK cells.

  5. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in children

    OpenAIRE

    Thabet, Farah; Chehab, May; Bafaqih, Hind; AlMohaimeed, Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a new human disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV). The disease is reported mainly in adults. Data in children are scarce. The disease caused by MERS-CoV in children presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations, and it is associated with a lower mortality rate compared with adults. Poor outcome is observed mainly in admitted patients with medical comorbidities. We report a new case of MERS-CoV infection in a 9-month-old child compli...

  6. Novel Coronaviruses and Astroviruses in Bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel K. W. Chu; J. S. Malik Peiris; Leo L. M. Poon

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic transmissions of emerging pathogens from wildlife to human have shaped the history of mankind. These events have also highlighted our poor understanding of microorganisms circulated in wild animals. Coronaviruses and astroviruses, which can be found from a wide range of mammals, were recently detected in bats. Strikingly, these bat viruses are genetically highly diverse and these interesting findings might help to better understand the evolution and ecology of these viruses. The discoveries of these novel bats viruses not only suggested that bats are important hosts for these virus families, but also reiterated the role of bats as a reservoir of viruses that might pose a zoonotic threat to human health.

  7. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus persistence in Vero cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gustavo Palacios; Omar Jabado; Neil Renwick; Thomas Briese; W. Ian Lipkin

    2005-01-01

    Background Several coronaviruses establish persistent infections in vitro and in vivo, however it is unknown whether persistence is a feature of the severe acute respiratory syndorme coronavirus (SARS-CoV) life cycle. This study was conducted to investigate viral persistence.Methods We inoculated confluent monolayers of Vero cells with SARS-CoV at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1 TCID50 and passaged the remaining cells every 4 to 8 days for a total of 11 passages. Virus was titrated at each passage by limited dilution assay and nucleocapsid antigen was detected by Western blot and immunofluoresence assays. The presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells was assessed by electron microscopy. Changes in viral genomic sequences during persistent infection were examined by DNA sequencing. Results Cytopathic effect was extensive after initial inoculation but diminished with serial passages. Infectious virus was detected after each passage and viral growth curves were identical for parental virus stock and virus obtained from passage 11 cells. Nucleocapsid antigen was detected in the majority of cells after initial inoculation but in only 10%-40% of cells at passages 2-11. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of viral particles in passage 11 cells. Sequence analysis at passage 11 revealed fixed mutations in the spike (S) gene and ORFs 7a-8b but not in the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Conclusions SARS-CoV can establish a persistent infection in vitro. The mechanism for viral persistence is consistent with the formation of a carrier culture whereby a limited number of cells are infected with each round of virus replication and release. Persistence is associated with selected mutations in the SARS-CoV genome. This model may provide insight into SARS-related lung pathology and mechanisms by which humans and animals can serve as reservoirs for infection.

  8. Rapid inactivation of SARS-like coronaviruses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapil, Sanjay (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Oberst, R. D. (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David; Souza, Caroline Ann; Williams, Cecelia Victoria

    2004-03-01

    Chemical disinfection and inactivation of viruses is largely understudied, but is very important especially in the case of highly infectious viruses. The purpose of this LDRD was to determine the efficacy of the Sandia National Laboratories developed decontamination formulations against Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) as a surrogate for the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans. The outbreak of SARS in late 2002 resulted from a highly infectious virus that was able to survive and remain infectious for extended periods. For this study, preliminary testing with Escherichia coli MS-2 (MS-2) and Escherichia coli T4 (T4) bacteriophages was conducted to develop virucidal methodology for verifying the inactivation after treatment with the test formulations following AOAC germicidal methodologies. After the determination of various experimental parameters (i.e. exposure, concentration) of the formulations, final testing was conducted on BCV. All experiments were conducted with various organic challenges (horse serum, bovine feces, compost) for results that more accurately represent field use condition. The MS-2 and T4 were slightly more resistant than BCV and required a 2 minute exposure while BCV was completely inactivated after a 1 minute exposure. These results were also consistent for the testing conducted in the presence of the various organic challenges indicating that the test formulations are highly effective for real world application.

  9. Diagnostic Methods for Feline Coronavirus: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs are found throughout the world. Infection with FCoV can result in a diverse range of signs from clinically inapparent infections to a highly fatal disease called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. FIP is one of the most serious viral diseases of cats. While there is neither an effective vaccine, nor a curative treatment for FIP, a diagnostic protocol for FCoV would greatly assist in the management and control of the virus. Clinical findings in FIP are non-specific and not helpful in making a differential diagnosis. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities in FIP cases are also non-specific. The currently available serological tests have low specificity and sensitivity for detection of active infection and cross-react with FCoV strains of low pathogenicity, the feline enteric coronaviruses (FECV. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has been used to detect FCoV and is rapid and sensitive, but results must be interpreted in the context of clinical findings. At present, a definitive diagnosis of FIP can be established only by histopathological examination of biopsies. This paper describes and compares diagnostic methods for FCoVs and includes a brief account of the virus biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis.

  10. Feline Coronaviruses: Pathogenesis of Feline Infectious Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, G; Thiel, H-J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) belongs to the few animal virus diseases in which, in the course of a generally harmless persistent infection, a virus acquires a small number of mutations that fundamentally change its pathogenicity, invariably resulting in a fatal outcome. The causative agent of this deadly disease, feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), arises from feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). The review summarizes our current knowledge of the genome and proteome of feline coronaviruses (FCoVs), focusing on the viral surface (spike) protein S and the five accessory proteins. We also review the current classification of FCoVs into distinct serotypes and biotypes, cellular receptors of FCoVs and their presumed role in viral virulence, and discuss other aspects of FIPV-induced pathogenesis. Our current knowledge of genetic differences between FECVs and FIPVs has been mainly based on comparative sequence analyses that revealed "discriminatory" mutations that are present in FIPVs but not in FECVs. Most of these mutations result in amino acid substitutions in the S protein and these may have a critical role in the switch from FECV to FIPV. In most cases, the precise roles of these mutations in the molecular pathogenesis of FIP have not been tested experimentally in the natural host, mainly due to the lack of suitable experimental tools including genetically engineered virus mutants. We discuss the recent progress in the development of FCoV reverse genetics systems suitable to generate recombinant field viruses containing appropriate mutations for in vivo studies.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in canine shape among extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J

    1995-04-01

    There have been numerous attempts to sex fossil specimens using the canine dentition. Whether focused on canine size or canine shape, most of these efforts share two deficiencies: lack of quantification of male-female differences in the adopted criteria and a failure to adequately explore among extant species the discriminatory power of these criteria. Here, canine shape indices relating to relative canine height, upper canine root/crown proportionality, and relative length of the lower canine mesial ridge were calculated for males and females of all species and subspecies of extant great apes and two species of gibbons. The accuracy of these indices for identifying the sex of the extant ape specimens was investigated through discriminant analysis and the use of bivariate plots of the two upper and two lower canine indices. The indices were found to be highly accurate in identifying the sex of great ape individuals, not only in single-species and subspecies samples but in mixed-species samples as well; assignment error rates were mostly between 0 and 4%. Accuracy was lowest in Pan (error rates as high as 15%) and highest in Pongo (one error). In most cases, error rates were lower in the upper canines. The effectiveness of these shape indices for sexing might be related to the degree of absolute canine size dimorphism; the indices did not effectively segregate males and females among minimally canine-dimorphic gibbons. The mixed-species results reveal that same-sex index values are remarkably concordant across great ape species, as are the patterns of spatial segregation of males and females in the bivariate plots. Results suggest that, while the indices can be used with some confidence to sex individual fossil specimens, their greatest utility will be for identifying the sex of groups of canines united by size and morphology.

  12. Palmitoylations on murine coronavirus spike proteins are essential for virion assembly and infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Edward B; Boscarino, Joseph A; Logan, Hillary L; Goletz, Jeffrey T; Gallagher, Thomas M

    2006-02-01

    Coronavirus spike (S) proteins are palmitoylated at several cysteine residues clustered near their transmembrane-spanning domains. This is achieved by cellular palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs), which can modify newly synthesized S proteins before they are assembled into virion envelopes at the intermediate compartment of the exocytic pathway. To address the importance of these fatty acylations to coronavirus infection, we exposed infected cells to 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), a specific PAT inhibitor. 2-BP profoundly reduced the specific infectivities of murine coronaviruses at very low, nontoxic doses that were inert to alphavirus and rhabdovirus infections. 2-BP effected only two- to fivefold reductions in S palmitoylation, yet this correlated with reduced S complexing with virion membrane (M) proteins and consequent exclusion of S from virions. At defined 2-BP doses, underpalmitoylated S proteins instead trafficked to infected cell surfaces and elicited cell-cell membrane fusions, suggesting that the acyl chain adducts are more critical to virion assembly than to S-induced syncytial developments. These studies involving pharmacologic inhibition of S protein palmitoylation were complemented with molecular genetic analyses in which cysteine acylation substrates were mutated. Notably, some mutations (C1347F and C1348S) did not interfere with S incorporation into virions, indicating that only a subset of the cysteine-rich region provides the essential S-assembly functions. However, the C1347F/C1348S mutant viruses exhibited relatively low specific infectivities, similar to virions secreted from 2-BP-treated cultures. Our collective results indicate that the palmitate adducts on coronavirus S proteins are necessary in assembly and also in positioning the assembled envelope proteins for maximal infectivity.

  13. Core Structure of S2 from the Human Coronavirus NL63 Spike Glycoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng,Q.; Deng, Y.; Liu, J.; van der Hoek, L.; Berkhout, B.; Lu, M.

    2006-01-01

    Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) has recently been identified as a causative agent of acute respiratory tract illnesses in infants and young children. The HCoV-NL63 spike (S) protein mediates virion attachment to cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. This viral entry process is a primary target for vaccine and drug development. HCoV-NL63 S is expressed as a single-chain glycoprotein and consists of an N-terminal receptor-binding domain (S1) and a C-terminal transmembrane fusion domain (S2). The latter contains two highly conserved heptad-repeat (HR) sequences that are each extended by 14 amino acids relative to those of the SARS coronavirus or the prototypic murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus. Limited proteolysis studies of the HCoV-NL63 S2 fusion core identify an {alpha}-helical domain composed of a trimer of the HR segments N57 and C42. The crystal structure of this complex reveals three C42 helices entwined in an oblique and antiparallel manner around a central triple-stranded coiled coil formed by three N57 helices. The overall geometry comprises distinctive high-affinity conformations of interacting cross-sectional layers of the six helices. As a result, this structure is unusually stable, with an apparent melting temperature of 78 {sup o}C in the presence of the denaturant guanidine hydrochloride at 5 M concentration. The extended HR regions may therefore be required to prime the group 1 S glycoproteins for their fusion-activating conformational changes during viral entry. Our results provide an initial basis for understanding an intriguing interplay between the presence or absence of proteolytic maturation among the coronavirus groups and the membrane fusion activity of their S glycoproteins. This study also suggests a potential strategy for the development of improved HCoV-NL63 fusion inhibitors.

  14. The role of viral population diversity in adaptation of bovine coronavirus to new host environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica K Borucki

    Full Text Available The high mutation rate of RNA viruses enables a diverse genetic population of viral genotypes to exist within a single infected host. In-host genetic diversity could better position the virus population to respond and adapt to a diverse array of selective pressures such as host-switching events. Multiple new coronaviruses, including SARS, have been identified in human samples just within the last ten years, demonstrating the potential of coronaviruses as emergent human pathogens. Deep sequencing was used to characterize genomic changes in coronavirus quasispecies during simulated host-switching. Three bovine nasal samples infected with bovine coronavirus were used to infect human and bovine macrophage and lung cell lines. The virus reproduced relatively well in macrophages, but the lung cell lines were not infected efficiently enough to allow passage of non lab-adapted samples. Approximately 12 kb of the genome was amplified before and after passage and sequenced at average coverages of nearly 950×(454 sequencing and 38,000×(Illumina. The consensus sequence of many of the passaged samples had a 12 nucleotide insert in the consensus sequence of the spike gene, and multiple point mutations were associated with the presence of the insert. Deep sequencing revealed that the insert was present but very rare in the unpassaged samples and could quickly shift to dominate the population when placed in a different environment. The insert coded for three arginine residues, occurred in a region associated with fusion entry into host cells, and may allow infection of new cell types via heparin sulfate binding. Analysis of the deep sequencing data indicated that two distinct genotypes circulated at different frequency levels in each sample, and support the hypothesis that the mutations present in passaged strains were "selected" from a pre-existing pool rather than through de novo mutation and subsequent population fixation.

  15. Sequence Analysis and Structural Prediction of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus nsp5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Hai LU; Nan-Shan ZHONG; Ding-Mei ZHANG; Guo-Ling WANG; Zhong-Min GUO; Juan LI; Bing-Yan TAN; Li-Ping OU-YANG; Wen-Hua LING; Xin-Bing YU

    2005-01-01

    The non-structural proteins (nsp or replicase proteins) of coronaviruses are relatively conserved and can be effective targets for drugs. Few studies have been conducted into the function of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nsp5. In this study, bioinformatics methods were employed to predict the secondary structure and construct 3-D models of the SARS-CoV GD strain nsp5. Sequencing and sequential comparison was performed to analyze the mutation trend of the polymerase nsp5 gene during the epidemic process using a nucleotide-nucleotide basic local alignment search tool (BLASTN) and a protein-protein basic local alignment search tool (BLASTP). The results indicated that the nsp5 gene was steady during the epidemic process and the protein was homologous with other coronavirus nsp5 proteins. The protein encoded by the nsp5 gene was expressed in COS-7 cells and analyzed by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). This study provided the foundation for further exploration of the protein's biological function, and contributed to the search for anti-SARS-CoV drugs.

  16. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  17. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    To Sing Fung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed.

  18. A decade after SARS: Strategies to control emerging coronaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rachel L.; Donaldson, Eric F.; Baric, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    Two novel coronaviruses have emerged in humans in the 21st century, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome human coronavirus (MERS-CoV), both of which cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and have high mortality rates. There are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral drugs available for either of these infections; thus, a priority in the field is the development of effective therapeutic and preventive strategies that can be readily applied to new emergent strains. This review will: describe the emergence and identification of novel human coronaviruses over the last 10 years; review their key biological features, including tropism and receptor use; and summarize approaches to develop broadly effective vaccines. PMID:24217413

  19. A coronavirus detected in the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Brandão

    Full Text Available This article reports on the identification of a group 2 coronavirus (BatCoV DR/2007 in a Desmodus rotundus vampire bat in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF1b revealed that BatCoV DR/2007 originates from a unique lineage in the archetypical group 2 coronaviruses, as described for bat species elsewhere with putative importance in Public Health.

  20. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.

  1. Searching for animal models and potential target species for emerging pathogens: Experience gained from Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Vergara-Alert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging pathogens represent a substantial threat to public health, as demonstrated with numerous outbreaks over the past years, including the 2013–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus in western Africa. Coronaviruses are also a threat for humans, as evidenced in 2002/2003 with infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV, which caused more than 8000 human infections with 10% fatality rate in 37 countries. Ten years later, a novel human coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe pneumonia, arose in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Until December 2016, MERS has accounted for more than 1800 cases and 35% fatality rate. Finding an animal model of disease is key to develop vaccines or antivirals against such emerging pathogens and to understand its pathogenesis. Knowledge of the potential role of domestic livestock and other animal species in the transmission of pathogens is of importance to understand the epidemiology of the disease. Little is known about MERS-CoV animal host range. In this paper, experimental data on potential hosts for MERS-CoV is reviewed. Advantages and limitations of different animal models are evaluated in relation to viral pathogenesis and transmission studies. Finally, the relevance of potential new target species is discussed.

  2. Hypoxia-Related Marker GLUT-1, CAIX, Proliferative Index and Microvessel Density in Canine Oral Malignant Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Valeria; Guscetti, Franco; Roos, Malgorzata; Ohlerth, Stefanie; Pruschy, Martin; Rohrer Bley, Carla

    2016-01-01

    For various types of tumor therapy, it is suggested that co-targeting of tumor microenvironment, mainly tumor vasculature, mediates tumor response mechanisms. Immunohistochemistry for glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1), carbonic anhydrase-IX (CAIX), Ki-67, and von Willebrand factor VIII for microvessel density (MVD) were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of canine oral malignant neoplasms. Polarographic oxygen measurements (median pO2) and perfusion data via contrast-enhanced power Doppler ultrasound (median vascularity, median blood volume) provided additional information. Ninety-two samples were analyzed: sarcomas (n = 32), carcinomas (n = 30), and malignant melanomas (n = 30). Polarographic oxygen and perfusion data was available in 22.8% (sarcomas n = 9, carcinomas n = 7, melanomas n = 5), and 27.1% (sarcomas n = 10, carcinomas n = 8, melanomas n = 7) of cases, respectively. GLUT-1 expression was detected in 46.7% of all samples, and was generally weak. CAIX expression was found in 34.8% of all samples. Median Ki-67 score and MVD count was 19% and 17, respectively. The evaluation of the GLUT-1 score and continuous data showed significantly lower GLUT-1 levels in sarcomas (mean 5.1%, SD 6.2) versus carcinomas and melanomas (mean 16.5%/ 19.0%, SD 17.3/ 20.9, p = 0.001). The expression of CAIX correlated mildly positively with GLUT-1 (p = 0.018, rho = 0.250) as well as with Ki-67 (p = 0.014, rho = 0.295). MVD showed a significantly lower level in melanomas (mean 12.6, SD 7.7) versus sarcomas and carcinomas (mean 21.8/ 26.9, SD 13.0/20.4, p = 0.001). Median vascularity and blood volume were significantly lower in sarcomas (mean 10.4%, SD 11.0, and mean 6.3%, SD 6.5, respectively) versus carcinomas (mean 39.2%, SD 16.4 and mean 33.0%, SD 25.6, respectively) and melanomas (mean 36.0%, SD 18.3, and 31.5%, SD 24.5). Between the 3 histological groups, there was neither a significant difference in the GLUT-1 and CAIX score and continuous data, nor the Ki

  3. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  5. Enamel Hypoplasia of Deciduous Canine

    OpenAIRE

    加納, 隆; 平出, 百合子; 舟津, 聡; 峯村, 隆一; 恩田, 千爾; 正木, 岳馬

    1993-01-01

    From observation of frequency and measurement of the lengths and widths of enamel hypoplasia on the maxillary and mandibular deciduous canines, extracted from 50 Indians' skulls, the following results were obtained. 1) Enamel hypoplasia occurred in 15% of the maxillary deciduous canines and 44% of the mandibular deciduous canines. 2) Symmetrical cases of enamel hypoplasia occurred in 8.0% of the maxillary deciduous canins and in 34% of the mandibular deciduous canines. The enamel hypoplasia o...

  6. [New coronavirus infection: new challenges, new legacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: emergió una nueva enfermedad por coronavirus. Su historia natural y sus determinantes todavía se están investigando. Se carece de una publicación que estudie todos los casos identificados en el mundo, por lo que el objetivo de este artículo estriba en describir los casos y defunciones por el nuevo coronavirus. Métodos: se revisaron las publicaciones en línea de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, del Centro Europeo para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades y de la Eurosurveillance. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los casos, se calcularon los límites para proporciones con un alfa del 0.05 por prueba de Wilson y una prueba t de Student para diferencia de medias. Resultados: son 17 casos confirmados y 11 defunciones en varios países de Asia y Europa; predominaron los pacientes masculinos. La tasa de letalidad fue de 64.70 %; los que fallecieron se hospitalizaron cinco días después de los primeros síntomas. Se carece de publicaciones que describan la historia natural de la enfermedad; sin embargo, lo descrito en las publicaciones de Europa coincide con los resultados de este estudio. Conclusión: es necesario continuar con la vigilancia epidemiológica y la realización de nuevos estudios para evaluar el impacto de esta enfermedad en la salud pública internacional.

  7. Relative biological effectiveness and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin for a potential combination of neutron capture therapy and fast-neutron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Ohashi, Fumihito; Nishimura, Ryohei; Sasaki, Nobuo; Saito, Isao; Wakabayashi, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Akira

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the potential efficacy of fission neutrons from a fast-neutron reactor for the treatment of radioresistant tumors, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and tolerance dose of fission neutrons in canine skin were determined. The forelimbs of 34 healthy mongrel dogs received a single dose of fission neutrons (5.6, 6.8, 8.2, 9.6 or 11 Gy) or 137Cs gamma rays (10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 Gy). Based on observations of radiodermatitis for each radiation, the single-fraction RBE of fission neutrons in the sixth month was calculated as approximately 3. The tolerance doses of fission neutrons and gamma rays, defined as the highest doses giving no moist desquamation on the irradiated skin in the recovery phase, were estimated as 7.6 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. The tolerance dose of 7.6 Gy of fission neutrons included 5.0 Gy of fast neutrons possessing high anti-tumor effects and 1.4 x 10(12) n/cm2 of thermal neutrons, which could be applicable to neutron capture therapy (NCT). The combination of fast-neutron therapy and NCT using a fast-neutron reactor might be useful for the treatment of radioresistant tumors.

  8. Establishment of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection and differentiation of canine distemper virus infected and vaccinated animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-Fei; Liu, Chun-Guo; Tian, Jin; Jiang, Yi-Tong; Zhang, Xiao-Zhan; Chai, Hong-Liang; Yang, Tian-Kuo; Yin, Xiu-Chen; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Liu, Ming; Hua, Yu-Ping; Qu, Lian-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Although widespread vaccination against canine distemper virus (CDV) has been conducted for many decades, several canine distemper outbreaks in vaccinated animals have been reported frequently. In order to detect and differentiate the wild-type and vaccine strains of the CDV from the vaccinated animals, a novel reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method was developed. A set of four primers-two internal and two external-were designed to target the H gene for the specific detection of wild-type CDV variants. The CDV-H RT-LAMP assay rapidly amplified the target gene, within 60 min, using a water bath held at a constant temperature of 65°C. The assay was 100-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, with a detection limit of 10(-1)TCID50ml(-1). The system showed a preference for wild-type CDV, and exhibited less sensitivity to canine parvovirus, canine adenovirus type 1 and type 2, canine coronavirus, and canine parainfluenza virus. The assay was validated using 102 clinical samples obtained from vaccinated dog farms, and the results were comparable to a multiplex nested RT-PCR assay. The specific CDV-H RT-LAMP assay provides a simple, rapid, and sensitive tool for the detection of canines infected with wild-type CDV from canines vaccinated with attenuated vaccine.

  9. Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU-MING DUAN; XIAO-PING DONG; SARS RESEARCH TEAM; XIN-SHENG ZHAO; RUI-FU WEN; JING-JING HUANG; GUO-HUA PI; SU-XIANG ZHANG; JUN HAN; SHENG-LI BI; LI RUAN

    2003-01-01

    The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.

  10. The Membrane Protein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Functions as a Novel Cytosolic Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern To Promote Beta Interferon Induction via a Toll-Like-Receptor-Related TRAF3-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs reside in either the endolysosome or the cytoplasm to sense pathogen-derived RNAs, DNAs, or synthetic analogs of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, such as poly(I:C. However, it remains elusive whether or not a pathogen-derived protein can function as a cytosolic pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP. In this study, we demonstrate that delivering the membrane gene of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV into HEK293T, HEK293ET, and immobilized murine bone marrow-derived macrophage (J2-Mφ cells significantly upregulates beta interferon (IFN-β production. Both NF-κB and TBK1-IRF3 signaling cascades are activated by M gene products. M protein rather than M mRNA is responsible for M-mediated IFN-β induction that is preferentially associated with the activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR adaptor proteins MyD88, TIRAP, and TICAM2 but not the RIG-I signaling cascade. Blocking the secretion of M protein by brefeldin A (BFA failed to reverse the M-mediated IFN-β induction. The antagonist of both TLR2 and TLR4 did not impede M-mediated IFN-β induction, indicating that the driving force for the activation of IFN-β production was generated from inside the cells. Inhibition of TRAF3 expression by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA did not prevent M-mediated IFN-β induction. SARS-CoV pseudovirus could induce IFN-β production in an M rather than M(V68A dependent manner, since the valine-to-alanine alteration at residue 68 in M protein markedly inhibited IFN-β production. Overall, our study indicates for the first time that a pathogen-derived protein is able to function as a cytosolic PAMP to stimulate type I interferon production by activating a noncanonical TLR signaling cascade in a TRAF3-independent manner.

  11. Recombination in Avian Gamma-Coronavirus Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Jackwood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recombination in the family Coronaviridae has been well documented and is thought to be a contributing factor in the emergence and evolution of different coronaviral genotypes as well as different species of coronavirus. However, there are limited data available on the frequency and extent of recombination in coronaviruses in nature and particularly for the avian gamma-coronaviruses where only recently the emergence of a turkey coronavirus has been attributed solely to recombination. In this study, the full-length genomes of eight avian gamma-coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV isolates were sequenced and along with other full-length IBV genomes available from GenBank were analyzed for recombination. Evidence of recombination was found in every sequence analyzed and was distributed throughout the entire genome. Areas that have the highest occurrence of recombination are located in regions of the genome that code for nonstructural proteins 2, 3 and 16, and the structural spike glycoprotein. The extent of the recombination observed, suggests that this may be one of the principal mechanisms for generating genetic and antigenic diversity within IBV. These data indicate that reticulate evolutionary change due to recombination in IBV, likely plays a major role in the origin and adaptation of the virus leading to new genetic types and strains of the virus.

  12. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Raj, V Stalin; Muth, Doreen; Meyer, Benjamin; Kallies, Stephan; Smits, Saskia L; Wollny, Robert; Bestebroer, Theo M; Specht, Sabine; Suliman, Tasnim; Zimmermann, Katrin; Binger, Tabea; Eckerle, Isabella; Tschapka, Marco; Zaki, Ali M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Haagmans, Bart L; Drosten, Christian

    2012-12-11

    A new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC is a member of the same virus genus as SARS-CoV but constitutes a sister species. Here we investigated whether it might utilize angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV receptor. Knowledge of the receptor is highly critical because the restriction of the SARS receptor to deep compartments of the human respiratory tract limited the spread of SARS. In baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, lentiviral transduction of human ACE2 (hACE2) conferred permissiveness and replication for SARS-CoV but not for hCoV-EMC. Monkey and human kidney cells (LLC-MK2, Vero, and 769-P) and swine kidney cells were permissive for both viruses, but only SARS-CoV infection could be blocked by anti-hACE2 antibody and could be neutralized by preincubation of virus with soluble ACE2. Our data show that ACE2 is neither necessary nor sufficient for hCoV-EMC replication. Moreover, hCoV-EMC, but not SARS-CoV, replicated in cell lines from Rousettus, Rhinolophus, Pipistrellus, Myotis, and Carollia bats, representing four major chiropteran families from both suborders. As human CoV normally cannot replicate in bat cells from different families, this suggests that hCoV-EMC might use a receptor molecule that is conserved in bats, pigs, and humans, implicating a low barrier against cross-host transmission. IMPORTANCE A new human coronavirus (hCoV) emerged recently in the Middle East. The disease resembled SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), causing a fatal epidemic in 2002/2003. Coronaviruses have a reservoir in bats and because this novel virus is related to SARS-CoV, we investigated whether it might replicate in bat cells and use the same receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 [ACE2]). This knowledge is

  13. Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Chan, Jasper F W

    2015-12-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemics have proven the ability of coronaviruses to cross species barrier and emerge rapidly in humans. Other coronaviruses such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are also known to cause major disease epidemics in animals with huge economic loss. This special issue in Virology Journal aims to highlight the advances and key discoveries in the animal origin, viral evolution, epidemiology, diagnostics and pathogenesis of the emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in both humans and animals.

  14. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Clifton; Chubet, Richard; Holtz, Kathy; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Cox, Manon; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Given periodic outbreaks of fatal human infections caused by coronaviruses, development of an optimal coronavirus vaccine platform capable of rapid production is an ongoing priority. This chapter describes the use of an insect cell expression system for rapid production of a recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Detailed methods are presented for expression, purification, and release testing of SARS recombinant spike protein antigen, followed by adjuvant formulation and animal testing. The methods herein described for rapid development of a highly protective SARS vaccine are equally suited to rapid development of vaccines against other fatal human coronavirus infections, e.g., the MERS coronavirus.

  15. Canine tooth size and fitness in male mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steven R; Setchell, Joanna M; Charpentier, Marie; Knapp, Leslie A; Wickings, E Jean

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection theory explains the evolution of exaggerated male morphologies and weaponry, but the fitness consequences of developmental and age-related changes in these features remain poorly understood. This long-term study of mandrill monkeys (Mandrillus sphinx) demonstrates how age-related changes in canine tooth weaponry and adult canine size correlate closely with male lifetime reproductive success. Combining long-term demographic and morphometric data reveals that male fitness covaries simply and directly with canine ontogeny, adult maximum size, and wear. However, fitness is largely independent of other somatometrics. Male mandrills sire offspring almost exclusively when their canines exceed approximately 30 mm, or two-thirds of average adult value (45 mm). Moreover, sires have larger canines than nonsires. The tooth diminishes through wear as animals age, corresponding with, and perhaps influencing, reproductive senescence. These factors combine to constrain male reproductive opportunities to a brief timespan, defined by the period of maximum canine length. Sexually-selected weaponry, especially when it is nonrenewable like the primate canine tooth, is intimately tied to the male life course. Our analyses of this extremely dimorphic species indicate that sexual selection is closely intertwined with growth, development, and aging, pointing to new directions for sexual selection theory. Moreover, the primate canine tooth has potential as a simple mammalian system for testing genetically-based models of aging. Finally, the tooth may record details of life histories in fossil primates, especially when sexual selection has played a role in the evolution of dimorphism.

  16. Proteins of the canine seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annice Aquino-Cortez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Studies have been performed to identify the proteins present in canine seminal plasma (SP and relate them to sperm quality as well as to discover molecular markers of reproductive tract diseases. There is evidence that heparin-binding proteins, zinc-binding proteins, and lactoferrin as well as the matrix metalloproteinase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes are associated with canine sperm quality. Other studies indicate that prolactin and enzymes like arginine esterase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase could be successfully used as biomarkers of reproductive disorders. Thus, the present literature review aims to address aspects related to proteins of the canine SP, their influence on fertility, and their importance as biomarkers of reproductive disorders.

  17. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  18. Canine recombinant adenovirus vector induces an immunogenicity-related gene expression profile in skin-migrated CD11b⁺ -type DCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Contreras

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2 as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b(+ -type and CD103(+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b(+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103(+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b(+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b(+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103(+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness.

  19. Human coronavirus EMC is not the same as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Stanley; Zhao, Jincun

    2013-01-15

    A newly identified betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has been isolated from several patients with respiratory and renal disease in the Middle East. While only a few infected patients have been identified, the mortality of the infection is greater than 50%. Like its better-known cousin severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), HCoV-EMC appears to have originated from bats. In a recent article in mBio, Müller et al. described several important differences between the two viruses [M. A. Müller et al., mBio 3(6):e00515-12, 2012, doi:10.1128/mBio.00515-12]. Unlike SARS-CoV, HCoV-EMC can directly infect bat cells. As important, HCoV-EMC does not enter cells using the SARS-CoV receptor, human angiotensin-converting receptor-2 (hACE2). These results provide a strong incentive for identifying the host cell receptor used by HCoV-EMC. Identification of the receptor will provide insight into the pathogenesis of pulmonary and renal disease and may also suggest novel therapeutic interventions.

  20. Date of origin of the SARS coronavirus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Lun

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new respiratory infectious epidemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, broke out and spread throughout the world. By now the putative pathogen of SARS has been identified as a new coronavirus, a single positive-strand RNA virus. RNA viruses commonly have a high rate of genetic mutation. It is therefore important to know the mutation rate of the SARS coronavirus as it spreads through the population. Moreover, finding a date for the last common ancestor of SARS coronavirus strains would be useful for understanding the circumstances surrounding the emergence of the SARS pandemic and the rate at which SARS coronavirus diverge. Methods We propose a mathematical model to estimate the evolution rate of the SARS coronavirus genome and the time of the last common ancestor of the sequenced SARS strains. Under some common assumptions and justifiable simplifications, a few simple equations incorporating the evolution rate (K and time of the last common ancestor of the strains (T0 can be deduced. We then implemented the least square method to estimate K and T0 from the dataset of sequences and corresponding times. Monte Carlo stimulation was employed to discuss the results. Results Based on 6 strains with accurate dates of host death, we estimated the time of the last common ancestor to be about August or September 2002, and the evolution rate to be about 0.16 base/day, that is, the SARS coronavirus would on average change a base every seven days. We validated our method by dividing the strains into two groups, which coincided with the results from comparative genomics. Conclusion The applied method is simple to implement and avoid the difficulty and subjectivity of choosing the root of phylogenetic tree. Based on 6 strains with accurate date of host death, we estimated a time of the last common ancestor, which is coincident with epidemic investigations, and an evolution rate in the same range as that reported for the HIV-1 virus.

  1. Possible SARS coronavirus transmission during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Michael D; Loutfy, Mona; McDonald, L Clifford; Martinez, Kennth F; Ofner, Mariana; Wong, Tom; Wallington, Tamara; Gold, Wayne L; Mederski, Barbara; Green, Karen; Low, Donald E

    2004-02-01

    Infection of healthcare workers with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to occur primarily by either contact or large respiratory droplet transmission. However, infrequent healthcare worker infections occurred despite the use of contact and droplet precautions, particularly during certain aerosol-generating medical procedures. We investigated a possible cluster of SARS-CoV infections in healthcare workers who used contact and droplet precautions during attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a SARS patient. Unlike previously reported instances of transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, the index case-patient was unresponsive, and the intubation procedure was performed quickly and without difficulty. However, before intubation, the patient was ventilated with a bag-valve-mask that may have contributed to aerosolization of SARS-CoV. On the basis of the results of this investigation and previous reports of SARS transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, a systematic approach to the problem is outlined, including the use of the following: 1) administrative controls, 2) environmental engineering controls, 3) personal protective equipment, and 4) quality control.

  2. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine S; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R; Siddell, Stuart G

    2015-06-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP.

  3. Coronaviruses in brain tissue from patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, R B; Lisby, G; Frederiksen, J L

    2001-01-01

    Brain tissue from 25 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) and as controls brain tissue from 36 patients without neurological disease was tested for the presence of human coronaviral RNA. Four PCR assays with primers specific for N-protein of human coronavirus strain 229E...... in the proportion of positive signals from the MS patients compared to controls. Evidence for a chronic infection with the human coronaviruses strain 229E or OC43 in brain tissue from patients with MS or controls has not been found in this study....

  4. Phylogeny of canine coronavirus (CCoV from Brazilian dogs based on membrane protein partial sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Guirao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a anteriormente desconhecida diversidade molecular de amostras brasileiras de Coronavírus canino (CCoV. Vinte e duas amostras foram submetidas à análise da sequência parcial do gene codificador da proteína de membrana, sendo 12 classificadas como CCoV Tipo II e 10 como CCoV Tipo I e uma possível sublinhagem tipicamente brasileira foi encontrada para o CCoV Tipo II.

  5. Phylogeny of canine coronavirus (CCoV) from Brazilian dogs based on membrane protein partial sequences

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Guirao; Souza, S. P.; JEREZ, J.A.; Richtzenhain, L.J.; Brandão, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo descreve a anteriormente desconhecida diversidade molecular de amostras brasileiras de Coronavírus canino (CCoV). Vinte e duas amostras foram submetidas à análise da sequência parcial do gene codificador da proteína de membrana, sendo 12 classificadas como CCoV Tipo II e 10 como CCoV Tipo I e uma possível sublinhagem tipicamente brasileira foi encontrada para o CCoV Tipo II.

  6. Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Stacy E

    2008-03-01

    Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed.

  7. Kissing mandibular canines: Serendipity at its best

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmigration of teeth is a relatively less well known phenomenon. Its etiology is not so well understood. We present a case of bilateral transmigration of mandibular canines with a type 5 classification pattern (Muparappu in a 21 year old male patient with emphasis on its etiology and complications accompanying its management.

  8. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants.

  9. Utility of feline coronavirus antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; le Poder, Sophie; Burr, Paul; Decaro, Nicola; Graham, Elizabeth; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Jarrett, Oswald; McDonald, Michael; Meli, Marina L

    2015-02-01

    Eight different tests for antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) were evaluated for attributes that are important in situations in veterinary practice. We compared four indirect immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT), one enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (FCoV Immunocomb; Biogal) and three rapid immunochromatographic (RIM) tests against a panel of samples designated by consensus as positive or negative. Specificity was 100% for all but the two IFATs based on transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), at 83.3% and 97.5%. The IFAT and ELISA tests were best for obtaining an antibody titre and for working in the presence of virus. The RIM tests were the best for obtaining a result quickly (10-15 mins); of these, the Speed F-Corona was the most sensitive, at 92.4%, followed by FASTest feline infectious peritonitis (FIP; 84.6%) and Anigen Rapid FCoV antibody test (64.1%). Sensitivity was 100% for the ELISA, one FCoV IFAT and one TGEV IFAT; and 98.2% for a second TGEV IFA and 96.1% for a second FCoV IFAT. All tests worked with effusions, even when only blood products were stipulated in the instruction manual. The ELISA and Anigen RIM tests were best for small quantities of sample. The most appropriate FCoV antibody test to use depends on the reason for testing: in excluding a diagnosis of FIP, sensitivity, specificity, small sample quantity, rapidity and ability to work in the presence of virus all matter. For FCoV screening, speed and sensitivity are important, and for FCoV elimination antibody titre is essential. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  10. Achieving a golden mean: mechanisms by which coronaviruses ensure synthesis of the correct stoichiometric ratios of viral proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Ewan P; Rakauskaite, Rasa; Taylor, Deborah R; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2010-05-01

    In retroviruses and the double-stranded RNA totiviruses, the efficiency of programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting is critical for ensuring the proper ratios of upstream-encoded capsid proteins to downstream-encoded replicase enzymes. The genomic organizations of many other frameshifting viruses, including the coronaviruses, are very different, in that their upstream open reading frames encode nonstructural proteins, the frameshift-dependent downstream open reading frames encode enzymes involved in transcription and replication, and their structural proteins are encoded by subgenomic mRNAs. The biological significance of frameshifting efficiency and how the relative ratios of proteins encoded by the upstream and downstream open reading frames affect virus propagation has not been explored before. Here, three different strategies were employed to test the hypothesis that the -1 PRF signals of coronaviruses have evolved to produce the correct ratios of upstream- to downstream-encoded proteins. Specifically, infectious clones of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus harboring mutations that lower frameshift efficiency decreased infectivity by >4 orders of magnitude. Second, a series of frameshift-promoting mRNA pseudoknot mutants was employed to demonstrate that the frameshift signals of the SARS-associated coronavirus and mouse hepatitis virus have evolved to promote optimal frameshift efficiencies. Finally, we show that a previously described frameshift attenuator element does not actually affect frameshifting per se but rather serves to limit the fraction of ribosomes available for frameshifting. The findings of these analyses all support a "golden mean" model in which viruses use both programmed ribosomal frameshifting and translational attenuation to control the relative ratios of their encoded proteins.

  11. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  12. Geographic distribution of MERS coronavirus among dromedary camels, Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusken, Chantal B E M; Messadi, Lilia; Feyisa, Ashenafi; Ularamu, Hussaini; Godeke, Gert Jan; Danmarwa, Agom; Dawo, Fufa; Jemli, Mohamed; Melaku, Simenew; Shamaki, David; Woma, Yusuf; Wungak, Yiltawe; Gebremedhin, Endrias Zewdu; Zutt, Ilse; Bosch, Berend Jan; Haagmans, Bart L.; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2014-01-01

    We found serologic evidence for the circulation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus among dromedary camels in Nigeria, Tunisia, and Ethiopia. Circulation of the virus among dromedaries across broad areas of Africa may indicate that this disease is currently underdiagnosed in humans outsi

  13. MERS Coronavirus in Dromedary Camel Herd Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hemida, Maged G.; Chu, Daniel K. W.; Poon, Leo L.M.; Perera, Ranawaka A. P. M.; Alhammadi, Mohammad A.; Ng, Hoi-yee; Siu, Lewis Y.; Guan, Yi; Alnaeem, Abdelmohsen; Peiris, Malik

    2014-01-01

    A prospective study of a dromedary camel herd during the 2013–14 calving season showed Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection of calves and adults. Virus was isolated from the nose and feces but more frequently from the nose. Preexisting neutralizing antibody did not appear to protect against infection.

  14. Transmission of MERS-coronavirus in household contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosten, Christian; Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Al-Masri, Malak; Hossain, Raheela; Madani, Hosam; Sieberg, Andrea; Bosch, Berend Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Alhakeem, Raafat F; Assiri, Abdullah M; Hajomar, Waleed; Albarrak, Ali M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Zumla, Alimuddin I; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strategies to contain the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) depend on knowledge of the rate of human-to-human transmission, including subclinical infections. A lack of serologic tools has hindered targeted studies of transmission. METHODS: We studied 26 index patien

  15. [Nosocomial infections due to human coronaviruses in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneur, A; Legrand, M C; Picard, B; Baron, R; Talbot, P J; de Parscau, L; Sizun, J

    2002-01-01

    Human coronaviruses, with two known serogroups named 229-E and OC-43, are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The large RNA is surrounded by a nucleoprotein (protein N). The envelop contains 2 or 3 glycoproteins: spike protein (or protein S), matrix protein (or protein M) and a hemagglutinin (or protein HE). Their pathogen role remains unclear because their isolation is difficult. Reliable and rapid methods as immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction allow new researches on epidemiology. Human coronaviruses can survive for as long as 6 days in suspension and 3 hours after drying on surfaces, suggesting that they could be a source of hospital-acquired infections. Two prospective studies conducted in a neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit demonstrated a significant association of coronavirus-positive nasopharyngal samples with respiratory illness in hospitalised preterm neonates. Positive samples from staff suggested either a patient-to-staff or a staff-to-patient transmission. No cross-infection were observed from community-acquired respiratory-syncitial virus or influenza-infected children to neonates. Universal precautions with hand washing and surface desinfection could be proposed to prevent coronavirus transmission.

  16. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  17. Human coronavirus EMC does not require the SARS-coronavirus receptor and maintains broad replicative capability in mammalian cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Müller (Marcel); V.S. Raj (V. Stalin); D. Muth; B. Meyer (Bernhard); S. Kallies (Stephan); S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Wollny (Robert); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); S. Specht (Sabine); T. Suliman (Tasnim); K. Zimmermann (Kathrin); T. Binger (Tabea); I. Eckerle; M. Tschapka (Marco); A.M. Zaki (Ali); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); C. Drosten (Christian)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA new human coronavirus (hCoV-EMC) has emerged very recently in the Middle East. The clinical presentation resembled that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as encountered during the epidemic in 2002/2003. In both cases, acute renal failure was observed in humans. HCoV-EMC i

  18. Coronavirus-like particles in laboratory rabbits with different syndromes in The Netherlands (Coronavirus-like particles in rabbits).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.S. Teppema; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractVirus-like particles were identified from the plasma of rabbits which developed pleural effusion disease after inoculation with different strains of Treponema pallidum. These particles were considered coronavirus-like on the basis of their size, morphology, and buoyant density. Clinical

  19. Coronavirus-like particles in laboratory rabbits with different syndromes in The Netherlands (Coronavirus-like particles in rabbits).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); J.S. Teppema; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractVirus-like particles were identified from the plasma of rabbits which developed pleural effusion disease after inoculation with different strains of Treponema pallidum. These particles were considered coronavirus-like on the basis of their size, morphology, and buoyant density. Clinical

  20. Alisporivir inhibits MERS- and SARS-coronavirus replication in cell culture, but not SARS-coronavirus infection in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Adriaan H; Falzarano, Darryl; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Beugeling, Corrine; Fett, Craig; Martellaro, Cynthia; Posthuma, Clara C; Feldmann, Heinz; Perlman, Stanley; Snijder, Eric J

    2017-01-15

    Currently, there is no registered treatment for infections with emerging zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS- and MERS-coronavirus. We here report that in cultured cells low-micromolar concentrations of alisporivir, a non-immunosuppressive cyclosporin A-analog, inhibit the replication of four different coronaviruses, including MERS- and SARS-coronavirus. Ribavirin was found to further potentiate the antiviral effect of alisporivir in these cell culture-based infection models, but this combination treatment was unable to improve the outcome of SARS-CoV infection in a mouse model. Nevertheless, our data provide a basis to further explore the potential of Cyp inhibitors as host-directed, broad-spectrum inhibitors of coronavirus replication.

  1. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated ...

  2. Genomic and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of infectious bronchitis coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolnik, Celia

    2015-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a Gammacoronavirus that causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in chickens. A QX-like strain was analysed by high-throughput Illumina sequencing and genetic variation across the entire viral genome was explored at the sub-consensus level by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Thirteen open reading frames (ORFs) in the order 5'-UTR-1a-1ab-S-3a-3b-E-M-4b-4c-5a-5b-N-6b-3'UTR were predicted. The relative frequencies of missense: silent SNPs were calculated to obtain a comparative measure of variability in specific genes. The most variable ORFs in descending order were E, 3b, 5'UTR, N, 1a, S, 1ab, M, 4c, 5a, 6b. The E and 3b protein products play key roles in coronavirus virulence, and RNA folding demonstrated that the mutations in the 5'UTR did not alter the predicted secondary structure. The frequency of SNPs in the Spike (S) protein ORF of 0.67% was below the genomic average of 0.76%. Only three SNPS were identified in the S1 subunit, none of which were located in hypervariable region (HVR) 1 or HVR2. The S2 subunit was considerably more variable containing 87% of the polymorphisms detected across the entire S protein. The S2 subunit also contained a previously unreported multi-A insertion site and a stretch of four consecutive mutated amino acids, which mapped to the stalk region of the spike protein. Template-based protein structure modelling produced the first theoretical model of the IBV spike monomer. Given the lack of diversity observed at the sub-consensus level, the tenet that the HVRs in the S1 subunit are very tolerant of amino acid changes produced by genetic drift is questioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of feline coronavirus in captive Felidae in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Melissa; Citino, Scott; McNabb, Amanda Hillis; Moffatt, Amy Serino; Gertz, Karen; Kania, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important pathogen of domestic and nondomestic Felidae. Investigation into the prevalence of FCoV in exotic Felidae has relied primarily on serology. The usefulness of genetic detection of FCoV using reverse transcription and nested polymerase chain reaction (RT/nPCR) for viral screening was investigated. Seventy-five biologic samples, primarily feces, from captive felids from 11 institutions were tested using PCR. Serum samples collected from all but 12 of these animals were tested for antibodies to type I and type II FCoV by indirect immunofluorescence. Twenty-four animals were positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Twenty-nine animals were seropositive to type I and/or type II FCoV. From serologic data, infection with a virus antigenically related to FCoV type I occurred most commonly. Serology did not correlate with virus shedding because 13 animals were seronegative to FCoV type I and II but positive using RT/nPCR for virus. Conversely, 20 animals were seropositive but negative using RT/nPCR for FCoV. Some of the populations in which virus was detected had experienced health problems, including feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), necrotizing colitis, and mild enteritis. In addition to its role in FIP, this virus may play a role in gastrointestinal diseases of infected animals. This study demonstrates that FCoV is a significant infectious agent of captive felids because over half of the animals tested were positive by viral genetic detection, serology, or both. Dependence upon one method for detection of infection is unreliable.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Lau, Candy C Y; Wong, Emily Y M; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K L; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C Y; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-05-07

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5'-UCUAAAC-3' as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Y. Woo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23 from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3% and 59 (100% of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001. Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  7. Insectivorous bats carry host specific astroviruses and coronaviruses across different regions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kerstin; Zeus, Veronika; Kwasnitschka, Linda; Kerth, Gerald; Haase, Martin; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Recently several infectious agents with a zoonotic potential have been detected in different bat species. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the transmission dynamics within and between bat species, as well as from bats to other mammals. To better understand these processes, it is important to compare the phylogenetic relationships between different agents to that of their respective hosts. In this study, we analysed more than 950 urine, faeces and oral swab samples collected from 653 bats from mainly four species (Myotis nattereri, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) for the presence of coronavirus, paramyxovirus and astrovirus related nucleic acids located in three different regions of Germany. Using hemi-nested reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification of fragments within the highly conserved regions of the respective RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, we detected astrovirus sequences at an overall detection rate of 25.8% of the analysed animals, with a maximum of 65% in local populations. The detection rates for coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses were distinctly lower, ranging between 1.4% and 3.1%. Interestingly, the sequence similarities in samples collected from the same bat species in different geographical areas were distinctly larger than the sequence similarities between samples from different species sampled at the same location. This indicates that host specificity may be more important than host ecology for the presence of certain viruses in bats.

  8. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  9. Isolation of MERS Coronavirus from a Dromedary Camel, Qatar, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, V. Stalin; Farag, Elmoubasher A.B.A.; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Lamers, Mart M.; Pas, Suzan D.; Voermans, Jolanda; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Al-Mawlawi, Naema; Al-Romaihi, Hamad E.; El-Sayed, Ahmed M.; Mohran, Khaled A.; Ghobashy, Hazem; Alhajri, Farhoud; Al-Thani, Mohamed; Al-Marri, Salih A.; El-Maghraby, Mamdouh M.; Koopmans, Marion P.G.

    2014-01-01

    We obtained the full genome of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a camel in Qatar. This virus is highly similar to the human England/Qatar 1 virus isolated in 2012. The MERS-CoV from the camel efficiently replicated in human cells, providing further evidence for the zoonotic potential of MERS-CoV from camels. PMID:25075761

  10. Removal of retained upper canine in the middle. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bienvenido Mesa Reinaldo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of upper canine is one of the most common retentions that occur in permanent teething, this event may be related to that, this is the last tooth to erupt in the lower, also is associated with involution of the jaws, because eruption path is long and complex, often facing unfavorable. A case of a female patient, aged 25, of rural origin, which does not suffer from any disease, which was seen because of discomfort in area 23, ie in the left upper permanent canine. It was noted in the oral examination persistent left superior temporal canine, 63, and periapical and panoramic X-rays showed the presence of 23 included in an intermediate position. It was decided to make a modification of surgical technique with a conservative view of the palatal cortical bone. Was performed successfully including resection of the canine.

  11. Comparison of canine parvovirus with mink enteritis virus by restriction site mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, G K; Tratschin, J D; Siegl, G

    1981-01-01

    The genomes of canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus were compared by restriction enzyme analysis of their replicative-form DNAs. Of 79 mapped sites, 68, or 86%, were found to be common for both types of DNA, indicating that canine parvovirus and mink enteritis virus are closely related viruses. Whether they evolved from a common precursor or whether canine parvovirus is derived from mink enteritis virus, however, cannot be deduced from our present data.

  12. The nucleocapsid protein of human coronavirus NL63.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Zuwała

    Full Text Available Human coronavirus (HCoV NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E. Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV.

  13. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Boniotti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii, three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros, and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula, and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii. This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses.

  14. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding Xiang; Fung, To Sing; Chong, Kelvin Kian-Long; Shukla, Aditi; Hilgenfeld, Rolf

    2014-09-01

    The huge RNA genome of SARS coronavirus comprises a number of open reading frames that code for a total of eight accessory proteins. Although none of these are essential for virus replication, some appear to have a role in virus pathogenesis. Notably, some SARS-CoV accessory proteins have been shown to modulate the interferon signaling pathways and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The structural information on these proteins is also limited, with only two (p7a and p9b) having their structures determined by X-ray crystallography. This review makes an attempt to summarize the published knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins, with an emphasis on their involvement in virus-host interaction. The accessory proteins of other coronaviruses are also briefly discussed. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses" (see Introduction by Hilgenfeld and Peiris (2013)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Receptor recognition and cross-species infections of SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang

    2013-10-01

    Receptor recognition is a major determinant of the host range, cross-species infections, and pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). A defined receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV spike protein specifically recognizes its host receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This article reviews the latest knowledge about how RBDs from different SARS-CoV strains interact with ACE2 from several animal species. Detailed research on these RBD/ACE2 interactions has established important principles on host receptor adaptations, cross-species infections, and future evolution of SARS-CoV. These principles may apply to other emerging animal viruses, including the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Korean cats with natural feline coronavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myoung-Heon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline coronavirus is comprised of two pathogenic biotypes consisting of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV, which are both divided into two serotypes. To examine the prevalence of Korean cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and II, fecal samples were obtained from 212 cats (107 pet and 105 feral in 2009. Results Fourteen cats were FCoV-positive, including infections with type I FCoV (n = 8, type II FCoV (n = 4, and types I and II co-infection (n = 2. Low seroprevalences (13.7%, 29/212 of FCoV were identified in chronically ill cats (19.3%, 16/83 and healthy cats (10.1%, 13/129. Conclusions Although the prevalence of FCoV infection was not high in comparison to other countries, there was a higher prevalence of type I FCoV in Korean felines. The prevalence of FCoV antigen and antibody in Korean cats are expected to gradually increase due to the rising numbers of stray and companion cats.

  17. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  18. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  19. Age estimation from canine volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Danilo; Gaudio, Daniel; Guercini, Nicola; Cipriani, Filippo; Gibelli, Daniele; Caputi, Sergio; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Techniques for estimation of biological age are constantly evolving and are finding daily application in the forensic radiology field in cases concerning the estimation of the chronological age of a corpse in order to reconstruct the biological profile, or of a living subject, for example in cases of immigration of people without identity papers from a civil registry. The deposition of teeth secondary dentine and consequent decrease of pulp chamber in size are well known as aging phenomena, and they have been applied to the forensic context by the development of age estimation procedures, such as Kvaal-Solheim and Cameriere methods. The present study takes into consideration canines pulp chamber volume related to the entire teeth volume, with the aim of proposing new regression formulae for age estimation using 91 cone beam computerized scans and a freeware open-source software, in order to permit affordable reproducibility of volumes calculation.

  20. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  1. Differentiation-inducing and anti-proliferative activities of lupeol on canine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogihara, Kikumi; Naya, Yuko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Hata, Keishi

    2014-01-01

    Canine melanoma is the most common oral malignant tumor reported in the field of veterinary medicine. We found that lupeol, a lupine triterpene, inhibited mouse melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing cell differentiation. In the present study, we examined the differentiation-inducing activities of lupeol on 4 canine melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The induction of canine melanoma cell differentiation by lupeol was confirmed by evaluating some differentiation markers such as tyrosinase with real-time RT-PCR. Furthermore, we transplanted canine melanoma cells into a severe combined immunodeficiency mouse, and studied the anti-progressive effects of lupeol on tumor tissue. The gene expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related protein-2, which are markers of pigment cell differentiation, was induced in 4 canine oral malignant melanoma cells by lupeol, and the agent markedly inhibited tumor progression in canine melanoma-bearing mice.

  2. Biological Characteristics and Etiological Significance of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus(PRCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xiuping; FENG Li; SHI Hongyan; CHEN Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV), a spike (S) gene natural deletion mutant of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), causes porcine respiratory disease complex. Research advances on porcine respiratory coronavirus were reviewed from four aspects of biological character, the model function for SARS-CoV research, contribution of the immunity to PRCV to protection against TGEV challenge exposure and other etiological significance.

  3. Cryo-electron microscopy structure of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein trimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walls, Alexandra C; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Frenz, Brandon; Rottier, Peter J M; DiMaio, Frank; Rey, Félix A; Veesler, David

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the past few decades by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor-binding and membrane fusion f

  4. Micro Regional Heterogeneity of 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FDG Uptake in Canine Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Relation to Cell Proliferation, Hypoxia and Glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp; Hansen, Anders E.; Oxboel, Jytte; Clemmensen, Andreas E.; El Ali, Henrik H.; Kristensen, Annemarie T.; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Tumour microenvironment heterogeneity is believed to play a key role in cancer progression and therapy resistance. However, little is known about micro regional distribution of hypoxia, glycolysis and proliferation in spontaneous solid tumours. The overall aim was simultaneous investigation of micro regional heterogeneity of 64Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) and 18F-FDG (glycolysis) uptake and correlation to endogenous markers of hypoxia, glycolysis, proliferation and angiogenesis to better therapeutically target aggressive tumour regions and prognosticate outcome. Methods Exploiting the different half-lives of 64Cu-ATSM (13h) and 18F-FDG (2h) enabled simultaneous investigation of micro regional distribution of hypoxia and glycolysis in 145 tumour pieces from four spontaneous canine soft tissue sarcomas. Pairwise measurements of radioactivity and gene expression of endogenous markers of hypoxia (HIF-1α, CAIX), glycolysis (HK2, GLUT1 and GLUT3), proliferation (Ki-67) and angiogenesis (VEGFA and TF) were performed. Dual tracer autoradiography was compared with Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Results Micro regional heterogeneity in hypoxia and glycolysis within and between tumour sections of each tumour piece was observed. The spatial distribution of 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FDG was rather similar within each tumour section as reflected in moderate positive significant correlations between the two tracers (ρ = 0.3920–0.7807; p = 0.0180 –Micro regional heterogeneity of hypoxia and glycolysis was documented in spontaneous canine soft tissue sarcomas. 64Cu-ATSM and 18F-FDG uptakes and distributions showed significant moderate correlations at the micro regional level indicating overlapping, yet different information from the tracers.18F-FDG better reflected cell proliferation as measured by Ki-67 gene expression than 64Cu-ATSM. PMID:26501874

  5. Coronavirus non-structural protein 1 is a major pathogenicity factor: implications for the rational design of coronavirus vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Züst

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated viral vaccines can be generated by targeting essential pathogenicity factors. We report here the rational design of an attenuated recombinant coronavirus vaccine based on a deletion in the coding sequence of the non-structural protein 1 (nsp1. In cell culture, nsp1 of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV, like its SARS-coronavirus homolog, strongly reduced cellular gene expression. The effect of nsp1 on MHV replication in vitro and in vivo was analyzed using a recombinant MHV encoding a deletion in the nsp1-coding sequence. The recombinant MHV nsp1 mutant grew normally in tissue culture, but was severely attenuated in vivo. Replication and spread of the nsp1 mutant virus was restored almost to wild-type levels in type I interferon (IFN receptor-deficient mice, indicating that nsp1 interferes efficiently with the type I IFN system. Importantly, replication of nsp1 mutant virus in professional antigen-presenting cells such as conventional dendritic cells and macrophages, and induction of type I IFN in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, was not impaired. Furthermore, even low doses of nsp1 mutant MHV elicited potent cytotoxic T cell responses and protected mice against homologous and heterologous virus challenge. Taken together, the presented attenuation strategy provides a paradigm for the development of highly efficient coronavirus vaccines.

  6. Environmental and phenotype-related risk factors for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and for canine atopic dermatitis verified by veterinarian in a Finnish dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anturaniemi, Johanna; Uusitalo, Liisa; Hielm-Björkman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to observe whether environmental factors and phenotypic traits are associated with owner-reported skin problems and with veterinary diagnosed canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Data were collected using the validated online DOGRISK questionnaire. Out of the data that the questionnaire provides for analysis, focus was first turned towards addressing questions regarding 'Atopy/allergy (skin symptoms)' using a total of 8643 dogs: 1585 dogs with owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms and 7058 dogs without. A subsequent analysis compared dogs with veterinary-verified CAD (n = 322) as a case group against the 7058 dogs without owner-reported skin symptoms. The association between 21 factors related to the environment, canine phenotypes and breed groups within both populations were analysed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. The environmental factors that showed a significant inverse association with the risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were as following: whether the dog was living in a detached house, whether there were other dogs in the household, and whether the dog was born in the current household. Having over 50% white colour in the coat and living in an extremely clean household were significantly associated with an increased risk of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms. The five breeds demonstrating the highest proportion of owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms were West Highland white terrier, Boxer, English bulldog, Dalmatian and French bulldog. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale dog breed groups 3 (Terriers) and 6 (Scent hounds and related breeds) showed a significantly higher risk for owner-reported allergic/atopic skin symptoms than mixed breed dogs. In the second population, the inverse association was observed between the risk of CAD and the presence of other dogs in the household, and whether the dog had been born in the current household. The

  7. Aspects and clinical procedures of eruptive changes of permanent upper canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Marcia Francisco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Even though the upper canine is the tooth that presents most eruption anomalies, after the third molars, canine retention prevalence in the population is quite low. Local, physiologic and pathologic factors can provide difficulties for the tooth eruptive process. The correct diagnosis in trying to prevent upper canine retention with ectopic eruption is fundamental to choose the ideal treatment, which can be performed by various methods. OBJECTIVE: The present paper has the purpose of approaching aspects related to impacted upper permanent canines by a literature review, including localization and treatment conducts.

  8. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  9. Coronavirus bovino: Infecciones neumoentéricas (Bovine coronavirus:Neumoenteric infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt, Martell, Alexander|

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronavirus bovino (BCoV es reconocido como un importante agente patógeno del ganado bovino, el cual está asociado a tres síndromes clínicos diferentes, Síndrome diarreico neonatal del ternero, caracterizado en terneros recién nacidos por diarreas líquidas profusas, en ocasiones hemorrágicas, anorexia, deshidratación y frecuentemente la muerte; Disentería de Invierno, la cual ocurre primariamente en bovinos adultos y cursa con severas diarreas, algunas veces con restos de sangre y mucus, decrecimiento de laproducción láctea, depresión, anorexia y descargas nasolagrimales; y finalmente como causa de infecciones respiratorias en vacas, incluida la Fiebre de Embarque. En todos los casos el diagnóstico requiere deensayos de laboratorio para la confirmación de BCoV, debido que resulta imposible su reconocimiento basado en elementos clínicos y anatomopatológicos por su similitud con otras enfermedades. Hasta elmomento todos los aislados de BCoV, tanto de cuadros entéricos como respiratorios pertenecen a un solo serotipo, pero con dos o tres subtipos identificados por seroneutralización empleando anticuerposmonoclonales. En adición, diferencias genéticas (por mutaciones puntuales, no delecciones han sido detectadas en el gen S, diferenciando entre aislados entéricos y respiratorios. No obstante, numerosos experimentos han demostrado la protección cruzada experimentada por terneros recién nacidos, privados de calostro ygnotobióticos, inoculados con aislados de BCoV obtenidos a partir de cuadros entéricos y respiratorios de terneros y bovinos adultos, los cuales resultaron protegidos al desafío subsiguiente con cepas de BCoV asociadas a diarrea.

  10. From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Peiris, Malik

    2013-10-01

    This article introduces a series of invited papers in Antiviral Research marking the 10th anniversary of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), caused by a novel coronavirus that emerged in southern China in late 2002. Until that time, coronaviruses had not been recognized as agents causing severe disease in humans, hence, the emergence of the SARS-CoV came as a complete surprise. Research during the past ten years has revealed the existence of a diverse pool of coronaviruses circulating among various bat species and other animals, suggesting that further introductions of highly pathogenic coronaviruses into the human population are not merely probable, but inevitable. The recent emergence of another coronavirus causing severe disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), in humans, has made it clear that coronaviruses pose a major threat to human health, and that more research is urgently needed to elucidate their replication mechanisms, identify potential drug targets, and develop effective countermeasures. In this series, experts in many different aspects of coronavirus replication and disease will provide authoritative, up-to-date reviews of the following topics: - clinical management and infection control of SARS; - reservoir hosts of coronaviruses; - receptor recognition and cross-species transmission of SARS-CoV; - SARS-CoV evasion of innate immune responses; - structures and functions of individual coronaviral proteins; - anti-coronavirus drug discovery and development; and - the public health legacy of the SARS outbreak. Each article will be identified in the last line of its abstract as belonging to the series "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review of Novel Coronavirus, cause of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Vahdat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Isolation of a novel virus belonging to coronavirdae family in September 2012, from patients in Middle East who had died of an acute respiratory illness & renal failure lead to researches on this new virus. Here, a brief review to summarize the events of scientific findings of this new emerging virus. Material and Methods: This review is based on a comprehensive search of three databases (Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane and WHO reports. The searched keywords were new coronavirus, Middle East, acute respieratory distress syndrom & Saudi Arabia. Results: Due to novelty of virus only limited papers exist on searched databases, so only 50 papers were identified which after omitting repeated case reports, papers related to SARS and updated WHO reports, 30 papers were finally reviewed. Conclusion: WHO recommendation is evaluation of all patients with acute respiratory illness and history of travel to Saudi Arabia or other countries where this novel virus is epidemic.

  12. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  13. Feeding ecology and morphology of the upper canines in bears (carnivora: Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Per

    2008-07-01

    The morphology and mechanical strength of the upper canines in all eight extant species of ursids is analyzed, and the findings are discussed in relation to feeding ecology. Ursids have proportionally smaller canines than other large carnivores with a specialized feeding ecology, such as large felids, and the upper canine morphology is both canid-like and felid-like. The giant panda is the most divergent species, and its short, blunt, and cone-like canines appear well adapted for tearing into bamboo. The almost equally herbivorous spectacled bear has a less derived canine morphology. The large canines of the sun bear are divergent from other ursine ursids, and may be an adaptation for tearing open tree trunks in search of insects. Discriminant Analysis is successful in separating ursid species on the basis of canine morphology, but the canines of ursine ursids, and also of the spectacled bear, show greater resemblance among the species than the marked differences in feeding ecology would suggest. This could be in part due to a short evolutionary history, and in part due to canines not having been subjected to much evolutionary selection as has been the case among other large carnivores, such as large felids. Ursids are probably evolutionarily and ecologically successful due to physical size and strength rather than a derived craniodental anatomy.

  14. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Galbany

    Full Text Available Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank, but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  15. Immunohistochemical detection of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in the cerebellums of dogs naturally infected with canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Y B; Sozmen, M; Yarim, M; Guvenc, T; Karayigit, M O; Gulbahar, M Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in the cerebellums of dogs infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) using immunohistochemistry to detect autophagy. The cerebellums of 20 dogs infected with CDV were used. Specimens showing demyelination of white matter were considered to have an acute infection, whereas specimens showing signs of severe perivascular cuffing and demyelination of white matter were classified as having chronic CDV. Cerebellar sections were immunostained with CDV and LC3 antibodies. The cytoplasm of Purkinje cells, granular layer cells, motor neurons in large cerebellar ganglia and some neurons in white matter were positive for the LC3 antibody in both the control and CDV-infected dogs. In the infected cerebellums, however, white matter was immunostained more intensely, particularly the neurons and gemistocytic astrocytes in the demyelinated areas, compared to controls. Autophagy also was demonstrated in CDV-positive cells using double immunofluorescence staining. Our findings indicate that increased autophagy in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected with CDV may play a role in transferring the virus from cell to cell.

  16. Development of a dose-response model for SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toru; Bartrand, Timothy A; Weir, Mark H; Omura, Tatsuo; Haas, Charles N

    2010-07-01

    In order to develop a dose-response model for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), the pooled data sets for infection of transgenic mice susceptible to SARS-CoV and infection of mice with murine hepatitis virus strain 1, which may be a clinically relevant model of SARS, were fit to beta-Poisson and exponential models with the maximum likelihood method. The exponential model (k= 4.1 x l0(2)) could describe the dose-response relationship of the pooled data sets. The beta-Poisson model did not provide a statistically significant improvement in fit. With the exponential model, the infectivity of SARS-CoV was calculated and compared with those of other coronaviruses. The does of SARS-CoV corresponding to 10% and 50% responses (illness) were estimated at 43 and 280 PFU, respectively. Its estimated infectivity was comparable to that of HCoV-229E, known as an agent of human common cold, and also similar to those of some animal coronaviruses belonging to the same genetic group. Moreover, the exponential model was applied to the analysis of the epidemiological data of SARS outbreak that occurred at an apartment complex in Hong Kong in 2003. The estimated dose of SARS-CoV for apartment residents during the outbreak, which was back-calculated from the reported number of cases, ranged from 16 to 160 PFU/person, depending on the floor. The exponential model developed here is the sole dose-response model for SARS-CoV at the present and would enable us to understand the possibility for reemergence of SARS.

  17. The Paradox of Feline Coronavirus Pathogenesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Wanderley Myrrha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline coronavirus (FCoV is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present results from different FCoV studies and attempt to elucidate existing theories on the pathogenesis of FCoV infection.

  18. A Real-Time PCR Assay for Bat SARS-Like Coronavirus Detection and Its Application to Italian Greater Horseshoe Bat Faecal Sample Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Balboni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bats are source of coronaviruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS virus. Numerous studies have been carried out to identify new bat viruses related to SARS-coronavirus (bat-SARS-like CoVs using a reverse-transcribed-polymerase chain reaction assay. However, a qualitative PCR could underestimate the prevalence of infection, affecting the epidemiological evaluation of bats in viral ecology. In this work an SYBR Green-real time PCR assay was developed for diagnosing infection with SARS-related coronaviruses from bat guano and was applied as screening tool in a survey carried out on 45 greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum sampled in Italy in 2009. The assay showed high sensitivity and reproducibility. Its application on bats screening resulted in a prevalence of 42%. This method could be suitable as screening tool in epidemiological surveys about the presence of bat-SARS-like CoVs, consequently to obtain a more realistic scenario of the viral prevalence in the population.

  19. Canine Histiocytic Malignancies—Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kennedy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine histiocytic malignancies (HM are aggressive tumors that occur with particularly high frequency in certain breeds including Bernese mountain dogs and flat-coated retrievers. Robust diagnosis of HM commonly utilizes immunohistochemical stains that are broadly ineffective on formalin-fixed tissues; thus the diagnosis is often one of exclusion. Clinical outcomes are generally poor, with frequent metastasis and therapeutic failure lowering overall survival at time of diagnosis to an average of less than two months in the majority of published work. The limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HM has hindered the development of more effective diagnostic modalities and the identification of therapeutic targets. A potential avenue exists for advancing clinical management of canine cancers through extrapolation from a close counterpart in human medicine. Historically, HM have been compared to the rare and understudied subset of human cancers involving the dendritic lineage, such as dendritic cell sarcoma or Langerhans cell sarcoma. Recent data have now thrown into question the cellular origin of HM, suggesting that the disease may originate from the macrophage lineage. This review summarizes existing knowledge of HM from the clinical, histologic and molecular perspectives, and highlights avenues for future research that may aid the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In turn, a more advanced appreciation of the mechanisms underlying HM should clarify their cellular origin and identify appropriate opportunities for synergistic extrapolation between related canine and human cancers.

  20. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Tawfiq JA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq,1,2 Ziad A Memish3,4 1Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; 2Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Ministry of Health, 4Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV infection in 2012 resulted in an increased concern of the spread of the infection globally. MERS-CoV infection had previously caused multiple health-care-associated outbreaks and resulted in transmission of the virus within families. Community onset MERS-CoV cases continue to occur. Dromedary camels are currently the most likely animal to be linked to human MERS-CoV cases. Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels. The control of MERS-CoV infection relies on prompt identification of cases within health care facilities, with institutions applying appropriate infection control measures. In addition, determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection. Keywords: MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, epidemiology, control measures, transmission, Saudi Arabia

  2. Coronaviridae and SARS-associated Coronavirus Strain HSR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canducci, Filippo; Pinna, Debora; Mancini, Nicasio; Carletti, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Bordignon, Claudio; Poli, Guido; Clementi, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    During the recent severe acute respiratory (SARS) outbreak, the etiologic agent was identified as a new coronavirus (CoV). We have isolated a SARS-associated CoV (SARS-CoV) strain by injecting Vero cells with a sputum specimen from an Italian patient affected by a severe pneumonia; the patient traveled from Vietnam to Italy in March 2003. Ultrastructural analysis of infected Vero cells showed the virions within cell vesicles and around the cell membrane. The full-length viral genome sequence was similar to those derived from the Hong-Kong Hotel M isolate. By using both real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay and an infectivity plaque assay, we determined that approximately 360 viral genomes were required to generate a PFU. In addition, heparin (100 μg/mL) inhibited infection of Vero cells by 50%. Overall, the molecular and biologic characteristics of the strain HSR1 provide evidence that SARS-CoV forms a fourth genetic coronavirus group with distinct genomic and biologic features. PMID:15109406

  3. Understanding Viral Transmission Behavior via Protein Intrinsic Disorder Prediction: Coronaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Kian-Meng Goh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides being a common threat to farm animals and poultry, coronavirus (CoV was responsible for the human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic in 2002–4. However, many aspects of CoV behavior, including modes of its transmission, are yet to be fully understood. We show that the amount and the peculiarities of distribution of the protein intrinsic disorder in the viral shell can be used for the efficient analysis of the behavior and transmission modes of CoV. The proposed model allows categorization of the various CoVs by the peculiarities of disorder distribution in their membrane (M and nucleocapsid (N. This categorization enables quick identification of viruses with similar behaviors in transmission, regardless of genetic proximity. Based on this analysis, an empirical model for predicting the viral transmission behavior is developed. This model is able to explain some behavioral aspects of important coronaviruses that previously were not fully understood. The new predictor can be a useful tool for better epidemiological, clinical, and structural understanding of behavior of both newly emerging viruses and viruses that have been known for a long time. A potentially new vaccine strategy could involve searches for viral strains that are characterized by the evolutionary misfit between the peculiarities of the disorder distribution in their shells and their behavior.

  4. Coronavirus envelope (E) protein remains at the site of assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatagopalan, Pavithra [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Microbiology Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Daskalova, Sasha M. [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Lopez, Lisa A. [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Dolezal, Kelly A. [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Microbiology Graduate Program, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); Hogue, Brenda G., E-mail: Brenda.Hogue@asu.edu [The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States); School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) assemble at endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes and egress from cells in cargo vesicles. Only a few molecules of the envelope (E) protein are assembled into virions. The role of E in morphogenesis is not fully understood. The cellular localization and dynamics of mouse hepatitis CoV A59 (MHV) E protein were investigated to further understanding of its role during infection. E protein localized in the ERGIC and Golgi with the amino and carboxy termini in the lumen and cytoplasm, respectively. E protein does not traffic to the cell surface. MHV was genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag at the carboxy end of E. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes. Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) confirmed the presence of E in Golgi cisternae. The results provide strong support that E proteins carry out their function(s) at the site of budding/assembly. - Highlights: • Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-CoV) E protein localizes in the ERGIC and Golgi. • MHV-CoV E does not transport to the cell surface. • MHV-CoV can be genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag appended to E. • First FRAP and correlative light electron microscopy of a CoV E protein. • Live-cell imaging shows that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes.

  5. The SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein--forms and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-ke; Hou, Ming-Hon; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Huang, Tai-huang

    2014-03-01

    The nucleocapsid phosphoprotein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV N protein) packages the viral genome into a helical ribonucleocapsid (RNP) and plays a fundamental role during viral self-assembly. It is a protein with multifarious activities. In this article we will review our current understanding of the N protein structure and its interaction with nucleic acid. Highlights of the progresses include uncovering the modular organization, determining the structures of the structural domains, realizing the roles of protein disorder in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, and visualizing the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structure inside the virions. It was also demonstrated that N-protein binds to nucleic acid at multiple sites with a coupled-allostery manner. We propose a SARS-CoV RNP model that conforms to existing data and bears resemblance to the existing RNP structures of RNA viruses. The model highlights the critical role of modular organization and intrinsic disorder of the N protein in the formation and functions of the dynamic RNP capsid in RNA viruses. This paper forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10 years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  7. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  8. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  9. Peptides derived from HIV-1, HIV-2, Ebola virus, SARS coronavirus and coronavirus 229E exhibit high affinity binding to the formyl peptide receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Peptides derived from the membrane proximal region of fusion proteins of human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, Coronavirus 229 E, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus were all potent antagonists of the formyl peptide receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Binding of viral peptides was affected by the naturally occurring polymorphisms at residues 190 and 192, which are located at second extracellular loop-transmembrane helix 5 interface. Substitution of R190 with W190 enhanced the affinity for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus peptide 6 fold but reduced the affinity for N-formyl-Nle–Leu-Phe by 2.5 fold. A 12 mer peptide derived from coronavirus 229E (ETYIKPWWVWL) was the most potent antagonist of the formyl peptide receptor W190 with a Ki of 230 nM. Fluorescently labeled ETYIKPWWVWL was effectively internalized by all three variants with EC50 of ~25 nM. An HKU-1 coronavirus peptide, MYVKWPWYVWL, was a potent antagonist but N-formyl-MYVKWPWYVWL was a potent agonist. ETYIKPWWVWL did not stimulate GTPγS binding but inhibited the stimulation by formyl-NleLeuPhe. It also blocked β arrestin translocation and receptor downregulation induced by formyl-Nle–Leu–Phe. This indicates that formyl peptide receptor may be important in viral infections and that variations in its sequence among individuals may affect their likelihood of viral and bacterial infections. PMID:16842982

  10. Citizen science: a new direction in canine behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Julie; Spicer Rice, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Researchers increasingly rely on members of the public to contribute to scientific projects-from collecting or identifying, to analyzing and disseminating data. The "citizen science" model proves useful to many thematically distinctive fields, like ornithology, astronomy, and phenology. The recent formalization of citizen science projects addresses technical issues related to volunteer participation--like data quality--so that citizen scientists can make longstanding, meaningful contributions to scientific projects. Since the late 1990s, canine science research has relied with greater frequency on the participation of the general public, particularly dog owners. These researchers do not typically consider the methods and technical issues that those conducting citizen science projects embrace and continue to investigate. As more canine science studies rely on public input, an in-depth knowledge of the benefits and challenges of citizen science can help produce relevant, high-quality data while increasing the general public's understanding of canine behavior and cognition as well as the scientific process. We examine the benefits and challenges of current citizen science models in an effort to enhance canine citizen science project preparation, execution, and dissemination. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Alignment of palatally impacted canine with open window technique and modified K-9 spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was an 18-year-old female who had an Angle Class I malocclusion with a left palatally impacted maxillary canine. The orthodontic treatment of a palatally impacted canine is aimed at bringing the tooth into its correct position in the dental arch without causing any periodontal damage. To achieve this goal, a variety of surgical and orthodontic techniques have been proposed in relation to the position of the impacted tooth and there are various treatment methods used for traction. The duration of the traction was 3 months and alignment duration was 12 months the total treatment time was 15 months. In the following case, we presented that maxillary palatally impacted canine was brought into the arch with open window method for canine exposure and modified K-9 spring for traction, that is simple spring for orthodontic traction of the palatally impacted canines.

  12. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd, Hamzah A.; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and ge...

  13. TMPRSS2: A potential target for treatment of influenza virus and coronavirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li Wen; Mao, Hui Juan; Wu, Yan Ling; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2017-08-01

    Influenza virus and coronavirus epidemics or pandemics have occurred in succession worldwide throughout the early 21st century. These epidemics or pandemics pose a major threat to human health. Here, we outline a critical role of the host cell protease TMPRSS2 in influenza virus and coronavirus infections and highlight an antiviral therapeutic strategy targeting TMPRSS2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Discovery of a novel coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus HKU24, from Norway rats supports murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and has implications for the ancestor of Betacoronavirus lineage A

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna K. P. Lau; Woo, Patrick C.Y.; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Wang, Ming; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    We discovered a novel Betacoronavirus lineage A coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus (ChRCoV) HKU24, from Norway rats in China. ChRCoV HKU24 occupied a deep branch at the root of members of Betacoronavirus 1, being distinct from murine coronavirus and human coronavirus HKU1. Its unique putative cleavage sites between nonstructural proteins 1 and 2 and in the spike (S) protein and low sequence identities to other lineage A betacoronaviruses (βCoVs) in conserved replicase domains support ChRCo...

  15. Assessment of canine neonatal viability-the Apgar score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C

    2016-09-01

    Perinatal mortality is relatively high in dogs, with deaths peaking around the time of birth and during the first week of age. Among the several causes of canine perinatal mortality, whelping is the greatest cause. Therefore, early neonatal assistance at birth should be mandatory with dogs. In comparison with human neonatology, knowledge and technological ability in canine neonatology is tremendously scarce. The Apgar score for the newborn viability assessment at birth represents a feasible method for the prompt recognition of newborns that will need special assistance immediately after birth. The five parameters of the Apgar score were adapted to the canine species by different studies. Advantages and limits, as well as clinical applications, are presented and discussed in further detail. It was concluded that the Apgar score represents the easiest and simplest, non-invasive and reliable method, that could be performed under every clinical and practical condition, for newborn puppies viability evaluations and short-term survival prognosis.

  16. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 is a functional receptor for the emerging human coronavirus-EMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, V Stalin; Mou, Huihui; Smits, Saskia L; Dekkers, Dick H W; Müller, Marcel A; Dijkman, Ronald; Muth, Doreen; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Zaki, Ali; Fouchier, Ron A M; Thiel, Volker; Drosten, Christian; Rottier, Peter J M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Bosch, Berend Jan; Haagmans, Bart L

    2013-03-14

    Most human coronaviruses cause mild upper respiratory tract disease but may be associated with more severe pulmonary disease in immunocompromised individuals. However, SARS coronavirus caused severe lower respiratory disease with nearly 10% mortality and evidence of systemic spread. Recently, another coronavirus (human coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center (hCoV-EMC)) was identified in patients with severe and sometimes lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Viral genome analysis revealed close relatedness to coronaviruses found in bats. Here we identify dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4; also known as CD26) as a functional receptor for hCoV-EMC. DPP4 specifically co-purified with the receptor-binding S1 domain of the hCoV-EMC spike protein from lysates of susceptible Huh-7 cells. Antibodies directed against DPP4 inhibited hCoV-EMC infection of primary human bronchial epithelial cells and Huh-7 cells. Expression of human and bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) DPP4 in non-susceptible COS-7 cells enabled infection by hCoV-EMC. The use of the evolutionarily conserved DPP4 protein from different species as a functional receptor provides clues about the host range potential of hCoV-EMC. In addition, it will contribute critically to our understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of this emerging human coronavirus, and may facilitate the development of intervention strategies.

  17. Lactogenic immunity in transgenic mice producing recombinant antibodies neutralizing coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, J; Sola, I; Pintado, B; Sánchez-Morgado, J M; Enjuanes, L

    1998-01-01

    Protection against coronavirus infections can be provided by the oral administration of virus neutralizing antibodies. To provide lactogenic immunity, eighteen lines of transgenic mice secreting a recombinant IgG1 monoclonal antibody (rIgG1) and ten lines of transgenic mice secreting recombinant IgA monoclonal antibodies (rIgA) neutralizing transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) into the milk were generated. Genes encoding the light and heavy chains of monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6A.C3 were expressed under the control of regulatory sequences derived from the mouse genomic DNA encoding the whey acidic protein (WAP) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), which are highly abundant milk proteins. The MAb 6A.C3 binds to a highly conserved epitope present in coronaviruses of several species. This MAb does not allow the selection of neutralization escaping virus mutants. The antibody was expressed in the milk of transgenic mice with titers of one million as determined by RIA, and neutralized TGEV infectivity by one million fold corresponding to immunoglobulin concentrations of 5 to 6 mg per ml. Matrix attachment regions (MAR) sequences were not essential for rIgG1 transgene expression, but co-microinjection of MAR and antibody genes led to a twenty to ten thousand-fold increase in the antibody titer in 50% of the rIgG1 transgenic animals generated. Co-microinjection of the genomic BLG gene with rIgA light and heavy chain genes led to the generation of transgenic mice carrying the three transgenes. The highest antibody titers were produced by transgenic mice that had integrated the antibody and BLG genes, although the number of transgenic animals generated does not allow a definitive conclusion on the enhancing effect of BLG co-integration. Antibody expression levels were transgene copy number independent and integration site dependent. The generation of transgenic animals producing virus neutralizing antibodies in the milk could be a general approach to provide protection

  18. FDG PET/CT imaging in canine cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Elias; McEvoy, Fintan; Engelholm, Svend Aage;

    2011-01-01

    and organs in canine cancer patients. FDG PET/CT was performed in 14 dogs including, nine mesenchymal tumors, four carcinomas, and one incompletely excised mast cell tumor. A generally higher FDG uptake was observed in carcinomas relative to sarcomas. Maximum SUV of carcinomas ranged from 7.6 to 27.......0, and for sarcomas from 2.0 to 10.6. The FDG SUV of several organs and tissues, including regional brain uptake is reported, to serve as a reference for future FDG PET studies in canine cancer patients. Several potential pitfalls have been recognized in interpretation of FDG PET images of human patients, a number...

  19. Differentiation of canine distemper virus isolates in fur animals from various vaccine strains by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jianjun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to effectively identify the vaccine and field strains of Canine distemper virus (CDV, a new differential diagnostic test has been developed based on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. We selected an 829 bp fragment of the nucleoprotein (N gene of CDV. By RFLP analysis using BamHI, field isolates were distinguishable from the vaccine strains. Two fragments were obtained from the vaccine strains by RT-PCR-RFLP analysis while three were observed in the field strains. An 829 nucleotide region of the CDV N gene was analyzed in 19 CDV field strains isolated from minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in China between 2005 and 2007. The results suggest this method is precise, accurate and efficient. It was also determined that three different genotypes exist in CDV field strains in fur animal herds of the north of China, most of which belong to Asian type. Mutated field strains, JSY06-R1, JSY06-R2 and JDH07-F1 also exist in Northern China, but are most closely related to the standard virulent strain A75/17, designated in Arctic and America-2 genetype in the present study, respectively.

  20. Human cell tropism and innate immune system interactions of human respiratory coronavirus EMC compared to those of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielecki, Florian; Weber, Michaela; Eickmann, Markus; Spiegelberg, Larissa; Zaki, Ali Moh; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Becker, Stephan; Weber, Friedemann

    2013-05-01

    Infections with human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC) are associated with severe pneumonia. We demonstrate that HCoV-EMC resembles severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in productively infecting primary and continuous cells of the human airways and in preventing the induction of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3)-mediated antiviral alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) responses. However, HCoV-EMC was markedly more sensitive to the antiviral state established by ectopic IFN. Thus, HCoV-EMC can utilize a broad range of human cell substrates and suppress IFN induction, but it does not reach the IFN resistance of SARS-CoV.

  1. Expression and Purification of SARS Coronavirus Membrane Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴五星; 雷明军; 吴少庭; 陈智浩; 梁靓; 潘晖榕; 秦莉; 高士同; 袁仕善; 张仁利

    2004-01-01

    To construct a recombinant plasmid Pet23a-M, the gene encoding severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus membrane protein was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the expression plasmid Pet23a. Results of restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR detection and DNA sequencing analysis revealed that the cloned DNA sequence was the same as that reported. The re combinants were transformed into Escherichia coli (E. Coli) BL21 (DE3) and induced by Isopropylβ-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The expression of 27 kD (1 kD=0. 992 1 ku) protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and pured by metal chelated chromatography. Results of Western-blot showed that this expressed protein could react with antibodies in sera of SARS patients during convalescence. This provided the basis for the further study on SARS virus vaccine and diagnostic agents.

  2. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ujike

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S and membrane (M, and envelope (E, a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC. For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions.

  3. Identification of an epitope of SARS-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING LIN; JIN WANG; HONG XIA WANG; HUA LIANG JIANG; JIAN HUA SHEN; YOU HUA XIE; YUAN WANG; GANG PEI; BEI FEN SHEN; JIA RUI WU; BING SUN; XU SHEN; RUI FU YANG; YI XUE LI; YONG YONG JI; YOU YU HE; MUDE SHI; WEI LU; TIE LIU SHI

    2003-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a majorvirion structural protein. In this study, two epitopes (N1 and N2) of the N protein of SARS-CoV werepredicted by bioinformatics analysis. After immunization with two peptides, the peptides-specific antibodieswere isolated from the immunized rabbits. The further experiments demonstrated that N1 peptide-inducedpolyclonal antibodies had a high affinity to bind to E. coli expressed N protein of SARS-CoV. Furthermore, itwas confirmed that N1 peptide-specific IgG antibodies were detectable in the sera of severe acute respiratorysyndrome (SARS) patients. The results indicated that an epitope of the N protein has been identified andN protein specific Abs were produced by peptide immunization, which will be useful for the study of SARS-CoV.

  4. Cytoplasmic tail of coronavirus spike protein has intracellular targeting signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIBIN SADASIVAN; MANMEET SINGH; JAYASRI DAS SARMA

    2017-06-01

    Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spikeprotein is localized in the ER or ERGIC compartment and OC43 spike protein is predominantly localized in thelysosome. Differential localization can be explained by signal sequence. The sequence alignment using Clustal Wshows that the signal sequence present at the cytoplasmic tail plays an important role in spike protein localization. Aunique GYQEL motif is identified at the cytoplasmic terminal of OC43 spike protein which helps in localization in thelysosome, and a novel KLHYT motif is identified in the cytoplasmic tail of SARS spike protein which helps in ER orERGIC localization. This study sheds some light on the role of cytoplasmic tail of spike protein in cell-to-cell fusion,coronavirus host cell fusion and subsequent pathogenicity.

  5. Orchitis in a cat associated with coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardóttir, O G; Kolbjørnsen, O; Lutz, H

    2001-01-01

    A case of severe, pyogranulomatous and necrotizing orchitis in a cat, which later succumbed to systemic feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), is described. The 3.5-year-old cat, positive for feline immunodeficiency virus infection, presented with a left testicular enlargement. A few months after castration the animal was humanely destroyed due to declining health. Post-mortem examination revealed inflammatory lesions in abdominal organs and in the brain compatible with FIP. Infection was confirmed with a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test and by immunohistochemical demonstration of coronavirus antigen in the affected tissues, including the left testicle. FIP is usually a systemic disease. However, lesions and presenting clinical signs in a single organ system such as the brain are not uncommon. The results of this case study indicate that orchitis, although rare, should be on the list of lesions of FIP.

  6. A rare cause of acute flaccid paralysis: Human coronaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cokyaman Turgay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP is a life-threatening clinical entity characterized by weakness in the whole body muscles often accompanied by respiratory and bulbar paralysis. The most common cause is Gullian-Barre syndrome, but infections, spinal cord diseases, neuromuscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis, drugs and toxins, periodic hypokalemic paralysis, electrolyte disturbances, and botulism should be considered as in the differential diagnosis. Human coronaviruses (HCoVs cause common cold, upper and lower respiratory tract disease, but in the literature presentation with the lower respiratory tract infection and AFP has not been reported previously. In this study, pediatric case admitted with lower respiratory tract infection and AFP, who detected for HCoV 229E and OC43 co-infection by the real-time polymerase chain reaction, has been reported for the first time.

  7. Canine reduction in the miocene hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii: behavioural and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, D M; Moyà-Solà, S; Köhler, M

    2001-01-01

    The degree of canine size sexual dimorphism and relative canine size, which have been related to levels of agonistic behaviour amongst living anthropoid primates, together with relative molar size, are evaluated in the fossil hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii from the Late Miocene of Italy. Although Oreopithecus displays a significant degree of canine height sexual dimorphism, using allometric techniques and body mass estimates for fossil species, it is shown that Oreopithecus males are microdont (smaller postcanine as well as canine teeth than expected) when compared to most living hominoids and its putative ancestor Dryopithecus. Canine reduction in Oreopithecus includes both crown height and, especially, basal area, and most closely resembles the condition found in the pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus. Interestingly, it had been previously proposed that Oreopithecus displays, like pygmy chimpanzees, a paedomorphic cranial morphology resulting in a reduction of facial prognathism, which could be related to microdontia in both taxa. Independent canine reduction in several anthropoid lineages (including hominids and P. paniscus) has been related to a relaxation of the selection pressure favouring canine use as a weapon. Although changes in socio-sexual behaviour, as documented in P. paniscus, cannot be currently discarded in Oreopithecus, canine reduction could be also alternatively (although not exclusively) interpreted as an aspect of generalized microdontia. The latter is best considered an adaptive readjustment required by the paedomorphic reduction of prognathism and the resulting lack of space to accommodate the adult dentition. This mechanism of canine reduction highlights the significance of developmental constraints in evolution and had not been previously suggested for any anthropoid primate.

  8. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  9. A new understanding of oral and dental disorders of the equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Edward; Rawlinson, Jennifer T

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the classification systems for dental fractures and how the assessment affects treatment options. Diagonal incisor malocclusion is discussed in relation to skull asymmetry and how this commonly relates to premolar and molar occlusion. Oral and radiographic assessment of incisive bone fracture and incisor avulsion is reviewed for determining treatment options. A summary of incisor and canine resorption and hypercementosis is presented. Clinical presentations, staging, and classifications of tooth resorption as well as canine odontoplasty are discussed. Excessive plaque and calculus formation on lower canines leading to periodontal disease and abscess is examined.

  10. Cell host response to infection with novel human coronavirus EMC predicts potential antivirals and important differences with SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Laurence; Menachery, Vineet D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Sova, Pavel; Carter, Victoria S; Yount, Boyd L; Graham, Rachel L; Baric, Ralph S; Katze, Michael G

    2013-04-30

    A novel human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC) was recently identified in the Middle East as the causative agent of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) resembling the illness caused by SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Although derived from the CoV family, the two viruses are genetically distinct and do not use the same receptor. Here, we investigated whether HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV induce similar or distinct host responses after infection of a human lung epithelial cell line. HCoV-EMC was able to replicate as efficiently as SARS-CoV in Calu-3 cells and similarly induced minimal transcriptomic changes before 12 h postinfection. Later in infection, HCoV-EMC induced a massive dysregulation of the host transcriptome, to a much greater extent than SARS-CoV. Both viruses induced a similar activation of pattern recognition receptors and the interleukin 17 (IL-17) pathway, but HCoV-EMC specifically down-regulated the expression of several genes within the antigen presentation pathway, including both type I and II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. This could have an important impact on the ability of the host to mount an adaptive host response. A unique set of 207 genes was dysregulated early and permanently throughout infection with HCoV-EMC, and was used in a computational screen to predict potential antiviral compounds, including kinase inhibitors and glucocorticoids. Overall, HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV elicit distinct host gene expression responses, which might impact in vivo pathogenesis and could orient therapeutic strategies against that emergent virus. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing fatal respiratory infection in humans raises concerns about a possible widespread outbreak of severe respiratory infection similar to the one caused by SARS-CoV. Using a human lung epithelial cell line and global transcriptomic profiling, we identified differences in the host response between HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV. This enables rapid assessment of viral properties and the

  11. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-28

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  12. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.V. Mamaev; I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); S.I. Belikov; N.N. Denikina; T.C. Harder (Timm); L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Barrett (Thomas)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates

  13. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.V. Mamaev; I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); S.I. Belikov; N.N. Denikina; T.C. Harder (Timm); L. Goatley; B. Rima; B. Edginton; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Barrett (Thomas)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates

  14. Morphometric analysis of canine in gender determination: Revisited in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Paramkusam

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation and Conclusion: Use of the standard mandibular CI in gender determination is recommended for forensic procedures as it was found to have an acceptable accuracy. MD width of canine may be used in a setup when only the single tooth or a fragment of a jaw is available for analysis, with due consideration to its relatively low accuracy.

  15. Expression of Bcl-2 in canine osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Piro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common primary malignancy of bone. It is responsible for 80-85% of the primary bone tumors affecting dogs and it is characterized by aggressive and invasive behavior, with a high metastatic potential. Several studies on cancer and related tumorigenesis, show an involvement of the mechanisms of programmed cell death and cell survival. Many signals seem to be involved in the related mechanism of autophagy and in particular, our interest is focused on the expression of a family of Bcl-2 that seems to be involved either in the control of biomolecular mechanisms like autophagy and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the expression of Bcl-2 in different cases of spontaneous canine osteosarcoma and the related preliminary results are described. We found Bcl-2 activity was increased in OS tissue compared to normal bone tissue. These results suggested that Bcl-2 activity may play an important role in the formation of OS and as a diagnostic for neoplastic activity. However, further research is needed to confirm the role of Bcl-2 activity in OS in canines.

  16. Several early interventions for ectopic maxillary canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Astorga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canine impactation is often encountered in orthodontic clinical practice and the aetiology is associated to genetic factors as well as local space factors. If preventive treatment is not started in ectopic maxillary canines, some possible consequences may occur, such as resorption of the roots of the neighboring permanent teeth, cysts, ankylosis and expensive surgical and orthodontic treatment. The aim of this review was to preset several early treatment modalities for ectopic maxillary canines based on recent scientific evidence. Four are the most important: Only extractions intervention, extraction of deciduous canines with cervical pull headgear, active intervention in late mixed dentition and active intervention in early mixed dentition. These different modalities showed a greater increasing the rate of normal eruption of ectopic canines ( 80-97%. The extraction of primary canine alone is still an effective method to prevent canine impactation, whose success rate would be increased if some other method interceptive is added.

  17. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  18. Canine parvovirus in asymptomatic feline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog

  19. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  20. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  1. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; Giordano,L.G.P.; Flaiban,K.K.M.C.; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  2. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  3. Anti-SARS virus antibody responses against human SARS-associated coronavirus and animal SARS-associated coronavirus-like virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣; 徐慧芳; 莫自耀; 郑伯健; 高阳; 顾菁; 秦鹏哲; 张周斌; 邹晓忠; 梁彩云; 赵宇腾; 高凯

    2004-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease first recognized in November 2002 in Guangdong province, China. It was spread to many countries all over the world within a few months.1,2 By April 2003, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was found to be the etiological agent.

  4. Reabsorción radicular de incisivos laterales superiores en relación con la erupción ectópica de caninos: Presentación de dos casos Maxillary incisor root resorption in relation to the ectopic canine: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Rodríguez Romero

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La impactación del canino superior permanente es un problema clínico que puede provocar una serie de secuelas que van desde la perdida de espacio en el arco para su correcta erupción, hasta la reabsorción radicular de dientes vecinos. El presente articulo describe dos casos de pacientes con ausencia clínica de caninos superiores, produciendo reabsorción radicular de los incisivos laterales. Además se describen diferentes características relacionadas con la retención de caninos y se sugieren medidas preventivas para tratar de aminorar estas retenciones.Upper canine impactation is a condition capable of promoting wide variety of clinical sequels ranging fromarch lengh discrepancy to adjacent teeth root resorption. This report presents two case in which both upper canines were clinically absent and resorbing lateral incisor root. In addition different characteristics relates to the condition of impacted canines are described and preventive measures for this condition are also suggested.

  5. Novel canine bocavirus strain associated with severe enteritis in a dog litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Lapp, Stefanie; Hahn, Kerstin; Habierski, André; Förster, Christine; König, Matthias; Wohlsein, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-11-07

    Bocaviruses are small non-enveloped viruses with a linear ssDNA genome, that belong to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the subfamiliy Parvovirinae. Bocavirus infections are associated with a wide spectrum of disease in humans and various mammalian species. Here we describe a fatal enteritis associated with infection with a novel strain of canine bocavirus 2 (CaBoV-2), that occurred in a litter of German wirehaired pointers. Necropsy performed on three puppies revealed an enteritis reminiscent of canine parvovirus associated enteritis, accompanied with signs of lymphocytolytic disease in bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. While other major causes of enteritis of young dogs, including canine parvovirus, were excluded, by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel CaBoV-2 strain was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome of this novel canine bocavirus strain indicated that this virus was indeed most closely related to group 2 canine bocaviruses. Infection with canine bocavirus was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which revealed the presence of CaBoV-2 nucleic acid in the intestinal tract and lymphoid tissues of the dogs. In a small-scale retrospective analysis concerning the role of CaBoV-2 no additional cases were identified. The findings of this study provide novel insights into the pathogenicity of canine bocaviruses.

  6. Isolation and characterization of canine perivascular stem/stromal cells for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aaron W; Zhang, Xinli; Crisan, Mihaela; Hardy, Winters R; Liang, Pei; Meyers, Carolyn A; Lobo, Sonja; Lagishetty, Venu; Childers, Martin K; Asatrian, Greg; Ding, Catherine; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Zou, Erin; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Soo, Chia

    2017-01-01

    For over 15 years, human subcutaneous adipose tissue has been recognized as a rich source of tissue resident mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC). The isolation of perivascular progenitor cells from human adipose tissue by a cell sorting strategy was first published in 2008. Since this time, the interest in using pericytes and related perivascular stem/stromal cell (PSC) populations for tissue engineering has significantly increased. Here, we describe a set of experiments identifying, isolating and characterizing PSC from canine tissue (N = 12 canine adipose tissue samples). Results showed that the same antibodies used for human PSC identification and isolation are cross-reactive with canine tissue (CD45, CD146, CD34). Like their human correlate, canine PSC demonstrate characteristics of MSC including cell surface marker expression, colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) inclusion, and osteogenic differentiation potential. As well, canine PSC respond to osteoinductive signals in a similar fashion as do human PSC, such as the secreted differentiation factor NEL-Like Molecule-1 (NELL-1). Nevertheless, important differences exist between human and canine PSC, including differences in baseline osteogenic potential. In summary, canine PSC represent a multipotent mesenchymogenic cell source for future translational efforts in tissue engineering.

  7. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. [Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär [Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Scheeles väg 2, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Coutard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, AFMB-CNRS-ESIL, Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Tucker, Paul A., E-mail: tucker@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  8. Stability of bovine coronavirus on lettuce surfaces under household refrigeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Lisa; Saif, Linda J; Zhang, Yongbin; Zhang, Xuming; Azevedo, Marli S P

    2012-05-01

    Fecal suspensions with an aerosol route of transmission were responsible for a cluster of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases in 2003 in Hong Kong. Based on that event, the World Health Organization recommended that research be implemented to define modes of transmission of SARS coronavirus through sewage, feces, food and water. Environmental studies have shown that animal coronaviruses remain infectious in water and sewage for up to a year depending on the temperature and humidity. In this study, we examined coronavirus stability on lettuce surfaces. A cell culture adapted bovine coronavirus, diluted in growth media or in bovine fecal suspensions to simulate fecal contamination was used to spike romaine lettuce. qRT-PCR detected viral RNA copy number ranging from 6.6 × 10⁴ to 1.7 × 10⁶ throughout the experimental period of 30 days. Whereas infectious viruses were detected for at least 14 days, the amount of infectious virus varied, depending upon the diluent used for spiking the lettuce. UV and confocal microscopic observation indicated attachment of residual labeled virions to the lettuce surface after the elution procedure, suggesting that rates of inactivation or detection of the virus may be underestimated. Thus, it is possible that contaminated vegetables may be potential vehicles for coronavirus zoonotic transmission to humans.

  9. Genomic Analysis and Surveillance of the Coronavirus Dominant in Ducks in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Ye Zhuang

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of some coronaviruses dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In this study we sequenced the genome of a newly identified coronavirus dominant in ducks (DdCoV, and performed a large-scale surveillance of coronaviruses in chickens and ducks using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The viral genome harbors a tandem repeat which is rare in vertebrate RNA viruses. The repeat is homologous to some proteins of various cellular organisms, but its origin remains unknown. Many substitutions, insertions, deletions, and some frameshifts and recombination events have occurred in the genome of the DdCoV, as compared with the coronavirus dominant in chickens (CdCoV. The distances between DdCoV and CdCoV are large enough to separate them into different species within the genus Gammacoronavirus. Our surveillance demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs belong to different lineages and occupy different ecological niches, further supporting that they should be classified into different species. Our surveillance also demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs are prevalent in live poultry markets in some regions of China. In conclusion, this study shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of the coronaviruses circulating in chickens and ducks.

  10. Early endonuclease-mediated evasion of RNA sensing ensures efficient coronavirus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Eveline; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Spanier, Julia; Li, Yize; Wilhelm, Jochen; Rabouw, Huib H.; Züst, Roland; Marti, Sabrina; Habjan, Matthias; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Elliot, Ruth; Karl, Nadja; Gaughan, Christina; Silverman, Robert H.; Keller, Markus; Ludewig, Burkhard; Bergmann, Cornelia C.; Ziebuhr, John; Kalinke, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses are of veterinary and medical importance and include highly pathogenic zoonotic viruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. They are known to efficiently evade early innate immune responses, manifesting in almost negligible expression of type-I interferons (IFN-I). This evasion strategy suggests an evolutionary conserved viral function that has evolved to prevent RNA-based sensing of infection in vertebrate hosts. Here we show that the coronavirus endonuclease (EndoU) activity is key to prevent early induction of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) host cell responses. Replication of EndoU-deficient coronaviruses is greatly attenuated in vivo and severely restricted in primary cells even during the early phase of the infection. In macrophages we found immediate induction of IFN-I expression and RNase L-mediated breakdown of ribosomal RNA. Accordingly, EndoU-deficient viruses can retain replication only in cells that are deficient in IFN-I expression or sensing, and in cells lacking both RNase L and PKR. Collectively our results demonstrate that the coronavirus EndoU efficiently prevents simultaneous activation of host cell dsRNA sensors, such as Mda5, OAS and PKR. The localization of the EndoU activity at the site of viral RNA synthesis–within the replicase complex—suggests that coronaviruses have evolved a viral RNA decay pathway to evade early innate and intrinsic antiviral host cell responses. PMID:28158275

  11. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  12. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Leegwater, Peter A J; Fieten, Hille

    2016-02-04

    Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  13. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary camel serum samples from the United Arab Emirates; 151 of 651 samples were obtained in 2003, well before onset of the current epidemic, and 500 serum samples were obtained in 2013. Recombinant spike protein-specific immunofluorescence and virus neutralization tests enabled clear discrimination between MERS-CoV and bovine CoV infections. Most (632/651, 97.1%) camels had antibodies against MERS-CoV. This result included all 151 serum samples obtained in 2003. Most (389/651, 59.8%) serum samples had MERS-CoV-neutralizing antibody titers >1,280. Dromedary camels from the United Arab Emirates were infected at high rates with MERS-CoV or a closely related, probably conspecific, virus long before the first human MERS cases.

  14. Systematic, active surveillance for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in camels in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed A; Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Kandeil, Ahmed; El-Shesheny, Rabeh; Kayed, Ahmed S; El-Taweel, Ahmed N; Atea, Mohamed; Hassan, Nagla; Bagato, Ola; Moatasim, Yassmin; Mahmoud, Sara H; Kutkat, Omnia; Maatouq, Asmaa M; Osman, Ahmed; McKenzie, Pamela P; Webby, Richard J; Kayali, Ghazi

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence (90% vs 61%) and higher RT-PCR detection rates (21% vs 12%) than locally raised camels. Juveniles had lower seroprevalence than adults (37% vs 82%) but similar RT-PCR detection rates (16% vs 15%). An outbreak in a breeding herd, showed that antibodies rapidly wane, that camels become re-infected, and that outbreaks in a herd are sustained for an extended time. Maternal antibodies titers were very low in calves regardless of the antibody titers of the mothers. Our results support the hypothesis that camels are a reservoir for MERS-CoV and that camel trade is an important route of introducing the virus into importing countries. Findings related to waning antibodies and re-infection have implications for camel vaccine development, disease management and zoonotic threat. PMID:28050021

  15. Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction and Genomic Polymorphism Analysis of the SARS Coronavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季星来; 柳树群; 李岭; 孙之荣

    2004-01-01

    The cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new coronavirus (CoV).Several sequences of the complete genome of SARS-CoV have been determined.The subcellular localization (SubLocation) of annotated open-reading frames of the SARS-CoV genome was predicted using a support vector machine.Several gene products were predicted to locate in the Golgi body and cell nucleus.The SubLocation information was combined with predicted transmembrane information to develop a model of the viral life cycle.The results show that this information can be used to predict the functions of genes and even the virus pathogenesis.In addition,the entire SARS viral genome sequences currently available in GenBank were compared to identify the sequence variations among different isolates.Some variations in the Hong Kong strains may be related to the special clinical manifestations and provide clues for understanding the relationship between gene functions and evolution.These variations reflect the evolution of the SARS virus in human populations and may help development of a vaccine.

  16. Molecular and antigenic characterization of bovine Coronavirus circulating in Argentinean cattle during 1994-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, M; Miño, S; Rodriguez, D; Badaracco, A; Nuñes, I; Souza, S P; Bilbao, G; Louge Uriarte, E; Galarza, R; Vega, C; Odeon, A; Saif, L J; Parreño, V

    2015-12-31

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is an important viral pathogen associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of BCoV in diarrhea outbreaks in beef and dairy herds from Argentina during 1994-2010. A total of 5.365 fecal samples from diarrheic calves were screened for BCoV diagnosis by ELISA. The virus was detected in 1.71% (92/5365) of the samples corresponding to 5.95% (63/1058) of the diarrhea cases in 239 beef and 324 dairy farms. The detection rate of BCoV was significantly higher in dairy than in beef herds: 12.13% (29/239) vs. 4.32% (14/324) respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the hypervariable S1 region of seven representative samples (from different husbandry systems, farm locations and years of sampling) indicated that BCoV strains circulating in Argentinean beef and dairy herds formed a cluster distinct from other geographical regions. Interestingly, Argentinean strains are distantly related (at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels) with the Mebus historic reference BCoV strain included in the vaccines currently available in Argentina. However, Mebus-induced antibodies were capable of neutralizing the BCoV Arg95, a field strain adapted to grow in vitro, and vice versa, indicating that both strains belong to the same CoV serotype reported in cattle. This work represents the first large survey describing BCoV circulation in Argentinean cattle.

  17. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-12-02

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  18. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide. PMID:26633467

  19. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Goffard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs. To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  20. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibody reactors among camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-04-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000-2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supported by similar results in a MERS-CoV recombinant partial spike protein antibody ELISA. The two negative Dubai camels were both dromedary calves and remained negative over the 5 months studied. The six dromedary samples from USA and Canada were negative in both tests. These results support the recent findings that infection with MERS-CoV or a closely related virus is not a new occurrence in camels in the Middle East. Therefore, interactions of MERS-CoV at the human-animal interface may have been ongoing for several, perhaps many, years and by inference, a widespread pandemic may be less likely unless significant evolution of the virus allow accelerated infection and spread potential in the human population.

  1. Demyelination determinants map to the spike glycoprotein gene of coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Sarma, J; Fu, L; Tsai, J C; Weiss, S R; Lavi, E

    2000-10-01

    Demyelination is the pathologic hallmark of the human immune-mediated neurologic disease multiple sclerosis, which may be triggered or exacerbated by viral infections. Several experimental animal models have been developed to study the mechanism of virus-induced demyelination, including coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection in mice. The envelope spike (S) glycoprotein of MHV contains determinants of properties essential for virus-host interactions. However, the molecular determinants of MHV-induced demyelination are still unknown. To investigate the mechanism of MHV-induced demyelination, we examined whether the S gene of MHV contains determinants of demyelination and whether demyelination is linked to viral persistence. Using targeted RNA recombination, we replaced the S gene of a demyelinating virus (MHV-A59) with the S gene of a closely related, nondemyelinating virus (MHV-2). Recombinant viruses containing an S gene derived from MHV-2 in an MHV-A59 background (Penn98-1 and Penn98-2) exhibited a persistence-positive, demyelination-negative phenotype. Thus, determinants of demyelination map to the S gene of MHV. Furthermore, viral persistence is insufficient to induce demyelination, although it may be a prerequisite for the development of demyelination.

  2. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  3. Interaction of SARS and MERS Coronaviruses with the Antiviral Interferon Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, E; Thiel, V; Weber, F

    2016-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are the most severe coronavirus (CoV)-associated diseases in humans. The causative agents, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are of zoonotic origin but may be transmitted to humans, causing severe and often fatal respiratory disease in their new host. The two coronaviruses are thought to encode an unusually large number of factors that allow them to thrive and replicate in the presence of efficient host defense mechanisms, especially the antiviral interferon system. Here, we review the recent progress in our understanding of the strategies that highly pathogenic coronaviruses employ to escape, dampen, or block the antiviral interferon response in human cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery of Anti-SARS Coronavirus Drug Based on Molecular Docking and Database Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN,Hai-Feng(陈海峰); YAO,Jian-Hua(姚建华); SUN,Jing(孙晶); LI,Qiang(李强); LI,Feng(李丰); FAN,Bo-Tao(范波涛); YUAN,Shen-Gang(袁身刚)

    2004-01-01

    The active site of 3CL proteinase (3CLpro) for coronavirus was identified by comparing the crystal structures of human and porcine coronavirus. The inhibitor of the main protein of rhinovirus (Ag7088) could bind with 3CLpro of human coronavirus, then it was selected as the reference for molecular docking and database screening. The ligands from two databases were used to search potential lead structures with molecular docking. Several structures from natural products and ACD-SC databases were found to have lower binding free energy with 3CLpro than that of Ag7088. These structures have similar hydrophobicity to Ag7088. They have complementary electrostatic potential and hydrogen bond acceptor and donor with 3CLpro, showing that the strategy of anti-SARS drug design based on molecular docking and database screening is feasible.

  5. The SARS-unique domain (SUD of SARS coronavirus contains two macrodomains that bind G-quadruplexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhi Tan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2003, the three-dimensional structures of several of the replicase/transcriptase components of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV, the non-structural proteins (Nsps, have been determined. However, within the large Nsp3 (1922 amino-acid residues, the structure and function of the so-called SARS-unique domain (SUD have remained elusive. SUD occurs only in SARS-CoV and the highly related viruses found in certain bats, but is absent from all other coronaviruses. Therefore, it has been speculated that it may be involved in the extreme pathogenicity of SARS-CoV, compared to other coronaviruses, most of which cause only mild infections in humans. In order to help elucidate the function of the SUD, we have determined crystal structures of fragment 389-652 ("SUD(core" of Nsp3, which comprises 264 of the 338 residues of the domain. Both the monoclinic and triclinic crystal forms (2.2 and 2.8 A resolution, respectively revealed that SUD(core forms a homodimer. Each monomer consists of two subdomains, SUD-N and SUD-M, with a macrodomain fold similar to the SARS-CoV X-domain. However, in contrast to the latter, SUD fails to bind ADP-ribose, as determined by zone-interference gel electrophoresis. Instead, the entire SUD(core as well as its individual subdomains interact with oligonucleotides known to form G-quadruplexes. This includes oligodeoxy- as well as oligoribonucleotides. Mutations of selected lysine residues on the surface of the SUD-N subdomain lead to reduction of G-quadruplex binding, whereas mutations in the SUD-M subdomain abolish it. As there is no evidence for Nsp3 entering the nucleus of the host cell, the SARS-CoV genomic RNA or host-cell mRNA containing long G-stretches may be targets of SUD. The SARS-CoV genome is devoid of G-stretches longer than 5-6 nucleotides, but more extended G-stretches are found in the 3'-nontranslated regions of mRNAs coding for certain host-cell proteins

  6. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in...

  7. Livestock Susceptibility to Infection with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Alert, Júlia; van den Brand, Judith M.A.; Widagdo, W.; Muñoz, Marta; Raj, Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Solanes, David; Cordón, Ivan; Bensaid, Albert; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2017-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential reservoirs, we inoculated MERS-CoV into llamas, pigs, sheep, and horses and collected nasal and rectal swab samples at various times. The presence of MERS-CoV in the nose of pigs and llamas was confirmed by PCR, titration of infectious virus, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization; seroconversion was detected in animals of both species. Conversely, in sheep and horses, virus-specific antibodies did not develop and no evidence of viral replication in the upper respiratory tract was found. These results prove the susceptibility of llamas and pigs to MERS-CoV infection. Thus, the possibility of MERS-CoV circulation in animals other than dromedaries, such as llamas and pigs, is not negligible. PMID:27901465

  8. Acute myocarditis associated with novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhogbani, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    The novel Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MeRS-CoV) has been identified as a cause of pneumonia; however, it has not been reported as a cause of acute myocarditis. A 60-year-old man presented with pneumonia and congestive heart failure. On the first day of admission, he was found to have an elevated troponin-l level and severe global left ventricular systolic dysfunction on echo-cardiography. The serum creatinine level was found mildly elevated. Chest radiography revealed in the lower lung fields accentuated bronchovascular lung markings and multiple small patchy opacities. Laboratory tests were negative for viruses known to cause myocarditis. Sputum sample was positive for MeRS-CoV. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance revealed evidence of acute myocarditis. the patient had all criteria specified by the international Consensus Group on CMR in Myocarditis that make a clinical suspicion for acute myocarditis. this was the first case that demonstrated that MeRS-CoV may cause acute myocarditis and acute-onset heart failure.

  9. Dissection of SARS Coronavirus Spike Protein into Discrete Folded Fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shuang; CAI Zhen; CHEN Yong; LIN Zhanglin

    2006-01-01

    The spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) mediates cell fusion by binding to target cell surface receptors. This paper reports a simple method for dissecting the viral protein and for searching for foldable fragments in a random but systematic manner. The method involves digestion by DNase I to generate a pool of short DNA segments, followed by an additional step of reassembly of these segments to produce a library of DNA fragments with random ends but controllable lengths. To rapidly screen for discrete folded polypeptide fragments, the reassembled gene fragments were further cloned into a vector as N-terminal fusions to a folding reporter gene which was a variant of green fluorescent protein. Two foldable fragments were identified for the SARS-CoV spike protein, which coincide with various anti-SARS peptides derived from the hepated repeat (HR) region 2 of the spike protein. The method should be applicable to other viral proteins to isolate antigen or vaccine candidates, thus providing an alternative to the full-length proteins (subunits) or linear short peptides.

  10. Suppression of feline coronavirus replication in vitro by cyclosporin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yuka; Osawa, Shuichi; Inoue, Mai; Tanaka, Satoka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2012-04-30

    The feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is a member of the feline coronavirus family that causes FIP, which is incurable and fatal in cats. Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressive agent that targets the nuclear factor pathway of activated T-cells (NF-AT) to bind cellular cyclophilins (CyP), dose-dependently inhibited FIPV replication in vitro. FK506 (an immunosuppressor of the pathway that binds cellular FK506-binding protein (FKBP) but not CyP) did not affect FIPV replication. Neither cell growth nor viability changed in the presence of either CsA or FK506, and these factors did not affect the NF-AT pathway in fcwf-4 cells. Therefore, CsA does not seem to exert inhibitory effects via the NF-AT pathway. In conclusion, CsA inhibited FIPV replication in vitro and further studies are needed to verify the practical value of CsA as an anti-FIPV treatment in vivo.

  11. Quarantine protects Falkland Islands (Malvinas) cats from feline coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; McDonald, Mike; Audhuy, Stéphane; Burr, Paul; Hollins, Jonathan; Kovacic, Rémi; Lutz, Hans; Luxton, Zoe; Mazar, Shlomit; Meli, Marina L

    2012-02-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Since 2002, when 20 cats on the Falkland Islands were found to be FCoV seronegative, only seronegative cats could be imported. Between 2005-2007, 95 pet and 10 feral cats tested negative by indirect immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) analysis using two strains of type II FCoV, two transmissible gastroenteritis virus assays, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and rapid immunomigration test. Twenty-four samples (23%) showed non-specific fluorescence, mostly attributable to anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). The reason for ANA was unclear: reactive samples were negative for Erhlichia canis antibodies; seven were feline immunodeficiency virus positive, but 15 were negative. It was not possible to determine retrospectively whether the cats had autoimmune disease, hyperthyroidism treatment, or recent vaccination which may also cause ANA. The FCoV/ FIP-free status of the Falkland Islands cats should be maintained by FCoV testing incoming cats. However, ANA can complicate interpretation of IFA tests.

  12. Passively acquired challenge immunity to enterotropic coronavirus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberger, F R; Barthold, S W

    1992-01-01

    Maternally-derived passive immunity of infant mice to challenge infection with enterotropic coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain Y (MHV-Y) was studied. Pups born to both naive and immune dams, but nursed by naive foster dams, were susceptible to infection, while naive or immune pups nursed by immune foster dams were protected. The MHV infectious dose was identical among naive pups inoculated at 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks of age. Pups nursing immune dams resisted infection when inoculated at 1, 2, or 3 weeks of age. Three week old pups were protected only if they were allowed access to their immune dams. Pups born to MHV immune dams 4 in consecutive litters acquired equal MHV IgG titers in serum and whey and were all protected against challenge infection. Only pups actively ingesting immune whey at the time of or within two hours after virus inoculation were effectively protected. Pups born to dams immunized by oral inoculation with live MHV acquired both MHV-specific IgA and IgG in their whey, while pups born to dams immunized with killed virus acquired only IgG. Both IgA and IgG, but not IgG alone, were required for complete protection.

  13. Proteomic analysis of purified coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Dingming

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV is the coronavirus of domestic chickens causing major economic losses to the poultry industry. Because of the complexity of the IBV life cycle and the small number of viral structural proteins, important virus-host relationships likely remain to be discovered. Toward this goal, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis fractionation coupled to mass spectrometry identification approaches to perform a comprehensive proteomic analysis of purified IBV particles. Results Apart from the virus-encoded structural proteins, we detected 60 host proteins in the purified virions which can be grouped into several functional categories including intracellular trafficking proteins (20%, molecular chaperone (18%, macromolcular biosynthesis proteins (17%, cytoskeletal proteins (15%, signal transport proteins (15%, protein degradation (8%, chromosome associated proteins (2%, ribosomal proteins (2%, and other function proteins (3%. Interestingly, 21 of the total host proteins have not been reported to be present in virions of other virus families, such as major vault protein, TENP protein, ovalbumin, and scavenger receptor protein. Following identification of the host proteins by proteomic methods, the presence of 4 proteins in the purified IBV preparation was verified by western blotting and immunogold labeling detection. Conclusions The results present the first standard proteomic profile of IBV and may facilitate the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms.

  14. Understanding the T cell immune response in SARS coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice Oh, Hsueh-Ling; Ken-En Gan, Samuel; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2012-09-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic started in late 2002 and swiftly spread across 5 continents with a mortality rate of around 10%. Although the epidemic was eventually controlled through the implementation of strict quarantine measures, there continues a need to investigate the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and develop interventions should it re-emerge. Numerous studies have shown that neutralizing antibodies against the virus can be found in patients infected with SARS-CoV within days upon the onset of illness and lasting up to several months. In contrast, there is little data on the kinetics of T cell responses during SARS-CoV infection and little is known about their role in the recovery process. However, recent studies in mice suggest the importance of T cells in viral clearance during SARS-CoV infection. Moreover, a growing number of studies have investigated the memory T cell responses in recovered SARS patients. This review covers the available literature on the emerging importance of T cell responses in SARS-CoV infection, particularly on the mapping of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes, longevity, polyfunctionality and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association as well as their potential implications on treatment and vaccine development.

  15. Immunological Responses against SARS-Coronavirus Infection in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Xu; Xiao-Ming Gao

    2004-01-01

    Since the outbreak of a SARS epidemic last year, significant advances have been made on our understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between the SARS coronavirus (CoV) and the immune system. Strong humoral responses have been found in most patients following SARS-CoV infection, with high titers of neutralizing Abspresent in their convalescent sera. The nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV appear to be the dominant antigens recognized by serum Abs. CD4+ T cell responses against the N protein have been observed in SARS patients and an HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in the S protein has been identified.It is likely that the immune responses induced by SARS-CoV infection could also cause pathological damage to the host, especially in the case of proinflammatory cytokines. There is also evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV might be able to directly invade cells of the immune system. Our understanding on the interaction between SARS-CoV, the immune system and local tissues is essential to future diagnosis, control and treatment of this very contagious disease.

  16. Immunological Responses against SARS-Coronavirus Infection in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaojunXu; Xiao-MingGao

    2004-01-01

    Since the outbreak of a SARS epidemic last year, significant advances have been made on our understanding of the mechanisms of interaction between the SARS coronavirus (CoV) and the immune system. Strong humoral responses have been found in most patients following SARS-CoV infection, with high titers of neutralizing Abs present in their convalescent sera. The nucleocapsid (N) and spike (S) proteins of SARS-CoV appear to be the dominant antigens recognized by serum Abs. CD4+ T cell responses against the N protein have been observed in SARS patients and an HLA-A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope in the S protein has been identified. It is likely that the immune responses induced by SARS-CoV infection could also cause pathological damage to the host, especially in the case of proinflammatory cytokines. There is also evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV might be able to directly invade cells of the immune system. Our understanding on the interaction between SARS-CoV, the immune system and local tissues is essential to future diagnosis, control and treatment of this very contagious disease. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(2):119-122.

  17. Suppression of feline coronavirus replication in vitro by cyclosporin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Yoshikazu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV is a member of the feline coronavirus family that causes FIP, which is incurable and fatal in cats. Cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressive agent that targets the nuclear factor pathway of activated T-cells (NF-AT to bind cellular cyclophilins (CyP, dose-dependently inhibited FIPV replication in vitro. FK506 (an immunosuppressor of the pathway that binds cellular FK506-binding protein (FKBP but not CyP did not affect FIPV replication. Neither cell growth nor viability changed in the presence of either CsA or FK506, and these factors did not affect the NF-AT pathway in fcwf-4 cells. Therefore, CsA does not seem to exert inhibitory effects via the NF-AT pathway. In conclusion, CsA inhibited FIPV replication in vitro and further studies are needed to verify the practical value of CsA as an anti-FIPV treatment in vivo.

  18. Sites of feline coronavirus persistence in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, Anja; Meli, Marina L; Baptiste, Keith E; Bowker, Laurel J; Lutz, Hans

    2010-07-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is transmitted via the faecal-oral route and primarily infects enterocytes, but subsequently spreads by monocyte-associated viraemia. In some infected cats, virulent virus mutants induce feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a fatal systemic disease that can develop in association with viraemia. Persistently infected, healthy carriers are believed to be important in the epidemiology of FIP, as they represent a constant source of FCoV, shed either persistently or intermittently in faeces. So far, the sites of virus persistence have not been determined definitely. The purpose of this study was to examine virus distribution and viral load in organs and gut compartments of specified-pathogen-free cats, orally infected with non-virulent type I FCoV, over different time periods and with or without detectable viraemia. The colon was identified as the major site of FCoV persistence and probable source for recurrent shedding, but the virus was shown also to persist in several other organs, mainly in tissue macrophages. These might represent additional sources for recurrent viraemia.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of bovine coronavirus on the basis of comparative analyses of the S gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lihong; Hägglund, Sara; Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil

    2006-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), a group 2 member of the genus Coronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, is an important pathogen in cattle worldwide. It causes diarrhea in adult animals (winter dysentery), as well as enteric and respiratory diseases in calves. The annual occurrence of BCoV epidemics...... herd, indicating new introduction of virus; (iii) identical sequences in four different Danish herds in samples obtained within 2 months, implying virus transmission between herds; and (iv) that at least two different virus strains were involved in the outbreaks of BCoV in Denmark during the spring...

  20. Cross-reactive antibodies in convalescent SARS patients' sera against the emerging novel human coronavirus EMC (2012) by both immunofluorescent and neutralizing antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tse, Herman; Chen, Honglin; Lau, Candy Choi-Yi; Cai, Jian-Piao; Tsang, Alan Ka-Lun; Xiao, Xincai; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Zheng, Bo-Jiang; Wang, Ming; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like disease due to a novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has emerged recently. HCoV-EMC is phylogenetically closely related to Tylonycteris-bat-coronavirus-HKU4 and Pipistrellus-bat-coronavirus-HKU5 in Hong Kong. We conducted a seroprevalence study on archived sera from 94 game-food animal handlers at a wild life market, 28 SARS patients, and 152 healthy blood donors in Southern China to assess the zoonotic potential and evidence for intrusion of HCoV-EMC and related viruses into humans. Anti-HCoV-EMC and anti-SARS-CoV antibodies were detected using screening indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and confirmatory neutralizing antibody tests. Two (2.1%) animal handlers had IF antibody titer of ≥ 1:20 against both HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV with neutralizing antibody titer of SARS patients had significant IF antibody titers with 7/28 (25%) having anti-HCoV-EMC neutralizing antibodies at low titers which significantly correlated with that of HCoV-OC43. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated a significant B-cell epitope overlapping the heptad repeat-2 region of Spike protein. Virulence of SARS-CoV over other betacoronaviruses may boost cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against other betacoronaviruses. Convalescent SARS sera may contain cross-reactive antibodies against other betacoronaviruses and confound seroprevalence study for HCoV-EMC. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Shang-jin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of canine distemper virus (CDV. A pair of primers (P1 and P4 specific for CDV corresponding to the highly conserved region of the CDV genome were used as a common primer pair in the first-round PCR of the nested PCR. Primers P2 specific for CDV wild-type strains, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4 in the second round of nested PCR. Primers P3, P5 specific for CDV wild-type strain or vaccine strain, were used as the forward primer together with the common reverse primer P4+P6 in the second round of nested PCR. A fragment of 177 bp was amplified from vaccine strain genomic RNA, and a fragment of 247 bp from wild-type strain genomic RNA in the RT-nPCR, and two fragments of 247 bp and 177 bp were amplified from the mixed samples of vaccine and wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for uninfected cells, or cells infected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV, canine parvovirus (CPV, canine coronavirus (CCV, rabies virus (RV, or canine adenovirus (CAV. The RT-nPCR method was used to detect 30 field samples suspected of canine distemper from Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces, and 51 samples in Shandong province. As a result of 30 samples, were found to be wild-type-like, and 5 to be vaccine-strain-like. The RT-nPCR method can be used to effectively detect and differentiate wild-type CDV-infected dogs from dogs vaccinated with CDV vaccine, and thus can be used in clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance.

  2. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  3. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo- Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lisa Y; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W; Argyle, David J

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  4. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo-Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Lisa Y., E-mail: lisa.pang@ed.ac.uk; Cervantes-Arias, Alejandro; Else, Rod W.; Argyle, David J. [Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, The University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, EH25 9RG (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-30

    Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  5. The Conserved Coronavirus Macrodomain Promotes Virulence and Suppresses the Innate Immune Response during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Fehr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ADP-ribosylation is a common posttranslational modification that may have antiviral properties and impact innate immunity. To regulate this activity, macrodomain proteins enzymatically remove covalently attached ADP-ribose from protein targets. All members of the Coronavirinae, a subfamily of positive-sense RNA viruses, contain a highly conserved macrodomain within nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3. However, its function or targets during infection remain unknown. We identified several macrodomain mutations that greatly reduced nsp3’s de-ADP-ribosylation activity in vitro. Next, we created recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV strains with these mutations. These mutations led to virus attenuation and a modest reduction of viral loads in infected mice, despite normal replication in cell culture. Further, macrodomain mutant virus elicited an early, enhanced interferon (IFN, interferon-stimulated gene (ISG, and proinflammatory cytokine response in mice and in a human bronchial epithelial cell line. Using a coinfection assay, we found that inclusion of mutant virus in the inoculum protected mice from an otherwise lethal SARS-CoV infection without reducing virus loads, indicating that the changes in innate immune response were physiologically significant. In conclusion, we have established a novel function for the SARS-CoV macrodomain that implicates ADP-ribose in the regulation of the innate immune response and helps to demonstrate why this domain is conserved in CoVs.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  7. Cinanserin is an inhibitor of the 3C-like proteinase of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and strongly reduces virus replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Gui, Chunshan; Luo, Xiaomin; Yang, Qingang; Günther, Stephan; Scandella, Elke; Drosten, Christian; Bai, Donglu; He, Xichang; Ludewig, Burkhard; Chen, Jing; Luo, Haibin; Yang, Yiming; Yang, Yifu; Zou, Jianping; Thiel, Volker; Chen, Kaixian; Shen, Jianhua; Shen, Xu; Jiang, Hualiang

    2005-06-01

    The 3C-like proteinase (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is one of the most promising targets for anti-SARS-CoV drugs due to its crucial role in the viral life cycle. In this study, a database containing structural information of more than 8,000 existing drugs was virtually screened by a docking approach to identify potential binding molecules of SARS-CoV 3CLpro. As a target for screening, both a homology model and the crystallographic structure of the binding pocket of the enzyme were used. Cinanserin (SQ 10,643), a well-characterized serotonin antagonist that has undergone preliminary clinical testing in humans in the 1960s, showed a high score in the screening and was chosen for further experimental evaluation. Binding of both cinanserin and its hydrochloride to bacterially expressed 3CLpro of SARS-CoV and the related human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) was demonstrated by surface plasmon resonance technology. The catalytic activity of both enzymes was inhibited with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5 microM, as tested with a fluorogenic substrate. The antiviral activity of cinanserin was further evaluated in tissue culture assays, namely, a replicon system based on HCoV-229E and quantitative test assays with infectious SARS-CoV and HCoV-229E. All assays revealed a strong inhibition of coronavirus replication at nontoxic drug concentrations. The level of virus RNA and infectious particles was reduced by up to 4 log units, with IC50 values ranging from 19 to 34 microM. These findings demonstrate that the old drug cinanserin is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV replication, acting most likely via inhibition of the 3CL proteinase.

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistieri, Maria Ligia A; Wigger, Antje; Canola, Julio C; Filho, João G P; Kramer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis is an uncommon finding in dogs. Although its radiographic appearance has been described previously, radiographs alone do not provide detailed information about the tendon parenchyma. Tendon ultrasonography has been widely applied for the diagnosis of human tendinosis, but it remains underused in dogs. This article reviews the ultrasonographic technique and variable appearance of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis observed in 33 tendons. The ultrasonographic findings are described. The most common ultrasonographic finding was a hyperechoic area accompanied by distal acoustic shadowing. No relationship with bicipital tenosynovitis was found. A color Doppler examination was possible in only five of the tendons, revealing no blood flow in those tendons. There was evidence that the presence of a hypoechoic area surrounding the calcification was related to clinical signs of pain, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Ultrasonography was an excellent technique to evaluate lesions of the supraspinatus tendon and it revealed details not apparent on radiographs.

  9. Development of a combined canine distemper virus specific RT-PCR protocol for the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) and genetic characterization of the hemagglutinin gene of seven Chinese strains demonstrated in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li; Cheng, Shipeng; Xu, Hongli; Wang, Jianke; Cheng, Yuening; Yang, Shen; Luo, Bin

    2012-01-01

    A combined reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for the detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of the canine distemper virus (CDV). A pair of primers (P1/P2) was used to detect both CDV wild-type strains and vaccines. Another pair (P3/P4) was used to detect only CDV wild-type strains. A 335bp fragment was amplified from the genomic RNA of the vaccine and wild-type strains. A 555bp fragment was amplified specifically from the genomic RNA of the wild-type strains. No amplification was achieved for the uninfected cells, cells infected with canine parvovirus, canine coronavirus, or canine adenovirus. The combined RT-PCR method detected effectively and differentiated the CDV wild-type and vaccine strains by two separate RT-PCRs. The method can be used for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin gene of the local wild-type CDV strains revealed that the seven local isolates all belonged to the Asia-1 lineage, and were clustered closely with one another at the same location. These results suggested that the CDV genotype Asia-1 is circulating currently in domestic dogs in China.

  10. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  11. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  12. Canine pleural mesothelioma as an indicator of environmental exposure to asbestos; Il mesotelioma pleurico del cane come indicatore di esposizione ambientale ad amianto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nardo, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Medicina Veterinaria

    1996-12-01

    Canine pleural mesothelioma represents a `sentinel health event` because of the role of asbestos exposure in its etiology and pathogenesis. The observation of such event may thus trigger prevention-oriented remedial actions. This is especially due to the relatively short induction-latency time of canine mesothelioma, i.e. eight-nine years, versus the corresponding induction-latency time in humans (on average about thirty years). The observation of cases of canine mesothelioma may concur to the detection of previously unrecognized hazardous exposures to asbestos. On this ground, the epidemiologic surveillance of canine mesothelioma in Italy is suggested.

  13. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals....

  14. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  15. MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Camels, Eastern Africa, 1983-1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor Max; Jores, Joerg; Meyer, Benjamin; Younan, Mario; Liljander, Anne; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Hilali, Mosaad; Musa, Bakri E; Bornstein, Set; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the distribution of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)-seropositive dromedary camels in eastern Africa, we tested 189 archived serum samples accumulated during the past 30 years. We identified MERS-CoV neutralizing antibodies in 81.0% of samples from the main camel-ex

  16. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedaries, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Benjamin; Müller, Marcel A.; Corman, Victor M.; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Ritz, Daniel; Godeke, Gert Jan; Lattwein, Erik; Kallies, Stephan; Siemens, Artem; van Beek, Janko; Drexler, Jan F.; Muth, Doreen; Bosch, Berend Jan; Wernery, Ulrich; Koopmans, Marion P G; Wernery, Renate; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has caused an ongoing outbreak of severe acute respiratory tract infection in humans in the Arabian Peninsula since 2012. Dromedary camels have been implicated as possible viral reservoirs. We used serologic assays to analyze 651 dromedary came

  17. Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, Kenya, 1992-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, Victor M.; Jores, Joerg; Meyer, Benjamin; Younan, Mario; Liljander, Anne; Said, Mohammed Y.; Gluecks, Ilona; Lattwein, Erik; Bosch, Berend Jan; Drexler, Jan Felix; Bornstein, Set; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camels are a putative source for human infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. We showed that camels sampled in different regions in Kenya during 1992-2013 have antibodies against this virus. High densities of camel populations correlated with increased seropositivity

  18. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: An outbreak investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.L. Haagmans (Bart); S.H.S. Al Dhahiry (Said); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); V.S. Raj (Stalin); M. Galiano (Monica); R.H. Myers (Richard); G-J. Godeke (Gert-Jan); M. Jonges (Marcel); E. Farag (Elmoubasher); A. Diab (Ayman); H. Ghobashy (Hazem); F. Alhajri (Farhoud); M. Al-Thani (Mohamed); S.A. Al-Marri (Salih); H.E. Al Romaihi (Hamad); A. Al Khal (Abdullatif); A. Bermingham (Alison); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.M. AlHajri (Mohd); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in people. Previous studies suggested dromedary camels were a reservoir for this virus. We tested for the presence of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels from a farm in Qatar link

  19. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of feline Coronavirus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelica Stranieri; Stefania Lauzi; Alessia Giordano; Saverio Paltrinieri

    2016-01-01

    ...). The addition of two loop primers allows the reaction time to be of one hour only (Nagamine et al., 2002). The aim of this study was to develop a reverse transcription LAMP assay for an easy and inexpensive detection of feline Coronavirus...

  20. Sequence evidence for RNA recombination in field isolates of avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, J G; Jager, E J; Niesters, H G; van der Zeijst, B A

    1990-01-01

    Under laboratory conditions coronaviruses were shown to have a high frequency of recombination. In The Netherlands, vaccination against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is performed with vaccines that contain several life-attenuated virus strains. These highly effective vaccines may create ideal

  1. First Case of Systemic Coronavirus Infection in a Domestic Ferret (Mustela putorius furo) in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, J; Quevedo, M; Gonzales-Viera, O; Luna, L; Keel, M K; Gregori, F

    2015-12-01

    A domestic ferret from Lima, Peru, died after ten days of non-specific clinical signs. Based on pathology, immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis, ferret systemic coronavirus (FRSCV)-associated disease was diagnosed for the first time in South America. This report highlights the potential spread of pathogens by the international pet trade.

  2. Activation of the chicken type I IFN response by infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, J.; Fernandez Gutierrez, M.M.; Maier, H.J.; Britton, P.; Langereis, M.A.; Koumans, J.; Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses from both the Alpha and Betacoronavirus genera, interfere with the type I interferon (IFN) response in various ways, ensuring limited activation of the IFN response in most cell types. Of Gammacoronaviruses that mainly infect birds, little is known about activation of the host immune r

  3. Inhibition of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection by anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ohnuma (Kei); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); R. Hatano (Ryo); V.S. Raj (Stalin); H. Mou (Huihui); S. Iwata (Satoshi); R.L. Dang (Rong); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); C. Morimoto (Chikao)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe identified the domains of CD26 involved in the binding of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) using distinct clones of anti-CD26 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One clone, named 2F9, almost completely inhibited viral entry. The humanized anti-CD26 MAb YS110 also sign

  4. Circulation of Group 2 Coronaviruses in a Bat Species Common to Urban Areas in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reusken, C.B.E.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Pielaat, A.; Vries, de A.; Dam-Deisz, C.; Adema, J.; Drexler, J.F.; Drosten, C.; Kooi, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Fecal samples of 211 bats representing 13 different bat species from 31 locations in the Netherlands were analyzed for the presence of coronaviruses (CoV) using a genus-wide reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction. CoVs are known for their high potential for interspecies transmission, i

  5. The viral spike protein is not involved in the polarized sorting of coronaviruses in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; de Beer, R; Godeke, G J; Raamsman, M J; Horzinek, M C; Vennema, H; Rottier, P J

    1998-01-01

    Coronaviruses are assembled by budding into a pre-Golgi compartment from which they are transported along the secretory pathway to leave the cell. In cultured epithelial cells, they are released in a polarized fashion; depending on the virus and cell type, they are sorted preferentially either to th

  6. Human Infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Watson, Simon J.; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend Jan; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.; Kellam, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species trans

  7. Human Infection with MERS Coronavirus after Exposure to Infected Camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Simon J Watson; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species transmission. Camels may act as a direct source of human MERS-CoV infection.

  8. Insights into RNA synthesis, capping, and proofreading mechanisms of SARS-coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevajol, Marion; Subissi, Lorenzo; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-12-19

    The successive emergence of highly pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has stimulated a number of studies on the molecular biology. This research has provided significant new insight into functions and activities of the replication/transcription multi-protein complex. The latter directs both continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis to replicate and transcribe the large coronavirus genome made of a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of ∼30 kb. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of SARS-CoV enzymes involved in RNA biochemistry, such as the in vitro characterization of a highly active and processive RNA polymerase complex which can associate with methyltransferase and 3'-5' exoribonuclease activities involved in RNA capping, and RNA proofreading, respectively. The recent discoveries reveal fascinating RNA-synthesizing machinery, highlighting the unique position of coronaviruses in the RNA virus world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SARS-unique fold in the Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Robert G; Tan, Xuan; Johnson, Margaret A

    2017-09-01

    The coronavirus nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) is a multifunctional protein that comprises multiple structural domains. This protein assists viral polyprotein cleavage, host immune interference, and may play other roles in genome replication or transcription. Here, we report the solution NMR structure of a protein from the "SARS-unique region" of the bat coronavirus HKU9. The protein contains a frataxin fold or double-wing motif, which is an α + β fold that is associated with protein/protein interactions, DNA binding, and metal ion binding. High structural similarity to the human severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nsp3 is present. A possible functional site that is conserved among some betacoronaviruses has been identified using bioinformatics and biochemical analyses. This structure provides strong experimental support for the recent proposal advanced by us and others that the "SARS-unique" region is not unique to the human SARS virus, but is conserved among several different phylogenetic groups of coronaviruses and provides essential functions. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  10. Acute middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in livestock Dromedaries, Dubai, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Ulrich; Corman, Victor M; Wong, Emily Y M; Tsang, Alan K L; Muth, Doreen; Lau, Susanna K P; Khazanehdari, Kamal; Zirkel, Florian; Ali, Mansoor; Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Renate; Joseph, Sunitha; Syriac, Ginu; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Patteril, Nissy Annie Georgy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Drosten, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Camels carry Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, but little is known about infection age or prevalence. We studied >800 dromedaries of all ages and 15 mother-calf pairs. This syndrome constitutes an acute, epidemic, and time-limited infection in camels <4 years of age, particularly calves. Delayed social separation of calves might reduce human infection risk.

  11. Coronavirus 3CL(pro) proteinase cleavage sites: Possible relevance to SARS virus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiemer, Lars; Lund, Ole; Brunak, Søren

    2004-01-01

    such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR), transcription factors CREB-RP and OCT-I, and components of the ubiquitin pathway. Conclusions: Our prediction method NetCorona predicts coronavirus cleavage sites with high specificity and several potential cleavage candidates were identified...

  12. Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Rota (Paul); M.S. Oberste (Steven); S.S. Monroe (Stephan); W.A. Nix (Allan); R. Campagnoli (Ray); J.P. Icenogle (Joseph); S. Penaranda; B. Bankamp (Bettina); K. Maher (Kaija); M.H. Chen (Min-hsin); S. Tong (Suxiong); A. Tamin (Azaibi); L. Lowe (Luis); M. Frace (Michael); J.L. DeRisi (Joseph); Q. Chen (Qi); D. Wang (David); D.D. Erdman (Dean); T.C. Peret (Teresa); C. Burns (Cara); T.G. Ksiazek (Thomas); P.E. Rollin (Pierre); A. Sanchez (Berenguer); S. Liffick (Stephanie); B. Holloway (Brian); J. Limor (Josef); K. McCaustland (Karen); M. Olsen-Rasmussen (Mellissa); S. Gunther; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); C. Drosten (Christian); M.A. Pallansch (Mark); L.J. Anderson (Larry); W.J. Belline; R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn March 2003, a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was discovered in association with cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The sequence of the complete genome of SARS-CoV was determined, and the initial characterization of the viral genome is presented in this report. The geno

  13. Discovery, diversity and evolution of novel coronaviruses sampled from rodents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Wang, Cai-Qiao; Ge, Shuang; Mei, Sheng-Hua; Li, Ming-Hui; Shi, Mang; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Although rodents are important reservoirs for RNA viruses, to date only one species of rodent coronavirus (CoV) has been identified. Herein, we describe a new CoV, denoted Lucheng Rn rat coronavirus (LRNV), and novel variants of two Betacoronavirus species termed Longquan Aa mouse coronavirus (LAMV) and Longquan Rl rat coronavirus (LRLV), that were identified in a survey of 1465 rodents sampled in China during 2011-2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LAMV and LRLV fell into lineage A of the genus Betacoronavirus, which included CoVs discovered in humans and domestic and wild animals. In contrast, LRNV harbored by Rattus norvegicus formed a distinct lineage within the genus Alphacoronavirus in the 3CL(pro), RdRp, and Hel gene trees, but formed a more divergent lineage in the N and S gene trees, indicative of a recombinant origin. Additional recombination events were identified in LRLV. Together, these data suggest that rodents may carry additional unrecognized CoVs.

  14. ATP1A1-mediated Src signaling inhibits coronavirus entry into host cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Burkard (Christine); M.H. Verheije (Monique); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); F.J.M. van Kuppeveld (Frank ); P.J.M. Rottier (Peter); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); C.A.M. de Haan (Cornelis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to transporting ions, the multisubunit Na+,K+-ATPase also functions by relaying cardiotonic steroid (CTS)-binding- induced signals into cells. In this study, we analyzed the role of Na+,K+-ATPase and, in particular, of its ATP1A1 α subunit during coronavirus (CoV) infection.

  15. Relationship between canine dimorphism and mandibular morphology in the hamadryas baboon and the Japanese monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukase, Hitoshi

    2011-04-01

    To examine morphological interrelationships between canine size and mandibular corpus shape, inter-sex comparisons were made in the hamadryas baboon and the Japanese monkey, known to display extreme and moderate canine dimorphism, respectively. Results of adult comparisons showed that all mandibular dimensions were significantly larger in the males than in the females in both species. In the hamadryas baboon, the males also exhibited a higher ratio of anterior to posterior corpus height than the females. This sex difference in corpus shape was not significant in the Japanese monkey, indicating lack of involvement of canine dimorphism. Analysis of mandibular growth patterns in the hamadryas baboon demonstrated that significant sexual size difference did not occur before incisor eruption, and that the anteriorly high corpus of the adult male mandible was associated with a rapidly increasing symphyseal height after incisor eruption. It was also shown that the female canine started to erupt shortly after incisor eruption, while the forming male canine continued to stay near the mandibular base and developed further in size until eruption. The relative positions of the incisors kept shifting upwards even after eruption in the males, while they hardly changed in the females. It is therefore suggested that the prolonged development and size increase of the male canine is accompanied by further enlargement of the symphysis, resulting in the higher anterior corpus of the adult males compared to the adult females. The results thus indicate the importance of understanding the spatial relationships of the developing teeth in interpreting mandibular morphology.

  16. The SARS-coronavirus papain-like protease: structure, function and inhibition by designed antiviral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez-Santos, Yahira M; St John, Sarah E; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2015-03-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the deadly human coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV) emerged from the Guangdong Province of China. Despite the fact that the SARS-CoV pandemic infected over 8500 individuals, claimed over 800 lives and cost billions of dollars in economic loss worldwide, there still are no clinically approved antiviral drugs, vaccines or monoclonal antibody therapies to treat SARS-CoV infections. The recent emergence of the deadly human coronavirus that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) is a sobering reminder that new and deadly coronaviruses can emerge at any time with the potential to become pandemics. Therefore, the continued development of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures to potentially deadly coronaviruses is warranted. The coronaviral proteases, papain-like protease (PLpro) and 3C-like protease (3CLpro), are attractive antiviral drug targets because they are essential for coronaviral replication. Although the primary function of PLpro and 3CLpro are to process the viral polyprotein in a coordinated manner, PLpro has the additional function of stripping ubiquitin and ISG15 from host-cell proteins to aid coronaviruses in their evasion of the host innate immune responses. Therefore, targeting PLpro with antiviral drugs may have an advantage in not only inhibiting viral replication but also inhibiting the dysregulation of signaling cascades in infected cells that may lead to cell death in surrounding, uninfected cells. This review provides an up-to-date discussion on the SARS-CoV papain-like protease including a brief overview of the SARS-CoV genome and replication followed by a more in-depth discussion on the structure and catalytic mechanism of SARS-CoV PLpro, the multiple cellular functions of SARS-CoV PLpro, the inhibition of SARS-CoV PLpro by small molecule inhibitors, and the prospect of inhibiting papain-like protease from other coronaviruses. This paper forms part of a series of

  17. Structural bases of coronavirus attachment to host aminopeptidase N and its inhibition by neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Reguera

    Full Text Available The coronaviruses (CoVs are enveloped viruses of animals and humans associated mostly with enteric and respiratory diseases, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome and 10-20% of all common colds. A subset of CoVs uses the cell surface aminopeptidase N (APN, a membrane-bound metalloprotease, as a cell entry receptor. In these viruses, the envelope spike glycoprotein (S mediates the attachment of the virus particles to APN and subsequent cell entry, which can be blocked by neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe the crystal structures of the receptor-binding domains (RBDs of two closely related CoV strains, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and porcine respiratory CoV (PRCV, in complex with their receptor, porcine APN (pAPN, or with a neutralizing antibody. The data provide detailed information on the architecture of the dimeric pAPN ectodomain and its interaction with the CoV S. We show that a protruding receptor-binding edge in the S determines virus-binding specificity for recessed glycan-containing surfaces in the membrane-distal region of the pAPN ectodomain. Comparison of the RBDs of TGEV and PRCV to those of other related CoVs, suggests that the conformation of the S receptor-binding region determines cell entry receptor specificity. Moreover, the receptor-binding edge is a major antigenic determinant in the TGEV envelope S that is targeted by neutralizing antibodies. Our results provide a compelling view on CoV cell entry and immune neutralization, and may aid the design of antivirals or CoV vaccines. APN is also considered a target for cancer therapy and its structure, reported here, could facilitate the development of anti-cancer drugs.

  18. Significance of Coronavirus Mutants in Feces and Diseased Tissues of Cats Suffering from Feline Infectious Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C. Pedersen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The internal FECV→FIPV mutation theory and three of its correlates were tested in four sibs/half-sib kittens, a healthy contact cat, and in four unrelated cats that died of FIP at geographically disparate regions. Coronavirus from feces and extraintestinal FIP lesions from the same cat were always >99% related in accessory and structural gene sequences. SNPs and deletions causing a truncation of the 3c gene product were found in almost all isolates from the diseased tissues of the eight cats suffering from FIP, whereas most, but not all fecal isolates from these same cats had intact 3c genes. Other accessory and structural genes appeared normal in both fecal and lesional viruses. Deliterious mutations in the 3c gene were unique to each cat, indicating that they did not originate in one cat and were subsequently passed horizontally to the others. Compartmentalization of the parental and mutant forms was not absolute; virus of lesional type was sometimes found in feces of affected cats and virus identical to fecal type was occasionally identified in diseased tissues. Although 3c gene mutants in this study were not horizontally transmitted, the parental fecal virus was readily transmitted by contact from a cat that died of FIP to its housemate. There was a high rate of mutability in all structural and accessory genes both within and between cats, leading to minor genetic variants. More than one variant could be identified in both diseased tissues and feces of the same cat. Laboratory cats inoculated with a mixture of two closely related variants from the same FIP cat developed disease from one or the other variant, but not both. Significant genetic drift existed between isolates from geographically distinct regions of the Western US.

  19. A mouse model for Betacoronavirus subgroup 2c using a bat coronavirus strain HKU5 variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Yount, Boyd L; Donaldson, Eric F; Huynh, Jeremy; Menachery, Vineet D; Gralinski, Lisa E; Graham, Rachel L; Becker, Michelle M; Tomar, Sakshi; Scobey, Trevor D; Osswald, Heather L; Whitmore, Alan; Gopal, Robin; Ghosh, Arun K; Mesecar, Andrew; Zambon, Maria; Heise, Mark; Denison, Mark R; Baric, Ralph S

    2014-03-25

    Cross-species transmission of zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs) can result in pandemic disease outbreaks. Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), identified in 2012, has caused 182 cases to date, with ~43% mortality, and no small animal model has been reported. MERS-CoV and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus (BtCoV) strain HKU5 of Betacoronavirus (β-CoV) subgroup 2c share >65% identity at the amino acid level in several regions, including nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein, which are significant drug and vaccine targets. BtCoV HKU5 has been described in silico but has not been shown to replicate in culture, thus hampering drug and vaccine studies against subgroup 2c β-CoVs. We report the synthetic reconstruction and testing of BtCoV HKU5 containing the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein ectodomain (BtCoV HKU5-SE). This virus replicates efficiently in cell culture and in young and aged mice, where the virus targets airway and alveolar epithelial cells. Unlike some subgroup 2b SARS-CoV vaccines that elicit a strong eosinophilia following challenge, we demonstrate that BtCoV HKU5 and MERS-CoV N-expressing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particle (VRP) vaccines do not cause extensive eosinophilia following BtCoV HKU5-SE challenge. Passage of BtCoV HKU5-SE in young mice resulted in enhanced virulence, causing 20% weight loss, diffuse alveolar damage, and hyaline membrane formation in aged mice. Passaged virus was characterized by mutations in the nsp13, nsp14, open reading frame 5 (ORF5) and M genes. Finally, we identified an inhibitor active against the nsp5 proteases of subgroup 2c β-CoVs. Synthetic-genome platforms capable of reconstituting emerging zoonotic viral pathogens or their phylogenetic relatives provide new strategies for identifying broad-based therapeutics, evaluating vaccine outcomes, and studying viral pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The 2012 outbreak of MERS-CoV raises the specter

  20. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Diagnostic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J Ryan; Gambino, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Diagnostic imaging is the principal method used to screen for and diagnose hip dysplasia in the canine patient. Multiple techniques are available, each having advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. Hip-extended radiography is the most used method and is best used as a screening tool and for assessment for osteoarthritis. Distraction radiographic methods such as the PennHip method allow for improved detection of laxity and improved ability to predict future osteoarthritis development. More advanced techniques such as MRI, although expensive and not widely available, may improve patient screening and allow for improved assessment of cartilage health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early eruption of permanent canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, S

    2012-01-01

    Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  2. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  3. Canine hypoparathyroidism: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.L. Cardoso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon endocrinopathy in dogs, resulting from absolute or relative deficiency in the secretion of parathormone (PTH. The dog presented signs of hypocalcemia, including muscular spasms, tetany and cramps, evolving to tonic-clonic seizures and fever. Emergency therapy for hypocalcemia included glucose physiological solution at 0.45% and calcium gluconate administered intravenously. Diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and a decrease in parathormone (PTH.

  4. Canine hypoparathyroidism: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso,M.J.L.; Melussi,M.; F.S Costa; Fagnani,R.; Holsback,L.; Zacarias Júnior,A.; T.H.C. Patelli

    2015-01-01

    Primary hypoparathyroidism is an uncommon endocrinopathy in dogs, resulting from absolute or relative deficiency in the secretion of parathormone (PTH). The dog presented signs of hypocalcemia, including muscular spasms, tetany and cramps, evolving to tonic-clonic seizures and fever. Emergency therapy for hypocalcemia included glucose physiological solution at 0.45% and calcium gluconate administered intravenously. Diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and...

  5. Appearance of the canine meninges in subtraction magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Christopher R; Lam, Richard; Keenihan, Erin K; Frean, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The canine meninges are not visible as discrete structures in noncontrast magnetic resonance (MR) images, and are incompletely visualized in T1-weighted, postgadolinium images, reportedly appearing as short, thin curvilinear segments with minimal enhancement. Subtraction imaging facilitates detection of enhancement of tissues, hence may increase the conspicuity of meninges. The aim of the present study was to describe qualitatively the appearance of canine meninges in subtraction MR images obtained using a dynamic technique. Images were reviewed of 10 consecutive dogs that had dynamic pre- and postgadolinium T1W imaging of the brain that was interpreted as normal, and had normal cerebrospinal fluid. Image-anatomic correlation was facilitated by dissection and histologic examination of two canine cadavers. Meningeal enhancement was relatively inconspicuous in postgadolinium T1-weighted images, but was clearly visible in subtraction images of all dogs. Enhancement was visible as faint, small-rounded foci compatible with vessels seen end on within the sulci, a series of larger rounded foci compatible with vessels of variable caliber on the dorsal aspect of the cerebral cortex, and a continuous thin zone of moderate enhancement around the brain. Superimposition of color-encoded subtraction images on pregadolinium T1- and T2-weighted images facilitated localization of the origin of enhancement, which appeared to be predominantly dural, with relatively few leptomeningeal structures visible. Dynamic subtraction MR imaging should be considered for inclusion in clinical brain MR protocols because of the possibility that its use may increase sensitivity for lesions affecting the meninges.

  6. Laboratory investigation and phylogenetic analysis of an imported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus case in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kossyvakis

    Full Text Available Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of persons suspected of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV infection is important for timely implementation of infection control practices and disease management. In addition, monitoring molecular changes in the virus can help elucidate chains of transmission and identify mutations that might influence virus transmission efficiency. This was illustrated by a recent laboratory investigation we conducted on an imported MERS-CoV case in Greece. Two oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected on the 1st and 2nd day of patient hospitalization and tested using two real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR assays targeting the UpE and Orf-1a regions of the MERS-CoV genome and RT-PCR and partial sequencing of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and nucleocapsid genes. Serum specimens were also collected and serological test were performed. Results from the first swab sample were inconclusive while the second swab was strongly positive for MERS-CoV RNA by rRT-PCR and confirmed positive by RT-PCR and partial gene sequencing. Positive serologic test results further confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Full-length nucleocapsid and spike gene coding sequences were later obtained from the positive swab sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus was closely related to recent human-derived MERS-CoV strains obtained in Jeddah and Makkah, Saudi Arabia, in April 2014 and dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. These findings were consistent with the patient's history. We also identified a unique amino acid substitution in the spike receptor binding domain that may have implications for receptor binding efficiency. Our initial inconclusive rRT-PCR results highlight the importance of collecting multiple specimens from suspect MERS-CoV cases and particularly specimens from the lower respiratory tract.

  7. Serotype shift of a 793/B genotype infectious bronchitis coronavirus by natural recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Han, Zongxi; Xu, Qianqian; Wang, Qiuling; Gao, Mengying; Wu, Wei; Shao, Yuhao; Li, Huixin; Kong, Xiangang; Liu, Shengwang

    2015-06-01

    An infectious bronchitis coronavirus, designated as ck/CH/LHLJ/140906, was isolated from an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain H120-vaccinated chicken flock, which presented with a suspected infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection. A phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene clustered ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 with the 793/B group; however, a pairwise comparison showed that the 5' terminal of the S1 gene (containing hypervariable regions I and II) had high sequence identity with the H120 strain, while the 3' terminal sequence was very similar to that of IBV 4/91 strain. A SimPlot analysis of the complete genomic sequence, which was confirmed by a phylogenetic analysis and nucleotide similarities using the corresponding gene fragments, suggested that isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 emerged from multiple recombination events between parental IBV strains 4/91 and H120. Although the isolate ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 had slightly higher S1 amino acid sequence identity to strain 4/91 (88.2%) than to strain H120 (86%), the serotype of the virus was more closely related to that of the H120 strain (32% antigenic relatedness) than to the 4/91 strain (15% antigenic relatedness). Whereas, vaccination of specific pathogen-free chickens with the 4/91 vaccine provided better protection against challenge with ck/CH/LHLJ/140906 than did vaccination with the H120 strain according to the result of virus re-isolation. As the spike protein, especially in the hypervariable regions of the S1 domain, of IBVs contains viral neutralizing epitopes, the results of this study showed that recombination of the S1 domain resulted in the emergence of a new serotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of Host Receptor Adaptation by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kailang; Peng, Guiqing; Wilken, Matthew; Geraghty, Robert J.; Li, Fang (UMMC)

    2012-12-10

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from palm civets has twice evolved the capacity to infect humans by gaining binding affinity for human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Numerous mutations have been identified in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of different SARS-CoV strains isolated from humans or civets. Why these mutations were naturally selected or how SARS-CoV evolved to adapt to different host receptors has been poorly understood, presenting evolutionary and epidemic conundrums. In this study, we investigated the impact of these mutations on receptor recognition, an important determinant of SARS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. Using a combination of biochemical, functional, and crystallographic approaches, we elucidated the molecular and structural mechanisms of each of these naturally selected RBD mutations. These mutations either strengthen favorable interactions or reduce unfavorable interactions with two virus-binding hot spots on ACE2, and by doing so, they enhance viral interactions with either human (hACE2) or civet (cACE2) ACE2. Therefore, these mutations were viral adaptations to either hACE2 or cACE2. To corroborate the above analysis, we designed and characterized two optimized RBDs. The human-optimized RBD contains all of the hACE2-adapted residues (Phe-442, Phe-472, Asn-479, Asp-480, and Thr-487) and possesses exceptionally high affinity for hACE2 but relative low affinity for cACE2. The civet-optimized RBD contains all of the cACE2-adapted residues (Tyr-442, Pro-472, Arg-479, Gly-480, and Thr-487) and possesses exceptionally high affinity for cACE2 and also substantial affinity for hACE2. These results not only illustrate the detailed mechanisms of host receptor adaptation by SARS-CoV but also provide a molecular and structural basis for tracking future SARS-CoV evolution in animals.

  9. Further Evidence for Bats as the Evolutionary Source of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, K.; Menachery, V. D.; Goldstein, T.; Ssebide, B.; Mbabazi, R.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Liang, E.; Wells, H.; Hicks, A.; Petrosov, A.; Byarugaba, D. K.; Debbink, K.; Dinnon, K. H.; Scobey, T.; Randell, S. H.; Yount, B. L.; Cranfield, M.; Johnson, C. K.; Baric, R. S.; Lipkin, W. I.; Mazet, J. A. K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The evolutionary origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are unknown. Current evidence suggests that insectivorous bats are likely to be the original source, as several 2c CoVs have been described from various species in the family Vespertilionidae. Here, we describe a MERS-like CoV identified from a Pipistrellus cf. hesperidus bat sampled in Uganda (strain PREDICT/PDF-2180), further supporting the hypothesis that bats are the evolutionary source of MERS-CoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is closely related to MERS-CoV across much of its genome, consistent with a common ancestry; however, the spike protein was highly divergent (46% amino acid identity), suggesting that the two viruses may have different receptor binding properties. Indeed, several amino acid substitutions were identified in key binding residues that were predicted to block PREDICT/PDF-2180 from attaching to the MERS-CoV DPP4 receptor. To experimentally test this hypothesis, an infectious MERS-CoV clone expressing the PREDICT/PDF-2180 spike protein was generated. Recombinant viruses derived from the clone were replication competent but unable to spread and establish new infections in Vero cells or primary human airway epithelial cells. Our findings suggest that PREDICT/PDF-2180 is unlikely to pose a zoonotic threat. Recombination in the S1 subunit of the spike gene was identified as the primary mechanism driving variation in the spike phenotype and was likely one of the critical steps in the evolution and emergence of MERS-CoV in humans. PMID:28377531

  10. A mouse-adapted SARS-coronavirus causes disease and mortality in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjeanette Roberts

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available No single animal model for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS reproduces all aspects of the human disease. Young inbred mice support SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV replication in the respiratory tract and are available in sufficient numbers for statistical evaluation. They are relatively inexpensive and easily accessible, but their use in SARS research is limited because they do not develop illness following infection. Older (12- to 14-mo-old BALB/c mice develop clinical illness and pneumonitis, but they can be hard to procure, and immune senescence complicates pathogenesis studies. We adapted the SARS-CoV (Urbani strain by serial passage in the respiratory tract of young BALB/c mice. Fifteen passages resulted in a virus (MA15 that is lethal for mice following intranasal inoculation. Lethality is preceded by rapid and high titer viral replication in lungs, viremia, and dissemination of virus to extrapulmonary sites accompanied by lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and pathological changes in the lungs. Abundant viral antigen is extensively distributed in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar pneumocytes, and necrotic cellular debris is present in airways and alveoli, with only mild and focal pneumonitis. These observations suggest that mice infected with MA15 die from an overwhelming viral infection with extensive, virally mediated destruction of pneumocytes and ciliated epithelial cells. The MA15 virus has six coding mutations associated with adaptation and increased virulence; when introduced into a recombinant SARS-CoV, these mutations result in a highly virulent and lethal virus (rMA15, duplicating the phenotype of the biologically derived MA15 virus. Intranasal inoculation with MA15 reproduces many aspects of disease seen in severe human cases of SARS. The availability of the MA15 virus will enhance the use of the mouse model for SARS because infection with MA15 causes morbidity, mortality, and pulmonary pathology. This virus will be of value as

  11. First full length sequences of the S gene of European isolates reveal further diversity among turkey coronaviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    MAUREL, Stéphan; Toquin, Didier; Briand, François-Xavier; QUEGUINER, Maryline; ALLEE, Chantal; BERTIN, Joel; RETAUX, Charlotte; TURBLIN, Vincent; Morvan, Hervé; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An increasing incidence of enteric disorders clinically evocative of the poult enteritis complex has been observed in turkeys in France since 2003. Using a newly designed real-time RT-PCR assay specific for the nucleocapsid (N) gene of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronaviruses (TCoV), coronaviruses were identified in 37 % of the intestinal samples collected from diseased turkey flocks. The full length Spike (S) gene of these viruses was amplified, cloned a...

  12. LEPROIDE CANINE GRANULOMATOUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Coelho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The granulomatous lepróide syndrome and feline leprosy is a disease caused by mycobacteria without identification, due to the great difficulty of cultivation. Few are diagnosed in Brazil, but are relatively common. Cause nodular lesions, granulomatous which can be located in small areas, or spread throughout the body of the animal. Large dogs and the short is more likely, as well as wild cats or free-living pets. Diagnosis is cytological, histological and PCR. The treatment is varied according to the severity and extent of the lesions. Among the most commonly used drugs are rifanpicine, amikacin, enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and others

  13. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  14. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated.

  15. Human Coronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 in Hospitalized Children with Acute Respiratory Infections in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jin Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human coronaviruses (HCoVs HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 are two recently discovered coronaviruses that circulate widely and are associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI. We detected HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 in specimens collected from May 2008 to March 2010 from patients with ARI aged <7.75 years of age attending the Beijing Children's Hospital. Thirty-two (8.4% and 57 (14.9% of 382 specimens tested positive for HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1, respectively, by real-time RT-PCR. Use of a Luminex xTAG RVP Fast kit showed that coinfection with respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza 3 virus was common among patients infected with either virus type. In HCoV-HKU1-infected patients, the predominant clinical symptoms were cough, fever, and expectoration. In HCoV-NL63-infected patients they were cough, fever, and rhinorrhea. Phylogenetic studies showed that the HCoV-HKU1 nucleoprotein gene was relatively conserved compared to NCBI reference sequences, while the 1ab gene of HCoV-NL63 showed more variation.

  16. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus replication induces host translational shutoff and mRNA decay, with concomitant formation of stress granules and processing bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaben, Matthijs; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Rottier, Peter J M; de Haan, Cornelis A M

    2007-09-01

    Many viruses, including coronaviruses, induce host translational shutoff, while maintaining synthesis of their own gene products. In this study we performed genome-wide microarray analyses of the expression patterns of mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)-infected cells. At the time of MHV-induced host translational shutoff, downregulation of numerous mRNAs, many of which encode protein translation-related factors, was observed. This downregulation, which is reminiscent of a cellular stress response, was dependent on viral replication and caused by mRNA decay. Concomitantly, phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha was increased in MHV-infected cells. In addition, stress granules and processing bodies appeared, which are sites for mRNA stalling and degradation respectively. We propose that MHV replication induces host translational shutoff by triggering an integrated stress response. However, MHV replication per se does not appear to benefit from the inhibition of host protein synthesis, at least in vitro, since viral replication was not negatively affected but rather enhanced in cells with impaired translational shutoff.

  17. Diagnosis, prevention, and management of canine hip dysplasia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schachner ER

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emma R Schachner, Mandi J Lopez Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: Canine hip dysplasia (CHD is a polygenic and multifactorial developmental disorder characterized by coxofemoral (hip joint laxity, degeneration, and osteoarthritis (OA. Current diagnostic techniques are largely subjective measures of joint conformation performed at different stages of development. Recently, measures on three-dimensional images generated from computed tomography scans predicted the development of OA associated with CHD. Continued refinement of similar imaging methods may improve diagnostic imaging techniques to identify dogs predisposed to degenerative hip joint changes. By current consensus, joint changes consistent with CHD are influenced by genetic predisposition as well as environmental and biomechanical factors; however, despite decades of work, the relative contributions of each to the development and extent of CHD signs remain elusive. Similarly, despite considerable effort to decipher the genetic underpinnings of CHD for selective breeding programs, relevant genetic loci remain equivocal. As such, prevention of CHD within domestic canine populations is marginally successful. Conservative management is often employed to manage signs of CHD, with lifelong maintenance of body mass as one of the most promising methods. Surgical intervention is often employed to prevent joint changes or restore joint function, but there are no gold standards for either goal. To date, all CHD phenotypes are considered as a single entity in spite of recognized differences in expression and response to environmental conditions and treatment. Identification of distinct CHD phenotypes and targeting evidence-based conservative and invasive treatments for each may significantly advance prevention and management of a prevalent, debilitating condition in canine companions. Keywords: canine

  18. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E

    2012-11-12

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  19. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihayl Varbanov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV, were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS, due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV; led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1, NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity, on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections, the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to

  20. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  1. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  2. Incidence of Impacted Mandibular Canine and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Incidence of Impacted Mandibular Canine and Associated Pathologies in an Orthodontic Patient ... The clinical data and panoramic radiographs were reviewed and observations on the status ...

  3. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  4. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  5. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  6. Despre babesioza canină

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.

  7. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay for detecting of antibody to canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarisman

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutralisation test (SNT has been established for evaluating canine distemper vaccination, but until now SNT was rarely used due to the need for continuous tissue culture facilities and requires 3 days to perform. For detecting antibody to canine distemper virus, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is relatively simple and rapid seroassay. ELISA for canine immunoglobulin (Ig G antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV was developed by using Onderstepoort strain of canine distemper virus as coating antigen. Rabbit anti canine IgG labelled with horse radish peroxidase was used as the conjugate, while phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD was used as the substrate. The ELISA results were then compared with the results of the SNT, using the sera of 312 random-source dogs from West Java. The two test-results had a high degree of correlation. Very few discrepancies occurred and most of these were at the lower limits of each test. When the sera were tested at 1 : 100 dilutions, there was a 95.5% agreement between the ELISA and SNT. Their sensitivity and spesificity were 83.9 and 98.4%. Titrated SNT and ELISA also were performed on sera from 7 dogs whose lifetime medical histories were known. The antibodies were inclining up after two months of post vaccination, where the titre was not in zero/lower position at the day of vaccination. However, antibody zero or low position were found at 28 days post vaccination. All of the results indicated that ELISA can be used for evaluating antibody to canine distemper virus response, replacing the SNT.

  9. Canine cytogenetics--from band to basepair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, M

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics 'toolbox' for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics.

  10. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  11. Cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 facilitates replication of feline coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Amano, Arisa; Morisaki, Masateru; Sato, Yuka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Although feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is a fatal infectious disease, there are no effective therapeutic medicines or vaccines. Previously, in vitro studies have shown that cyclosporin (CsA) and FK506 inhibit virus replication in diverse coronaviruses. CsA and FK506 are targets of clinically relevant immunosuppressive drugs and bind to cellular cyclophilins (Cyps) or FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs), respectively. Both Cyp and FKBP have peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. However, protein interacting with NIMA (Pin1), a member of the parvulin subfamily of PPIases that differs from Cyps and FKBPs, is essential for various signaling pathways. Here we demonstrated that genetic silencing or knockout of Pin1 resulted in decreased FCoV replication in vitro. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide, a specific inhibitor of Pin1, inhibited FCoV replication. These data indicate that Pin1 modulates FCoV propagation.

  12. Antiviral activity of cepharanthine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chuan-hai; XIONG Sheng; LI Jiu-xiang; QI Shu-yuan; WANG Yi-fei; LIU Xin-jian; LU Jia-hai; QIAN Chui-wen; WAN Zhuo-yue; YAN Xin-ge; ZHENG Huan-ying; ZHANG Mei-ying

    2005-01-01

    @@ Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is the first severe viral epidemic we encountered this century, which once spread in more than thirty countries in 2003.1 The etiological agent of SARS has been confirmed to be a novel coronavirus, namely SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),2,3 and the first outbreak of SARS has been successfully controlled worldwide, but the identification of SARS-CoV isolated from wild animals, the emergence of some sporadic SARS cases later after that outbreak, all suggest that the recurrence of such an epidemic is not unlikely in the future. In this case, development of SARS vaccines and specific drugs is undoubtedly essential to the control and prevention from the possible outbreak.4,5

  13. Development of chemical inhibitors of the SARS coronavirus: viral helicase as a potential target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, Young-Sam; Jeong, Yong-Joo

    2012-11-15

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the first pandemic in the 21st century to claim more than 700 lives worldwide. However, effective anti-SARS vaccines or medications are currently unavailable despite being desperately needed to adequately prepare for a possible SARS outbreak. SARS is caused by a novel coronavirus, and one of its components, a viral helicase, is emerging as a promising target for the development of chemical SARS inhibitors. In the following review, we describe the characterization, family classification, and kinetic movement mechanisms of the SARS coronavirus (SCV) helicase-nsP13. We also discuss the recent progress in the identification of novel chemical inhibitors of nsP13 in the context of our recent discovery of the strong inhibition of the SARS helicase by natural flavonoids, myricetin and scutellarein. These compounds will serve as important resources for the future development of anti-SARS medications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmie de Wit

    Full Text Available In 2012 a novel coronavirus, MERS-CoV, associated with severe respiratory disease emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. To date, 55 human cases have been reported, including 31 fatal cases. Several of the cases were likely a result of human-to-human transmission. The emergence of this novel coronavirus prompts the need for a small animal model to study the pathogenesis of this virus and to test the efficacy of potential intervention strategies. In this study we explored the use of Syrian hamsters as a small animal disease model, using intratracheal inoculation and inoculation via aerosol. Clinical signs of disease, virus replication, histological lesions, cytokine upregulation nor seroconversion were observed in any of the inoculated animals, indicating that MERS-CoV does not replicate in Syrian hamsters.

  15. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT...

  16. Maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in the permanent dentition: treatment considerations and a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Synodinos, Philippos N

    2010-12-01

    Transposition is defined as the interchange of position between two adjacent teeth within the same quadrant of the dental arch. Permanent maxillary canine-premolar transposition is the most commonly observed transposition in the human dentition. Its prevalence is relatively low and its aetiology remains unclear, although it has been associated with genetic factors. It may also be related to a combination of localised factors such as malformation of adjacent teeth, tooth agenesis, retention of the deciduous canine and a history of local trauma. Treatment is selected on an individual case basis after thoroughly considering the overall facial and dental characteristics, duration of treatment, cost, patient preference and the orthodontist\\'s experience. This article provides a case report of maxillary canine transposition in the permanent dentition, successfully managed with orthodontic treatment.

  17. Distinct Patterns of IFITM-Mediated Restriction of Filoviruses, SARS Coronavirus, and Influenza A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    West Nile viruses . In contrast, they do not inhibit replication of murine leukemia virus (MLV), or the entry processes of amphotropic MLV, Machupo virus ...MACV), Lassa virus (LASV), or lympho- cytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Although IFITM proteins are induced by type I and II interferons, most...processes of several highly pathogenic viruses – Marburg virus , Ebola virus , and SARS coronavirus – are similarly disrupted by IFITM proteins. We

  18. Recommendations from workshops of the second international feline coronavirus/feline infectious peritonitis symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addie, Diane D; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Pedersen, Niels C

    2004-04-01

    In August 2002, scientists and veterinarians from all over the world met in Scotland to discuss feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The conference ended with delegates dividing into three workshops to draw up recommendations for FCoV control, diagnosis and treatment and future research. The workshops were chaired by the three authors and the recommendations are presented in this paper.

  19. Isolation of coronavirus envelope glycoproteins and interaction with the viral nucleocapsid.

    OpenAIRE

    Sturman, L S; Holmes, K V; Behnke, J.

    1980-01-01

    The two envelope glycoproteins and the viral nucleocapsid of the coronavirus A59 were isolated by solubilization of the viral membrane with Nonidet P-40 at 4 degrees C followed by sucrose density gradient sedimentation. Isolated E2 consisted of rosettes of peplomers, whereas E1, the membrane glycoprotein, was irregular and amorphous. Under certain conditions significant interactions occurred between components of Nonidet P-40-disrupted virions. Incubation of the Nonidet P-40-disrupted virus a...

  20. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus during Pregnancy, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Asim; El Masry, Karim Medhat; Ravi, Mini; Sayed, Falak

    2016-03-01

    As of June 19, 2015, the World Health Organization had received 1,338 notifications of laboratory-confirmed infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Little is known about the course of or treatment for MERS-CoV in pregnant women. We report a fatal case of MERS-CoV in a pregnant woman administered combination ribavirin-peginterferon-α therapy.

  1. Multiple Sequence Alignment of the M Proteinin SARS—Associated and Other Known Coronaviruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史定华; 周晖杰; 王斌宾; 顾燕红; 王翼飞

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report a multiple sequence alignment result on the basis of 10 amino acid sequences of the M protein,which come from different coronaviruses (4 SARS-associated and 6 others known). The alignment model was based on the profile HMM (Hidden Markov Model), and the model training was implemented through the SAHMM (Self-Adapting Hidden Markov Model)software developed by the authors.

  2. Comparative studies of canine colipase and lipases from bovine, porcine, canine, human and rat pancreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P C

    1978-01-01

    1. Colipase was purified from canine pancreatic juice and found to have certain specificity in its reaction with various pancreatic lipases. 2. This colipase will stimulate the lipolytic activities of lipases isolated from canine, bovine and porcine pancreas but not lipases from a fungus, or from human and rat pancreases. 3. Characterization of these lipases showed (a) the molecular dimension of rat lipase is very different from the other lipases; (b) the pIs of canine, porcine and bovine lipases are almost identical but different from the pIs of rat, human and Candida (a fungus) lipases; and (c) the antiserum prepared against canine lipase will also react with lipases from human, hog and cow pancreases but not with rat and Candida lipases. 4. These physical differences can explain partly the difference in reaction between the various lipases and the canine colipase.

  3. Characterization of the Role of Hexamer AGUAAA and Poly(A) Tail in Coronavirus Polyadenylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hui; Lin, Ching-Houng; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lo, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Similar to eukaryotic mRNA, the positive-strand coronavirus genome of ~30 kilobases is 5’-capped and 3’-polyadenylated. It has been demonstrated that the length of the coronaviral poly(A) tail is not static but regulated during infection; however, little is known regarding the factors involved in coronaviral polyadenylation and its regulation. Here, we show that during infection, the level of coronavirus poly(A) tail lengthening depends on the initial length upon infection and that the minimum length to initiate lengthening may lie between 5 and 9 nucleotides. By mutagenesis analysis, it was found that (i) the hexamer AGUAAA and poly(A) tail are two important elements responsible for synthesis of the coronavirus poly(A) tail and may function in concert to accomplish polyadenylation and (ii) the function of the hexamer AGUAAA in coronaviral polyadenylation is position dependent. Based on these findings, we propose a process for how the coronaviral poly(A) tail is synthesized and undergoes variation. Our results provide the first genetic evidence to gain insight into coronaviral polyadenylation. PMID:27760233

  4. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, A S; Tonietti, P O; Taniwaki, S A; Asano, K M; Maiorka, P; Richtzenhain, L J; Brandão, P E

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a-c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account.

  5. Mutation in spike protein cleavage site and pathogenesis of feline coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licitra, Beth N; Millet, Jean K; Regan, Andrew D; Hamilton, Brian S; Rinaldi, Vera D; Duhamel, Gerald E; Whittaker, Gary R

    2013-07-01

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoV) exist as 2 biotypes: feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FECV causes subclinical infections; FIPV causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic and fatal disease. It is thought that mutations in FECV enable infection of macrophages, causing FIP. However, the molecular basis for this biotype switch is unknown. We examined a furin cleavage site in the region between receptor-binding (S1) and fusion (S2) domains of the spike of serotype 1 FCoV. FECV sequences were compared with FIPV sequences. All FECVs had a conserved furin cleavage motif. For FIPV, there was a correlation with the disease and >1 substitution in the S1/S2 motif. Fluorogenic peptide assays confirmed that the substitutions modulate furin cleavage. We document a functionally relevant S1/S2 mutation that arises when FIP develops in a cat. These insights into FIP pathogenesis may be useful in development of diagnostic, prevention, and treatment measures against coronaviruses.

  6. Genome sequence variation analysis of two SARS coronavirus isolates after passage in Vero cell culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Weiwu; LI Ning; HU Liangxiang; DU Zhenglin; GAO Qiang; GAO Hong; NING Ye; FENG Jidong; ZHANG Jiansan; YIN Weidong

    2004-01-01

    SARS coronavirus is an RNA virus whose replication is error-prone, which provides possibility for escape of host defenses, and even leads to evolution of new viral strains during the passage or the transmission. Lots of variations have been detected among different SARS-CoV strains. And a study on these variations is helpful for development of efficient vaccine. Moreover, the test of nucleic acid characterization and genetic stability of SARS-CoV is important in the research of inactivated vaccine. The whole genome sequences of two SARS coronavirus strains after passage in Vero cell culture were determined and were compared with those of early passages, respectively. Results showed that both SARS coronavirus strains have high genetic stability, although nearly 10 generations were passed. Four nucleotide variations were observed between the second passage and the 11th passage of Sino1 strain for identification of SARS inactivated vaccine. Moreover, only one nucleotide was different between the third passage and the 10th passage of Sino3 strain for SARS inactivated vaccine. Therefore, this study suggested it was possible to develop inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV in the future.

  7. Design and application of 60mer oligonucleotide microarray in SARS coronavirus detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The 60mer oligonucleotide microarray was designed and applied to detecting of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) coronavirus. Thirty 60mer specific oligos were designed to cover the whole genome of the first submitted coronavirus strain, according to the sequence of TOR2 (GENEBANK Accession: AY274119). These primers were synthesized and printed into a microarray with 12×12 spots. RNAs were extracted from the throat swab and gargling fluid of SARS patients and reverse-transcripted into the double strand cDNAs. The cDNAs were prepared as restricted cDNA fragments by the restriction display (RD) technique and labeled by PCR with the Cy5-universal primer. The labeled samples were then applied to the oligo microarray for hybridization. The diagnostic capability of the microarray was evaluated after the washing and scanning steps. The scanning result showed that samples of SARS patients were hybridized with multiple SARS probes on the microarray, and there is no signal on the negative and blank controls. These results indicate that the genome of SARS coronavirus can be detected in parallel by the 60mer oligonucleotide microarray, which can improve the positive ratio of the diagnosis. The oligo microarray can also be used for monitoring the behavior of the virus genes in different stages of the disease status.

  8. Coronavirus in Pigs: Significance and Presentation of Swine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Piñeros

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to study general aspects of the main coronaviruses affecting pigs, their presentation in Colombia, and particular aspects of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, emerging in different countries and generating a great impact on the health and economy of the swine industry. The main coronaviruses affecting swine are porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV, PEDV, and porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV. Long ago in Colombia there had been reports of TGEV and PRCV associated with the importation of animals from the United States, which was controlled in the infected farms and in quarantine units. PEDV was first detected in Colombia in mid-March 2014; the Colombian Agricultural Institute issued a health alert in Neiva (Huila, Fusagasugá and Silvania (Cundinamarca, and Puerto López (Meta due to the unusual presentation of epidemic vomiting and diarrhea in young and adult animals, abortion in pregnant sows, with high mortality rates (up to 100% in animals during the first week of age. At present the disease has been reported in other municipalities of the country as well as in different countries with similar clinical conditions and mortality rates in pigs with high economic losses for the swine sector.

  9. Severe acute respiratory syndrome--a new coronavirus from the Chinese dragon's lair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, T B; Kledal, T N; Andersen, O; Eugen-Olsen, J; Kristiansen, T B

    2003-09-01

    The recent identification of a novel clinical entity, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the rapid subsequent spread and case fatality rates of 14-15% have prompted a massive international collaborative investigation facilitated by a network of laboratories established by the World Health Organization (WHO). As SARS has the potential of becoming the first pandemic of the new millennium, a global warning by the WHO was issued on 12 March 2003. The disease, which is believed to have its origin in the Chinese Guangdong province, spread from Hong Kong via international airports to its current worldwide distribution. The concerted efforts of a globally united scientific community have led to the independent isolation and identification of a novel coronavirus from SARS patients by several groups. The extraordinarily rapid isolation of a causative agent of this newly emerged infectious disease constitutes an unprecedented scientific achievement. The main scope of the article is to provide the clinician with an overview of the natural history, epidemiology and clinical characteristics of SARS. On the basis of the recently published viral genome and structural features common to the members of the coronavirus family, a model for host cell-virus interaction and possible targets for antiviral drugs are presented. The epidemiological consequences of introducing a novel pathogen in a previously unexposed population and the origin and evolution of a new and more pathogenic strain of coronavirus are discussed.

  10. The Role of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus Accessory Proteins in Virus Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ruth; Fielding, Burtram C.

    2012-01-01

    A respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus, termed the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), was first reported in China in late 2002. The subsequent efficient human-to-human transmission of this virus eventually affected more than 30 countries worldwide, resulting in a mortality rate of ~10% of infected individuals. The spread of the virus was ultimately controlled by isolation of infected individuals and there has been no infections reported since April 2004. However, the natural reservoir of the virus was never identified and it is not known if this virus will re-emerge and, therefore, research on this virus continues. The SARS-CoV genome is about 30 kb in length and is predicted to contain 14 functional open reading frames (ORFs). The genome encodes for proteins that are homologous to known coronavirus proteins, such as the replicase proteins (ORFs 1a and 1b) and the four major structural proteins: nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E). SARS-CoV also encodes for eight unique proteins, called accessory proteins, with no known homologues. This review will summarize the current knowledge on SARS-CoV accessory proteins and will include: (i) expression and processing; (ii) the effects on cellular processes; and (iii) functional studies. PMID:23202509

  11. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Hora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP, whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account.

  12. Feline Coronavirus 3c Protein: A Candidate for a Virulence Marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, A. S.; Tonietti, P. O.; Taniwaki, S. A.; Asano, K. M.; Maiorka, P.; Richtzenhain, L. J.; Brandão, P. E.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is highly virulent and responsible for the highly fatal disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), whereas feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) is widespread among the feline population and typically causes asymptomatic infections. Some candidates for genetic markers capable of differentiating these two pathotypes of a unique virus (feline coronavirus) have been proposed by several studies. In the present survey, in order to search for markers that can differentiate FECV and FIPV, several clones of the 3a–c, E, and M genes were sequenced from samples obtained from cats with or without FIP. All genes showed genetic diversity and suggested the presence of FCoV mutant spectrum capable of producing a virulent pathotype in an individual-specific way. In addition, all the feline coronavirus FIPV strains demonstrated a truncated 3c protein, and the 3c gene was the only observed pathotypic marker for FCoVs, showing that 3c gene is a candidate marker for the distinction between the two pathotypes when the mutant spectrum is taken into account. PMID:27243037

  13. Hounsfield Unit Change in Root and Alveolar Bone during Canine Retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feifei; Liu, Sean Y.; Xia, Zeyang; Li, Shuning; Chen, Jie; Kula, Katherine S.; Eckert, George

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the Hounsfield unit (HU) changes in the alveolar bone and root surface during controlled canine retractions. Methods Eighteen maxillary canine retraction patients were selected for this split mouth design clinical trial. The canines in each patient were randomly assigned to receive either translation or controlled tipping treatment strategy. Pre- and post-treatment cone beam computed tomography scans of each patient were used to determine tooth movement direction and HU changes. The alveolar bone and root surface were divided into 108 divisions, respectively. The HU in each division was measured. The Mixed-model ANOVA was applied to test the HU change distribution at the p<0.05 significant level. Results The HU changes varied with the directions relative to the canine movement. The HU reduction occurred at the root surface. Larger reductions occurred in the divisions that were perpendicular to the moving direction. However, HU decreased in the alveolar bone in the moving direction. The highest HU reduction was at the coronal level. Conclusions HU reduction occurs on the root surface in the direction perpendicular to the tooth movement and in the alveolar bone in the direction of tooth movement when a canine is retracted. PMID:25836004

  14. Mechanical advantage of the canine triangularis sterni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Troyer, A; Legrand, A

    1998-02-01

    Recent studies on the canine parasternal intercostal, sternomastoid, and scalene muscles have shown that the maximal changes in airway opening pressure (delta Pao) obtained per unit muscle mass (delta Pao/m) during isolated contraction are closely related to the fractional changes in muscle length per unit volume increase of the relaxed chest wall. In the present study, we have examined the validity of this relationship for the triangularis sterni, an important expiratory muscle of the rib cage in dogs. Passive inflation above functional residual capacity (FRC) induced a virtually linear increase in muscle length, such that, with a 1.0-liter inflation, the muscle lengthened by 17.9 +/- 1.6 (SE) % of its FRC length. When the muscle in one interspace was maximally stimulated at FRC, Pao increased by 0.84 +/- 0.11 cmH2O. However, in agreement with the length-tension characteristics of the muscle, when lung volume was increased by 1.0 liter before stimulation, the rise in Pao amounted to 1.75 +/- 0.12 cmH2O. At the higher volume, delta Pao/m therefore averaged +.053 +/- 0.05 cmH2O/g, such that the coefficient of proportionality between the change in triangularis sterni length during passive inflation and delta Pao/m was the same as that previously obtained for the parasternal intercostal and neck inspiratory muscles. These observations, therefore, confirm that there is a unique relationship between the fractional changes in length of the respiratory muscles, both inspiratory and expiratory, during passive inflation and their delta Pao/m. Consequently, the maximal effect of a particular muscle on the lung can be predicted on the basis of its change in length during passive inflation and its mass. A geometric analysis of the rib cage also established that the lengthening of the canine triangularis sterni during passive inflation is much greater than the shortening of the parasternal intercostals because, in dogs, the costal cartilages slope downward from the sternum.

  15. Oxidative Stress and Protein Quality Control Systems in the Aged Canine Brain as a Model for Human Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarita Romanucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged dogs are considered the most suitable spontaneous animal model for studying normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly canines naturally develop cognitive dysfunction and neuropathological hallmarks similar to those seen in humans, especially Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology. Pet dogs also share similar living conditions and diets to humans. Oxidative damage accumulates in the canine brain during aging, making dogs a valid model for translational antioxidant treatment/prevention studies. Evidence suggests the presence of detective protein quality control systems, involving ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs, in the aged canine brain. Further studies on the canine model are needed to clarify the role of age-related changes in UPS activity and HSP expression in neurodegeneration in order to design novel treatment strategies, such as HSP-based therapies, aimed at improving chaperone defences against proteotoxic stress affecting brain during aging.

  16. Sexual Dimorphism in Human Mandibular Canine Teeth: A Radiomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines- It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.

  17. Complications of misdiagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; Baldo, Taiana de Oliveira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra

    2012-08-01

    Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can be associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth. This case report describes and discusses an interesting case of a 15-year-old girl with a Class III malocclusion and an impacted maxillary canine. Because of the unfavorable position of the ectopic canine and the severe root resorption of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors, the treatment options included extraction of the maxillary permanent canines. The mandibular first premolars were extracted to compensate for the Class III malocclusion. A panoramic radiograph taken earlier in the mixed dentition already indicated a possible eruption disturbance of the maxillary left permanent canine. The importance of early diagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption is highlighted in this case report. The early identification of radiographic signs of an ectopic pathway of eruption should be followed by deciduous canine extraction to prevent canine retention and maxillary incisor root resorption.

  18. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  19. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  20. Screening of an FDA-approved compound library identifies four small-molecule inhibitors of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication in cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. de Wilde (Adriaan); D. Jochmans (Dirk); C.C. Posthuma (Clara); J.C. Zevenhoven-Dobbe (Jessika); S. van Nieuwkoop (Stefan); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette); J. Neyts; E.J. Snijder (Eric)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCoronaviruses can cause respiratory and enteric disease in a wide variety of human and animal hosts. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first demonstrated the potentially lethal consequences of zoonotic coronavirus infections in humans. In 2012, a similar previ

  1. Cleavage of group 1 coronavirus spike proteins: how furin cleavage is traded off against heparan sulfate binding upon cell culture adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de C.A.M.; Haijema, B.J.; Schellen, P.; Wichgers Schreur, P.J.; Lintelo, te E.; Vennema, H.; Rottier, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A longstanding enigmatic feature of the group 1 coronaviruses is the uncleaved phenotype of their spike protein, an exceptional property among class I fusion proteins. Here, however, we show that some group 1 coronavirus spike proteins carry a furin enzyme recognition motif and can actually be cleav

  2. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico.

  3. Analysis of EGFR and HER-2 expressions in ductal carcinomas in situ in canine mammary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L.D. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomolecular evidence has shown that ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS may develop into invasive carcinoma of the canine mammary gland, and mutations in proto-oncogenes HER2 and EGFR; two members of the family of epidermal growth factor receptors, may be involved in this process. The purpose of this study was the characterization of the immunohistochemical expression of the EGFR and HER2 proteins in the process of neoplastic transformation, supposedly present in ductal carcinomas in situ in canine mammary glands. Fifteen cases of DCIS were evaluated, with a higher expression of HER2 and EGFR being observed in low-grade carcinomas when compared with high-grade neoplasms, and with a high positive statistical correlation in the latter. Results suggest that aggressive tumors tend to lose the expression of EGFR and HER2 simultaneously. The loss of the expression of these markers may be related to the process of neoplastic progression in canine mammary tumors.

  4. 19例犬细小病毒病的诊疗报告%The Diagnosis and Treatment of Nineteen Cases of Canine Parvovirus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博岩; 陆曼

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen cases of enteritis type canine parvovirus disease in an animal hospital were diagnosed based on the analysis of the treatment protocol and experience. Among the cases, two of them were mixed infection with parasite, four of them were mixed infection with coronavirus, and other 13 cases were simple infection of parvovirus. The sufficient and prompt employment of antiviral drugs combining with anti-inflammation, fluid infusion and correcting the unbalance between acid and alkali were effective treatment measures for canine parvovirus disease.%对某动物医院确诊的19例犬细小病毒病患犬的治疗方法和经验进行汇总、归纳和分析,发现19例均为肠炎型。其中,与寄生虫混合感染的有2例,与冠状病毒感染的有4例,其余13例为单纯犬细小病毒感染。对于细小病毒病患犬要尽早、足量使用抗病毒药物治疗,并配合采取消炎、补液、纠正酸碱失衡等措施是保证疗效的关键。

  5. Mandibular Symmetrical Bilateral Canine-Lateral Incisors Transposition: Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshua Shapira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral mandibular tooth transposition is a relatively rare dental anomaly caused by distal migration of the mandibular lateral incisors and can be detected in the early mixed dentition by radiographic examination. Early diagnosis and interceptive intervention may reduce the risk of possible transposition between the mandibular canine and lateral incisor. This report illustrates the orthodontic management of bilateral mandibular canine-lateral incisor transposition. Correct positioning of the affected teeth was achieved on the left side while teeth on the right side were aligned in their transposed position. It demonstrates the outcome of good alignment of the teeth in the dental arch.

  6. Canine and feline epileptic seizures and the lunar cycle: 2,507 seizures (2000-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browand-Stainback, Laura; Levesque, Donald; McBee, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures in 211 canine and feline patients diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy were evaluated for temporal significance in relation to the lunar cycle. Seizure counts were compared among each of the eight individual lunar phases, among each of eight exact lunar phase dates, and by percent of lunar illumination using generalized estimating equations. No statistical significance was found in any of these comparisons excluding a relationship between the onset of epileptic seizures and the phases of the moon. Alteration in anticonvulsant treatment or monitoring of canine and feline patients with idiopathic epilepsy at large was not warranted based on the lunar cycle.

  7. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  8. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  9. Seroprevalence study of feline coronavirus in owned and feral cats in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E T; Toribio, J A L M L; White, J D; Malik, R; Norris, J M

    2006-03-01

    i) To establish the seroprevalence of Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) infection in two defined groups of cats in Sydney: owned and feral cats; ii) to identify factors associated with an increased risk of infection with FCoV; and iii) to establish the seroprevalence and FCoV antibody titres of owned cats with immunohistochemically confirmed feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Prospective multi-institutional cross sectional study. Procedure Serum samples from owned cats presented to three inner city veterinary clinics in Sydney and feral cats from a colony in South Western Sydney over an 11-month period were tested for FCoV antibodies using the Immunocomb test kit. The relationship between serological score and six major factors (breed, age, gender, number of cats per household, living environment and health status) in the owned cat sample population was analysed and compared to cats with FIR RESULTS: The seroprevalence of FCoV infection in the sample population of owned and feral cats was 34% and 0%, respectively. The median Immunocomb scores of DSH, Persian, Siamese and Devon Rex cats were significantly lower than that of Burmese, BSH, Abyssinian, Birman, Ragdoll and Russian Blue. The median lmmunocomb score of pedigree cats less than 2 years-of-age was significantly higher than for pedigree cats greater than 2 years-of-age. This distinction was not evident in DSH cats in these age groups. The number of cats per household at the time of blood collection had a strong positive association with Immunocomb score. The median Immunocomb score of cats with immunohistochemically confirmed FIP was significantly higher than cats in the sample population of owned cats but there was sufficient overlap between these two groups to make definitive diagnosis of FIP by serology impossible. This represents the first seroprevalence study of FCoV in Australia. The major determinants of antibody score of owned cats identified in this study were breed, age and the number of cats per

  10. Perception of Canine Welfare Concerns among Veterinary Students, Practitioners, and Behavior Specialists in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luño, Isabel; Palacio, Jorge; García-Belenguer, Sylvia; González-Martínez, Ángela; Rosado, Belén

    Veterinarians are well placed to supervise and ensure canine welfare. However, the perception of animal welfare among veterinarians may vary depending on the level of training and professional practice, including the specialization in animal behavior and welfare. The aim of this study was to survey the perception of canine welfare among veterinarians, including students, practitioners, and behavior specialists. A scale-based questionnaire including 12 issues affecting canine welfare was adapted from Yeates and Main and distributed to first-year (n=50) and fifth-year veterinary students (n=50), as well as veterinary practitioners (n=260) and specialists in behavioral medicine (n=50). For each issue, respondents were asked to rate how much they perceived each issue to affect canine welfare (on a scale of 0 to 4). A General Linear Model test was used to assess the effect of the studied group on scores. "Physical abuse or cruelty" was the highest-scoring problem in all groups and "breed-related conditions" was the lowest. In general, specialists in behavioral medicine assigned significantly higher scores to most items, particularly "behavioral problems" and "lack of sufficient company." In contrast, fifth-year students assigned significantly lower scores to most items. This study shows that situations clearly affecting canine welfare represent an important concern for veterinarians, both undergraduates and professionals. However, the level of professional experience and specialization might influence the perception of more subtle examples of poor welfare. Raising awareness regarding canine welfare, including concern for breed- or behavior-related problems, should be emphasized within university programs.

  11. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibition on radiation response in canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Fernanda B; Morrison, Jodi A; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-05-31

    Radiation therapy is a palliative treatment modality for canine osteosarcoma, with transient improvement in analgesia observed in many cases. However there is room for improvement in outcome for these patients. It is possible that the addition of sensitizing agents may increase tumor response to radiation therapy and prolong quality of life. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been documented in canine osteosarcoma and higher EGFR levels have been correlated to a worse prognosis. However, effects of EGFR inhibition on radiation responsiveness in canine osteosarcoma have not been previously characterized. This study examined the effects of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor erlotinib on canine osteosarcoma radiation responses, target and downstream protein expression in vitro. Additionally, to assess the potential impact of treatment on tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in conditioned media were measured. Erlotinib as a single agent reduced clonogenic survival in two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and enhanced the impact of radiation in one out of three cell lines investigated. In cell viability assays, erlotinib enhanced radiation effects and demonstrated single agent effects. Erlotinib did not alter total levels of EGFR, nor inhibit downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation. On the contrary, erlotinib treatment increased phosphorylated Akt in these osteosarcoma cell lines. VEGF levels in conditioned media increased after erlotinib treatment as a single agent and in combination with radiation in two out of three cell lines investigated. However, VEGF levels decreased with erlotinib treatment in the third cell line. Erlotinib treatment promoted modest enhancement of radiation effects in canine osteosarcoma cells, and possessed activity as a single agent in some cell lines, indicating a potential role for EGFR inhibition in the treatment of a subset of osteosarcoma patients. The relative radioresistance of

  12. Etiopathogenesis of Canine Hip Dysplasia, Prevalence, and Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D

    2017-07-01

    First identified in 1935, canine hip dysplasia is thought to be the most common orthopedic condition diagnosed in the dog. It is most prevalent in large and giant breed dogs, with a complex polygenic mode of inheritance, and relatively low heritability. External factors including caloric intake when growing have a significant effect on phenotypic expression. Initial joint laxity progresses to osteoarthritis due to subluxation and abnormal wearing. Selective breeding programs to attempt to decrease prevalence have shown modest results so far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  14. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R

    2017-04-01

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

  16. Phylogenetic discordance of human and canine carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM) families, but striking identity of the CEA receptors will impact comparative oncology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichselbaumer, Marlene; Willmann, Michael; Reifinger, Martin; Singer, Josef; Bajna, Erika; Sobanov, Yuriy; Mechtcherikova, Diana; Selzer, Edgar; Thalhammer, Johann G.; Kammerer, Robert; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Comparative oncology aims at speeding up developments for both, human and companion animal cancer patients. Following this line, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CEACAM5) could be a therapeutic target not only for human but also for canine (Canis lupus familiaris; dog) patients. CEACAM5 interacts with CEA-receptor (CEAR) in the cytoplasm of human cancer cells. Our aim was, therefore, to phylogenetically verify the antigenic relationship of CEACAM molecules and CEAR in human and canine cancer. Anti-human CEACAM5 antibody Col-1, previously being applied for cancer diagnosis in dogs, immunohistochemically reacted to 23 out of 30 canine mammary cancer samples. In immunoblot analyses Col-1 specifically detected human CEACAM5 at 180 kDa in human colon cancer cells HT29, and the canine antigen at 60, 120, or 180 kDa in CF33 and CF41 mammary carcinoma cells as well as in spontaneous mammary tumors. While according to phylogenicity canine CEACAM1 molecules should be most closely related to human CEACAM5, Col-1 did not react with canine CEACAM1, -23, -24, -25, -28 or -30 transfected to canine TLM-1 cells. By flow cytometry the Col-1 target molecule was localized intracellularly in canine CF33 and CF41 cells, in contrast to membranous and cytoplasmic expression of human CEACAM5 in HT29. Col-1 incubation had neither effect on canine nor human cancer cell proliferation. Yet, Col-1 treatment decreased AKT-phosphorylation in canine CF33 cells possibly suggestive of anti-apoptotic function, whereas Col-1 increased AKT-phosphorylation in human HT29 cells. We report further a 99% amino acid similarity of human and canine CEA receptor (CEAR) within the phylogenetic tree. CEAR could be detected in four canine cancer cell lines by immunoblot and intracellularly in 10 out of 10 mammary cancer specimens from dog by immunohistochemistry. Whether the specific canine Col-1 target molecule may as functional analogue to human CEACAM5 act as ligand to canine CEAR, remains to be defined. This

  17. Development of a single nucleotide polymorphism DNA microarray for the detection and genotyping of the SARS coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xi; Geng, Peng; Wang, Quan; Cao, Boyang; Liu, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), a disease that spread widely in the world during late 2002 to 2004, severely threatened public health. Although there have been no reported infections since 2004, the extremely pathogenic SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), as the causative agent of SARS, has recently been identified in animals, showing the potential for the re-emergence of this disease. Previous studies showed that 27 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations among the spike (S) gene of this virus are correlated closely with the SARS pathogenicity and epidemicity. We have developed a SNP DNA microarray in order to detect and genotype these SNPs, and to obtain related information on the pathogenicity and epidemicity of a given strain. The microarray was hybridized with PCR products amplified from cDNAs obtained from different SARS-CoV strains. We were able to detect 24 SNPs and determine the type of a given strain. The hybridization profile showed that 19 samples were detected and genotyped correctly by using our microarray, with 100% accuracy. Our microarray provides a novel method for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of SARS-CoV.

  18. Proteomic analysis of chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues after infection in ovo by avian infectious bronchitis coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian infectious bronchitis (IB is one of the most serious diseases of economic importance in chickens; it is caused by the avian infectious coronavirus (IBV. Information remains limited about the comparative protein expression profiles of chicken embryonic tissues in response to IBV infection in ovo. In this study, we analyzed the changes of protein expression in trachea and kidney tissues from chicken embryos, following IBV infection in ovo, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. Results 17 differentially expressed proteins from tracheal tissues and 19 differentially expressed proteins from kidney tissues were identified. These proteins mostly related to the cytoskeleton, binding of calcium ions, the stress response, anti-oxidative, and macromolecular metabolism. Some of these altered proteins were confirmed further at the mRNA level using real-time RT-PCR. Moreover, western blotting analysis further confirmed the changes of annexin A5 and HSPB1 during IBV infection. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, we have performed the first analysis of the proteomic changes in chicken embryonic trachea and kidney tissues during IBV infection in ovo. The data obtained should facilitate a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBV infection.

  19. Canine Mammary Cancer Stem Cells are Radio- and Chemo- Resistant and Exhibit an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Argyle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due to the survival of CSCs. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT has been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and the acquisition of stem cell characteristics. Our results show that canine CSCs predominantly express mesenchymal markers and are more invasive than parental cells, indicating that these cells have a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, we show that canine mammary cancer cells can be induced to undergo EMT by TGFβ and that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres. Our findings indicate that EMT induction can enrich for cells with CSC properties, and provide further insight into canine CSC biology.

  20. Effects of Carbenoxolone on the Canine Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Teshima

    Full Text Available Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs. A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to suppressive negative feedback by glucocorticoids. The abnormal expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD, which is a cortisol metabolic enzyme, is found in human and murine corticotroph adenomas. Our recent studies demonstrated that canine corticotroph adenomas also have abnormal expression of 11HSD. 11HSD has two isoforms in dogs, 11HSD type1 (HSD11B1, which converts cortisone into active cortisol, and 11HSD type2 (HSD11B2, which converts cortisol into inactive cortisone. It has been suggested that glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph tumors is related to the overexpression of HSD11B2. Therefore it was our aim to investigate the effects of carbenoxolone (CBX, an 11HSD inhibitor, on the healthy dog's pituitary-adrenal axis. Dogs were administered 50 mg/kg of CBX twice each day for 15 days. During CBX administration, no adverse effects were observed in any dogs. The plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, and serum cortisol and cortisone concentrations were significantly lower at day 7 and 15 following corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation. After completion of CBX administration, the HSD11B1 mRNA expression was higher, and HSD11B2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in the pituitaries. Moreover, proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression was lower, and the ratio of ACTH-positive cells in the anterior pituitary was also significantly lower after CBX treatment. In adrenal glands treated with CBX, HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 mRNA expression were both lower compared to normal canine adrenal glands. The results of this study suggested that CBX inhibits ACTH secretion from pituitary due to altered 11HSD expressions, and is potentially useful for the treatment of canine Cushing's disease.

  1. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette

    2010-01-01

    of coryneform bacteria was 16% among 55 cases of canine otitis externa examined at the Danish hospital during 2007. In contrast, detectable levels of coryneform bacteria were not demonstrated in samples from the acustic meatus of 35 dogs with apparently healthy ears, attending the hospital during the same year......This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...

  2. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression...... is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  3. Biomarkers in canine inflammatory bowel disease diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, M; Rychlik, A; Kołodziejska-Sawerska, A

    2013-01-01

    Canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a heterogeneous group of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. The etiology, similar to human IBD, remains unknown. Canine IBD is diagnosed by exclusion, which is a long, time and money-consuming process due to the need of elimination of other diseases presenting with similar symptoms. Therefore, a search for a specific and sensitive marker is needed to overcome these difficulties. The article is divided into 3 sections presenting up-to-date information about laboratory markers, immunohistochemical markers and changes in the neurochemical coding of the enteric nervous system, concentrating on their usefulness and future applications. Data concerning laboratory and immunohistochemical markers is based mainly on canine IBD, while the neuroimmunohistochemistry section presents knowledge from human IBD due to the lack of such studies in veterinary medicine.

  4. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selles Sidi Mohammed Ammar; Kouidri Mokhtaria; Belhamiti Belkacem Tahar; Ait Amrane Amar; Benia Ahmed Redha; Bellik Yuva; Hammoudi Si Mohamed; Niar Abdellatif; Boukra Laid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive’s parameters such as age group and sex.Methods:Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay.Results:The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43%associated with GARV), respectively.Conclusions:The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63%neonatal calves’ diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV.

  5. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Selles Sidi Mohammed; Mokhtaria, Kouidri; Tahar, Belhamiti Belkacem; Amar, Ait Amrane; Redha, Benia Ahmed; Yuva, Bellik; Mohamed, Hammoudi Si; Abdellatif, Niar; Laid, Boukrâa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive's parameters such as age group and sex. Methods Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay. Results The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63% (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43% associated with GARV), respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the neonatal calves' diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV. PMID:25183104

  6. Early and unusual incisor resorption due to impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Ronald L

    2003-10-01

    A very early and severe case of maxillary incisor resorption caused by impacted canines is reported. An estimated 50,000 cases of ectopic eruption and impaction of maxillary canines occur each year in the United States. Although incisor resorption due to ectopically positioned permanent maxillary canines can be swift, silent, and devastating, an effective protocol has been developed for early detection and management of this condition. Palpation and, if indicated, radiographic evaluation are combined with primary canine removal in selected cases. These strategies--particularly when used early--can prevent the vast majority of palatally impacted maxillary canines and the potentially devastating resorption of adjacent incisors.

  7. Mortality in virulent canine babesiosis is associated with a consumptive coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goddard, Amelia; Wiinberg, Bo; Schoeman, Johan P.

    2013-01-01

    coagulopathy in dogs with Babesia rossi infection is related to mortality. Seventy-two client-owned dogs diagnosed with canine babesiosis were included. Diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot and dogs co-infected with Babesia vogeli or Ehrlichia canis were excluded. Blood...

  8. Comparative lipidomic analysis of synovial fluid in human and canine osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosinska, M. K.; Mastbergen, S. C.; Liebisch, G.; Wilhelm, J.; Dettmeyer, R. B.; Ishaque, B.; Rickert, M.; Schmitz, G.; Lafeber, F. P.; Steinmeyer, J.

    Objective: The lipid profile of synovial fluid (SF) is related to the health status of joints. The early stages of human osteoarthritis (OA) are poorly understood, which larger animals are expected to be able to model closely. This study examined whether the canine groove model of OA represents

  9. Comparative lipidomic analysis of synovial fluid in human and canine osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosinska, M. K.; Mastbergen, S. C.; Liebisch, G.; Wilhelm, J.; Dettmeyer, R. B.; Ishaque, B.; Rickert, M.; Schmitz, G.; Lafeber, F. P.; Steinmeyer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The lipid profile of synovial fluid (SF) is related to the health status of joints. The early stages of human osteoarthritis (OA) are poorly understood, which larger animals are expected to be able to model closely. This study examined whether the canine groove model of OA represents earl

  10. Update on the First Cloned Dog and Outlook for Canine Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2015-10-01

    As man's best friend, dogs have an important position in human society. Ten years ago, we reported the first cloned dog, and his birth has raised various scientific issues, such as those related to health, reproduction, and life span. He has developed without any unique health issues. In this article, we summarize and present perspectives on canine cloning.

  11. Validation of anti-FXR1 antibodies in the canine species and application to an immunohistochemical study of canine oral melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nordio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available FXR1 (Fragile X mental retardation-related protein 1 is a cytoplasmic RNA binding protein, which genetic expression has been related to metastatic potential in human melanoma. The aims of the present study were: the validation of two commercially available clones of polyclonal anti-human FXR1 antibody in dogs; their application to investigate FXR1 expression in a group of canine oral melanomas. Anti-FXR1 antibody was not previously validated in the canine species. Two different commercially available polyclonal anti-FXR1 antibodies (respectively made in goat and in rabbit were used. FXR1 protein in canine serum was identified by western blot after SDS-PAGE, using human serum as control. FXR1 immunohistochemical expression was tested in a series of normal tissues, that are expected to express FXR1, and in 31 cases of oral melanomas. The final immunohistochemical protocol used heat-induced unmasking and overnight incubation. FXR1 protein bands in canine serum were detected by tested antibodies, in a more specific way by the rabbit antibody. FXR1 immunohistochemical staining was positive in all tested organs, with different levels of expression. FXR1 was also expressed in 31/31 tested melanomas, with variable intensity and percentage of positive cells (Figure 1. Equal results were achieved with the two antibodies in 8 cases of melanoma, whereas there were variable differences in 22, and one case stained only with goat antibody. The rabbit antibody gave less background staining. This study validated anti-FXR1 antibodies for use in the canine species. This protein was expressed in various normal tissues, as well as in the tested neoplasms. Significance of different level of expression is undergoing evaluation with further studies.

  12. Versatile lipid profiling by liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using all ion fragmentation and polarity switching. Preliminary application for serum samples phenotyping related to canine mammary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallart-Ayala, H., E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Courant, F.; Severe, S.; Antignac, J.-P. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Morio, F.; Abadie, J. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), Cancers Animaux, Modèles pour la Recherche en Oncologie Comparée (AMaROC), Site de la Chantrerie–CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Le Bizec, B. [LUNAM, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire, Agroalimentaire et de l’Alimentation Nantes Atlantique (Oniris), USC 1329 INRA Laboratoire d’Etude des résidus et Contaminants dans les Aliments (LABERCA), Site de la Chantrerie – CS50707, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2013-09-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Lipidomics, high resolution mass spectrometry, polarity switching, serum, canine mammary cancer. -- Abstract: Lipids represent an extended class of substances characterized by such high variety and complexity that makes their unified analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to either high resolution or tandem mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS or LC–MS/MS) a real challenge. In the present study, a new versatile methodology associating ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–HRMS/MS) have been developed for a comprehensive analysis of lipids. The use of polarity switching and “all ion fragmentation” (AIF) have been two action levels particularly exploited to finally permit the detection and identification of a multi-class and multi-analyte extended range of lipids in a single run. For identification purposes, both higher energy collision dissociation (HCD) and in-source CID (collision induced dissociation) fragmentation were evaluated in order to obtain information about the precursor and product ions in the same spectra. This approach provides both class-specific and lipid-specific fragments, enhancing lipid identification. Finally, the developed method was applied for differential phenotyping of serum samples collected from pet dogs developing spontaneous malignant mammary tumors and health controls. A biological signature associated with the presence of cancer was then successfully revealed from this lipidome analysis, which required to be further investigated and confirmed at larger scale.

  13. IFITM Proteins Inhibit Entry Driven by the MERS-Coronavirus Spike Protein: Evidence for Cholesterol-Independent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wrensch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins 1, 2 and 3 inhibit the host cell entry of several enveloped viruses, potentially by promoting the accumulation of cholesterol in endosomal compartments. IFITM3 is essential for control of influenza virus infection in mice and humans. In contrast, the role of IFITM proteins in coronavirus infection is less well defined. Employing a retroviral vector system for analysis of coronavirus entry, we investigated the susceptibility of human-adapted and emerging coronaviruses to inhibition by IFITM proteins. We found that entry of the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV is sensitive to inhibition by IFITM proteins. In 293T cells, IFITM-mediated inhibition of cellular entry of the emerging MERS- and SARS-CoV was less efficient than blockade of entry of the globally circulating human coronaviruses 229E and NL63. Similar differences were not observed in A549 cells, suggesting that cellular context and/or IFITM expression levels can impact inhibition efficiency. The differential IFITM-sensitivity of coronaviruses observed in 293T cells afforded the opportunity to investigate whether efficiency of entry inhibition by IFITMs and endosomal cholesterol accumulation correlate. No such correlation was observed. Furthermore, entry mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin was robustly inhibited by IFITM3 but was insensitive to accumulation of endosomal cholesterol, indicating that modulation of cholesterol synthesis/transport did not account for the antiviral activity of IFITM3. Collectively, these results show that the emerging MERS-CoV is a target of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins and demonstrate that mechanisms other than accumulation of endosomal cholesterol can contribute to viral entry inhibition by IFITMs.

  14. CANINE IMPACTIONS: AN ORTHODONTIST’S PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : Impacted teeth are those which are not predictable and do not erupt absolutely based on clinical and radiographic assessment. Certain impactions can be complicated and the outcome unpredictable if the tooth is positioned unfavourably either horizontally or vertically in the alveolar bone. Presence of canines buccally, palatally or lingually can be seen using various diagnostic methods. Factors that interfere with its development and eruption have influence on aesthetics’, function and stability. A detailed understanding of the management of impacted teeth is essential for a stable and aesthetic result. So, we put forth the most common procedures which can be carried out by general dentists in managing impacted maxillary canines.

  15. Medical Treatment of Primary Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Strong, Travis D; Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a painful and often blinding group of ocular diseases for which there is no cure. Although the definition of glaucoma is rapidly evolving, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the most consistent risk factor of glaucoma in the canine patient. Therapy should be aimed at neuroprotection. The mainstay of therapy focuses on reducing IOP and maintaining a visual and comfortable eye. This article discusses the most current ocular hypotensive agents, focusing on their basic pharmacology, efficacy at lowering IOP, and recommended use in the treatment of idiopathic canine glaucoma.

  16. Cartilage integrity and proteoglycan turnover are comparable in canine experimentally induced and human joint degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Intema

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The value of experimental models of osteoarthritis (OA largely depends on the ability to translate observations to human OA. Surprisingly, direct comparison of characteristics of human and experimental OA is scarce. In the present study, cartilage integrity and matrix turnover in a canine model of joint degeneration were compared to human clinical OA. In 23 Beagle dogs, joint degeneration was induced in one knee, the contra-lateral knee served as a control. For comparison, human osteoarthritic and healthy knee cartilage were obtained at arthroplasty (n=14 and post-mortem (n=13. Cartilage was analyzed by histology and biochemistry. Values for cartilage integrity and proteoglycan (PG synthesis showed species specific differences; GAG content of healthy cartilage was 2-fold higher in canine cartilage and PG synthesis even 8-fold. However, the relative decrease in PG content between healthy and OA cartilage was similar for humans and canines (-17% vs. -15%, respectively, as was the histological damage (+7.0 vs. +6.1, respectively and the increase of PG synthesis (+100% vs. +70%, respectively. Remarkably, the percentage release of total and of newly formed PGs in human and canine controls was similar, as was the increase due to degeneration (+65% vs. +81% and +91% vs. +52%, respectively. Despite differences in control conditions, the observed changes in characteristics of cartilage integrity and matrix turnover are similar in a canine model of joint degeneration and human clinical OA. The canine Groove model shows that its characteristics reflect those of human OA which makes the model appropriate for studying human OA.

  17. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15-53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration.

  18. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration. PMID:27433532

  19. Electrical heterogeneity of canine right ventricular transient outward potassium currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新春; 周鹏; 李翠兰

    2004-01-01

    Background Some studies have confirmed that the right ventricular walls of most rodents, such as canines and humans, have evident transient outward potassium current (lto1) heterogeneity, and this heterogeneity is closely related to J point elevation, J wave formation, and some ventricular tachycardias such as ventricular fibrillations caused by Brugada syndrome. This study is designed to investigate transmural electrical heterogeneity of the canine right ventricle during repolarization (phase 1) from the viewpoint of 4-aminopyridine sensitive and calcium-independent lto1.Methods Adult canine single right ventricular epicardial (Epi) cells, mid-myocardial (M) cells, and endocardial (Endo) cells were enzymatically dissociated. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings were made to compare the lto1 values of the three cell types.Results At 37℃ and using 0.2 Hz and + 70 mV depolarizing test potentials, the average peak lto1 values of Epi cells and M cells averaged (4070±1720) pA and (3540±1840) pA, respectively. The activated and inactivated Epi and M cells kinetic processes were in accordance with the Boltzmann distribution. Compared with lto1 in Epi cells and M cells, the average peak lto1 in Endo cells was very low, averaged (470±130) pA.Conclusions These results suggest that there are evident differences and potent gradients in lto1 between the three cardiac cell types, especially between Epi and Endo cells. These differences are among the prominent manifestations of right ventricular electrical heterogeneity, and may form an important ionic basis and prerequisite for some malignant arrhythmias in the right ventricle, including those arising from Brugada syndrome and other diseases.

  20. Gastrotomy closure using bioabsorbable plugs in a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cios, Theodore J; Reavis, Kevin M; Renton, David R; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Mikami, Dean J; Narula, Vimal K; Allemang, Matthew T; Davis, S Scott; Melvin, W Scott

    2008-04-01

    The repair of gastric perforation commonly involves simple suture closure using an open or laparoscopic approach. An endolumenal approach using prosthetic materials may be beneficial. The role of bioprosthetics in this instance has not been thoroughly investigated, thus the authors evaluated the feasibility of gastric perforation repair using a bioabsorbable device and quantified gross and histological changes at the injury site. Twelve canines were anesthetized and underwent open gastrotomy. A 1-cm-diameter perforation was created in the anterior wall of the stomach and plugged with a bioabsorbable device. Intralumenal pH was recorded. Canines were sacrificed at one, four, six, eight, and 12 weeks. The stomach was explanted followed by gross and histological examination. The injury site was examined. The relative ability of the device to seal the perforation was recorded, as were postoperative changes. Tissue samples were analyzed for gross and microscopic tissue growth and compared to normal gastric tissue in the same animal as an internal control. A scoring system of -2 to +2 was used to measure injury site healing (-2= leak, -1= no leak and minimal ingrowth, 0= physiologic healing, +1= mild hypertrophic tissue, +2= severe hypertrophic tissue). In all canines, the bioprosthesis successfully sealed the perforation without leak under ex vivo insufflation. At one week, the device maintained its integrity but there was no tissue ingrowth. Histological healing score was -1. At 4-12 weeks, gross examination revealed a healed injury site in all animals. The lumenal portion of the plug was completely absorbed. The gross and histological healing score ranged from -1 to +1. The application of a bioabsorbable device results in durable closure of gastric perforation with physiologic healing of the injury site. This method of gastrotomy closure may aid in the evolution of advanced endoscopic approaches to perforation closure of hollow viscera.

  1. Structure and inhibition of the SARS coronavirus envelope protein ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Pervushin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The envelope (E protein from coronaviruses is a small polypeptide that contains at least one alpha-helical transmembrane domain. Absence, or inactivation, of E protein results in attenuated viruses, due to alterations in either virion morphology or tropism. Apart from its morphogenetic properties, protein E has been reported to have membrane permeabilizing activity. Further, the drug hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, but not amiloride, inhibited in vitro ion channel activity of some synthetic coronavirus E proteins, and also viral replication. We have previously shown for the coronavirus species responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV that the transmembrane domain of E protein (ETM forms pentameric alpha-helical bundles that are likely responsible for the observed channel activity. Herein, using solution NMR in dodecylphosphatidylcholine micelles and energy minimization, we have obtained a model of this channel which features regular alpha-helices that form a pentameric left-handed parallel bundle. The drug HMA was found to bind inside the lumen of the channel, at both the C-terminal and the N-terminal openings, and, in contrast to amiloride, induced additional chemical shifts in ETM. Full length SARS-CoV E displayed channel activity when transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293 cells in a whole-cell patch clamp set-up. This activity was significantly reduced by hexamethylene amiloride (HMA, but not by amiloride. The channel structure presented herein provides a possible rationale for inhibition, and a platform for future structure-based drug design of this potential pharmacological target.

  2. Automated extraction protocol for quantification of SARS-Coronavirus RNA in serum: an evaluation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lui Wing-bong

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously developed a test for the diagnosis and prognostic assessment of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS based on the detection of the SARS-coronavirus RNA in serum by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of automating the serum RNA extraction procedure in order to increase the throughput of the assay. Methods An automated nucleic acid extraction platform using the MagNA Pure LC instrument (Roche Diagnostics was evaluated. We developed a modified protocol in compliance with the recommended biosafety guidelines from the World Health Organization based on the use of the MagNA Pure total nucleic acid large volume isolation kit for the extraction of SARS-coronavirus RNA. The modified protocol was compared with a column-based extraction kit (QIAamp viral RNA mini kit, Qiagen for quantitative performance, analytical sensitivity and precision. Results The newly developed automated protocol was shown to be free from carry-over contamination and have comparable performance with other standard protocols and kits designed for the MagNA Pure LC instrument. However, the automated method was found to be less sensitive, less precise and led to consistently lower serum SARS-coronavirus concentrations when compared with the column-based extraction method. Conclusion As the diagnostic efficiency and prognostic value of the serum SARS-CoV RNA RT-PCR test is critically associated with the analytical sensitivity and quantitative performance contributed both by the RNA extraction and RT-PCR components of the test, we recommend the use of the column-based manual RNA extraction method.

  3. SARS-coronavirus replication is supported by a reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kèvin Knoops

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA viruses, a large group including human pathogens such as SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV, replicate in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Their replication complexes are commonly associated with modified host cell membranes. Membrane structures supporting viral RNA synthesis range from distinct spherular membrane invaginations to more elaborate webs of packed membranes and vesicles. Generally, their ultrastructure, morphogenesis, and exact role in viral replication remain to be defined. Poorly characterized double-membrane vesicles (DMVs were previously implicated in SARS-CoV RNA synthesis. We have now applied electron tomography of cryofixed infected cells for the three-dimensional imaging of coronavirus-induced membrane alterations at high resolution. Our analysis defines a unique reticulovesicular network of modified endoplasmic reticulum that integrates convoluted membranes, numerous interconnected DMVs (diameter 200-300 nm, and "vesicle packets" apparently arising from DMV merger. The convoluted membranes were most abundantly immunolabeled for viral replicase subunits. However, double-stranded RNA, presumably revealing the site of viral RNA synthesis, mainly localized to the DMV interior. Since we could not discern a connection between DMV interior and cytosol, our analysis raises several questions about the mechanism of DMV formation and the actual site of SARS-CoV RNA synthesis. Our data document the extensive virus-induced reorganization of host cell membranes into a network that is used to organize viral replication and possibly hide replicating RNA from antiviral defense mechanisms. Together with biochemical studies of the viral enzyme complex, our ultrastructural description of this "replication network" will aid to further dissect the early stages of the coronavirus life cycle and its virus-host interactions.

  4. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jong-Hyuk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE and spermatocytic seminoma (SS. Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Methods Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program was used for various statistical analyses. Results The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8% and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%. All SE cases (8/8, 100% were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%, 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%, and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7% types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels

  5. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE) and spermatocytic seminoma (SS). Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD) being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Methods Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns) were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used for various statistical analyses. Results The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8%) and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%). All SE cases (8/8, 100%) were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%), 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%), and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7%) types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels were a correlated

  6. Antiviral activity of mycophenolic acid against influenza viruses and MERS coronavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Ka-Yi; 莫嘉怡

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virusand Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus(MERS-CoV) cause life-threatening respiratory disease. There are 3 to 5million severe cases and 250,000 to 500,000 fatal cases caused by seasonal influenza virus A(H1N1)virus, A(H3N2) virus and influenza B virus every year. Pandemic influenza, which is associated with higher mortality, has once every few decades. Among various influenza viruses, the avian-origin A(H5N1)virus and A(H7N9) virus are the most virulent in humans. MERS-...

  7. Candidates in Astroviruses, Seadornaviruses, Cytorhabdoviruses and Coronaviruses for +1 frame overlapping genes accessed by leaky scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins John F

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overlapping genes are common in RNA viruses where they serve as a mechanism to optimize the coding potential of compact genomes. However, annotation of overlapping genes can be difficult using conventional gene-finding software. Recently we have been using a number of complementary approaches to systematically identify previously undetected overlapping genes in RNA virus genomes. In this article we gather together a number of promising candidate new overlapping genes that may be of interest to the community. Results Overlapping gene predictions are presented for the astroviruses, seadornaviruses, cytorhabdoviruses and coronaviruses (families Astroviridae, Reoviridae, Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae, respectively.

  8. Interferon lambda 4 signals via the IFNλ receptor to regulate antiviral activity against HCV and coronaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamming, Ole Jensen; Terczynska-Dyla, Ewa; Vieyres, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    The IFNL4 gene is a recently discovered type III interferon, which in a significant fraction of the human population harbours a frameshift mutation abolishing the IFNλ4 ORF. The expression of IFNλ4 is correlated with both poor spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and poor response...... to treatment with type I interferon. Here, we show that the IFNL4 gene encodes an active type III interferon, named IFNλ4, which signals through the IFNλR1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains. Recombinant IFNλ4 is antiviral against both HCV and coronaviruses at levels comparable to IFNλ3. However, the secretion...

  9. NMR assignments of the macro domain from Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Ping; Cho, Chao-Cheng; Chang, Chi-Fon; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    The newly emerging human pathogen, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of non-structural protein 3. Intense research has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other derivatives, but it still remains intangible about their exact function. In this study we report the preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the MERS-CoV macro domain. The near complete NMR assignments of MERS-CoV macro domain provide the basis for subsequent structural and biochemical investigation in the context of protein function.

  10. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibody Reactors Among Camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandersen, S; Kobinger, G P; Soule, G; Wernery, U

    2014-01-01

    We tested, using a low starting dilution, sequential serum samples from dromedary camels, sheep and horses collected in Dubai from February/April to October of 2005 and from dromedary camels for export/import testing between Canada and USA in 2000–2001. Using a standard Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) neutralization test, serial sera from three sheep and three horses were all negative while sera from 9 of 11 dromedary camels from Dubai were positive for antibodies supp...

  11. Cardiac involvement in canine babesiosis : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Lobetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.

  12. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  13. Medical dissolution of canine struvite uroliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, C A; Polzin, D J; Kruger, J M; Abdullahi, S U; Leininger, J R; Griffith, D P

    1986-03-01

    Medical therapy is an effective method of canine struvite urolith dissolution. Recommendations include (1) eradication or control of urinary tract infection (if present), (2) use of calculolytic diets, and (3) administration of urease inhibitors to patients with persistent urinary tract infection caused by urease-producing microbes.

  14. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  15. Efficacy of Scabisol against Canine Demodecosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Bodkhe

    Full Text Available In the present study scabisol containing precipitated sulphur was tried in 10 dogs suffering from Canine demodecosis. The improvement was observed within 72 hours of treatment, and complete recovery was noticed after three consecutive treatments. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(7.000: 211-211

  16. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  17. Potential economic benefits of eliminating canine rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwiff, Stephanie; Hampson, Katie; Anderson, Aaron

    2013-05-01

    Although canine rabies has been eliminated from industrialized countries, infected dogs remain the primary source of human and livestock exposures in Asia, Africa and much of South America. Human deaths are the most important direct economic impact of canine rabies, followed by livestock losses and the cost of PEP, while expenses associated with dog vaccination and control are major indirect impacts. The global burden of rabies disproportionately affects Asia, which experiences more than half of human rabies deaths and approximately 65% of livestock losses, and performs more than 90% of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Africa is second to Asia in terms of human deaths and livestock losses, but administers the least number of PEPs of the three regions. Recent experience in Latin America shows that efforts to reduce human deaths from rabies through expanded dog vaccination and improved access to PEP result in significant monetary savings. The elimination of canine rabies would lead to major economic benefits in developing countries that are often the least capable of dealing with the disease. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  19. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC, associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV, associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3. The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1 shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

  20. Canine parvovirus in Australia: the role of socio-economic factors in disease clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, S; Norris, J M; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2012-08-01

    To identify clusters of canine parvoviral related disease occurring in Australia during 2010 and investigate the role of socio-economic factors contributing to these clusters, reported cases of canine parvovirus were extracted from an on-line disease surveillance system. Reported residential postcode was used to locate cases, and clusters were identified using a scan statistic. Cases included in clusters were compared to those not included in such clusters with respect to human socioeconomic factors (postcode area relative socioeconomic disadvantage, economic resources, education and occupation) and dog factors (neuter status, breed, age, gender, vaccination status). During 2010, there were 1187 cases of canine parvovirus reported. Nineteen significant (P0.05) was found between cases reported from cluster postcodes and those not within clusters for dog age, gender, breed or vaccination status (although the latter needs to be interpreted with caution, since vaccination was absent in most of the cases). Further research is required to investigate the apparent association between indicators of poor socioeconomic status and clusters of reported canine parvovirus diseases; however these initial findings may be useful for developing geographically- and temporally-targeted prevention and disease control programs.

  1. Deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor differential root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K R; Schneider, G B; Southard, T E; Hillis, S L; Wertz, P W; Finkelstein, M; Hogan, M M

    2001-10-01

    When a permanent maxillary canine erupts apical to the permanent lateral incisor and the deciduous canine, resorption typically takes place only on the deciduous canine root. An understanding of this differential resorption could provide insight into the reasons for excessive iatrogenic root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The purpose of the present study was to examine the response of roots of permanent lateral incisors and deciduous canines to simulated resorption, and to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine. Groups of maxillary permanent lateral incisor and deciduous canine roots were exposed to 5 combinations of Ten Cate demineralizing solution, Ten Cate demineralizing solution with EDTA, and a Type I collagenase solution. Sections of the roots were examined under a polarized light microscope. Analysis of variation of the resulting root lesions demonstrated that the lesion depths for deciduous canines were greater than those for permanent lateral incisors when averaged across 4 of the conditions (F(1,24) = 7.49, P =.0115). On average, deciduous canine roots demonstrated lesions 10% deeper than did permanent lateral incisor roots. We concluded that when deciduous canine and permanent lateral incisor roots are subjected to acid and enzyme attack, reflecting the physiologic environment of an erupting permanent canine, significantly deeper demineralized lesions are seen in the deciduous roots compared with the permanent roots. This finding may partially explain the differential root resorption during permanent tooth eruption.

  2. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city.

  3. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?; Die canine Hypothyreose. Eine diagnostische Herausforderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E. [Klinik fuer Kleintiermedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultaet Zuerich, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen {sup registered}) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  4. [Importance of the case of coronavirus-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome detected in Hungary in 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rókusz, László; Jankovics, István; Jankovics, Máté; Sarkadi, Júlia; Visontai, Ildikó

    2013-11-24

    Ten years have elapsed since the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak, which resulted in more than 8000 cases worldwide with more than 700 deaths. Recently, a new coronavirus, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus emerged, causing serious respiratory cases and death. By the end of August 2013, 108 cases including 50 deaths were reported. The authors discuss a coronavirus-associated severe acute respiratory syndrome, which was detected in Hungary in 2005 and highlight its significance in 2013. In 2005 the patient was hospitalized and all relevant clinical and microbiological tests were performed. Based on the IgG antibody positivity of the serum samples, the patient was diagnosed as having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the past. The time and source of the infection remained unknown. The condition of the patient improved and he was discharged from the hospital. The case raises the possibility of infections in Hungary imported from remote areas of the world and the importance of thorough examination of patients with severe respiratory syndrome with unknown etiology.

  5. Differential expression of the MERS-coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tract of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widagdo, W; Raj, V Stalin; Schipper, Debby; Kolijn, Kimberley; van Leenders, Geert J L H; Bosch, Berend J; Bensaid, Albert; Segalés, Joaquim; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; van den Brand, Judith M A; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor - dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) - is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not

  6. Differential expression of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor in the upper respiratory tracts of humans and dromedary camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Widagdo; V.S. Raj (Stalin); D. Schipper (Debby); K. Kolijn (Kimberley); G.J.H.L. Leenders (Geert); B.J. Bosch (Berend Jan); A. Bensaid (Albert); J. Segalés (Joaquim); W. Baumgärtner (Wolfgang); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.M.A. van den Brand (Judith); B.L. Haagmans (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor-dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels

  7. Presence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibodies in Saudi Arabia : a nationwide, cross-sectional, serological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Marcel A; Meyer, Benjamin; Corman, Victor M; Al-Masri, Malak; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Ritz, Daniel; Sieberg, Andrea; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend-J; Lattwein, Erik; Alhakeem, Raafat F; Assiri, Abdullah M; Albarrak, Ali M; Al-Shangiti, Ali M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Wikramaratna, Paul; Alrabeeah, Abdullah A; Drosten, Christian; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scientific evidence suggests that dromedary camels are the intermediary host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, the actual number of infections in people who have had contact with camels is unknown and most index patients cannot recall any such cont

  8. Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein delivered by modified vaccinia virus ankara efficiently induces virus-neutralizing antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Song (Fei); R. Fux (Robert); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A. Volz (Asisa); M. Eickmann; S. Becker (Stephan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); G. Suttera (Gerd)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMiddle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has recently emerged as a causative agent of severe respiratory disease in humans. Here, we constructed recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike (S) protein (MVA-MERS-S). The genetic sta

  9. Detection by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of coronavirus antibodies in bovine serum and lacteal secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, L; Babiuk, L A; Acres, S D

    1982-07-01

    The sensitivity of a radioimmunoassay (RIA), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a serum neutralization assay (SN) for detecting antibodies to bovine coronavirus in serum and colostrum were compared. Although there proved to be a good correlation among all three assays (r = 0.915 and 0.964 for RIA with SN and ELISA, respectively), RIA and ELISA proved to be at least 10 times more sensitive than neutralization tests. By using these techniques, it was possible to detect a time-dependent decrease in antibody levels in bovine colostrum after parturition. Using ELISA, we demonstrated that 12 of 12 herds in Saskatchewan, and 109 of 110 animals tested, and antibody to bovine coronavirus. There was no elevated antibody response in serum or lacteal secretions of cows vaccinated once or twice with a commercially available modified live rota-coronavirus vaccine. In addition to being more sensitive than SN, ELISA and RIA proved to have other advantages for measuring antibody levels to bovine coronavirus and therefore warrant wider use as tools in diagnostic virology.

  10. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, [No Value; Timens, W; Bulthuis, MLC; Lely, AT; Navis, GJ; van Goor, H

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identifie

  11. Infectious bronchitis coronavirus limits interferon production by inducing a host shutoff that requires accessory protein 5b

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, Joeri; Langereis, Martijn A.; Maier, Helena J.; Britton, Paul; Kuppeveld, van Frank J.; Koumans, Joseph; Wiegertjes, Geert F.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During infection of their host cells, viruses often inhibit the production of host proteins, a process that is referred to as host shutoff. By doing this, viruses limit the production of antiviral proteins and increase production capacity for viral proteins. Coronaviruses from the genera Alphacor

  12. Characterization of the expression and immunogenicity of the ns4b protein of human coronavirus 229E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chagnon, F; Lamarre, A; Lachance, C

    1998-01-01

    and immunogenicity of the ns4b gene product from strain 229E of human coronavirus (HCV-229E), a respiratory virus with a neurotropic potential. The gene was cloned and expressed in bacteria. A fusion protein of ns4b with maltose-binding protein was injected into rabbits to generate specific antibodies that were used...

  13. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamming, [No Value; Timens, W; Bulthuis, MLC; Lely, AT; Navis, GJ; van Goor, H

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been

  14. Sphingomyelin induces structural alteration in canine parvovirus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi; Karttunen, Jenni; Virtanen, Salla; Vuento, Matti

    2008-03-01

    One of the essential steps in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection, the release from endosomal vesicles, is dominated by interactions between the virus capsid and the endosomal membranes. In this study, the effect of sphingomyelin and phosphatidyl serine on canine parvovirus capsid and on the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity of CPV VP1 unique N-terminus was analyzed. Accordingly, a significant (P< or =0.05) shift of tryptophan fluorescence emission peak was detected at pH 5.5 in the presence of sphingomyelin, whereas at pH 7.4 a similar but minor shift was observed. This effect may relate to the exposure of VP1 N-terminus in acidic pH as well as to interactions between sphingomyelin and CPV. When the phenomenon was further characterized using circular dichroism spectroscopy, differences in CPV capsid CD spectra with and without sphingomyelin and phosphatidyl serine were detected, corresponding to data obtained with tryptophan fluorescence. However, when the enzymatic activity of CPV PLA(2) was tested in the presence of sphingomyelin, no significant effect in the function of the enzyme was detected. Thus, the structural changes observed with spectroscopic techniques appear not to manipulate the activity of CPV PLA(2), and may therefore implicate alternative interactions between CPV capsid and sphingomyelin.

  15. Isolation, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan Raj, J; Mukhopadhyay, H K; Thanislass, J; Antony, P X; Pillai, R M

    2010-12-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) causes acute haemorrhagic enteritis in dogs. Canine parvovirus is prone to genetic evolution and has undergone several mutations that produced different strains like CPV-2a, CPV-2b, New CPV-2a, New CPV-2b and CPV-2c in the past three decades. Mutations affecting the VP2 gene of CPV have been responsible for evolution of different antigenic variants. Sequence analysis of VP2 gene of the virus and subsequent characterization is important for molecular epidemiology. The present study was conducted to isolate and to characterize the virus by amplifying partial VP2 gene and further sequence analysis and also to estimate phylogenetic relationship of field virus with the reference strains. Out of 77 samples, 51 samples were found to be positive by PCR and all the 51 samples were subjected for virus isolation in CRFK cell line. Sixteen viruses could be isolated and 10 randomly selected isolates were subjected to sequence analysis along with four random clinical samples. All the 10 isolates and 4 clinical samples were characterized as New CPV-2a (CPV2a with 297-Ser→Ala). One of the field isolates was found to be phylogenetically closely related to New CPV-2a strains of Japan and India; another field isolates was found to share ancestral origins with New CPV-2a strains of Korea, USA, Italy, Brazil, Germany, Taiwan and Vietnam; rest other sequences had distinct lineage but shared molecular relationship with New CPV-2a reference strains.

  16. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Tiira

    Full Text Available Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264 in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002 and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001 during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001 and separation anxiety (p = 0.007 was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  17. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  18. Survivin expression in canine epidermis and in canine and human cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Laura; Colombi, Isabella; Fortunato, Carmine; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2009-10-01

    Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is ubiquitously expressed during tissue development, undetectable in most normal tissues, but re-expressed in most cancers, including skin malignancies. Expression of survivin was evaluated retrospectively in 19 canine cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs; one in situ; 16 well differentiated; one invasive, one lymph node metastasis) and 19 well differentiated SCCs from human beings. Seven specimens of normal canine skin were included. Immunohistochemical expression of full-length survivin was determined using a commercially available antibody. In addition, apoptotic rate [Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labelling index (TUNEL) index] and mitotic index (MI), counting mitoses in 10 high power fields (HPF), were determined. Scattered survivin positive nuclei were identified in the epidermal basal cell layer of normal canine skin. Nuclear survivin expression was identified in 18 of 19 human and in all canine SCCs, mainly along the base of the tumour cell population. Cytoplasmic survivin expression was rarely observed in human SCCs and in 84.2% of canine SCCs. The TUNEL index ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 in human beings and from 7.5 to 69.4 in dogs, while MIs ranged from 0 to 4 in human beings and dogs. No correlation was found between survivin expression and apoptotic or mitotic rates. Canine and human tumours showed similar nuclear survivin expression, indicating similar functions of the molecule. We demonstrated survivin expression in normal adult canine epidermis. Increased nuclear survivin expression in pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions demonstrates a possible association of survivin with development of SCCs in human beings and dogs.

  19. [Origin and evolution of canine parvovirus--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianjun; Yan, Xijun; Wu, Wei

    2011-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV-2), first recognized in 1978 as a new pathogen of dogs, was probably derived from a very closely related virus in cats, feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) or a closely related carnivore parvovirus (FPLV-like virus). CPV-2 is responsible for either myocarditis or fatal gastroenteritis in pups with high morbidity and mortality. Shortly after its emergence, CPV-2 has become endemic in the global dog population. The original CPV-2 continued to evolve, and was subsequently replaced by three different but closely related antigenic variants, designated CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c, which now coexist in dog populations worldwide. The genetic and antigenic variation in CPV-2 also correlated with changes in the host range and tissue tropisms of the virus. Here, we reviewed variation and evolution of CPV-2 in past 30 years and discussed CPV-2 as an important model to study virus evolution.

  20. Immunohistochemical study of doublecortin and nucleostemin in canine brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De Nevi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding a marker of neural stem cells remains a medical research priority. It was reported that the proteins doublecortin and nucleostemin were related with stem/progenitor cells in central nervous system. The aim of the present immunohistochemical study was to evaluate the expression of these proteins and their pattern of distribution in canine brain, including age-related changes, and in non-nervous tissues. We found that doublecortin had a more specific expression pattern, related with neurogenesis and neuronal migration, while nucleostemin was expressed in most cells of almost every tissue studied. The immunolabeling of both proteins decreased with age. We may conclude that nucleostemin is not a specific marker of stem/progenitor cells in the dog. Doublecortin, however, is not an exclusive marker of neural stem cells, but also of neuronal precursors.

  1. Identification of Immunogenic Determinants of the Spike Protein of SARS-like Coronavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhou; Zhenggang Han; Lin-Fa Wang; Zhengli Shi

    2013-01-01

    Bat SARS-like coronavirus (SL-CoV) has a genome organization almost identical to that of SARS-CoV,but the N-terminus of the Spike (S) proteins,which interacts with host receptor and is a major target of neutralizing antibodies against CoVs,of the two viruses has only 63-64% sequence identity.Although there have been reports studying the overall immunogenicity of SSL,knowledge on the precise location of immunodominant determinants for SSL is still lacking.In this study,using a series of truncated expressed SSL fragments and SsL specific mouse sera,we identified two immunogenic determinants for SSL.Importantly,one of the two regions seems to be located in a region not shared by known immunogenic determinants of the SSARS.This finding will be of potential use in future monitoring of SL-CoV infection in bats and spillover animals and in development of more effective vaccine to cover broad protection against this new group of coronaviruses.

  2. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil.

  3. The effect of inhibition of PP1 and TNFα signaling on pathogenesis of SARS coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Jason E.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Josset, Laurence; Bankhead, Armand; Neumann, Gabriele; Tilton, Susan C.; Schäfer, Alexandra; Li, Chengjun; Fan, Shufang; McWeeney, Shannon; Baric, Ralph S.; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2016-09-23

    The complex interplay between viral replication and host immune response during infection remains poorly understood. While many viruses are known to employ antiimmune strategies to facilitate their replication, highly pathogenic virus infections can also cause an excessive immune response that exacerbates, rather than reduces pathogenicity. To investigate this dichotomy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), we developed a transcriptional network model of SARS-CoV infection in mice and used the model to prioritize candidate regulatory targets for further investigation. We validated our predictions in 18 different knockout (KO) mouse strains, showing that network topology provides significant predictive power to identify genes that are important for viral infection. We identified a novel player in the immune response to virus infection, Kepi, an inhibitory subunit of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex, which protects against SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We also found that receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), promote pathogenesis through a parallel feed-forward circuit that promotes inflammation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing the role of over-stimulation of the inflammatory response to SARS-CoV in pathogenesis. We conclude that the critical balance between immune response and inflammation can be manipulated to improve the outcome of the infection. Further, our study provides two potential therapeutic strategies for mitigating the effects of SARS-CoV infection, and may provide insight into treatment strategies for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV).

  4. SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronavirus pose threat for human emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachery, Vineet D.; Yount, Boyd L.; Debbink, Kari; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gralinski, Lisa E.; Plante, Jessica A.; Graham, Rachel L.; Scobey, Trevor; Ge, Xing-Yi; Donaldson, Eric F.; Randell, Scott H.; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Wayne A.; Shi, Zhengli-Li; Baric, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. In this study, we examine the disease potential for SARS-like CoVs currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Utilizing the SARS-CoV infectious clone, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild type backbone can efficiently utilize multiple ACE2 receptor orthologs, replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells, and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from CoVs utilizing the novel spike protein. Importantly, based on these findings, we synthetically rederived an infectious full length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Together, the work highlights a continued risk of SARS-CoV reemergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations. PMID:26552008

  5. The emergence of human coronavirus EMC: how scared should we be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Renee W Y; Poon, Leo L M

    2013-04-09

    A novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC), has recently been detected in humans with severe respiratory disease. Further characterization of HCoV-EMC suggests that this virus is different from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) because it is able to replicate in multiple mammalian cell lines and it does not use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a receptor to achieve infection. Additional research is urgently needed to better understand the pathogenicity and tissue tropism of this virus in humans. In their recent study published in mBio, Kindler et al. shed some light on these important topics (E. Kindler, H. R. Jónsdóttir, M. Muth, O. J. Hamming, R. Hartmann, R. Rodriguez, R. Geffers, R. A. Fouchier, C. Drosten, M. A. Müller, R. Dijkman, and V. Thiel, mBio 4[1]:e00611-12, 2013). These authors report the use of differentiated pseudostratified human primary airway epithelial cells, an in vitro model with high physiological relevance to the human airway epithelium, to characterize the cellular tropism of HCoV-EMC. More importantly, the authors demonstrate the potential use of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) to control viral infection.

  6. Identification of avian coronavirus in wild aquatic birds of the central and eastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brian J; Hilt, Deborah A; Poulson, Rebecca; Stallknecht, David E; Jackwood, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are worldwide in distribution, highly infectious, and difficult to control because of their extensive genetic diversity, short generation time, and high mutation rates. Genetically diverse CoVs have been reported from wild aquatic birds that may represent a potential reservoir for avian CoVs as well as hosts for mutations and recombination events leading to new serotypes or genera. We tested 133 pooled samples representing 700 first-passage (in eggs) and 303 direct cloacal swab transport media samples from wild aquatic birds in the US that were avian influenza-negative. We isolated RNA from frozen samples and performed reverse transcriptase-PCR using a published universal CoV primer set. Of the samples tested, one from a Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) was positive for CoV, showing nucleotide sequence similarity to a duck coronavirus (DK/CH/HN/ZZ2004). These data indicate a possible low prevalence of CoVs circulating in wild aquatic birds in the eastern half of the US.

  7. Inhibition of genes expression of SARS coronavirus by synthetic small interfering RNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi SHI; De Hua YANG; Jie XIONG; Jie JIA; Bing HUANG; You Xin JIN

    2005-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is triggered by the presence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and results in the silencing of homologous gene expression through the specific degradation of an mRNA containing the same sequence. dsRNAmediated RNAi can be used in a wide variety of eucaryotes to induce the sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression.Synthetic 21-23 nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNA (siRNA) with 2 nt 3' overhangs was recently found to mediate efficient sequence-specific mRNA degradation in mammalian cells. Here, we studied the effects of synthetic siRNA duplexes targeted to SARS coronavirus structural proteins E, M, and N in a cell culture system. Among total 26 siRNA duplexes, we obtained 3 siRNA duplexes which could sequence-specifically reduce target genes expression over 80% at the concentration of 60 nM in Vero E6 cells. The downregulation effect was in correlation with the concentrations of the siRNA duplexes in a range of 0~60 nM. Our results also showed that many inactive siRNA duplexes may be brought to life simply by unpairing the 5' end of the antisense strands. Results suggest that siRNA is capable of inhibiting SARS coronavirus genes expression and thus may be a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of SARS.

  8. Neonatal diarrhea by bovine coronavirus (BCoV in beef cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Lorenzetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.

  9. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Campolo, Marco; Desario, Costantina; Cirone, Francesco; D'Abramo, Maria; Lorusso, Eleonora; Greco, Grazia; Mari, Viviana; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Elia, Gabriella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    Four outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) associated with bovine coronavirus (BCoV) infection in Italian cattle herds were reported. In 3 outbreaks, BRD was observed only in 2-3-month-old feedlot calves, whereas in the remaining outbreak, lactating cows, heifers, and calves were simultaneously affected. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), BCoV RNA was detected in all outbreaks without evidence of concurrent viral pathogens (i.e., bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine parainfluenza virus). Common bacteria of cattle were recovered only from 2 outbreaks of BRD: Staphylococcus spp. and Proteus mirabilis (outbreak 1) and Mannheimia haemolytica (outbreak 4). A recently established real-time RT-PCR assay showed that viral RNA loads in nasal secretions ranged between 3.10 x 10(2) and 7.50 x 10(7) RNA copies/microl of template. Bovine coronavirus was isolated from respiratory specimens from all outbreaks except outbreak 1, in which real-time RT-PCR found very low viral titers in nasal swabs.

  10. Protection from SARS coronavirus conferred by live measles vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriou, Nicolas; Callendret, Benoît; Lorin, Valérie; Combredet, Chantal; Marianneau, Philippe; Février, Michèle; Tangy, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    The recent identification of a novel human coronavirus responsible of a SARS-like illness in the Middle-East a decade after the SARS pandemic, demonstrates that reemergence of a SARS-like coronavirus from an animal reservoir remains a credible threat. Because SARS is contracted by aerosolized contamination of the respiratory tract, a vaccine inducing mucosal long-term protection would be an asset to control new epidemics. To this aim, we generated live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine (MV) candidates expressing either the membrane-anchored SARS-CoV spike (S) protein or its secreted soluble ectodomain (Ssol). In mice susceptible to measles virus, recombinant MV expressing the anchored full-length S induced the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies and fully protected immunized animals from intranasal infectious challenge with SARS-CoV. As compared to immunization with adjuvanted recombinant Ssol protein, recombinant MV induced stronger and Th1-biased responses, a hallmark of live attenuated viruses and a highly desirable feature for an antiviral vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachery, Vineet D; Yount, Boyd L; Debbink, Kari; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Gralinski, Lisa E; Plante, Jessica A; Graham, Rachel L; Scobey, Trevor; Ge, Xing-Yi; Donaldson, Eric F; Randell, Scott H; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Marasco, Wayne A; Shi, Zhengli-Li; Baric, Ralph S

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV underscores the threat of cross-species transmission events leading to outbreaks in humans. Here we examine the disease potential of a SARS-like virus, SHC014-CoV, which is currently circulating in Chinese horseshoe bat populations. Using the SARS-CoV reverse genetics system, we generated and characterized a chimeric virus expressing the spike of bat coronavirus SHC014 in a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV backbone. The results indicate that group 2b viruses encoding the SHC014 spike in a wild-type backbone can efficiently use multiple orthologs of the SARS receptor human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2), replicate efficiently in primary human airway cells and achieve in vitro titers equivalent to epidemic strains of SARS-CoV. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate replication of the chimeric virus in mouse lung with notable pathogenesis. Evaluation of available SARS-based immune-therapeutic and prophylactic modalities revealed poor efficacy; both monoclonal antibody and vaccine approaches failed to neutralize and protect from infection with CoVs using the novel spike protein. On the basis of these findings, we synthetically re-derived an infectious full-length SHC014 recombinant virus and demonstrate robust viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Our work suggests a potential risk of SARS-CoV re-emergence from viruses currently circulating in bat populations.

  12. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in SARS coronavirus-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Frieman, Matthew B

    2017-07-01

    Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection. In this article, we summarize pulmonary fibrotic changes observed after a SARS-CoV infection, discuss the extent to which other respiratory viruses induce fibrosis, describe available animal models to study the development of SARS-CoV induced fibrosis and review evidence that pulmonary fibrosis is caused by a hyperactive host response to lung injury mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We summarize work from our group and others indicating that inhibiting EGFR signaling may prevent an excessive fibrotic response to SARS-CoV and other respiratory viral infections and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on Substrate Specificity at Subsites for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 3CL Protease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Fei SHAN; Gen-Jun XU

    2005-01-01

    Autocleavage assay and peptide-based cleavage assay were used to study the substrate specificity of 3CL protease from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. It was found that the recognition between the enzyme and its substrates involved many positions in the substrate, at least including residues from P4 to P2'. The deletion of either P4 or P2' residue in the substrate would decrease its cleavage efficiency dramatically. In contrast to the previous suggestion that only small residues in substrate could be accommodated to the S 1' subsite, we have found that bulky residues such as Tyr and Trp were also acceptable.In addition, based on both peptide-based assay and autocleavage assay, Ile at the P1' position could not be hydrolyzed, but the mutant L27A could hydrolyze the Ile peptide fragment. It suggested that there was a stereo hindrance between the S 1' subsite and the side chain of Ile in the substrate. All 20 amino acids except Pro could be the residue at the P2' position in the substrate, but the cleavage efficiencies were clearly different. The specificity information of the enzyme is helpful for potent anti-virus inhibitor design and useful for other coronavirus studies.

  14. Fundamental characteristics of the expressed immunoglobulin VH and VL repertoire in different canine breeds in comparison with those of humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiniger, Sebastian C J; Dunkle, William E; Bammert, Gary F; Wilson, Thomas L; Krishnan, Abhiram; Dunham, Steven A; Ippolito, Gregory C; Bainbridge, Graeme

    2014-05-01

    Complementarity determining regions (CDR) are responsible for binding antigen and provide substantial diversity to the antibody repertoire, with VH CDR3 of the immunoglobulin variable heavy (VH) domain playing a dominant role. In this study, we examined 1200 unique canine VH and 500 unique variable light (VL) sequences of large and small canine breeds derived from peripheral B cells. Unlike the human and murine repertoire, the canine repertoire is heavily dominated by the Canis lupus familiaris IGHV1 subgroup, evolutionarily closest to the human IGHV3 subgroup. Our studies clearly show that the productive canine repertoire of all analyzed breeds shows similarities to both human and mouse; however, there are distinct differences in terms of VH CDR3 length and amino acid paratope composition. In comparison with the human and murine antibody repertoire, canine VH CDR3 regions are shorter in length than the human counterparts, but longer than the murine VH CDR3. Similar to corresponding human and mouse VH CDR3, the amino acids at the base of the VH CDR3 loop are strictly conserved. For identical CDR positions, there were significant changes in chemical paratope composition. Similar to human and mouse repertoires, the neutral amino acids tyrosine, glycine and serine dominate the canine VH CDR3 interval (comprising 35%) although the interval is nonetheless relatively depleted of tyrosine when compared to human and mouse. Furthermore, canine VH CDR3 displays an overrepresentation of the neutral amino acid threonine and the negatively charged aspartic acid while proline content is similar to that in the human repertoire. In general, the canine repertoire shows a bias towards small, negatively charged amino acids. Overall, this analysis suggests that functional canine therapeutic antibodies can be obtained from human and mouse sequences by methods of speciation and affinity maturation.

  15. Development of new therapy for canine mammary cancer with recombinant measles virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising treatment strategy for cancer. We previously generated a recombinant measles virus (rMV-SLAMblind that selectively uses a poliovirus receptor-related 4 (PVRL4/Nectin4 receptor, but not signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM. We demonstrated that the virus exerts therapeutic effects against human breast cancer cells. Here, we examined the applicability of rMV-SLAMblind to treating canine mammary cancers (CMCs. We found that the susceptibilities of host cells to rMV-SLAMblind were dependent on canine Nectin-4 expression. Nectin-4 was detected in four of nine CMC cell lines. The rMV-SLAMblind efficiently infected those four Nectin-4-positive cell lines and was cytotoxic for three of them (CF33, CHMm, and CTBm. In vivo experiment showed that the administration of rMV-SLAMblind greatly suppressed the progression of tumors in mice xenografted with a CMC cell line (CF33. Immunohistochemistry revealed that canine Nectin-4 was expressed in 45% of canine mammary tumors, and the tumor cells derived from one clinical specimen were efficiently infected with rMV-SLAMblind. These results suggest that rMV-SLAMblind infects CMC cells and displays antitumor activity in vitro, in xenografts, and ex vivo. Therefore, oncolytic virotherapy with rMV-SLAMblind can be a novel method for treating CMCs.

  16. Proliferation of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kinsuk; Mili, Bhabesh; A P, Madhusoodan; Saxena, Abhishek Chandra; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Praveen; Verma, Med Ram; Sarkar, Mihir; Bag, Sadhan

    2017-04-01

    Stem cell niche research uses nanotechnologies to mimic the extra-cellular microenvironment to promote proliferation and differentiation. The aim of designing different scaffolds is to simulate the best structural and environmental pattern for extracellular matrix. This experiment was designed to study the proliferative behaviour of canine bone marrow deriver mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on different nanomaterial based thin film scaffolds of carbon nanotubes (CNT), chitosan and poly ε-caprolactone. Similar number of cells was seeded on the scaffolds and standard cell culture flask, taken as control. Cells were maintained on DMEM media and relative number of metabolically active cells was determined by MTT assay up to day six of culture. Cells proliferated on control and all the scaffolds as the days progressed. Although proliferation rate was slow but no decline of cell number was noticed on the scaffolds during the study period. Initially, the cell proliferation was lower on CNT but as time progressed no significant difference was observed compared to control. The result indicated that nanomaterial based scaffolds reduce the proliferation rate of canine MSCs. However, canine MSCs adapted and proliferated better on CNT substrate in vitro and may be used as a scaffold component in canine tissue engineering in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [A 24 month evaluation of zinc oxide pulpotomy on primary canines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chédid, J-C Abou; Pilipili, C

    2008-01-01

    Pulpotomy is the most performed and controversial therapeutic in pediatric dentistry. Since formocresol is known to have a toxic effect on living tissues, plus a mutagenic and carcinogenic potential with a systemic uptake of formocresol via pulpotomized teeth, other alternative products have been investigated. Twenty-five decayed primary canines and twenty-five healthy primary canines necessitating disking for orthodontic purposes were pulpotomized using non modified Zinc Oxide Eugenol. The effects of this material were evaluated both clinically and radiographically. Post operative control examinations were performed at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months trying to detect spontaneous or stimulated pain, pathological tooth mobility, abscesses or fistulas, internal or external pathological tooth resorption, periapical bone destruction, or canal obliteration. Pain was absent at 24 months post operatively. Half of the treated canines presented with a mobility, while internal and external resorptions were more frequent in decayed teeth and their number increased with time. On the other hand, abscesses and fistulas were equally found in both treated groups. The observations were compared to others related to formocresol ferric sulfate, MTA, and laser pulpotomies, using the binominal law, or the comparative test of an observed proportion to a reference proportion. In this study, and based on the excessive negative results in both groups, we demonstrated that non fixative pulpotomies on temporary canines were not a promising technique.

  18. Web-based evaluation of experts' opinions on impacted maxillary canines forced eruption using CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirfarhang Miresmaeili

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aims at examining the difficulty in performing forced eruption of impacted maxillary canines, using CBCT information and according to experienced orthodontist's opinion. The second aim was to find the most important factors related to this decision. METHODS: Based on a careful literature review on impacted maxillary canines, ten main factors were selected to assess difficulties associated with impacted teeth. Thirty six consecutive patients with 50 impacted maxillary canines were examined and variables were measured for each impacted tooth using Dolphin 3D software. Ten orthodontists assessed the radiographs of teeth and provided their opinion on the difficulty in bringing impacted teeth into occlusion named subjective degree of difficulty (SDD. The correlation established between mean SDD of each tooth and measured variables were analyzed by means of linear regression. RESULTS: Mean SDD was 6.45 ± 1.22 for all 50 teeth. Linear regression showed a high coefficient of correlation between mean SDD and age, dilacerations, vertical height, angulation and horizontal overlap (P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: To predict the difficulty of impacted maxillary canines forced eruption, according to the opinion of experienced orthodontists, the factors age, dilaceration, angulation, overlap and vertical distance from the occlusal plane are the most important variables.

  19. Dental and Maxillofacial Abnormalities in Children with Premature Loss of Primary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarelys Morera Pérez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: since primary canines are among the last teeth to be replaced by permanent ones, they are critical to maintain the space in the dental arch and proper occlusion. Their premature loss has a greater impact on the anterior region, but it can also affect the posterior region. Objective: to describe dental and maxillofacial abnormalities in children who prematurely lost the primary canines. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in children aged 5 to 9 years attending the Guerrillero Heroico Elementary School located within the health area number 2 of Cienfuegos municipality, from November 2014 through April 2015. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, cause of tooth loss, dental and maxillofacial abnormalities (linguoversion of lower or upper incisors, mesial occlusion, crowding, hyperocclusion, and increased or decreased overjet. Results: the premature loss of primary canines was more frequently observed in children aged 5 and 6 years and in most cases, it resulted from indicated extractions (66.7%. Linguoversion of lower incisors and increased overjet were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion: all children showed dental and maxillofacial abnormalities related to the premature loss of primary canines. This demonstrates the importance of avoiding their early loss whenever possible, as it is a key factor for the development of malocclusion.

  20. Identification of a new genotype of canine distemper virus circulating in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámiz, César; Martella, Vito; Ulloa, Raúl; Fajardo, Raúl; Quijano-Hernandéz, Israel; Martínez, Simón

    2011-08-01

    Canine Distemper is a highly contagious viral systemic disease that affects a wide variety of terrestrial carnivores. Canine Distemper virus (CDV) appears genetically heterogeneous, markedly in the hemagglutinin protein (H), showing geographic patterns of diversification that are useful to monitor CDV molecular epidemiology. In Mexico the activity of canine distemper remains high in dogs, likely because vaccine prophylaxis coverage in canine population is under the levels required to control effectively the disease. By phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleoprotein (N) and on the H genes, Mexican CDV strains collected between 2007 and 2010 were distinguished into several genovariants, all which constituted a unique group, clearly distinct from field and vaccine strains circulating worldwide, but resembling a CDV strain, 19876, identified in Missouri, USA, 2004, that was genetically unrelated to other North-American CDV strains. Gathering information on the genetic heterogeneity of CDV on a global scale appears pivotal in order to investigate the origin and modalities of introduction of unusual/novel CDV strains, as well as to understand if vaccine breakthroughs or disease epidemics may be somewhat related to genetic/antigenic or biological differences between field and vaccine strains.