Sample records for cangrejo callinectes sapidus

  1. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.


    Hejkal, T W; Gerba, C P


    Uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. Virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. The highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. The concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. Changes in salinity did not s...

  2. The Influence of Diet Composition on Fitness of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus. (United States)

    Belgrad, Benjamin A; Griffen, Blaine D


    The physiological condition and fecundity of an organism is frequently controlled by diet. As changes in environmental conditions often cause organisms to alter their foraging behavior, a comprehensive understanding of how diet influences the fitness of an individual is central to predicting the effect of environmental change on population dynamics. We experimentally manipulated the diet of the economically and ecologically important blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, to approximate the effects of a dietary shift from primarily animal to plant tissue, a phenomenon commonly documented in crabs. Crabs whose diet consisted exclusively of animal tissue had markedly lower mortality and consumed substantially more food than crabs whose diet consisted exclusively of seaweed. The quantity of food consumed had a significant positive influence on reproductive effort and long-term energy stores. Additionally, seaweed diets produced a three-fold decrease in hepatopancreas lipid content and a simultaneous two-fold increase in crab aggression when compared to an animal diet. Our results reveal that the consumption of animal tissue substantially enhanced C. sapidus fitness, and suggest that a dietary shift to plant tissue may reduce crab population growth by decreasing fecundity as well as increasing mortality. This study has implications for C. sapidus fisheries. PMID:26784581

  3. Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Megalopal Settlement and Condition during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

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    Erin K Grey

    Full Text Available The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM, whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH. To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH effects by comparing 2010 settlement against baseline data available for two sites, and by testing for differences in settlement and condition inside and outside of the spill extent. We also developed time series models to better understand natural drivers of daily settlement variation (seasonal and lunar trends, hydrodynamics, wind during 2010 and 2011. Overall, we found that neither megalopal settlement nor body weight were significantly reduced at oiled sites, but that high unexplained variation and low statistical power made detection of even large effects unlikely. Time series models revealed remarkably consistent and relatively strong seasonal and lunar trends within sites (explaining on average 28% and 9% of variation, respectively, while wind and hydrodynamic effects were weak (1-5% variation explained and variable among sites. This study provides insights into DWH impacts as well as the natural drivers of Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement across the northern GOM.

  4. Toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion and its metabolism by blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus

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    The LC50 for Callinectes sapidus exposed to fenitrothion for 96 hours at 220C and a salinity of 34 ppt (parts per thousand) was estimated to be 8.6 μg/liter. Acute toxicity was shown to decrease with decreasing salinity and decreasing temperature. Exposure to a simulated tidal cycle increased the acute toxicity of fenitrothion to Callinectes. The autotomization response in Callinectes was shown to be affected at subacute exposure levels as low as 0.1 μg/liter. In vitro studies showed that the rates of formation of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and desmethyl fenitrothion were greater and the rate of formation of fenitrooxon was less in subcellular fractions prepared from the hepatopancreas of crabs which had been acclimated to lower salinity seawater. All three of these metabolites were formed at faster rates in subcellular fractions prepared from crabs which had been acclimated to and incubated at 220C than at 170C. Tissue distribution of aniline hydroxylase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was also determined. The uptake of 14C-fenitrothion at a level in a seawater of 5.2 μg/liter was greater at 220C than at 170C and from 34 ppt than from 17 ppt seawater. Tissue distribution of radioactivity was determined as well as the nature of radiolabelled metabolites in the hepatopancreas and in seawater. There was no significant difference in the overall level of metabolites detected in the 220C than in the 170C seawater. The rate of uptake of fenitrothion by Callinectes also affects the toxicity as the uptake of fenitrothion was more rapid at the higher salinity as well as at the higher temperature

  5. Genome sequence analysis of CsRV1, a pathogenic reovirus that infects the blue crab Callinectes sapidus across its trans-hemispheric range (United States)

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896), which is a commercially important trophic link in coastal ecosystems of the western Atlantic, is infected in both North and South America by C. sapidus Reovirus 1 (CsRV1), a double stranded RNA virus. The 12 genome segments of a North American strai...

  6. Occurrence of the Invasive Crab Species Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, in NW Greece

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    Full Text Available The present work aims to review and describe the current status of the invasive species Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, along the Ionian coastal zone of Greece and to assess its invasive potential. Blue crab has a long invasion history in the Mediterranean Sea, but the available data on the species occurrence in the Ionian sub-region are scarce and fragmented. The proximity of most of the estuaries and lagoons to local ports and to the shipping routes, as well as the swimming/dispersal ability of the adults of the species, indicate that range expansion will likely continue. The invasiveness risk of the species in the region was estimated with the use of a decision support tool (Marine Invertebrate Invasiveness Screening Kit, version 1.19. The observed impacts are discussed, along with urgent mitigation priorities. Measures to limit the expansion of this invasive species may include the effective management of ballast waters and the targeted increase of fishing pressure on C. sapidus populations. The importance of ballast water management is further highlighted by the existence of numerous ports with the capacity to serve ships with ballast tanks in close proximity to the recipient ecosystems. Moreover, the Ionian Sea, which connects the Adriatic Sea to the rest of the Mediterranean, is a significant shipping route for the local, regional, and international seaborne trade.

  7. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. (United States)

    Hejkal, T W; Gerba, C P


    Uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. Virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. The highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. The concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. Changes in salinity did not substantially affect the rate of accumulation. An increase in temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C increased the rates of both uptake and removal. Poliovirus survived up to 6 days in crabs at a temperature of 15 degrees C and a salinity of 10 g/kg. When contaminated crabs were boiled, 99.9% of poliovirus 1, simian rotavirus SA11, and a natural isolate of echovirus 1 were inactivated within 8 min. These data demonstrate that viruses in crabs should not pose a serious health hazard if recommended cooking procedures are used. PMID:6261683

  8. High Connectivity among Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Populations in the Western South Atlantic (United States)

    Kersanach, Ralf; Cortinhas, Maria Cristina Silva; Prata, Pedro Fernandes Sanmartin; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Maggioni, Rodrigo; D’Incao, Fernando


    Population connectivity in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus was evaluated along 740 km of the Western South Atlantic coast. Blue crabs are the most exploited portunid in Brazil. Despite their economic importance, few studies report their ecology or population structure. Here we sampled four estuarine areas in southern Brazil during winter 2013 and summer 2014 in order to evaluate diversity, gene flow and structure of these populations. Nine microsatellite markers were evaluated for 213 adult crabs, with identification of seven polymorphic loci and 183 alleles. Pairwise FST values indicated low population structure ranging from -0.00023 to 0.01755. A Mantel test revealed that the geographic distance does not influence genetic (r = -0.48), and structure/migration rates confirmed this, showing that even the populations located at the opposite extremities of our covered region presented low FST and exchanged migrants. These findings show that there is a significant amount of gene flow between blue crab populations in South Brazil, likely influenced by local current dynamics that allow the transport of a high number of larvae between estuaries. Considering the elevated gene flow, the populations can be considered a single genetic stock. However, further information on population size and dynamics, as well as fishery demands and impacts at different regions, are necessary for harvest management purposes. PMID:27064977

  9. Recruitment of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun 1896 Megalopae from Three Southwestern Gulf of Mexico Lagoon-system Inlets

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    R. Chavez-Lopez


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the highest recruitment time of Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896 megalopae and the relation of megalopae density with temperature, salinity, velocity and direction of current flow in three inlets of the Southwestern portion of the Gulf of Mexico. Collections were made at night, using for the capture a conical 243-mm mesh net. The total abundance of C. sapidus for the three coastal systems was of 2,579,725 megalopae. The average temperature was of 28.231.37C, salinity of 23.547.10 psu and stream velocity of 0.390.18 m sec-1. During the study, recruitment peaks were observed between 22:00 and 02:00 h. The maximal recruitment was registered in the SM river inlet, whereas Puerto Real inlet representing the lowest recruitment registered. The correlation between salinity and megalopae density was significant (p = 0.05 in the three coastal systems. The highest density was registered when salinity was > 23 psu. Recruitment was related to the influx of seawater towards the coastal systems. There were no significant differences in magalopae density (p = 0.05 between consecutive sampling cycles.

  10. An evaluation of the effects of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) behavior on the efficacy of crab pots as a tool for estimating population abundance


    Sturdivant, S. Kersey; Clark, Kelton L.


    Crab traps have been used extensively in studies on the population dynamics of blue crabs to provide estimates of catch per unit of effort; however, these estimates have been determined without adequate consideration of escape rates. We examined the ability of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to escape crab pots and the possibility that intraspecific crab interactions have an effect on catch rates. Approximately 85% of crabs that entered a pot escaped, and 83% of crabs escaped fro...

  11. Synopsis of biological data on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun


    Millikin, Mark R.; Williams, Austin B.


    This synopsis reviews taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, commercial hard and soft shell crab fisheries, physiology, diseases, ecology, laboratory culture methodology, and influences of environmental pollutants on the blue crab, Callinecles sapidus. Over 300 selected, published reports up to and including 1982 are covered. (PDF file contains 45 pages.)

  12. Epidermal carbonic anhydrase activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. (United States)

    Calhoun, Stacy; Zou, Enmin


    During the crustacean molting cycle, the exoskeleton is first mineralized in postmolt and intermolt and then presumably demineralized in premolt in order for epidermal retraction to occur. The mineralization process calls for divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) , and bicarbonate ions whereas protons are necessary for dissolution of carbonate salts. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been suggested to be involved in exoskeletal mineralization by providing bicarbonate ions through catalyzing the reaction of carbon dioxide hydration. However, results of earlier studies on the role of epidermal CA in metal incorporation in crustacean exoskeleton are not consistent. This study was aimed to provide further evidence to support the notion that epidermal CA is involved in exoskeletal mineralization using the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896), as the model crustacean. Significant increases first in calcium and magnesium then in manganese post-ecdysis indicate significant metal deposition during postmolt and intermolt. Significant positive correlation between calcium or magnesium content and epidermal CA activity in postmolt and intermolt constitutes evidence that CA is involved in the mineralization of the crustacean exoskeleton. Additionally, we proposed a hypothetical model to describe the role of epidermal CA in both mineralization and demineralization of the exoskeleton based on the results of epidermal CA activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle. Furthermore, we found that the pattern of epidermal CA activity during the molting cycle of C. sapidus is similar to that of ecdysteroids reported for the same species, suggesting that epidermal CA activity may be under control of the molting hormones. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26935248

  13. Application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for Weight Predictions of Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus RATHBUN, 1896 Using Predictor Variables

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    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of artificial networks (ANNs to estimate the weights of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus catches in Yumurtalık Cove (Iskenderun Bay that uses measured predictor variables is presented, including carapace width (CW, sex (male, female and female with eggs, and sampling month. Blue crabs (n=410 were collected each month between 15 September 1996 and 15 May 1998. Sex, CW, and sampling month were used and specified in the input layer of the network. The weights of the blue crabs were utilized in the output layer of the network. A multi-layer perception architecture model was used and was calibrated with the Levenberg Marguardt (LM algorithm. Finally, the values were determined by the ANN model using the actual data. The mean square error (MSE was measured as 3.3, and the best results had a correlation coefficient (R of 0.93. We compared the predictive capacity of the general linear model (GLM versus the Artificial Neural Network model (ANN for the estimation of the weights of blue crabs from independent field data. The results indicated the higher performance capacity of the ANN to predict weights compared to the GLM (R=0.97 vs. R=0.95, raw variable when evaluated against independent field data.

  14. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus. (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo


    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics. PMID:27441254

  15. PCR-based prevalence of a fatal reovirus of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun) along the northern Atlantic coast of the USA. (United States)

    Flowers, E M; Simmonds, K; Messick, G A; Sullivan, L; Schott, E J


    There is a need for more information on the relationship between diseases and fluctuations of wild populations of marine animals. In the case of Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 (CsRV1, also known as RLV), there is a lack of baseline information on range, prevalence and outbreaks, from which to develop an understanding of population-level impacts. An RT-qPCR assay was developed that is capable of detecting 10 copies of the CsRV1 genome. In collaboration with state, federal and academic partners, blue crabs were collected from sites throughout the north-eastern United States to assess the northern range of this pathogen. In addition, archived crab samples from the Chesapeake Bay were assessed for CsRV1 by RT-qPCR and histology. PCR-based assessments indicate that CsRV1 was present at all but one site. Prevalence of CsRV1 as assessed by RT-qPCR was highly variable between locations, and CsRV1 prevalence varied between years at a given location. Mean CsRV1 prevalence as assessed by RT-qPCR was >15% each year, and peak prevalence was 79%. The wide geographic range and highly variable prevalence of CsRV1 indicate that more study is needed to understand CsRV1 dynamics and the role the virus plays in blue crab natural mortality. PMID:26249243

  16. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae in the Southeast coast of Brazil

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    Evandro Severino-Rodrigues


    Full Text Available C. sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt, and cephalothorax width (CW was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne. A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50 occurred at CW=10.33cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100 was CW=11.20cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11cm of carapace width.

  17. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae) in the Southeast coast of Brazil. (United States)

    Severino-Rodrigues, Evandro; Musiello-Fernandes, Joelson; Moura, Alvaro A S; Branco, Geisa M P; Canéo, Victor O C


    C sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt), and cephalothorax width (CW) was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We) and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne). A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50) occurred at CW = 10.33 cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100) was CW = 11.20 cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11 cm of carapace width. PMID:23885578

  18. (1)H NMR metabolomic profiling of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) from the Adriatic Sea (SE Italy): A comparison with warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa), and edible crab (Cancer pagurus). (United States)

    Zotti, Maurizio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Del Coco, Laura; Migoni, Danilo; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo


    The metabolomic profile of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) captured in the Acquatina lagoon (SE Italy) was compared to an autochthonous (Eriphia verrucosa) and to a commercial crab species (Cancer pagurus). Both lipid and aqueous extracts of raw claw muscle were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and MVA (multivariate data analysis). Aqueous extracts were characterized by a higher inter-specific discriminating power compared to lipid fractions. Specifically, higher levels of glutamate, alanine and glycine characterized the aqueous extract of C. sapidus, while homarine, lactate, betaine and taurine characterized E. verrucosa and C. pagurus. On the other hand, only the signals of monounsaturated fatty acids distinguished the lipid profiles of the three crab species. These results support the commercial exploitation and the integration of the blue crab in human diet of European countries as an healthy and valuable seafood. PMID:26593533

  19. The history of Chesapeake Bay's blue crab (Callinectes sapidus: fisheries and management Perspectiva histórica de la pesquería y del manejo del cangrejo azul (Callinectes sapidus: en la Bahía de Chesapeake

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    Cluney Stagg


    Full Text Available Major blue crab fisheries have existed on the Atlantic coast of the United States for at least 100 years, and on the Gulf of Mexico coast for more than 50 years. From 1990 to 1994, reported landings averaged more than 96 million kg per year, with a reported dockside value of more than $200 million. Until about 1950, Chesapeake Bay accounted for over 75% of the total reported U.S. harvest of blue crabs, but less than 50% over the last two decades. The United States blue crab fishery is made up of hundreds to thousands of small-scale fishermen. The commercial fishery has a hard crab component and a soft crab (recently molted fishery. There is also a substantial recreational (casual fishery for blue crabs. Since the 1950s, crab pots have accounted for the largest proportion of reported landings. Other major gears include the trotline, crab scrape and crab dredge. U.S. blue crab fisheries have undergone periods of low abundance. Changes in fishing effort and power, environmental conditions, ecological interactions and market forces have been hypothesized as causative factors. Management measures in the Chesapeake Bay blue crab fisheries have included size and life stage, season, and gear limitations, as well as entry restrictions. An historical perspective should be taken in the interpretation of the recent decline in reported harvests. A 1997 stock assessment concluded that Chesapeake Bay blue crab stocks were fully exploited but in no current danger of recruitment overfishingImportantes pesquerías de jaiba azul han existido en la costa Atlántica de los Estados Unidos por lo menos durante 100 años, y en la costa del Golfo de México por más de 50 años. Desde 1990 a 1994, los desembarques informados promedian más de 96 millones de kg por año, con un valor playa de más de US$ 200 millones. Hasta cerca de 1950, la Bahía de Chesapeake contribuía sobre el 75% del total de la captura de jaibas azules informada para EE.UU., pero menos del 50% en las últimas dos décadas. La pesquería de jaiba azul de los Estados Unidos está conformada por cientos a miles de pescadores artesanales. La pesquería comercial tiene una componente de jaibas duras y una pesquería de jaibas blandas recién mudadas. También existe una importante pesquería recreacional (casual de jaibas azules. Desde los años 50, el uso de trampas para la captura de jaibas han contribuido en mayor proporción a las capturas reportadas. Otros artes utilizados incluyen la "trotline", rastra de jaibas y draga. Las pesquerías de jaiba azul en EE.UU. han tenido períodos de baja abundancia. Cambios en el esfuerzo y poder de pesca, condiciones ambientales, interacciones ecológicas y fuerzas de mercado han sido hipotetizadas como factores causales. Las medidas de manejo de las pesquerías de jaiba azul en la Bahía de Chesapeake han incluido limitaciones de la talla y ciclo de vida, períodos de pesca y limitaciones a los arte de pesca, así como restricciones al ingreso. Debe tomarse una perspectiva histórica en la interpretación de la reciente declinación en las capturas registradas. Una evaluación de stock realizada en 1997 concluye que los stocks de jaiba azul de la Bahía de Chesapeake están completamente explotados pero no en actual peligro de sobrepesca por reclutamiento

  20. New functions of arthropod bursicon: inducing deposition and thickening of new cuticle and hemocyte granulation in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

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    J Sook Chung

    Full Text Available Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs, although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC neurons with pericardial organs (POs as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs β/Burs α mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs β homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ∼21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ∼89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI, we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods.

  1. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: In vivo and in vitro studies

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    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC50 and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) μM Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) μM Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC50 values were expressed as the free Cu2+ ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) μM free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) μM free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu2+ activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) μM Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) μM Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2 h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this 'steady-state' period. This finding was corroborated by a significant increase in

  2. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: In vivo and in vitro studies

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    De Martinez Gaspar Martins, Camila [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Menezes, Eliana Jaime de; Mussoi Giacomin, Marina [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Wood, Chris M. [McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)


    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC{sub 50} and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) {mu}M Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) {mu}M Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC{sub 50} values were expressed as the free Cu{sup 2+} ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) {mu}M free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) {mu}M free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu{sup 2+} activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) {mu}M Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) {mu}M Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2 h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this 'steady-state' period. This finding

  3. Dieta natural do siri-azul Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Natural diet of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Patos Lagoon estuary area, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Alexandre Oliveir

    Full Text Available Na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, o siri-azul Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1869 é o mais abundante dentre as espécies do gênero. Apesar do siri-azul exercer influência sobre as comunidades bentônicas, por ser considerado um predador do topo da cadeia alimentar, não existem muitos estudos sobre aspectos ecológicos, inclusive sobre a composição e variabilidade sazonal de sua dieta natural, neste estuário. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a composição da dieta do siri-azul, evidenciando possíveis relações com a comunidade bentônica da região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos. O período de estudo foi de março de 2003 a março de 2004, com coletas bimestrais. Os organismos foram coletados com auxílio de rede de arrasto de fundo, com malha de 13 mm entre nós opostos. Ainda em campo os animais foram fixados em formol 10%. Após a coleta os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo, medidos (largura e comprimento da carapaça - cm e pesados (peso - g. Após a triagem, os animais foram dissecados e os intestinos retirados e pesados. As análises dos conteúdos alimentares dos siris demonstraram que os hábitos alimentares são diversificados, constituindo-se principalmente de invertebrados bentônicos. O item encontrado com maior freqüência foi Detrito, seguido pelo molusco filtrador Erodona mactroides Bosc, 1802 (Erodonidae. Crustáceos da classe Ostracoda e grãos de areia foram importantes componentes dos conteúdos dos intestinos anteriores, sendo que areia não foi considerada como item alimentar, propriamente dito. Também foram encontradas cerdas e mandíbulas de poliquetos, além de sementes das macrófitas Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogatonaceae e Zannichellia palustris L. (Potamogatonaceae. Este estudo serve como subsídio para medidas de proteção e conservação da população do siri-azul, bem como caracteriza relações tróficas com comunidades bentônicas do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos.The Southern

  4. Investigação dos teores de metais pesados em espécies de siris azuis do gênero Callinectes sp. Heavy metals content investigation in blue crab species of the genus Callinectes sp.

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    Rossana Helena Pitta Virga


    Full Text Available A ocorrência de metais pesados em sistemas aquáticos, usualmente, é resultante de processos naturais geoquímicos. Entretanto, a presença destes elementos químicos tem aumentado consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, como no caso da bacia do rio Cubatão, em conseqüência das atividades humanas na região. Neste trabalho, foi realizada uma análise quantitativa do conteúdo de Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn e Cu, em quatro espécies de siris azuis do gênero Callinectes sp., coletadas ao longo do rio Cubatão, utilizando a técnica da espectrometria de absorção atômica por chama (FAAS. Foram analisadas 144 amostras de siris azuis das seguintes espécies: C. danae (63%; C. sapidus (23%; C. bocourti (10.5%; e C. ornatus (3.5%. A espécie C. Sapidus foi a que apresentou os maiores níveis de concentração para os metais estudados. Com exceção do Cu, cuja concentração média obtida foi 40% maior para as fêmeas (p Usually, heavy metals occurrence in aquatic systems is resulting from natural geochemical processes. However, the presence of these chemical elements has considerably increased in the last decades . An example is the case of the Cubatão river basin caused by human activities in that region. In this work, a quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Cu content of four blue crab species of the genus Callinectes sp., sampled along the Cubatão river, was carried out using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS. 144 blue crab samples from the following species were analyzed: C. danae (63%, C. sapidus (23%, C. bocourti (10.5%, and C. ornatus (3.5%. The C. Sapidus species presented the highest concentration levels for the studied metals. With the exception of Cu, for which the average concentration was 40% higher for the females (p < 0,05, there was no significant variation in the heavy metal content regarding sex and the size of the animals. Except for Cr, for which the average values interval obtained for the 4 species was above the

  5. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, larval settlement in Mississippi (United States)

    The largest accidental release of crude oil in history occurred in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) between April 20 and July 15, 2010 (Alford et al., this volume). The DWH spill was unprecedented due to both its magnitude (>600,000 metric tons released) and its occurren...

  6. Meat yield of Callinectes bocourti A. Milne Edwards, 1879 (Crustacea, Portunidae in Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil Rendimiento de la carne de Callinectes bocourti A. Milne Edwards, 1879 (Crustacea, Portunidae, en Iguape São Paulo, Brasil

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    Gustavo Yomar-Hattori


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the meat yield for both sexes of the crab Callinectes bocourti in the region of Iguape, Brazil. The carapace width for males was 78.1-114.0 mm (96.7 ± 9.5 mm and for females 76.0-106.3 mm (93.0 ± 7.8 mm. In males, the total wet weight ranged from 65.53 to 224.36 g (134.04 ± 40.77 g and for females from 56.66 to 164.74 g (105.93 ± 26.88 g. A comparison of morphological structures revealed that the greatest meat yield was in the carapace (55.1%, followed by the right chela (16.9%, the left chela (15.9%, and the legs (12.1%. The total yield from the males (28.5% was slightly higher than that from the females (22.1%. In general, portunids yield more meat than other crab species. The results of this study will allow the optimization of meat production for this crab species. Manual meat removal makes the process more expensive. This activity could offer an alternative to the fishing communities that live exclusively from this fishery resourceEl objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el rendimiento de la carne del cangrejo Callinectes bocourti en ambos sexos en la región de Iguape, Brasil. Los machos presentaron un ancho de carapazón entre 78,1 y 114,0 mm (96,7 ± 9,5 mm y las hembras 76,0 a 106,3 mm (93,8 ± 7,8 mm. El peso húmedo total de los machos varió de 65,53 a 224,36 g (134,04 ± 40,77 g y entre 56,66 y 164,74 g (105,93 ± 26,88 g en las hembras. Comparando las estructuras morfológicas, se encontró que el mayor rendimiento de carne estuvo en el carapazón (55,1%, seguido de la pinza derecha (16,9%, izquierda (15,9% y patas (12,1%. En los machos el rendimiento total fue 28,5%, levemente superior al de las hembras (22,1%. Los portúnidos generalmente presentaron mayor rendimiento de carne al compararlo con otras especies de cangrejos. Los resultados de este estudio permiten optimizar la producción de carne en esta especie de cangrejo. La remoción de la carne es una actividad manual

  7. Bioaccumulation and depuration of metals in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) from a contaminated and clean estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue crabs from a contaminated estuary (Hackensack Meadowlands-HM) and a cleaner reference site (Tuckerton-TK) were analyzed for Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in muscle and hepatopancreas. Crabs from each site were taken into the laboratory and fed food from the other site, or in another experiment, transplanted to the other site for eight weeks. All crabs were analyzed for metals. Overall, tissue concentrations reflected environmental conditions. Tissue differences were found for Cu, Pb and Zn (all higher in hepatopancreas), and Hg (higher in muscle). HM muscle had more Hg than TK muscle, but did not decrease after transplanting or consuming clean food. HM crabs lost Cu, Pb and Zn in hepatopancreas after being fed clean food or transplanted. TK crabs increased Hg in muscle and Cr and Zn in hepatopancreas after transplantation or being fed contaminated (HM) food. Concentrations were variable, suggesting that blue crabs may not be fully reliable bioindicators of polluted systems. - The accumulation of metals within the muscle and hepatopancreas of blue crabs was highly variable, but often followed environmental concentrations.

  8. Cadmium and Mercury Uptake by Immobilized Pleurotus sapidus


    YALÇINKAYA, Yağmur


    Pleurotus sapidus} basidiospores immobilized onto Ca-alginate beads were used for the removal of cadmium and mercury ions from aqueous solutions. The biosorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions on the alginate beads and both immobilized live and heat inactivated fungal mycelia of Pleurotus sapidus} was studied from aqueous solutions in the concentration range of 30-500 mg L - 1. The biosorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions by the alginate and both live and heat inactivated immobilized prepara...

  9. Sekretomanalyse von Pleurotus sapidus zum effizienten Aufschluss von Lignocellulosen


    Schüttmann, Ina


    Mit einer polyvalenten Peroxidase wurde ein Schlüsselenzym des Lignocelluloseabbaus aus Kulturen des Basidiomyceten Pleurotus sapidus chromatographisch gereinigt. Nach einer dreistufigen Reinigung wurde das Enzym mit einem Reinigungsfaktor von 130 aus dem Überstand einer Submerskultur isoliert. Die Aktivitätsoptima wurden für die Substrate b,b-Carotin, ABTS, Syringol und Veratrylalkohol ebenso bestimmt wie die Wechselzahlen und katalytischen Konstanten. In Zusammenarbeit mit der Firma Arte...

  10. Una actividad de educación ambiental basada en observaciones del cangrejo de río americano (Procambarus clarkii) en el Barranco del Cercado (Tenerife, Islas Canarias)


    Mingorance Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Gómez Gómez, Juan Imeldo


    El Procambarus clarkii (cangrejo de río americano o cangrejo rojo de las marismas) es un ejemplo de la introducción de una especie en un ecosistema. En este trabajo se utiliza una población de esta especie en la isla de Tenerife para un conjunto de actividades educativas en un Instituto de Formación Profesional. Estas actividades incluyen muestreos y capturas de los cangrejos en el campo, la toma de sus medidas iniciales y su mantenimiento en el Instituto.

  11. Evaluación del valor nutricional y pigmentante de la harina de cangrejo Procambarus clarkii, para la alimentación de gallinas semipesadas y pollos de engorde como método de control poblacional del cangrejo


    Gómez Cestagalli, Elba Fiorella


    Resumen: Al evaluar el valor nutritivo y pigmentante del cangrejo Procambarus clarkii, se utilizaron una serie de métodos para la caracterización del hábitat, la población y distribución geográfica de la especie, características del nicho ecológico, su capacidad reproductiva, así como también el conocimiento y aceptación de la población humana cercana al lugar de estudio. A la harina de esta especie, se le realizó análisis químico (Weende, perfil de aminoácidos totales limitantes y ácidos gra...

  12. Isolation and characterization of wild-type lipoxygenase LOX(Psa)1 from Pleurotus sapidus. (United States)

    Plagemann, Ina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G


    The lipoxygenase LOX(Psa) 1 of Pleurotus sapidus, originally investigated because of its ability to oxidize (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit aroma (+)-nootkatone, was isolated from the peptidase-rich lyophilisate using a three-step purification scheme including preparative isoelectric focusing and chromatographic techniques. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) of the purified enzyme and peptide mass fingerprint analysis gave 38 peptides of the lipoxygenase from P. sapidus. Nearly 50% of the 643 amino acids long sequence encoded by the cDNA was covered. Both terminal peptides of the native LOX(Psa) 1 were identified by de novo sequencing, and the postulated molecular mass of 72.5 kDa was confirmed. With linoleic acid as the substrate, the LOX(Psa)1 showed a specific activity of 113 U mg(-1) and maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. PMID:24873036

  13. The occurrence of Callinectes arcuatus ordway, 1863 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in Bahia, Brazil

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    Edilson Pires de Gouvêa


    Full Text Available During the study of the Carcinofauna of the Bahian Coast, some Brachyura Portunidae were found. Some of these animals were Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 which has its distribution restricted to the Pacific Ocean, from California to Peru and the Galapagos Islands. This is the first occurrence of this species reported from the Atlantic Ocean and the Brazilian Coast (Bahia, 38º50'Wand 12º50'S.Durante o estudo da carcinofauna do litoral baiano, muitos Braquiuros Portunidae foram encontrados. Alguns destes animais foram Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 que possuia sua distribuição restrita da Califórnia ao Peru e Ilhas Galápagos, no Oceano Pacífico. Esta é a primeira ocorrência desta espécie no Oceano Atlântico e na Costa Brasileira. (Bahia, 12º50'S e 38º50'W.

  14. Distribución de los cangrejos porcelánidos (Decapoda: Anomura) en la costa de Santiago de Cuba, con la adición de especies para Cuba


    Diez García, Y. L.; Jover Capote, A.


    Se presenta la lista de los cangrejos porcelánidos de la costa de Santiago de Cuba, la clave taxonómica para su identificació y los apuntes sobre su distribución batimétrica. Se adicionan cuatro especies a la lista de porcelánidos de las costas cubana (Neopisosoma angustifrons, Petrolisthes marginatus, P. politus, y P. quadratus).

  15. Dieta del cangrejo dulceacuícola Bottiella niceforei (Schmitt & Pretzmann, 1968 (Decapoda: Trichodactylidae y su relación con el procesamiento de la materia orgánica en una corriente intermitente del noroeste de Venezuela

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    Raúl Pirela


    Full Text Available Para aproximarse al rol que tiene el cangrejo de río Bottiella niceforei en el procesamiento de materia orgánica, en una corriente intermitente al noroeste de Venezuela, se estudió su dieta natural, mediante el análisis del contenido del tracto digestivo entre junio 2009 y febrero 2010. Se determinó la abundancia de los cangrejos sobre la base de la proporción de individuos capturados por trampas, a lo largo del muestreo, y en cada pozo. Las mayores densidades ocurrieron en septiembre (2,7 ind trampa-1, seguido de junio (2,3 ind trampa-1 y julio (2,1 ind trampa-1, mientras que las menores se obtuvieron de noviembre a febrero, posiblemente debido al efecto erosivo de la corriente durante la época de lluvia. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la abundancia y dieta entre pozos. De junio a noviembre, se encontró que el ítem más abundante en la dieta fue el detrito vegetal, con una frecuencia de ocurrencia promedio de 68%; en segundo lugar, materia animal (restos de peces con 50% y detrito vegetal amorfo con 14%. Estos resultados demuestran la importancia de la participación del cangrejo B. niceforei en el procesamiento de la materia orgánica en forma de hojarasca en los pozos de caño Carichuano.

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in blue crabs (Callinectes bocourti) from Maceio, AL, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the elements Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni were analyzed in hepatopancreas samples of crabs (Callinectes bocourti) from the city of Marechal Deodoro and from the city of Coqueiro Seco, both in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The biometry of this crabs was performed, their hepatopancreas were extracted, and then lyophilized. Heavy metal analysis were performed by Grafite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) Thirty seven crabs individuals, were collected. The crabs were adults with average mass of∼ 78g. The average values of the metals were measured, and for Pb and Cd, that the ANVISA establishes limits, these values are lower than the limits, even some individual concentration are higher than the recommended limits. The concentrations of Cu and Zn are higher than the other metals, suggesting that there is an influence of the industrial activities in surroundings of the sampled sites. (author)

  17. Some aspects of the biology of the female blue crab Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria


    Eyo Victor Oscar; Akpan Michael Mfon; Udoh Ifiok Solomon


    Objective: To investigate some important aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola (C. amnicola) such as fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred and twenty ovigerous females of C. amnicola, freshly caught with basket traps, lift net trap, and gill net were collected from the catches of the artisanal fisheries in the study area between J...

  18. Manual metodológico sobre el monitoreo de los manglares del Valle del Cauca y fauna asociada, con énfasis en aves y especies de importancia económica: piangua y cangrejo azul.


    Restrepo Martínez, Jorge; Vivas Aguas, Lisbeth Janet


    Este Manual incluye información acerca de que es el monitoreo, cuáles son sus objetivos, los criterios para la selección de las estaciones, la metodología aplicada para el estudio de cada uno de los componentes (manglares, piangua, cangrejo azul, aves, cartografía), y los lineamientos para su aplicación. Bajo estos criterios, esta publicación se constituye en una herramienta para el fortalecimiento de los procesos de uso, manejo y conservación de los manglares y sus recursos asociados, en ara...

  19. Functional expression of a valencene dioxygenase from Pleurotus sapidus in E. coli. (United States)

    Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G


    Valencene dioxygenase (ValOx) from the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus converted the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit flavour (+)-nootkatone and to nootkatols through intermediate hydroperoxides. Expression of the enzyme was carried out in the cytosol and periplasm of Escherichia coli. The heterologous production led to high yields of inclusion bodies. The poor yield of soluble recombinant protein was improved by various strategies including cold shock expression, chaperone co-expression, and employment of mutant E. coli strains. Up to 60 mg of the biologically active, soluble ValOx was produced by cold shock under control of the cspA promoter at 8 °C in the BL21(DE3)Star strain and co-expression of the E. coli trigger factor. The recombinant enzyme, purified using the N-terminal His tag, showed the catalytic properties of the wild-type enzyme, as was confirmed by the LC-MS analysis of hydroperoxide intermediates and GC-MS analysis of the volatile products. PMID:22264428

  20. Juvenile development of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae under laboratory conditions

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    Full Text Available The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The individuals were raised in the laboratory under constant temperature (25 ± 1°C, filtered sea water from the collection location (35‰, and natural photoperiod. Newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii were offered as food on a daily basis and ornamental-fish food was also provided for the juveniles from the 4th stage on. Twelve stages of the juvenile phase were obtained. The main morphological features that allowed recognition of the first juvenile stage were drawn and described. All the subsequent stages obtained were examined and measured, and the main changes in relation to the first stage were recorded. Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent from the fourth juvenile stage onwards. Some appendages and morphological features proved to be of great importance in the identification of species, including the number of segments of the antennal flagellum and the number of setae on the maxilla and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds. These can probably be used for future comparisons and species identifications.

  1. An environmental forensic approach for tropical estuaries based on metal bioaccumulation in tissues of Callinectes danae. (United States)

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Andrade, Nathalia P; Hortellani, Marcos A; Favaro, Deborah I T; Kakazu, Mauricio H; Cotrim, Marycel E B; Lavradas, Raquel T; Moreira, Isabel; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann


    The blue crab Callinectes danae is distributed throughout the Atlantic coast and this study aimed to evaluate a environmental forensics approach that could be applied at tropical estuarine systems where this species is distributed, based on the metal concentrations in its tissues. For this purpose, blue crab samples were collected in 9 sites (distributed in 3 areas) along the Santos Estuarine System, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in gills, hepatopancreas and muscle tissues. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed in these same sites. A data distribution pattern was identified during both sampling periods (August and December 2011). In order to validate this model, a new sampling campaign was performed in March 2013 at the Santos Estuarine System and also at Ilha Grande (state of Rio de Janeiro). These data were added to the previous database (composed of the August and December 2011 samples) and a discriminant analysis was applied. The results confirmed an environmental fingerprint for the Santos Estuarine System. PMID:26475048

  2. An aryl-alcohol oxidase of Pleurotus sapidus: heterologous expression, characterization, and application in a 2-enzyme system. (United States)

    Galperin, Ilya; Javeed, Aysha; Luig, Hanno; Lochnit, Günter; Rühl, Martin


    Aryl-alcohol oxidases (AAOs) are enzymes supporting the degradation of lignin by fungal derived class II peroxidases produced by white-rot fungi. AAOs are able to generate H2O2 as a by-product via oxidation of an aryl-alcohol into its correspondent aldehyde. In this study, an AAO was heterologously expressed in a basidiomycete host for the first time. The gene for an AAO of the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sapidus, a close relative to the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, was cloned into an expression vector and put under control of the promotor of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene 2 (gpdII) of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The expression vector was transformed into the model basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea, and several positive transformants were obtained. The best producing transformants were grown in shake-flasks and in a stirred tank reactor reaching enzymatic activities of up to 125 U L(-1) using veratryl alcohol as a substrate. The purified AAO was biochemically characterized and compared to the previously described native and recombinant AAOs from other Pleurotus species. In addition, a two-enzyme system comprising a dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) from Mycetinis scorodonius and the P. sapidus AAO was successfully employed to bleach the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 5. PMID:27138199

  3. Crosses between monokaryons of Pleurotus sapidus or Pleurotus florida show an improved biotransformation of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone. (United States)

    Omarini, Alejandra B; Plagemann, Ina; Schimanski, Silke; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G


    Several hundred monokaryotic and new dikaryotic strains derived thereof were established from (+)-valencene tolerant Pleurotus species. When grouped according to their growth rate on agar plates and compared to the parental of Pleurotus sapidus 69, the slowly growing monokaryons converted (+)-valencene more efficiently to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone. The fast growing monokaryons and the slow×slow and the fast×fast dikaryotic crosses showed similar or inferior yields. Some slow×fast dikaryons, however, exceeded the biotransformation capability of the parental dikaryon significantly. The activity of the responsible enzyme, lipoxygenase, showed a weak correlation with the yields of (+)-nootkatone indicating that the determination of enzyme activity using the primary substrate linoleic acid may be misleading in predicting the biotransformation efficiency. This exploratory study indicated that a classical genetics approach resulted in altered and partly improved terpene transformation capability (plus 60%) and lipoxygenase activity of the strains. PMID:25189516

  4. Preliminary survey of a nemertean crab egg predator, Carcinonemertes, on its host crab, Callinectes arcuatus (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica (United States)

    Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.


    Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848

  5. Utilization of shells of the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 (Decapoda, Anomura in the São Vicente Estuary, São Paulo, Brazil Utilización de conchas de caracoles terrestres Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda por el cangrejo ermitaño Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 (Decapoda, Anomura en el estuario de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil

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    Bruno S. Sant'Anna


    Full Text Available Hermit crabs depend on mollusc shells for housing. In this study, an unusual resource is reported for a hermit crab that usually inhabits marine gastropod shells. During a field study conducted from May 2001 to April 2003 in an estuarine area in São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 21 individuals of Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 were found inhabiting the shells of the terrestrial gastropod Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica occurs in nearshore grass patches, where occasional contact with sea water kills them, and their shells then become available to the hermit crabsEl cangrejo ermitaño depende de conchas de moluscos para hacer de ella su casa. Este estudio ha descubierto una manera inusual de como vive este cangrejo, que generalmente habita la concha de gastrópodos marinos. El estudio fue realizado en la estación marítima de São Vicente, provincia de São Paulo, de mayo de 2001 hasta abril de 2003. Durante ese periodo, un total de 21 cangrejos Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802 fueron encontrados viviendo en las conchas del caracol terrestre Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica ocurre en áreas de césped cercanos a la costa, donde el contacto ocasional con el agua de mar provoca su muerte y sus conchas quedan disponibles para el cangrejo ermitaño

  6. Distribución de cangrejos ermitaños (Anomura: Paguroidea en el mar Caribe colombiano Hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

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    Bibian Martínez Campos


    Full Text Available Los cangrejos ermitaños son un grupo representativo de la fauna marina del Caribe colombiano, además, son importantes en el mantenimiento del equilibrio dinámico, en los ecosistemas por sus interacciones ecológicas y también por el impacto en la estabilidad de las redes tróficas. Sus patrones de distribución se identificaron mediante análisis multivariados de clasificación y ordenación espacial, se usaron registros históricos desde 1916 hasta el 2006. Los resultados indican diferencias por profundidad entre la fauna costera y la del talud continental y diferencias en la distribución latitudinal, en donde se encontraron tres grupos: Noreste, Centro y Suroeste, sustentados por diferencias en la composición faunística. Con base en los mapas de ecosistemas marinos de Colombia, se determinó que los principales factores que afectan su distribución son la influencia del talud Caribaná (profundidad, la temperatura de las masas de agua, las praderas de pastos marinos de la Guajira y las condiciones particulares de las ecorregiones Archipiélagos coralinos y Darién. Se identificó la distribución mundial de las especies colombianas y su afinidad geográfica, y se encontró mayor afinidad con el Atlántico norte y las Antillas que con el Atlántico sur y el Golfo de México, asimismo, las subprovincias geográficas que incluyen a Colombia son zonas de transición dentro de la subprovincias septentrionales y australes del Gran CaribeHermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Hermit crabs represent the marine life in the Colombian Caribbean, and are important for the dynamic equilibrium maintenance in ecosystems, the ecological interactions and their impact on food web stability. Generally, in order to come up with some conservation strategies, strong bio-geographical information is needed for policies definition. With this aim, this study analyzed the distribution patterns of hermit crabs in

  7. Reproductive aspects of the spider crab Libinia dubia under laboratory conditions Aspectos reproductivos del cangrejo araña Libinia dubia bajo condiciones de laboratorio

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    Claudia Carmona-Osalde


    Full Text Available The present study documents some aspects of the reproductive biology of the spider crab Libinia dubia (H. Milne Edwards, 1834 in conditions of captivity. Forty males and 43 ovigerous females were collected with traps and transported to the laboratory, where they were kept in seawater tanks. Average egg count per female was 20,637 (±SD 12,683.33, with an 81% (±SD 4.62 viability until hatching. Males were larger and heavier than females. On average, females measured 69 mm in length × 59 mm in width. The equation for the linear relationship between female weight (W and number of eggs produced per female was: Y = -10,290.03 + 242.89 X (r² = 0.866. Egg development at a temperature of 24 ± 1 °C occurred in five stages based on coloration: stage 1 (day 1-10, bright orange; stage 2 (day 11-24, orange; stage 3 (day 25-29, gray; stage 4 (day 30-34, light gray; and stage 5 (35-37, white, visible larvae. Females spawned at least twice and were receptive to males after each spawning event, although no spermatophore transfer was observed. The adaptive capacity of L. dubia to captivity makes its use feasible in breeding under controlled conditions, suggesting that it has potential for aquaculture.El presente estudio documenta algunos aspectos acerca de la biología reproductiva del cangrejo araña Libinia dubia (H. Milne Edwards, 1834 en condiciones de cautiverio. Cuarenta machos y 43 hembras ovígeras fueron recolectados con trampas y transportados al laboratorio, donde se les mantuvo en estanques de agua marina. El promedio de huevos por hembra fue de 20,637 (±SD 12,683.33, con un 81% (±SD 4.62% de viabilidad hasta el momento de la eclosión. Los machos fueron más grandes y pesados que las hembras. Estas registraron una talla promedio de 69 mm de longitud × 59 mm de ancho. La ecuación para la regresión linear entre el peso de las hembras y el número de huevos producido por hembra fue: Y = -10,290.03 + 242.89 X (r² = 0.866. El desarrollo de los

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediment and Tissues of the Crab Callinectes pallidus from the Azuabie Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta

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    Erema R. Daka


    Full Text Available The accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in sediment and the flesh/carapace of the edible swimming crab Callinectes pallidus from Azuabie creek in the upper Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta and Nigeria were studied. Sediment and crab samples were collected from three sampling stations along the Azuabie creek in July (rainy season and November (dry season 2007. These stations were selected to reflect point of abattoir waste input (which includes ash from tyre used for roasting meat into the creek as well as locations upstream and downstream of the point. Seasonal and spatial variations were observed in the concentrations of PAH. Significant differences in PAH (p<0.01 were observed between rainy season and dry season samples. The major classes of PAH found in sediment and Callinectes pallidus Callinectes pallidus C. pallidus Naphthalene, Benzo (a pyrene, Benzo (a anthracene and Phenanthrene which are known to be carcinogenic. The PAHs were higher during the rainy season probably due to run-off of tyre ash from the nearby abattoir. The observations made in this study suggest thatC. pallidus from the Azuabie creek might not be safe for human consumption because of the levels of PAHs found in the flesh of samples mostly in the rainy season. The abattoir appears to impact the creek because significantly higher levels of PAHs were recorded at the proximate sampling station.

  9. Accumulation of contaminants from urban rainfall runoff in blue crabs: A pilot study (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of using caged blue crabs Callinectes sapidus to monitor accumulation of contaminants in urban...

  10. Idade e crescimento de Callinectes danae e C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Age and growth of Callinectes danae and C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Karina A. Keunecke


    Full Text Available Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 e C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constituem uma parcela importante da produção pesqueira na Baía de Guanabara. Ambas espécies compõem uma fração significativa da fauna-acompanhante sendo exaustivamente descartadas pelas pescarias de arrasto de camarões na costa brasileira. As curvas de crescimento de C. danae e C. ornatus foram calculadas por meio da análise de progressão modal. Para estimar os parâmetros biológicos, foi aplicado o modelo de crescimento de Bertalanffy e para estimar a longevidade foi usada a sua fórmula inversa. As curvas de crescimento foram: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t , ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t e ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t , respectivamente para C. danae e C. ornatus. A longevidade alcançada para as duas espécies foi em torno de 2,5 anos, além de validar as curvas de crescimento. O estudo do crescimento em crustáceos é de extrema importância, pois além de fornecer a informação biológica básica para o grupo, os parâmetros estimados subsidiam o ordenamento e manejo pesqueiro das espécies exploradas.Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constitute an important portion from the fishing products at Guanabara Bay. Both species compose a significant by-catch fraction being a lot discarded during shrimp trawlings along Brazilian coast. Growth curves were estimated by modal progression analysis. For the biological parameters it was applied the Bertalanffy growth function and for the age it was used its inverse formula. Growth curves of C. danae and C. ornatus were respectively: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t, ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t and ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t. The age for both species reached around 2.5 years, besides to confirm growth curves. Growth study in crustaceans is very important, because besides supplying biological information it subsidizes fishery management for exploted species.

  11. Factibilidad técnica y financiera de explotación del cangrejo dorado de Juan Fernández (Chaceon chilensis Technical and financial feasibility of the commercial fishery of Juan Fernandez's golden crab (Chaceon chilensis

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    Guillermo Martínez González


    Full Text Available Se analizó la factibilidad técnica y financiera que tendría el montaje de una actividad productiva en el archipiélago de Juan Fernández, basada en la explotación del cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis. Para evaluar el proyecto flota-planta, se utilizó un enfoque de tipo sistémico, que permitió estudiar y estructurar esta situación problema. Se consideró factible una producción de 14,4 ton de cangrejo trozado (pinzas y patas, cocido y congelado sin caparazón, en porciones de 1/2 y 3/4 libras; y 33,6 ton de carne de cangrejo, cocida y congelada en bloques de 1 y 2 libras. Para esta producción, la materia prima se obtendría de la actividad extractiva de 10 embarcaciones artesanales, las cuales operarían en forma complementaria o alternativa a la pesca de langosta. El proyecto es altamente sensible a los precios tanto de mercado de los productos como de playa de la materia prima. La gran proporción de la inversión se debe al capital de trabajo destinado a la compra de materia prima, en valores que permiten al sector artesanal absorber la inversión en innovaciones tecnológicas requeridas para implementar su flota. Los resultados de la evaluación financiera indican 73% de probabilidad de éxito en la inversión, Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR del 49%, Retorno sobre la Inversión (RSI de 1,73 y Valor Actual Neto (VAN de 17.538,6 UF, equivalentes a $238.963.970The technical and financial feasibility of the golden crab fishery (Chaceon chilensis in Juan Fernandez's archipelago was analyzed. To evaluate the investment project, a systemic approach was used to analyze and to structure this situation problem. It was considered feasible an annual production of 14,4 ton of pieces of crab (pincers and legs, cooked and frozen without shell, in portions of 1/2 and 3/4 pounds; and 33,6 ton of crab meat, cooked and frozen in blocks of 1 and 2 pounds. For this production, the raw material would be supply by the extractive activity of 10 artisanal

  12. Cangrejos estuariales del Atlántico sudoccidental (25º-41ºS (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura Crabs of coastal lagoons in the southwestern Atlantic (25º-41ºS (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura

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    Eduardo D. Spivak


    Full Text Available Se compara la fauna de decápodos y las características ambientales de varios estuarios y lagunas costeras del Atlántico sudoccidental, ubicados entre los 25 y los 41°S: Baia de Paranaguá, Manguezal de Itacorubí, Lagoa dos Patos (Brasil, Laguna Castillos (Uruguay, Río de la Plata (Uruguay-Argentina, Laguna Mar Chiquita y Bahía Blanca (Argentina. Se revisa la información sobre historia natural de las especies de cangrejos (Crustacea: Brachyura que los habitan. El número de especies de cangrejos desciende bruscamente entre Itacorubí y Lagoa dos Patos, junto a la disminución de la temperatura mínima del agua. Las bajas temperaturas invernales tienen un efecto directo sobre la fisiología de muchas especies, pero también están relacionadas con la desaparición de los manglares y la variedad de microhabitat que éstos generan. Sin embargo, el efecto de la temperatura no es suficiente para explicar algunos aspectos relacionados con la distribución de las especies y sus historias de vidaEnvironmental aspects and the decapod fauna of several estuaries and coastal lagoons in the southwestern Atlantic, between 25 and 41°S, are compared: Baia de Paranaguá, Manguezal de Itacorubí, Lagoa dos Patos (Brasil, Laguna Castillos (Uruguay, Río de la Plata (Uruguay-Argentina, Laguna Mar Chiquita and Bahía Blanca (Argentina. The information about natural history of crab species (Crustacea: Brachyura from these estuarine systems is reviewed. The number of crab species falls dramatically between Itacorubí and Lagoa dos Patos, together with a fall in minimum water temperature. Low winter temperatures may affect physiological processes of many species and are related to the disappearance of mangroves, and the variety of microhabitat generated by them. However, temperature alone cannot explain several features of species distribution and life history

  13. A dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus transforms (+)-valencene regio-specifically to (+)-nootkatone via a stereo-specific allylic hydroperoxidation. (United States)

    Krügener, Sven; Krings, Ulrich; Zorn, Holger; Berger, Ralf G


    A selective and highly efficient allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone was achieved with lyophilisate of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sapidus. The catalytic reaction sequence was elucidated through the identification of intermediate, (+)-valencene derived hydroperoxides. A specific staining of hydroperoxides allowed the semi-preparative isolation of two secondary (+)-valencene hydroperoxides, 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-4(S)-yl-hydroperoxide and 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-2(R)-yl-hydroperoxide. Chemical reduction of the biotransformation products yielded a tertiary alcohol identified as 2(R)-Isopropenyl-8(R),8a(S)-dimethyl-1,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-4a(R)-ol. This suggested a lipoxygenase-type oxidation of (+)-valencene via secondary and tertiary hydroperoxides and confirmed homology data of the key enzyme obtained previously from amino acid sequencing. PMID:19765983

  14. Efecto de borde sobre la población del cangrejo azul Cardisoma guanhumi (Decapoda: Gecarcinidae) en el manglar de la bahía El Uno, golfo de Urabá (Colombia): una aproximación a su captura artesanal


    Andrea Arroyave-Rincón; Viviana Amortegui-Torres; Juan F Blanco-Libreros; Alexander Marín


    Los impactos que tiene la eliminación de los manglares sobre las comunidades de macroinvertebrados bénticos son inciertos y poco estudiados en Colombia, particularmente en la región Caribe. Este trabajo estudió el efecto de la conversión del manglar a potrero sobre la población del cangrejo azul Cardisoma guanhumi (Decapoda: Gecarcinidae) en el manglar de la bahía El Uno, golfo de Urabá (Colombia). De marzo a abril de 2012, se llevó a cabo un muestreo diario de especímenes en tres coberturas ...

  15. Relación biogeográfica entre cangrejos dulceacuícolas y acociles a lo largo de la zona mexicana de transición: revaluación de la hipótesis de Rodríguez (1986) Biogeographic relationship of freshwater crabs and crayfish along the Mexican transition zone: reevaluating Rodríguez (1986) hypothesis


    Fernando Álvarez; José Luis Villalobos; Gema Armendáriz; Carmen Hernández


    A partir de la hipótesis planteada por Rodríguez (1986) sobre una posible exclusión biogeográfica entre acociles de la familia Cambaridae y cangrejos de agua dulce de la familia Pseudothelphusidae a lo largo del centro y sur de México, se han hecho varios estudios que toman en cuenta este patrón. Sin embargo, no se han examinado los patrones de distribución de estos grupos ni cuáles son las zonas ni a qué grado se da el traslape o contacto de las 2 distribuciones. Se construyeron 2 bases de d...

  16. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

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    Timoteo T. Watanabe


    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  17. Reproductive timing and larval dispersal of intertidal crabs: the predator avoidance hypothesis Sincronía reproductiva y de dispersión larval en cangrejos intermareales: la hipótesis anti-depredador

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    of this for adults and larvae have yet to be exploredMuchos cangrejos intermareales y de aguas poco profundas tienen ciclos reproductivos marcados y larva migratoria. Las hembras liberan sus larvas durante las mareas nocturnas más altas, cuyas amplitudes coinciden con ciclos lunares o semilunares. Las larvas recién eclosionadas se mueven rápidamente mar adentro durante la noche donde, semanas después, alcanzan el estado de megalopa. En este estado, las larvas utilizan las mareas nocturnas para acercarse a la costa y al interior de los estuarios para establecer su hábitat en estado adulto. Inicialmente se pensó que estos crustáceos liberan sus larvas en forma simultánea de modo que al momento de alcanzar el estado de megalopa serían capaces de utilizar las mayores amplitudes de marea para movilizarse a su hábitat en estado adulto. Esta idea ha sido refutada por la observación de que especies de zonas costeras abiertas presentan patrones reproductivos similares a aquellas de estuarios. Como hipótesis alternativa, se planteó que las larvas abandonan rápidamente los estuarios durante la noche para escapar de depredadores visuales como peces planctívoros, abundantes en aguas poco profundas. La hipótesis anti-depredador ha recibido apoyo considerable: especies con larvas visualmente crípticas, con espinas y mejor protegidas de los depredadores carecen de ciclos reproductivos marcados y migración larval. Los mecanismos que causan esta sincronía reproductiva han sido poco estudiados. Documento evidencia en cuanto a que las hembras del cangrejo violinista ajustarían el momento de la fertilización de sus huevos para evitar variaciones en la temperatura de incubación que producirían errores de sincronía. Sin embargo, cangrejos de costas frías como en Chile aparentemente no muestran ciclos bi-semanales o mensuales de liberación de sus larvas. Las consecuencias de ello para las larvas y los adultos requiere ser examinado

  18. Distribution of red king crabs and Tanner crabs in the summer by habitat and depth in an Alaskan fjord Distribución de la centolla y del cangrejo Tanner en verano, de acuerdo al hábitat y a la profundidad, en un fiordo de Alaska

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    Shijie Zhou


    Full Text Available A manned submersible was used in a fjord in southeastern Alaska to study the distributional patterns of the red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus and the Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi in summer. The cove was divided into three zones: inner, middle, and outer. Six types of habitats, including sand-mud, rock, shell, debris, rock wall, and algae, were identified from video tapes. A relatively flat sand-mud habitat located at the center of the cove occupied 60% of the sea bottom. This large habitat was bordered by steep rocky walls on both sides in most parts of the fjord except in the inner zone. The density of red king crab decreased from the inner zone to the outer zone, while the density of the Tanner crab was more uniform throughout the cove. Highest crab density was found in the sand-mud habitat with an overall density of 51 crabs ha-1 for the red king crab and 41 crabs ha-1 for the Tanner crab. No crabs were found in rock wall and algae habitats. Both crab species displayed a dome-shaped distribution with depth with maximum density at intermediate depths. Red king crabs had a maximum density (86 crabs ha-1 at 70-80 m while the maximum density of Tanner crabs (105 crabs ha-1 was at 140-150 m of depth. Dense aggregations of juvenile red king crabs were observed in the inner cover, but no aggregations of mature red king and Tanner crabs were observedSe utiliza un sumergible tripulado para estudiar los patrones de distribución de la centolla (Paralithodes camtschaticus y del cangrejo Tanner (Chionoecetes bairdi, en un fiordo del sureste de Alaska durante el período de verano. El área de estudio fue dividida en tres zonas: interior, media, y exterior. Seis tipos de habitat, incluyendo fango-arena, roca, conchas, cascajo, pared rocosa y algas, fueron identificadas a través de grabaciones realizadas en cintas de video. Un habitat fango-arenoso relativamente plano, ubicado en el centro de la ensenada, ocupa el 60% del fondo del mar. Este

  19. Some aspects of the biology of the female blue crab Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Akpan Michael Mfon; Udoh Ifiok Solomon


    Objective: To investigate some important aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola (C. amnicola) such as fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred and twenty ovigerous females of C. amnicola, freshly caught with basket traps, lift net trap, and gill net were collected from the catches of the artisanal fisheries in the study area between June 2012 and May 2013. Fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution were determined and analyzed following standard methods. Results: Fecundity (F) ranged between 73090 eggs for crab of carapace length 8.1 cm and total weight 34 g and 809450 eggs for crab of carapace length 16.1 cm and total weight 395 g with a mean of 311808.93±17693.94 eggs. There was a positive significant relationship between fecundity and carapace length, total weight and condition factor as follows: F=6839.7CL1.4403 (r2=0.2145, P<0.05), F=15302TW0.5798 (r2=0.4079, P<0.05), F=147255K0.2788 (r=0.2717, r2=0.0738, P<0.05). A significant linear relationship between carapace length and weight of C. amnicola is given by the equation: Log W=2.0447LogL – 0.1389 (r2=0.3357, P<0.05). The crab exhibited a negative allometric growth pattern (b=2.0447). Condition factor ranged between 21.48 to 104.95 with a mean value of 47.21±2.17. The carapace length frequency distribution showed a unimodal class size distribution. Conclusions: Findings of this study is crucial in assessing the population dynamics and development of management strategies of the the Blue crab, C. amnicola from the estuary such as mesh size regulation, fishing season and fishing ground regulation in the Cross River estuary. Also, findings of this study will be useful in evaluation of the aquaculture potential of the Blue crab C. amnicola, which is a valuable shell fish for the inhabitants estuary.

  20. Comparative study of shell choice by the southern endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from Brazil and Argentina Estudio comparativo sobre elección de conchas en el cangrejo ermitaño endémico del Atlántico sudoccidental Loxopagurus loxochelis de Brasil y Argentina

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    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the shell choice pattern of the southern Atlantic endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from two different biogeographic provinces in Brazil and Argentina. Size and shell species preferences were determined for the two most occupied shell types (i.e., Olivancillaria urceus and Buccinanops gradatum in Caraguatatuba region (Brazil and in Mar del Plata (Argentina. Shell occupation was analyzed considering the biometric characteristics of shells, the occurrence of shell types, and the preference of the hermit crabs for the most frequently occupied shell species. Samples were taken using otter trawl in the infralittoral area of both regions and the animals captured were measured and weighed. Shells were identified, weighed, measured and their internal volume calculated. Experiments were accomplished in aquaria where the hermit crabs were allocated together with a sufficient number of adequate sized shells. In laboratory, L. loxochelis from Argentina presented no preference for any of the two offered shell species, while the specimens from Brazil significantly preferred B. gradatum shells. It was observed that the relation between shell dimensions and shell weight were the variables that best explained the association between hermit crabs and shells. Considering that Argentinean specimens are larger than the Brazilian ones we may infer that body size is a relevant factor to explain the observed differences found in relation to shell type preferenceEste estudio tuvo por objetivo determinar la forma de elección de conchas de caracoles por el cangrejo ermitaño endémico del Atlántico sudoccidental Loxopagurus loxochelis proveniente de dos provincias biogeográficas de Brasil y Argentina. Se determinaron las tallas y las preferencias de conchas entre los dos tipos de caracoles más ocupados (Olivancillaria urceus y Buccinanops gradatum en la región de Caraguatatuba (Brazil y en Mar del Plata (Argentina. La composici

  1. Composición y vida útil de carne cocida de cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis proveniente del archipiélago de Juan Fernández, Chile Composition and shelf life of golden crab (Chaceon chilensis cooked meat from Juan Fernandez archipelago, Chile

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    Antonio Cifuentes de la T.


    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición química, rendimiento de carne, las características sensoriales y la perecibilidad del crustáceo no explotado cangrejo dorado (Chaceon chilensis, del archipiélago de Juan Fernández. Se determinó el contenido proteico, lípidos, cenizas, humedad, bases volátiles totales (BVT, amoníaco e indol. Cangrejos dorados se sometieron a cocción en agua potable hirviendo y posteriormente se dividieron en 2 grupos: a carne separada en forma manual y almacenada a temperatura entre 4 a 6ºC, y b cangrejos enteros almacenados a la misma temperatura de 4 a 6ºC. La evaluación sensorial se realizó a través de un grupo de panelistas semi-entrenados los cuales evaluaron las características organolépticas: olor, textura, sabor y color. De acuerdo a los resultados, la especie posee una composición proximal similar a la de jaiba común (Homalaspis plana; su rendimiento en carne total alcanza al 25,1%, correspondiendo a las pinzas, en proporción, el mayor porcentaje. La vida útil de la carne cocida y almacenada a temperatura de refrigeración fue de 3-4 días. La carne extraída desde cangrejos enteros almacenados en las mismas condiciones de temperatura tuvo una duración de 5-6 días. En ambos casos, las BVT fueron el índice químico más representativo de la variación de calidad. En conformidad a la aceptabilidad sensorial, rendimientos y perecibilidad, la especie presenta perspectivas comerciales similares a las de la especie jaiba comúnChemical composition, meat yield, and shelf-life of under utilized crustacean "golden crab" (Chaceon chilensis from Juan Fernandez archipelago were determined. Proteins, lipids, ash, moisture content, total volatile bases (TVBN, ammonia and indol were determined. Golden crab was cooked in boiling water and then divided in two groups: a In sample 1, meat was removed by hand after boiling and then stored at 4-6ºC; b In sample 2 whole cooked crab was stored at the same temperature

  2. Abundance and behavior of the sally lightfoot crab (Grapsus grapsus in the colony of the brown booby (Sula leucogaster in the Sao Pedro and Sao Paulo Archipelago Abundancia y comportamiento del cangrejo costero (Grapsus grapsus en la colonia de piquero café (Sula leucogaster en el archipiélago de Sao Pedro y Sao Paulo

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    Dimas Gianuca


    Full Text Available For nine days, the number of sally lightfoot crabs (Grapsus grapsus in a 300 m² area within the brown booby (Sula leucogaster colony and the activity of each crab were recorded in the morning (5:30-7:30 h, at midday (11:30-13:30 h, and in the afternoon (15:30-17:30 h. The average number of individuals was 80.2 ±15.5 (59-111 in the morning, 3.1 ± 2.3 (0-7 at midday, and 65.3 ± 15 (49-92 in the afternoon. A total of 1338 activity records were made, with the crabs standing still or walking in 844 records and handling material or feeding in 494 records. In the latter records, 53% of the crabs were handling detritus (pieces of dry bird excrement and sediment, 12.2% were handling feathers, 12.8% were feeding on regurgitated fish, 8.9% were feeding on dead Sula leucogaster, 8.1% were feeding on crab, 4.7% were feeding on material adhered to egg shells, and 0.6% were feeding on live nestlings of S. leucogaster. The low frequency of crabs in the colony around noon shows that the crabs avoid insolation, hiding in shady places and tidal pools. In the Sao Pedro and Sao Paulo Archipelago, the presence of S. leucogaster represents an important food source for G. grapsus. This crab plays the role of a cleaner in the S. leucogaster colony, consuming food remains, broken eggs, and dead birdsDurante nueve días se registró el número de cangrejos costeros (Grapsus grapsus en una área de 300 m²dentro de la colonia de piquero café (Sula leucogaster y la actividad de cada uno de los individuos durante la mañana (5:30-7:30 h, mediodía (11:30-13:30 h y tarde (15:30-17:30 h. La media de individuos en la mañana fue 80,2 ± 15,5 (59-111, en el mediodía 3,1 ± 2,3 (0-7 y en la tarde 65,3 ± 15 (49-92. Del total de 1.338 registros de comportamiento, 844 fueron de cangrejos detenidos o caminando y 494 manipulando algún material o alimento. De éstos, 53% fueron de manipulación de detrito (excremento seco de ave y sedimento; 12,2% de manipulación de plumas; 12

  3. Relación biogeográfica entre cangrejos dulceacuícolas y acociles a lo largo de la zona mexicana de transición: revaluación de la hipótesis de Rodríguez (1986 Biogeographic relationship of freshwater crabs and crayfish along the Mexican transition zone: reevaluating Rodríguez (1986 hypothesis

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    Fernando Álvarez


    Full Text Available A partir de la hipótesis planteada por Rodríguez (1986 sobre una posible exclusión biogeográfica entre acociles de la familia Cambaridae y cangrejos de agua dulce de la familia Pseudothelphusidae a lo largo del centro y sur de México, se han hecho varios estudios que toman en cuenta este patrón. Sin embargo, no se han examinado los patrones de distribución de estos grupos ni cuáles son las zonas ni a qué grado se da el traslape o contacto de las 2 distribuciones. Se construyeron 2 bases de datos, una con más de 1 400 registros de las especies de la familia Cambaridae y otra con más de 400 registros de cangrejos de la familia Pseudothelphusidae. Se construyeron mapas de distribución y se identificaron 3 regiones donde el contacto es evidente: el eje neovolcánico, la región de Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz y el estado de Chiapas. Los resultados muestran grandes zonas de contacto en las cuales tanto acociles como cangrejos pueden estar en la misma localidad y en el mismo cuerpo de agua o pueden estar en 2 localidades muy cercanas pero con una diferencia altitudinal. En general, los acociles tienden a distribuirse a mayores altitudes que los cangrejos. Aunado a los patrones de distribución, se discute que aunque los 2 grupos estén presentes en la misma localidad y en el mismo cuerpo de agua, el microhábitat que ocupa cada uno es distinto, por lo que se sugiere que la interferencia entre ellos será poca o nula.After Rodríguez (1986 hypothesis on the possible biogeographic exclusion between crayfish of the family Cambaridae and freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae throughout central and southern Mexico, several studies have considered it as a real pattern. However, the distribution patterns of both groups have not been examined, nor in what areas and to what extent the overlap of the 2 distributions occurs. Two data bases were compiled, one with more than 1 400 records of the species of the family Cambaridae and a second one

  4. Thermal biology of prey (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya from the Yucatan Peninsula. (United States)

    Noyola Regil, Javier; Mascaro, Maite; Díaz, Fernando; Denisse Re, Ana; Sánchez-Zamora, Adolfo; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Rosas, Carlos


    On the Yucatan Peninsula there is an upwelling which allows access to a body of cold water that controls temperature in this area. This modulates the ecology and distribution of organisms that inhabit the continental shelf. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different acclimation temperatures on the thermal biology of prey as mollusc, crustacean (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators as fish (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya. Octopus prey preferred temperatures between 23.5°C and 26.0°C, while predators preferred temperatures 26.4-28.5°C. The species with largest thermal windows were M. corona bispinosa (328.8°C(2)), C. similis (322.8°C(2)), L. dubia (319.2°C(2)), C. undecimalis (288.6°C(2)), O. chrysurus (237.5°C(2)), while the smallest thermal window was for S. pugilis (202.0°C(2)). The acclimation response ratios (ARR) estimated for prey ranged from 0.24-0.55 in animals exposed to CTMax and 0.21-0.65 in those exposed to CTMin. Amongst predators, ARR ranged from 0.30 to 0.60 and 0.41 to 0.53 for animals exposed to CTMax and CTMin, respectively. Correlating the optimal temperature limits of prey and predators with surface temperatures on the continental shelf and those 4m deep showed that the main prey, Callinectes similis and L. dubia, shared a thermal niche and that an increase in temperature could force these species to migrate to other sites to find optimal temperatures for their physiological functions. As a consequence the continental shelf community would undergo a structural change. Predators were found to be near their optimal temperatures in surface temperatures on the continental shelf. We conclude that they would remain in the area in a warming scenario. The size of the thermal window was related to the type of ecosystem inhabited by these species. These ARR intervals allowed us to categorize the species as temperate or tropical

  5. Seasonal Variation of Heavy Metals in Muscles of the Crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 from a Tropical Coastal Lagoon, Brazil [Variação Sazonal de Metais Pesados em Siris Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 da Lagoa de Iquiparí, Brasil

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    Taísa B. Matos


    Full Text Available In the present study heavy metal (Al, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn content in crabs Callinectes ornatus species were analyzed between July 2008 and April 2009, from Iquipari coastal lagoon, SE, Brazil, in order to use this species as a biomonitor. Metal determination was performed by an ICP/AES after strong acid mixture digestion of the soft parts of the organisms. Among all studied metals Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and V presented concentrations below the detection limit of the used method. The highest metal concentrations were always observed in the dry period when compared with the rainy period, evidencing seasonality in the distribution of these elements. Copper assimilation by females in the rainy season was higher than for males. Most of the studied elements presented a negative correlation with the body size, with higher concentrations in smaller organisms. As a general trend it was possible to observe that for all the studied trace elements the concentrations in the muscles of Callinecctes ornatus from Iquipari coastal lagoon were low when compared to others studies, therefore it is possible to consider the area as free of metal contamination and the results can also be used as background levels for these region.

  6. Population structure and sexual maturity of the calico box crab Hepatus epheliticus Linnaeus (Brachyura, Hepatidae from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico Estructura poblacional y madurez sexual en el cangrejo caja moteado Hepatus epheliticus Linnaeus (Brachyura, Hepatidae procedente de la Península del Yucatán, México

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    Patricio Hernáez


    Full Text Available The calico box crab Hepatus epheliticus is an abundant species from shallow and continental shelf waters of the Atlantic coast of USA and Mexico. Information about population structure and sexual maturity is absent, even though this crab is caught to be used as bait for the octopus fishery in the Campeche Bank, Mexico. In order to achieve such information, a total of 768 individuals were collected from January to March 2010 through baited traps installed in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Our results showed that sex ratio is biased towards more males than females (1:0.55, contradicting to that reported in other brachyuran crabs. The absence of ovigerous females suggests that they did not enter into the traps during embryogenesis. Males reached a larger maximum size than females (64.0 ± 6.15 and 58.4 ± 5.60 mm carapace width, respectively. The general scheme of growth being positive allometric throughout ontogeny of both sexes. Males presented a transition phase from juveniles to adult corresponding to the puberty moult. The estimation of the onset of functional sexual maturity revealed a steady situation for the population, with 21.5 and 13.8% of males and females, respectively, morphologically immature at the time of catch. This study constitutes the first report on population structure and sexual maturity in a population of the calico box crab H. epheliticus.El cangrejo caja moteado Hepatus epheliticus es un abundante braquiuro perteneciente a la familia Hepatidae, distribuido desde aguas someras hasta la plataforma continental en la costa atlántica de Estados Unidos y México. La información sobre su demografía poblacional y madurez sexual es actualmente inexistente, aun cuando esta especie es intensamente capturada como carnada en la pesquería del pulpo del estado de Campeche, México. Entre enero y marzo de 2010, se colectaron 768 especímenes usando trampas instaladas en la Península de Yucatán, México. Los resultados mostraron una

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHO796 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHO796 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15285-1 - (Link to Original site) ... CV462822 |CV462822.1 CS_hyp_49g10_M13Reverse Blue crab ... hypodermis, normalized Callinectes sapidus cDNA cl ...

  8. Comparação do peso dos quelípodos e crescimento em duas espécies de "sirís" do gênero Callinectes (Brachyura, Portunidae

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    Cecilia Margarita Guerrero-Ocampo


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, as espécies C. danae e C. ornatus foram comparadas quanto ao peso dos quelípodos. Os siris foram coletados com 2 redes de arrasto do tipo "otter trawl" na Enseada de Ubatuba (23° 26' S e 45° 02' W. As constantes alométricas obtidas foram analisadas por meio da função potência (Y = aXb . As espécies apresentaram diferentes graus alométricos para cada sexo. A relação PQ X PC apresentou alometria positiva em ambas espécies, porém os machos apresentam maior alometria positiva do que as fêmeas. C. danae apresenta maior alometria positiva para os quelípodos do que C. ornatus. O fato de C. danae atingir maior porte e possuir quelípodos maiores indica que esta espécie tem potencial para o cultivo.A comparison of the cheliped's weight in two species of the genus Callinectes was accomplished. The species C. danae e C. ornatus were collected by two otter trawl in Ubatuba bay (23º 26' S and 45º 02' W. The allometric constants obtained from the regression adjusted to a power function (Y = aXb were analyzed. These species presented different allometry degrees for each sex considered. The relation PQ x PC presented positive allometry for sex of both species, but male presented higher positive allometry than female. C. danae presented higher positive allometry for chelipeds than C. ornatus. We suggest here that C. danae could be indicated to be submitted to grow out in ponds since it reaches higher size and bigger chelipeds.

  9. Dinámica temporal en la relación entre el isópodo parásito Aporobopyrus curtatus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae y el cangrejo anomuro Petrolisthes armatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae en el sur de Brasil Temporal dynamic of the relationship between the parasitic isopod Aporobopyrus curtatus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae and the anomuran crab Petrolisthes armatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae in southern Brazil

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    Ivana Miranda


    Full Text Available The prevalence of the parasite Aporobopyrus curtatus in Petrolisthes armatus from southern Brazil was determined, and the effect the parasite had on host reproduction was evaluated. Of all 775 crabs sampled in Araçá region from March 2005 to July 2006, 3.2% presented bopyrid parasites. All the parasitized individuals had one branchial chamber occupied by two mature parasites, with no preference for the right or left chamber. Male and female hosts were infested in equal proportions. Parasitized juveniles, large individuals and ovigerous females were not found in our study. The absence of parasitized ovigerous females seems to be insufficient evidence to support the hypothesis of parasitic castration and would require a histological study to confirm their reproductive death. The percentage of infestation observed in our study (3.1% is lower than the one found in other studies and it could indicate the existence of factor(s regulating the density of A. curtatus in the Araçá region. At least in this population, the low but constant presence of the bopyrid A. curtatus population did not appear to have a negative effect on the porcellanid population, and parasitized individuals did not play a significant role in the natural history of P. armatus.Se determinó la prevalencia del parásito Aporobopyrus curtatus en Petrolisthes armatus en el sur de Brasil y se evaluó el efecto de su presencia en la reproducción de su huésped. De marzo de 2005 a julio de 2007 se muestreó en la Región de Araçá un total de 775 cangrejos, de los cuales el 3,2% presentó bopíridos parásitos. Todos los individuos parasitados presentaron una cámara branquial ocupada por dos parásitos maduros, sin preferencia por la cámara derecha o izquierda. Machos y hembras hospedadores fueron infectados en la misma proporción. La ausencia de parásitos en hembras ovígeras no es evidencia suficiente para apoyar la hipótesis de castración parasítica, y se necesita un

  10. Influence of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in water and sediments on edible seafoods within Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. (United States)

    Ololade, Isaac A; Lajide, Labunmi; Olumekun, Victor O; Ololade, Olusola O; Ejelonu, Benjamin C


    The bioconcentration levels of 3 non-essential elements (Pb, Cd and Ni) have been investigated in three different seafoods; Fish (Tilapia zilli), Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea), to investigate the ecosystem health status in Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of metals based on past research results. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences with C. sapidus recording the highest concentrations of all the metals. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that C. sapidus and T. zilli have the greatest potential to concentrate Cd (BCF = 3-10) and Pb (BCF = 11-84) respectively. Lead uptake from both water and sediment (BCF ≈ BSAF: 0.003-0.018) were abysmally low in L. littorea as compared with other organisms. The high concentrations of Pb in fish species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd in species of crab and periwinkles, as well as very high BSAF of Ni found in species of crab indicated a strong influence from anthropogenic pollutant source on the biotic community. Oil pollution appears to be a major source of bioavailable metal contaminants for the selected biota. The study shows that C. sapidus and L. littorea can effectively compartmentalize potentially toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni within their tissues. In terms of toxicity, C. sapidus had Cd concentrations greater than the 3,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities while Pb concentration exceeded their limits in both C. sapidus and T. zilli. All levels of Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in fish, crustaceans and shellfish. The study revealed anthropogenic enrichment of the metals studied which can possibly pose potential threats to the ecology of the area. PMID:21714630

  11. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D3. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D4 through postmolt stage A2, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low

  12. The Molting Biomarker Metabolite N-acetylglucosamino-1,5-lactone in Female Urine of the Helmet Crab Telmessus cheiragonus. (United States)

    Yano, Hirona; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi


    N-acetylglucosamino-1,5-lactone (NAGL) is a molting biomarker in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus The concentration of this compound in urine is highest at the premolt stage. Since sexually mature premolt females release sex pheromone in their urine, NAGL is a candidate sex pheromone molecule in C. sapidus This compound has not been reported in other species. In the present study, we quantified the concentration of NAGL in the urine of the helmet crab Telmessus cheiragonus, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and found that the concentration increases toward the day of molting and decreases after molting. However, the total amount of NAGL collected from individual animals was greatest two to five days after molting, because the amount of urine collected was the lowest at the premolt stage, and it increased after molting. The highest median concentration of NAGL in T. cheiragonas was 29 μmol l(-1), which is 75% of the highest concentration reported in C. sapidus This is the first report of NAGL as a molting biomarker in a species other than C. sapidus We assume that NAGL is part of a pheromone bouquet in these two species. PMID:27132136

  13. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics


    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio


    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was inject...

  14. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.


    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  15. Total mercury and its distribution in blue crab and deep water pink shrimp from Alexandria coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, E.K.; Moharram, Y.G.; El-Sokkary, I.; Telb, A.I.


    Total mercury content and its distribution in muscles and viscera of male and female blue grab (Callinectes sapidus Rothbum) and deep water pink shrimp (Parapenacus longirostris) collected from the 3 main fishing grounds near the Alexandria coast in the Mediterranean sea was estimated. The results indicate that the mercury content in the muscles of both species differ according to fishing areas, size, sex, and species. More than 75% of total mercury were accumulated in the viscera of both species which indicates that the mercury entered in these organisms via the feed chain.

  16. Comportamiento reproductivo y mutilaciones en el cangrejo de las rocas Grapsus grapsus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea, Decapoda

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    Leonardo Romero


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza información de las mudas y observaciones del comportamiento reproductivo de G. grapsus, relacionando las frecuencias de mutilaciones y el comportamiento caní- bal observado en las cópulas. Las colectas de mudas y observaciones sobre las cópulas se llevaron a cabo entre diciembre de 1990 y diciembre de 2001, en 200 m de una orilla rocosa al sur de la Bahía de Ancón, Lima, Perú. G. grapsus vive en grupos de número variable y asociados a grietas donde los individuos buscan refugio. El comportamiento de cortejo observado fue el de "búsqueda-intercepción" he incluyó diferencias como la defensa de territorios no temporales, largas persecusiones e intercepción por varios machos. Un total de 312 cópulas fueron observadas siendo más frecuentes durante el verano. Un total de once intentos de cópula produjeron la muerte de los individuos, siete fueron machos. En todo el periodo de estudio se colectaron un total de 8421 mudas de las cuales 418 presentaban mutilaciones o heridas en el cefalotórax o abdomen. No se observan diferencias significativas entre las tallas de mutilados de ambos sexos. El 73% de las mudas mutiladas presentan una sola mutilación, el 20% presentan dos mutilaciones y el 6% tres; se encontraron mudas hasta con siete apéndices mutilados. Las frecuencias de mutilaciones son significativamente mayores en machos. Las mutilaciones de las quelas y la segunda pata caminadora son más frecuentes en machos, mientras que en las hembras las mutilaciones de la cuarta y tercera pata caminadora son más frecuentes. Se propone que las mutilaciones se producen durante los intentos de cópula, principalmente por diferencias entre el tamaño de los individuos.

  17. Élaboration d’un cadre de référence pour l’étude des stratégies : analyse de l’activité et étude de cas multiples dans deux usines de crabe Development of a frame of reference for studying strategies: Activity analysis and the study of multiple cases in two crab plants Elaboración de un marco de referencia para el estudio de las estrategias : Análisis de la actividad y estudio de casos múltiples en dos plantas de tratamiento del cangrejo

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    Nicole Vézina


    showing a wide range of strategies developed by workers to manage pain (19 categories of strategies obtained, the results also showed the advantages of some strategies and the costly health compromises of other strategies. The inductively developed framework, based empirically on field data, is a tool that can be used by researchers and ergonomists to identify and classify strategies.El estudio de las estrategias aplicadas por los trabajadores-as es parte integrante del análisis de la actividad de trabajo en ergonomía. Este estudio propone un marco de referencia para la colecta y el análisis de las estrategias y describe su naturaleza y lo que esta en juego en las estrategias desarrolladas por las trabajadoras temporarias de la industria de tratamiento del cangrejo que sufren problemas musculo-esqueléticos. Se realizaron diversas entrevistas y observaciones de la actividad de trabajo y de la organización de trabajo, apoyadas en una aproximación metodológica que combina un enfoque centrado en el análisis de la actividad de trabajo y un estudio de casos múltiples de 16 trabajadoras (8 en Terra-Nova ; 8 en Québec, seguidas durante dos años consecutivos. Los resultados permiten constatar que las trabajadoras elaboran una gran variedad de tipos de estrategias para manejar su dolor (19 categorías de estrategias. Constatamos tanto los beneficios asociados a ciertas estrategias como los compromisos costosos para la salud que representan otras estrategias. El marco de referencia elaborado de manera inductiva y anclado empíricamente en los datos colectados en el terreno, constituye una herramienta que podrá ser utilizada por los investigadores y los ergónomos para la identificación y la clasificación de las estrategias.

  18. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis (United States)

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.


    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  19. Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs and ribbed mussels living in clumps (United States)

    Lin, Junda


    Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus) and ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa) were studied by manipulating different components of mussel clump structure in the laboratory to test their effects on the mussels' susceptibility to crab predation. Mussels with stronger attachment strength or those buried deeper in the sediment suffered lower mortality. Blue crabs showed no significant size selectivity when two size classes of mussles (30-40 and 50-60 mm in shell heights) were offered. When juvenile mussels were attached to adult conspecifics and completely buried in the centres of clumps as in the field, blue crabs did not actively search for them. The crabs, however, did consume juveniles as by-products when they preyed upon the adult mussels to which the juveniles were attached.

  20. Degradation and mineralization of chitin in an estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring microbial degradation and mineralization of radiolabeled native chitin is described. 14C-labeled chitin was synthesized in vivo by injecting shed blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) with N-acetyl-D-[14C]-glucosamine, allowing for its incorporation into the exoskeleton. Rates of chitin degradation and mineralization in estuarine water and sediments were determined as functions of temperature, inoculum source, and oxygen condition. Significant differences in rates between temperature treatments were evident. Q10 values ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 for water and sediment, respectively. Increased incubation temperature also resulted in decreased lag times before onset of chitinoclastic bacterial growth and chitin degradation. The anaerobic pathway of chitin decomposition by chitinoclastic bacteria was examined with an emphasis on end product coupling to other bacterial types. Actively growing chitinoclastic bacterial isolates produced primarily acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide in broth culture

  1. The crab Neohelice (= Chasmagnathus) granulata: an emergent animal model from emergent countries (United States)

    Spivak, Eduardo D.


    Neohelice granulata (previously known as Chasmagnathus granulata and C. granulatus) is a burrowing semiterrestrial crab found in the intertidal zone of estuaries, salt marshes and mangroves of the South-western Atlantic Ocean. Beginning in the late 1989s, an explosion of publications appeared in international journals dealing with its ecology, physiology, toxicology and behavior. A bibliometric analysis using the Scopus database allowed detecting 309 papers that deal with this species during the period 1986-2009. The number of papers per year increased continuously, reaching a mean annual value of 22.6 during the last 5 years; a great majority of them were authored by researchers from Argentina and Brazil. Neohelice granulata has become now one of the most studied crab species, after Carcinus maenas, Callinectes sapidus, Scylla serrata and Cancer pagurus and C. magister, and it can be considered as an emergent animal model for biochemical, physiological and ecological research.

  2. Procesamiento integral de las especies patagónicas de cangrejos marinos de valor comercial Ovalipes trimaculatus y Platyxanthus patagonicus


    Dima, Jimena Bernadette


    La industria pesquera de la Provincia de Chubut se ha desarrollado con la captura y el procesamiento de un conjunto tradicional de peces y mariscos. En los últimos años, y como consecuencia de la disminución de los recursos pesqueros tradicionales, ha surgido interés desde el sector por recursos con posibilidades de mercado aún no aprovechadas, tales como, las almejas: Panopea y Navaja (Barón y col, 2004; Lasta y col, 1996), el alga Undaria pinnatifida (Casas y Piritz, 1996) y algunos cangrej...

  3. Morfología comparada del esqueleto axial en la familia de cangrejos de agua dulce Trichodactylidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pedraza


    Full Text Available El esqueleto axial es una estructura compleja de origen cuticular, formada a partir de las láminas esclerotizadas de los esternitos y pleuritos torácicos así como por sus invaginaciones internas. Los caracteres de la parte ventral del esqueleto axial, que se reflejan externamente en las líneas de sutura del esternón torácico, son criterios importantes en el actual sistema de supragenerico de Trichodactylidae: (Trichodactylinae y Dilocarcininae (Dilocarcinini + Valdiviini. Con el objetivo de probar esa hipótesis de clasificación fue realizado el estudio anatómico del esqueleto axial de 43 individuos adultos, tanto machos como hembras, pertenecientes a 17 especies de 10 géneros de Trichodactylidae. Para la preparación del material, los individuos fueron diseccionados y sus esqueletos sumergidos, por un periodo de 24 a 48 horas, en una solución caliente de Hidróxido de Potasio (KOH. El análisis anatómico permitió describir un grupo de variaciones en la forma, orientación y conformación del esternón torácico, techo pleural, fragmas ventrales y dorsales, así como de la lámina de unión. De acuerdo con esas características las especies estudiadas fueron reunidas en tres grupos, siendo esas agrupaciones consistentes con la actual propuesta de clasificación de Trichodactylidae en subfamilias y tribus. El presente trabajo resalta la importancia informativa de la morfología del esqueleto axial para la taxonomía de Trichodactylidae.

  4. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacted by golf course runoff is not well understood. This report summarizes trace metal, pesticide and PCB residues for colonized periphyton, Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass), Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (blue crabs) and Crassostrea virginica Gemlin (Eastern oyster) collected from areas adjacent to a Florida golf course complex which receive runoff containing reclaimed municipal wastewater. Concentrations of 19 chlorinated pesticides and 18 PCB congeners were usually below detection in the biota. In contrast, 8 trace metals were commonly detected although concentrations were not usually significantly different for biota collected from reference and non-reference coastal areas. Residue concentrations in decreasing order were typically: zinc, arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury. Mean BCF values for the eight trace metals ranged between 160-57 000 (periphyton), 79-11 033 (R. maritima), 87-162 625 (C. virginica) and 12-9800 (C. sapidus). Most trace metal residues in periphyton colonized adjacent to the golf complex, were either similar to or significantly less than those reported for periphyton colonized in nearby coastal areas impacted by urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. Consequently, the recreational complex does not appear to be a major source of bioavailable contaminants locally nor in the immediate watershed based on results for the selected biota

  5. Quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide: a membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide (QAS), was tested for potency as a CA inhibitor and for its ability to be excluded from permeating biological membranes. Inhibitor titration plots of QAS vs. pure bovine CA II and CA from the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, yielded K/sub i/ values of ∼ 15 μM; thus QAS is a relatively weak but effective CA inhibitor. Permeability of the QAS was directly tested by two independent methods. The inhibitor was excluded from human erythrocytes incubated in 5 mM QAS for 24 h as determined using an 18O-labeled mass spectrometer CA assay for intact cells. Also QAS injected into the hemolymph of C. sapidus (1 or 10 mM) did not cross the basal membrane of the gill. The compound was cleared from the hemolymph by 96 h after injection, and at no time during that period could the QAS be detected in homogenates of gill tissue. Total branchial CA activity was only slightly reduced following the QAS injection. These data indicate that QAS is a CA inhibitor to which biological membranes are impermeable and that can be used in vivo and in vitro in the study of membrane-associated CA

  6. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.


    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics. (United States)

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio


    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (maya conspecifics, partly paralyzing and sedating them; this suggests that octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey. PMID:26895025

  8. Membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform mass spectrometry for neuropeptide analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zichuan; Wang, Junhua; Hui, Limei; Li, Lingjun


    Herein we report a highly efficient and reliable membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing (MA-CIEF) system being coupled with MALDI-FTMS for the analysis of complex neuropeptide mixtures. The new interface consists of two membrane-coated joints made near each end of the capillary for applying high voltage, while the capillary ends were placed in the two reservoirs which were filled with anolyte (acid) and catholyte (base) to provide pH difference. Optimizations of CIEF conditions and comparison with conventional CIEF were carried out by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic peptides. It was shown that the MA-CIEF could provide more efficient, reliable and faster separation with improved sequence coverage when coupled to MALDI-FTMS. Analyses of orcokinin family neuropeptides from crabs Cancer borealis and Callinectes sapidus brain extracts have been conducted using the established MA-CIEF/MALDI-FTMS platform. Increased number of neuropeptides was observed with significantly enhanced MS signal in comparison with direct analysis by MALDI-FTMS. The results highlighted the potential of MA-CIEF as an efficient fractionation tool for coupling to MALDI MS for neuropeptide analysis. PMID:21696746

  9. Toxicity of phthalate esters in fish and shellfish from virginia beach using matrix solid phase dispersion (mspd) and gc-ms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the outcome of an investigation on the occurrence of phthalates, in eight edible marine fish species from lower James River, Chesapeake Bay along the Virginia Coast of Atlantic ocean. These include shell fish like Crab(Callinectes sapidus), Clam( Merccnaria), Oyster(C.ariakensis), and white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) from aquaculture center of Virginia Tech. These were analyzed for their content of Dimethyl Phthalate, Diethyl Phthalate, Di-n-butyl Phthalate , butyl benzyl Phthalate , bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate ,and di-n-octyl Phthalate Mean concentrations (range) of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in fish samples were 1.1 (<0.01-1.5), 0.22 (<0.01-1.1) and 0.14 (<0.01-1.3) mu g g-1; those in shell fishery were 1.2 (<0.02-1.3), 0.13 (<0.01-0.27) and 0.09 (<0.02-0.22) mu g g-1, respectively. The highest concentration of bis (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in fish samples were found in Atlantic mackerel (Centropristis striate) (1.98+-0.92) mu g/g (wet weight) and Oyster (C.ariakensis) (2.30 mu g/g (wet weight), were higher than those in other fish species. (author)

  10. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab (United States)

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Nutritional value of winter foods for whooping cranes (United States)

    Nelson, J.T.; Slack, R.D.; Gee, G.F.


    We measured metabolizable energy and digestibility of Whooping Crane (Grus americana) winter foods (blue crab [Callinectes sapidus]), common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn [wolfberry]), and live oak acorn (Ouercus virginiana [acorn])] with feeding trials to captive-reared Whooping Cranes. Apparent metabolizable energy coefficients (expressed as %) were for crab (34.1), Rangia clam (75.0), wolfberry (44.8), and acorn (43.2). Digestion coefficients for protein were lower for plant foods (48.9 and 53.4) than for animal foods (69.4 and 75.2). Digestion coefficients for total lipid differed among foods: highest and lowest lipid digestibility was for acorn (87.2) and wolfberry (60.0), respectively. We also determined total energy and percent protein and lipid of the four foods and stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius); gross energy was 2-5x higher for acorn and wolfberry on a dry-weight basis than for blue crab and stout razor clam. Crude protein was 2-3x higher for blue crab than for wolfberry and stout razor clam. Wolfberry ranked the highest of five foods for metabolic energy and total lipid nutrient availability per kg of food ingested, and blue crab ranked highest for crude protein availability.

  12. Food consumption and retention time in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana) (United States)

    Nelson, J.T.; Gee, G.F.; Slack, R.D.


    Food consumption, digesta retention time, and food preference were measured for captive whooping cranes fed pelleted diets. The basal commercial diet was compared to four mixtures containing 70% basal and 30% of one of four important winter foods for the whooping crane: blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn), live oak acorn (Quercus virginiana), or common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata). Because captive birds would not eat whole foods, we were prevented from direct food preference tests. Food passed through the gut rapidly, with almost complete elimination within 7 hr. There was some indication that retention time was shorter for the low fiber and high ash and calcium clam diet. Cranes ate less wolfberry feed (g/day) than the other feeds, and all birds ate less wolfberry feed on the day it was first fed, compared to basal diet the previous day. Birds ate more low energy feed than high energy feed. Due to combined effects of low energy content, lower metabolizable energy coefficients, and reduced feed consumption, less energy was assimilated for study diets than basal diet. Apparent shorter retention times for some diets con-taming whooping crane foods may partly explain lower digestibilities and metabolizable energy of winter whooping crane foods compared to commercial crane diet.

  13. Photothermal and Structural Comparative Analysis of Chitinous Exoskeletons of Marine Invertebrates (United States)

    Juárez-de la Rosa, B. A.; Yañez-Limón, J. M.; Tiburcio-Moreno, J. A.; Zambrano, M.; Ardisson, P.-L.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.


    Chitinous materials are common in nature and provide different functions including protection and support of many invertebrate animals. Exoskeletons in these organisms constitute the boundary regulating interaction between the animal and the external environment. For this reason, it is important to study the physical properties of these skeletons, in particular, thermal properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal diffusivity of the skeletons of four species of marine invertebrates, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral), Panulinus argus (lobster), Callinectes sapidus (crab), and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure). Thermal characterization is performed using photothermal radiometry (PTR) and laser-flash techniques. The measurements are complemented with structural characterization using X-ray diffraction. The results using both laser flash and PTR are consistent. These indicate that the thermal properties are strongly dependent on the presence of biogenic minerals (calcium and/or magnesium) and on the crystallinity index of the structure. The thermal-diffusivity values show an increase as a function of the crystallinity index.

  14. The Dilemma of Derelict Gear. (United States)

    Scheld, A M; Bilkovic, D M; Havens, K J


    Every year, millions of pots and traps are lost in crustacean fisheries around the world. Derelict fishing gear has been found to produce several harmful environmental and ecological effects, however socioeconomic consequences have been investigated less frequently. We analyze the economic effects of a substantial derelict pot removal program in the largest estuary of the United States, the Chesapeake Bay. By combining spatially resolved data on derelict pot removals with commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) harvests and effort, we show that removing 34,408 derelict pots led to significant gains in gear efficiency and an additional 13,504 MT in harvest valued at US $21.3 million--a 27% increase above that which would have occurred without removals. Model results are extended to a global analysis where it is seen that US $831 million in landings could be recovered annually by removing less than 10% of the derelict pots and traps from major crustacean fisheries. An unfortunate common pool externality, the degradation of marine environments is detrimental not only to marine organisms and biota, but also to those individuals and communities whose livelihoods and culture depend on profitable and sustainable marine resource use. PMID:26790394

  15. Cumulative Effects of Coastal Habitat Alterations on Fishery Resources: toward Prediction at Regional Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet A. Nestlerode


    Full Text Available Coastal habitat alterations such as the loss of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV and hardening of shorelines could have cumulative effects on valuable fishery resources. To investigate this effect, we developed a multiscale modeling framework for blue crab (Callinectes sapidus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Areal coverage of shoreline land cover and SAV for Mobile Bay, Alabama, were combined with information from small-scale biological studies and long-term, large-scale commercial fishery data to model the potential effects of marginal habitat losses on the blue crab fishery. We applied stochastic variation in annual recruitment to the fishery to estimate probabilities for sustainable harvests under scenarios of habitat loss. The simulations suggested that, accumulated over large areas, relatively small local losses of estuarine marsh edge and SAV habitats could have long-term negative effects on the sustainability of the fishery. Spatially extensive models are required to investigate the cumulative ecological effects of many local environmental changes. The requisite scaling adds uncertainty and reduces precision, but if model parameters are accurate at each scale, accurate predictions of long-term outcomes and probabilities are possible.

  16. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April, 2014

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    Full Text Available According to reports, the following 16 species have extended their distribution to other Mediterranean areas or have made a new appearance in other regions. The first category includes the following organisms: The rare and common Indo-Pacific seaweed Codium arabicum (Lebanese coasts, the acari Thalassarachna affinis (Marmara Sea, and the non-indigenous nudibranch Flabellina rubrolineata, which has also been found in many other areas of the Aegean Sea. In addition, the rare sea slug Thecacera pennigera (Piccolo of Taranto, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (National Marine Park of Zakynthos, Ionian Sea, the carangid Seriola fasciata (Gulf of Antalya, Lagocephalus sceleratus (SE. Ionian Sea, the reticulated leatherjacket Stephanolepis diaspros (Slovenia, N. Adriatic Sea, the marbled stingray, Dasyatis marmorata (NE Levantine, the starry smooth-hound Mustelus asterias (Iskenderun Bay, NE Mediterranean, the cephalopod Ommastrephes bartramii (Ionian Sea have also been reported. The Atlantic crab Dyspanopeus sayi has expanded to many Italian areas and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus to a lake in N. Greece and in the S. Adriatic Sea. Finally, Farfantepenaeus aztecus has been found in the Ionian Sea, thus showing its wide expansion in the Mediterranean. The larval stages of Faccionella oxyrhyncha have been found, after many years, in the Aegean Sea and the first report of an existence on intersexual acari Litarachna duboscqi in Split(Adriatic Sea was reported.

  17. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  18. Predator-prey interactions mediated by prey personality and predator hunting mode. (United States)

    Belgrad, Benjamin A; Griffen, Blaine D


    Predator-prey interactions are important drivers in structuring ecological communities. However, despite widespread acknowledgement that individual behaviours and predator species regulate ecological processes, studies have yet to incorporate individual behavioural variations in a multipredator system. We quantified a prevalent predator avoidance behaviour to examine the simultaneous roles of prey personality and predator hunting mode in governing predator-prey interactions. Mud crabs,Panopeus herbstii, reduce their activity levels and increase their refuge use in the presence of predator cues. We measured mud crab mortality and consistent individual variations in the strength of this predator avoidance behaviour in the presence of predatory blue crabs,Callinectes sapidus, and toadfish,Opsanus tau We found that prey personality and predator species significantly interacted to affect mortality with blue crabs primarily consuming bold mud crabs and toadfish preferentially selecting shy crabs. Additionally, the strength of the predator avoidance behaviour depended upon the predation risk from the predator species. Consequently, the personality composition of populations and predator hunting mode may be valuable predictors of both direct and indirect predator-prey interaction strength. These findings support theories postulating mechanisms for maintaining intraspecies diversity and have broad implications for community dynamics. PMID:27075257

  19. A comparison of two methods for colorimetric in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissue sections and digoxigenin-labeled hybridization probes. (United States)

    Marcino, Joe


    Two methods for colorimetric in situ DNA probe hybridization (CISH) assays on paraffin-embedded tissue sections were compared. The heated method used heat (90-100°C) to denature DNA in the sample prior to probe hybridization, while the unheated method used a standard hybridization temperature of 42°C. Both procedures were tested on tissue samples that harbored the mollusk protozoan pathogens Perkinsus marinus, P. chesapeaki, or Haplosporidium nelsoni, the protozoan and bacterial fish pathogens Myxobolus cerebralis (myxosporidean) or Renibacterium salmoninarum (bacterial), or the crab viral pathogen Callinectes sapidus reovirus. Samples were fixed in either formalin or Davidson's fixative and embedded in paraffin for histological examination. The heated method is labor intensive and highly prone to human error, while the unheated method is less labor intensive and can be completed in a shorter period of time. Both methods yielded similar hybridization results. The use of complex and expensive prehybridization buffers did not improve the performances of the tested CISH assays. Prehybridization heat denaturation of DNA in assayed samples increased both assay duration and loss of samples but did not improve hybridization signals. PMID:23697605

  20. Concurrent protein synthesis is required for in vivo chitin synthesis in postmolt blue crabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitin synthesis in crustaceans involves the deposition of a protein-polysaccharide complex at the apical surface of epithelial cells which secrete the cuticle or exoskeleton. The present study involves an examination of in vivo incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids and amino sugars into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Rates of incorporation of both 3H leucine and 3H threonine were linear with respect to time of incubation. Incorporation of 3H threonine into the endocuticle was inhibited greater than 90% in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, puromycin. Linear incorporation of 14C glucosamine into the cuticle was also demonstrated; a significant improvement of radiolabeling was achieved by using 14C-N-acetylglucosamine as the labeled precursor. Incorporation of 3H-N-acetylglucosamine into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs was inhibited 89% by puromycin, indicating that concurrent protein synthesis is required for the deposition of chitin in the blue crab. Autoradiographic analysis of control vs. puromycin-treated crabs indicates that puromycin totally blocks labeling of the new endocuticle with 3H glucosamine. These results are consistent with the notion that crustacean chitin is synthesized as a protein-polysaccharide complex. Analysis of the postmolt and intermolt blue crab cuticle indicates that the exoskeleton contains about 60% protein and 40% chitin. The predominant amino acids are arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, and threonine

  1. The use of Monte Carlo analysis for exposure assessment of an estuarine food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Shear, N.M.; Harrington, N.W.; Henning, M.H. [McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineering Corp., Portland, ME (United States). ChemRisk Div.


    Despite apparent agreement within the scientific community that probabilistic methods of analysis offer substantially more informative exposure predictions than those offered by the traditional point estimate approach, few risk assessments conducted or approved by state and federal regulatory agencies have used probabilistic methods. Among the likely deterrents to application of probabilistic methods to ecological risk assessment is the absence of ``standard`` data distributions that are considered applicable to most conditions for a given ecological receptor. Indeed, point estimates of ecological exposure factor values for a limited number of wildlife receptors have only recently been published. The Monte Carlo method of probabilistic modeling has received increasing support as a promising technique for characterizing uncertainty and variation in estimates of exposure to environmental contaminants. An evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of estuarine organisms was conducted in order to identify those variables that most strongly influence uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values for polychaetes (Nereis sp.), mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in east coast estuaries were identified. Understanding the variation in such factors, which include feeding rate, growth rate, feeding range, excretion rate, respiration rate, body weight, lipid content, food assimilation efficiency, and chemical assimilation efficiency, is critical to the understanding the mechanisms that control the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms, and to the ability to estimate bioaccumulation from chemical exposures in the aquatic environment.

  2. Fecundidade em Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae) da lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Fecundity of Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae) in lagoa da Conceição, Santa Catarina, Brazil


    Joaquim Olinto Branco; Marcelo Gentil Avilar


    The estimate for the average fecundity for the C. danae population of Lagoa da Conceição (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina) was of 598.885 eggs by female. The average number of eggs and the weight of the mass of eggs, in general, increase with the female size. The variation in colour and in the diameter of the eggs is associated with the degree of development of the embryo.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Blue Crab Meat (Callinectus sapidus) and Blue Crab Processing Plants (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive, intracellular food borne pathogen which causes a severe disease called listeriosis in high risk groups. However, there is limited information about the prevalence and sources of L. monocytogenes in blue crab and blue crab processing plants in Maryland. The...

  4. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens Thorvald


    Rhizocephalan parasites are dioecious organisms, in that one or several dwarf males are implanted into the external part of the female parasite soon after it emerges from the interior of the host animal. The structure of the female externa and its resident males is crucial for understanding both...

  5. Seasonal Shift of Bycatch in the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery of the Gulf of Salamanca, Caribbean Sea of Colombia

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    Luis Orlando Duarte


    Full Text Available Bycatch assessments in trawl fisheries have been mainly referred to an annual scale, ignoring possible seasonal variations. In the Gulf of Salamanca, an artisanal shrimp trawl fleet operates recently and this study evaluates its bycatch for first time, considering the climatic and oceanographic seasonality that dominates the region (runoff and upwelling. 90 hauls in the calm or rainy season (November 2010 and 86 in the windy season (April 2011 were sampled on board of fishing boats. The bycatch to shrimp ratio was 2,69 (2,37 -3,21, 95 % CI and 6,37 (5,10 – 8,24, 95 % CI for the calm season and windy season respectively. We recorded a total of 101 taxa, with a large number of juveniles. The community structure of bycatch differed between seasons (ANOSIM, pStellifer spp., Symphurus caribbeanus y Callinectes sapidus, whereas, in addition, the calm season was characterized by Cathorops mapale, Anchovia clupeoides, Trichiurus lepturus, and the windy season by Larimus breviceps, Cnidaria (jellyfish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Simper. The results showed a seasonal change in the bycatch, raising the need to implement monitoring programs and management measures that address that temporal variability. Negative ecological effects of this fishery prompt the use of mitigation strategies, involving fishermen, to balance social needs and the ecosystem conservation. CAMBIO ESTACIONAL EN LA FAUNA ACOMPAÑANTE DE LA PESQUERÍA ARTESANAL DE ARRASTRE DE CAMARÓN DEL GOLFO DE SALAMANCA, MAR CARIBE DE COLOMBIALa evaluación de la fauna acompañante en las pesquerías de arrastre se ha referido generalmente a una escala anual, ignorando eventuales variaciones estacionales. En el golfo de Salamanca, recientemente opera una flota artesanal de arrastre de camarón, cuya fauna acompañante es evaluada por primera vez en el presente estudio, considerando la estacionalidad climática y oceanográfica que domina la región (descargas continentales y surgencia

  6. Seasonal effects of leached mirex on selected estuarine animals. (United States)

    Tagatz, M E; Borthwick, P W; Forester, J


    Four 28-day seasonal experiments were conducted using selected estuarine animals in outdoor tanks that received continuous flow of mirex-laden water. Mirex (dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta [cd] pentalene) leached from fire ant bait (0.3% mirex) by fresh water and then mixed with salt water was toxic to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) but not to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), at concentrations less than 0.53 mug/L in water. The amount of leaching was greatest in summer and least in spring. Greatest mortality occurred in summer at the highest water temperature and concentration of mirex; least mortality occurred in spring at the next to the lowest temperature and at the lowest concentration. Earliest deaths of blue crabs occurred after six days of exposure and shrimps after two days. Small juvenile crabs were more sensitive to leached mirex than were large juveniles. Mirex did not appear to affect growth or frequency of molting in crabs. All exposed animals concentrated mirex. Among animals that survived for 28 days, sheepshead minnows concentrated mirex 40,800X above the concentration in the water, blue crabs 2,300X, pink shrimp 10,000X, and grass shrimp 10,800X. Sand substrata contained mirex up to 770X that in the water. Most control and exposed animals in samples examined histologically had normal tissues, but alteration in gills of some exposed fish and natural pathogens in some exposed and control crabs and shrimp were observed. The experiments demonstrated that mirex can be leached from bait by fresh water, concentrated by estuarine organisms, and can be toxic to crabs and shrimps. PMID:1190846

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

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    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf. 

  8. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp (United States)

    Kozak, Justin P.; Bennett, Micah G.; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A.; Nickolotsky, Aaron


    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable ( R 2 = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie ( Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  9. Direct and indirect estimates of natural mortality for Chesapeake Bay blue crab (United States)

    Hewitt, D.A.; Lambert, D.M.; Hoenig, J.M.; Lipcius, R.N.; Bunnell, D.B.; Miller, T.J.


    Analyses of the population dynamics of blue crab Callinectes sapidus have been complicated by a lack of estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M). We developed the first direct estimates of M for this species by solving Baranov's catch equation for M given estimates of annual survival rate and exploitation rate. Annual survival rates were estimated from a tagging study on adult female blue crabs in Chesapeake Bay, and female-specific exploitation rates for the same stock were estimated by comparing commercial catches with abundances estimated from a dredge survey. We also used eight published methods based on life history parameters to calculate indirect estimates of M for blue crab. Direct estimates of M for adult females in Chesapeake Bay for the years 2002–2004 ranged from 0.42 to 0.87 per year and averaged 0.71 per year. Indirect estimates of M varied considerably depending on life history parameter inputs and the method used. All eight methods yielded values for M between 0.99 and 1.08 per year, and six of the eight methods yielded values between 0.82 and 1.35 per year. Our results indicate that natural mortality of blue crab is higher than previously believed, and we consider M values between 0.7 and 1.1 per year to be reasonable for the exploitable stock in Chesapeake Bay. Remaining uncertainty about Mmakes it necessary to evaluate a range of estimates in assessment models.

  10. Interactions between multiple recruitment drivers: post-settlement predation mortality and flow-mediated recruitment.

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    Antony M Knights

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dispersal is a primary driver in shaping the future distribution of species in both terrestrial and marine systems. Physical transport by advection can regulate the distance travelled and rate of propagule supply to a habitat but post-settlement processes such as predation can decouple supply from recruitment. The effect of flow-mediated recruitment and predation on the recruitment success of an intertidal species, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica was evaluated in two-replicated field experiments. Two key crab species were manipulated to test predator identity effects on oyster mortality. FINDINGS: Recruitment was ∼58% higher in high flow compared to low flow, but predation masked those differences. Predation mortality was primarily attributed to the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, whilst the mud crab Panopeus herbstii had no effect on recruit mortality. Recruit mortality from predation was high when recruit densities were high, but when recruit density was low, predation effects were not seen. Under high recruitment (supply, predation determined maximum population size and in low flow environments, recruitment success is likely determined by a combination of recruitment and resource limitation but not predation. CONCLUSIONS: Four processes are demonstrated: (1 Increases in flow rate positively affect recruitment success; (2 In high flow (recruitment environments, resource availability is less important than predation; (3 predation is an important source of recruit mortality, but is dependent upon recruit density; and (4 recruitment and/or resource limitation is likely a major driver of population structure and functioning, modifying the interaction between predators and prey. Simultaneous testing of flow-mediated recruitment and predation was required to differentiate between the role of each process in determining population size. Our results reinforce the importance of propagule pressure, predation and post

  11. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (December 2012

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    Full Text Available This paper presents records extending or confirming the distribution of Mediterranean species. Three alien algae are included, namely Codium taylorii reported for the first time from the Aegean and Turkey (Izmir Gulf, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Karpathos and Chalki Isl., Aegean Sea and Ganonema farinosum (Karpathos Isl., Aegean Sea. As far as animals are concerned, Litarachna divergens (Acari: Hydrachnidia was recorded (Side, Eastern Mediterranean and represents a new amendment at genus level for Turkish fauna. Other invertebrates include alien species such as the crabs Dyspanopeus sayi (Lago Fusaro, SW Italy, Percnon gibbesi (Larnaca, Cyprus; Karpathos and Chalki Isl., Aegean Sea and Callinectes sapidus (Voda estuary, NW Greece, the nudibranch Aplysia dactylomela (Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro, the gastropod Conomurex persicus (Karpathos and ChalkiIsl., Aegean Sea and the bryozoan Electra tenella (Livorno harbour and Messina Straits area. The alien fish Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Fistularia commersonii, Sphyraena chrysotaenia and Sargocentron rubrum are also reported from the islands of Karpathos and Chalki, and Pteragogus pelycus from Heraklion Bay, Crete. In addition, new localities for four rare Mediterranean inhabitants are given: the cephalopod Thysanoteuthis rhombus (NW Sardinia and the fish: Lampris guttatus (Calabria, S Italy, Petromyzon marinus (Gokova Bay and Remora australis (Saronikos Gulf, while the opisthobranch gastropod Cerberilla bernadettae is reported for the first time from the E Mediterranean (Cyprus. Finally, three species of the Aegean ascidiofauna are recorded for the first time: Lissoclinum perforatum, Ciona roulei and Ecteinascidia turbinata. Furthermore, it was established that Phallusia nigra has extended its distributional range to the north of the Aegean Sea.

  12. Distributions of key exposure factors controlling the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in an estuarine food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Harrington, N.W.; Shear, N.M.; Curry, C.L.; Carlson-Lynch, H.; Henning, M.H. [ChemRisk, Portland, ME (United States); Su, S.H. [Bailey Research Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Rabbe, D.E. [Chemical Land Holdings, Inc., Kearny, NJ (United States)


    A critical evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of common estuarine organisms was conducted in an attempt to develop probabilistic distributions for those variables that influence the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water, and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values were identified for dominant organisms from various trophic levels, including the polychaete Nereis virens, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The exposure factors of interest included ingestion rate for various food sources, growth rate, respiration rate, excretion rate, body weight, wet/dry weight ratio, lipid content, chemical assimilation efficiency, and food assimilation efficiency. These exposure factors are critical to the execution of mechanistic food web models, which, when properly calibrated, can be used to estimate tissue concentrations of nonionic chemicals in aquatic organisms based on knowledge of the bioenergetics and feeding interactions within a food web and the sediment and water concentrations of chemicals. In this article the authors describe the use of distributions for various exposure factors in the context of a mechanistic bioaccumulation model that is amenable to probabilistic analyses for multiple organisms within a food web. A case study is provided which compares the estimated versus measured concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in a representative food web from the tidal portion of the Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. The results suggest that the model is accurate within an order of magnitude or less in estimating the bioaccumulation of PCBs in this food web without calibration. The results of a model sensitivity analysis suggest that the input parameters which most influence the output of the model are both chemical and organism specific.

  13. Monitoring of carcinofauna abundance and diversity during eight years of expressway construction in Santa Catarina, Brazil Ocho años de monitoreo de la abundancia y diversidad de la fauna carcinológica durante la construcción de una carretera en Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freitas Junior


    Catarina, Brasil. Las recolecciones fueron realizadas durante tres meses, en seis areas durante el día y la noche desde 1997 a 2006, con un barco pesquero comercial. Los crustáceos de las familias Penaeidae y Portunidae fueron los taxa más diversos contribuyendo con la mayor abundancia de especies. Los camarones Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, Litopenaeus schmitti, juntos con el cangrejo Callinectes danae, fueron las especies dominantes. La mayor abundancia ocurrió en dos areas, durante verano en la noche. Los índices de diversidad y equitabilidad presentaron patrones similares, con el valor mayor en otoño e invierno. El índice de Jaccard indicó una mayor similitud en la composición de la fauna de crustáceos entre los años 2005 y 2006, mientras el menor valor de la ésta ocurrió entre 1997 y 2005. Se observaron cambios en la estructura de la fauna carcinológica a lo largo de los años, ocurriendo una alta mortalidad durante las operaciones de dragado, con un restablecimiento posterior en los años siguientes. El monitoreo de la fauna carcinológica indica que las actividades de dragado no tuvieron efectos desastrosos y no produjeron disturbios sobre la fauna carcinológica estuarina a largo plazo. El monitoreo de los recursos naturales es importante para registrar la extensión y los límites del impacto humano sobre el medio ambiente.

  14. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. (United States)

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko


    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively. PMID:22367529

  15. Dinâmica da alimentação natural de Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae na Lagoa da Conceição, Florianôpolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Feeding natural dynamics of Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae from Lagoa da conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco


    Full Text Available From March/91 to February/92 monthly collcction surveys were carried out to obtain basic information about the dynamics of feeding and trophic spectrum of C. danae Smith, 1869. A total of 456 males and 527 females were caught. The diet of the species was not sex related. The trophic spectrum of C. danae is composed by a high number of items. The 35 items were assembled in 14 categories and the feeding index was applied. Mollusca, Polychaeta and Crustacea were observed to be basic elements in the species diet, Osteichthyes and MOND appear as secondary resource whereas vegetal material were found to be of less importance.

  16. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.


    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  17. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding molt-inhibiting hormone from Portunus trituberculatus

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    ZHU Dong-Fa


    Full Text Available Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH, which belongs to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH neuropeptide family, inhibits the synthesis of ecdysteroids by Y-organs. The CHH family is divided into two major groups, designated I and II. Group Ⅰ is composed of all CHH peptides, and Group Ⅱ is composed of most MIHs, gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH and mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone (MOIH. The Group Ⅰ peptides consist of a signal sequence, a CHH precursor related peptide (CPRP and a mature hormone. The Group Ⅱ peptides have only a signal sequence and a mature hormone. The full-length molt-inhibiting hormone cDNA of Portunus trituberculatus (Pot-MIH was cloned by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The degenerate nucleotide primers was designed based on the amino acid sequence of other crustacean MIHs. The full-length sequence of Pot-MIH cDNA (GenBank accession number:EU284117 is 1572 bp in size and consists of a 210 bp 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR, a 342 bp open reading frame and a 3′- untranslated region (3′-UTR. The deduced polypeptide consisted of a 78-amino acid mature MIH peptide and a 35-amino acid signal ptptide. The mature Pot-MIH peptide shared twelve conserved residues (Cys7, Gly12, Arg14, Cys24, Asp26, Cys27, Asn29, Arg32, Cys40, Cys44, Phe50, and Cys53 with other crustacean MIHs. The mature Pot-MIH peptide had the Gly12 residue and the precursor lacked a CPRP sequence, both of which are characteristic of all Group Ⅱ peptides. Alignment of the amino acid sequence deduced from the full-length Pot-MIH cDNA with MIH amino acid sequences of other crustaceans revealed that they had very high identity. The identities between the putative Pot-MIH amino acid sequence with that of MIH of P.pelagicus, Callinectes sapidus, Charybdis feriatus, Cancer pagurus, C.magister, Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis were 97%, 95%, 90%, 82%, 81%, 77% and 60

  18. Mechanical implications of the arthropod exoskeleton microstructures and the mechanical behavior of the bioinspired composites (United States)

    Cheng, Liang

    Many biological materials possess complicated hierarchical and multiscale structures, after millions of years of evolution. Most of them also demonstrate outstanding mechanical properties, along with multi-functionality. Arthropod is the most widely distributed and the largest phylum of animals in the planet. Their exoskeletons are well-known for excellent mechanical performance and versatility, and consequently emerge among the best sources to study and uncover the mystery of nature in devising its own material systems. This work first investigated the microstructures of the exoskeletons from selected arthropods, including Homarus Americanus, Callinectes sapidus and Popillia japonica, which exhibit highly complex but interesting hierarchical structures. Exoskeletons are chitin-protein based material systems organized into horizontally well-defined multi-region and multi-layer patterns, with elaborate structures interweaving in the vertical direction. Using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), the characteristic and distinctive structural features of the exoskeletons were revealed for all the species investigated. In particular, distinct patterns (e.g., stacking sequence of multiple layers) were identified in each region of exoskeletons studied. For example, the "helicoidal structure" is characterized by a stacking sequence in which layers are continuously and unidirectionally rotating a small angle with respect to their adjacent layers. Important mechanical implications of those unique structural features were subsequently evaluated and compared using mechanics-based modeling and analysis, as well as numerical simulation. After the structure-property-function relationship of the investigated biomaterial systems was established, attempts were made to reveal and extract the design strategies employed by nature in designing its own materials and structures. One of the most predominant structural patterns observed in the

  19. Comparative study of shell choice by the southern endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from Brazil and Argentina Estudio comparativo sobre elección de conchas en el cangrejo ermitaño endémico del Atlántico sudoccidental Loxopagurus loxochelis de Brasil y Argentina


    RENATA BIAGI; ANDREA L MEIRELES; Marcelo A. Scelzo; Fernando L. Mantelatto


    This study aimed to determine the shell choice pattern of the southern Atlantic endemic hermit crab Loxopagurus loxochelis from two different biogeographic provinces in Brazil and Argentina. Size and shell species preferences were determined for the two most occupied shell types (i.e., Olivancillaria urceus and Buccinanops gradatum) in Caraguatatuba region (Brazil) and in Mar del Plata (Argentina). Shell occupation was analyzed considering the biometric characteristics of shells, the occurren...

  20. Análisis del coste energético de la osmorregulación en el decápodo Pachygrapsus marmoratus


    Barrasa Marquez, Zuriñe


    El crustáceo decápodo Pachygrapsus marmoratus , conocido como "cangrejo corredor" o "cangrejo zapatero", es un organismo que habita en la zona intermareal rocosa de la costa. No se caracteriza precisamente por su interés económico pero resulta muy útil para el análisis de ciertas variables fisiológica s relacionadas con su modo de vida. En su condición de osmorregulador eurihalino, es capaz de regular los cambios bruscos de salinidad a los que se encuentra som...

  1. Inversión reproductiva de Aratus pisonii (Decapoda: Sesarmidae): diferencias entre hábitats y análisis de rutas


    Beatriz López-Sánchez; Enrique Quintero-Torres


    Aratus pisonii es un cangrejo abundante de los manglares del Neotrópico, que forrajea sobre el tejido foliar fresco del dosel y vive en una amplia variedad de hábitats. Presenta una gran plasticidad en algunos aspectos de su historia de vida, convirtiéndose en un excelente sujeto para estudios comparativos. El propósito de este estudio fue investigar las posibles variaciones reproductivas entre las poblaciones de este cangrejo en manglares con diferentes niveles de desarrollo estructural, y e...

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  3. Utilization of shells of the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) by the hermit crab Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) in the São Vicente Estuary, São Paulo, Brazil Utilización de conchas de caracoles terrestres Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda) por el cangrejo ermitaño Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) (Decapoda, Anomura) en el estuario de São Vicente, São Paulo, Brasil


    Bruno S. Sant'Anna; Cilene M. Zangrande; Alvaro L. D. Reigada


    Hermit crabs depend on mollusc shells for housing. In this study, an unusual resource is reported for a hermit crab that usually inhabits marine gastropod shells. During a field study conducted from May 2001 to April 2003 in an estuarine area in São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil, 21 individuals of Clibanarius vittatus (Bosc, 1802) were found inhabiting the shells of the terrestrial gastropod Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822. A. fulica occurs in nearshore grass patches, where occasional con...

  4. Casos de paragonimiasis (paragonimiosis en el Hospital Nacional Sergio E. Bernales (Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alvarado P


    Full Text Available Se notifica el caso de un paciente que recibía tratamiento antituberculoso debido a que presentaba tos, pérdida de peso, hemoptisis e imágenes radiológicas compatibles con tuberculosis. Ante el fracaso del tratamiento se le deriva al Hospital Sergio Bernales donde accidentalmente se encuentran huevos de Paragonimus sp. en el esputo. El paciente, proveniente del departamento de Cajamarca, Perú, presentaba como antecedente epidemiológico el consumir cangrejos crudos en ceviche; su hijo, quien también estaba en el programa TBC y consumía cangrejos crudos, resultó positivo para Paragonimus sp en esputo y heces. Después del tratamiento con praziquantel ambos demostraron una mejoría en la sintomatología.

  5. Element abundances and distributions in the crab nebula

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    G. M. MacAlpine


    Full Text Available La Nebulosa del Cangrejo proporciona oportunidades unicas para investigar diversos aspectos de la nucleos ntesis y del enriquecimiento de elementos relativos a la estrella progenitora y a la estrella de neutrones joven. Se pueden combinar datos espectrosc opicos e im agenes para conocer la distribuci on de abundancias. Nuestros conocimientos sobre esta remanente de supernova han aumentado de manera considerable en los ultimos a~nos.

  6. Caracterización de los bosques de manglar y las praderas de Thalassia testudinum de la Isla La Tortuga y cayos adyacentes, Venezuela


    del Mónaco, C.; Giménez, E.; Narciso, S.; Alfonso, F.; Bustillos, F.


    Los bosques de manglar y las praderas de fanerógamas marinas representan ecosistemas tropicales costeros muy productivos, con una alta diversidad de especies. El objetivo fue caracterizar los bosques de manglar y las praderas de Thalassia testudinum de la isla La Tortuga y los cayos adyacentes. Las localidades donde se evaluaron los bosques de manglar fueron Punta del Este, Los Tortuguillos, Boca de Cangrejo, Boca de Palo y Los Mogotes mientras que de las praderas fueron Punta del Este, Boca ...

  7. 阿魏菇粗提物对稳定转染OLC1基因肺癌H1299细胞的抗增殖作用%The Anti-proliferation Effects of Pleurotas sapidus on H1299 Cell Line with Stable Transfection of OLC1 Gene in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑灿龙; 袁劲松; 石太平; 程书钧; 马大龙; 张月明


    阿魏菇(Pleurotas sapidus)是新疆特有的一种食用真菌,含有丰富的蛋白质、碳水化合物、多种维生素、矿物质、皂甙、有机酸、生物碱、挥发油、三萜或甾醇等成分,对S180荷瘤鼠肿瘤生长有明显的抵制作用.阿魏菇粗提物对体外培养的人肝癌(Q3)、人胃癌(MGC-803)、人宫颈癌(Hela),小鼠肺腺癌(SPC—A-1)细胞株的生长及蛋白合成均有明显的抑制作用。本研究建立肺癌细胞OLC1稳定株模型,以OLC1基因为靶标,观察阿魏菇提取物的抗肿瘤作用。

  8. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration (United States)

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.


    Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials

  9. Ostrea puelchana (D'Orbigny 1842: a new host of Tumidotheres maculatus (Say, 1818 in northern Patagonia, Argentina Ostrea puelchana D’Orbigny 1842 nuevo hospedador de Tumidotheres maculatus (Say, 1818 en el norte de Patagonia, Argentina

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    María del Socorro Doldan


    Full Text Available Tumidotheres maculatus has been reported as a commensal of Mytilus platensis and Atrina seminuda and suggested as a parasite of Aequipecten tehuelchus in San Matías Gulf (SMG. The native flat oyster, Ostrea puelchana, has been studied in SMG for decades, and no crab-oyster association has been reported. In autumn-spring 2009 and 2010, oysters were collected from four banks in SMG, and the occurrence of T. maculatus inside the pallial cavity of O. puelchana was recorded. The prevalence varied between sites, with 0-12.5% at El Sótano, 0-16.7% at Caleta de los Loros, and no crabs found in the samples from Las Grutas and Puerto Lobos. Infected oysters hosted a single crab. Oysters were infested by either one male (47.7% or one female (15.1%. A positive but low correlation was found for male crab size and oyster size. The presence of these crabs inside the oysters could be due to the overlap of the distribution areas of O. puelchana and other bivalve hosts. Our findings may also be a consequence of local fishing. Commercial extraction of traditional hosts may have caused crabs to look for new hosts.En el Golfo San Matías (GSM, Tumidotheres maculatus ha sido registrado como comensal de Mytilus platensis y Atrina seminuda, y se lo ha indicado como parásito de Aequipecten tehuelchus. La ostra plana nativa Ostrea puelchana ha sido objeto de estudio por décadas en el GSM y no existen precedentes sobre una asociación entre las ostras y el cangrejo pinotérido. Durante otoño-primavera de 2009 y de 2010 se recolectaron ostras de cuatro bancos del GSM, registrándose la ocurrencia de T. maculatus en la cavidad paleal de O. puelchana. La prevalencia varió entre los sitios: 0-12,5% en El Sótano, 0-16,7% en Caleta de los Loros; no se encontraron cangrejos en los muestreos en Las Grutas y en Puerto Lobos. Se encontró un único cangrejo por hospedador; las ostras estuvieron infestadas por cangrejos macho (47,7%, o hembras (15,1%. Se encontró una

  10. Nuevos derivados de quitosano funcionalizados en el grupo amino, de alto valor añadido


    Jatunov Santamaría, Sorel Alexandervich


    Falta palabras clave La presente Tesis Doctoral es una contribución al avance de la química del quitosano como una vía de valorización y aprovechamiento de los residuos de cangrejo rojo Procambarus clarkii generados en las Marismas del Guadalquivir. Consta de cinco capítulos bien diferenciados, de los cuales los cuatro primeros tienen como objetivo común el desarrollo de nuevos derivados N-sustituidos de quitosano que por sus propiedades físico-químicas puedan tener aplicación práctica en ...

  11. Evaluación en laboratorio de la toxicidad aguda de los insecticidas malatión y deltametrina en Chasmagnathus granulata Dana (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae) Laboratory evaluation of the acute toxicity of malathion and deltamethrin in Chasmagnathus granulata Dana (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae)


    Adriana A. Ferrero; María M. Gutiérrez; Patricia M. Cervellini


    RESUMEN. Se evaluó la toxicidad aguda de los insecticidas malatión y deltametrina en el cangrejo estuarial Chasmagnathus granulata en condiciones de laboratorio. Se llevaron a cabo tests estáticos con el objeto de estimar el parámetro CL50 (concentración letal 50%). Se utilizaron adultos machos con un ancho de caparazón que varió entre 20,9 ± 0,73 y 33,0 ± 2,94 mm. La toxicidad de los compuestos varió sustancialmente, no observándose diferencias significativas (p>0,05) con respecto al ancho d...

  12. ¿Una alimentación sana puede prevenir el cáncer?


    Boticario, Consuelo


    El cáncer es una enfermedad tan antigua en nuestro planeta como la vida. Prueba de ello son los tumores encontrados en los huesos de fósiles de dinosaurios o en las momias humanas descubiertas en Perú y Egipto. Documentos que datan del 2000 al 1500 a.c., como el Ramayana de la India o el Papiro Ebers de Egipto, hacen referencia a este padecimiento. Su nombre, cáncer, se inspiró en la observación de los tumores de mama que, al crecer, toman la forma de un cangrejo.

  13. Balloon Breakers


    González Rodríguez, Jesús


    El objetivo de este PFC es crear un videojuego en 3D basado en el clásico "Pang!". El juego se divide en niveles donde el jugador debe controlar a un personaje sobre una superficie rectangular donde aparecen burbujas (o bolas), cubos y animales (pájaros carpintero y cangrejos ermitaños). El jugador pasa de nivel cuando todas las bolas hayan sido destruidas, bien por el mismo jugador o por los animales. El jugador pierde una vida cuando sea alcanzado por una bola o un animal o bien cuand...

  14. The effects of fish hydrolysate (CPSP) level on Octopus maya (Voss and Solis) diet: Digestive enzyme activity, blood metabolites, and energy balance


    Aguila, J; Cuzon, Gerard; Pascual, C; Domingues, P; Gaxiola, G; Sanchez, A.; T. Maldonado; Rosas, C


    As has been demonstrated in previous studies, Octopus maya can be fed on artificial diets. In the present study six different diets were assayed. Five diets were designed to test the effect of percentage of inclusion of fish protein concentrate (CPSP: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and were offered to octopuses as a specifically designed artificial diet. The sixth diet consisted of frozen crab (Callinectes spp) and was used as control diet. Blood metabolites and energy budget of octopuses were evalua...

  15. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico


    González-Galaviz José Reyes; Rodriguez-Anaya Libia Zulema; Molina-Garza Zinnia Judith; Ibarra-Gámez José Cuauhtémoc; Galaviz-Silva Lucio


    White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV) isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris), crabs (Callinectes arcuatus) and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei) in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and s...

  16. El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology

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    Sergio R. Martorelli


    Full Text Available Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos se pudo concluir que: a C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977, from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host the following conclusions have been reached: a C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations

  17. Observing the VHE Gamma Ray Sky with the MAGIC Telescopes: the Blazar B3 2247+381 and the Crab Pulsar


    Giavitto, Gianluca


    El objetivo de esta tesis es ampliar nuestra comprensión de la física de dos clases de fuentes astrofísicas entre las más importantes emisoras de radiación no-térmica: blazars y púlsares. En particular, la tesis relata sobre la observación del blazar B3 2247 381 y el púlsar del Cangrejo. Este estudio se llevó a cabo mediante la medición de rayos gamma por encima de ~50 GeV con los telescopios MAGIC. Las dos clases de fuentes incluidas en esta tesis no están fuertemente re...

  18. Results of spraying with ultra-low-volume malathion at ground level in Panama City. (United States)

    Echevers, G; Moura Lima, M; Miranda Franco, R; Calheiros, L B


    Several ultra-low-volume (ULV) sprayings of technical malathion (95 per cent) were carried out in Panama City. Their purpose was to find out how useful this ULV technique could be in helping to combat mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti. Two residential areas were selected as sites for the trials. One of these was San Francisco, a district near the shoreline of the Bay of Panama with many individual houses and a few tall buildings. The other was El Cangrejo, a district further inland containing numerous multi-story apartment buildings and several luxury hotels. Two trials were conducted in San Francisco, both involving a single application of insecticide. One of these tested the effect of street spraying on mosquitoes and larvae left inside and outside of one and two story dwellings, while the other involved similar testing of the effects on ten floors of a high-rise apartment building. There was only one trial in El Cangrejo, but this employed three applications of insecticide at two-day intervals. Like the second San Francisco trial, it tested the effect of the spray on mosquitoes and larvae left in a high-rise apartment building. All the mosquitoes used were obtained from the insectarium of the National Malaria Eradication Service. A. aegypti adults and larvae and Anopheles albimanus larvae were used in the first San Francisco trial. Thereafter, because available supplies of A. aegypti were exhausted, An. albimanus adults and larvae were used alone. The results of these trials were very satisfactory. All adult mosquitoes were killed in most cases, the only exceptions being mosquitoes exposed to a single application that was made under adverse conditions. Fairly high rates of larval mortality were also obtained. Overall, the results strongly indicate that thrice-weekly ground-level ULV spraying with malathion can serve as a highly effective mosquito control measure. PMID:1212538

  19. Astaxanthin from Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii as a Pigmentary Ingredient in the Feed of Laying Hens

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    Garrido-Fernández, J.


    Full Text Available Chicken egg yolks generally owe their color to yellow carotenoids. The addition of synthetic red pigments allows changes in color, from the original yellow to red hues which may be more appealing to consumers in certain markets.Our aim has been to test whether ground crayfish shells, which are a rich and natural source of astaxanthin, produce detectable changes in the coloration of egg yolks through the accumulation of this carotenoid. Laying hens were fed with a commercial feed mixed with crayfish powder and the carotenoid profiles of the yolks in the eggs laid during the trial were monitored by HPLC. The analyses showed a progressive increase in the astaxanthin concentration in the egg yolks, reaching similar levels to those obtained for the rest of present carotenoid pigments.La yema de huevo de gallina debe su coloración a la presencia de carotenoides de tonalidad amarilla. La adición de colorantes sintéticos de tonalidades rojas permite modificar e incrementar la coloración de la yema desde el amarillo original a tonos rojos que pueden ser demandados en ciertos mercados según las preferencias del consumidor. El objetivo del trabajo fue probar si un triturado obtenido a partir de caparazones de cangrejo, que es una fuente natural y rica en astaxanteno, produce cambios detectables en la coloración de la yema de huevo por la acumulación de dicho carotenoide. Las gallinas ponedoras se alimentaron con un pienso comercial al que se adicionó triturado de caparazón de cangrejo. Se realizó un seguimiento de los cambios en la composición carotenoide (mediante HPLC de la yema de los huevos puestos durante el periodo de alimentación suplementada. Los análisis mostraron una progresiva incorporación de astaxanteno que alcanzó niveles similares al resto de carotenoides presentes inicialmente en la yema.

  20. Salida de campo a Wamba (Valladolid) el 1 y 2 de agosto de 1951


    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo a Wamba, en la provincia de Valladolid, durante los días 1 y 2 de agosto de 1951, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre una Culebra viperina (Natrix maura, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor), ranas (especies no identificadas), los siguientes mamíferos: Apodemus sp. (Ratón), Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua) y "Pytimis" (llamado así por el autor, siendo posiblemente el actual género Microtus), y las siguientes aves: Acrocephalus sp. (Carricero, probablemente A.scir...

  1. Salida de campo a Tudela de Duero (Valladolid) el 13 de abril de 1953


    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo a Tudela de Duero (Valladolid), a orillas del río Duero, el 13 de abril de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor) y ranas, renacuajos y otros sapos (sin identificar las especies), los siguientes reptiles: culebras, lagartijas y lagartos (sin identificar las especies), los siguientes mamíferos: Ardilla (pudiendo ser Sciurus vulgaris o Atlantoxerus getulus), Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, ...

  2. Salida de campo al pinar de Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 25 de marzo de 1952


    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo al pinar de Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 25 de marzo de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre "Lymneidos", la Rana Común (Pelophylax perezi), saltamontes y mariposas, los siguientes mamíferos: Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua) y Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), los siguientes reptiles: Blanus cinereus (Culebrilla ciega), Chalcides sp. (Eslizón) y lagartijas (sin identificar especies), y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común,...

  3. Excursión Corcos - Aguilarejo (Valladolid) el 31 de mayo de 1951


    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Excursión de Corcos a Aguilarejo, en la provincia de Valladolid, pasando por Peña Caída y el Cueto, el 31 de mayo de 1951, en la que se observaron Liebres (Lepus sp.) y Ratas de agua (Arvicola sapidus), y se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Acrocephalus sp. (Carricero), Ardea sp. (Garza), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Caprimulgus sp. (Chotacabras), Cettia cetti (Ruiseñor bastardo), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Clamator...

  4. Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra (Madrid) a mediados de septiembre de 1953


    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra, en Madrid, a mediados de septiembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor) y Rana sp. (Rana), los siguientes reptiles: Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor) y Psammodromus sp. (Lagartija), los siguientes mamíferos: Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, también llamado Ratón aguadero), Martes foina (Garduña), Plecotus sp. (Orejudo...


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    Montes, R.


    Full Text Available Ecotoxicological effect of crude oil was evaluated in larvae zoea I of Emerita analoga. The samples were collected of the Cangrejos beach (05º08'30,02''-5º10'46,21'' SL and 81º10'35,04'- 81º10'24,0'' WL, Piura, Peru. Environmental parameters such as temperature, oxygen, pH and salinity were recorded in situ. The organisms were exposed at five concentrations of crude oil: 0,65 mg·L-1; 1,30 mg·L-1; 2,60 mg·L-1; 5,20 mg·L-1 and 10,40 mg·L-1 with 3 replicates, were incubated in a thermoregulator table at a temperature of 20 ± 1ºC, previously calibrated, the individuals did not feed throghout assay, the test was of static type and was carried out for 4 days. A daily count of the dead organisms was made, taking a registration every 24 h. Rate of mortality and environmental parameters as temperature, oxygen, pH and salinity was registered. It was determined that the median lethal concentration CL for the zoeas I of E. analoga, at 96 h of 50 exhibition of crude oil was 1,33 mg·L-1. The results show that at the maximum experimental concentration of crude oil the species presents higher mortality.

  6. Concentraciones traza de metales en especies marinas de la bahía de Huarmey, Ancash, Perú

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    María E. Jacinto


    Full Text Available Se determinaron las concentraciones traza de cadmio, cobre, plomo y zinc, en músculos y vísceras del caracol (Stramonita T. chocolata, el cangrejo peludo (Cancer setosus, la cabrilla (Paralabrax humeralis, el chorito (Semimytilus algosus, la lapa (Fissurella sp. y el chitón (Chiton spp., indeterminado; colectados en octubre 2001 en la bahía de Huarmey, Ancash, Perú. Los órganos seleccionados fueron liofi lizados y sometidos a digestión ácida según método CEM USA 1994 y analizados por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Las menores concentraciones de cadmio (0,63 μg/g, cobre (1,87 μg/g y zinc (1,70 μg/g, se encontraron en el músculo de P. humeralis; mientras que valores máximos de zinc (24,16 μg/g se observaron en vísceras del T. chocolata y de cobre (28,0 μg/g en músculo de Chiton spp. Las concentraciones halladas estuvieron dentro de los límites internacionales establecidos por algunos países (Nauen, 1983.

  7. Radiation processing and characterization of chitin and chitosan extracted from crab shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction and characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from crab shells (Callinectes sp.) obtained locally in Ghana is presented. The shells were finely milled and soaked in 10 % dilute hydrochloric acid (HCI) for 48 hr followed by de-proteinization using 2M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 24 hr to obtain Chitin. The Chitin was refluxed at 100 (deg) C in 50 % NaOH for 7 hr to yield Chitosan. The Chitin and Chitosan were characterized by determining the de-acetylation, viscosity and average molecular weights. The degree of de-acetylation was determined to be 89.7 %. The viscosity of Chitosan in dilute acetic acid was measured and the average molecular weight estimated. The average molecular weight of dry gamma irradiated (up to 100kGy) Chitosan samples decreased with increasing dose. The results have been discussed in terms of radiation induced degradation of solids. (au)

  8. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

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    González-Galaviz José Reyes


    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  9. Biodiversity of decapod crustaceans in the estuarine floodplain around the city of Belém (Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

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    Danielle Viveiros Cavalcante


    Full Text Available The present study focused on the decapod fauna of the fluvial-estuarine environment of the Guajará Bay, in the Brazilian state of Pará, where specimens were collected monthly from six sites, from May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 6,793 specimens were captured, belonging to 11 species of crab and shrimp: eight palaemonids - Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, Macrobrachium spp. 1-4 -, one portunid - Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 -, and two trichodactylids - Sylviocarcinus devileii H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and Sylviocarcinus pictus (Milne-Edwards, 1853. While no significant differences were found in the ecological indices of diversity with respect to season, site, or trap size, a tendency for increased abundance and species richness was found during the dry season (August-November, in particular at some sites, apparently reflecting the influence of the estuary's saline wedge.

  10. Deep-water fisheries in Brazil: history, status and perspectives Pesquerías de aguas profundas en Brasil: historia, situación actual y perspectivas

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    José Angel Alvarez Perez


    intensificaron en la década del 90. Sin embargo, entre 2000 y 2001 empezaron a operar buques arrendados para la pesca con palangre, red de enmalle, nasas y arrastre en aguas brasileras y lideraron el proceso de ocupación del talud superior (250-500 m dirigido principalmente a la captura del rape (Lophyus gastrophysus, merluza argentina (Merluccius hubbsi, brotóla de profundidad (Urophycis mystacea, chernia (Polyprion americanus, calamar argentino (Illex argentinus, cangrejo rojo (Chaceon notialis y cangrejo real (Chaceon ramosae. Entre 2004 y 2007, buques arrendados establecieron una valorada pesquería de langostinos de profundidad (Familia Aristeidae y explotaron intensamente los fondos del talud inferior (500-1000 m. Las capturas totales de recursos de aguas profundas variaron anualmente de 5.756 ton en 2000 a un máximo de 19.923 ton in 2002, decayendo a cerca de 11.000 ton en 2006. No obstante, que fueron recolectados datos pesqueros en forma intensas, estuviesen disponibles oportunamente evaluaciones de stock y se haya llevado a cabo un proceso formal de discusión participativa de planes de manejo para estas pesquerías, los stocks de aguas profundas han sido considerado en situación de sobrepesca debido a limitaciones de gobernabilidad.

  11. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Loebmann


    redlip blenny Ophioblennius atlanticus and other fishes, such as the frillfin goby Bathigobius soporator. Some immediate remedial measures to prevent further introductions from ballast water and shrimp farm ponds should be: (i to prevent the release of ballast water by ship/vessels in the region; (ii to reroute all effluent waters from shrimp rearing facilities through an underground or above-ground dry well; (iii to install adequate sand and gravel filter which will allow passage of water but not livestock; (iv outdoor shrimp pounds located on floodable land should be diked, and; (v to promote environmental awareness of those directly involved with ballast water (crews of ship/vessels and shrimp farms in the region. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (3: 909-923. Epub 2010 September 01.En el Área de Protección Ambiental del Delta Del Río Parnaíba, noreste de Brasil fueron detectadas cinco especies acuáticas invasoras (un molusco, tres crustáceos y un pez: la ostra de dos colores Isognomon bicolor, el camarón patiblanco Litopenaeus vannamei, el camarón gigante de río Macrobrachium rosenbergii, el cangrejo nadador del Indo-Pacifico Charybdis hellerii y el blenio hocicudo Omobranchus punctatus. El agua de lastre (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, y O. punctatus y la acuicultura (L. vannamei y M. rosenbergii en áreas adyacentes son los vectores de introducción más probables. Todas las especies exóticas encontradas son potencialmente riesgosas para el ambiente ya que son aptas para competir con las nativas por recursos como alimento y hábitat. Charybdis hellerii también podría causar impacto en el recurso pesquero local, al reducir las poblaciones de cangrejos portúnidos nativos, comercializados en el área de estudio.


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    Cruz Romero Bartolo


    Full Text Available Mediante una “Lista de chequeo” se establece el diagnóstico ambiental de los sistemas estuarinos de la Bahía de Banderas: El Salado, Boca Negra – Boca de Tomates y El Quelele; y se identifican los principales factores de presión ambiental en cada sistema. Los elementos ambientales considerados fueron el suelo, agua, aire, flora, fauna y paisaje. Los resultados indican que el paisaje de estos sistemas, ha perdido su calidad original y las principales causas han sido el cambio de uso de suelo y el desarrollo urbano y turístico mal planeado. Respecto a la valoración de los recursos (naturales y artificiales, con potencial turístico para cada sistema, se determinó bajo la metodología de “Inventario de recursos”; propuesta por Leno (1993. La valoración de recursos en los tres sistemas estuarinos El Salado, Boca Negra – Boca de Tomates y El Quelele; nos muestra que todos los recursos potenciales se encuentran en conjunto lo cual les otorga un valor más elevado respecto a la metodología utilizada, esto no limita las áreas solo al avistamiento y visita de los recursos con mayor jerarquía como las aves, cangrejos, flora, canales navegables, torres de observación y senderos elevados. Al contrario, se considera que el conjunto de todos los recursos con potencial turístico son susceptibles de aprovechamiento bajo esquemas de sustentabilidad mediante programas de turismo asociado a la naturaleza.

  13. Abundancia, distribución, hábitos alimentarios e interacciones tróficas de cinco especies de lenguados (Pleuronectiformes en el Pacífico central mexicano

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    Juan R Flores-Ortega


    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución espacial de las cinco especies de lenguados de mayor abundancia capturadas con redes camaroneras en la plataforma continental del Pacífico central mexicano. Además, se describen las dietas alimentarias e interacciones tróficas entre las especies de lenguados consideradas. Los lenguados se distribuyen entre 20 y 60 m de profundidad. Bothus leopardinus tiene su mayor abundancia durante la época fría (enero-mayo, el resto de las especies no presentaron diferencias significativas entre temporadas de captura (fría y cálida. En general la dieta de los lenguados está compuesta por crustáceos, peces y cefalópodos. B. leopardinus y Syacium ovale son consumidores de crustáceos como cangrejos, camarones y estomatópodos. Cyclopsetta panamensis, C. querna y Monolene assaedae basan su alimentación en peces y cefalópodos. La estrategia alimentaria de las cinco especies analizadas es generalista, ya que consumen un gran número de presas en ambas temporadas del año. Entre las especies de lenguados se observaron valores bajos en la superposición de la dieta por grupos de talla y periodos del año. Las especies de lenguados consumen los recursos alimentarios disponibles y tienden a cambiar sus preferencias de acuerdo a la disponibilidad de presas, lo que les permite eludir la competencia por alimento dentro y entre especies.

  14. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

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    Igor David da Costa


    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  15. Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria (United States)

    Nwosu, Francis M.


    The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

  16. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment. (United States)

    da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas Silva; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vasquez, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Ribeiro, Amanda Santos Vaz; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; Oliveira, Sérgio Soares do Prado; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio


    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer' seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  17. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment. (United States)

    Silva da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vaz Ribeiro, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Vaz Ribeiro, Amanda Santos; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; do Prado Oliveira, Sérgio Soares; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio


    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer’ seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  18. Presiones Antropogenicas y su relación con la Calidad Ambiental de la Ecoregion del Golfo de Batabanó. Impactos Y Respuestas.

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    Eusebio Perigó Arnaud


    Full Text Available El Golfo de Batabanó se encuentra situado en la porción SW de la plataforma insular cubana. Su área es de 20850 km2 con una profundidad media de 6m. Esta plataforma tiene el mayor peso económico en la industria pesquera de Cuba, aportando más de la mitad de la producción de la langosta espinosa (Panulirus argus y volúmenes considerables de peces y otras especies marinas de alto valor comercial como son el camarón blanco (Litopenaeus schmitti, el camarón rosado (Litopenaeus notialis, cangrejo moro (Menippe mercenaria, la biajaiba (Lutjanus sinagris y el caballerote (Lutjanus griseus. Además, posee un elevado potencial como zona de cría natural de camarón en la Ensenada de la Broa, el cual disminuyó sus poblaciones en forma drástica debido a su sobre explotación en 1950, y por la misma causa en la década de los años 80. En los últimos años se ha comenzado a desarrollar el turismo con la explotación de algunos sitios como María La Gorda, Cayo Largo del Sur y Punta Francés. La ecorregión del Golfo ha experimentado afectaciones en su calidad ambiental debido a presiones antropogénicas derivadas de las actividades industriales, agropecuarias y domésticas, y en los últimos tiempos las actividades turísticas. En este trabajo se presentan los balances de las cargas de las principales fuentes de contaminación y otras acciones antropogénicas como la tala de vegetación circundante, construcción de un dique costero, represamientos excesivos de ríos, dragado e inadecuado manejo de los recursos pesqueros. También se dan las concentraciones medias de las principales variables de estado químicas indicadoras de contaminación orgánica y del estado trófico a partir de 1973 hasta el 2003. Al mismo tiempo se indican los principales impactos ambientales y propuestas de medidas para el desarrollo sustentable de la ecorregión.

  19. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito (United States)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ≈ TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  20. Impact of a power plant cooling system on copepod and meroplankton survival (Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina Impacto del sistema de enfriamiento de una central termoeléctrica sobre la supervivencia de copépodos y meroplancton (estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina

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    Mónica Susana Hoffmeyer


    Full Text Available The impact of a power plant cooling system in the Bahía Blanca estuary (Argentina on the survival of target zooplanktonic organisms (copepods and crustacean larvae and on overall mesozooplankton abundance was evaluated over time. Mortality rates were calculated for juveniles and adults of four key species in the estuary: Acartia tonsa Dana, 1849 and Eurytemora americana Williams, 1906 (native and invading copepods, and larvae of the crab Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 and the invading cirriped Balanus glandula Darwin, 1854. Mean total mortality values were up to four times higher at the water discharge site than at intake, though for all four species, significant differences were only registered in post-capture mortality. The findings show no evidence of greater larval sensitivity. As expected, the sharpest decrease in overall mesozooplankton abundance was found in areas close to heated water discharge.El impacto del sistema de enfriamiento de una planta termoeléctrica ubicada en el estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina, fue evaluado en el tiempo, sobre la supervivencia de especies zooplanctónicas seleccionadas (copépodos y larvas de crustáceos y la abundancia general del meso-zooplancton. Se calcularon tasas de mortalidad de juveniles y adultos de cuatro especies clave en el estuario: Acartia tonsa Dana,1849 y Eurytemora americana Williams,1906 (copépodos nativo e invasor, y larvas del cangrejo Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 y del cirripedio invasor Balanus glandula Darwin, 1854. Los valores medios hallados de la tasa de mortalidad total, fueron hasta cuatro veces más altos en la descarga que en el agua de entrada al sistema. Sin embargo sólo se registraron diferencias significativas entre estos dos sitios, en los valores de mortalidad post-captura obtenidos para las cuatro especies. Los resultados del estudio no demostraron una mayor sensibilidad larval. Como se esperaba, la disminución más pronunciada en la abundancia general

  1. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekaran, M.


    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  2. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Superior del yacimiento de PRERESA en el valle del Manzanares y su contribución a la reconstrucción paleoambiental de la cuenca de Madrid durante el Pleistoceno

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    Sesé, C.


    Full Text Available PRERESA (Getafe, Madrid is a site of the first third of the Late Pleistocene, at the end of MIS 5, of which 255 m2 have been excavated, and where 754 stone pieces and abundant remains of micro- and macrovertebrates have been recovered. This paper deals with the study of the following identified micromammals at the site: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus; Soricomorpha: Crocidura russula; Chiroptera: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus cabrerae, Microtus duodecimcostatus; Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus. This faunal association, mainly due to the presence of Microtus cabrerae, belongs to the Late Pleistocene. The evolved stage of Microtus cabrerae and Arvicola aff. sapidus indicate the antiquity of this association within the first part of this period, which is consistent with the date of 84±5,6 ka BP obtained by OSL. All the taxa recorded in PRERESA are currently living in the area where the site is located, except Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae that became extinct in the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the Late Pleistocene. Observations on the material indicate that the accumulation of the small mammal remains could have been mainly caused by predators, most likely by pellets of birds of prey. The association of small mammals from PRERESA indicates temperate conditions with some moisture and vegetation development with some wooded areas and mainly open areas but mostly shrubby, herbaceous, wet and dry grasslands, and riparian vegetation. The comparison of the small mammals from PRERESA with those of the Middle Pleistocene sites from Áridos and Valdocarros, indicate a similarity of the climatic conditions and lansdcape in the low sections of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers in the moments that these sites represent (the advanced Middle Pleistocene and

  3. Heterogeneous road networks have no apparent effect on the genetic structure of small mammal populations. (United States)

    Grilo, Clara; Del Cerro, Irene; Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Ramiro, Victor; Román, Jacinto; Molina-Vacas, Guillem; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rodríguez, Juan; Porto-Peter, Flávia; Fonseca, Carlos; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José A


    Roads are widely recognized to represent a barrier to individual movements and, conversely, verges can act as potential corridors for the dispersal of many small mammals. Both barrier and corridor effects should generate a clear spatial pattern in genetic structure. Nevertheless, the effect of roads on the genetic structure of small mammal populations still remains unclear. In this study, we examine the barrier effect that different road types (4-lane highway, 2-lane roads and single-lane unpaved roads) may have on the population genetic structure of three species differing in relevant life history traits: southern water vole Arvicola sapidus, the Mediterranean pine vole Microtus duodecimcostatus and the Algerian mouse Mus spretus. We also examine the corridor effect of highway verges on the Mediterranean pine vole and the Algerian mouse. We analysed the population structure through pairwise estimates of FST among subpopulations bisected by roads, identified genetic clusters through Bayesian assignment approaches, and used simple and partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative barrier or corridor effect of roads. No strong evidences were found for an effect of roads on population structure of these three species. The barrier effect of roads seems to be site-specific and no corridor effect of verges was found for the pine vole and Algerian mouse populations. The lack of consistent results among species and for each road type lead us to believe that the ability of individual dispersers to use those crossing structures or the habitat quality in the highway verges may have a relatively higher influence on gene flow among populations than the presence of crossing structures per se. Further research should include microhabitat analysis and the estimates of species abundance to understand the mechanisms that underlie the genetic structure observed at some sites. PMID:27219505

  4. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia) (United States)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.


    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  5. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico. (United States)

    Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette


    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in suspended load, sediment, primary producers, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, in a deltaic lagoon habitat in the Tabasco coast, with the aim to assess the potential ecological risk in that important wetland. Zn showed the highest concentrations, e.g., in suspended load (mean of 159.58 mg kg(-1)) and aquatic consumers (15.43-171.71 mg kg(-1)), particularly Brachyura larvae and ichthyoplankton (112.22-171.71 mg kg(-1)), followed by omnivore Callinectes sp. crabs (113.81-128.07 mg kg(-1)). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Zn were observed for planktivore and omnivore crustaceans (3.06-3.08). Zn showed a pattern of distribution in the food web through two pathways: the pelagic (where the higher concentrations were found), and the benthic (marsh plants, sediment, mollusk, fish). The other heavy metals had lower occurrences in the food web. Nevertheless, high concentrations of Ni and Cr were found in phytoplankton and sediment (37.62-119.97 mg kg(-1)), and V in epiphytes (68.64 mg kg(-1)). Ni, Cr, and Cd concentrations in sediments surpassed international and national threshold values, and Cd entailed a "considerable" potential risk. These heavy metals are most likely transferred into the food web up to fishes through the benthic pathway. Most of the collected fishes are residents in this type of habitat and have commercial importance. Our results show that the total potential ecological risk in the area can be considered as "moderate". Nevertheless, heavy metal values were similar or surpassed the values from other highly industrialized tropical coastal regions. PMID:26708770

  6. Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment and biota (fish and crabs) samples from the Densu Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was assess the concentration of some selected heavy metals in water, sediments and biota (fish and crab) sampled from the Densu Delta. In situ and laboratory based analysis were carried out to measure the following physicochemical properties of surface water from the delta; temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, sodium ion concentration (Na+), potassium ion concentration (K+), chloride ion concentration (Cl), bicarbonate concentration, phosphate concentration, nitrate concentration, sulphate concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg) concentrations in water, sediments, fish and crab sampled at six sites from the Densu Delta wetland in the month of December, 2009 were analysed using VARIAN Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) model AA240 FS. Two fish species; Blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron), White mullet (Mugil curema) and one species of crab; Blue swimming crab (Callinectes amnicola) were collected from the Densu Delta wetland and analysed. Heavy metal contents in the fish were higher in gill tissue than muscle tissue while in crabs concentrations were higher in the soft tissue than the shell. Levels of Fe, Zn and Cu in the muscle tissue of S. melanotheron were greater than the levels detected in the muscle tissue of M. curema. Cd, Ni and Hg were detected in gill tissue but not in the muscle tissue of S. melanotheron, M. curema on the other hand contained these metals in both gill and muscle tissue. The maximum level of Fe (34.98 mg/L), Zn (25.08 mg/L) in the muscle of S. melanotheron was observed at Bortianor and Zn (2.70 mg/L) was observed at Tetegu. In the M. curema, the maximum level of Fe (34.66 mg/L), Zn (15.9 mg/L) and Cu (1.43 mg/L) was detected at Aplaku, Tetegu and Faana respectively. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in sediment than water. The presence of elevated levels of Cd

  7. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988 revisited

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    José A. Vargas-Zamora


    . nicoyenis.La disponibilidad de grupos de datos recolectados por periodos mayores a un año es escasa para ambientes marinos tropicales. Avances en hardware y software pueden acelerar el re-análisis de grupos antiguos de datos y facilitar la descripción de oscilaciones poblacionales ocultas. Mediante el uso de literatura taxonómica y programas de cómputo recientes actualizamos y re-analizamos la información sobre diversidad de crustáceos y oscilaciones poblacionales en un grupo muestras recolectadas con barreno en una planicie arenoso-fangosa en la región media superior del estuario del Golfo de Nicoya, costa Pacífica de Costa Rica (1984-1988. Se encontró un total de 112 morfo-especies de macro-invertebrados, de las que 29 fueron crustáceos. Problemas taxonómicos, especialmente con los peracáridos, impidieron la identificación completa de un grupo de especies. Las oscilaciones en la abundancia del cangrejo Pinnixa valerii, el ostrácodo Cyprideis pacifica, y el cumáceo Coricuma nicoyensis fueron analizadas con los Modelos Generales Aditivos (GAM del programa de cómputo R de acceso libre. Los modelos evidenciaron una variedad de oscilaciones poblacionales durante el periodo de toma de muestras. Estas oscilaciones probablemente incluyen perturbaciones inducidas por factores externos, como los fuertes eventos de mareas rojas de 1985. Además, al inicio de 1984 las poblaciones podrían haber estado alteradas debido al impacto de El Niño 1982-83. Entonces, las oscilaciones observadas durante el estudio se alejan del patrón estacional (seco vs lluvioso y son consideradas atípicas para esta planicie tropical estuarina arenoso-fangosa. La diversidad de crustáceos y las oscilaciones poblacionales fueron similares a las publicadas en la literatura mundial. Sin embargo, la abundancias del cumáceo Coricuma nicoyensis, una especie endémica, son las más altas informadas para un estuario tropical. Datos comparativos sobre planicies arenoso-fangosas en el tr

  8. Abundancias poblacionales, crecimiento y mortalidad natural de la macroinfauna de crustáceos en dos tipos morfodinámicos de playas arenosas del sur de Chile Population abundances, growth and natural mortality of the crustacean macroinfauna at two sand beach morphodynamic types in southern Chile

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    Full Text Available Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante 1994-1996 en una playa arenosa intermedia y en una playa disipativa del sur de Chile (Calfuco y Mehuín, respectivamente; ca. 39º S, para evaluar las predicciones de la hipótesis de exclusión por la resaca sobre las abundancias poblacionales e historia de vida de la macroinfauna de crustáceos que habita en el intermareal de esas playas. Se hipotetiza que solo las especies realmente intermareales (i.e., directamente afectadas por la resaca son afectadas por diferencias en los tipos morfodinámicos de playas. Esas especies fueron los isópodos cirolánidos Excirolana braziliensis y Excirolana hirsuticauda y el cangrejo anomuro Emerita analoga. Por otra parte, el anfípodo Orchestoidea tuberculata (mayoritariamente supralitoral no debiera ser afectado por diferencias en tipos morfodinámicos de playas. Las abundancias poblacionales totales de O. tuberculata y E. analoga fueron significativamente más altas en la playa intermedia de Calfuco, las de E. braziliensis y E. hirsuticauda en la playa disipativa de Mehuín. Mientras que las abundancias de las hembras ovígeras de O. tuberculata y E. analoga fueron más altas en Calfuco, las de las hembras ovígeras de E. braziliensis y E. hirsuticauda no difirieron entre playas. Los juveniles de O. tuberculata fueron más abundantes en Calfuco, mientras que los de las otras especies en Calfuco. Los máximos en los períodos reproductivos de anfípodos e isópodos ocurrieron durante los mismos meses de primavera-verano en ambas playas. El período reproductivo de E. analoga también ocurrió durante primavera-verano, pero los máximos de abundancia ocurrieron en meses diferentes. Mientras que las máximas abundancias de los juveniles de O. tuberculata ocurrieron en períodos similares, las de los juveniles de Excirolana braziliensis y E. hirsuticauda ocurrieron más tarde en Mehuín. Los juveniles de E. analoga tuvieron abundancias muy bajas durante el primer per

  9. Notes on the Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas in the lagoon region of Cananéia, Brazil

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    V Sadowsky


    tamanhos oscilaram ent re 768-812 mm. O comprimento do menor jovem livre encontrado foi de 697 mm, sendo que jovens de presumivelmente 9 a 12 meses têm de 98 a 112 cm; entre 21 e 24 meses alcançam 124 a 128 cm, ou seja, os tamanhos que apresentam quando emigram para mar aberto. Não ficou confirmado o fenômeno da inibição alimentar nas fêmeas capturadas, já observado em genetrizes da mesma espécie durante o período de parição no delta do Mississippi. O conteúdo estomacal apresentou, por ordem decrescente de abundância: Arius spixii (13; Chloroscombrus chrysurus (7; A. grandicassus (6; A. barbus (4; Felichtys marinus (3; Genidens genide ns (2; Chanophorus tajacica (2; Carcharhinus porosus (2; Conodon nobilis, Caranx crysos, scomberomorus maculatus, Sphyrna tiburo, Rhinoptera brasiliensis, Dasyatis americana, Diapterus rhombeus (1, além de cerca de 25/30 exemplares de Callinectes sp.


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    Marcelino Silva Farias Filho


    Full Text Available

    Agricultural production in the Maranhão State, southeastern periphery of Amazonia, Brazil, is predominantly smallholder-based and uses slash-and-burn technology. Nevertheless, other environmentally less aggressive land use systems are also relevant for food production, especially the so-called ebbtide system, in the Maranhão lowlands. This paper describes and evaluates ebbtide production, within the landless settlement project “Diamante Negro/Jutaí”, located in Monção and Igarapé do Meio, municipalities of the Maranhão lowlands. Our farmer-based assessment consisted of interviews with 14 farmers and in loco observations. Furthermore, an agroecological assessment was conducted, based on participative field experimentation, with 15 local farmers. The main factors causing rice productivity losses are related to hydric stress situations and rodents (Arvicola sapidus. The productivity and milling yield of improved rice varieties did not differ statistically.


    KEY-WORDS: Rice; Maranhão lowlands; smallholder agriculture; ebbtide production.