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Sample records for canela macrobrachium amazonicum

  1. Crescimento relativo do camarão canela Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae em viveiros Relative growth of Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae in earthen ponds

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    Patrícia M.C. Moraes-Riodades

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some morphometric relationships in Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 reared in earthen ponds were studied. A total of 239 individuals were collected, sexed and sorted to juvenile or adult. Total length (Lt, post-orbital length (Lpo, carapace length (Lcp and queliped length (Lql were measured. The relationships Lt/Lpo, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp are the same for juveniles, males and females, indicating unchanged growth pattern during post-larval ontogenetic development. While Lt/Lpo showed isometric growth, Lpo/Lcp and Lt/Lcp showed negative allometry. On the other hand, for the Lql/Lcp relationship, juveniles showed isometric growth, females slight positive allometry and males a strong positive allometry. It suggests that the importance of chelipeds may be different in these groups. Quelipeds play important role on food capture and on agonistic, social and reproductive behavior. Therefore, inter and intraspecific interactions may change during prawn growth, even after morphological

  2. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

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    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  3. Macrobrachium amazonicum: an alternative for microbiological monitoring of aquatic environments in Brazil

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    Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the role of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum, as carrier of Candida spp., by analyzing the correlation between Candida spp. from these prawns and their environment (surface water and sediment, through M13-PCR fingerprinting and RAPD-PCR. For this purpose, 27 strains of Candida spp. were evaluated. These strains were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of adult M. amazonicum (7/27 from Catú Lake, Ceará State, Brazil and from the aquatic environment (surface water and sediment of this lake (20/27. Molecular comparison between the strains from prawns and the aquatic environment was conducted by M13-PCR fingerprinting and RAPD-PCR, utilizing the primers M13 and OPQ16, respectively. The molecular analysis revealed similarities between the band patterns of eight Candida isolates with the primer M13 and 11 isolates with the primer OPQ16, indicating that the same strains are present in the digestive tract of M. amazonicum and in the aquatic environment where these prawns inhabit. Therefore, these prawns can be used as sentinels for environmental monitoring through the recovery of Candida spp. from the aquatic environment in their gastrointestinal tract

  4. Histological alterations in gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles exposed to ammonia and nitrite.

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    Dutra, Fabrício Martins; Rönnau, Milton; Sponchiado, Dircelei; Forneck, Sandra Carla; Freire, Carolina Arruda; Ballester, Eduardo Luis Cupertino

    2017-06-01

    Aquaculture has shown great growth in the last decades. Due to the restrictions on water use, production systems are becoming increasingly more intensive, raising concerns about the production water quality. Macrobrachium amazonicum is among the freshwater prawn species with favorable characteristics for production and possibility of intensification. Nitrogen compounds such as ammonia and nitrite affect the health of aquatic organisms since they quickly reach toxic concentrations. These compounds can also cause damage to the gill structure, leading to hypoxia in tissues, affecting acid-base balance, osmoregulation (salt absorption) and ammonia excretion, decreasing the immune capacity of the animal and, in extreme cases, cause death. The aim of this study was to assess histological changes in the gills of Macrobrachium amazonicum juveniles subjected to different concentrations of total ammonia and nitrite. The prawns were subjected to different concentrations of those compounds and their gills were removed and preserved for histological analysis. The gills were assessed for changes according to the Organ Index (I org ) and, for each change, an importance factor (w) was attributed according to the degree of reversibility and applied according to the degree of extension or frequency of the damage. The damage to the gills in the treatments with 100% mortality, both for ammonia and nitrite, corresponded to the high occurrence of progressive, regressive, circulatory, and inflammation damages. The other treatments (which caused less mortality) had mainly inflammation and regressive damages, whose occurrence increased according to the increase in ammonia and nitrite concentration. The histological analysis confirmed that the higher the total ammonia and nitrite concentrations, the larger the damages caused to the gill structure and that lower nitrite concentrations caused similar damages to those caused by higher total ammonia concentrations, which reflects the lower

  5. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

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    Mazzarelli, CCM.; Santos, MR.; Amorim, RV.; Augusto, A.

    2015-01-01

    Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum p...

  6. Reproductive variability of the Amazon River prawn, Macrobrachium amazonicum (Caridea, Palaemonidae: influence of life cycle on egg production

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    Andrea L Meireles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Diverse reproductive strategies may be adopted by different species of Macrobrachium prawns, and even among different populations of the same species. The present study evaluated the influence of differences in the reproductive strategies of two geographically isolated populations of Macrobachium amazonicum, upon female fecundity, reproductive output and the chemical content of prawns and eggs. One prawn population from Pará only completes its life cycle in brackish water, whereas another from Mato Grosso do Sul only inhabits freshwater. Pará female prawns exhibited a larger average size and weight and produced more eggs than females from Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the Mato Grosso do Sul population produced eggs that were larger in volume than those of females from the other population. Furthermore, eggs produced by Pará prawns were composed primarily of water (56%, whereas those produced in Mato Grosso do Sul were composed mostly of organic matter (80%. This difference in the eggs' chemical compositions did not apply to the chemical compositions of the females, as individuals from both sites were composed primarily of water. Mato Grosso do Sul females invested a higher amount of energy in brood formation (14% of their wet weight than individuals from Pará (only 10%. It is possible that M. amazonicum populations show a higher degree of plasticity in their reproductive activity due to habitat conditions and genetic differences. Although the brackish population produces larger individuals, and exhibits higher fecundity, the freshwater population exhibited a higher reproductive investment. These results suggest a high reproductive capacity to adapt to different environmental conditions for this species, which should be considered in the context of aquaculture activities.

  7. Produção de pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, sob condições controladas de laboratório

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    Aline Do Vale Barreto

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on production of post-larvae of the prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum under controlled laboratory conditions were developed at the Departamento de Oceanografia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, from September 1980 to February 1982. Experiments were undertaken in aquaria and tanks where the salinity and density of the populations had been changed. The best production was obtained with salinity 14/00 with a density of 38 larvae per litre. The food provided for larvae was crushed fish and nauplii of Artemia salina. Out of 13 experiments a total of 20,000 post-larvae of Macrobrachium amazonicum were obtained.

  8. Experimental study on the efficiency of different types of traps and baits for harvesting Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862

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    Bianca Bentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is a freshwater prawn endemic to South America with wide distribution in Brazilian Amazon rivers. In estuary and freshwater streams of the Pará State, they are captured with different types of traps locally know matapi. This study evaluated the efficiency of traps of different sizes (large, medium and small and baits (babassu coconut and fish for sampling this shrimp. Samplings were conducted with 24 traps with different treatments (trap size and bait. We captured 909 specimens. Higher mean catches were observed in traps baited with babassu coconut. Interactions between babassu coconut bait and medium matapi (BM-M, and fish bait and large matapi (FISH-L were significant. Carapace length (CL varied significantly between sites (F = 12.74, p < 0.01. The total maximum length was13.65 cm. Medium traps baited with babassu coconut were the most successful in the tested combinations, however, there was a clear correlation between size trap and size of shrimp, for both body weight and carapace length.

  9. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    CCM. Mazzarelli

    Full Text Available Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum populations, those regarding osmoregulation and metabolism play a key role for being related to the occupation of diverse habitats. To this effect, we investigated osmoregulation through the role of free amino acids in cell volume control and metabolism, through oxygen consumption in larvae (zoeae I, II, V and IX and/or post-larvae of a M. amazonicum population from Amazon, kept in aquaculture fish hatcheries in the state of São Paulo. The results add information regarding the existence of distinct physiological responses among M. amazonicum populations and suggest that possible adjustments to metabolism and to the use of free amino acids as osmolytes of the regulation of the larvae and post-larvae cell volume depend on the appearance of structures responsible for hemolymph osmoregulation like, for example, the gills. In this respect, we verified that zoeae I do not alter their metabolism due to the exposition to fresh or brackish water, but they reduce intracellular concentration of free amino acids when exposed to fresh water, what may suggest the inexistence or inefficient performance of the structures responsible for volume regulation and hemolymph composition. On the other hand, in zoeae II and V exposed to fresh and brackish water, metabolism alterations were not followed by changes in free amino acids concentration. Thus it is possible, as the structures responsible for osmoregulation and ionic regulation become functional, that the role of free amino

  10. Effect of salinity on the metabolism and osmoregulation of selected ontogenetic stages of an Amazon population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

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    Mazzarelli, C C M; Santos, M R; Amorim, R V; Augusto, A

    2015-05-01

    Probably as a function of their wide geographical distribution, the different population of Macrobrachium amazonicum shrimp may present distinct physiological, biochemical, reproductive, behavioral, and ecological patterns. These differences are so accentuated that the existence of allopatric speciation has been suggested, although initial studies indicate that the genetic variability of populations happen at an intraspecific level. Among the biological responses described for M. amazonicum populations, those regarding osmoregulation and metabolism play a key role for being related to the occupation of diverse habitats. To this effect, we investigated osmoregulation through the role of free amino acids in cell volume control and metabolism, through oxygen consumption in larvae (zoeae I, II, V and IX) and/or post-larvae of a M. amazonicum population from Amazon, kept in aquaculture fish hatcheries in the state of São Paulo. The results add information regarding the existence of distinct physiological responses among M. amazonicum populations and suggest that possible adjustments to metabolism and to the use of free amino acids as osmolytes of the regulation of the larvae and post-larvae cell volume depend on the appearance of structures responsible for hemolymph osmoregulation like, for example, the gills. In this respect, we verified that zoeae I do not alter their metabolism due to the exposition to fresh or brackish water, but they reduce intracellular concentration of free amino acids when exposed to fresh water, what may suggest the inexistence or inefficient performance of the structures responsible for volume regulation and hemolymph composition. On the other hand, in zoeae II and V exposed to fresh and brackish water, metabolism alterations were not followed by changes in free amino acids concentration. Thus it is possible, as the structures responsible for osmoregulation and ionic regulation become functional, that the role of free amino acids gets

  11. Occurrence of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in Leopoldo's inlet (Ressaco do Leopoldo, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil

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    Andréa Bialetzki

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the occurrence, temporal distribution and nychthemeral variation of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 were undertaken in Leopoldo's Inlet, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil. Seventeen thousand and sixty specimens (11,786 larvae and 5,274 juveniles were captured with a conicalcylindrical plankton net of mesh 0.5mm in monthly samples between February 1991 and February 1992. Results show that the greatest densities of larvae (301.83 larvae/10m³ and juveniles (168.8/10m³ of this species were caught in December 1991. Largest captures were made during the night. With regard to abiotic factors water temperature ranged from 20º to 30ºC, pH ranged from 5.66 to 7.37 and electric conductivity ranged from 51.83 to 65.33µS/cm. Relationship between the density of larvae and juveniles and abiotic factors was calculated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA which revealed the influence of some limnological variables especially on the distribution of larvae.

  12. Larval Pseudoproleptus sp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) found in the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Santos, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 634-638 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Pseudoproleptus * Macrobrachium * Brazil Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  13. Asociación entre el tamaño del depredador (pavón, Cichla orinocensis) y la presa (camarón de río, Macrobrachium amazonicum) y sus relaciones morfométricas

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    Madrid, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó, a nivel de laboratorio, la asociación entre el tamaño del depredador Pavón Cichla orinocensis (Pisces: Perciformes: Cichlidae) y la presa Camarón de Río Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae), con miras a utilizar a este pez como controlador biológico del camarón, que es considerado una plaga por los piscicultores debido a su existencia en cantidades excesivas en los estanques de producción de cachamas en la región centro occidental y los llanos altos de Venez...

  14. Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+)-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

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    Leone, Francisco A; Bezerra, Thais M S; Garçon, Daniela P; Lucena, Malson N; Pinto, Marcelo R; Fontes, Carlos F L; McNamara, John C

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+) plus NH4 (+) of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+) and NH4 (+) binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈ 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+) and NH4 (+) of gill (Na(+), K(+))-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+) during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum.

  15. Modulation by K+ Plus NH4+ of microsomal (Na+, K+-ATPase activity in selected ontogenetic stages of the diadromous river shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda, Palaemonidae.

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    Francisco A Leone

    Full Text Available We investigate the synergistic stimulation by K(+ plus NH4 (+ of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity in microsomal preparations of whole zoea I and decapodid III, and in juvenile and adult river shrimp gills. Modulation of (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is ontogenetic stage-specific, and particularly distinct between juveniles and adults. Although both gill enzymes exhibit two different sites for K(+ and NH4 (+ binding, in the juvenile enzyme, these two sites are equivalent: binding by both ions results in slightly stimulated activity compared to that of a single ionic species. In the adult enzyme, the sites are not equivalent: when one ion occupies its specific binding site, (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity is stimulated synergistically by ≈ 50% on binding of the complementary ion. Immunolocalization reveals the enzyme to be distributed predominantly throughout the intralamellar septum in the gill lamellae of juveniles and adults. Western blot analyses demonstrate a single immunoreactive band, suggesting a single (Na(+, K(+-ATPase α-subunit isoform that is distributed into different density membrane fractions, independently of ontogenetic stage. We propose a model for the modulation by K(+ and NH4 (+ of gill (Na(+, K(+-ATPase activity. These findings suggest that the gill enzyme may be regulated by NH4 (+ during ontogenetic development in M. amazonicum.

  16. Osmoregulation in larvae and juveniles of two recently separated Macrobrachium species: Expression patterns of ion transporter genes.

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    Boudour-Boucheker, Nesrine; Boulo, Viviane; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Anger, Klaus; Charmantier, Guy; Lorin-Nebel, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    In this comparative study, osmoregulatory mechanisms were analyzed in two closely related species of palaemonid shrimp from Brazil, Macrobrachium pantanalense and Macrobrachium amazonicum. A previous investigation showed that all postembryonic stages of M. pantanalense from inland waters of the Pantanal are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water, while this species was not able to hypo-osmoregulate at high salinities. In M. amazonicum originating from the Amazon estuary, in contrast, all stages are able to hypo-osmoregulate, but only first-stage larvae, late juveniles and adults are able to hyper-osmoregulate in fresh water. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these physiological differences have not been known. We therefore investigated the expression patterns of three ion transporters (NKA α-subunit, VHA B-subunit and NHE3) following differential salinity acclimation in different ontogenetic stages (stage-V larvae, juveniles) of both species. Larval NKAα expression was at both salinities significantly higher in M. pantanalense than in M. amazonicum, whereas no difference was noted in juveniles. VHA was also more expressed in larvae of M. pantanalense than in those of M. amazonicum. When NHE3 expression is compared between the larvae of the two species, further salinity-related differences were observed, with generally higher expression in the inland species. Overall, a high expression of ion pumps in M. pantanalense suggests an evolutionary key role of these transporters in freshwater invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. El cuento infantil: copito de canela

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    Fanny Osorio

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquel 20 de julio de 1810 fue un día memorable también para Copito de Canela. Copito era un copetón, un lindo copetón bogotano, criatura inadvertida para todos, menos para Josefita -la anciana vendedora de panderos- que vivía en un humilde cuarto vecino a la Catedral.

  18. Occurrence of the Indo-Pacific freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens Dana 1852 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae on the coast of Brazilian Amazonia, with notes on its reproductive biology

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    Cristiana R Maciel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens, which is native species of the Indo-Pacific Region, was recorded for the first time on the Amazon coast of Brazil. This species was found to inhabit the same environment as two native Macrobrachium species, M. amazonicum and M. acanthurus, and is morphologically very similar to the latter. The identification of the species was confirmed by the genetic analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase (COI gene. A detailed description of the morphological features and reproductive biology of M. equidens in this new environment is presented.O camarão de água doce Macrobrachium equidens, nativo da região do Indo-Pacífico, foi registrada pela primeira vez na costa da Amazônia Brasileira. Esta espécie foi encontrada habitando o mesmo ambiente que duas espécies nativas do gênero Macrobrachium: M. amazonicum e M. acanthurus, e é morfologicamente muito similar à última. A identificação dessa espécie foi confirmada pela análise da seqüência genética do gene mitocondrial Citocromo Oxidase (COI. Uma descrição detalhada das características morfológicas e biologia reprodutiva de M. equidens neste novo ambiente é apresentada.

  19. VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION OF Schizolobium amazonicum BY cutting

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    Poliana Coqueiro Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the vegetative propagation of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum through cutting, evaluating the effect of IBA (0, 8000, 16000 and 32,000 mg.L-1 on rooting of apical and intermediate stakes. The base of the cuttings were dipped in IBA solution for 10 seconds and then were staked in polyethylene tubes of 110 cm³, filled with organic substrate (Bioplant®. The irrigation of the seedlings was carried out by means of a nebulization system with a uniform flow rate of 7 L.h-1. After 40 days, were evaluated: percentage of survival, rooting percentage, percentage of roots observed at the lower end of the plastic tube, average number of roots, length of roots, presence of calluses, vigor and root dry matter. The results for the characteristics evaluated, with emphasis on survival, showed the highest averages were obtained at intermediate stakes, regardless of the dose of IBA. The highest rooting percentage, root number, length and dry mass of roots, in both types of cuttings was obtained with the highest dose tested of AIB (32,000 mg.L-1. Based on these results, it is concluded that the technique of cutting associated with application of plant growth regulators can be used for vegetative propagation of S. amazonicum.

  20. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

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    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  1. Respostas de plantas de Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. amazonicum] e Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] à deficiência hídrica Responses of Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. Amazonicum] and Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] plants to water stress

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    Cláudio José Reis de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas jovens de S. amazonicum (paricá e S. parahyba (guapuruvu foram submetidas a dois ciclos de deficiência hídrica em casa de vegetação. O déficit hídrico induziu o aumento dos teores de aminoácidos solúveis totais, prolina, açúcares solúveis totais e K+ nos tecidos foliares, ocasionando o abaixamento do potencial osmótico em ambas as espécies. Porém, a análise dos resultados das curvas pressão-volume indica que as espécies respondem, de maneira diferente, ao estresse hídrico e o S. amazonicum apresenta maior capacidade de adaptação osmótica do que o S. parahyba.Juvenile plants of S. amazonicum (paricá and S. parahyba (guapuruvu were subjected to two cycles of water stress in greenhouse conditions. The water deficit induced the increase in total soluble amino acids, proline, total soluble sugars and K+ contents in the leaf tissues, lowering osmotic potential values in both species. However, the analysis of the pressure-volume curve results suggests that the species respond differently to water stress, and that S. amazonicum presents greater capacity of osmotic adaptation than S. parahyba.

  2. NUTRIENT RIQUERIMENT OF Schizolobium amazonicum, Herb (PARICÁ SEEDLINGS

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    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Macronutrients concentrations in leave, stem, and root tissues of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. were determined under greenhouse conditions using the missing element technique. The experimental design was a completely randomized block with four replications and 13 treatments. Seedlings 0.05–0.10 -m high were planted into 3 L pots filled with nutritive solution. Based on the concentrations of macronutrients in the leaves of the complete and the deficient treatments, suitable and deficient levels (g kg-1 of macronutrients for S. amazonicum are: a suitable: 4 for P; 15 for K; 40 for Ca; 4 for Mg; and 3 for S; 33of B; 5 of Cu; 540 of Fe, 88 of Mn; and 71 of Zn; b critical: 1 for P; 4 for K; 8 for Ca; 1 for Mg; and 2 for S; 31 of B; 4 of Cu; 140 of Fe; 38 of Mn; and 24 of Zn

  3. Trichoderma amazonicum, a new endophytic species on Hevea brasiliensis and H. guianensis from the Amazon basin

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    A new species of Trichoderma (teleomorph Hypocrea, Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Hypocreales, Hypocreaceae), T. amazonicum, endophytic on the living sapwood and leaves of Hevea spp. trees is described. Trichoderma amazonicum is distinguished from closely related species in the Harzianum clade (e.g. ...

  4. Percepção das paisagens da Floresta Nacional de Canela (RS pelos turistas / Landscapes perception of the of the National Forest of Canela (RS

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    Nara Rejane Zamberlan dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoUm estudo foi realizado com os turistas da cidade de Canela (RS, em quatro períodos do ano (julho-outubro, dezembro e fevereiro, com o objetivo de valorar 22 fotos (substitutos da paisagem da Floresta Nacional de Canela (RS, cuja escala de ponderação era variável de 1 a 5, correspondendo a classes de qualidade da paisagem de muito baixa a muito alta, respectivamente. Os resultados mostram que as mulheres são mais perceptivas do que os homens na análise de paisagens. Os menores valores médios valorados correspondem aos substitutos da classe baixa (2,74 e os mais altos, à classe alta de qualidade da paisagem (4,61. Por meio da Análise de Agrupamento Hierárquico, são observados dois grupos, sendo o primeiro, formado por mulheres de 15 a mais de 70 anos e jovens de 15 a 20 anos, do sexo masculino; e o segundo grupo, pelos demais homens.AbstractA study was carried out with the tourists of the city of Canela (RS, in four periods of the year (July, October, December and February, in order to value 22 photographs (landscape substitutes of the National Forest of Canela (RS, which weighting scale varied from 1 to 5. it was corresponding to very low to very high landscape classifications. The results show that women are more perceptive than men in landscape analysis. The lowest average values given correspond with low –class substitutes (2.74 and the highest with high quality landscapes (4.61. Through hierarchical group analysis were shown two groups, the first formed by women from 15 to over 70 years of age and young men of 15 to 20 years of age and second group by older men.

  5. Los langostinos del género Macrobrachium con importancia económica y pesquera en América Latina: conocimiento actual, rol ecológico y conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo U García-Guerrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los langostinos del género Macrobrachium con interés económico y pesquero son bien conocidos y explotados en casi todas las comunidades ribereñas de Latinoamérica. Sin embargo no han sido estudiados apropiadamente, y su conservación está en riesgo. Las características económicas, sociales y culturales, de la mayoría de los países de la región, que se traducen en el deterioro del hábitat y la sobreexplotación pesquera, ponen en peligro de desaparición las poblaciones de este género de macroinvertebrados acuáticos. De esto, se desprende que todas estas especies están escasamente estudiadas y el estado actual de sus poblaciones no es conocido, si bien en el caso de M. amazonicum hay numerosos estudios. Las técnicas de cultivo es el rubro en que más investigación se ha realizado. En este trabajo se resume el conocimiento que se tiene sobre las especies nativas de Macrobrachium en Latinoamérica y se discute su importancia económica y necesidades de conservación.

  6. Wild canelas from the Brazilian Northeast: botanical, chemical and pharmocological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Alencar, J.W. de; Matos, F.J.A.; Craveiro, A.A.; Andrade, C.H.S.; Fonteles, M.C.; Viana, G.S.B.; Capelo, L.R.; Matos, F.F.

    Botanical, chemical and pharmacological studies were carried out with several types of the species Croton aff. zehntneri, called 'canelas ' at the Brazilian Northeastern region. Chemical studies showed that t-anetole, estragole, and sometimes eugenole are the most common components of the essential oils of these 'canelas'. The pharmacological studies were carried out with hidroalcoholic extract, essential oil and its aqueous phase obtained during the extraction process, by means of biological assays with various laboratory animals. Results of these tests are discussed. Emphasis is given on the possibility that some of the observed effects are due to the presence of anethole and estragole in the different types of the species studied. (M.A.) [pt

  7. Respostas de plantas de Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. amazonicum] e Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] à deficiência hídrica Responses of Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. Amazonicum] and Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] plants to water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio José Reis de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Plantas jovens de S. amazonicum (paricá) e S. parahyba (guapuruvu) foram submetidas a dois ciclos de deficiência hídrica em casa de vegetação. O déficit hídrico induziu o aumento dos teores de aminoácidos solúveis totais, prolina, açúcares solúveis totais e K+ nos tecidos foliares, ocasionando o abaixamento do potencial osmótico em ambas as espécies. Porém, a análise dos resultados das curvas pressão-volume indica que as espécies respondem, de maneira diferente, ao estresse hídrico e o S. ama...

  8. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUVENILE Schizolobium amazonicum WOOD

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    Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth in world demand for wood implies a search for new fast growing species with silvicultural potential, and in this scenario for native species such as Paricá . Thus, the objective of this study was determining the physical and mechanical wood properties of the Schizolobium amazonicum species (known as Paricá in Brazil. Trees were collected from commercial plantations located in the north of Brazil with ages of 5, 7, 9 and 11 years. Four logs from trees of each age in the longitudinal direction of the trees were obtained, and later a diametrical plank of each log was taken to manufacture the specimens which were used to evaluate some physical and mechanical properties of the wood. The basic density of Paricá was reduced in the basetop direction and no difference between the radial positions was observed, while the average basic density of this wood was characterized as low. The region close to the bark showed less longitudinal contraction and also greater homogeneity of this property along the trunk, while for tangential contraction the smallest variation was found in the region near the pith. Paricá wood contraction was characterized as low. Age influenced most of the mechanical properties, where logs from the base had the highest values of mechanical strength.

  9. Modeling Growth and Yield of Schizolobium amazonicum under Different Spacings

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    Gilson Fernandes da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present an approach to model the growth and yield of the species Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá based on a study of different spacings located in Pará, Brazil. Whole-stand models were employed, and two modeling strategies (Strategies A and B were tested. Moreover, the following three scenarios were evaluated to assess the accuracy of the model in estimating total and commercial volumes at five years of age: complete absence of data (S1; available information about the variables basal area, site index, dominant height, and number of trees at two years of age (S2; and this information available at five years of age (S3. The results indicated that the 3 × 2 spacing has a higher mortality rate than normal, and, in general, greater spacing corresponds to larger diameter and average height and smaller basal area and volume per hectare. In estimating the total and commercial volumes for the three scenarios tested, Strategy B seems to be the most appropriate method to estimate the growth and yield of Paricá plantations in the study region, particularly because Strategy A showed a significant bias in its estimates.

  10. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum; Danos de Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em Parica, Schizolobium amazonicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: amehl@cpatu.embrapa.br; Harada, Ana Y. [Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pesquisas em Zoologia. Setor de Invertebrados], e-mail: ahara@museu-goeldi.br

    2009-03-15

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  11. THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.

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    Sebastião Ferreira de Lima

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of shoots and roots. The symptoms ofdeficiency can be observed in new leaves and roots and the toxicity in older leaves. Bothboron deficiency and excess inhibits plants growth, but toxicity is more damaging. The Comportamento do paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. submetido ...193approximate dose of 0 Estimate of average equilibrium moisture content of wood for 26Brazilian states, by Hailwood and Harrobin one hydrate sorption theory equation.15mg/dm3 was the best for plants growth in MSPA and MSRA. The concentration of boronincreased in MSPA and MSRA with application of increasing concentration of B, with a smallreduction in concentration of MSRA from the concentration 1.9 mg/dm3. The toxicity of boronbegins when concentration reaches 36.06 mg/dm3 in shoots and 32.38 in roots. The contentsof all nutrients, except Mn and Fe in MSPA and Cu, Fe and B in MSRA, followed its own drymatter production curves.

  12. [Use of dental services by preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Ferreira, Simone; Fischer, Laura de Almeida; Cardoso, Luciana; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of dental services and age at first dental visit in preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A representative sample of under-five children was surveyed on National Children's Vaccination Day. Children's parents completed questionnaires containing socio-demographic data and age at first dental visit. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. 192 children were examined. 13.3% of the sample had already visited the dentist at least once, but only 4.3% had their first dental visit by one year of age. The number of children who had already visited a dentist increased with age. Girls showed higher odds of having visited a dentist (OR = 1.46; 95%CI: 1.01-2.1). Public health strategies are needed to determine the effectiveness of health promotion and improve the use of dental services by preschool children.

  13. INITIAL GROWTHING OF PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum UNDER NUTRIENT OMISSION AND SODIUM IN NUTRITIVE SOLUTION

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    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the production of dry matter in leaves, stems and roots, to identify the effect of nutritional deficiencies, and to describe visual symptoms of macro and micronutrients deficiencies in Shizolobium amazonicum Herb. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse experiment in 13 treatments. The deficiencies due to macro and micronutrients markedly decreased the production of dry matter. The Schizolobium amazonicum showed different responses to treatments. In the first few weeks, the seeds were able to supply P in the necessary amount but, due to fast growth rates, N was the limiting factor at this stage. Nitrogen and Fe were the most limiting and Mg, S, and Cu, were the least limiting to growth. Sodium was also less limiting to growth.

  14. [Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Alexandre M; Harada, Ana Y; Aguiar, Tanice da S; Cardoso, Andreza S

    2009-01-01

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Pará State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants.

  15. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) damaging Schizolobium amazonicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Alexandre M.; Aguiar, Tanice da S.; Cardoso, Andreza S.; Harada, Ana Y.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries by Solenopsis saevissima F Smith in parica (Schizolobium amazonicum) trees are described for the first time in Dom Eliseu County, Para State, Brazil. This ant damages leaves and the shaft where holes and galleries are opened up to the plant shoot. Terminal and new shoots are attacked and destroyed, harming the development of upright and uniform trunks for commercialization. Arboreal nests constructed by this ant were also observed in some plants. (author)

  16. Occurrence of Quesada gigas on Schizolobium amazonicum trees in Maranhão and Pará States, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    ZANUNCIO, J.C.; PEREIRA, F.F.; ZANUNCIO, T.V.; MARTINELLI, N.M.; PINON, T.B.M.; GUIMARÃES, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    An infestation of Quesada gigas Olivier (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on "paricá" Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber) Ducken (Fabales: Fabaceae) was reported in the Municipalities of Itinga, Maranhão State and Paragominas, Pará State. Nymphs of this insect on roots and adults and exuvias on trunks of the plant were observed. Exit holes of nymphs in the soil were also observed. The occurrence of Q. gigas on S. amazonicum shows the damage potential of this species and the necessity of developing integrate...

  17. Efeito da ingestão de chá de canela C. burmannii na glicémia pós-prandial de indivíduos adultos não diabéticos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Elisabeth Jerónimo dos

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz Enquadramento: A canela é uma especiaria muito utilizada na gastronomia portuguesa. Diferentes estudos têm sugerido que a canela apresenta efeitos benéficos na glicemia pós-prandial atribuindo-os à presença de compostos fenólicos na canela. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito de um chá de canela C. burmannii (6 g de canela em pau /100 mL) no nível de glicémia capilar pós-prandial em indivíduos adul...

  18. Respostas de plantas de Schizolobium amazonicum [S. parahyba var. amazonicum] e Schizolobium parahyba [Schizolobium parahybum] à deficiência hídrica

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Cláudio José Reis de

    2005-01-01

    Plantas jovens de S. amazonicum (paricá) e S. parahyba (guapuruvu) foram submetidas a dois ciclos de deficiência hídrica em casa de vegetação. O déficit hídrico induziu o aumento dos teores de aminoácidos solúveis totais, prolina, açúcares solúveis totais e K+ nos tecidos foliares, ocasionando o abaixamento do potencial osmótico em ambas as espécies. Porém, a análise dos resultados das curvas pressão-volume indica que as espécies respondem, de maneira diferente, ao estresse hídrico e o S. ama...

  19. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Powers, Chelsea N; Parducci V, Rafael; McFeeters, Robert L; Setzer, William N

    2017-09-23

    Background: Protium species (Burseraceae) have been used in the treatment of various diseases and conditions such as ulcers and wounds. Methods: The essential oil from the oleoresin of Protium amazonicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS, GC-FID, and chiral GC-MS. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil was screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans , Aspergillus niger , and Cryptococcus neoformans . Results: A total of 54 components representing 99.6% of the composition were identified in the oil. The essential oil was dominated by δ-3-carene (47.9%) with lesser quantities of other monoterpenoids α-pinene (4.0%), p -cymene (4.1%), limonene (5.1%), α-terpineol (5.5%) and p -cymen-8-ol (4.8%). Chiral GC-MS revealed most of the monoterpenoids to have a majority of levo enantiomers present with the exceptions of limonene and α-terpineol, which showed a dextro majority. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil showed promising activity against Cryptococcus neoformans , with MIC = 156 μg/mL. Conclusions: This account is the first reporting of both the chemical composition and enantiomeric distribution of the oleoresin essential oil of P. amazonicum from Ecuador. The oil was dominated by (-)-δ-3-carene, and this compound, along with other monoterpenoids, likely accounts for the observed antifungal activity of the oil.

  20. Freshwater shrimps (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) as biomonitors of Hg availability in the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, R C F; Holanda, I B B; De Carvalho, D P; Almeida, R; Souza, C M M; Lacerda, L D; Bastos, W R

    2018-01-10

    Total mercury (THg) concentrations measured in two freshwater shrimp species (Macrobrachium depressimanum and Macrobrachium jelskii) showed a relationship with the location of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) from the Madeira River Basin, Western Amazon. Between August 2009 and May 2010, 212 shrimp samples were collected in the confluence of the Madeira River with three of its tributaries (Western Amazon). THg concentration was quantified in the exoskeleton, hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of the shrimps by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences between the two shrimp species when samples came from the Madeira River, but Hg concentrations were significantly lower in a tributary outside the influence of the gold mining area. Average THg concentrations were higher in the hepatopancreas (up to 160.0 ng g -1 ) and lower in the exoskeleton and muscle tissue (10.0-35.0 ng g -1 and Madeira River respond to local environmental levels of Hg and can be considered as biomonitors for environmental Hg at this spatial scale. These organisms are important for moving Hg up food webs including those that harbor economic significant fish species and thus enhancing human exposure.

  1. Production of laminated veneer lumber LVL using veneer of Schizolobium amazonicum, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the quality of laminated veneer lumber - LVL manufactured with veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda. The LVL panels were manufactured in the laboratory conditions composed by seven veneers, 2,0 mm thickness, with different structural compositions, using phenol-formaldehyde resin. The veneers of Schizolobium amazonicum- paricá- were pre-classified by using stress wave machine. The veneers of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus taeda were disposed in the face layer to reinforce the structural strength of LVL panels. The LVL quality was evaluated using glue line shear strength and static bending test (MOE and MOR, edge and flat. Grading of paricá veneers based on MOEd did not affected significantly the results of the glue line shear strength and MOE and MOR edge. For the MOE and MOR flat, the use of veneers of MOEd grade 1 contributed significantly to increasing the average values of these properties. In the same way, using the Eucalyptus saligna veneers on the face of LVL resulted in higher average values of MOE and MOR, edge and flat.

  2. Evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium inferred from mitochondrial markers: a molecular clock approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Deepak; Harikrishnan, Mahadevan

    2018-04-17

    Caridea, an infraorder of shrimps coming under Pleocyemata was first reported from the oceans before 417 million years followed by their radiation recorded during the Permian period. Hitherto, about 3877 extant caridean species were accounted within which one quarter constitute freshwater species. Freshwater prawns of genus Macrobrachium (Infraorder Caridea; Family Palaemonidae), with more than 240 species are inhabitants of diverse aquatic habitats like coastal lagoons, lakes, tropical streams, ponds and rivers. Previous studies on Macrobrachium relied on the highly variable morphological characters which were insufficient for accurate diagnosis of natural species groups. Present study focuses on the utility of molecular markers (viz. COI and 16S rRNA) for resolving the evolutionary history of genus Macrobrachium using a combination of phylogeny and timescale components. It is for the first time a molecular clock approach had been carried out towards genus Macrobrachium in a broad aspect with the incorporation of congeners inhabiting diverse geographical realms including endemic species M. striatum from South West coast of India. Molecular results obtained revealed the phylogenetic relationships between congeners of genus Macrobrachium at intra/inter-continental level along with the corresponding evolutionary time estimates.

  3. Occurrence of Solenopsis saevissima F Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Damaging Schizolobium amazonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Lunz, Alexandre M; Harada, Ana Y; Aguiar, Tanice da S; Cardoso, Andreza S

    2009-01-01

    São descritas pela primeira vez injúrias causadas por Solenopsis saevissima F Smith em árvores de paricá, Schizolobium amazonicum, em Dom Eliseu, PA. Essa formiga ataca folhas e o fuste, onde são abertos orifícios e galerias, até a região apical da planta. Brotos terminais e novas brotações também são atacados e destruídos, prejudicando a formação de um tronco retilíneo e uniforme para comercialização. Ninhos arborícolas construídos pelas formigas foram observados em algumas plantas. Injur...

  4. HEIGHT GROWTH OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. ON THREE NATURAL SITES, AT REGION OF CANELA - RS

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    Luciano Weber Scheeren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has had as its principal objectives the study of dominant height growth considering its age in three natural sites, and the determination of natural sites classification efficacy for the Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Ktze. in a planting stand in Canela, RS. For height and age data adjustment, determined through stem analysis, it was used the RICHARDS (1959 non-linear mathematics model, with two and three coefficients, resulting the three coefficient model as the most efficient to data adjustment of twelve dominant tree sampled on three natural sites in study. Seven groups of dominant trees with different trends growth were obtained, indicating that the natural sites classification did not detect with accuracy the effects of environmental  variables on height growth of Araucaria angustifolia.

  5. Culture of Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium Rosenbergii) Using Geothermal Waste Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William C

    1978-01-01

    The farming of freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in geothermal-heated water has been demonstrated to be feasible in a non-tropical climate. The husbandry of prawns is being done in two outdoor raceway ponds, 9.1 m by 2.5 m and 29 m by 3.5 m that are 1.2 m deep. The ponds are not shielded from the ambient climate which during the winter months has recorded air temperatures as low as -20oC. A selected brood stock is held in a small spawning building where larvae are hatched in artificial saltwater and reared to the post-larvae stage which makes the facility self-supporting. This project is providing a model for potential investors to utilize the low-temperature geothermal resources in the western United States for warm water aquaculture. Zooplankton, macroscopic crusteans, from a local euthrophic lake are being fed to the post-larvae and adult prawns in addition to prepared commercial dry pelleted foods to keep operational costs at a minimum. Initial measurements of growth and weight gains indicate the production of two crops of prawns per year at seven to the pond is possible. No work on intensive culture has been done. Plans to enlarge the facility and do work on developing intensive culture are being considered.

  6. Farming of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii in Bagerhat, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Akter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to know the present status of Macrobrachium rosenbergii culture in Bagerhat district, Bangladesh from March 2012 to January 2013. Education levels of farmers were found as illiterate (12.3%, primary (36.19%, secondary (20%, SSC (13.33%, HSC (12.38% and graduate (5.71%. M. rosenbergii culture was the primary and secondary occupation of 80% and 20% farmers respectively. Average stocking density and production in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture were 9609, 11502 and 22847 per ha and 193, 284 and 488 kg/ha/year respectively; rearing period ranges from 6-10 months and survival rate varied from 55 to 60%. In improved extensive and semi-intensive culture 82.86% and 71.43% farmers applied farm-made feed instead of company feeds respectively and 11.43% and 37.14% farmers used both feeds. 91.43%, 80% and 68.57% respondents responded on normal to high mortality in extensive, improved extensive and semi-intensive culture respectively. Lack of finance and appropriate technology, scarcity of quality PL, diseases and inadequate extension work were major problems of prawn culture.

  7. ESTIMASI HERITABILITAS UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosenbergii BERBASIS PADA KERAGAMAN FENOTIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Emmawati Hadie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dirancang untuk menghitung heritabilitas pada sifat bobot udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii pada umur lima bulan. Lima full-sib dan 15 half-sib dipelihara pada dua tingkat salinitas yaitu 0‰ dan 10‰, dengan rata-rata bobot sebesar 5,6 g; dan  = 0,40 g. Komponen keragaman diestimasi dengan mixed model leastsquares dan maximum likelihood. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa respons genetik yang tinggi dapat diperoleh melalui seleksi bobot, karena nilai heritabilitas pada sifat tersebut relatif tinggi. Hasil penelitian ini juga memperlihatkan bahwa kisaran nilai h2 pada air tawar (0,509-0,866 dan air payau (0,235-0,499. Jadi nilai h2 pada air tawar lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lingkungan air payau pada salinitas 10,0‰. Kisaran nilai h2 yang dicapai pada out-crossing antara koleksi Barito dengan Musi adalah 0,663±0,037-0,866±0,047. Implikasi dari hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa untuk menghasilkan perbaikan mutu genetik pada udang galah dapat ditempuh melalui program seleksi yang dikombinasikan dengan metode pemijahan secara out-crossing.

  8. Matérias estranhas em canela em pó e páprica em pó, comercializadas no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORREIA Marlene

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivos de padronizar metodologias para matérias estranhas em canela em pó e páprica em pó e de avaliar as condições higiênicas desses condimentos, foram adquiridas, no período de agosto a novembro de 1998, 78 amostras de canela em pó e 56 de páprica em pó, em estabelecimentos comerciais de seis cidades do Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizados métodos da Association of Official Analytical Chemists International (AOAC - 1995, 16.14.12/968.38b para canela em pó e 16.14.22/977.25B para páprica em pó. Os métodos mostraram-se adequados, sem resíduos interferentes no papel de filtro que dificultasse o diagnóstico da análise e viáveis de serem utilizados nos laboratórios de Microscopia de Alimentos. Os resultados obtidos indicaram 100% das amostras contendo fragmentos de insetos; pêlos de roedor foram isolados em 73,1% de amostras de canela em pó e 34,0% de páprica em pó, enquanto ácaros mortos apareceram, respectivamente, em 37,2% e 12,5% de amostras. É necessário revisão da legislação de alimentos em vigor, com o estabelecimento de níveis de tolerância para fragmentos de insetos.

  9. Microfitoplâncton de águas costeiras amazônicas: Ilha Canela (Bragança, PA, Brasil Microphytoplankton of Amazon coastal waters: Canela Island (Bragança, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Brabo de Sousa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Variações sazonal e nictemeral do microfitoplâncton foram estudadas em uma estação fixa (00º46'37,2''S-046º43'24,5''W, localizada em uma área costeira próxima à ilha Canela (Norte do Brasil, durante os meses de setembro e dezembro/2004 (período seco e março e junho/2005 (período chuvoso. As amostras destinadas à análise qualitativa do fitoplâncton foram obtidas a partir da filtragem de 400 L de água, através de uma rede planctônica (65 μm de abertura de malha, durante marés de sizígia, em intervalos regulares de três horas, por um período de 24 horas. O material coletado foi fixado com formol neutro a 4%. Paralelamente a essas coletas foi medida a salinidade da superfície da água. A salinidade apresentou variação significativa ao longo do período de estudo, variando entre 26,1 (junho/2005 e 39,0 (dezembro/2004, caracterizando o ambiente como eualino-polialino. Foram identificados 130 táxons incluídos nas divisões Cyanophyta (dois táxons, Bacillariophyta (115 táxons e Dinophyta (13 táxons. As diatomáceas dominaram o microfitoplâncton da área, sendo Asterionellopsis glacialis, Dimeregramma minor, Skeletonema sp. e Thalassiosira subtilis os táxons mais freqüentes e abundantes. Os altos valores de salinidade condicionaram a maior representatividade das espécies marinhas neríticas, polialóbias. Os processos de ressuspensão provocados pelos ventos e arrebentação das ondas promoveram intercâmbios entre as populações planctônicas e ticoplanctônicas, dentre as quais as espécies Dimeregramma minor, Triceratium biquadratum e T. pentacrinus representaram novas ocorrências para as águas costeiras do litoral amazônico.Seasonal and nyctemeral variations of the microphytoplankton were studied at a fixed station (00º46'37.2''S-046º43'24.5''W on Canela Island (North Brazil in September and December/2004 (dry season and in March and June/2005 (rainy season. Samples for qualitative phytoplankton studies were

  10. Conservação de manga com uso de fécula de mandioca preparada com extrato de cravo e canela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryan Franciele Pereira Serpa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a conservação pós-colheita de mangas 'Palmer' e o desenvolvimento de fungos fitopatogênicos nos frutos, após o revestimento por fécula de mandioca, preparada com águas de cravo e de canela. Para execução do trabalho, foram utilizados cinco tratamentos: T1= testemunha (sem revestimento, T2= imersão em solução de fécula a 3%, preparada com água de cravo, por 12 horas, T3= imersão em solução de fécula a 3%, preparada com água de canela, por 12 horas, T4= imersão em solução de fécula a 3%, preparada com água destilada, T5= imersão em solução de fécula a 3%, preparada com água de canela, por 24 horas e T6= imersão em solução de fécula a 3%, preparada com água de cravo, por 24 horas. Esses frutos foram armazenados em câmara a 25 ºC, por dez dias. Foram avaliados perda de matéria fresca, firmeza, cores interna e externa, pH, sólidos solúveis, ácido ascórbico, acidez titulável e identificação de patógenos presentes nas lesões. O revestimento de mangas 'Palmer' por fécula de mandioca, preparada com águas de cravo ou de canela, não influenciou na maioria das características de pós-colheita avaliadas. Entretanto, o revestimento assim preparado reduz a percentagem de fitopatógenos durante o armazenamento, sendo o extrato de cravo mais eficiente que o extrato de canela.

  11. Ocorrência de Quesada gigas em Schizolobium amazonicum em municípios do Maranhão e do Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Pereira, Fabrício Fagundes; Zanuncio, Teresinha Vinha; Martinelli, Nilza Maria; Pinon, Tobias Baruc Moreira; Guimarães, Edylene Marota

    2004-01-01

    An infestation of Quesada gigas Olivier (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on "paricá" Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber) Ducken (Fabales: Fabaceae) was reported in the Municipalities of Itinga, Maranhão State and Paragominas, Pará State. Nymphs of this insect on roots and adults and exuvias on trunks of the plant were observed. Exit holes of nymphs in the soil were also observed. The occurrence of Q. gigas on S. amazonicum shows the damage potential of this species and the necessity of developing integrate...

  12. SELEÇÃO DE MARCADORES ISSR PARA Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke Barneby

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    Adelson Lemes da Silva Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar primers ISSR para serem utilizados em futuras análises de diversidade genética em população de S. amazonicum, conhecido popularmente como Paricá. Para isto, foram utilizadas folhas coletadas em 5 indivíduos da espécie em estudo, para a realização da extração e purificação do DNA genômico. Posteriormente, as amostras de DNA foram submetidas a ensaios de PCR utilizando 43 primers, seguida por eletroforese em gel de agarose, de modo a permitir a avaliação e seleção dos primers com maior qualidade de amplificação. Foram selecionados 11 primers por possuírem número considerável de locos polimórficos, além de serem nítidos e bem definidos. Os primers selecionados geraram 129 fragmentos, demonstrando que a quantidade de marcadores moleculares ISSR utilizados neste estudo são suficientes para quantificar a diversidade genética em futuros trabalhos com populações da espécie.

  13. Morphological and molecular features of some freshwater prawn species under genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Win; Kang, Peng-Fei; Mao, Bin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2018-02-28

    Myanmar is abundant in lakes and rivers, yet only a few investigations on the fauna of shrimps and prawns have been conducted and no molecular characteristics of prawn species have been described. This study reveals the morphologically identification of five freshwater prawn species under the genus Macrobrachium, including M. cavernicola, M. australiense, M. johnsoni, M. josephi and Macrobrachium sp.WMY-2017. As there was no previous record and information concerning with M. australiense, M. johnsoni, M. josephi and Macrobrachium sp. WMY-2017, they were regarded as the first record from Myanmar. A fragment of Mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I Gene (COI) was amplified successfully from three studied species: M. australiense, M. josephi, and Macrobrachium sp.WMY-2017. The interspecific divergences of studied species varied from 0.01 to 0.15. The phylogenetic tree based on COI fragment sequences showed that M. australiense was closely related to M. rosenbergii, while Macrobrachium sp. WMY-2017 was closest to M. josephi. The results of molecular phylogeny has clarified the relationship within the genus Macrobrachium and represents the first step toward understanding the pattern of speciation base on molecular approach in Myanmar.

  14. Genetic diversity of Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke) Barneby, in a forest area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, A L Silva; Souza, L C; Pereira, A G; Caldeira, M V W; Miranda, F D

    2017-09-21

    Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Fabaceae) is an arboreal species, endemic to the Amazon Rainforest, popularly known as paricá. It is used on a commercial scale in the timber sector, pulp and paper production, reclamation projects in degraded and landscaped areas. However, there is no availability of genetically improved material selected for the environmental conditions of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. In this sense, the present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity in a population of S. amazonicum, established in a forest area in the southern region of the State of Espírito Santo, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. DNA samples from 171 individuals were analyzed using 11 ISSR primers, which generated 79 polymorphic bands in a total of 136 fragments (58%). The polymorphic information content performed for the ISSR markers revealed a mean of 0.37, classifying them as moderately informative. The number of loci found (N = 79) was greater than that established as the optimal number (N = 69) for the analyses. High genetic diversity was found with the parameters, genetic diversity of Nei (H E = 0.375) and Shannon index (I = 0.554). The data demonstrated in the dendrogram, based on the UPGMA cluster analysis, corroborated by the Bayesian analysis performed by the STRUCTURE program, which indicated the formation of two distinct clusters (K = 2). One of the groups was formed with the majority of the individuals (153 genotypes) and the second with the minority (18 genotypes). The results revealed high genetic diversity in the population of S. amazonicum evaluated in the present study, determining the potential of the population to be used as an orchard for seed collection and production of seedlings with confirmed genetic variability.

  15. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE BRANCH-WOOD OF Schizolobium amazonicum DUCKE SPECIES AND ITS POTENTIAL USES

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    Yusup Amin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The scale of forest degradation and deforestation in Indonesia has inspired the use of lesser-known wood species, which are potentially abundant and so far has not much been utilized. Utilization of these woods should be imposed not only of the stem wood but also of the branch-wood portions. Schizolobiumamazonicum Ducke treeis one of those lesser-known species, and growing fast with an MAIof3.68 cm/year.In Indonesia this species is only found in the Purwodadi Botanical Garden. A research was conducted to study the basic characteristics (anatomical aspects and chemical properties of the branch-wood portion of this species. The branch-wood materials were obtained from the Purwodadi Botanical Garden situated in Pasuruan (East Java. The specimens used were the first branch of the trunk (stem of nine-year old S. amazonicum tree (= 29.46 cm. The branch-wood samples were then examined for the anatomical aspects (macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and chemical properties (chemical composition. Results revealed that the anatomical properties of S.amazonicum branch-wood exhibited close similarities to those of sengon wood; it was light in appearance and white in color. Its fiber averaged about 1500 μm, and based on the fiber dimension's derived values the branch- wood fiber of this species was categorized into first-class quality for pulp and paper manufacture. Further, the chemical composition of this branch-wood compared favorably with that of sengon and mangium wood. The composition of extractive content thatsoluble in alcohol-benzene; lignin; holocellulose; and α-cellulose of this branch-wood were 2.46; 28.71; 80.64; and 50.47%, respectively. The overall assessment implied that the branch-wood portion of S.amazonicum tree affords favorable potential to be developed as raw material for pulp and paper manufacture. Also, considering that both sengon and mangium woods were already used in the pulp and paper industries as well as the trees are

  16. Biomass yield and growth of Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber) Ducke under different spacing conditions in the wood region

    OpenAIRE

    Rondon, Eliazel Vieira

    2002-01-01

    O ensaio foi conduzido no município de Sinop, Estado de Mato Grosso. Aos 60 meses de idade foram avaliados a altura total, o diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP), o número de plantas danificadas pelo vento e a produção de biomassa da parte aérea de Schizolobium amazonicum, em diferentes densidades populacionais e espaçamentos. Os resultados demonstram que o crescimento em altura e DAP foram influenciados nos diferentes espaçamentos estudados. Quarenta e sete plantas úteis foram danificadas pelo v...

  17. Scarification with sulphuric acid of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke seeds - FABACEAE Escarificação com ácido sulfúrico de sementes de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke - FABACEAE

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    Eniel David Cruz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat impermeability to water occurs in many species, including Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. To promote germination in seeds with coat impermeability the use of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 is recommended. The objective of this study was to identify a better time for the scarification with sulphuric acid for S. amazonicum seeds. The effect of scarification with sulphuric acid for 20, 40 and 60 min on germination and speed germination was studied for seeds that were either sowed immediately after scarification or after a 24-hour period of immersion in water. Seeds were sown on a mix of sand and sawdust (1:1. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds. The statistical analysis of germination was carried out at six, nine, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after sowing, in a factorial scheme. For speed germination the means were compared by the Tukey test. There was an interaction between treatments to overcome dormancy and immersion time after scarification in most evaluations. Immersion in water accelerated the beginning of germination. All treatments to overcome dormancy promoted seed germination. However, scarification for 60 min, showed better germination, 92% when immediately sown and 86.5% when sown after 24 hours. Speed germination index was highest for scarified seeds for 60 min followed by immersion in water. Scarification for 60 min was the most efficient treatment to promote germination in S. amazonicum seeds.Impermeabilidade do tegumento da semente à água ocorre em muitas espécies, inclusive em Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. Para promover a germinação de sementes com tegumento impermeável um dos métodos recomendados é o uso de ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar o melhor tempo de escarificação com ácido sulfúrico na superação da dormência em sementes de S. amazonicum, escarificadas durante 20, 40 e 60 minutos. Parte das sementes foi semeada

  18. Properties of particleboards fabricated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, parica (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. particles

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    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sida may become a promising alternative source for the production of particleboards. Nowadays it is used for manufacturing ropes due to the quality of its fibers, however, there is no research relating the production of particleboards using this lignocelluloses material. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla, paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum and vassoura (Sida spp. on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Particleboard contained 25, 50, 75 and 100% of eucalyptus and paricá or eucalytus and vassoura or paricá an vassoura were fabricated. Two (6% and 8% amounts of urea-formaldehyde adhesive were used. The physical and mechanical properties were determined according to NBR / ABNT 14810-3 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 2002. It was observed that increase in resin content in the improved some physical and mechanical properties. It was concluded that the amount of vassoura particles on panels had different effects depending on the species used. The increase in the percentage of vassoura particles in the Eucalyptus panels did not affect the internal bond, screw withdrawal and hardness. Increasing the percentage of vassoura particles on the panels produced with paricá did not affect its hardness and resistance to screw withdrawal. The panels produced with vassoura particle absorbed more water and, consequently, increased the thickness swelling, and therefore is not recommended for use in environments with high humidity. It was concluded that the genus Sida, in general, has potential for particleboard production.

  19. Galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seed and its sulfated derivatives impair metabolism in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha de Padua, Monique Meyenberg; Suter Correia Cadena, Silvia Maria; de Oliveira Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Rodrigues Noleto, Guilhermina

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of native galactomannan from Schizolobium amazonicum seeds and its sulfated forms on certain metabolic parameters of HepG2 cells. Aqueous extraction from S. amazonicum seeds furnished galactomannan with 3.2:1 Man:Gal ratio (SAGM) and molar mass of 4.34×10 5 g/mol. The SAGM fraction was subjected to sulfation using chlorosulfonic acid to obtain SAGMS1 and SAGMS2 with DS of 0.4 and 0.6, respectively. Cytotoxicity of SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 was evaluated in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). After 72h, SAGM decreased the viability of HepG2 cells by 50% at 250μg/mL, while SAGMS1 reduced it by 30% at the same concentration. SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 promoted a reduction in oxygen consumption and an increase in lactate production in non-permeabilized HepG2 cells after 72h of treatment. These results suggest that SAGM, SAGMS1, and SAGMS2 could be recognized by HepG2 cells and might trigger alterations that impair its survival. These effects could be implicated in the modification of the oxidative phosphorylation process in HepG2 cells and activation of the glycolytic pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluación de la capacidad conservante de los aceites esenciales de clavo (syzygium aromaticum) y canela (cinnamomum verum), sobre la levadura (rhodotorula mucilaginosa) en leche chocolatada

    OpenAIRE

    Castaño Sepúlveda, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Los aceites esenciales (AE) son mezclas homogéneas de sustancias orgánicas provenientes de una misma familia química, terpenos y sus compuestos oxigenados. Tienen la propiedad común de generar diversos aromas agradables y perceptibles al ser humano, algunos presentan propiedades antimicrobianas. El clavo (Syzygium aromaticum) y la canela (Cinnamomum verum) son especias muy utilizadas en gastronomía y medicina natural, evaluados durante las últimas décadas por su uso potencial como co...

  1. Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinroch, Chutima; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Phiriyangkul, Pharima

    2015-10-01

    Edible insects have recently been promoted as a source of protein and have a high nutrition value. Identification of allergens and cross-reactivity between Macrobrachium spp. and the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) is necessary for food safety control and to assist in the diagnosis and therapy of allergy symptoms. Denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins. Allergens were determined and identified by IgE-immunoblotting with pooled sera from prawn-allergic patients (n=16) and LC-MS/MS. Arginine kinase (AK) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined as the important allergens in muscle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii whereas, hemocyanin (HC) was identified as an allergen in Macrobrachium spp. The allergens in Macrobrachium lanchesteri were identified as AK and HC. In addition, hexamerin1B (HEX1B) was identified as a novel and specific allergen in G. bimaculatus. The important allergen in G. bimaculatus and Macrobrachium spp. is AK and was found to cross-react between both species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of Quesada gigas on Schizolobium amazonicum trees in Maranhão and Pará States, Brazil Ocorrência de Quesada gigas em Schizolobium amazonicum em municípios do Maranhão e do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available An infestation of Quesada gigas Olivier (Hemiptera: Cicadidae on "paricá" Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber Ducken (Fabales: Fabaceae was reported in the Municipalities of Itinga, Maranhão State and Paragominas, Pará State. Nymphs of this insect on roots and adults and exuvias on trunks of the plant were observed. Exit holes of nymphs in the soil were also observed. The occurrence of Q. gigas on S. amazonicum shows the damage potential of this species and the necessity of developing integrated management programs for species of this group, specially in reforested areas with "paricá".Há relatos sobre a infestação de Quesada gigas Olivier (Hemiptera: Cicadidae em paricá Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber Ducken (Fabales: Fabaceae nos municípios de Itinga, Estado do Maranhão e Paragominas, Estado do Pará. Observaram-se ninfas nas raízes e adultos e exúvias nos troncos da planta. Orifícios no solo, de saída de ninfas móveis dessa cigarra também foram verificados. A ocorrência de Q. gigas em S. amazonicum mostra o potencial de danos da espécie e a necessidade de se desenvolver programas de manejo integrado de espécies desse grupo, principalmente Q. gigas, em áreas reflorestadas com paricá.

  3. PRELIMINARY STUDY OF PLYWOOD PRODUCED WITH PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke VENEERS MODIFIED BY THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT

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    Larissa Medeiros Arruda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this preliminary research was to study the effects of thermo-mechanical modification in veneers of Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke to improve plywood hygroscopicity and mechanical properties. The amount of 24 veneers was used with the dimensions 25 x 25 cm, that were compressed under different times (5, 10 and 15 minutes at 150°C and pressure at 1 N.mm-2, constituting three treatments and one untreated. Plywood were bonded with resorcinol-formaldehyde, glue consumption of 360 g.m-2 at ambient temperature and pressure of 1 N.mm-2 for 10 hours. The samples were evaluated by colorimetric analysis and physical and mechanical properties. Colorimetric analysis showed that there was a darkening of the wood toward the increase of treatment time. The treatment was not efficient in reducing swelling, only reducing absorption of water. The mechanical properties were not significantly affected by the treatment.

  4. Bioaccumulation and retention kinetics of cadmium in the freshwater decapod Macrobrachium australiense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Locked Bag 2007, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower, QLD 4066 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Mazumder, Debashish [Institute for Environmental Research, ANSTO, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, NSW 2232 (Australia); Twining, John [Austral Radioecology, Oyster Bay, NSW, 2225 (Australia)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Sources and mechanisms of Cd bioaccumulation were examined using radiotracers. • Macrobrachium australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase. • Assimilation efficiencies were comparable for sediment and algae. • A biokinetic model predicted ingestion accounted for majority of bioaccumulated Cd. - Abstract: The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using {sup 109}Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately {sup 109}Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 ± 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 ± 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48–51%), but lower for carrion (28 ± 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2–2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted

  5. Genetic diversity analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Huaihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Yu, Yanyan; Bao, Fangyin; Wang, Song; Xiao, Ming Song

    2018-04-19

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an economically and nutritionally important species of decapod crustaceans in China. Genetic structure and demographic history of Macrobrachium nipponense were examined using sequence data from portions of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Samples of 191 individuals were collected from 10 localities in the upper to middle reaches of the Huaihe River. Variability was detected at a total of 42 nucleotide sites along 684 bp length of homologous sequence (6.14%), and base substitutions occurred mostly at the second codon position. Haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations were 0.9136 ± 0.0116 and 0.0078 ± 0.0042, respectively. Phylogenetic tree constructed using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method showed that the 44 haplotypes were assigned to two obvious clades associated with geographic regions. Moreover, the median-joining network was similar to the topology of the phylogenetic tree with 44 haplotypes. The pairwise F ST values between the populations varied from -0.0298 to 0.2994. Generally, moderate genetic differentiation (F ST  = 0.1598, p = .0000) among different geographic populations was detected, with the significant differentiation between the Huaibin (HB) and other Macrobrachium nipponense populations. Both mismatch distribution analyses and neutrality tests suggested the early stage of Late Pleistocene population expansion 85,500 years before present for the species, which was consistent with the palaeoclimatic condition of the Huaihe River Basin.

  6. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  7. Biological features on epibiosis of Amphibalanus improvisus (Cirripedia on Macrobrachium acanthurus (Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the epibiosis of barnacles Amphibalanus improvisus on eight adult Macrobrachium acanthurus males from the Mundaú Lagoon, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The number of epibiont barnacles varied from 247 to 1,544 specimens per prawn; these were distributed predominantly on the cephalothorax and pereiopods, but also on the abdomen and other appendices. Although some were already reproducing, most barnacles had been recruited recently or were still sexually immature; this suggests recent host arrival in that estuarine environment. Despite the fact that other barnacles occur in this region, A. improvisus is the only species reported as an epibiont on Macrobrachium acanthurus; this was also the first record of epibiosis on this host. The occurrence of innumerable specimens in the pereiopods' articulations and the almost complete covering of the carapace of some prawns (which also increased their weight suggest that A. improvisus is adapted to fixate this kind of biogenic substrate and that the relationship between the two species biologically damages the basibiont.O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a epibiose de cirrípedes Amphibalanus improvisus em oito camarões machos adultos da espécie Macrobrachium acanthurus provenientes da Laguna Mundaú, Alagoas, Brasil. O número de cirrípedes epibiontes variou desde 247 até 1.544 espécimes por camarão, distribuídos predominantemente no cefalotórax e pereiópodos, mas presentes também no abdome e demais apêndices. A grande maioria dos cirrípedes era recém-recrutada ou ainda estava sexualmente imatura, embora de alguns estivessem já em reprodução, sugerindo a chegada recente de seu hospedeiro no ambiente estuarino. Apesar de ocorrem outros cirrípedes na região, A. improvisus foi à única espécie relatada como epibionte em Macrobrachium acanthurus e isto se constituiu o primeiro registro de epibiose de Amphibalanus improvisus A ocorrência de inúmeros esp

  8. [Influence of lecithotrofic feeding on growth and development of larvae of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, R R; Kriakhova, N V

    2011-01-01

    In the giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man), lecithotrofic feeding was discovered at the zoea I stage, and facultative lecithotrofic feeding was found at the zoea II stage. Cases of the completion of the first two stages without feeding were detected. However, a delay in feeding at the zoea II stage caused the inhibition of the growth and development of larvae. In this connection, we recommend to introduce food to the aquaculture of the giant freshwater shrimp on the end of the first day after hatching, when the first zoea II larvae emerge.

  9. O turista, o morador e o uso do espaço urbano: interações espaciais em Gramado e Canela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Rigatti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste trabalho é o de examinar as modalidades de estruturação espacial de cidades turísticas, verificando como o espaço se organiza de forma lógica para permitir o acesso e a movimentação dos turistas, ou os estranhos ao sistema espacial considerado, além de estruturar a vida cotidiana dos moradores. A partir do exame de duas cidades: Gramado e Canela, cidades gaúchas que possuem no turismo um forte componente de sua base econômica, pretende-se analisar em que medida o espaço atua como uma instância das relações entre estranhos e moradores.

  10. The evolution of the clear water hatchery system for Macrobrachium rosenbergii in the French West Indies from 1979 to 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Denis; Robin, Thierry; Sica Aquacole De Martinique,; Aquacop,

    1985-01-01

    The clearwater larval rearing method for Macrobrachium rosenbergii was perfected in the french research center of Tahiti in 1977 nad carried on to improve the technique especially on recirculating system. This aquaculture is launched in Martinique by the regional council in 1976. A first "green water" hatchery is built and provides juveniles to the first ponds.

  11. Maneiras de fazer, modos de proceder: a tradição reinventada do pão de canela na Serra da Mantiqueira, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Campos de Almeida Dutra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz como proposta a investigação do processo de produção do pão de canela na Serra do Ibitipoca, no sudeste de Minas Gerais, através da qual se procura abordar as transformações dos saberes transmitidos entre gerações e seus novos sentidos ante as dinâmicas contemporâneas. Como parte da tradição culinária local, sua fabricação envolve modos de saber e fazer que frente ao desenvolvimento turístico são simultaneamente reafirmados e reinventados. Sua elaboração, ao abrigar segredos culinários, sistemas gestuais e combinações de sabores, expressam a matriz das formas culturais configuradas pelas disposições práticas, cenário da cultura tal como vivida, que envolvem, a partir de uma tradição oralmente transmitida, a operação de uma criatividade prática fundamentada em atos da vida cotidiana.This paper aims at investigating the production of pão de canela at the Serra do Ibitipoca region situated in the southeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil. As part of the local culinary tradition, its manufacture involves ways of knowing and doing that are reaffirmed and reinvented by tourism development. Culinary secrets, gestural systems and flavors' combinations present in this kind of bread express culture as it is lived, an orally transmitted activity supported by a practical creativity of daily life.

  12. POVOS INDÍGENAS, DESENVOLVIMENTO E CONFLITOS SOCIOAMBIENTAIS: APANIEKRÁ E RAMKOKAMEKRA-CANELA, PODER TUTELAR E AGRO-NEGÓCIO NO SERTÃO MARANHENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Luiz Rizzo de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O centro-sul do Estado do Maranhão experimentou, nas últimas décadas, mudanças econômicas e socioambientais decorrentes do desenvolvimento regional. Esse processo impactou a organização social e simbólica dos grupos indígenas locais, com a imposição da lógica do mercado sobre a da auto-sustentação destes grupos. Os Apaniekrá e Ramkokamekra-Canela (Jê-Timbira foram envolvidos por essa nova fronteira econômica, com a implantação do Projeto Ferro-Carajás e do Programa Grande Carajás, transformando fazendas e núcleos sertanejos em empreendimentos do agro-negócio - lavouras de soja, cana-de-açúcar, eucalipto, criação de gado - o que levou a FUNAI a realizar estudos para a revisão demarcatória das Terras Indígenas Kanela e Porquinhos. Com apoio de políticos locais, os sertanejos têm obtido junto ao INCRA e ITERMA, a titulação das terras que ocupam e a criação de novos assentamentos rurais, enquanto agências federais, estaduais e ONGs têm implementado projetos de desenvolvimento étnico e local junto a grupos indígenas e regionais. O trabalho analisa os impactos das intervenções vinculadas ao desenvolvimento sobre os Apaniekrá e Ramkokamkra-Canela e as respostas por estes elaboradas, através de movimentos sócio-religiosos e do associativismo indígena.

  13. Effects of substrate addition and supplemental feeding on plankton composition and production in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, M.S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of substrates and supplemental feeding on growth and production of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in a polyculture system. On actual farms, four treatments were evaluated in triplicate: substrate plus feed (herein

  14. Technical evaluation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) monoculture and tilapia-prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) polyculture in earthen ponds with or without substrates for periphyton development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Farzana, A.; Fatema, M.K.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of periphyton grown on bamboo substrate, on growth and production of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia strain) in monoculture and polyculture with the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) were studied and economically evaluated. The

  15. Natural aquatic insect carriers of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakaran, R; Haribabu, P; Kumar, S Rajesh; Sarathi, M; Ahmed, V P Ishaq; Babu, V Sarath; Venkatesan, C; Hameedl, A S Sahul

    2008-04-01

    Five different species of aquatic insects were collected from nursery ponds containing the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii infected with Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) and extra small virus (XSV). The insects were screened as potential natural carriers of MrNV and XSV. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis gave positive results for MrNV and XSV in Belostoma sp., Aesohna sp., Cybister sp. and Notonecta sp., and negative results for Nepa sp. An Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line (C6/36) was used for infectivity assays, with viral inoculum prepared from the aquatic insects, since C6/36 cells have recently been shown to be susceptible to infection with MrNV and XSV. The C6/36 cells were harvested 4 d post-challenge for examination by electron microscopy. This revealed aggregation of viral particles throughout the cytoplasm for cells challenged with inocula from all the insect species except Nepa sp. Our results indicate that several aquatic insect species may present a risk for MrNV and XSV transmission to M. rosenbergii.

  16. O efeito da ingestão de um café com e sem canela na glicémia pós prandial em adultos saudáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Sara Raquel Soares

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Nutrição Clínica Introdução: A canela é uma das especiarias mais conhecidas e de uso generalizado. Estudos anteriores demonstraram que a sua ingestão reduz tanto a glicemia pós-prandial como os níveis de stress oxidativo, o que parece estar subjacente à resistência à insulina. A maioria dos estudos sobre a canela procura verificar seus efeitos em doentes diabéticos de tipo 2, mas estudos em indivíduos saudáveis são raros. Objeti...

  17. Propriedades energéticas da madeira e do carvão de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial energético da madeira e do carvão de Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá. As árvores foram coletadas na região de Dom Eliseu, PA,nas idades de 5, 7, 9 e 11 anos, e seccionadas em quatro toras de 2,7 m cada. Pela análise termogravimétrica da madeira, determinou-se a perda de massa em função da temperatura. O poder calorífico superior foi obtido de acordo com a norma NBR-8633. Determinaram-se, ainda, o rendimento gravimétrico em carvão e sua composição química imediata. Observou-se efeito significativo da idade e da posição no tronco apenas na faixa de temperatura entre 300 e 400 ºC. O poder calorífico da madeira foi afetado pela idade das árvores, sendo o maior valor observado aos 5 anos. O rendimento gravimétrico e a composição química imediata do carvão vegetal não foram afetados pela idade.

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES ON Schizolobium parahybaVAR .Amazonicum(HUBER EX DUCKE BARNEBY PLANTS INTOXICATED BY GLYPHOSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaléo Dias Pereira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphological and physiological changes in paricá plants (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum intoxicated by glyphosate. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment using paricá plants during their planting stage, which were intoxicated with increasing doses of glyphosate: 0 (control; 43.2; 86.2; 129.6 and 172.8 g.ha-1. At 7 and 21 days after the application of the herbicide, the photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured. The visual intoxication degree and the growth of the shoot and the root of the plants were evaluated 21 days after the application. Paricá shows symptoms of visual intoxication characterized by chlorosis/winding, evolving to necrosis/abscission of the youngest leaflets. The growth of the stem and the roots of the intoxicated plants is preserved; however, an expressive leaf loss occurs, and paricá may have adaptation mechanisms to tolerate the action of the herbicide molecule. The photosynthesis decrease promoted by an indirect action of glyphosate represents the main reduction on the growth of plants. The decrease on the stomatal conductance, which was the most sensitive physiological variable to glyphosate, resulted in lower transpiration rates, which, consequently, caused increases on the leaf temperature.

  19. Alelopatia de extratos aquosos de canela-sassafrás (Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer Allelopathy of Brazilian sassafras (Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria da Silva Carmo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de alelopatia investigam os efeitos positivos e negativos que metabólitos secundários de plantas, microrganismos ou fungos exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de indivíduos vizinhos. Nesse trabalho foram investigados os efeitos de extratos aquosos de folhas, cascas de tronco e cascas de raízes de canela-sassafrás (Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rowher sobre a germinabilidade das sementes, desenvolvimento do sistema radicular e da parte aérea, teor de clorofila da parte aérea e respiração das células radiculares de plântulas de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cv. Embrapa BR 303. Os extratos foram preparados adicionando o material vegetal seco e moído oriundo de cada órgão à água destilada e deionizada na proporção 1:10 (p/v. Após agitação constante por 24 h, as soluções foram decantadas e filtradas através de papel de filtro sob vácuo, constituindo os extratos testados. Os extratos aquosos de cascas de tronco e de raízes causaram inibição do desenvolvimento do sistema radicular das plântulas de sorgo e a sua parte aérea teve o crescimento estimulado pelo extrato de cascas de raízes. Os extratos de folhas e de cascas de tronco induziram aumento da biomassa fresca do sistema radicular e diminuição significativa do teor de clorofila. Todos os extratos causaram efeitos negativos sobre a respiração radicular das plântulas de sorgo. Concluiu-se que metabólitos secundários da canela-sassafrás causaram alterações metabólicas e morfológicas nas plantas de sorgo e que, portanto, a presença de canela-sassafrás no ambiente pode desencadear efeitos similares sobre outras espécies vegetais na sua vizinhança.Allelopathic studies investigate the positive and negative effects of secondary metabolites of plants, microorganisms and fungi on the development of neighboring individuals. In this work, the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and root bark of Brazilian sassafras (Ocotea odorifera (Vell

  20. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  1. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  2. Viabilidade Econômica de Sistemas Silvipastoris com Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum e Tectona grandis no Pará Economical Viability of Silvopastoral Systems with Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum Barneby and Tectona grandis in Para, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Quaresma Maneschy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Os sistemas silvipastoris (SSPs consistem de um conjunto de metodologias que podem ser consideradas promissoras para recuperar áreas de pastagens degradadas da Amazônia, por integrar o cultivo arbóreo ao pecuária tradicional. Embora já utilizados em pequena escala por produtores inovadores, os SSPs carecem de uma base científica que forneça subsídios técnicos ao seu uso mais amplo, sobretudo quando se trata de justificar a viabilidade econômica desses sistemas. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a viabilidade econômica de SSPs utilizados por produtores no nordeste do Estado do Pará, comparando-os ao monocultivo tradicional. Os sistemas são compostos basicamente pelo paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby ou teca (Tectona grandis L.F., em pastagens de quicuio-da-amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle Schweick pastejados por bovinos. A análise de viabilidade econômica foi realizada por meio dos métodos: valor presente líquido (VPL, taxa interna de retorno (TIR e relação benefício/custo (Rb/c, considerando quatro SSPs e o monocultivo de paricá e teca. Os sistemas compostos por teca apresentam maior atratividade econômica do que os com paricá, e dentre eles, os arranjos silvipastoris, em que o gado era próprio, foram considerados de melhor viabilidade que os sistemas em monocultivo ou em que a incorporação animal se dava através do aluguel da pastagem.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.49

    The silvopastoral systems (SPSs have been considered promising to integrate tree crops in livestock production systems and reclain large areas of degraded pastures of the Brazilian Amazon. They are used on small scale by innovative farmers, the SPSs lack a scientific basis to provide technical subsidies to its wider use, especially when it comes to justifying the economic viability of these systems. The objective of this study was to analyze the economical viability of SPSs, established in

  3. Phloroglucinol-Mediated Hsp70 Production in Crustaceans: Protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artemia franciscana and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikash; Baruah, Kartik; Nguyen, Dung Viet; Smagghe, Guy; Vossen, Els; Bossier, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The halophilic aquatic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an important aquatic pathogen, also capable of causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp resulting in significant economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-infective strategies to control AHPND. The gnotobiotic Artemia model is used to establish whether a phenolic compound phloroglucinol is effective against the AHPND strain V. parahaemolyticus MO904. We found that pretreatment with phloroglucinol, at an optimum concentration (30 µM), protects axenic brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection and induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production (twofolds or more) as compared with the control. We further demonstrated that the Vibrio-protective effect of phloroglucinol was caused by its prooxidant effect and is linked to the induction of Hsp70. In addition, RNA interference confirms that phloroglucinol-induced Hsp70 mediates the survival of brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection. The study was validated in xenic Artemia model and in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii system. Pretreatment of xenic brine shrimp larvae (30 µM) and Macrobrachium larvae (5 µM) with phloroglucinol increases the survival of xenic brine shrimp and Macrobrachium larvae against subsequent V. parahaemolyticus challenge. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that the prooxidant activity of phloroglucinol induces Hsp70 production protecting brine shrimp, A. franciscana, and freshwater shrimp, M. rosenbergii, against the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain MO904. Probably, phloroglucinol treatment might become part of a holistic strategy to control AHPND in shrimp.

  4. Métodos para acelerar e uniformizar a emergência de plântulas de Schizolobium amazonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleandro Candido Dapont

    Full Text Available A dormência intensa verificada em sementes de Schizolobium amazonicum dificulta o processo de formação de mudas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar procedimentos para acelerar e uniformizar a emergência de plântulas de paricá. Foram utilizadas sementes coletadas de diversas matrizes na Floresta Estadual do Antimary, Acre. Os tratamentos constaram de sementes intactas (testemunha, escarificação com ácido sulfúrico concentrado (imersão por 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 35; 40; 45 e 50 min, imersão em água aquecida (60 ºC, 80 ºC e 100 ºC, escarificação da porção basal da semente com lixa, escarificação com punção por meio de perfurações na maior porção lateral do tegumento, e escarificação com esmeril elétrico na lateral do tegumento. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados por meio da emergência de plântulas (EP e do índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE em seis momentos de observação, além da frequencia relativa e do tempo médio de emergência nos melhores resultados. O delineamento estatístico foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições em esquema fatorial para a EP e em arranjo simples para o IVE. A máxima EP em menor tempo pode ser conseguida com uso do punção, imersão em água fervente (100 ºC e do esmeril elétrico.

  5. Evaluation of potentical use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” for wood cement board manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Yurk da Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood for wood cement board manufacture. Panels with the density of 1.200 kg/m³ were made, using cement CP V ARI as mineral bonding and wood particles without treatment and treated with immersion in cold water, hot water and sodium hydroxide. The panels were pressed at the pressure of 40 kgf/cm², room temperature and press / clipping time of 24 hours and maturation time of 28 days. The evaluation of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of rupture, showed that Schizolobium amazonicum “Paricá” and Cecropia hololeuca “Embaúba” wood are technically feasible for wood-cement board manufacture. It was also found that the panels of embaúba exhibit some properties superior to those of the paricá, and the particles do not necessarily need treatment.

  6. IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE ÁREAS POTENCIAIS AO MAPEAMENTO DE TRILHAS ECOTURÍSTICAS NA PROPRIEDADE DO ECOPARQUE, EM CANELA/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Lütz Kroeff

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A principal atividade do ecoturismo, a caminhada em trilhas, deveria estar em consonância com os dois preceitos centrais do ecoturismo, ser uma atividade de baixo impacto ambiental e proporcionar aos seus praticantes a experiência e o aprendizado da natureza. Porém, corriqueiramente, as trilhas tornam-se apenas meios de deslocamento mais rápidos a atrativos de grande valor estético, não se aproveitando as potencialidades do ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma proposta metodológica capaz de facilitar a identificação das áreas mais propícias à implantação de trilhas ecoturísticas. O estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área-chave, o Ecoparque, situado na área frontal da Cascata do Caracol, no município de Canela/Rio Grande do Sul (RS. A definição de Unidades de Paisagem (UP demonstrou ser o método mais adequado para a identificação das áreas mais propícias por facilitar a identificação das áreas de maior fragilidade ambiental e potencial turístico, e a geomorfologia o critério mais apropriado para a delimitação das unidades. Os levantamentos de campo e o desenvolvimento de um Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG forneceram informações essenciais à caracterização das unidades. Os resultados das análises realizadas permitiram o mapeamento de duas trilhas ecoturísticas.

  7. Avaliação do potencial de utilização da madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" e Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" para produção de painéis aglomerados Evaluation of potential use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" and Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" to particleboard manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba para produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,70 g/cm³, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído e partículas de madeira de Paricá e Embaúba, e mistura destas, em proporções de 75, 50 e 25%. A madeira de Pinus taeda foi utilizada como testemunha. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica de 40 kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC e tempo de prensagem de 8 minutos. Os resultados das avaliações de propriedades de absorção de água, inchamento em espessura, ligação interna, módulo de elasticidade e módulo de ruptura, indicaram que as madeiras de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba são tecnicamente viáveis para produção de painéis aglomerados.This research was developed to evaluate the potential use of the woods Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá and Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba for manufacturing particleboard. Were made panels with the densities of 0.70 g/cm³, using mixtures of urea-formaldehyde resin and wood particles of Paricá and Embaúba, in proportions of 75, 50 and 25%. The Pinus taeda wood was used as the reference. The panels were pressed at the temperature of 160ºC, pressure of 40 kgf/cm², for 8 minutes. The evaluations of the properties of water absorption, thickness swelling, internal bond, modulus of elasticity and modulus of ruptures, showed that the woods of Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba are technically feasible for particleboard manufacture.

  8. Alterações na qualidade do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium rosenbergii durante estocagem em gelo Changes in the quality of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii during storage in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gaberz Kirschnik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sendo escassos os estudos sobre a conservação pós-captura do Macrobrachium rosenbergii e insuficientes os conhecimentos existentes, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar alterações na sua qualidade quando armazenado inteiro, em gelo, durante 10 dias. Foram comparadas duas condições de armazenamento: com e sem contato direto com o gelo. Em ambos os tratamentos foram observados aumentos (PDue the scarcity of studies about post-harvest conservation of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and few knowledge in this topic, the aim of this work was to evaluate it shelf-life when stored as a whole in ice during 10 days. Two conditions were compared: with direct ice contact and without ice contact. In both treatments were observed an increase (P<0,05 in Non-Protein Nitrogen, Total Volatile Base Nitrogen, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and pH values. No faecal coliforms were observed in the prawn muscles during the storage. The score of total coliforms and psychrotrophic counting that was present in the storage period didn´t exceed the law limits allowed for consumption. There was degradation in flavour and odour attributes for both treatments during the storage. Analysis of tactile and oral texture showed a fast and significant degradation in both treatments in the first days of storage, and the same occurred with the instrumental compression force tests. We concluded the Macrobrachium rosenbergii could be consumed until the 4th storage day, either if kept in direct ice contact or packed in polyethylene bags.

  9. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  10. HYDROPONIC AND AQUAPONIC PRODUCTION OF SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum AND GIANT RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Marisol Ronzón Ortega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable aquaculture in production units and to take care of the water resource is needed to integrate biotechnology tools to the activity, as is the aquaponics. In the present study we evaluated the production efficiency of a crop of basil (Ocimum basilicum in a hydroponic system (SH vs. acuaponic system (SA associated with the semi-intensive culture of Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The production of basil was conducted in two geomembrane plastic rectangular tanks (4.0 m long x 0.80 m wide and 0.30 m high, divided into two sections: in the first section setting of the seedlings were done in a substrate of silica sand and volcanic rock , whereas in the second were seeded into plastic containers using the same substrate. SH plants got their nutrients from the metabolites derived from the cultivation of 800 postlarval shrimp in two circular tanks of 25 m3 (16 organisms m-2 (Pond 1: initial weight 0.13 g, Pond 2: 2.19 g; while in the SH was used a commercial nutrient solution (1.5 g L. The results indicate that SH plants initially had higher survival (90%, height and number of leaves per plant (p

  11. Concentrations of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Giant Freshwater Prawn) from Natural Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Farah Akmal; Basri, Masania Mohd; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Rahim, Nur Syazwani Abd; Chong, Melissa Dennis

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzed the levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), in the muscle tissues, exoskeletons, and gills from freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) (n = 20) harvested from natural habitat in Kerang River, Malaysia on 25th November 2015. Significant increase of the metals level in muscle tissue and gill (r > 0.70, p < 0.05) were observed with increase in length except for Cu in gills. No relationship was found between metals level in exoskeleton and length. The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in males (muscle tissues and exoskeleton) except for Cd in exoskeleton. In gills, only Cu was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in female than male. All samples contained metals below the permissible limit for human consumption (i.e., Cd < 2.00 mg/kg; Cu < 30.00 mg/kg; Zn < 150 mg/kg). Annual metals monitoring in prawn and environmental samples is recommended to evaluate changes of metals bioaccumulation and cycling in the system, which is useful for resources management.

  12. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.

  13. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Revathi Peranandam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of tributyltin (TBT on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary. Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  15. TBT effects on the development of intersex (ovotestis) in female fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii.

  16. TBT Effects on the Development of Intersex (Ovotestis) in Female Fresh Water Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peranandam, Revathi; Palanisamy, Iyapparaj; Lourdaraj, Arockia Vasanthi; Natesan, Munuswamy; Vimalananthan, Arun Prasanna; Thangaiyan, Suganya; Perumal, Anantharaman; Muthukalingan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the female gonad and the endocrine system in Macrobrachium rosenbergii was studied. Prawns were exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L of TBT for 6 months. Dose dependent effects were noticed in TBT exposed prawns. At 1000 ng/L TBT caused ovotestis formation (formation of male germ cells in ovary). Presence immature oocytes, fusion of developing oocytes, increase in interstitial connective tissues, and its modification into tubular like structure and abundance of spermatogonia in the ovary of TBT treated prawns. The control prawn ovary showed normal architecture of cellular organelles such as mature oocytes with type 2 yolk globules, lipid droplets, normal appearance of yolk envelop, and uniformly arranged microvilli. On the other hand, type 1 yolk globules, reduced size of microvilli, spermatogonial cells in ovary, spermatogonia with centrally located nucleus, and chromatin distribution throughout the nucleoplasm were present in the TBT treated group. Immunofluorescence staining indicated a reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Moreover, TBT had inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. Thus, the present investigation demonstrates that TBT substantially affects sexual differentiation and gonadal development in M. rosenbergii. PMID:25121096

  17. Behavioral profile of Macrobrachium rosenbergii in mixed and monosex culture submitted to shelters of different colors

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    Daniele Bezerra Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current research analyzed the behavioral activities of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and its preference for colored shelters in male monosex, female monosex and mixed culture. Ten shrimps m-2 were maintained in eight 250-L aquaria. Three artificial shelters, colored red, black and orange, were placed in each aquarium. Four aquaria were maintained in light/dark photoperiod respectively between 6h00 am and 6h00 pm and between 6h00 pm and 6h00 am, whereas the other four aquaria were submitted to an inverted photoperiod. The animals were observed for 30 days by Focal Animal Method for 15 minutes, with instantaneous recording every 60 seconds, at six different instances within the light and dark phases. Preference for black shelters occurred in male monosex and mixed cultures, whereas red and orange shelters were the preference of female monosex. M. rosenbergii kept in the shelter mostly during the light phase in male monosex and mixed populations. Results suggest that black, red and orange shelters may improve the animals' well-being in the culture since aggressive encounters would decrease, especially during the light phase.

  18. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression and 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration in Macrobrachium rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Hanikenne, Marc; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Gismondi, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Although it was previously highlighted that chlordecone may affect the reproduction and growth of vertebrate species, little information is available on the chlordecone effects in invertebrates. The present study investigated the effects of chlordecone on a hormone and a protein having key roles in reproduction and growth of the decapod crustacean Macrobrachium rosenbergii, by measuring the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentration, vitellogenin, and vitellogenin receptor gene expression, as well as the bioconcentration of chlordecone in exposed prawns. First, the results revealed that chlordecone was accumulated in M. rosenbergii. Then, it was found that Vg and VgR gene expression were increased in male and female M. rosenbergii exposed to chlordecone for 90 and 240 days, while the 20-hydroxyecdysone concentrations were decreased. This work suggests that chlordecone accumulates in prawn tissues and could affect key molecules involved in the reproduction and the growth of the invertebrate M. rosenbergii. However, many questions remain unresolved regarding the impacts of chlordecone on growth and reproduction and the signaling pathways responsible for these effects, as well as the potential role of confounding factors present in in situ studies.

  19. Quorum quenching bacteria protect Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae from Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhan, D T; Cam, D T V; Wille, M; Defoirdt, T; Bossier, P; Sorgeloos, P

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading bacterial enrichment cultures (ECs) on larviculture of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The larval performance in terms of larval growth, larval survival, larval quality, duration of the larval rearing process and microflora levels in the rearing water as well as inside the prawn gut was investigated. The application of the EC bacteria was performed in two ways: by adding them directly into the larval rearing water and via enriched Artemia nauplii used for larval feeding. The results of the study demonstrated that both ECs that were tested had a similar positive effect on larval survival and larval quality, whereas they did not affect larval growth or the duration of the larval rearing process. Under normal hatchery conditions, the optimal EC densities were found to be 10(6) CFU ml(-1) for adding into the rearing water and 5 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) for enrichment of Artemia nauplii used for feeding of the larvae. In the hatchery, the ECs can be grown on waste streams of Artemia hatching. Application of this kind of ECs could lead to a more sustainable aquaculture production, by replacing the use of antibiotics to control diseases. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. PROTOCOL FOR EXTRACTION OF BACTERIAL METAGENOME DNA TO PRAWN Macrobrachium carcinus L

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    J U González de la Cruz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we adapted a protocol for the extraction of metagenomic DNA (ADNmg bacteria in the digestive system (intestines, stomach and hepatopancreas of Macrobrachium carcinus L., with reference to the method of extracting bacterial DNA from soils and sediments (Rojas-Herrera et al., 2008. This methodology consisted of enzymatic, physics, mechanics and chemistry after a series of tests was abolished enzymatic lysis. However, the success ADNmg extraction was influenced mainly by the preparation of the samples, in particular the hepatopancreas, where it was necessary to remove the fat by thermal shock temperature and phase separation by centrifugation with the sample frozen.The effectiveness of isolated DNA fragmentation was verified by gel electrophoresis in denaturing gradient (DGGE after amplification with universal primers. In general, it had a low diversity (19 phylotypes between the different organs analyzed of 13.5 ± 1 (intestines to 11.7 ± 0.96 (stomach. The Shannon-Weaver index (2.45, Simpsons (10.88 and equity (0972 obtained from the digitization of the image of the gel, suggested that the phylotypes that form the gut microflora M. carcinus, is distributed unevenly between the different organs analyzed.

  1. Phloroglucinol-Mediated Hsp70 Production in Crustaceans: Protection against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Artemia franciscana and Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Vikash Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The halophilic aquatic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, is an important aquatic pathogen, also capable of causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND in shrimp resulting in significant economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop anti-infective strategies to control AHPND. The gnotobiotic Artemia model is used to establish whether a phenolic compound phloroglucinol is effective against the AHPND strain V. parahaemolyticus MO904. We found that pretreatment with phloroglucinol, at an optimum concentration (30 µM, protects axenic brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection and induced heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 production (twofolds or more as compared with the control. We further demonstrated that the Vibrio-protective effect of phloroglucinol was caused by its prooxidant effect and is linked to the induction of Hsp70. In addition, RNA interference confirms that phloroglucinol-induced Hsp70 mediates the survival of brine shrimp larvae against V. parahaemolyticus infection. The study was validated in xenic Artemia model and in a Macrobrachium rosenbergii system. Pretreatment of xenic brine shrimp larvae (30 µM and Macrobrachium larvae (5 µM with phloroglucinol increases the survival of xenic brine shrimp and Macrobrachium larvae against subsequent V. parahaemolyticus challenge. Taken together, our study provides substantial evidence that the prooxidant activity of phloroglucinol induces Hsp70 production protecting brine shrimp, A. franciscana, and freshwater shrimp, M. rosenbergii, against the AHPND V. parahaemolyticus strain MO904. Probably, phloroglucinol treatment might become part of a holistic strategy to control AHPND in shrimp.

  2. Evaluation of potential use of the wood of Schizolobium amazonicum "Paricá" and Cecropia hololeuca "Embaúba" to particleboard manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Iwakiri, Setsuo; Zeller, Florian; Pinto, Juliana Afonso; Ramirez, Maria Guadalupe Lomeli; Souza, Marina Moura; Seixas, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de utilização de madeira de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá) e Cecropia hololeuca (Embaúba) para produção de painéis aglomerados. Foram produzidos painéis experimentais com densidade nominal de 0,70 g/cm³, utilizando a resina uréia-formaldeído e partículas de madeira de Paricá e Embaúba, e mistura destas, em proporções de 75, 50 e 25%. A madeira de Pinus taeda foi utilizada como testemunha. Os painéis foram prensados com pressão específica d...

  3. Influência de fungos micorrízicos-arbusculares em paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum cultivado no estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlene Brasil Lucena

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou verificar a presença e a influência de fungos micorrízico-arbusculares (FMA em plantas de Schizolobium amazonicum em plantios comerciais na região Tocantina, estado do Pará. Plantas com um ano de idade foram avaliadas em campo, sendo selecionadas as 10 mais desenvolvidas e as 10 menos desenvolvidas. Para cada planta foi medida a altura, a maior circunferência do caule e contado o número de folhas. Ao mesmo tempo, amostras de solo rizosférico foram colhidas na projeção da copa. As amostras foram analisadas quanto ao teor de matéria orgânica, pH em CaCl2 e presença de hifas, vesículas, arbúsculos e esporos nas raízes finas. Foi realizada ainda a extração de esporos do solo, por centrifugação em solução de sacarose, utilizados para inoculação de plântulas de S. amazonicum em casa de vegetação. Foram constatadas correlações positivas entre as estruturas fúngicas internas das raízes e os parâmetros medidos nas plantas em campo. Em casa de vegetação a inoculação de esporos aumentou significativamente o crescimento em altura das plântulas.

  4. Produção de biomassa e crescimento de árvores de Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber Ducke sob diferentes espaçamentos na região de mata Biomass yield and growth of Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber Ducke under different spacing conditions in the wood region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliazel Vieira Rondon

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio foi conduzido no município de Sinop, Estado de Mato Grosso. Aos 60 meses de idade foram avaliados a altura total, o diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP, o número de plantas danificadas pelo vento e a produção de biomassa da parte aérea de Schizolobium amazonicum, em diferentes densidades populacionais e espaçamentos. Os resultados demonstram que o crescimento em altura e DAP foram influenciados nos diferentes espaçamentos estudados. Quarenta e sete plantas úteis foram danificadas pelo vento, e quanto à biomassa o espaçamento 4x4 m resultou em produção de biomassa superior à dos demais espaçamentos.An assay was carried out at Sinop, Mato Grosso. Total height, number of wind-damaged plants and biomass yield of Schizolobium amazonicum were evaluated in different populational densities and spacings, at sixty months of age. The results show that height and DBH developments were influenced in the different spacings studied. Forty seven plants were wind-damaged and the 4 x 4m spacing yielded more biomass than the other spacings.

  5. The potential of mixed culture of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater giant prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.; Azim, M.E.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2006-01-01

    The production performance of genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based systems were studied in farmers' ponds at Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Fifteen ponds (200-300 m2 area and 1.0-1.5 m in depth) were used to

  6. Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia D.M.M. Bona

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de um composto vegetal contendo óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta vermelha no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Para tal, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro avaliou-se a eficiência deste produto no controle de Clostridium perfringens após desafio com Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. Aves de um dia de idade foram divididas em três grupos: T1 - dieta controle sem aditivo promotor de crescimento; T2 - dieta com adição de avilamicina (10ppm; e T3 - dieta com adição do composto vegetal (100ppm. O uso do composto vegetal na alimentação de frangos reduziu lesões específicas de E. maxima e E. tenella aos 14 dias pós-inoculação (PI como também reduziram a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC de Clostridium perfringens no conteúdo do ceco das aves em relação ao grupo controle. No segundo experimento avaliou-se a eficiência deste mesmo produto em aves desafiadas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aves de um dia de idade foram distribuídas em três tratamentos, sendo T1 - dieta controle sem adição de antibiótico promotor de crescimento, T2 - dieta com 10ppm de Avilamicina, T3 - dieta com 100ppm de um produto a base do composto vegetal acima citado. Aos 21 dias de idade todas as aves foram inoculadas com 10(5 UFC de Salmonella Enteritidis. A utilização do composto vegetal e avilamicina diminuiu a excreção de Salmonella nas aves 72 horas PI de Salmonella. A utilização do composto vegetal aumentou a relação vilo/células CD3+ no duodeno, em relação ao grupo avilamicina e controle, porém não teve efeito sobre a expressão destas células no ceco.

  7. Effects of Host Phylogeny and Habitats on Gut Microbiomes of Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Weng, Francis Cheng-Hsuan; Jean, Wen Dar; Wang, Daryi

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbial community is one of the richest and most complex ecosystems on earth, and the intestinal microbes play an important role in host development and health. Next generation sequencing approaches, which rapidly produce millions of short reads that enable the investigation on a culture independent basis, are now popular for exploring microbial community. Currently, the gut microbiome in fresh water shrimp is unexplored. To explore gut microbiomes of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) and investigate the effects of host genetics and habitats on the microbial composition, 454 pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene were performed. We collected six groups of samples, including M. nipponense shrimp from two populations, rivers and lakes, and one sister species (M. asperulum) as an out group. We found that Proteobacteria is the major phylum in oriental river prawn, followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Compositional analysis showed microbial divergence between the two shrimp species is higher than that between the two populations of one shrimp species collected from river and lake. Hierarchical clustering also showed that host genetics had a greater impact on the divergence of gut microbiome than host habitats. This finding was also congruent with the functional prediction from the metagenomic data implying that the two shrimp species still shared the same type of biological functions, reflecting a similar metabolic profile in their gut environments. In conclusion, this study provides the first investigation of the gut microbiome of fresh water shrimp, and supports the hypothesis of host species-specific signatures of bacterial community composition. PMID:26168244

  8. Population Structure and Historical Demography of the Oriental River Prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Wang, Daryi; Lee, Ying-Chou; Tzeng, Tzong-Der

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is a non-obligatory amphidromous prawn, and it has a wide distribution covering almost the entire Taiwan. Mitochondrial DNA fragment sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA were combined and used to elucidate the population structure and historical demography of oriental river prawn in Taiwan. A total of 202 individuals from six reservoirs and three estuaries were separately collected. Nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.01217, with values ranging from 0.00188 (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, northern Taiwan) to 0.01425 (Mingte Reservoir, MTR, west-central Taiwan). All 76 haplotypes were divided into 2 lineages: lineage A included individuals from all sampling areas except SMR, and lineage B included specimens from all sampling locations except Chengching Lake Reservoir (CLR) and Liyu Lake Reservoir (LLR). All F ST values among nine populations were significantly different except the one between Jhonggang River Estuary (JGE, west-central Taiwan) and Kaoping River Estuary (KPE, southern Taiwan). UPGMA tree of nine populations showed two main groups: the first group included the SMR and Tamsui River Estuary (TSE) (both located northern Taiwan), and the second one included the other seven populations (west-central, southern and eastern Taiwan). Demographic analyses implied a population expansion occurred during the recent history of the species. The dispersal route of this species might be from China to west-central and west-southern Taiwan, and then the part individuals belonging to lineage A and B dispersed southerly and northerly, respectively. And then part individuals in west-central Taiwan fell back to and stay at estuaries as the sea level rose about 18,000 years ago. PMID:26716687

  9. Utilização de serviços odontológicos por crianças de 0 a 5 anos de idade no Município de Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Use of dental services by preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Floriani Kramer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a utilização de serviços odontológicos e idade da primeira visita odontológica em pré-escolares do Município de Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Um levantamento epidemiológico em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade foi realizado durante a Campanha Nacional de Multivacinação Infantil no município. Um questionário contendo informações a respeito da idade da primeira consulta odontológica e características demográficas da criança foi respondido pelos responsáveis. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se modelo de regressão logística. Um total de 1.092 crianças foram examinadas. Do total da amostra, 13,3% já haviam consultado o cirurgião-dentista, e somente 4,3% realizaram algum tipo de consulta odontológica até o primeiro ano de vida. O número de crianças que já haviam recebido atendimento odontológico aumentou com a idade. Crianças do sexo feminino apresentaram maior chance de ter recebido atendimento odontológico do que as do sexo masculino (OR = 1,46; IC95%: 1,01-2,1. Conclui-se que é necessário o estabelecimento de políticas públicas de promoção de saúde e reorientação de serviços que facilitem a utilização dos serviços odontológicos e possibilitem o atendimento às crianças de pouca idade.The aim of this study was to assess the use of dental services and age at first dental visit in preschool children in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A representative sample of under-five children was surveyed on National Children's Vaccination Day. Children's parents completed questionnaires containing socio-demographic data and age at first dental visit. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. 192 children were examined. 13.3% of the sample had already visited the dentist at least once, but only 4.3% had their first dental visit by one year of age. The number of children who had already visited a dentist increased with age. Girls showed higher

  10. Efeito da adição de 3g de canela (C.Burmannii), em pó, a um pastel de nata nos níveis de glicemia pós-prandial de adultos

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Ana Rita Torrinha Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Nutrição Clínica Enquadramento: Verifica-se uma associação entre a hiperglicémia e, consequente, hiperinsulinemia e o aumento da incidência de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Neste âmbito, a canela tem sido alvo de investigação por apresentar benefícios no metabolismo da glucose, associados a compostos polifenólicos. A sua adição a alimentos ricos em hidratos de carbono simples pode traduzir-se no controlo dos níveis de glicémia pós-pradial. Obje...

  11. Obtenção e caracterização de α-quitina e quitosanas de cascas de Macrobrachium rosembergii Preparation and characterization of α-chitin and chitosan from the shells of Macrobrachium rosembergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Valério Battisti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were submitted to deproteinization (Dp and demineralization (Dm aiming the extraction of α-chitin. The different parts of the shells were processed independently by carrying out sequence 1 (Dp/Dm and sequence 2 (Dm/Dp. Both sequences allowed the extraction of chitins with low contents of calcium and magnesium, regardless of the part being processed. The sequence 1 lead to higher extraction yields while sequence 2 resulted in lower contents of inorganic compounds. Extensively deacetylated chitosans (GA<10% of medium molecular weight (0,9 x 10(5 < Mv < 2 x 10(5 g/mol resulted from the deacetylation of chitin.

  12. Comparing trace metal bioaccumulation characteristics of three freshwater decapods of the genus Macrobrachium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, Tom, E-mail: tom.cresswell@ansto.gov.au [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia); School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Smith, Ross E.W. [Hydrobiology, Lang Parade, Auchenflower 4066, QLD (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Plenty Road, Bundoora 3083, VIC (Australia); Simpson, Stuart L. [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, New Illawarra Rd, Lucas Heights, 2234, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Exposed three species of prawns of same genus to solid- and dissolved-phase metals. • Cd bioaccumulated from dissolved phase was significantly different between species. • All three species retained >95% of bioaccumulated Cd during the depuration phase. • Bioaccumulation of As, Pb and Zn from solid phase was different between species. • Results highlight variability among species, even under controlled conditions. - Abstract: Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (p < 0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated

  13. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Ammar, Dib [Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia, Campus Universitario, 89600-000 Joacaba, SC (Brazil); Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Bioquimica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Embriologia e Genetica, Campus Universitario, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Allodi, Silvana, E-mail: sallodi@histo.ufrj.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Morfologicas, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21949-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-06-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm{sup -2} UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of

  14. Growth inhibition of shrimp pathogens by isolated gastrointestinal microflora of Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

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    Seehanat, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful bacteria which were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, cultivated in earthen pond at Maha Sarakham province, Thailand, consisted of 14 isolates of Bacillus (B1 – B14 and 18 isolates of Lactic acid bacteria (LA1 – LA18. The abilities of all isolated bacteria on growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were studied by paperdisc plate method. The results showed that the Bacillus B2 and B5 were unable to inhibit the growth of all of the tested pathogens. Bacillus B1, B10 and B12 were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 of 4 tested pathogen strains. Although all of the isolated lactic acid bacteria (LA1 –LA18 could not inhibit the E. coli growth, all of them could inhibit the growth of B. cereus. The isolated lactic acid bacteria which were capable of inhibiting the growth of 3 tested pathogen strains (excluded E. coli were LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18. In order to select the high potential strain of bacteria for using as probiotics, Bacillus B1 , B3 , B4 , B10 and B12 and lactic acid bacteria LA12 , LA13 , LA14 , LA15 , LA16 , LA17 and LA18 were tested for their growth abilities in various growth conditions. The tested growth conditions included various concentrations of the bile salt and salt (NaCl and various pH and temperatures. The results revealed that Bacillus B1 and B10 and lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 exhibited high potential for using as probiotics. The results of biochemical test for identification of these high potential strains showed that Bacillus B1 and B10 were possibly B. licheniformis and B. thuringiensis respectively. The lactic acid bacteria LA13 , LA16 and LA18 were possibly the same strain and belonged to the genus Pediococcus.

  15. Effects of environmental and artificial UV-B radiation on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium olfersi embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, Evelise Maria; Ammar, Dib; Bem, Andreza Fabro de; Latini, Alexandra; Mueller, Yara Maria Rauh; Allodi, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    The recent decrease of the stratospheric ozone has resulted in an increase of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation reaching the Earth's surface. In freshwater ecosystems with transparent water, UV-B rays easily penetrate and potentially cause harmful effects to organisms. In this study, embryos of the prawn Macrobrachium olfersi were used to evaluate the impact of UV-B rays in freshwater environments. We observed three groups of embryos: the first was to assess whether UV-B radiation produced morphological defects and/or biochemical impairments in the laboratory. The second was to check whether embryos with the same impairments as those observed in the laboratory were found in their environment, under natural solar radiation. The third group was the non-irradiated control. The embryos irradiated with 310 mW cm -2 UV-B for 30 min showed morphological alterations similar to those observed in embryos from the environmental control group. The most important effects of the UV-B radiation observed in M. olfersi embryos were morphological (1.2% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 2.8% of the total number of irradiated embryos), pigmentation changes in the eyes (78.0% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 98.9% of the total number of irradiated embryos), and disruption of the chromatophores (46.9% of the total number of embryos from the environment and 95.5% of the total number of irradiated embryos). We also observed an increase in egg volume, which was accompanied by a significant increase in water content in UV-B irradiated groups when compared with aquaria control embryos. In addition, a significant decrease in the mitotic index in eggs exposed to UV-B radiation was detected (0.17 for the embryos from the aquaria control, 0.10 for the embryos of the environmental control, and 0.04 for the irradiated groups). The low levels of NPSH and high levels of TBARS indicated that UV-B rays directly compromised the antioxidant function of the

  16. Toxicidade de óleos essenciais de alho e casca de canela contra fungos do grupo Aspergillus flavus Evaluation of essential oils from Allium sativum and Cinnamomum zeilanicum and their toxicity against fungi of the Aspergillus flavus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson de C. Viegas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Diante da propriedade inibitória de óleos essenciais vegetais sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos e da importância das espécies do grupo Aspergillus flavus, que apresentam potencial para síntese de aflatoxina, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar in vitro a toxicidade de óleos essenciais vegetais contra fungos do grupo A. flavus, isolados a partir da cultura do amendoim. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a toxicidade de oito óleos essenciais vegetais no desenvolvimento micelial de dois isolados do grupo A. flavus, em comparação ao fungicida sintético benomyl. Em seguida, foi avaliada a toxicidade dos óleos de casca de canela (Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. e de bulbilho de alho (Allium sativum L. contra 37 isolados do grupo A. flavus, durante 12 meses. A maior inibição do desenvolvimento micelial de A. flavus foi obtida com o emprego dos óleos essenciais de casca de canela e de bulbilho de alho, e o efeito inibitório variou com o isolado testado.Considering the inhibitory property of essential plant oils on the mycelial development of fungi, and the importance of Aspergillus flavus-like fungi which may produce aflatoxins, this research was designed to evaluate the toxicity of essential oils against fungi belonging to the group A. flavus isolated from peanut crops. The toxicity of eight essential oils against two isolates of A. Flavuslike fungi was evaluated in comparison to the synthetic fungicide benomyl. The toxicity of Cinnamomum zeilanicum Breym. and Allium sativum L. essential oils was also evaluated against 37 fungal isolates for a period of 12 months. The highest inhibition of the mycelial development of A. flavus was obtained with cinnamon and garlic essential oils. The inhibitory effect on growth was variable according to the fungal isolate.

  17. Influence of short term exposure of TBT on the male reproductive activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Prasanna, Vimalanathan Arun; Pandiyarajan, Jayaraj; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the histopathological and hormonal changes during spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was documented. Three experimental concentrations such as 10, 100 and 1,000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 45 days. After TBT exposure, the reproductive activities like sperm count and sperm length were decreased when compared with control. Further, abnormal structure of the seminiferous tubule, decrease in spermatozoa concentration, diminution of the seminiferous tubule membrane and the abundance of spermatocytes in the testis were noticed in treated prawns. Interestingly, radioimmunoassay clearly revealed the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT has considerably reduced the level of testosterone and caused the impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii.

  18. Growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and immune response of Macrobrachium rosenbergii fed with probiotic Clostridium butyricum incorporated diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saifuddin Sumon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine antagonistic effect of Clostridium butyricum against Vibrio harveyi and its probiotic effect on growth performance, digestibility and immune response of fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles were examined following feeding with C. butyricum incorporated feed for 60 days. Significant reduction of V. harveyi growth was found at 8 hr and onward in in-vitro and at 10 days and onward in in-vivo challenge test. After rearing prawn with the bacteria in feed treatment for 60 days, body weight and growth rate of prawns was significantly higher (p  0.05 compared to control group. This study revealed that probiotic, C. butyricum incorporated diets were found to be beneficial for M. rosenbergii culture in terms of hindering the growth of pathogenic bacteria and increasing the growth, protease and amylase activities of prawn. Results from this study will be helpful to improve fresh water prawn farming.

  19. Setal morphology of the grooming appendages of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) and review of decapod setal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Jennifer L; Vanmaurik, Lauren N; Wayne Price, W

    2014-06-01

    Setae are vital in grooming activities and aiding in the removal of epibionts and sedimentary fouling from the body surfaces of decapod crustaceans. Thus, the setal structures and their arrangement on the grooming appendages and sensory structures of the commercially important shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Macrobrachium rosenbergii is extensively grown in aquaculture and exhibits unique male morphological forms, termed morphotypes. The three male morphotypes are termed blue-clawed males, orange-clawed males, and small-clawed or undifferentiated males and all three differ in their dominance, behavior, body morphology, and reproductive success. Seven setal types, two of which have never been described in the literature, are identified on the grooming appendages (third maxillipeds, first, second, and fifth pereopods) and antennae: simple, serrate, serrulate, spiniform, pappose, crinoid, and spinulate. The latter two setae are newly identified. Certain setal types, such as serrate and serrulate setae were located and associated with specific grooming appendages such as the first pereopods. The types of setae on the grooming appendages varied among females and male morphotypes and the novel setal types (crinoid and spinulate) were found only on two of the male morphotypes. A literature review of terminology related to the structure of setae and setal types in decapod crustaceans is offered as the usage of various terms is ambiguous and conflicting in the literature. The intention of this review is to provide future authors with a comprehensive collection of terms and images that can be used to describe various aspects of setal morphology in decapods. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Two Kazal-type protease inhibitors from Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis: comparative analysis of structure and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye-Qing; Li, Ye; Yang, Fan; Yu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Jin-Shu; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors (KPIs) play important roles in many biological and physiological processes, such as blood clotting, the immune response and reproduction. In the present study, two male reproductive tract KPIs, termed Man-KPI and Ers-KPI, were identified in Macrobrachium nipponense and Eriocheir sinensis, respectively. The inhibitory activities of recombinant Man-KPI and Ers-KPI against chymotrypsin, elastase, trypsin and thrombin were determined. The results showed that both of them strongly inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. Kinetic studies were performed to elucidate their inhibition mechanism. Furthermore, individual domains were also expressed to learn further which domain contributes to the inhibitory activities of intact KPIs. Only Man-KPI_domain3 is active in the inhibition of chymotrypsin and elastase. Meanwhile, Ers-KPI_domain2 and 3 are responsible for inhibition of chymotrypsin, and Ers-KPI_domains2, 3 and 4 are responsible for the inhibition of elastase. Meanwhile, the inhibitory activities of these two KPIs toward Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense and E. sinensis sperm were compared with that of the Kazal-type peptidase inhibitor (MRPINK) characterized from the M. rosenbergii reproductive tract in a previous study. The results demonstrated that KPIs can completely inhibit the gelatinolytic activities of sperm proteases from their own species, while different levels of cross-inhibition were observed between KPI and proteases from different species. These results may provide new perspective to further clarify the mechanism of KPI-proteases interaction in the male reproductive system. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Research on the river shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium (Bate, 1868 (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae with known or potential economic importance: strengths and weaknesses shown through scientometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Chong-Carrillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed that the scientific interest in the genus Macrobrachium was not restricted to a biological point of view, but included also social and economic aspects. Many species of the genus are subject of traditional fisheries and culture worldwide. Several research groups across the globe have developed projects in various subject areas on commercial or non-commercial native species of this genus. This investigation aimed to contribute to the development of the genus Macrobrachium research through a scientometric study. The study was based on publications (1980 to 2013 registered in the following databases: Biological Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, SciELO Citation Index, BioOne, Science Direct, Scopus, and Redalyc. A total of 2165 publications on Macrobrachium in the last 33 years were included in this analysis. The themes that yielded most posts were related to culture, nutrition/feeding, and genetics with almost 60% of the total. Publications concerning M. rosenbergii represented more than 60% of the total with the remaining 40% encompassing 22 other species. Analysis performed by geographical regions evidenced that Latin America produced 23% of the publications, South Asia 22%, and East Asia 16%. Brazil generated 65% of the percentage mentioned for the Latin American region. It is necessary to strengthen research on topics of basic biology, especially those of native species. This will allow rapid progress in the generation of production technologies sustained by a solid biological knowledge base.

  2. A transcriptomic scan for potential candidate genes involved in osmoregulation in an obligate freshwater palaemonid prawn (Macrobrachium australiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Moshtaghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding the genomic basis of osmoregulation (candidate genes and/or molecular mechanisms controlling the phenotype addresses one of the fundamental questions in evolutionary ecology. Species distributions and adaptive radiations are thought to be controlled by environmental salinity levels, and efficient osmoregulatory (ionic balance ability is the main mechanism to overcome the problems related to environmental salinity gradients. Methods To better understand how osmoregulatory performance in freshwater (FW crustaceans allow individuals to acclimate and adapt to raised salinity conditions, here we (i, reviewed the literature on genes that have been identified to be associated with osmoregulation in FW crustaceans, and (ii, performed a transcriptomic analysis using cDNA libraries developed from mRNA isolated from three important osmoregulatory tissues (gill, antennal gland, hepatopancreas and total mRNA from post larvae taken from the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium australiense using Illumina deep sequencing technology. This species was targeted because it can complete its life cycle totally in freshwater but, like many Macrobrachium sp., can also tolerate brackish water conditions and hence should have genes associated with tolerance of both FW and saline conditions. Results We obtained between 55.4 and 65.2 million Illumina read pairs from four cDNA libraries. Overall, paired end sequences assembled into a total of 125,196 non-redundant contigs (≥200 bp with an N50 length of 2,282 bp and an average contig length of 968 bp. Transcriptomic analysis of M. australiense identified 32 different gene families that were potentially involved with osmoregulatory capacity. A total of 32,597 transcripts were specified with gene ontology (GO terms identified on the basis of GO categories. Abundance estimation of expressed genes based on TPM (transcript per million ≥20 showed 1625 transcripts commonly expressed in all four libraries

  3. Análise espacial da distribuição de cigarras (Quesada gigas Oliver em povoamentos de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke na região de Dom Eliseu, PA Analysis of the spatial distribution of buzzers (Quesada gigas Oliver in parica stands(Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke in Dom Eliseu-PA

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    Vicente Paulo Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, através da análise espacial de dados geográficos, a precisão de procedimentos de mapeamento das populações de cigarras (Quesada gigas Oliver em povoamentos de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke, localizados no Município de Dom Eliseu, PA, mediante a aplicação de dois interpoladores (krigagem e inverso do quadrado da distância. Para tal, foram registradas amostras na intensidade de um ponto a cada 30 ha, onde se realizou a contagem do número de cigarras por planta (cigarras/árvore, obedecendo à estratégia de amostragem convencionalmente usada pela empresa proprietária do reflorestamento em estudo. As análises indicaram que a intensidade amostral empregada neste trabalho não foi suficiente para permitir a detecção de forte dependência espacial do número de cigarras/árvore nas áreas estudadas. Devido a essa baixa dependência espacial, os resultados dos dois métodos de interpolação (krigagem ordinária e inverso do quadrado da distância apresentaram-se semelhantes. Já os deste trabalho indicaram que as estratégias de amostragem utilizadas devem ser melhoradas para gerar mapas de predição mais precisos da quantidade de cigarras/árvore nos reflorestamentos de paricá.The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of buzzers (Quesada gigas Oliver in Parica (Schizlobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke stands using spatial geographic data analysis, in Dom Eliseu, Para, Brazil, based on the application of two interpolators (kriging and distance square inverse.Thus, points were set up in a density of one point for every 30 hectares, with one tree sampled per point, obeying the sample strategy conventionally used by the company which owns the reforestation stand under study. The analysis indicated that the sampling intensity utilized in this work was not sufficient to allow a strong spatial dependence of the number of buzzers/tree in the study area. Due to this low

  4. Emergência de plântulas de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke em função da posição de semeadura

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    Ismael de Oliveira Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Para a produção de mudas busca se reduzir o tempo em que estas permanecem no viveiro e fatores como temperatura, umidade, germinação e posição da semente na semeadura podem contribuir com o prolongamento deste tempo aumentando assim os custos de produção. Desta forma, objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar o efeito da posição da semente na semeadura sobre o processo de emergência de Schizolobium amazonicum. Para tanto, os tratamentos foram dispostos em DIC, constituído de 3 posições de semeadura com quatro repetições de 25 sementes, sendo elas:  A- com a semente em pé com o hilo para baixo; B - semente sobre uma das faces; e o C com a semente plantada de lado sobre a espessura e faces paralelas às paredes da sementeira. Foram avaliados a percentagem de emergência de plântulas, primeira contagem, IVE e  comprimento da parte aérea das plântulas. Observamos que a emergência de plântulas e primeira contagem não foram influenciados pelas posições das sementes avaliadas. A variável IVE na posição C obteve maior valor.  Quando semeadas na posição A as sementes apresentaram IVE 17,5% inferiores quando comparadas a posição C. A posição B apresentou os resultados de comprimento de plântulas mais uniforme para cada período de avaliação. 

  5. Emergência de plântulas de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke(CAESALPINACEAE em diferentes substratos e sombreamento1

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    Juliano Costa Gondin

    Full Text Available Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke é uma espécie da floresta amazônica que vem sendo intensamente utilizada nos programas de reflorestamento, tanto por ser de crescimento rápido como pelo bom comportamento em plantios homogêneos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de substratos e sombreamento sobre a emergência e o vigor de plântulas de paricá. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, em arranjo fatorial 10 x 2 (substrato e sombreamento. Os substratos comerciais utilizados foram casca de coco e terra vegetal, em mistura com casca de arroz, areia, pó de serra fresco e pó de serra curtido. Foram avaliados a emergência de plântulas, o índice de velocidade de emergência, o comprimento das raízes e da parte aérea, a matéria seca das raízes e da parte aérea, a frequência relativa e o tempo médio de emergência. Os substratos terra vegetal, casca de coco e casca de coco + areia em ambiente com 50% de sombreamento, e terra vegetal, terra vegetal + areia e casca de coco + areia a pleno sol proporcionaram os melhores resultados. A areia e o pó de serra fresco, ambos em mistura com casca de coco, podem ser usados na fase inicial de viveiro, devendo as mudas ser transplantadas para outro substrato ou o campo após 40 dias. A casca de arroz in natura não deve ser misturada com outros materiais para a utilização como substrato.

  6. INFLUÊNCIA DE VARIÁVEIS METEREOLÓGICAS NO CRESCIMENTO EM DIÂMETRO E ALTURA DE Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum

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    Thelma Shirlen Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da influência de variáveis meteorológicas no crescimento em diâmetro e em altura de paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum por meio da análise de correlação de Pearson. Foram empregados dados de parcelas permanentes mensuradas do 6º ao 10º ano de idade de um plantio no espaçamento 3 x 3 m localizado em Alta Floresta, MT. Foram calculados, para o período de crescimento avaliado, os incrementos correntes médios, em diâmetro a 1,30 m de altura do solo (dap e em altura total, os quais foram correlacionados com as variáveis meteorológicas precipitação (Pp, umidade relativa do ar (UR e velocidade do vento (Vv. Verificou-se que, à exceção da correlação entre o dap e a velocidade do vento, todas as correlações foram significativas. A UR apresentou correlação negativa tanto para incremento em dap quanto para incremento em altura enquanto a Vv apresentou correlação negativa com o incremento em dap. Para as demais variáveis, as correlações foram positivas, apresentando relação diretamente proporcional entre as variáveis meteorológicas e os incrementos em dap e em altura das árvores de paricá.

  7. SELEÇÃO DE ÁRVORES MATRIZES DE Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke Barneby NO ESPÍRITO SANTO

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    Adelson Lemes Silva Júnior

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi selecionar indivíduos da espécie Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex. Ducke Barneby, localizados em uma área de floresta plantada no Espírito Santo, para serem utilizados como matrizes constituindo um futuro pomar de sementes, que possam subsidiar plantios comerciais na obtenção de madeira. Para isto, foi realizado o inventário da área, onde foram coletados valores de diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP em todos os indivíduos e para a altura total (Ht foi realizado cálculos de estimativa. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, onde foi realizada a análise de variância (ANOVA e aplicado o Teste de Tukey para determinação dos tratamentos a serem utilizados na seleção. Foram selecionadas 171 árvores baseadas nos valores médios de 15,59 cm de DAP e 12,03 m de Ht dos tratamentos escolhidos, além da avaliação quanto a forma do fuste, condição fitossanitária, vigor, disposição na paisagem e condição de luminosidade. As variáveis DAP e Ht se mostraram favoráveis para realização da seleção das árvores e as outras características avaliadas servirão para criação do pomar de sementes.

  8. Feeding and larval growth of an exotic freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens (Decapoda: Palaemonidae, from Northeastern Pará, Amazon Region

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    JEAN N. GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we carried out experiments on the diet of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium equidens. We tested which type of food and which density of food is suitable for larval development. For the experiment on the type of food, eight treatments were carried out: (I starvation, (AL microalgae, (RO rotifers, (AN Artemia, (RO + AN rotifers + Artemia, (AL + RO microalgae + rotifers, (AL + AN microalgae + Artemia, (AL + RO + AN microalgae + rotifers + Artemia. For the experiment on the density of food, we used the type of food, which had resulted in a high survival rate in the previous experiment. Three treatments were carried out: 4, 8 and 16 Artemia nauplii /mL. The rate of feeding during larval development was observed. The survival, weight and percentage of juveniles of each feeding experiment were determined. We found that larvae are carnivores; however, they have requirements with respect to the type of food, because larvae completed their cycle from the zoeal to the juvenile stage only when Artemia nauplii were available. We also verified that the larvae feed mainly during the day-time, and are opportunistic with respect to the density of food offered.

  9. Characterization, expression patterns of molt-inhibiting hormone gene of Macrobrachium nipponense and its roles in molting and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Hui; Jiang, Fengwei; Xiong, Yiwei; Jiang, Sufei; Fu, Hongtuo; Li, Fei; Zhang, Wenyi; Sun, Shengming; Jin, Shubo; Gong, Yongsheng; Wu, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important commercial aquaculture resource in China. In order to overwinter, M. nipponense displays decreased physiological activity and less consumption of energy. Sudden warming would trigger molting and cause an extensive death, resulting in huge economic losses. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the molting mechanism of oriental river prawns. Molt-inhibiting hormone gene (MIH) plays a major role in regulating molting in crustaceans. In this study, a full length MIH cDNA of M. nipponense (Mn-MIH) was cloned from the eyestalk. The total length of the Mn-MIH was 925 bp, encoding a protein of 119 amino acids. Tissue distribution analysis showed that Mn-MIH was highly expressed in the eyestalk, and that it had relatively low expression in gill, ovary, and abdominal ganglion. Mn-MIH was detected in all developmental stages, and changed regularly in line with the molting cycle of the embryo and larva. Mn-MIH varied in response to the molting cycle, suggesting that Mn-MIH negatively regulates ecdysteroidogenesis. Mn-MIH inhibition by RNAi resulted in a significant acceleration of molting cycles in both males and females, confirming the inhibitory role of MIH in molting. After long-term RNAi males, but not females had significant weight gain, confirming that Mn-MIH plays an important role in growth of M. nipponense. Our work contributes to a better understanding of the role of Mn-MIH in crustacean molting and growth.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii under Salt Stress

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    Hirak Kumar Barman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

  11. Autophagy-Associated Shrinkage of the Hepatopancreas in Fasting Male Macrobrachium rosenbergii Is Rescued by Neuropeptide F

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    Sirorat Thongrod

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate neuropeptide F-I (NPF-I, much alike its mammalian homolog neuropeptide Y, influences several physiological processes, including circadian rhythms, cortical excitability, stress response, and food intake behavior. Given the role of autophagy in the metabolic stress response, we investigated the effect of NPF-1 on autophagy during fasting and feeding conditions in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissues of the male giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Starvation up-regulated the expression of the autophagy marker LC3 in both tissues. Yet, based on the relative levels of the autophagosome-associated LC3-II isoform and of its precursor LC3-I, the hepatopancreas was more responsive than the muscle to starvation-induced autophagy. Injection of NPF-I inhibited the autophagosome formation in the hepatopancreas of fasting prawns. Relative to the body weight, the muscle weight was not affected, while that of the hepatopancreas decreased upon starvation and NPF-1 treatment could largely prevent such weight loss. Thus, the hepatopancreas is the reserve organ for the nutrient homeostasis during starvation and NPF-I plays a crucial role in the balancing of energy expenditure and energy intake during starvation by modulating autophagy.

  12. Bioaccumulation, distribution and elimination of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: Field and laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Anne; Gismondi, Eric; Dodet, Nathalie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Caupos, Fanny; Lemoine, Soazig; Lagadic, Laurent; Forget-Leray, Joëlle; Thomé, Jean-Pierre

    2017-10-01

    Chlordecone is a persistent organochlorine pesticide that has been widely used in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) to control the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus from 1972 to 1993. A few years after its introduction, widespread contamination of soils, rivers, wild animals and aquatic organisms was reported. Although high chlordecone concentrations have been reported in several crustacean species, its uptake, internal distribution, and elimination in aquatic species have never been described. This study aimed at investigating the accumulation and tissue distribution of chlordecone in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using both laboratory (30 days exposure) and field (8 months exposure) approaches. In addition, depuration in chlordecone-free water was studied. Results showed that chlordecone bioconcentration in prawns was dose-dependent and time-dependent. Moreover, females appeared to be less contaminated than males after 5 and 7 months of exposure, probably due to successive spawning leading in the elimination of chlordecone through the eggs. Chlordecone distribution in tissues of exposed prawns showed that cephalothorax organs, mainly represented by the hepatopancreas, was the most contaminated. Results also showed that chlordecone was accumulated in cuticle, up to levels of 40% of the chlordecone body burden, which could be considered as a depuration mechanism since chlordecone is eliminated with the exuviae during successive moults. Finally, this study underlined the similarity of results obtained in laboratory and field approaches, which highlights their complementarities in the chlordecone behaviour understanding in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variasi Morfologis Udang Galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, 1879 Hasil Inbreeding dan Outbreeding Populasi Probolinggo dan Mahakam

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    Nurul Suwartiningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has high biodiversity, one of them is the diversity of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man, 1879. The giant freshwater prawn was easy to reproduce and has high nutritional value. This study was conducted to determine the morphological variation of inbreed and outbreed of Probolinggo and Mahakam (Mama, Gogo, Goma, and Mago populations that was developed in Unit Kerja Budidaya Air Payau Balai Budidaya Udang Galah (UKBAP BBUG Samas as a basic for seed selection. Research of morphological variation carried out by observing 12 morphological characters, four meristic characters and 52 morphometric characters in four populations. Analysis of basic morphometric characters using a statistical program to determine the linear regression and the significance of parameters. Analysis of morphological characters using a statistical program to make dendrogram showing the similarity of four populations. The result of morphometry shows that the ratio of cephalothorax and abdomen of Mago and Goma is lower than Mama and Gogo. When viewed from the ratio of the carapace and rostrum length, Mago produces the longest rostrum. So, when only carapace length is compared to abdomen length, Mago showed the greatest value. Gogo has the highest ratio of cephalothorax and abdomen, while Mago has the highest ratio of carapace and abdomen among populations. Morphological data analysis showed that Gogo and Goma had reached 76% similarity, Goma and Mama have a similarity of 68% while Mago has 52% similarity with another three populations.

  14. GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PRAWN Macrobrachium tenellum IN EXPERIMENTAL CULTURES DURING SUMMER AND AUTUMN IN THE TROPICAL MEXICAN PACIFIC COAST.

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    Fernando Vega Villasante

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For aquaculture purposes, Macrobrachium tenellum is considered as a good candidate, is not aggressive nor presents cannibalism and can tolerate an ample interval of temperatures, salinities and oxygen concentrations. The present work evaluates the semi-intensive culture of M. tenellum under environmental conditions of summer and autumn with special attention to water temperature. The results of the experimental cultures in the tropical Mexican Pacific coast, suggest this species demonstrates better growth during the end of the spring, summer and the beginning of the autumn, time at which the average temperature of the water is near 30°C. The experimental cultures of end of autumn and beginnings of winter demonstrate minimum growth, with an average temperature of the culture water of 27°C.  Other parameters like pH, O2 concentration and turbidity in the culture water were similar in all the experimental cultures reason why temperature is suggested the factor was the determinant in the differences found in growth. Â

  15. Candidate genes that have facilitated freshwater adaptation by palaemonid prawns in the genus Macrobrachium: identification and expression validation in a model species (M. koombooloomba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahi, Md Lifat; Amin, Shorash; Mather, Peter B; Hurwood, David A

    2017-01-01

    The endemic Australian freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium koombooloomba , provides a model for exploring genes involved with freshwater adaptation because it is one of the relatively few Macrobrachium species that can complete its entire life cycle in freshwater. The present study was conducted to identify potential candidate genes that are likely to contribute to effective freshwater adaptation by M. koombooloomba using a transcriptomics approach. De novo assembly of 75 bp paired end 227,564,643 high quality Illumina raw reads from 6 different cDNA libraries revealed 125,917 contigs of variable lengths (200-18,050 bp) with an N50 value of 1597. In total, 31,272 (24.83%) of the assembled contigs received significant blast hits, of which 27,686 and 22,560 contigs were mapped and functionally annotated, respectively. CEGMA (Core Eukaryotic Genes Mapping Approach) based transcriptome quality assessment revealed 96.37% completeness. We identified 43 different potential genes that are likely to be involved with freshwater adaptation in M. koombooloomba . Identified candidate genes included: 25 genes for osmoregulation, five for cell volume regulation, seven for stress tolerance, three for body fluid (haemolymph) maintenance, eight for epithelial permeability and water channel regulation, nine for egg size control and three for larval development. RSEM (RNA-Seq Expectation Maximization) based abundance estimation revealed that 6,253, 5,753 and 3,795 transcripts were expressed (at TPM value ≥10) in post larvae, juveniles and adults, respectively. Differential gene expression (DGE) analysis showed that 15 genes were expressed differentially in different individuals but these genes apparently were not involved with freshwater adaptation but rather were involved in growth, development and reproductive maturation. The genomic resources developed here will be useful for better understanding the molecular basis of freshwater adaptation in Macrobrachium prawns and other

  16. The effect of different feeding frequency on growth indices, survival and body composition of Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849)

    OpenAIRE

    Etefaghdost, M.; Haghighi, H.; Alaf Noveirian, H.

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out in order to identify the effects of different feeding frequency on growth indices, feed conversion ratio, survival and body composition of oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) during 56 days. 180 oriental river prawns, with mean (±SE) weight 1.40±0.11g were counted and distributed randomly in twelve 70-liter glass tanks with 60 l water in 4 treatments each with 3 replicates cultured in same conditions (dietary feeding, dissolved oxygen, photoperiod, de...

  17. Estimativas das propriedades de compostos LVL produzidos com paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke por meio de stress wave

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    Rafael Rodolfo Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de compósitos LVL produzidos com a madeira de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke, por meio de Stress Wave Timer. Os compósitos foram confeccionados em laboratório, dos quais foram retiradas amostras, que foram inicialmente destinadas à realização dos ensaios não destrutivos. Todas as amostras, com dimensões de 2,2 × 2,2 × 40 cm, foram ensaiadas, não destrutivamente, com a propagação de ondas nos sentidos flatwise e edgewise. Em sequência, as mesmas amostras foram destinadas à confecção de subamostras, para realização dos ensaios destrutivos, físicos (absorção de água, inchamento em espessura e inchamento residual e mecânicos (resistência e rigidez à flexão estática flatwise; resistência e rigidez à flexão estática edgewise; resistência à compressão paralela e resistência ao cisalhamento paralelo e perpendicular. A velocidade de propagação das ondas (V0 e o módulo de elasticidade dinâmico (Emd, obtidos com o auxílio do Stress Wave, foram utilizados para elaboração de modelos de predição das propriedades avaliadas. Os resultados indicaram que o Stress Wave Timer apresenta resultados satisfatórios para predição das propriedades mecânicas de compósitos LVL. Com relação às propriedades físicas, embora tenham sido verificados modelos com ajustes significativos, constatou-se limitação dessa ferramenta para predição desses parâmetros. Contudo, considerando ambas as propriedades, físicas e mecânicas, os melhores ajustes foram observados em amostras ensaiadas com a propagação de ondas no sentido edgewise e com o uso da variável independente Emd.

  18. Effect of different levels dietary vitamin C on growth performance, muscle composition, antioxidant and enzyme activity of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium malcolmsonii

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    Annamalai Asaikkutti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study was conducted to examine the effects and interactions of dietary vitamin C levels on the growth performance, antioxidant ability, muscle composition and enzyme activity in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium malcolmsonii (M. malcolmsonii. Additional, the vitamins C was dietary supplemented for freshwater prawn M. malcolmsonii. The experimental basal diets were supplemented with M. malcolmsonii at the rates of 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg dry feed weight. The as-supplemented vitamin C was fed in M. malcolmsonii for a period of 90 days. In the present investigation revealed that prawns fed with diet supplemented with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C shows enhanced (P  0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR were observed in prawn fed different diets. Addition, prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamins C supplemented diets achieved significant (P  0.05 alterations in prawns fed with 25–100 mg/kg of vitamin C supplemented diets. Therefore, the present study proposed that 100 mg/kg of vitamin C could be supplemented for flexible enhanced survival; growth, antioxidant defense system and production of M. malcolmsonii. Keywords: Macrobrachium malcolmsonii, Vitamin, Growth performance, Biochemical compositions, Antioxidant enzyme

  19. Efecto del nivel proteico de la dieta sobre el desarrollo de juveniles de Macrobrachium tenellum (Smith, 1871

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    Luis Espinosa-Chaurand

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de cinco niveles de proteína cruda (PC en alimentos balanceados sobre el crecimiento, sobrevivencia y tasa de conversión alimenticia (FCA en juveniles de Macrobrachium tenellum. Materiales y métodos. Se alimentó por 60 días a juveniles de M. tenellum (0.31±0.01 g y 32.62±1.10 mm con niveles de 20, 25, 30, 35 y 40% de PC en el alimento. Los organismos fueron distribuidos al azar en 15 tinas experimentales de 64 L (15 org./tina bajo condiciones controladas (5.95±0.41 ppm de oxígeno, 29.89±0.72ºC, y pH 8.44±0.15 y alimentados con el 10% de su peso vivo. Resultados. El porcentaje de sobrevivencia fue del 98.22±3.96% sin diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (p>0.05. Los organismos alimentados con un 40% de PC tuvieron un peso significativamente mayor (p<0.05 respecto a los demás tratamientos (cambio de peso de 0.54±0.02g; incremento de peso de 173.60±12.99%; y tasa de crecimiento específico de 1.68±0.08. El FCA fue significativamente mejor (p<0.05 en los organismos alimentados con 35 y 40% de PC (2.85±0.18 y 2.40±0.05, respectivamente que los demás tratamientos. Conclusiones. Los organismos juveniles de M. tenellum alimentados con niveles altos de proteína (40%, se desarrollaron más rápido que organismos que recibieron una menor concentración de proteína bajo las condiciones experimentales establecidas en este estudio.

  20. Effect of Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae

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    C. Seenivasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the optimization of probiotic, Lactobacillus sporogenes on survival, growth, biochemical constituents and energy utilization of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii post larvae (PL. Experimental diets were the same in all, except for the variation in probiotic levels. The probiotic L. sporogenes was used at 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% inclusion in the experimental diets. These diets were fed to M. rosenbergii PL for a period of 90 days. The food index parameters, such as SR, WG, SGR, FCE and PER were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL, whereas the FCR was significantly (P < 0.05 lower in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. This indicates the fact that this feed produced higher growth rate than that of other experimental diets. Similarly the proximate composition of the total protein, total free amino acid, total carbohydrate, and total lipid content was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. However, insignificant differences were recorded in ash and moisture contents between control and experimental groups. Energy utilization parameters, such as feeding rate, absorption rate, conversion rate and excretory rate were significantly (P < 0.05 higher in 4% L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL. Statistically insignificant differences were recorded in metabolic rate between control and experimental groups. This indicates that there were no differences in energy loss between control and experimental groups. However, L. sporogenes incorporated diet fed PL produced better growth performance.

  1. Impact of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormones in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2013-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous persistent xenobiotic that can be found in freshwater, estuarine and marine ecosystem. TBT is a strong endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) that can cause toxic threat to aquatic organisms. Imposex, sexual deformities and endocrine dysfunctions are the causes of TBT to most of the aquatic organisms. Effect of TBT on the vitellogenesis and sex hormonal changes in Macrobrachium rosenbergii has never been reported. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to find out the impact of TBT on histological changes in the different reproductive tissues, sex hormonal alterations and level of biomarkers like vitellogenin and vitellin in M. rosenbergii. The present investigation documents the possible impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the vitellogenesis in freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii. TBT at 10 ng/l, 100 ng/l and 1000 ng/l concentrations were exposed individually to prawns for a period of three months. At higher concentration of 1000 ng/l, the ovarian development was arrested and ovary remained at spent stage. At lower concentration of TBT (10 ng/l), the development proceeded up to early vitellogenic stage. At intermediate concentration of 100 ng/l TBT, the ovary remained at pre vitellogenic stage and thereafter no development was noticed. Histological results indicated the normal ovarian development with vitellogenic oocytes, filled with yolk globules in control prawn. On the other hand, the TBT treated groups showed reduction in yolk globules, fusion of developing oocytes and abundance of immature oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining denoted the remarkable reduction in vitellin content in ovary of TBT treated prawn. Hence, TBT had conspicuously inhibited the vitellogenesis by causing hormonal imbalance in M. rosenbergii. TBT had notably inhibited the vitellogenesis due to hormonal imbalance. This endocrine dysfunction ultimately impaired the oogenesis in the freshwater female prawn M. rosenbergii.

  2. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with (60)Co gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalin, A; Broos, K V; Sadiq Bukhari, A; Syed Mohamed, H E; Singhal, R K; Venu-Babu, P

    2013-11-15

    This study was framed to investigate the (60)Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD50 value of (60)Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3,000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of the organs it is felt could affect the vital physiological functions such as respiration, osmotic and ionic regulation in gills and muscles; absorption, storage and secretion of the hepatopancreas which in turn could adversely affect the growth and survival of freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Leptin-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system, digestive organs, and gonads of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Anurucpreeda, Panat; Sobhon, Prasert

    2017-06-01

    Leptin, a highly conserved adipocyte-derived hormone, plays important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including the control of fat storage and metabolic status which are linked to food intake, energy homeostasis, and reproduction in all vertebrates. In the present study, we hypothesize that leptin is also present in various organs of the fresh water prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The existence and distribution of a leptin-like peptide in prawn tissues were verified by using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemical detection (ID) using primary antibody against human leptin. With WB, a leptin-like peptide, having a molecular weight of 15kDa, was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, parts of the gastro-intestinal tract, hepatopancreas, adipocytes and gonads. By ID, leptin immunoreactivity (leptin-ir) was detected in the brain, thoracic ganglia and intersegmental commissural nerve fibers of abdominal ganglia. In the gastrointestinal tract, there was intense leptin-ir in the apical part of the epithelial cells of the cardiac and pyloric parts of the stomach. In the midgut and hindgut, the leptin-ir was detected in epithelial cells and basal cells located near the basal lamina of the epithelium. In addition, there was leptin-ir in the Restzellen cells in the hepatopancreas which produce digestive enzymes. In the ovary, the strong intensity of a leptin-ir was detected in the cytoplasm of middle to late stage oocytes, whereas no positive staining was detected in follicular cells. An intense leptin-ir was detected in spermatocytes and sustentacular cells in the seminiferous tubules in the testes of small and orange claw males. Taken together, the detection of the leptin-ir in several organs implicates the existence of a leptin-like peptide in various organs of the freshwater prawn; and like in vertebrates this peptide may be an important hormonal factor in controlling feeding and reproductive process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. Propriedades de chapas fabricadas com partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake e de Schizolobium amazonicum Herb. Properties of foils manufactured with particles of wood of Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake and of Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Baptista Naumann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades de chapas de madeira aglomerada fabricadas com partículas de Eucalyptus urophylla (massa específica = 0,55 g/cm³ e de Schizolobium amazonicum (Paricá (massa específica = 0,30 g/cm³. Foram confeccionadas chapas com cinco proporções de madeira e dois tipos de partículas (maravalhas e cavacos. As chapas apresentaram dimensões de 60 cm x 60 cm x 1 cm e massa específica média de 0,60 g/cm³. Utilizou-se adesivo à base de uréia-formaldeído, na proporção de 8%. As chapas foram prensadas à temperatura de 170 ºC e 3,2 MPa de pressão, em ciclos de 8 min, e as suas propriedades foram determinadas segundo a norma NBR 14810-3. A massa específica, a dureza Janka e a expansão linear não foram influenciadas pelas variáveis experimentais. De modo geral, o aumento na porcentagem de paricá elevou a resistência à flexão, ao arrancamento de parafuso e à tração perpendicular. O tipo de partícula afetou significativamente apenas a resistência à tração perpendicular e o inchamento em espessura. As chapas produzidas com partículas provenientes de cavacos (coeficiente de esbeltez menor tiveram maior resistência à tração perpendicular. Contudo, apresentaram valores mais elevados de inchamento em espessura.This work aimed to evaluate the properties of particleboards produced with Eucalyptus urophylla (density 0.55 g/cm³ and Schizolobium amazonicum (density 0.30 g/cm³.Five wood proportions and two types of particle (shavings and chips were used to manufacture the boards. Board dimension was 60 cm x 60 cm x 1 cm and average density 0.60g/cm³. Eight percent of urea-formaldehyde adhesive was used. Boards were pressed at 170 ºC and 32 kgf/cm² of pressure in 8 minute cycles. Board properties were determined according to NBR 14810-3 standard. There was no influence of the variables on board density and linear expansion. Generally,increasing the percentage of paricá increased

  5. Variabilidade entre procedências de paricá Schizolobium parahyba var amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby plantadas no município de Colares - Pará Variability among Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby provenances planted in the municipality of Colares - PA

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    Selma Toyoko Ohashi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo envolveu quatro procedências de paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum plantadas no município de Colares-PA, seguindo um delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. As características estudadas foram: sobrevivência, altura da planta, diâmetro a 1,30m do solo (DAP, altura e diâmetro da copa, percentagem de plantas atacadas e tipo de casca. A avaliação foi efetuada aos três anos de idade. Foram encontradas diferenças entre procedências para a sobrevivência e crescimento em altura da planta e DAP, não tendo sido encontradas diferenças para as características de altura da copa, diâmetro da copa, percentagem de plantas atacadas e tipo de casca. A procedência de maior sobrevivência foi Belterra que diferiu das demais ao nível de 5% de significância. Para o crescimento em Altura da planta e DAP, as procedências Belterra, Ji-Paraná e Alta Floresta foram estatisticamente iguais entre si, diferindo de Brasiléia que apresentou o menor desenvolvimento. As procedência Belterra, Alta Floresta e Ji-Paraná podem ser recomendadas para o uso em programas de reflorestamento e sistemas agroflorestais para esta região. O coeficiente de correlação de Spearman indicou alta associação entre as variáveis de produção e a latitude, indicando que as procedências de latitudes mais baixas tendem a ter um maior desenvolvimento, entretanto, devido este estudo ter envolvido somente uma pequena amostra dentro da ampla área de distribuição da espécie, é aconselhável ampliar o trabalho de prospecção e coleta para melhor explorar a variabilidade no programa de melhoramento genético com a espécie.The study involved four three-year-old provenances of Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum planted in the municipality of Colares-Pará, following an experimental design of randomized blocks with five replications. The studied characteristics were: survival, plant height, diameter at 1.30 m from the

  6. Morphological and histological studies on freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man) irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, A.; Broos, K.V. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadiq Bukhari, A., E-mail: abjmc@yahoo.in [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Syed Mohamed, H.E. [P.G. and Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli 620020, Tamil Nadu (India); Singhal, R.K. [Analytical Spectroscopy Section, Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India); Venu-Babu, P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 4000085 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analyzing the impact of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation (low doses) in M. rosenbergii. •LD{sub 50} identified in 30 Gy; Irradiated exhibits morphological changes than control. •Significantly decreased HSI and histological changes in irradiated groups. •Aberration severities increased as increased of dose level. •Biomonitoring tool in determining low dose radiation pollution in aquatic ecosystem. -- Abstract: This study was framed to investigate the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation induced morphological and histological variations in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The LD{sub 50} value of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiated M. rosenbergii observed (by probit analysis) at 30 Gy. Prawns were irradiated to four different dose levels (3 mGy, 30 mGy, 300 mGy and 3000 mGy) using Theratron Phoenix TeleCobalt Unit [P-33] and one control group (without irradiation) maintained separately. Irradiated groups exhibited several morphological variations such as discoloration; damaged rostrum; opaque coloration in cephalothorax; black bands and dot formation in abdomen; deformed uropods and telson in tail regions when compared with control group. The Hepato Somatic Index reflected the severity of radiation on hepatopancreas. Histological variations in gills, hepatopancreas and muscles of irradiated groups were observed. In gills, structural changes such as swollen and fused lamellae, abnormal gill tips, hyperplasic, necrotic and clavate-globate lamellae were observed in gamma irradiated prawns. Accumulation of hemocytes in hemocoelic space, interstitial sinuses filled with abnormal infiltrated hemocytes, the tubular epithelium with ruptured basal laminae, abnormal and coagulated lumen, necrotic tubules, thickened basal laminae, tissue debris, necrotic hepatocytes were observed in irradiated prawn hepatopancreas. In muscle, shrinkage of muscular fiber and necrotic musculature were observed in irradiated prawns. These structural alterations of

  7. The effect of astaxanthin on resistance of juvenile prawns Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda: Palaemonidae to physical and chemical stress

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    Babak Tizkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of new scientific techniques has effectively improved aquaculture production processes. Astaxanthin has various properties in aquacultureand its antioxidant benefits have been closely related to stress resistance; besides, it is an essential factor for growth in many crustaceans and fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense fed diets containing different amounts of astaxanthin (AX to the shock and stress of differentphysicochemical environments. A 70-day trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a source of astaxanthin (Carophyll Pink, 10% astaxanthin, w/w, Hoffman-La Roche, Switzerland at various levels in the diet of M. nipponense juveniles. Four dry diets were prepared: AX0 without astaxanthin, AX50 with 50mg/kg, AX100 with 100mg/kg, and AX150 with 150mg/kg astaxanthin. The feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation water system consisting of 12 fiberglass tanks (1 000L used for holding prawns. Three replicate aquaria were initially stocked with 36org/m² per tank. During the trial, prawns were maintained on a 12:12-h light:dark photoperiod with an ordinary incandescent lamp, and the water quality parameters were maintained as follows: water temperature, 25-26°C; salinity, 1g/L; pH, 8.5-8.8; dissolved oxygen, 6.0-6.5mg/L; and ammonia-nitrogen, 0.05mg/L. Incorporation of AX, production output, and physiological condition were recorded after 10 weeks of feeding. At the end of the growing period, the prawns were exposed to thermal shock (0°C, ammonia (0.75mg/L, and reduced oxygen (0.5mg/L. The time to lethargyand the time to complete death of the prawns were recorded. The results showed that control prawns had the shortest time to lethargy and death compared with prawns subjected to the other treatments. The results of this study have shown that the amount of muscle tissue and gill carotenoids in prawn fed with an AX150 diet showed

  8. Desempenho larval do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submetido a diferentes regimes alimentares Larval performance of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 submitted to different feeding systems

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    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho das larvas de Macrobrachium rosenbergii submetidas a quatro diferentes regimes alimentares foi verificado utilizando a observação diária dos subestádios larvais e as primeiras metamorfoses. As larvas foram estocadas em densidade de aproximadamente 100 larvas.l-1, em 16 tanques retangulares, com capacidade de 33 litros. O experimento foi dividido em quatro unidades experimentais (blocos, nos quais foram testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura em circuito aberto, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os regimes alimentares substituindo progressivamente náuplio de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots foram os seguintes tratamentos: 100% Brachionus plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia (3 nas/mL + 40% Brachionus plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia (2 nas/mL + 60% Brachionus plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4, sendo adicionada a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da mudança dos subestádios larvais demonstraram que não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. No tratamento T1 (100% Brachionus plicatilis houve mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O efeito da ocorrência das primeiras metamorfoses para pós-larvas, ocorreu ao 27º dia nos tratamentos T2, T3 e T4. Conseqüentemente, o ciclo de larvicultura até a metamorfose de 90% para pós-larva (PL1 foi o mesmo nos tratamentos (35 dias. Portanto, a utilização do rotífero enriquecido e congelado no regime alimentar das larvas permitiu desempenho satisfatório em termos de desenvolvimento larval de M. rosenbergii até a passagem para o estádio de pós-larva.The feeding is one of the most important factors to larval development and the sucess of the commercial cultivation of decapod crustacean larvae depends on the efficient and economic utilization of the available food. The performance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larva submitted to four different feeding systems was

  9. The prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River basin: towards sustainable restocking of all-male populations for biological control of schistosomiasis.

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    Amit Savaya Alkalay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG, which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our

  10. Optimizing Hybrid de Novo Transcriptome Assembly and Extending Genomic Resources for Giant Freshwater Prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: The Identification of Genes and Markers Associated with Reproduction

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    Hyungtaek Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a sexually dimorphic decapod crustacean is currently the world’s most economically important cultured freshwater crustacean species. Despite its economic importance, there is currently a lack of genomic resources available for this species, and this has limited exploration of the molecular mechanisms that control the M. rosenbergii sex-differentiation system more widely in freshwater prawns. Here, we present the first hybrid transcriptome from M. rosenbergii applying RNA-Seq technologies directed at identifying genes that have potential functional roles in reproductive-related traits. A total of 13,733,210 combined raw reads (1720 Mbp were obtained from Ion-Torrent PGM and 454 FLX. Bioinformatic analyses based on three state-of-the-art assemblers, the CLC Genomic Workbench, Trans-ABySS, and Trinity, that use single and multiple k-mer methods respectively, were used to analyse the data. The influence of multiple k-mers on assembly performance was assessed to gain insight into transcriptome assembly from short reads. After optimisation, de novo assembly resulted in 44,407 contigs with a mean length of 437 bp, and the assembled transcripts were further functionally annotated to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat motifs. Gene expression analysis was also used to compare expression patterns from ovary and testis tissue libraries to identify genes with potential roles in reproduction and sex differentiation. The large transcript set assembled here represents the most comprehensive set of transcriptomic resources ever developed for reproduction traits in M. rosenbergii, and the large number of genetic markers predicted should constitute an invaluable resource for future genetic research studies on M. rosenbergii and can be applied more widely on other freshwater prawn species in the genus Macrobrachium.

  11. The Prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii in the Senegal River Basin: Towards Sustainable Restocking of All-Male Populations for Biological Control of Schistosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaya Alkalay, Amit; Rosen, Ohad; Sokolow, Susanne H.; Faye, Yacinthe P. W.; Faye, Djibril S.; Aflalo, Eliahu D.; Jouanard, Nicolas; Zilberg, Dina; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Sagi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Early malacological literature suggests that the outbreak of schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by aquatic snails, in the Senegal River basin occurred due to ecological changes resulting from the construction of the Diama dam. The common treatment, the drug praziquantel, does not protect from the high risk of re-infection due to human contact with infested water on a daily basis. The construction of the dam interfered with the life cycle of the prawn Macrobrachium vollenhovenii by blocking its access to breeding grounds in the estuary. These prawns were demonstrated to be potential biological control agents, being effective predators of Schistosoma-susceptible snails. Here, we propose a responsible restocking strategy using all-male prawn populations which could provide sustainable disease control. Male prawns reach a larger size and have a lower tendency to migrate than females. We, therefore, expect that periodic restocking of all-male juveniles will decrease the prevalence of schistosomiasis and increase villagers' welfare. In this interdisciplinary study, we examined current prawn abundance along the river basin, complemented with a retrospective questionnaire completed by local fishermen. We revealed the current absence of prawns upriver and thus demonstrated the need for restocking. Since male prawns are suggested to be preferable for bio-control, we laid the molecular foundation for production of all-male M. vollenhovenii through a complete sequencing of the insulin-like androgenic gland-encoding gene (IAG), which is responsible for sexual differentiation in crustaceans. We also conducted bioinformatics and immunohistochemistry analyses to demonstrate the similarity of this sequence to the IAG of another Macrobrachium species in which neo-females are produced and their progeny are 100% males. At least 100 million people at risk of schistosomiasis are residents of areas that experienced water management manipulations. Our suggested non

  12. The influence of eyestalk ablation on the reproduction of the freshwater Macrobrachium acanthurus shrimp in captivity - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.3911 The influence of eyestalk ablation on the reproduction of the freshwater Macrobrachium acanthurus shrimp in captivity - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i3.3911

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    Cristiane Honorato Cunha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium acanthurus is distributed along the Brazilian coastal rivers and shows potential for aquaculture. This study was carried out to provide information on the reproduction of M. acanthurus in captivity and the influence of unilateral eyestalk ablation. A total of 48 females and 24 males were captured in the Sahy river in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State. The animals were distributed into twelve 20-liter aquariums, each with two males and four females. Two females in each aquarium were ablated. Every day the occurrence of ovigerous females was checked in each aquarium. The U test (Mann-Whitney showed a significant difference among laying intervals and the number of hatchings between ablated and non ablated females.Macrobrachium acanthurus is distributed along the Brazilian coastal rivers and shows potential for aquaculture. This study was carried out to provide information on the reproduction of M. acanthurus in captivity and the influence of unilateral eyestalk ablation. A total of 48 females and 24 males were captured in the Sahy river in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State. The animals were distributed into twelve 20-liter aquariums, each with two males and four females. Two females in each aquarium were ablated. Every day the occurrence of ovigerous females was checked in each aquarium. The U test (Mann-Whitney showed a significant difference among laying intervals and the number of hatchings between ablated and non ablated females.

  13. Aspectos fisiológicos da germinação e da qualidade de plântulas de Schizolobium amazonicum em resposta à escarificação das sementes em lixa e água quente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Santos Cordeiro Shimizu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Schizolobium amazonicum apresentam dormência física a qual pode ser quebrada por diferentes métodos de escarificação. Nesta pesquisa, os efeitos da escarificação das sementes em lixa e água quente sob os aspectos fisiológicos relacionados à germinação das sementes e à qualidade das plântulas obtidas foram avaliados. Sementes de S. amazonicum foram escarificadas pela (i imersão em água a 100°C/ 2 min e pela (ii fricção das sementes em lixa. Sementes não escarificadas foram utilizadas como testemunha. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: viabilidade dos tecidos (por meio do teste de tetrazólio, taxa de germinação, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, taxa de embebição das sementes, depleção do endosperma e emergência, uniformidade e acúmulo de biomassa das plântulas resultantes. As sementes oriundas de ambos os tratamentos foram igualmente coradas pelo tetrazólio. A escarificação em lixa resultou em maior germinação, maior IVG, rápida embebição e depleção do endosperma em comparação às sementes escarificadas em água a 100°C/2 min. A emergência de plântulas e o índice de emergência foram maiores em sementes escarificadas em lixa, cujas plântulas apresentaram-se mais uniformes e com maior acúmulo de biomassa que aquelas obtidas após escarificação em água a 100°C/2 min. Do exposto, a escarificação de sementes de paricá em lixa é mais eficiente na promoção da germinação e produção de plântulas uniformes.

  14. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  15. Avaliação das propriedades físicas, químicas, mecânicas e de superfície de lâminas de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke

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    Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de lâminas produzidas com a madeira de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum. Para tanto, foram observadas propriedades físicas (massa específica, porosidade, teor de umidade e estabilidade dimensional e mecânicas (resistência à flexão estática e à tração paralela, realizou-se a avaliação não destrutiva por meio Stress Wave, verificou-se a composição química e a caracterização da superfície (análise de imagem, cor, rugosidade e molhabilidade para ambas as faces das lâminas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram ser as lâminas de paricá um material de coloração branco-acinzentada, baixa massa específica, elevada porosidade, baixa estabilidade dimensional, pouca rugosidade e alta molhabilidade. O módulo de elasticidade dinâmico obtido por Stress Wave e a massa específica apresentaram correlação significativa com o desempenho mecânico das lâminas, podendo ser estes parâmetros utilizados como indicadores de resistência nas estratégias de montagem de compostos laminados.

  16. Caracterização completa da madeira da espécie amazônica Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb em peças de dimensões estruturais

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    Diego Henrique de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A espécie amazônica Paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb apresenta rápidos incrementos em altura e diâmetro em poucos anos de cultivo e desenvolve uma madeira com pequena quantidade de nós e defeitos, característica fundamental na sua utilização para fins estruturais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as propriedades de resistência e rigidez de peças da madeira Paricá em dimensões estruturais, de acordo com a norma ABNT NBR 7190: 2011, bem como realizar a classificação visual das peças para determinação de defeitos como: nós, inclinação de fibras, empenamentos, rachas e fendas. Conclui-se que a madeira de Paricá é classificada como classe C 20 das dicotiledôneas e possui baixa densidade, boa resistência à compressão paralela, grande potencial de utilização na construção civil quando comparada com outras espécies e, em relação à classificação visual, poucos nós, grã direita e poucos empenamentos e distorções.

  17. (Vellozo Rohwer (Canela-sassafrás

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    Ricardo Cetnarski Filho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was developed at the Seed Laboratory of Forestry Sciences Department of Federal University of Paraná – UFPR, in order to determinate the effect of the temperature: 20, 25 and 30o C, and the remotion of the outer coat (endocarp and tegument on seeds germination the Ocotea odorifera (Vel. Rohwer. The diaspores were collected at Fazenda Rio Grande, Paraná State, in a remaining Ombrophylous Mixed Forest. It was adopted the entirely randomized statistical model, The diaspores without outer coat presented a higher germination percentage and germination speed.

  18. Oxygen consumption remains stable while ammonia excretion is reduced upon short time exposure to high salinity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Caridae: Palaemonidae, a recent freshwater colonizer

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    Carolina A. Freire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Palaemonid shrimps occur in the tropical and temperate regions of South America and the Indo-Pacific, in brackish/freshwater habitats, and marine coastal areas. They form a clade that recently (i.e., ~30 mya invaded freshwater, and one included genus, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, is especially successful in limnic habitats. Adult Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 dwell in coastal freshwaters, have diadromous habit, and need brackish water to develop. Thus, they are widely recognized as euryhaline. Here we test how this species responds to a short-term exposure to increased salinity. We hypothesized that abrupt exposure to high salinity would result in reduced gill ventilation/perfusion and decreased oxygen consumption. Shrimps were subjected to control (0 psu and experimental salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, for four and eight hours (n = 8 in each group. The water in the experimental containers was saturated with oxygen before the beginning of the experiment; aeration was interrupted before placing the shrimp in the experimental container. Dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentration, and pH were measured from the aquaria water, at the start and end of each experiment. After exposure, the shrimp’s hemolymph was sampled for lactate and osmolality assays. Muscle tissue was sampled for hydration content (Muscle Water Content, MWC. Oxygen consumption was not reduced and hemolymph lactate did not increase with increased salinity. The pH of the water decreased with time, under all conditions. Ammonia excretion decreased with increased salinity. Hemolymph osmolality and MWC remained stable at 10 and 20 psu, but osmolality increased (~50% and MWC decreased (~4% at 30 psu. The expected reduction in oxygen consumption was not observed. This shrimp is able to tolerate significant changes in water salt concentrations for a few hours by keeping its metabolism in aerobic mode, and putatively shutting down branchial salt uptake to avoid massive salt

  19. The influence of eyestalk ablation on the reproduction of the freshwater Macrobrachium acanthurus shrimp in captivity = Influência da ablação do pedúnculo ocular na reprodução do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium acanthurus em cativeiro

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    Cristiane Honorato Cunha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium acanthurus is distributed along the Brazilian coastal rivers and shows potential for aquaculture. This study was carried out to provide information on the reproduction of M. acanthurus in captivity and the influence of unilateral eyestalk ablation. A total of 48 females and 24 males were captured in the Sahy river in Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State. The animals were distributed into twelve 20-liter aquariums, each with two males and four females. Two females in each aquarium were ablated. Every day the occurrence of ovigerous females was checked in each aquarium. The U test (Mann-Whitney showed a significant difference among laying intervals and the number of hatchings between ablated and non ablated females.Macrobrachium acanthurus é uma espécie com viabilidade para o cultivo e ocorre nos rios da costa brasileira. O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informações sobre o aspecto reprodutivo de M. acanthurus em cativeiro e a influência da técnica de ablação unilateral do pedúnculo ocular na reprodução. Foram utilizados no experimento 48 fêmeas e 24 machos coletados no Rio Sahy, Mangaratiba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os animais foram distribuídos na proporção de dois machos para quatro fêmeas em doze aquários com capacidade de 20 litros. Das quatro fêmeas de cada aquário, duas foram abladas unilateralmente. Todos os dias foram verificados a ocorrência de exteriorização dos ovos em cada fêmea. Através do teste U (Mann-Whitney foi verificada diferença significativa para o intervalo entre as desovas e quanto ao número de desovas entre fêmeas abladas e não abladas.

  20. Levels of Platinum Group Metals in Selected Species (Sarotherodon melanotheron, Chonophorus lateristriga, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii and Crassostrea tulipa in Some Estuaries and Lagoons Along the Coast of Ghana

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    D. K. Essumang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of some biota as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution has been demonstrated as particularly adequate due to their capacity of bioconcentration. This study evaluated the levels of platinum group metals (PGMs in some selected species along the coastal belt of Ghana, using the neutron activation analysis (NAA method. The result was processed to evaluate pollution indices in order to map the distribution of the metals in those species in the lagoons and estuaries along the costal belt of Ghana. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron Cichlidae, brown goby (Chonophorus lateristriga Gobiidae, shrimp (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii Palaemonidae, and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea tulipa Ostreidae in the lagoons and river Pra estuary. However, the oysters showed an elevated mean concentration of 0.13 μ/g (dry weight Pd. From the pollution indices, most of the sampling sites registered mean contamination factor (CF values between 1.20 and 3.00 for Pt, Pd, and Rh. The pollution load index (PLI conducted also gave an average pollution index between 0.79 and 2.37, indicating progressive contamination levels. The results revealed that anthropogenic sources, industrial and hospital effluent, etc., together with vehicular emissions, could be the contributing factors to the deposition of PGMs along the Ghanaian coast.

  1. Use of artificial substrate in pond culture of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii: a new approach regarding growth performance and economic return

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    Dilshad Milky Tuly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted for six months to evaluate the effects of artificial substrates on the survival, growth and production of Macrobrachium rosenbergii juveniles. The treatment T1 contained locally available bamboo-made substrate both vertical and horizontal and treatment T2 received no substrate. Juvenile prawns (0.40±0.13 g were stocked at the rate of 19,760 prawns ha-1. The water quality parameters range such as temperature, pH and DO were 22.06-33.45°C, 7.70-8.40 and 4.75-6.15 mgl-1 respectively which was no significant difference (P0.05 than T2 (56.87%. The specific growth rate, food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio were 1.19 % and 1.14 %, 3.15 and 4.39, 0.98 and 0.71 in T1 and T2 respectively which were not significantly different (P0.05 than T2. Thus growth and survival of prawn juveniles improved in presence of artificial substrate which could be economically viable technique for the freshwater prawn culture.

  2. The history of the introduction of the giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii (Decapoda, Palaemonidae, in Brazil: new insights from molecular data

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    Gabriel Iketani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant river prawn, Macrobrachium cf. rosenbergii, is one of the most cultivated freshwater prawns in the world and has been introduced into more than 40 countries. In some countries, this prawn is considered an invasive species that requires close monitoring. Recent changes in the taxonomy of this species (separation of M. rosenbergii and M. dacqueti require a re-evaluation of introduced taxa. In this work, molecular analyses were used to determine which of these two species was introduced into Brazil and to establish the geographic origin of the introduced populations that have invaded Amazonian coastal waters. The species introduced into Brazil was M. dacqueti through two introduction events involving prawns originating from Vietnam and either Bangladesh or Thailand. These origins differ from historical reports of the introductions and underline the need to confirm the origin of other exotic populations around the world. The invading populations in Amazonia require monitoring not only because the biodiversity of this region may be affected by the introduction, but also because admixture of different native haplotypes can increase the genetic variability and the likelihood of persistence of the invading species in new habitats.

  3. Ultrastructural changes during spermatogenesis, biochemical and hormonal evidences of testicular toxicity caused by TBT in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879).

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    Revathi, Peranandam; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Vasanthi, Lourduraj Arockia; Munuswamy, Natesan; Krishnan, Muthukalingan

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation documents the impact of tributyltin (TBT) on the ultrastructural variation of spermatogenesis in freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The environmentally realistic concentration of TBT can cause damages to the endocrine and reproductive physiology of crustaceans. In this context, three concentrations viz. 10, 100, and 1000 ng/L were selected and exposed to prawns for 90 days. The TBT exposed prawn exhibited decrease the reproductive activity as evidenced by sperm count and sperm length compared to control. Histopathological results revealed the retarded testicular development, abnormal structure of seminiferous tubule, decrease in the concentration of spermatozoa, diminution of seminiferous tubule membrane, abundance of spermatocytes and vacuolation in testis of treated prawns. Ultrastructural study also confirmed the impairment of spermatogenesis in treated prawns. Furthermore, radioimmunoassay (RIA) clearly documented the reduction of testosterone level in TBT exposed groups. Thus, TBT substantially reduced the level of male sex hormone as well as biochemical constituents which ultimately led to impairment of spermatogenesis in the freshwater male prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  4. Timing sexual differentiation: full functional sex reversal achieved through silencing of a single insulin-like gene in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

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    Ventura, Tomer; Manor, Rivka; Aflalo, Eliahu D; Weil, Simy; Rosen, Ohad; Sagi, Amir

    2012-03-01

    In Crustacea, an early evolutionary group (∼50 000 species) inhabiting most ecological niches, sex differentiation is regulated by a male-specific androgenic gland (AG). The identification of AG-specific insulin-like factors (IAGs) and genomic sex markers offers an opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sexual differentiation mechanism in crustaceans and other arthropods. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first full and functional sex reversal of male freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) through the silencing of a single IAG-encoding gene. These "neofemales" produced all-male progeny, as proven by sex-specific genomic markers. This finding offers an insight regarding the biology and evolution of sex differentiation regulation, with a novel perspective for the evolution of insulin-like peptides. Our results demonstrate how temporal intervention with a key regulating gene induces a determinative, extreme phenotypic shift. Our results also carry tremendous ecological and commercial implications. Invasive and pest crustacean species represent genuine concerns worldwide without an apparent solution. Such efforts might, therefore, benefit from sexual manipulations, as has been successfully realized with other arthropods. Commercially, such manipulation would be significant in sexually dimorphic cultured species, allowing the use of nonbreeding, monosex populations while dramatically increasing yield and possibly minimizing the invasion of exotic cultured species into the environment.

  5. Abbreviated larval development of Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae from an Amazon Basin forest stream, Brazil, reared in the laboratory

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    Célio Magalhães

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper brings the description and illustrations of the abbreviated larval development of the Amazonian freshwater palaemonid shrimp, Macrobrachium inpa Kensley and Walker, 1982. The study was based on ovigerous females (mean total body length of 27.0 ± 1.64 mm collected in a small forest stream in the Reserva Florestal Ducke, near Manaus, Brazil, of which four released their larvae in the laboratory. The females carried 8 to 19 eliptical (2.39 ± 0.10 X 1.67 ± 0.08 mm, yolk-rich eggs. The larval period consists of three benthic, lecithotrophic larval stages, and lasts 10-11 days. The newly-hatched larvae bear very advanced morphological features such as antenna with several marginal plumose seta on scaphocerite and long, multi-articulated flagellum; fully developed, functional uniramous pereiopods 3-5 (walking legs and biramous pleopods. The morphology of the carapace, all appendages of the cephalothorax and pleon, and the tail fan are described in detail and illustrated. The larval form was considered to be a decapodid because of the benthic behavior and due to the fact that functional walking legs and pleopods are the main structures for displacement and propulsion. The larval development of M. inpa is compared with those of the so-called "continental" group of the caridean shrimps from the Amazon River basin.

  6. Survey of protozoan, helminth and viral infections in shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the Jamapa River region, Mexico.

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    Domínguez-Machín, Magda E; Hernández-Vergara, Martha P; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2011-09-09

    We surveyed protozoan and metazoan parasites as well as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus and the palaemonid prawn Macrobrachium acanthurus native to the lower Jamapa River region of Veracruz, Mexico. The presence of parasites and the infection parameters were evaluated in 113 palaemonid prawns collected during the northwind (n = 45), rainy (n = 38) and dry seasons (n = 30) between October 2007 and July 2008, and in 91 shrimp collected in the rainy season between May and June 2008. In L. setiferus, ciliates of the subclass Apostomatia (Ascophrys sp.) were evident in gills, and third-stage larvae of the nematode Physocephalus sexalatus were evident in the stomach. Cestodes of the genus Prochristianella were evident in the hepatopancreas, while some gregarines of the genus Nematopsis, as well as unidentified larval cestodes, were observed in the intestine. Histology identified Ascophrys sp. in association with gill necrosis and tissue melanization. Slight inflammation was observed in intestinal epithelium near cestode larvae. In M. acanthurus, epibionts of the protozoans Epistylis sp., Acineta sp. and Lagenophrys sp. were observed under uropods, periopods and pleopods. An unidentified ciliate of the Apostomatia was also found in the gills, and Nematopsis was identified in the intestine. No histopathology was observed in association with these parasites. Moreover, neither WSSV nor IHHNV were detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the L. setiferus or M. acanthurus analysed.

  7. Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I, a CD36 Related Protein in Macrobrachium nipponense: Characterization, RNA Interference, and Expression Analysis with Different Dietary Lipid Sources

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    Zhili Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI, is a member of the CD36 superfamily comprising transmembrane proteins involved in mammalian and fish lipid homeostasis regulation. We hypothesize that this receptor plays an important role in Macrobrachium nipponense lipid metabolism. However, little attention has been paid to SR-BI in commercial crustaceans. In the present study, we report a cDNA encoding M. nipponense scavenger receptor class B, type I (designated as MnSR-BI, obtained from a hepatopancreas cDNA library. The complete MnSR-BI coding sequence was 1545 bp, encoding 514 amino acid peptides. The MnSR-BI primary structure consisted of a CD36 domain that contained two transmembrane regions at the N- and C-terminals of the protein. SR-BI mRNA expression was specifically detected in muscle, gill, ovum, intestine, hepatopancreas, stomach, and ovary tissues. Furthermore, its expression in the hepatopancreas was regulated by dietary lipid sources, with prawns fed soybean and linseed oils exhibiting higher expression levels. RNAi-based SR-BI silencing resulted in the suppression of its expression in the hepatopancreas and variation in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes. This is the first report of SR-BI in freshwater prawns and provides the basis for further studies on SR-BI in crustaceans.

  8. Efeito do espaçamento e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura no manejo de plantas invasoras em reflorestamento de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá

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    Fabrízia de Oliveira Alvino-Rayol

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A infestação crescente de plantas invasoras em áreas de cultivos é um dos fatores que mais afetam os reflorestamentos na Amazônia, causando decréscimos na produtividade devido à competição direta pelos fatores de produção. Tendo isso em vista, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de espaçamentos (4x2 m, 4x4 m e 4x6 m e do uso de leguminosas de cobertura (Cajanus cajan e Canavalia ensiformis no controle da matocompetição em plantio de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke (paricá. As coletas das plantas invasoras foram feitas aos 30 e 90 dias após a semeadura das leguminosas de cobertura. Posteriormente foram levadas para herbários para identificação. Foram identificadas 24 espécies distribuídas em 13 famílias botânicas. No que se refere à infestação, diversidade e riqueza de plantas daninhas, os melhores resultados foram encontrados nos tratamentos com C. ensiformis. Esta leguminosa influenciou a composição florística e a estrutura das comunidades de plantas invasoras. O espaçamento 4m x 2m contribuiu para menor diversidade e riqueza dessa plantas. As espécies de ervas daninhas mais frequentes em todos os tratamentos foram Spermacoce capitata e Brachiaria brizantha.

  9. VALIAÇÃO DE PLANTIOS DE PARICÁ (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby DE DIFERENTES IDADES E SISTEMAS DE CULTIVO NO MUNICÍPIO DE AURORA DO PARÁ - PA (BRASIL

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    Iracema Maria Castro Coimbra Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the behavior of the species Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum ( Huber ex Ducke Barneby (In the Portuguese language ‘Paricá’ at different ages and cultivation systems in Aurora do Pará (Pará state, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in the experimental territory of ‘Tramontina Belém S.A. company’ (2°10’00”s; 47°32’00”w, using a thoroughly random statistical outline with subdivided plots. There were selected six plantation forests of Paricá: 1- agroforestry system of Paricá and Curauá ( Ananas comosus var. erectifolius (SAFpc; 2- monoespecific plantation of Paricá (MONp; 3- agroforestry system with Paricá, freijo ( Cordia goeldiana and curauá (SAFpfc; 4- consortium of Paricá and Freijó (CONpf; 5- agroforestry system with Paricá, Freijo, Mogno and Curaua (SAFpfmc; 6- Consortium of Paricá, Magno and Freijo (CONpmf. The plot size was 18m x 24m with four repetitions per treatment, amounting for 28 plots and 10.368 m 2 of experimental area. The numbers used as reference to evaluate the growth of Paricá were height (H and breast height diameter (DAP. Based on those values the average increments per year were calculated in DAP (IMAdap, H (IMAalt and volume (V; The data was submitted a Variance Analysis and the average compared through Student Newman Keuls test (SNK, at 95% probability level. The results showed that Paricá and Curaua, if associated, presented statistically higher numbers in height and diameter at breast height, increment and volume, if compared to same age treatments in the absence of the agricultural species.

  10. Late rise in hemolymph osmolality in Macrobrachium acanthurus (diadromous freshwater shrimp) exposed to brackish water: Early reduction in branchial Na+/K+ pump activity but stable muscle HSP70 expression.

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    Freire, Carolina A; Maraschi, Anieli C; Lara, Alessandra F; Amado, Enelise M; Prodocimo, Viviane

    2018-02-01

    Some Macrobrachium shrimps (Caridea, Palaemonidae) are diadromous; freshwater adults are truly euryhaline, while larvae need saline water for development. Branchial Na + /K + -ATPase (NKA) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in NaCl absorption in freshwater. This study aimed at verifying the time course of the osmoregulatory response of adult Macrobrachium acanthurus to high salinity brackish water (20‰), from the first 30min to 5days. The goal was to detect possible transition from hyper- to hyporegulation, the putative involvement of branchial NKA and CA, or the induction of muscular HSP70 expression. Hemolymph osmotic and ionic concentrations remained relatively stable and close to control levels until ~9h of exposure, but later increased consistently (~50%). A fast reduction in NKA activity (3-6h) was observed; these shrimps seem to shut off salt absorption already in the first hours. Later on, especially after 24h, hemolymph concentrations rise but HSP70 expression is not induced, possibly because constitutive levels are already sufficient to prevent protein damage. Time-dependent response mechanisms effective in high salinity brackish water, resulting in salt loading avoidance and suggestive of hyporegulation should be further investigated in decapods that evolutionary invaded freshwater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  12. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae Revisão taxonômica das espécies brasileiras duvidosas de camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

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    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.Os camarões de água doce do gênero Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 encontram-se amplamente distribuídos em rios de regiões tropicais e subtropicais e representam um grupo com taxonomia controversa. Os caracteres morfológicos comumente utilizados para separação de espécies apresentam uma grande variação intraespecífica. Dúvidas sobre o status taxonômico de M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 e M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 foram levantadas devido à alta similaridade morfológica das primeiras com relação à M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836 e da última com relação à M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Assim, foi realizada uma análise morfológica detalhada de tais espécies, incluindo novos caracteres comumente não utilizados na identificação dos táxons. A partir dos resultados obtidos, juntamente com dados moleculares, concluímos que M. birai e M. holthuisi s

  13. Simultaneous identification and quantification of 4-cumylphenol, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and bisphenol A in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

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    Zuo, Yuegang; Zhu, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-cumylphenol (4-CP) and 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol (2,4-DCP) are all high production volume chemicals and widely used in plastic and other consumer products. During the past two decades, BPA has attracted a great deal of scientific and public attention due to its presence in the environment and estrogenic property. Although 4-CP and 2,4-DCP are much more estrogenic and toxic than BPA, little information is available about their occurrence and fate in the environment. In this study, a rapid, selective, accurate and reliable analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The method comprises an ultrasound-accelerated extraction followed by capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation. The detection limits range from 1.50 to 36.4 ng kg(-1) for the three alkylphenols. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range tested with the coefficients of determination, R(2), greater than 0.994. The developed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn samples. The peak identification was confirmed using GC-MS. Bisphenol A, 2,4-bis-(dimethylbenzyl)phenol and 4-cumylphenol were found in prawn samples in the concentration ranges of 0.67-5.51, 0.36-1.61, and 0.00-1.96 ng g(-1) (wet weight), respectively. All relative standard deviations are less than 4.8%. At these environmentally relevant concentration levels, 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA may affect the reproduction and development of aquatic organisms, including negative influence on crustaceans' larval survival, molting, metamorphosis and shell hardening. This is the first study reported on the occurrence of 4-CP, 2,4-DCP and BPA in prawn M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An evaluation of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in the diet of Macrobrachium nipponense: Growth, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Ding, Zhili; Zhang, Yixiang; Ye, Jinyun; Du, Zhenyu; Kong, Youqin

    2015-05-01

    Partial or complete replacement of fish meal (FM) with fermented soybean meal (FSM) was examined in Macrobrachium nipponense over an 8-week growth trial. Growth and immune characteristics were evaluated. Fermented soybean meal replaced 0 (FM, control), 25% (R25), 50% (R50), 75% (R75), or 100% of the FM (R100) in five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. Each diet was fed to juvenile prawns (mean weight, 0.103 ± 0.0009 g) twice daily to apparent satiation in five replicates. Weight gain and specific growth rate of M. nipponense were significantly higher in prawns fed the R25 diet than that of prawns fed the FM diet. No significant differences were observed among the other treatments. Total hemocyte count and hemolymph phagocytic activity decreased as the proportion of FSM increased. Total antioxidant activity competence and malondialdehyde level in the hepatopancreas were highest in prawns fed the R100 diet. mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, heat shock cognate protein 70, and heat shock protein 90 were significantly differentially regulated in the prawn hepatopancreas. In addition, percent mortality increased after challenge with live Aeromonas hydrophila. Percent mortality of prawns fed the R100 diet was significantly higher than that of prawns fed the FM and R25 diets. These findings demonstrate that (1) M. nipponense growth performance was not affected by including a high proportion of FSM in the diet, and the best growth performance was obtained when 25% of the FM was replaced with FSM; (2) nonspecific immunity was impaired when all of the FM was replaced with FSM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoxia Induces Changes in AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activity and Energy Metabolism in Muscle Tissue of the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense

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    Shengming Sun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has important effects on biological activity in crustaceans, and modulation of energy metabolism is a crucial aspect of crustaceans’ ability to respond to hypoxia. The adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK enzyme is very important in cellular energy homeostasis; however, little information is known about the role of AMPK in the response of prawns to acute hypoxia. In the present study, three subunits of AMPK were cloned from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense. The full-length cDNAs of the α, β, and γ AMPK subunits were 1,837, 3,174, and 3,773 bp long, with open reading frames of 529, 289, and 961 amino acids, respectively. Primary amino acid sequence alignment of these three subunits revealed conserved similarity between the functional domains of the M. nipponense AMPK protein with AMPK proteins of other animals. The expression of the three AMPK subunits was higher in muscle tissue than in other tissues. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of AMPKα, AMPKβ, and AMPKγ were significantly up-regulated in M. nipponense muscle tissue after acute hypoxia. Probing with a phospho-AMPKα antibody revealed that AMPK is phosphorylated following hypoxia; this phosphorylation event was found to be essential for AMPK activation. Levels of glucose and lactic acid in hemolymph and muscle tissue were significantly changed over the course of hypoxia and recovery, indicating dynamic changes in energy metabolism in response to hypoxic stress. The activation of AMPK by hypoxic stress in M. nipponense was compared to levels of muscular AMP, ADP, and ATP, as determined by HPLC; it was found that activation of AMPK may not completely correlate with AMP:ATP ratios in prawns under hypoxic conditions. These findings confirm that the α, β, and γ subunits of the prawn AMPK protein are regulated at the transcriptional and protein levels during hypoxic stress to facilitate maintenance of energy homeostasis.

  16. Activity and Transcriptional Responses of Hepatopancreatic Biotransformation and Antioxidant Enzymes in the Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Exposed to Microcystin-LR

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    Julin Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a major group of cyanotoxins with side effects in many organisms; thus, compounds in this group are recognized as potent stressors and health hazards in aquatic ecosystems. In order to assess the toxicity of MCs and detoxification mechanism of freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium nipponense, the full-length cDNAs of the glutathione S-transferase (gst and catalase (cat genes were isolated from the hepatopancreas. The transcription level and activity changes in the biotransformation enzyme (glutathione S-transferase (GST and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense exposed to MC-LR (0.2, 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for 12, 24, 72 and 96 h were analyzed. The results showed that the isolated full-length cDNAs of cat and gst genes from M. nipponense displayed a high similarity to other crustaceans, and their mRNAs were mainly expressed in the hepatopancreas. MC-LR caused significant increase of GST activity following 48–96 h (p < 0.05 and an increase in SOD activity especially in 24- and 48-h exposures. CAT activity was activated when exposed to MC-LR in 12-, 24- and 48-h exposures and then it was inhibited at 96-h exposure. There was no significant effect on GPx activity after the 12- and 24-h exposures, whereas it was significantly stimulated after the 72- and 96-h exposures (p < 0.05. The transcription was altered similarly to enzyme activity, but the transcriptional response was generally more immediate and had greater amplitude than enzymatic response, particularly for GST. All of the results suggested that MC-LR can induce antioxidative modulation variations in M. nipponense hepatopancreas in order to eliminate oxidative damage.

  17. Virus-like particle of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus produced in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells is distinctive from that produced in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueh, Chare Li; Yong, Chean Yeah; Masoomi Dezfooli, Seyedehsara; Bhassu, Subha; Tan, Soon Guan; Tan, Wen Siang

    2017-03-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) is a virus native to giant freshwater prawn. Recombinant MrNV capsid protein has been produced in Escherichia coli, which self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs). However, this recombinant protein is unstable, degrading and forming heterogenous VLPs. In this study, MrNV capsid protein was produced in insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells through a baculovirus system. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the recombinant protein produced by the insect cells self-assembled into highly stable, homogenous VLPs each of approximately 40 nm in diameter. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were highly antigenic and comparable to those produced in E. coli. In addition, the Sf9 produced VLPs were highly stable across a wide pH range (2-12). Interestingly, the Sf9 produced VLPs contained DNA of approximately 48 kilo base pairs and RNA molecules. This study is the first report on the production and characterization of MrNV VLPs produced in a eukaryotic system. The MrNV VLPs produced in Sf9 cells were about 10 nm bigger and had a uniform morphology compared with the VLPs produced in E. coli. The insect cell production system provides a good source of MrNV VLPs for structural and immunological studies as well as for host-pathogen interaction studies. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:549-557, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

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    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad 5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  19. Índice de mortalidad en cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii en estanques seminaturales en Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Arana Flores

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el índice de mortalidad en un cultivo del camarón gigante de agua dulce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii; para ello se acondicionaron 1000 post larvas con peso y longitud promedio de 0,2 g y 2 cm, respectivamente, en un estanque de tierra de 200m2 de espejo de agua, a una densidad de siembra de 5 ind/m2, el alimento suministrado fue de tipo extruzado con 35% PB para el primer mes; posteriormente se suministró una ración con 32% PB hasta el final, la frecuencia alimenticia fue de 3 veces/día los dos primeros meses, reajustándose a 2 veces/día los dos siguientes meses; la tasa alimenticia varió entre 13 y 3,5%; las evaluaciones biométricas se realizaron cada 10 días. Los parámetros limnológicos como temperatura, transparencia, OD, pH, CO2 y dureza se registraron cada 15 días. Los índices de crecimiento aplicados fueron ganancia de peso, ganancia de longitud, ICAA, TCE y supervivencia. Los resultados registran una ganancia en peso y longitud de 27,24 g y 12,37 cm; el incremento de peso y longitud diario en promedio fue de 0,23 g y 0,12cm; ICAA 3,30, TCE 3,59%; sobrevivencia 95%, índice de mortalidad  5%. El análisis limnológico registró variaciones mínimas que no influenciaron negativamente sobre el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los camarones; la correlación entre el peso y longitud registra una relación positiva, con un nivel de correlación muy buena.

  20. Risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via shrimp (Macrobrachium felicinum) consumption along the Imo River catchments, SE Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosunmu, Miranda I; Oyo-Ita, Inyang O; Oyo-Ita, Orok E

    2016-12-01

    Shrimp species (Macrobrachium felicinum) collected from estuarine mangrove area of the Imo River is an important route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The estuarine associated sediment (EAS) composited sample showed higher TPAH, ΣAlkyl, ΣPAH carc and ΣPAH EPA concentrations (550.84, 172.36, 413.17 and 482.11 ng/g dry weight-dw) than their mean concentrations in shrimp samples (509.39 ± 354.21, 31.38 ± 18.49, 52.10 ± 1.35 and 460.06 ± 330.76 ng/g wet weight-ww), respectively. Among the individual PAHs congeners, phenanthrene was the dominant species detected in the EAS accounting for 21.02 % of the total PAH load and the decreasing order of 3- > 2- > 5- > 4- > 6-ring contamination was found. A different pattern predominated by naphthalene was observed for the shrimp species, suggesting that the organisms have different selectivity for a range of PAHs congeners. These variations may be attributed to different degree of bioavailability of these compounds, characteristic sandy lithology of the EAS and the protective capacity of soot particles associated with liquid fossil fuel combustion masking the uptake of high molecular weight PAHs by the organisms. Cancer risk associated with consumption of shrimps in the region was assessed using estimated daily intake (EDI) and compared with standards. The EDI values for naphthalene, benzo(a)pyrene and ∑PAH carc were lower than the USEPA benchmarks and EFSA levels of concern values for adult and children population, suggesting low probability of developing cancer.

  1. Dietary effects of Azolla pinnata combined with exogenous digestive enzyme (Digestin™) on growth and nutrients utilization of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man 1879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Ashraf; Saad, Amal; Hanafy, Mohamed; Sharawy, Zaki; El-Haroun, Ehab

    2017-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of either individual or combined wheat bran (WB) replacement with Azolla pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ in the diet of freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii Postlarvae (PL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, chemical body composition and survival (%). Experimental diets were a wheat bran-soybean based diet with no Azolla and Digestin TM (control, T1), and diets containing 17% Azolla supplemented with Digestin TM 0% (T2), 1% (T3), 2% (T4) and 3% (T5). Each experimental diet was allocated into three tanks (6m3/tank) fed for 12 wks. Each tank was subdivided into three equal pens by nets (2m3) and stoked with 84 PL/m2. The experimental diets were readily consumed by prawns PLs where both high growth and good feed efficiency were achieved for all diets. The results showed that the diets containing A. pinnata supplemented with Digestin™ at the level up to 3% have the higher growth and better nutrient utilization than the control diet. No differences were observed for moisture and protein content among the experimental diets. However, the highest protein content was observed on prawns fed on diets T1 and T5 respectively, while the lowest value was recorded for T 4 diet. The results also show that prawn PLs fed the diets contain A. pinnata and supplemented with Digestin TM recorded the highest values of body lipid content compared to the control diet. Feed efficiency and economic conversion rate (ECR) values show that economic performance and the cost-effectiveness of the A. pinnata supplemented with up to 3% Digestin TM recorded the highest net return, and therefore it is recommended for prawn, M. rosenbergii PL's. These results are clearly indicating that A. pinnata have a good potential for use in prawn diets at reasonable levels than other conventional diets.

  2. Ablação ocular no camarão Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: efeitos sobre a reprodução, pigmentação epidérmica e atividade alimentar Eyestalk ablation in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae: effects on reproduction, epidermic pigmentation and feeding activity

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    Marcel José Martins dos Santos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyze the consequences of unilateral and bilateral ablation based on ovigerous percentage, consecutive spawns, and secondary effects of the surgical process in the females of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879. Two experiments were carried out with four and seven months old females in intermolt stage. Each experiment was comprised of control, unilateral and bilateral ablation. Eyestalk ablation was done with a bistoury with a topic hot cauterization followed by application of antibiotic pomades. The animals were maintained at constant temperature (28 ± 1,05ºC and photoperiod of 12L: 12D within fibercement boxes with sandy bottom and biological filter. Females were observed once a day during fourteen weeks, registering gonadal condition, ecdysis and presence of spermatophore (mating and spawning. Unilateral ablation technique is more efficient due to the anticipation of the first spawn, repeatability between spawns, expressive rate of ovigerous females and survival, that favored its applicability. Bilateral eyestalk ablation produced the mortality of ali the females with change in coloration and food activity patterns. These results corroborate other observations on penaeid shrimps. though bilateral ablation on some lobsters was a success. These results showing an interespecific variation and can be used in aquaculture projects.

  3. Comportamento alimentar do camarão de agua doce, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man (Crustacea, Palaemonidae durante a fase larval: análise qualitativa Feeding behavior of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenberch (De Man (Crustácea, Palaemonidae, during the larval phase: qualitative analysis

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    Helenice P Barros

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of the larvae's prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879, in each stage of development was studied face alArtemia Linnaeus, 1758 nauplii, dry and wet diets. Groups of ten larvae in each stage were placed in 500 ml beakers at 29ºC in filtered brackish water. After the fasting period of acclimatization, the three types of food were offered separately to the larvae and the feeding behavior was observed during 30 min. Feeding perception, capture, grasp and ingestion of food were used to determine feeding pattern. Stage I lawac do not eat. The feeding behavior of larvae was similar on the stages II - XI. The perception in distance does not occur in most individuais; the feeding process generally started with the physrcal contact of food with the animal. Food is captured by thoracic appendages (maxillipeds until stage III, and maxillipeds + pereopods in stages IV - XI and particles are grasped and handled by maxillipeds. Inopposition at the capture, the ingestion is a seletive process. Selective responses decrease in later stages and larvae become omnivorous in greater degree.

  4. Population biology of shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1778 (Decapoda, Palaemonoidea at the Grande River at northwest of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Biologia populacional do camarão Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1778 (Decapoda, Palaemonoidea no Rio Grande no noroeste do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Samara de Paiva Barros-Alves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The population biology of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium jelskii was investigated here emphasizing the length-frequency distribution, sex ratio, reproductive period and juvenile recruitment. In addition, the abundance of individuals was correlated with the abiotic factors. METHODS: Samples were collected on a monthly basis from July 2005 to June 2007 along the river margin in shallow water of Grande River, at Planura region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil (20º 09' S and 48º 40' W, using a trawl net (1.0 mm mesh size, and 2.0 m × 0.5 m wide. The fishing gear was handled by two people along the marginal vegetation of the Grande River in a course of 100 m, covered for one hour. In the laboratory, the specimens were identified, measured and sexed. RESULTS: A total of 2,789 specimens was analyzed, which corresponded to 1,126 males (549 juveniles and 577 adults and 1,663 females (1,093 juveniles, 423 adults non-ovigerous and 147 ovigerous. The sex ratio differed significantly in favor of the females of M. jelskii (1:1.48; χ² = 103.95; p OBJETIVO: A biologia populacional do camarão de água doce Macrobrachium jelskii foi investigada, com ênfase na distribuição de frequência em classes de tamanho, razão sexual, período reprodutivo e recrutamento juvenil. Além disso, a abundância dos indivíduos foi correlacionada com os fatores abióticos. MÉTODOS: Amostras foram coletadas mensalmente de julho de 2005 a junho de 2007, às margens do Rio Grande, região de Planura, estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil (20º 09' S e 48º 40' W, usando uma rede de arrasto (1.0 mm tamanho da malha e 2.0 × 0.5 m de largura. O equipamento foi arrastado por duas pessoas às margens da vegetação do rio por 100 metros de distância, percorridos por uma hora. Em laboratório, os espécimes foram identificados, mensurados e sexados. RESULTADOS: Um total de 2,789 espécimes foi analisado, no qual correspondem a 1,126 machos (549 jovens e 577 adultos e 1,663 f

  5. Estagiamento de embriões de Macrobrachium olfersi (Wiegman (Crustacea, Palaemonidae através de critérios morfológicos nos dias embrionários Macrobrachium olfersi (Wiegman (Crustacea, Palaemonidae embryo staging through morphological landmarks identified in each embryonic day

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    Marcos S. Simões-Costa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Em embriões de Macrobrachium olfersi (Wiegman, 1836 foram analisadas as características morfológicas bem como o dia do desenvolvimento em que estas características surgiram. Machos e fêmeas de M. olfersi foram coletados na Ilha de Santa Catarina e colocados em aquários de água doce, na temperatura de 26°C e ciclo escuro e claro de 10:14 horas. Fêmeas ovígeras foram monitoradas diariamente para retirada de uma amostra de 20 ovos da câmara incubadora. O desenvolvimento embrionário foi caracterizado através do sistema de estagiamento diário. Embriões vivos e fixados foram analisados (48x em intervalos de 24 horas (dia embrionário. O índice do olho foi calculado em cada dia embrionário, a partir do aparecimento da pigmentação no olho. O desenvolvimento de M. olfersi foi caracterizado em 14 dias embrionários (E, onde entre E1 a E4 ocorreu a clivagem, gastrulação, disco germinativo e organização do nauplius embrionizado. Nos dias subseqüentes foi caracterizado o crescimento do nauplius embrionizado bem como a formação e encurvamento do pós-nauplius. Em E7 observou-se a pigmentação no olho, seguida do início dos batimentos cardíacos em E8. Entre E9 e E14, ocorreu de forma mais intensa o processo de organogênese, principalmente dos sistemas nervoso, cardiovascular e digestivo. O estagiamento diário do desenvolvimento de M. olfersi permitiu o reconhecimento de diferentes formas embrionárias, bem como de ritmos de crescimento e diferenciação do embrião, os quais são essenciais à formação gradual do plano do corpo.Morphological landmarks of Macrobrachium olfersi embryos were examined and their appearance times were related to each embryonic day. Males and females of M. olfersi (Wiegman, 1836 were captured in Santa Catarina Island and kept in freshwater small tanks at 26ºC and 10:14 dark: light cycle. Ovigerous females were monitored daily to remove samples of 20 eggs from brood pouch. The embryonic development

  6. Fibras solúveis e insolúveis de verduras, tubérculos e canela para uso em nutrição clínica Soluble and insoluble fibres of vegetables, tubers and cinnamon for use in enteral nutrition

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    Edma Maria de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietas enterais com alimentos convencionais são usadas para obter individualização e menor custo. No entanto, para melhorar o teor de fibras alimentares, o valor nutritivo e a confiabilidade, mais estudos são necessários. A proposta desse estudo foi estudar fontes de fibra alimentar de abóbora, agrião, canela em pó, couve-flor, inhame e tomate, para uso em nutrição enteral ou suplemento nutricional oral. Esses alimentos foram escolhidos por conter fibras alimentares e outros elementos considerados funcionais (isotiocianatos, indóis, licopeno, carotenoides, clorofila. Foram formuladas preparações com os alimentos em solução de água e adicionadas a uma formulação enteral domiciliar. Foram determinadas fibras solúvel e insolúvel, a composição centesimal dos alimentos e a atividade de água das formulações. Os alimentos foram acrescentados à formulação enteral domiciliar em quantidades de 100 g/2000 kcal/2 L e à água 150 g/2000kcal/2 L. Essas quantidades equivalem a duas porções diárias de cada alimento. A maior quantidade de fibra alimentar (base úmida foi de canela (50,11%, sendo o teor dos outros alimentos: abóbora 1,76%; agrião 0,85%; couve-flor 1,51%; inhame 1,56%; e tomate 1,00%. Os valores de atividades de água ficaram entre 0,988 e 0,999, indicando que as dietas são suscetíveis à contaminação microbiana, sendo mais seguro consumir essas dietas imediatamente após o preparo.Enteral diets containing conventional foods are used to reduce costs and obtain individualization. However, more studies are required to improve their dietary fibre content, the nutritive value, and reliability. This study proposed to study the dietary fibres of different vegetables and spices such as pumpkin, watercress, powdered cinnamon, cauliflower, yam, and tomato for use in enteral nutrition or in oral nutritional supplements. These foods were chosen since they contain dietary fibres and other elements considered to be

  7. Atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano, tomilho e canela frente a sorovares de Salmonella enterica de origem avícola Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from oregano, thyme and cinnamon against Salmonella enterica sorovars from avian source

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    Janio Morais Santurio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de orégano (Origanum vulgare, tomilho (Thymus vulgaris e canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum frente a 60 amostras de Salmonella enterica distribuídas entre 20 sorovares, todos isolados de carcaças de aves. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado, utilizando-se a técnica de microdiluição em caldo. O óleo essencial de orégano evidenciou forte atividade antibacteriana (CIM média = 529mig ml-1 e CBM média= 661mig ml-1, seguido do tomilho (CIM média=961mig ml-1 e CBM média= 1074mig ml-1, com atividade moderada, enquanto que a menor atividade foi observada com o óleo essencial de canela (CIM média= 1335mig ml-1 e CBM média = 1979mig ml-1. Apesar deste claro padrão de atividade, os sorovares de Salmonella enterica evidenciaram significativas variações de suscetibilidade, embora nenhuma, em particular, pudesse ser classificada como totalmente sensível ou resistente aos três óleos essenciais avaliados. Assim, no momento em que os antibacterianos utilizados como promotores de crescimento estão sendo substituídos. E os óleos essenciais de temperos e condimentos se constituem numa alternativa importante, os resultados aqui apresentados sinalizam dois pontos: os óleos essenciais de orégano e tomilho são efetivos contra Salmonella, mas as variações de suscetibilidade entre os sorovares deverão também ser consideradas.Essential oils from oregano (Origanum vulgare, thyme (Thymus vulgaris and cinnamom (Cinnamomum zeylanicum were tested for their inhibitory activity against sixty Salmonella sp. isolates. These microorganisms were distributed in 20 serovars, all of them isolated from broiler chickens. Based on microdilution technique, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The strongest antibacterial activity was obtained for oregano

  8. 饲料中锰对日本沼虾抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effect of Manganese Dietary Supplementation on the Antioxidant Enzymes of Macrobrachium nipponense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏伟; 曹向可; 钱庆增; 王亚斌

    2008-01-01

    研究了日本沼虾(Macrobrachium nipponense)饲料中不同含量的Mn对虾体抗氧化酶活性的影响,以及在低氧胁迫下Mn对抗氧化酶的激活效果.结果表明,在投喂Mn的质量分数为150 ?g/g的饲料后,日本沼虾的超氧阴离子(O2·-)值降低,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPX)活性升高.Mn对虾体内SOD,CAT和GPX的激活作用表现出明显的剂量效应,饲料中Mn的缺乏或过量都使它们的活性受到影响.在低氧胁迫下,饲料中适量的Mn在一定程度上可提高虾体对低氧环境的耐受力.

  9. Heterochrony in mandible development of larval shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea)--a comparative morphological SEM study of two carideans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batel, Annika; Melzer, Roland R; Anger, Klaus; Geiselbrecht, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Mandible development in the larval stages I-V of two palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon elegans and Macrobrachium amazonicum, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast to the zoea I of P. elegans, first-stage larvae of M. amazonicum are nonfeeding. At hatching, the morphology of the mandibles is fully expressed in P. elegans, while it appears underdeveloped in M. amazonicum, presenting only small precursors of typical caridean features. In successive zoeal stages, both species show similar developmental changes, but the mandibular characters of the larvae in M. amazonicum were delayed compared to the equivalent stages in P. elegans, especially in the development of submarginal setae and mandible size. In conclusion, our results indicate heterochrony (postdisplacement) of mandible development in M. amazonicum compared to that in P. elegans, which is related to initial lack of mandible functionality or planktivorous feeding at hatching, respectively. This conclusion is supported by comparison with other palaemonid zoeae exhibiting different feeding modes. Our data suggest that an evolutionary ground pattern of mandible morphology is present even in species with nonfeeding first-stage larvae. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effect of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract on the immunity and resistance of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii via dietary administration for a long term: Activity and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Chen, Ying-Nan; Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Cheng, Winton

    2015-10-01

    The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and immune genes expressions in Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated at 120 days of post feeding the diets containing the extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). Results showed that prawns fed with a diet containing BPE at the level of 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days had a significantly higher survival rate (30.0%, 40.0% and 56.7%, respectively) than those fed with the control diet after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae for 144 h, and the respective relative survival percentages were 22.2%, 33.3%, and 51.9%, respectively. Dietary BPE supplementation at 3.0 and/or 6.0 g kg(-1) for 120 days showed a significant increase total haemocyte count (THC), granular cell (GC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to L. garvieae infection, and meanwhile, the significant decrease in haemolymph clotting times and respiratory bursts (RBs) per haemocyte of prawns were revealed. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PE), transglutaminase (TG), and crustin (CT) were significantly increased. We therefore recommend that BPE can be used as an immunomodulator for prawns through dietary administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) for a long term (over 120 days) to modify immune responses and genes expression following the enhanced resistance against pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of hot-water extract of banana (Musa acuminata) fruit's peel on the antibacterial activity, and anti-hypothermal stress, immune responses and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbegii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2014-08-01

    The hot-extracts isolated from fruit's peel of banana, Musa acuminata, was evaluated on the antibacterial activity to pathogens from aquatic animals, and immunostimulating potential, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress in giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through injection administration. The banana peel extract (BPE) showed good activity against 1 Gram-positive and 3 Gram-negative pathogens, including Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacteria damsella, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahemolyticus especially in prawn pathogen of L. garvieae strain, which were carried out by a disk diffusion method. Prawn received BPE via injection administration at 1-6 μg (g prawn)(-1) significantly increased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cell (HC), granular cell (GC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and phagocytic activity against L. garvieae from 3 to 6 days, and significantly increased clearance efficiency against L. garvieae and a significantly decreased coagulation time of prawn from 1 to 6 days. Prawn injected with BPE at 6.0 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days showed significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but significantly decreased respiratory bursts (RBs) of per haemocyte. Survival rates of M. rosenbergii injected with BPE at concentrations of 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) were significantly higher than those injected with saline control after challenge with L. garvieae for 4-6 days, and the respective relative survival percentages of prawn were 28.6%, 38.1%, and 47.8%, respectively at 6 days. The sublethal time of prawns that had received saline and BPE at 1, 3 and 6 μg (g prawn)(-1) for 6 days and then were transferred from 28 °C to 14 °C were 69.4, 79.8, 83.6, and 90.2 h, respectively. It was concluded that the BPE can be used as the bacteriostat, and immunostimulant and physiological regulator for prawn through injection administration to enhance immunity, physiological responses, and resistance against L. garvieae

  12. Dietary supplement of banana (Musa acuminata) peels hot-water extract to enhance the growth, anti-hypothermal stress, immunity and disease resistance of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavichai, Wutti; Cheng, Winton

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with diets containing extracts of banana, Musa acuminate, fruit's peel (banana peels extract, BPE) at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1). The non-specific immune parameters, disease resistance and anti-hypothermal stress were evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 days of post feeding. Also, we demonstrated the percent weight gain (PWG), percent length gain (PLG), feeding efficiency (FE), and survival rate of giant freshwater prawn at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of post feeding. The PWG, PLG, FE and survival rate of prawns fed at 0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) BPE-containing diets after 120 days were 69.5%, 75.4%, 77.8% and 83.3%; 21.8%, 23.6%, 27.8% and 33.9%; 0.60, 0.72, 0.75 and 0.90; and 55.4%, 62.2%, 62.3% and 75.3%, respectively. After 32 days of post feeding, a significant increase in total haemocyte count (THC), different haemocyte count (DHC), respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and transglutaminase (TG) activity, and meanwhile, a decreased haemolymph coagulation time was observed. Furthermore, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency of prawns against Lactococcus garvieae infection were significantly increased. Prawns challenged with L. garvieae after 32 days of feeding at 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g kg(-1) had a significantly higher survival rate (33.3%, 40.0% and 56.7%) than those fed with the control diet. Subsequently, hypothermal (14 °C) stress was 43.4%, 50.0% and 50.0%, respectively. Altogether, we therefore recommend the dietary BPE administration at 6.0 g kg(-1) promotes growth, anti-hypothermal stress, and enhance immunity and resistance against L. garvieae in M. rosenbergii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Production and characterization of chitosan obtained from shrimp exoskeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Leticia P.; Aguiar, Nayara V.; Rodrigues, Willias da L.; Silva, Rafael S. da; Moreira, Carly K.P.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer, biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic. It's derived from the deacetylation of chitin, which constitutes the most part of the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans and fungal cell wall. After cellulose, chitin is more organic compound found in nature. The Chitin was separated from others components of shrimp waste (Macrobrachium amazonicum) by a chemical process that involves three steps: demineralization, deproteination and depigmentation. The chitosan produced was characterized by potentiometric titration, to find the degree of deacetylation (85,32 %), determining the intrinsic viscosity to define its molecular weight (503.223 g/mol), and X-ray diffraction to determine its crystallinity index (58,4 %). (author)

  14. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda in a brazilian Amazon estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEBERT A. SAMPAIO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature and measured the area (m2 and volume (m3 of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation, 35.45 (± 3, 29.49 °C (± 2.32, 27.41 m2 (± 41.18, and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01, respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36% (marine followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76% (estuarine, Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45% and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43% predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  15. Influência de diferentes dietas na sobrevivência larval do camarãode água doce Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.444 Influence of different diets in freshwater prawn Macrobrachiumcarcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 larval survival - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Maria Moraes da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar diferentes dietas na larvicultura do pitu, Macrobrachium carcinus, visando melhorar o desempenho da produção de pós-larvas. As larvas (estádios V-VI foram estocadas em 24 recipientes circulares de 20 litros, com sistemas de recirculação de água e aeração, nos quais foram estocadas 25 larvas/litro. Foram adotados quatro tratamentos (correspondentes às dietas e seis repetições: 1 filé de peixe (Dp; 2 filé de peixe + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DpB; 3 dieta formulada (Df; e 4 dieta formulada + biomassa de artêmia adulta (DfB. As dietas foram ofertadas quatro vezes ao dia (07, 10, 13 e 16 horas durante 49 dias. No final do cultivo, as taxas de sobrevivência média das larvas foram 3,47; 7,40; 14,83 e 7,57%, respectivamente, para os tratamentos Dp, DpB, Df e DfB. No tratamento Dp obteve-se a menor sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05. A maior sobrevivência (p ≤ 0,05 foi obtida com a dieta Df (14,83%, que se apresenta como a alternativa mais apropriada para a produção de pós-larvas de M. carcinus. Entretanto, o uso de biomassa de artêmia adulta pode resultar na melhoria da taxa de sobrevivência quando associada a filé de peixe.This work aimed to evaluate different diets in Macrobrachium carcinus larval culture in order to improve the performance of prawn postlarvae production. Twenty-four 20 L circular recipients provided of water recirculating and aeration systems were used, where 25 larvae per liter were stocked (stages V-VI. Four treatments (related to diets and six replicates were adopted: 1 Fish flesh (Ff; 2 Fish flesh + adult Artemia biomass (FfB; 3 Formulated diet (Fd; and 4 Formulated diet + adult Artemia biomass (FdB. The diets were offered four times a day (07:00, 10:00, 13:00 and 16:00 hrs during 49 days. At the end of culture, the average of larval survival rates were 3.47, 7.40, 14.83 and 7.57%, respectively for Ff, FfB, Fd and FdB treatments. Ff treatment obtained the lowest survival (p ≤ 0

  16. Cravo, canela, bala e favela Clove and cinnamon, guns and slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pereira Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da discussão sobre o lugar do corpo feminino subalterno, palco de conflitos onde se desdobram as tensões resultantes das relações desiguais de gênero, raça e classe no Brasil, este artigo se propõe a realizar uma leitura de textos ficcionais recentes - nomeadamente os romances As mulheres de Tijucopapo, de Marilene Felinto, e Ponciá Vicêncio, de Conceição Evaristo, e o filme O céu de Suely, de Karim Aïnouz -, inserindo-os no debate de um projeto de tradução da agenda pós-colonial para o português. Decorrentes dessa abordagem, temas como a viagem, o deslocamento e o exílio farão parte da experiência subjetiva ficcionalizada que se irá enfocar, e serão, portanto, também objeto de interpretaçãoBased on the discussion about the subaltern woman's body as a stage of conflicts where the tensions resulting from Brazil's unequal gender, class and race relations unfold, this article intends to analyze recent fictional works - specifically the novels: Marilene Felinto's As mulheres de Tijucopapapo and Conceição Evaristo's Ponciá Vicêncio, as well as the film O céu de Suely, by Karim Aïnouz - in order to place them within the debate of translation of the post-colonial agenda into Portuguese. Focusing the subjective experience represented in these fictional narratives, themes like travel, dislocation and exile will also be analyzed

  17. Production and characterization of chitosan obtained from shrimp exoskeleton; Producao e caracterizacao de quitosana obtida a partir do exoesqueleto do camarao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Leticia P.; Aguiar, Nayara V.; Rodrigues, Willias da L.; Silva, Rafael S. da; Moreira, Carly K.P., E-mail: leticiaalmeida_26@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Amapa (UEAP), Macapa, AP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer, biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic. It's derived from the deacetylation of chitin, which constitutes the most part of the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans and fungal cell wall. After cellulose, chitin is more organic compound found in nature. The Chitin was separated from others components of shrimp waste (Macrobrachium amazonicum) by a chemical process that involves three steps: demineralization, deproteination and depigmentation. The chitosan produced was characterized by potentiometric titration, to find the degree of deacetylation (85,32 %), determining the intrinsic viscosity to define its molecular weight (503.223 g/mol), and X-ray diffraction to determine its crystallinity index (58,4 %). (author)

  18. parasites of crayfish (p. clarki) and lobsters (macrobrachium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    METALLIC POLLUTION IN GREAT, KWA RIVER, NIGERIA. J. T. ABRAHAM .... Atlantic Coastal waters of South Eastern Nigeria. GKR ..... rocks and across thick forest at its origin (Oban Hills). .... Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Great Kwa.

  19. Chemical score of different protein sources to four Macrobrachium species

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya-Martínez, Cynthia; Nolasco-Soria, Héctor; Carrillo-Farnés, Olimpia; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto; Álvarez-González, Carlos; Vega-Villasante, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Food production for aquaculture requires finding other protein sources or ingredients as potential alternatives in the formulation of aquaculture feeds, due to the shortage and high price of protein sources that are most commonly used. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between the essential amino acids in 13 types of proteins available in the market with the essential amino acids found in the muscle of four of the most important farmed prawn species of the genus Macrob...

  20. Parasites of crayfish ( P. clarki ) and lobsters ( Macrobrachium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on parasites of crayfish and lobsters as indicators of metal pollution in Great Kwa River, Nigeria was evaluated using appropriate instruments for determination of Physicochemical parameters and detection of metals. Formol ether centrifugation method was used for isolation of parasites. A total of 150 crayfish and ...

  1. Cancro em Paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum no Estado do Pará Canker Disease of Parica (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum in Para State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Tremacoldi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Plantios de paricá, avaliados no Município de Dom Eliseu, Estado do Pará, apresentaram sintomas de cancro. Várias espécies de fungos foram associadas ao cancro observado no campo, mais notavelmente Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Pestalotiopsis sp. Culturas isoladas destes fungos, frequentemente associados a outros (incluindo Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria e basidiomicetes, foram testadas quanto à patogenicidade em plantas jovens de paricá, com aproximadamente um metro de altura. Apenas L. theobromae produziu cancro sob as condições testadas, quando discos de cultura foram aplicados usando técnicas de inoculação por ferimento e alta umidade, reproduzindo perfeitamente os sintomas do campo. Pestalotiopsis sp. causou danos muito menores quando comparado a L. theobromae. A confirmação de L. theobromae como agente causal do cancro em paricá ocorreu após o reisolamento do fungo a partir dos tecidos sintomáticos das plantas inoculadas em casa-de-vegetação, concluindo a verificação dos Postulados de Koch. Este é o primeiro relato deste patógeno em paricá.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.69

    Canker have been found in field plantings of parica examined in Dom Eliseu county, Para State,
    Brazil. Several fungal species were associated with the field canker, most notably Lasiodiplodia theobromae
    and Pestalotiopsis sp. Isolated cultures of these fungi together with other often associated fungi (including
    Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria, basidiomycetes were tested for pathogenicity on young parica plants, with
    approximately one meter height. Only L. theobromae produced canker under the conditions tested when discs
    of culture were applied using wound inoculation techniques and high humidity, which closely mimicked the field
    symptoms. Pestalotiopsis sp. proved much less damaging compared to L. theobromae. The acknowledgment of
    L. theobromae as the causal agent of parica canker came after the reisolations of the fungus from symptomatic
    tissue of inoculated plants, concluding the verification of Koch’s Postulates. This is the first report of this
    pathogen in paricá.

  2. Redescription of Alinema amazonicum (Travassos, 1960) n. comb., a philometrid nematode with unusual morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Scholz, Tomáš; Dyková, Iva; Kuchta, Roman; Fiala, Ivan; Kohn, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 1 (2006), s. 138-144 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Philometra * Alinema * Peru Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  3. EFFECT OF THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT ON PROPERTIES OF PARICA PLYWOODS (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian de Almeida Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Thermo-mechanical treatment is a technique for wood modification in which samples are densified by means of heat and mechanical compression, applied perpendicularly to fibers, which under different combinations of time, temperature, and pressure increases wood density and thus improve some of its properties. This study aimed to treat thermo-mechanically parica plywood and observe the effects on its physical and mechanical properties. Specimens were submitted to two treatments, 120 and 150 ºC, remaining under pressure for seven minutes and, subsequently, under zero pressure for 15 minutes. Results showed a significant increase in specific mass from 0.48 g cm-3 to an average of 0.56 g cm-3, and a compression ratio of about 31.7% on average. Physical properties also varied significantly and results showed that treated samples swelled and absorbed more water than those untreated, leading to a greater thickness non-return rate. This indicates the proposed thermal treatments did not release the internal compressive stress generated during panel pressing, not improving its dimensional stability as a result. On the other hand, mechanical properties were positively affected, leading to an increase of 27.5% and 51.8% in modulus of rupture after treatments at 120 and 150 ºC, respectively. Modulus of elasticity and glue-line shear strength did not vary statistically and Janka hardness was 29.7% higher after treatment at 150 ºC.

  4. EFFECT OF BAP ON PROLIFERATION OF Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke (PARICA SHOOTS, IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Maria Castro Coimbra Cordeiro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Parica is a native tropical forest plant pertaining to the ofcaesalpinaceae family. It is species considered of great potential, due its wide use. Aiming reproducing the species, in vitro, stem segments of plantlets established in vitro were excised and inoculated on solid MS supplemented with 0; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 and 3,0 mg.L-1 of BAP with 3% of sucrose, 0,1% of PVP and one control. The activities had been carried out in the Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Biotechnology of the Embrapa Oriental, Amazon, and Belem (PA. The cultures had been under sun photo period for 16 hours 25+ 1°C of temperature. After three weeks of cultivation the explants were evaluated, counting the number and length of explants shoots. The treatment with 3 mg.L-1 BAP presented greater number of shoot proliferation with 2,14 for explants. The shoots were transferred to MS medium in the same conditions of culture for rooting.

  5. TANNING OF SLUDGE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE PRODUCTION OF SEEDLINGS PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum AND THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena de Souza Tavares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810547The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the tanning sludge in soil chemical properties and the morphological and nutritional ‘paricá’ seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with five replicates, having as a substrate Humic Cambisol, which was characterized chemically and granulometrically, in possession of these results, the soil was previously corrected with lime and NPK. After 100 days of observation, it was analyzed the soil chemical variables (pH, H + Al, Al3+, Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S, Cr3+, CO, SB, CEC, V, RAS and PST, the morphology plant [height (H, stem diameter (DC, the number of full sheets, the main root length (CR and dry biomass], and the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg , S, Cr3+ and Na in the plant. The tanning sludge was used as a nutritional supplement in doses of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g kg-1. The tanning sludge has potential as a corrective of soil acidity, with little significant increase in indicators of salinity, sodicity and Cr3+ content available. However, the use of sludge did not affect the morphological characteristics of seedlings ‘paricá’, but induced an increase in levels K and S in the shoot and Na and S in the root. The greatest concentration of nutrients in ‘paricá’ were obtained with 6.0 g

  6. Recubrimiento comestible de quitosano, almidón de yuca y aceite esencial de canela para conservar pera (Pyrus communis L. cv. “Bosc”)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro García, Marlon Reinaldo; Espinoza Posligua, Vanessa Gabriela; López Mantuano, Mario Henry; Molina Basurto, Ramón; García Montes, Yessenia Maribel; Lavayen Delgado, Edison Grego

    2017-01-01

    Las tecnologías de conservación de alimentos son esenciales en la alimentación humana por lo cual es fundamental utilizar técnicas de conservación sanas y seguras para los consumidores. Los frutos de pera (Pyrus communis) confieren un importante aporte nutricional, sin embargo, su vida útil es limitada al ser susceptibles a daños físicos, así como al deterioro microbiológico, frente a lo cual esta investigación evalúa el efecto de recubrimientos comestibles a base de quitosano y almidón de yu...

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DA TEMPERATURA NA GERMINAÇÃO DE DIÁSPOROS DE Ocotea odorifera (Vellozo Rohwer (CANELA-SASSAFRÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Sementes Florestais do Departamento de Ciências Florestais – UFPR, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência das temperaturas de 20, 25 e 30º C e da remoção do envoltório (endocarpo e tegumento na germinação de diásporos de Ocotea odorífera. O material coletado no Município de Fazenda Rio Grande-PR, em um trecho de Floresta Ombrófila Mista Primária Alterada, foi analisado estatisticamente por meio de delineamento inteiramente casualisado. Concluiu-se que os diásporos sem envoltório apresentaram maior velocidade e porcentagem de germinação nas temperaturas de 25 e 30 º C.

  8. ANÁLISE DENDROECOLÓGICA DE Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart. ex Nees (CANELA LAGEANA NA SERRA GERAL DE SANTA MARIA, RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spathelf

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as relações entre variáveis climáticas e o incremento em diâmetro do tronco de cinco árvores de Ocotea pulchella localizadas às margens de uma barragem no município de Itaára, RS. Os dados de crescimento, em diâmetro, foram obtidos mediante análise de tronco, utilizando-se seções transversais retiradas na altura de 1,3 m (DAP, sendo os incrementos radiais determinados por meio da média de quatro raios, diametralmente, opostos. As seqüências médias dos incrementos foram estandartizadas para salientar a variação a curto prazo. Os dados climáticos são oriundos da estação meteorológica do município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram calculadas grandezas climáticas compostas, como a evapotranspiração e o balanço hídrico, para melhor descrever as condições hídricas de crescimento das árvores. Foram determinados anéis de crescimento característicos e sensitividades das seqüências de crescimento. Possíveis mudanças no estado de competição das árvores e seu efeito no crescimento foram estudados. Além disso, foram relacionados o incremento radial e as variáveis climáticas selecionadas por intermédio de análise de correlação. Não foi possível identificar nenhuma variável climática que, coerentemente, tenha influenciado no incremento durante o período observado. Os resultados mostram que o excesso de água influencia no crescimento diamétrico das árvores.

  9. Crescimento de canela-lageana, Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart. ex Nees, na Depressão Central do estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Scheeren Weber

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives the study of the growth in DBH, commercial volume (CV, current annual increment in percentage of the commercial volume (CAI and the determination of the commercial form factor (f for Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart. ex Nees, in the Central Depression of the Rio Grande do Sul State. The growth data were tested with three mathematical equations, for the adjustment of diameter and commercial volume without bark. The quadratic equation resulted as a more efficient model, for the CV and DBH estimate, adjusted in function of the age of the trees. The Backman equation was selected for the CAI and for the f estimate. The values were determined in function of the DBH to facilitate practical application. The commercial form factor varied from 0,40 for a DBH of 5 cm to a maximum value of 0,85 for a DBH from 22 to 32 cm, decreasing up to 0,78 at 51 cm of DBH, between the ages of 10 and 100 years. The average annual increment in percentage of the commercial volume varied from 17,48% for 10 years to 1,33% for 100 years of age. The species presented a good growth potential, that associated with management practices can increase its productivity.

  10. Ilhéus, a terra da Gabriela cravo e canela: de espaço do cacau a espaço do turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilsélia Lemos Moreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho em questão analisa as transformações socioespaciais da cidade de Ilhéus, a partir dos anos de 1990, período em que ocorreu uma grave crise no setor produtivo regional baseado na lavoura cacaueira e, coincidentemente, a valorização da atividade turística no Brasil, fator desencadeador de uma visível ressignificação do turismo em toda a região cacaueira. Como objetivo principal, pretende compreender os vários processos que levaram Ilhéus, cidade que surge subordinada ao campo, a passar da condição de espaço do cacau a espaço do turismo. Para alcançar esse objetivo, foram feitas entrevistas e pesquisas de natureza documental. Inicia-se o texto com uma digressão histórica sobre o processo de produção e reprodução socioespacial de Ilhéus, desde o século XVIII, quando chegaram a Ilhéus as primeiras mudas de cacau. Essa pesquisa revelou que diante da crise e das fracassadas tentativas de revitalizar a lavoura cacaueira, o turismo, atividade até então relegada a um segundo plano, passou a fazer parte da pauta de interesse da iniciativa privada e do poder público. Isso por força da necessidade de reerguer a economia regional. Abstract ILHÉUS: THE HOMETOWN OF GABRIELA, CLOVE AND CINNAMON: FROM CACAO SPACE TO TOURISTIC SITE This work analyses the sociospatial changes in the city called Ilhéus starting in the 1990’s when there was a serious crisis in the regional productive sector based on cacao crops and, coincidentaly, the valorization of the touristic activity in Brazil, key reason of a visible reframing of tourism all over the cacao region. As a main objective, this work intends to understand the various processes that guided Ilhéus, city that was developed linked to the fields, to change from cacao space to touristic site. To reach our goal, interviews and documentary researches were made. The text begins with a historic degression about the process of production and sociospatial reproduction of Ilhéus, dating the 18th century, when the first samplings of cacao got to Ilhéus. This research revealed that in face of the crisis and the unsuccessful attempts to revitalize cacao plantations, the tourism, activity so far left as a second option, started its journey as an item of interest of private businesses and public power. That due to the necessity of rebuilding regional economy.

  11. BIOECOLOGIA DE Oncideres cervina (COLEOPTERA: CERAMBYCIDAE EM CANELA-GUAICÁ (Ocotea puberula: Lauraceae NA REGIÃO CENTRAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Witeck Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe insect fauna knowledge of forest ecosystems have their importance in relation to damage caused bytheir different segments. The bioecology of theOncideres cervina(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae inOcoteapuberula(Lauraceae was studied in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. In 49 cut twigswere analyzed the cutoff frequency, the diameter of cut twigs and sections, twig length, posture incisionsfrequency, adult emergence, exit orifice size, length and volume of the larvae gallery of this species. Thecut twigs period extends from February to March and this species is fit as thick cutter twigs. The incisionsposture number is variable, but the highest concentration is found on sections 20 to 40 cm from the cut, withan average value of 11 incisions. Two hundred adults emerged from 27 twigs, with the most emergent onthe first half of December. In order to complete its development, this species requires less wood volume ifcompared to other twig girdlers species.

  12. Composição centesimal e perfil de ácidos graxos do camarão-d'água-doce Centesimal composition and fatty acids profile of freshwater prawn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinação da composição centesimal e do perfil de ácidos graxos do camarão-d'água-doce Macrobrachium amazonicum visando à análise de seu potencial nutritivo. Seis lotes (100 g cada um de camarões inteiros e com massas individuais de 0,9 a 1,2 g foram triturados, armazenados e, posteriormente, analisados quanto aos teores de umidade, cinzas, PB e lipídios totais (70,3; 1,5; 24,8 e 1,5%, respectivamente. Foram detectadas 36 variedades de ácidos graxos, sendo o mais freqüente o ácido palmítico-16:0 (18,2%. Entre os da série ômega-3, os mais encontrados foram o eicosapentaenóico-20:5n-3, di-homo-alfa-linolênico-20:3n-3, docosahexaenóico-22:6n-3 e alfa-linolênico-18:3n-3 (frequências de 13,9; 9,5; 6,8 e 4,2%, respectivamente. As freqüências de somatórias de ácidos graxos foram de 36,9% para os ômega-3 e de 46,8% para os poliinsaturados. As razões entre os ácidos graxos ômega-6/ômega-3 (n-6/n-3 e os ácidos graxos poliinsaturados/ácidos graxos saturados (AGPI/AGS foram de 0,3 e 1,6, respectivamente. Todos os parâmetros observados indicaram bom potencial nutritivo para a carne do camarão-d'água-doce.The aim of this work was to determine the centesimal composition and fatty acids profile of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum for determination of its nutrient potential. Six lots (each one with 100 g containing whole prawns with individual mass ranging from 0.9 to 1.2 g were triturated and stored for posterior chemical analysis. The average values for moisture, ash, CP and total lipids were as follows: 70.3, 1.5, 24.8, and 1.5%, respectively. It was detected 36 varieties of fatty acids, and the most abundant was the palmitic -16:0 acid with 18.2%. The major omega-3 fatty acids were: eicosapentaenoic-20:5n-3, dihomo-alpha-linolenic-20:3n-3, docosahexaenoic-22:6n-3 and alpha-linolenic-18:3n-3 with frequencies of 13.9, 9.5, 6.8, and 4.2%, respectively. The total frequencies of fatty

  13. Bacterial flora associated with larval rearing of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Kenkre, V.D.; Sreepada, R.A.; Desai, U.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    for microbial control in the intensive rearing of marine larvae. Aquaculture 177, 333–343. Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, F.J., 1995. Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. Freeman, New York, 887 pp. Stevenson, L.H., 1978. A case... to the feeding practice adopted. The larvae were fed with Artemia nauplii from day 2, while ()P.V. Phatarpekar et al.rAquaculture 203 2002 279–291 287 egg custard was fed from day 5. Very few bacteria associate internally and externally Ž. with Artemia nauplii...

  14. RANDOMLY AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA (RAPD FINGERPRINTING OF SIX INDONESIAN POPULATIONS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Imron Imron

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is rich of giant fresh water prawn (GFP germ plasms. Best utilization of these resources for the purpose of either aquaculture development or conservation of genetic resources requires some information on the structure and levels of their genetic diversity. This study was aimed to characterize those GFP genetic resources by applying RAPD genetic markers. Six Indonesian populations of GFP from Asahan, Barito, Ciasem, Ogan, GImacro and Papua were collected and analyzed for their genetic variation using five RAPD primers. The results showed the diversity within the populations, as revealed by the level of polymorphism, ranged from 29% to 76% while genetic divergence between populations as shown by genetic distance ranged from 0.04 to 0.50. In terms of genetic divergence, two genetically distinct groups of GFP, namely the Papua GFP in one group and the remaining five GFP populations in the other, were identified. The results also showed the presence of specific population markers that are useful for genetic identification of GFP populations. Implication of these finding with regard to breed development is discussed.

  15. Mixed culture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in periphyton-based ponds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uddin, S.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of periphyton-based aquaculture has been tested and applied in aquaculture. Positive effects of substrate addition for periphyton development included increasing the food supply and providing shelter for culture animals. The aim of this project was to develop a low-cost

  16. Experimental studies on the cannibalistic habit of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Branislav, M.; Rosenthal, H.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nost, J.

    found more susceptible to cannibalism soon after the moult. This can be guarded by providing suitable hideouts. Dried commercial feed, alternated with fresh animal tissues was found to reduce cannibalism upt 70%....

  17. Starvation Promotes Autophagy-Associated Maturation of the Ovary in the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

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    Wilairat Kankuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of food availability (starvation is known to influence the reproductive ability of animals. Autophagy is a lysosomal driven degradation process that protects the cell under metabolic stress conditions, such as during nutrient shortage. Whether, and how starvation-induced autophagy impacts on the maturation and function of reproductive organs in animals are still open questions. In this study, we have investigated the effects of starvation on histological and cellular changes that may be associated with autophagy in the ovary of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobachium rosenbergii. To this end, the female prawns were daily fed (controls or unfed (starvation condition for up to 12 days, and the ovary tissue was analyzed at different time-points. Starvation triggered ovarian maturation, and concomitantly increased the expression of autophagy markers in vitellogenic oocytes. The immunoreactivities for autophagy markers, including Beclin1, LC3-II, and Lamp1, were enhanced in the late oocytes within the mature ovaries, especially at the vitellogenic stages. These markers co-localized with vitellin in the yolk granules within the oocytes, suggesting that autophagy induced by starvation could drive vitellin utilization, thus promoting ovarian maturation.

  18. Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, C.; Row, A.

    ) was almost identical for both the species tested, although there was a significant shift in the range of LC sub(50) values, indicating that one species is less sensitive than the other. Oil dispersant mixtures were less toxic than the dispersants alone...

  19. Effect of sustainability information on consumers' liking of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Julia Siqueira; Mársico, Eliane Teixeira; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; de Freitas, Mônica Queiroz; Doro, Laís Higino; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam

    2015-12-01

    This research aimed to investigate whether consumer acceptance is affected by information on sustainable practices on the product label. Hedonic evaluations of freshwater prawns were performed by 80 consumers under three aspects: the blind condition - consumers taste samples without information; expected - without tasting samples, consumers evaluated the message 'Freshwater prawns were grown using sustainable practices, reducing environmental impacts caused by traditional breeding'; informed - in which prawns were tasted and the card evaluated. For the entire consumer group, it was observed that the message about sustainability on packaging increased freshwater prawn acceptability (8.25, expected condition (E) versus 6.75, blind condition (B)). High scores were observed under all three test conditions, ranging from 6 (like slightly) to 9 (like extremely), on a 9-point scale. It can be concluded that the use of sustainable information can influence consumers' perception and increase their preference toward freshwater prawns, and even increase the sensory attributes of the product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The invasion of five alien species in the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, Northeastern Brazil

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    Daniel Loebmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine biological invasions have been regarded as one of the major causes of native biodiversity loss, with shipping and aquaculture being the leading contributors for the introductions of alien species in aquatic ecosystems. In the present study, five aquatic alien species (one mollusk, three crustaceans and one fish species were detected during dives, shore searches and from the fisheries on the coast of the Delta do Parnaíba Environmental Protection Area, in the States of Piauí and Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. The species were the bicolor purse-oyster Isognomon bicolor, the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the Indo-Pacific swimming crab Charybdis hellerii and, the muzzled blenny Omobranchus punctatus. Ballast water (I. bicolor, C. hellerii, and O. punctatus and aquaculture activities (L. vannamei and M. rosenbergii in adjacent areas are the most likely vectors of introduction. All exotic species found have potential impact risks to the environment because they are able to compete against native species for resources (food and habitat. Isognomon bicolor share the same habitat and food items with the native bivalve species of mussels and barnacles. Litopenaeus vannamei share the same habitat and food items with the native penaeids such as the pinkspot shrimp Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, the Southern brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Southern white shrimp Litopenaeus schmitti, and in the past few years L. vannamei was responsible for a viral epidemics in the cultivation tanks that could be transmitted to native penaeid shrimps. Charybdis hellerii is also able to cause impacts on the local fisheries as the species can decrease the populations of native portunid crabs which are commercialized in the studied region. Macrobrachium rosenbergii may be sharing natural resources with the Amazon River prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum. Omobranchus punctatus shares habit with the native

  1. Dinâmica trófica de Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Sciaenidae em trechos de influência da represa Capivara (rios Paranapanema e Tibagi Trophic dynamic of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Perciformes, Scianidae in stretches under influence of the Capivara dam (Paranapanema and Tibagi rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei T. Bennemann

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 foi estudada em cinco trechos de influência da represa Capivara nos rios Paranapanema e Tibagi. As amostragens foram realizadas em dois períodos, 1992/1993 e 1994/1995, em coletas mensais, e sazonalmente no período 2001/2002. As capturas foram efetivadas com redes de espera simples com malhas entre 2 a 12 cm. Foram analisados 993 exemplares. Os itens alimentares identificados foram agrupados em categorias e analisados pelo método da composição percentual. A composição da dieta foi comparada entre os períodos de amostragens e entre trechos, pela análise de similaridade usando o coeficiente de Bray-Curtis. Os resultados indicaram que em todos os períodos e em todos os trechos houve uniformidade no consumo dos tipos de itens alimentares. Os itens encontrados foram agrupados em seis categorias: peixes, camarão, Odonata, Ephemeroptera, outros grupos de insetos e outros (material vegetal, detritos e organismos, raramente encontrados. Em todos os trechos e em todas as épocas analisadas, P. squamosissimus se manteve como carnívora, e no período 2001/2002 o item camarão (Macrobrachium amazonicum foi o de maior participação em sua dieta. Concomitante com o fato de a corvina trocar de alimento substituindo peixes por camarão, mudou o comportamento quanto à freqüência na tomada de alimento e na variedade de tipos de itens consumidos. Quando P. squamosissimus utiliza camarão, maior número de indivíduos são encontrados nos estômagos, na maioria dos casos com apenas este tipo de item.Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 was studied in five stretches in Paranapanema and Tibagi rivers under the influence of the Capivara reservoir. The samplings were made on a monthly basis during the 1992/1993 and 1994/1995 periods and seasonally during the 2001/2002 period. The captures were made with gillnets with meshes varying between 2 and 12 cm. A total of 993 specimens had their stomach analyzed. The

  2. Pescadoras de camarão: gênero, mobilização e sustentabilidade na ilha Trambioca, Barcarena, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Terezinha Lopes Simonian

    Full Text Available A partir deste artigo discute-se a relação entre gênero, mobilizações sociais e sustentabilidade no contexto da ilha Trambioca, município de Barcarena, Pará, especialmente quanto à experiência das pescadoras de camarão (Macrobrachium amazonicum. A pesquisa foi orientada pela metodologia antropológica do trabalho de campo e pela produção fotográfica, mas foram igualmente incorporadas estratégias que permitiram a produção de dados para uma análise quanto à economia política. Fundamentalmente, a mesma revelou uma experiência em que as mulheres pescadoras acabam sendo o destaque na produção de camarão nessa ilha, participando de todo o processo de produção, beneficiamento e comercialização. Em face à crise ambiental e econômica globalizada, tais pescadoras propõem a criação de camarão, com o que esperam aumentar a renda. Entretanto, nesse processo organizativo, elas percebem que os limites são muitos e que precisam de financiamento, capacitação e tecnologia voltadas para a criação de camarão. Conseqüentemente, muitas implicações apresentam-se para a sustentabilidade, em especial se a possibilidade de uma economia diferenciada for levada em consideração.

  3. New data on the morphology of Nilonema senticosum (Nematoda, Philometridae), a parasite of Arapaima gigas (Pisces), with notes on another philometrid, Alinema amazonicum, in Peru

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman; Dyková, Iva; Posel, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 279-285 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA ČR GA524/04/0342; GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nilonema * Alinema * Peru Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.772, year: 2006

  4. LODO DO CURTIMENTO E SUA INFLUÊNCIA NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum E NAS PROPRIEDADES QUÍMICAS DO SOLO

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    Lorena de Souza Tavares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the tanning sludge in soil chemical properties and the morphological and nutritional of paricá seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with five replicates, having as a substrate humic cambisol, which was characterized chemically and granulometrically; in possession of these results, the soil was previously corrected with lime and NPK. After 100 days of observation, it was analyzed the soil chemical variables (pH, H + Al, Al3+, Ca, Mg, P, K, Na, S, Cr3+, CO, SB, CEC, V, RAS and PST, the morphology plant [height (H, stem diameter (DC, the number of full leaves, the main root length (CR and dry biomass], and the concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg , S, Cr3+ and Na in the plant. The tanning sludge was used as a nutritional supplement in doses of 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 g kg-1. The tanning sludge has potential as a corrective of soil acidity, with little significant increase in indicators of salinity, sodicity and Cr3+ content available. However, the use of sludge did not affect the morphological characteristics of seedlings of paricá, but induced an increase in levels K and S in the shoot and Na and S in the root. The greatest concentration of nutrients in paricá were obtained with 6.0 g kg-1 of tanning sludge; however, was not possible to optimize the dose for a maximum productivity of seedlings of paricá with the treatments used.

  5. UJI AKTIVITAS EKSTRAK TERIPANG PASIR YANG TELAH DIFORMULASIKAN TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN SEX REVERSAL DAN KELANGSUNGAN HIDUP UDANG GALAH (Macrobrachium rosembergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Triajie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Teripang atau Timun laut (Echinodermata adalah salah satu jenis komoditi laut yang bernilai domestik maupun internasional sub sektor perikanan yang cukup potensial. Salah satu zat bioaktif yang terkandung dalam teripang adalah senyawa steroid. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan tingkat efektivitas ekstrak kasar daging teripang yang telah diformulasikan dalam air media pemeliharaan juvenile udang galah terhadap keberhasilan mendapatkan jantan fenotif. Hipotesa yang dipakai pada penelitian ini adalah bahwa masa aktif pemberian ekstrak kasar daging teripang hasil formulasi yang diberikan dalam air media, efektif dapat berpengaruh dalam perkembangan juvenil menjadi jantan fenotif. Metode perendaman dengan dosis ekstrak teripang 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L dan 25 mg/L, dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol (kontrol negatif/tanpa perlakuan hormon. Kata Kunci : teripang, steroid, jantan fenotif

  6. CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO ESTUDO TECNOLÓGICO DA CANELA-AZEITONA, Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz e Pav. Mez, UMA ESPÉCIE PIONEIRA. I - CARACTERÍSTICAS ANATÔMICAS DA MADEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Texeira do Carmo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos neste trabalho os aspectos anatômicos da madeira de Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz et Pav. Mez. Apresentam-se dados quantitativos de 11 caracteres do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira. Os raios largos e a largos e a baixa percentagem de parênquima axial são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho.

  7. Contribuição ao estudo tecnológico da canela-azeitona, Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz e Pav. Mez, uma espécie pioneira. I - Características anatômicas da madeira.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Lelis Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos neste trabalho os aspectos anatômicos da madeira de Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz et Pav. Mez. Apresentam-se dados quantitativos de 11 caracteres do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira. Os raios largos e a largos e a baixa percentagem de parênquima axial são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho.

  8. Estudio taxonómico de las especies del género macrobrachium bate, 1868 (Crustacea: Decápoda: Palaemonidae en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mauricio Valencia López

    2004-07-01

    a prueba ésta hipótesis. M. praecox constituye el único registro para la vertiente del Catatumbo, pero es muy probable que se encuentren representadas otras especies de la vertiente del Caribe. Se recomienda la realización de estudios moleculares interpoblacionales para las especies que se encuentran tanto en la vertiente del Orinoco como en la del Amazonas, para poder establecer con certeza si diferencias consideradas como intraespecíficas puedan tratarse de diferencias interespecíficas. El número de especies de éste género registradas para Colombia puede ser mayor al presentado en éste trabajo, esencialmente por sus características geográficas, y a la escasez de estudios de éste grupo en el país. Esto plantea la necesidad de establecer colecciones en diversas cuencas, por ejemplo las cuencas de los ríos Cauca y Atrato en la vertiente del Caribe, las cuencas de los ríos Tomo y Vichada en la vertiente del Orinoco, la cuenca del río Putumayo en la vertiente del Amazonas, y en toda la vertiente del Catatumbo.

  9. Effect of culture season and stocking density on the growth and production of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Ma raised in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. Baysa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of culture season and different stocking density on productivity of freshwater prawn that was raised in northern Thailand. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Fisheries Technology and Aquatic Resources, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study was divided into two experiments; each treatment was replicated three times. The first experiment investigated the effect of climatic condition on the culture and production of freshwater prawn post larvae (PL 10; mean weight of 0.02 g stocked in 400m2 ponds. Results of the first experiment revealed freshwater prawn raised during the dry season to summer obtained higher growth rate (0.19 g and 0.15 g/day and survival rate (34.27% and 24.49% than that of summer to rainy season (p<0.05. The second experiment investigated the effect of 2 different socking densities (25 and 50 individuals/m2 on the production survival of freshwater prawn. Results showed that the rate of growth, survival rate, and production, were much higher at a stocking density of 25 individuals/m2 (p<0.05 in contrast to 50 individuals/m2. Growth performances of freshwater prawns were triggered by stocking density and season.

  10. Heavy metal contamination of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and prawn feed in Bangladesh: A market-based study to highlight probable health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiul Islam, G M; Habib, Mohammad Ruzlan; Waid, Jillian L; Rahman, M Safiur; Kabir, J; Akter, S; Jolly, Y N

    2017-03-01

    An assessment of the dietary risk of heavy metal exposure to humans is important since it is the main source of exposure. This study aimed to estimate the degree of contamination and assess the probable health risk in the prawn food chain. In prawn feed, the concentrations of metals were detected in the following order: Hg > Co > Pb > Cd. The concentrations of heavy metals in prawn were the highest for Co and lowest for Cd. Trace amounts of As and Cr were detected in the analyzed sample. Target hazard quotients for heavy metals for adults were >1 for Pb, Cd, Hg, and Co, and for children, the same were high for Co and Hg, indicating significant health risks upon dietary exposure. All the prawn samples contained nine-fold and fourteen-fold higher concentrations than the maximum acceptable levels for Pb and Hg, respectively (0.5 mg kg -1 ; WHO/FAO). Human health risk due to the Co exposure is quite alarming as the level of exposure was found to be very high. In the prawn samples intended for human consumption, the hazard index (HI) was highest in the samples obtained from Bagerhat (3.25 in flesh and 3.26 in skin), followed by the samples obtained from Satkhira (2.84 in flesh and 3.10 in skin) and Dhaka City Corporation (2.81 in flesh and 3.42 in Skin); this indicates a potential risk of prawn consumption obtained from Southeast Bangladesh. This is particularly problematic as this area accounts for the majority of prawn production and export of the country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pigment granule translocation in red ovarian chromatophores from the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium olfersi (Weigmann, 1836): functional roles for the cytoskeleton and its molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milograna, Sarah Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Márcia Regina; Baqui, Munira Muhammad Abdel; McNamara, John Campbell

    2014-12-01

    The binding of red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) to membrane receptors in crustacean chromatophores triggers Ca²⁺/cGMP signaling cascades that activate cytoskeletal motors, driving pigment granule translocation. We investigate the distributions of microfilaments and microtubules and their associated molecular motors, myosin and dynein, by confocal and transmission electron microscopy, evaluating a functional role for the cytoskeleton in pigment translocation using inhibitors of polymer turnover and motor activity in vitro. Microtubules occupy the chromatophore cell extensions whether the pigment granules are aggregated or dispersed. The inhibition of microtubule turnover by taxol induces pigment aggregation and inhibits re-dispersion. Phalloidin-FITC actin labeling, together with tannic acid fixation and ultrastructural analysis, reveals that microfilaments form networks associated with the pigment granules. Actin polymerization induced by jasplaquinolide strongly inhibits RPCH-induced aggregation, causes spontaneous pigment dispersion, and inhibits pigment re-dispersion. Inhibition of actin polymerization by latrunculin-A completely impedes pigment aggregation and re-dispersion. Confocal immunocytochemistry shows that non-muscle myosin II (NMMII) co-localizes mainly with pigment granules while blebbistatin inhibition of NMMII strongly reduces the RPCH response, also inducing spontaneous pigment dispersion. Myosin II and dynein also co-localize with the pigment granules. Inhibition of dynein ATPase by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine induces aggregation, inhibits RPCH-triggered aggregation, and inhibits re-dispersion. Granule aggregation and dispersion depend mainly on microfilament integrity although microtubules may be involved. Both cytoskeletal polymers are functional only when subunit turnover is active. Myosin and dynein may be the molecular motors that drive pigment aggregation. These mechanisms of granule translocation in crustacean chromatophores share various features with those of vertebrate pigment cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of stocking density of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and addition of different levels of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on production in C/N controlled periphyton based system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Mondal, M.N.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    An on-station trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of stocking density of freshwater prawn and addition of different levels of tilapia on production in carbon/nitrogen (C/N) controlled periphyton based system. The experiment had a 2 × 3 factorial design, in which two levels of prawn stocking

  13. Effects of addition of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and substrates for periphyton developments on pond ecology and production in C/N-controlled freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Wahab, M.A.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Benerjee, S.; Akter, T.; Hasan, M.M.; Azim, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigated the effect of addition of tilapia and substrates for periphyton development on pond ecology, production and economic performances in C/N controlled freshwater prawn farming system. The absence and presence (0 and 0.5 individual m- 2) of tilapia were investigated in

  14. Molecular and functional analyses of novel anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, De Man) and their expression responses under pathogen and temperature exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisapoome, Prapansak; Klongklaew, Nawanith; Areechon, Nontawith; Wongpanya, Ratree

    2018-06-15

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) is an immune-related protein that is crucially involved in immune defense mechanisms against invading pathogens in crustaceans. In the current study, three different ALFs of giant river prawn (Mr-ALF3, Mr-ALF8 and Mr-ALF9) were discovered. Based on sequence analysis, Mr-ALF3 and Mr-ALF9 were identified as new members of ALFs in crustaceans (groups F and G, respectively). Structurally, each newly identified Mr-ALF contained three α-helices packed against a four-stranded β-sheet bearing the LPS-binding motif, which usually binds to the cell wall components of bacteria. Tissue expression analysis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that Mr-ALF3 was expressed in most tissues, and the highest expression was in the heart and hemocytes. The Mr-ALF8 gene was highly expressed in the heart, hemocytes, midgut, hepatopacreas and hindgut, respectively, while the Mr-ALF9 gene was modestly expressed in the heart and hemocytes, respectively. The transcriptional responses of the Mr-ALFs to Aeromonas hydrophila and hot/cold temperatures were investigated by qRT-PCR in the gills, hepatopancreas and hemocytes. We found that all Mr-ALFs were clearly suppressed in all tested tissues when the experimental prawns were exposed to extreme temperatures (25 and 35 °C). Moreover, the expression levels of these genes were significantly induced in all examined tissues by 2 different concentrations of A. hydrophila (1 × 10 6 and 1 × 10 9  CFU/ml), particularly 12 and 96 h after the injection. Finally, binding activity analysis of LPS-motif peptides of each Mr-ALF revealed that the LPS peptide of Mr-ALF3 exhibited the strongest adhesion to two pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, A. hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi, and the non-pathogenic Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium. The results also showed that the Mr-ALF8 and Mr-ALF9 peptides had mild antimicrobial effects against similar tested bacteria. Based on information obtained in this study, novel ALF genes were clearly identified. Analyses of their responses under pathogenic and temperature stresses demonstrated the binding and antimicrobial activities of these ALFs and the consequent physiological effects, indicating their crucial functional roles in the prawn immune system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RETRACTED: Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has been retracted at the request of the Authors.The article is a duplicate of a paper that has already been published in Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 2016; 15 (2 :738–750 here: http://www.jifro.ir/article-1-2213-en.html.One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  16. Substituição de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis na larvicultura do camarão-d'água-doce (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879 Replacement of the Artemia sp. for the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in the hatchering of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almada Thomaz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se o presente trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituição dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo rotífero enriquecido e congelado (Brachionus plicatilis, O.F. Müller, 1786 sobre a sobrevivência e peso seco das larvas. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, sendo testados quatro regimes alimentares na larvicultura do camarão M. rosenbergii, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Nos regimes alimentares, realizaram-se substituições progressivas de náuplios de Artemia sp. (nas pelo rotífero Brachionus plicatilis (rots e testaram-se os seguintes tratamentos: 100% B. plicatilis (30 rots/mL (T1; 100% Artemia sp. (5 nas/mL (T2, 60% Artemia sp. (3 nas/mL + 40% B. plicatilis (12 rots/mL (T3 e 40% Artemia sp. (2 nas/mL + 60% B. plicatilis (18 rots/mL (T4, adicionando-se a estes tratamentos ração úmida. Os resultados da sobrevivência final em pós-larvas foram analisados pelo teste do X² e demonstraram não haver diferenças significativas do tratamento T2 (68,36% sobre os tratamentos T3 (68,76% e T4 (64,60%. O tratamento T1 (100% B. plicatilis apresentou mortalidade total no 14º dia do experimento. O peso seco médio das pós-larvas foi analisado estatisticamente pela ANOVA, não apresentando diferenças significativas entre os valores de 3,29 mg (T2, 3,08 mg (T3 e 3,38 mg (T4. A taxa de mortalidade baseada no número de larvas encontradas mortas diariamente, em relação ao número de larvas estocadas inicialmente, foi maior para todos os tratamentos nos primeiros 15 dias do experimento. Portanto, os resultados demonstraram que a substituição total de rotíferos enriquecidos e congelados acarretou a mortalidade total das larvas, mas a substituição parcial de 40% e 60% dos náuplios de Artemia sp. pelo B. plicatilis foi viável, não apresentando prejuízos significativos em termos de sobrevivência e peso seco das pós-larvas.This work was carried out to identify the replacement of the nauplii Artemia sp. for the enriched and frozen rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis O.F. Müller, 1786 on the larval development and survival of the freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. The experiment was developed according to the following treatments: 100% B. plicatilis (30 rots/ mL (T1; 100% Artemia sp. (5 nas/ mL (T2, 60% Artemia sp. (3 nas/ mL + 40% B. plicatilis (12 rots/ mL (T3 e 40% Artemia sp. (2 nas/ mL + 60% B. plicatilis (18 rots/ mL (T4. Humid ration was added to all treatments. The results of the final survival in post-larvae were analyzed by the X² test and demonstrated no significant differences from treatment T2 (68.36% to T3 and T4: 68.76% and 64.60%, respectively. T1 treatment (100% B. plicatilis presented total mortality at 14th day of the experiment. Average dry weight of the pos-larvae was analyzed statistically by ANOVA and showed no significant differences in values: 3.29 mg (T2, 3.08 mg (T3 and 3.38 mg (T4. No significant differences among treatments T2, T3 and T4 were observed. The best mortality rate was observed from 1 to 15 day of hatchery based on the number of dead larval stored in the daily material siphoned. Therefore, these results suggest that the total substitution of the enriched and frozen rotifer is not recommended due to a total mortality of larvae, whereas the partial replacement of 40% and 60% of the Artemia sp nauplii by the enriched and frozen rotifer is possible, with no significant damages to survival and post-larval growth.

  17. Efeito do fornecimento de ração complementada com semente de linhaça sobre os macronutrientes e colesterol em tecidos de camarões da Malásia (Macrobrachium rosenbergii Effect of Supplying Food Complemented with Linseed on the Chemical Composition of Malaysian Shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Lindenberg dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a composição centesimal dos camarões alimentados com dieta complementada com semente de linhaça. Foram utilizados 800 camarões pós-larvas, divididos em 2 tratamentos: 1 grupo teste à base de caseína complementada com linhaça; e 2 grupo caseína. Os valores médios de umidade (79,8 ± 0,82; 78,9 ± 1,68, cinzas (0,62 ± 0,07; 0,68 ± 0,2, carboidratos (2,63 ± 0,13; 1,58 ± 0,7 e proteínas (15,6 ± 1,02; 16,0 ± 0,58 dos grupos controle e teste, respectivamente, não apresentaram diferença significativa ao final do experimento. Entretanto, a concentração de lipídio total sofreu uma redução significativa (p The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of shrimp fed with a diet complemented with linseed. 800 post larvae shrimp were divided into two types of treatment: 1 a test group based on casein complemented with linseed, and 2 a casein group. At the end of the experiment, the two treatments showed no significant differences in the mean values of humidity (79.8 ± 0.82; 78.9 ± 1.68, ashes (0.62 ± 0.07; 0.68 ± 0.2, carbohydrates (2.63 ± 0.13; 1.58 ± 0.7 and proteins (15.6 ± 1.02; 16.0 ± 0.58. However, the concentration of total lipids in both groups declined significantly during this study. This decline was more marked in the control group (74%. At the end of the experiment, the lipid content was higher (p < 0.05 in the test group (1.87 ± 0.03 than in the control group (1.12 ± 0.021. However, the cholesterol content in the test group (0.115 ± 0.004 was lower than in the control group (0.1306 ± 0.001, albeit without a statistically significant difference. It was concluded that the addition of linseed to the food seems to increase the shrimps' lipids, which suggests that this increase does not imply heightened cholesterol levels. It is also possible that the increase in lipids is due to the incorporation of a large proportion polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. AcEST: DK962030 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ot sp_hit_id Q6XNL5 Definition sp|Q6XNL5|RDRP_MRNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase OS=Macrobrachium rosenbergii ...ge factor 6 O... 30 8.9 >sp|Q6XNL5|RDRP_MRNV RNA-directed RNA polymerase OS=Macrobrachium rosenberg

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSA715 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ial manga... 74 2e-12 DQ157765_1( DQ157765 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii m...itochon... 74 2e-12 EU077525_1( EU077525 |pid:none) Macrobrachium rosenbergii mitochon... 74 2e-12 AY675508_

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1275 ref|YP_214003.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Macrobrachium rosenberg...ii] gb|AAT52176.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Macrobrachium rosenbergii] YP_214003.1 0.015 24% ...

  1. Retraction notice to “Comparison of all morphotype males and various types stocking density of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man on growth and survival rate” [Aquaculture Reports 3C (2016 184-188

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Rubia Banu

    2017-08-01

    One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  2. SPECIES INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ESTUARINE DETRITIVORES: INHIBITION OR FACILITATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native Hawaiian estuarine detritivores; the prawn Macrobrachium grandimanus, and the neritid gastropod Neritina vespertina, were maintained in flow-through microcosms with conditioned leaves from two riparian tree species, Hau (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and guava (Psidium guajava). Th...

  3. 2633-IJBCS-Article-Luc Gangbe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Biology and breeding prospect of giant fresh water shrimp Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) ... give the hatch small larvae called nauplius that evolves zoe and mysis. After 15 larval stages, ...... monodon, Litopenaeus vannamei et.

  4. Nuevos registros del parásito Probopyrus pacificensis (Isopoda: Bopyridae en el sur de Nayarit y norte de Jalisco, México New records of the parasite Probopyrus pacificensis (Isopoda: Bopyridae in southern Nayarit and northern Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ocaña-Luna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos registros de Probopyrus pacificensis en el arroyo San Francisco, sur de Nayarit y en el arroyo Palo María, norte de Jalisco en el Pacífico mexicano, parasitando a camarones de agua dulce de la especie Macrobrachium tenellum.New observations of Probopyrus pacificensis were recorded in Arroyo San Francisco, southern Nayarit, and Arroyo Palo María, northern Jalisco, in the Mexican Pacific, infesting the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium tenellum.

  5. Characterization of Vibrio species isolated from freshwater fishes by ribotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, P.; Samanta, M.; Mohanty, S.; Maiti, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Three Vibrio species from the resident microflora of gastrointestinal tract of freshwater carps and prawns were isolated and confirmed biochemically as V. fluvialis from Cyprinus carpio/Labeo rohita; V. parahaemolyticus from Macrobrachium rosenbergii and V. harveyi from Macrobrachium malcomsoni. The genetic relationship among these Vibrio species was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 16S rRNA gene followed by restriction digestion with Hae III, Bam HI and Pst I. ...

  6. Biologie et perspectives d'élevage de la crevette géante d'eau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... des thèses et livres portant sur la crevette d'eau douce Macrobrachium en général et de Macrobrachium vollenhovenii en particulier. Les larves vivent exclusivement en eau saumâtre. La nutrition larvaire est basée sur le plancton tandis que les adultes sont omnivores à dominance carnivore. La croissance se fait par des ...

  7. Primeiro registro de Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Pyralidae, Epipaschiinae em frutos de Ocotea catharinensis Mez-Lauraceae. First record of Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce 1902 (Pyralidae, Epipaschiinae feed on fruits of Ocotea catharinensis Mez-Lauraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édson Possidônio TEIXEIRA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, atacando frutos de Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae, canela-preta, desde o início do desenvolvimento até a sua dispersão, no Parque Estadual da Cantareira (23º22’S e 46º36’W, localizado nos municípios de Caieiras, Guarulhos, Mairiporã e São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.It is registered for the first time the occurrence of Accinctapubes albifasciata (Druce, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae attacking fruits of Ocotea catharinensis Mez (Lauraceae, canela-preta, since the beginning of development until its dispersion, at Parque Estadual da Cantareira (23º22’S and 46º36’W, located in the Caieiras, Guarulhos, Mairiporã and São Paulo counties, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

  8. Distribution of Sandflies (Diptera:Psychodidae on Tree-trunks in a Non-flooded Area of the Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MRS Cabanillas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies were collected in the base of tree-trunks in the seasons of high and least rainfall in the Ducke Forest Reserve, near Manaus in the State of Amazonas. Lutzomyia umbratilis was the most abundant sandfly species. Caryocar villosum, Chrysophyllum amazonicum, Dinizia excelsa, Eschweilera atropetiolata and Parkia multijuga were the tree species on which most sandflies were collected and relative abundance were related to trunk characteristics. Seasonal patterns of sandfly distribution in the forest were observed.

  9. Ash content, carbon and C/N ratio in paricá in function of NPK fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANE R. VIEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fertilization in areas of forest plantations is needed to supplement plants´ nutritional needs until harvest. An experiment was performed to check the influence of fertilization on levels of ash, carbon and C/N relation in Schizolobium amazonicum. Soil liming was performed and fertilization occurred after 15 days of incubation. S. amazonicum seedlings were produced and submitted to fertilization with N, P and K: N = 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1; K2O = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1. The plants were measured after 180 days. The seedlings of 20 treatments with the highest increase in height and diameter were transplanted to the field. Soil was fertilized and limestone was spread; seedlings were distributed into randomized blocks, with six replications. After 12 months, the plants were removed to determine ash, organic carbon, C/N relation contents. The ashes were submitted to digestion to determine nutrient concentrations. Fertilization influenced the levels of ash and organic carbon and C/N relation in S. amazonicum. Results indicate that the species has a potential for energy production.

  10. Ash content, carbon and C/N ratio in paricá in function of NPK fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Cristiane R; Weber, Oscarlina L S; Scaramuzza, José Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Fertilization in areas of forest plantations is needed to supplement plants´ nutritional needs until harvest. An experiment was performed to check the influence of fertilization on levels of ash, carbon and C/N relation in Schizolobium amazonicum. Soil liming was performed and fertilization occurred after 15 days of incubation. S. amazonicum seedlings were produced and submitted to fertilization with N, P and K: N = 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1; P2O5 = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1; K2O = 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1. The plants were measured after 180 days. The seedlings of 20 treatments with the highest increase in height and diameter were transplanted to the field. Soil was fertilized and limestone was spread; seedlings were distributed into randomized blocks, with six replications. After 12 months, the plants were removed to determine ash, organic carbon, C/N relation contents. The ashes were submitted to digestion to determine nutrient concentrations. Fertilization influenced the levels of ash and organic carbon and C/N relation in S. amazonicum. Results indicate that the species has a potential for energy production.

  11. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  12. Potencial antifúngico de extractos de cuatro especies vegetales sobre el crecimiento de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides en papaya (Carica papaya en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Landero Valenzuela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El manejo de antracnosis por Colletotrichum gloeosporioides es el problema más importante en poscosecha de frutos tropicales. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes extractos vegetales fue evaluada in vitro e in vivo para controlar la antracnosis poscosecha en papaya. Extractos de ajo (Allium sativum (10 y 15 % y canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum (0,0050; 0,0100; 0,0150 % mostraron efecto fungicida en contra de C. gloeosporioides para supresión de crecimiento micelial (100 %, inhibición de germinación (100 % y esporulación del hongo (100 %, considerándose estos extractos como los más promisorios para inhibir el desarrollo del hongo in vitro. Estudios in vivo también revelaron que los extracto de ajo (11,74 % y canela a dosis de 0,0054 % aplicada antes y al mismo tiempo de la inoculación con C. gloeosporioides, fueron las dosis óptimas para el control (severidad de la antracnosis en frutos de papaya artificialmente inoculados, mientras que a mayores dosis la severidad aumentó. La variable fitotoxicidad arrojó resultados consistentes con lo anterior, comprobándose que al aumentar las dosis de extracto de canela se presentó cambio de color en los frutos. Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar estos extractos a dosis adecuadas como biofungicidas para controlar antracnosis en papaya en poscosecha.

  13. Significant genetic differentiation among populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791: a bivalve with planktonic larval dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Cristina Bulhões Arruda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Brazilian populations of Anomalocardia brasiliana were tested for mutual genetic homogeneity, using data from 123 sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene. A total of 36 haplotypes were identified, those shared being H3 (Canela Island, Prainha and Acupe and both H5 and H9 (Prainha and Acupe. Haplotype diversity values were high, except for the Camurupim population, whereas nucleotide values were low in all the populations, except for that of Acupe. Only the Prainha population showed a deviation from neutrality and the SSD test did not reject the demographic expansion hypothesis. Fst values showed that the Prainha and Acupe populations represent a single stock, whereas in both the Canela Island and Camurupim stocks, population structures are different and independent. The observed structure at Canela Island may be due to the geographic distance between this population and the remainder. The Camurupim population does not share any haplotype with the remaining populations in northeastern Brazil. The apparent isolation could be due to the rocky barrier located facing the mouth of the Mamanguape River. The results highlight the importance of wide-scale studies to identify and conserve local genetic diversity, especially where migration is restricted.

  14. Hooghly : Impact of Farakka Barrage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purely freshwater species Rita rita, Wallago atu, Mystus aor, Aila coila, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Macrobrachium rosenbergii appeared in zones 1 &2. Annual landings of prime fish hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) increased sharply. Several commercially non-important estuarine and marine species (Chanos chanos, Plotosuscanius ...

  15. Proceedings of the National Workshop on Containment Area Aquaculture Held in South Padre Island, Texas on 11-15 November 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    animals unfit with fish meal supply resulting from El Nihio for human consumption. Thus, care must be events off Peru and Chile in the past have led taken...commercial feasibility Sorgeloos, 0. Roels, and E. Jaspers, ed., of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) The brine shrimp Anemia , Universal farming in

  16. Impact of converison of mangrove ecosystem for aquaculture purposes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    ,000 hectare are produced. The species cultivated are mugil cephalus, Chanon-Chanos, Penaeus Monodon, P. indicus, Macrobrachium, etc. About 32.13% of this area is along west coast and the yield rate is about 500-600 kg/ha/yr. Some of the impacts of conversion...

  17. 1761-IJBCS-Article-Cathérine Nicole Doume Doume

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    11-76. Oyekanmi, Funmilayo B. 2011. Bio-ecology of freshwater prawns Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklots, 1857) and. Caridina africana (Kingsley, 1882) at. Asejire Lake and Erin-ijesa waterfalls,. Nigeria. M.Tech. Fisheries Management. Sipauba -Tavares LH. 1998. Limnologia dos Sistemas de Cultivo. Carcinicultura.

  18. Effect of eyestalk ablation on the metabolic activities of two penaeid prawns: Metapenaeous monoceros and M. dobsoni (De Man)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitraman, P.P.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.

    types of food has been worked out (Royan et al. 1977). The effect of the unilateral ablation of the eyestalk on the energy budget of juveniles of the Malayan prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii was attempted (Perez Cruz & Luna Figueroa 1995). Prawn fishery...

  19. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  20. Efeito da composição genética nas carcaterísticas de conformação em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Costa

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da composição genética nas características morfológicas em equinos com diferentes objetivos de seleção. Foram utilizados 234 equinos sendo 136 da raça Mangalarga Marchador e 90 entre mestiços e puros Quarto de Milha utilizados em vaquejada. Foram mensuradas as medidas lineares de altura na cernelha, na garupa, no dorso, no costado e na cintura pélvica; os comprimentos de corpo, de cabeça, de pescoço, de dorsolombo, de garupa, de espádua, de braço, de antebraço, de canela anterior, de quartela anterior, de coxa, de perna, de canela posterior e de quartela posterior; os perímetros de tórax, de cintura pélvica, de canela anterior e de canela posterior; as larguras de cabeça, de peito e de garupa. O peso corporal foi estimado por meio de fita métrica (em kg. Os ângulos mensurados foram escápulo-solo, escápulo-umeral, úmero-radial, metacarpo-falangiano, pelve-solo, pelve-femoral, fêmur-tíbio-patelar, tíbio-tarso-metatarsiano e metatarso-falangiano descritos. O modelo estatístico considerou os efeitos de sexo, raça e interação sexo*raça com as médias comparadas pleo teste SNK a 5% de significância. Houve interação sexo x raça para as todas as características de alturas e larguras, para as medidas de comprimento do pescoço, do dorsolombo, garupa, espádua, braço antebraço e canela anterior e para as angulações apenas a escápulo-umeral, enquanto a raça teve efeito para todas as medidas angulares (P<0,01 exceto a úmero-radial. Os autores conluíram que os animais das raças Mangalarga Marchador e Quarto de Milha são biótipos geneticamente diferentes em suas medidas lineares e angulares e que as diferenças observadas entre as raças podem estar associadas ao tipo de andamento e à funcionalidade atribuída a cada uma delas induzidas pela seleção.

  1. Estabelecimento in vitro de Ocotea odorifera, O. catharinensis e O. porosa In vitro Establishment of Ocotea odorifera, O. catharinensis and O. porosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Moritz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Várias espécies da família Lauraceae encontram-se em risco de extinção, devido ao alto valor comercial de suas madeiras e a consequente exploração das reservas naturais. Dentre elas, Ocotea porosa (imbuia, O. odorifera (canela-sassafras e O. catharinensis (canela-preta são de grande importância no Sul do Brasil, de onde são originárias. Estas espécies apresentam sementes recalcitrantes, o que dificulta sua regeneração natural. Alem disso, a propagação por meio de estaquia e enxertia apresenta limitações. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a germinação e multiplicação in vitro das canelas preta e sassafrás na presença de BAP e carvão ativado e a germinação e multiplicação in vitro de imbuia sob diferentes concentrações de sacarose no meio de cultura. Para as canelas preta e sassafrás foram avaliadas duas concentrações de NaClO na desinfestação de embriões (0,1 % e 0,5 %. Na fase de multiplicação, foi avaliado o efeito de BAP e carvão ativado. Para a imbuia, foi avaliada a influência da concentração de sacarose (30, 60, 90 ou 120 g.L-1 na introdução e multiplicação in vitro. A porcentagem de germinação foi superior a 85 % para as três espécies. Para a canela sassafrás, as melhores taxas de multiplicação foram obtidas na presença de 5 μmol.L-1 de BAP. Para a imbuia, a concentração de 60 g.L-1 de sacarose no meio proporcionou as maiores taxas de multiplicação. Apesar de o estabelecimento da canela preta ter sido satisfatório, após algumas semanas no meio de multiplicação os explantes não apresentavam aparência normal e oxidaram.

     

    Doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.59.37

    Several species of the Lauraceae family are endangered, due to the high value of their woods,
    and the consequent exploitation of natural populations. Among them, Ocotea porosa, O. odorifera and O.
    catharinensis, native from South Brazil, have recalcitrant seeds, what makes even more dificult their

  2. Obtention and characterization of chitin and chitosan from M. rosenbergii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battisti, Marcos V.; Campana Filho, Sergio P.

    2001-01-01

    Chitin was extracted from previously ground shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii by applying acid and alkaline treatments, aiming at its demineralization and deprotenization, respectively. Its characteristics and properties were compared with those exhibited by commercial samples of chitin. Commercial chitosan and samples produced by the deacetylation of chitin obtained from M. rosenbergii shells were also compared. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosities of the chitosan were determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and by capillary viscosimetry, respectively. The results show that the chitin extracted from Macrobrachium rosenbergii has a lower content of inorganic materials as compared to commercial samples but the chitosan obtained from the former chitin sample is very similar to commercial chitosan. (author)

  3. Obtention and characterization of chitin and chitosan from M. rosenbergii; Obtencao e caracterizacao de quitina e quitosana a partr de M. rosenbergii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, Marcos V.; Campana Filho, Sergio P. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: scampana@iqsc.sc.usp.br

    2001-07-01

    Chitin was extracted from previously ground shells of Macrobrachium rosenbergii by applying acid and alkaline treatments, aiming at its demineralization and deprotenization, respectively. Its characteristics and properties were compared with those exhibited by commercial samples of chitin. Commercial chitosan and samples produced by the deacetylation of chitin obtained from M. rosenbergii shells were also compared. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosities of the chitosan were determined by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and by capillary viscosimetry, respectively. The results show that the chitin extracted from Macrobrachium rosenbergii has a lower content of inorganic materials as compared to commercial samples but the chitosan obtained from the former chitin sample is very similar to commercial chitosan. (author)

  4. Eficiência de wetland com macrófitas aquáticas flutuantes dispostas em serie para o tratamento do efluente do cultivo de camarão

    OpenAIRE

    Henares, MNP; Camargo, AFM

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m(3)) with three treatments (constructed wetlands) and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm) arranged sequentially, a ...

  5. Direct use of low temperature geothermal water by Aquafarms International, Inc. for freshwater aquaculture (prawns and associated species). An operations and maintenance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, R.; Price, M.; Price, V.; Grajcer, D.

    1984-04-01

    In connection with an ongoing commercial aquaculture project in the Coachella Valley, California; a twelve month prawn growout demonstration project was conducted. This project began in August, 1979 and involved the use of low temperature (85/sup 0/F) geothermal waters to raise freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan), in earthen ponds. The following publication is an operations and maintenance guide which may by useful for those interested in conducting similar enterprises.

  6. Biodiversity in floodplains with special reference to artificial stocking

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.S.; Ehshan, M.A.; Mazid, M.A.; Rahman, S.; Razzaque, A.

    2000-01-01

    A five years investigation on fish biodiversity in connection with artificial stocking was conducted in three south-western floodplains of Bangladesh from 1992 to 1996. The ten top most available and ten rarest fish species were identified. Puntius sp., Channa punctatus, Mystus sp., Anabus testudinius, Ambasis sp., Colisha sp. and Macrobrachium sp. etc. were the most common available species. On the other hand, Mystus aor, Notopterus chitala, Clupisoma garua, Aplocheilus panchax, Ctenophmyngo...

  7. Effect of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balasubramanian, T.

    of eyestalk excision on the energy budget of juveniles of the Malaycian prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was attempted by Perez and Luna, (1995). Materials and methods Collection of prawns Metapenaeus monoceros was collected from Cochin... siphon system for the cultivation maintenance and management of marine/ estuarine organisms under controlled/ simulated conditions. CSIR patent No. 829. Perez Cruz, M.E. and Luna Figueroa, J. 1995. Effect of the unilateral ablation of the eyestalk...

  8. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos Alonso; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, E. F.; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2012), s. 484-497 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : PARANA RIVER FLOODPLAIN * DEMIDOSPERMUS DACTYLOGYRIDAE * NEOTROPICAL MONOGENEA * ALINEMA-AMAZONICUM * TAPEWORMS CESTODA * GEN N * ANCYROCEPHALINAE * FISHES * BRAZIL * GILLS Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/GE-2941.1

  9. Sobrevivência de espécies arbóreas plantadas em clareiras causadas pela colheita de madeira em uma floresta de terra firme no município de Paragominas na Amazônia brasileira Survival of seedlings planted in gaps after harvesting in a terra firme rain forest in Paragominas region in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Macêdo Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a sobrevivência de mudas plantadas em 400 clareiras causadas por exploração florestal de impacto reduzido, em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia Oriental. Foram plantadas 3.818 mudas de 17 espécies, das quais apenas Schizolobium amazonicum não ocorre na área de estudo. A distância entre as mudas plantadas foi de aproximadamente 5m. As avaliações ocorreram em 2005 e 2006. Com base na sobrevivência das mudas aos 11 meses após o plantio, as espécies indicadas para o enriquecimento de clareiras são: Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa e Schefflera morototoni. Estudos sobre a taxa de crescimento, em períodos mais longos, são necessários para confirmar a utilização dessas espécies em plantios de enriquecimento de clareiras oriundas de exploração florestal, como alternativa para aumentar a produtividade e o valor econômico das florestas naturais manejadas na Amazônia brasileira.Survival of seedlings planted in 400 gaps created by reduced impact logging in a terra firme forest in the Eastern Amazonia was evaluated. 3,818 seedlings from 17 species occurring in the study area, except for Schizolobium amazonicum (paricá, which is rare in natural forests of Paragominas region, were planted in the gaps. Spacing of planted seedlings was 5m. According to survival of seedlings during 11 months after planting, the species Schizolobium amazonicum, Cedrela odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Manilkara huberi, Astronium gracile, Pouteria bilocularis, Tabebuia impetiginosa,Pseudopiptadenia suaveolens, Cordia goeldiana, Parkia gigantocarpa, Simarouba amara, Sterculia pilosa, Laetia procera, Dinizia excelsa and Schefflera morototoni can be suggested for enriching in gaps created by reduced impact logging

  10. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    OpenAIRE

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza; Marcelo Cláudio Pereira; Caroline Lima Angélico; Carlos José Pimenta

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L.), canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn), cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L.), que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S). Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e ...

  11. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,Sára Maria Chalfoun de; Pereira,Marcelo Cláudio; Angélico,Caroline Lima; Pimenta,Carlos José

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L.), canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn), cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L.) e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L.), que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S). Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e ...

  12. Evaluación de la acción antiséptica de un jabón líquido utilizando algunos aceites esenciales como agente activo

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Fortich, María del Rosario; Matiz Melo, Germán Eduardo; León Méndez, Glicerio; López Olivares, Darley; Pájaro, Nerlis Paola

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN Se evaluó la acción antiséptica de un jabón líquido utilizando como activo aceites esenciales de Eugenia caryophyllata T. (clavo de olor) y Cinnamomum verum J. (canela). Se formularon y elaboraron jabones líquidos usando como activo aceites esenciales a concentraciones de 1,5% y 2%, posteriormente se evaluaron parámetros fisicoquímicos, sensoriales, así como también microbiológicos sobre cepas bacterianas de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Se encontró q...

  13. Actividad inhibitoria sobre a-glucosidasa y a-amilasa de extractos acuosos de algunas especias utilizados en la cocina mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Osmery Alín Sevilla-Asencio

    2013-01-01

    La diabetes es una de las principales causasde morbilidad y mortalidad en el mundo.Muchos estudios están dirigidos haciala búsqueda de componentes dietariosque sean benéficos para su tratamiento yprevención. El objetivo del presente estudiofue examinar el efecto antioxidante einhibitorio de a-glucosidasa y a-amilasa deextractos acuosos de canela(Cinnamomumzeylanicum),comino(Cuminum cyminum),orégano(Origanum vulgare),pimienta negra(Pipar nigrum)yclavo(Eugenia caryophyllus),que son especias uti...

  14. Controle alternativo da murcha bacteriana do pimentão utilizando óleos essenciais vegetais e silicato de cálcio.

    OpenAIRE

    Aldenir de Oliveira Alves

    2012-01-01

    A murcha bacteriana do pimentão, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs) raça 1, é uma fitobacteriose importante em Pernambuco e outros estados do Brasil. Este trabalho teve como objetivos testar o efeito de óleos vegetais e do silício (Si) no controle alternativo desta doença, seus efeitos diretos sobre Rs e verificar os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos nestes processos. Os óleos essenciais de bergamota, canela, capim limão, copaíba, eucalipto citriodora, eucalipto globulus, funcho, hortel...

  15. Estudo do Efeito do Ãcido CinÃmico e Cinamato de Metila no Metabolismo GlicolipÃdico em Camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Maria Parente de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    As dislipidemias e o diabetes apresentam-se como importantes fatores de risco nas doenÃas cardiovasculares. Quando se associa ao estresse oxidativo podem acelerar a progressÃo das lesÃes aterosclerÃticas. Estudos com produtos naturais fornecem dados interessantes no controle dessas doenÃas. No presente estudo foram utilizados dois compostos derivados da canela, o Ãcido cinÃmico (AC) e cinamato de metila (CM), semelhantes estruturalmente e com atividades biolÃgicas e farmacolÃgicas jà descrita...

  16. Variação do incremento anual ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda l. em diferentes idades e densidades populacionais

    OpenAIRE

    César Martins Andrade; César Augusto Guimarães Finger; Cláudio Thomas; Paulo Renato Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The variation of the annual growth in different heights of the stem of Pinus taeda L. was studied through the stem analysis, accomplished in dominant and medium stratum trees. Cross sections were collected along the stem from 9 sample trees on the base, breast height diameter (BHD) and after these positions, at every meter. The sampling was constituted of 4 trees coming from Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, in a 17-years-old stand, submitted to one thinning, and 6 trees from Ponte Alta ...

  17. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  18. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquetti, Roberto K; Gonçalves, José Francisco C

    2017-01-01

    Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata) subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization) in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees) represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  19. Occurrence of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus and P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae on parica in Para State, Brazil Ocorrência de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus e P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae em paricá, no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This is the first register of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein e P. chuni Enderlein (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae attacking parica trees [Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S. F. Blake var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby] in Paragominas, Para State, Brazil. Whereas Para State has the largest area with parica plantation in Brazil, there is a risk of these insects become important pests of this crop.


    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71

    As ocorrências de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein e P. chuni Enderlein são registradas pela primeira vez em reflorestamentos com paricá [Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. S. F. Blake var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby] no Estado do Pará, Município de Paragominas. Considerando que o Pará possui a maior área plantada de paricá no Brasil, existe o risco de esses insetos tornarem-se pragas importantes dessa cultura.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71

  20. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  1. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria increases wood yield under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Viviana Torres Cely

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce and Acaulospora sp. (Ac; two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2; and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2 in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1 were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone.

  2. Inoculation of Schizolobium parahyba with Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Increases Wood Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Martha V T; Siviero, Marco A; Emiliano, Janaina; Spago, Flávia R; Freitas, Vanessa F; Barazetti, André R; Goya, Erika T; Lamberti, Gustavo de Souza; Dos Santos, Igor M O; De Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Galdino

    2016-01-01

    Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke) occurs naturally in the Brazilian Amazon. Currently, it is being planted extensively because of its fast growth and excellent use in forestry. Consequently, there is great interest in new strategies to increase wood production. The interaction between soil microorganisms and plants, specifically in the roots, provides essential nutrients for plant growth. These interactions can have growth-promoting effects. In this way, this study assessed the effect of the inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on growth of S. parahyba var. amazonicum under field conditions. We used two native species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Claroideoglomus etunicatum (Ce), and Acaulospora sp. (Ac); two native strains of Rhizobium sp. (Rh1 and Rh2); and a non-native strain of Burkholderia sp. Different combinations of microorganisms were supplemented with chemical fertilizers (doses D1 and D2) in two planting methods, seed sowing and seedling planting. In seed sowing, the results showed that treatments with Ce/Rh1/Fertilizer D2 and Ac/No PGPR/Fertilizer D2 increased wood yield. In seedling planting, two combinations (Ac/Rh2/Fertilizer D1 and Ac/Rh1/Fertilizer D1) were more effective in increasing seedling growth. In these experiments, inoculation with AMF and PGPR increased wood yield by about 20% compared to the application of fertilizer alone.

  3. Galactomannans from Brazilian seeds: characterization of the oligosaccharides produced by mild acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganter, J L; Heyraud, A; Petkowicz, C L; Rinaudo, M; Reicher, F

    1995-02-01

    Galactomannans with Man:Gal ratios ranging from 1.1:1 to 3:1, obtained from the seeds of Mimosa scabrella, Stryphnodendron barbatiman, Schizolobium parahybum and Schizolobium amazonicum, were submitted to mild acid hydrolysis. The products were fractionated by gel permeation chromatography on BioGel P2 yielding fractions with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 1 to 6. Those with DP 2 to 6 from each species were analysed by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography and characterized by 13C- and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The distribution of the oligosaccharides of each degree of polymerization was very similar for the products from S. parahybum and S. amazonicum, indicating the same D-galactosyl distribution on the D-mannan backbone, in agreement with the 13C-NMR splitting in the C4 region of the D-mannosyl units in the original polymers. The hydrolytic conditions adopted allowed characterization of compounds that are not generally produced by enzymatic treatments. The results show that the structures of the oligosaccharides, even if there is a preferential hydrolysis of Gal-Man linkages, reflect the composition of the parent polymer.

  4. Carbon and nutrient stocks of three Fabaceae trees used for forest restoration and subjected to fertilization in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO K. JAQUETTI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amazonia is crucial to global carbon cycle. Deforestation continues to be one of the main causes of the release of C into the atmosphere, but forest restoration plantations can reverse this scenario. However, there is still diffuse information about the C and nutrient stocks in the vegetation biomass. We investigated the carbon and nutrient stocks of Fabaceae trees (Inga edulis, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata subjected to fertilization treatments (T1 - no fertilization; T2 - chemical; T3 - organic; and T4 - organic and chemical fertilization in a degraded area of the Balbina Hydroelectric Dam, AM - Brazil. As an early successional species, I. edulis stocked more C and nutrients than the other two species independent of the fertilization treatment, and S. amazonicum stocked more C than D. odorata under T1 and T4. The mixed species plantation had the potential to stock 4.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1, while I. edulis alone could stock 9.4 Mg C ha-1 year-1. Mixing species that rapidly assimilate C and are of significant ecological and commercial value (e.g., Fabaceae trees represents a good way to restore degraded areas. Our results suggest that the tested species be used for forest restoration in Amazonia.

  5. Redução de inóculo de Aphelenchoides besseyi em sementes de Brachiaria brizantha tratadas com óleos essenciais

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    Thalita Suelen Avelar Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Óleos essenciais foram testados com o objetivo de controlar Aphelenchoides besseyi em sementes de Brachiaria brizantha cv. 'Marandu'. Sementes naturalmente infestadas por A. besseyi foram tratadas com óleos essenciais de mostarda (Brassica nigra, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, verbena (Lippia citriodora e Bioprotector (r (produto comercial composto por extratos e óleos essenciais derivados de plantas, nas concentrações de 0,5% e 1,0%. Avaliou-se também o efeito dos tratamentos após aplicação direta nos juvenis (ensaio in vitro. Todos os óleos tiveram sua efetividade reduzida no ensaio em semente (in vivo em relação ao ensaio in vitro. Os tratamentos não erradicaram o nematoide das sementes, sendo que os óleos essenciais de canela e verbena, nas concentrações 0,5% e 1,0%, Bioprotector (r a 1,0% e óleo de mostarda a 1,0% reduziram o nível populacional do nematoide em sementes contaminadas. O óleo de mostarda a 1,0% destacou-se dos demais por ter apresentado ação nematicida sem alterar a germinação das sementes.

  6. Molecular identification, phylogeny and geographic distribution of Brazilian mangrove oysters (Crassostrea

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    Aline Grasielle Costa de Melo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oysters (Ostreidae manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI, revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuçá (Pará state to Santos (São Paulo state, and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceará state to Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state, although small individuals of the latter species were also found at Ajuruteua beach (municipality of Bragança, Pará state. An unidentified Crassostrea species was found only on Canela Island, Bragança. Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae grouped with C. virginica, thereby forming a monophyletic Atlantic group, whereas Crassostrea sp. from Canela Island was shown to be more similar to Indo-Pacific oysters, and either arrived in the Atlantic Ocean before the convergence of the Isthmus of Panama or was accidentally brought to Brazil by ship.

  7. Molecular identification, phylogeny and geographic distribution of Brazilian mangrove oysters (Crassostrea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Oysters (Ostreidae) manifest a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, whereby morphology is of limited value for species identification and taxonomy. By using molecular data, the aim was to genetically characterize the species of Crassostrea occurring along the Brazilian coast, and phylogenetically relate these to other Crassostrea from different parts of the world. Sequencing of the partial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I gene (COI), revealed a total of three species of Crassostrea at 16 locations along the Brazilian coast. C. gasar was found from Curuçá (Pará state) to Santos (São Paulo state), and C. rhizophorae from Fortim (Ceará state) to Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state), although small individuals of the latter species were also found at Ajuruteua beach (municipality of Bragança, Pará state). An unidentified Crassostrea species was found only on Canela Island, Bragança. Crassostrea gasar and C. rhizophorae grouped with C. virginica, thereby forming a monophyletic Atlantic group, whereas Crassostrea sp. from Canela Island was shown to be more similar to Indo-Pacific oysters, and either arrived in the Atlantic Ocean before the convergence of the Isthmus of Panama or was accidentally brought to Brazil by ship. PMID:21637433

  8. Potential of essential oils for the control of brown eye spot in coffee plants Potencial de óleos essenciais no controle da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro

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    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to assess the in vitro effect of essential oils extracted from cinnamon, citronella, lemon grass, India clove, tea tree, thyme, neem and eucalyptus on the conidia germination and on mycelial growth of Cercospora coffeicola, and their efficacy to control the brown eye spot in coffee seedlings (cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19 in a greenhouse, as well as their effects on the initial germination and infection events by scanning electron microscopy. All essential oils promoted the inhibition of conidia germination with increasing concentrations. India clove, cinnamon, neem, thyme and lemon grass oils inhibited the mycelial growth of C. coffeicola. The cinnamon and citronella oils were the most promising for brown eye spot control in all cultivars. In scanning electron microscopy, the cinnamon and citronella oils reduced germination and mycelial development of C. coffeicola in vivo, eight and 16 hours after inoculation, promoting, in some cases, the leakage of the cellular content. Essential oils of cinnamon and citronella reduced the incidence and severity of brown eye spot, in addition to presenting direct toxicity to the pathogen.Este trabalho avaliou o efeito in vitro de óleos essenciais extraídos de canela, citronela, capim-limão, cravo-da-índia, árvore-de-chá, tomilho, nim e eucalipto na germinação de conídios e no crescimento micelial de Cercospora coffeicola, a eficácia destes óleos no controle da cercosporiose-do-cafeeiro em mudas das cultivares Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 e Mundo Novo 379/19 em casa de vegetação; e seus efeitos sobre os eventos iniciais de germinação e infecção do patógeno in vivo por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Todos os óleos essenciais inibiram a germinação dos conídios com o aumento das concentrações. Os óleos de cravo-da-índia, canela, nim, tomilho e capim-limão inibiram o crescimento micelial de C. coffeicola. Os

  9. Using occupancy modeling and logistic regression to assess the distribution of shrimp species in lowland streams, Costa Rica: Does regional groundwater create favorable habitat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Marcia; Freeman, Mary C.; Purucker, S. Thomas; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater shrimps are an important biotic component of tropical ecosystems. However, they can have a low probability of detection when abundances are low. We sampled 3 of the most common freshwater shrimp species, Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium carcinus, and Macrobrachium heterochirus, and used occupancy modeling and logistic regression models to improve our limited knowledge of distribution of these cryptic species by investigating both local- and landscape-scale effects at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. Local-scale factors included substrate type and stream size, and landscape-scale factors included presence or absence of regional groundwater inputs. Capture rates for 2 of the sampled species (M. olfersii and M. carcinus) were sufficient to compare the fit of occupancy models. Occupancy models did not converge for M. heterochirus, but M. heterochirus had high enough occupancy rates that logistic regression could be used to model the relationship between occupancy rates and predictors. The best-supported models for M. olfersii and M. carcinus included conductivity, discharge, and substrate parameters. Stream size was positively correlated with occupancy rates of all 3 species. High stream conductivity, which reflects the quantity of regional groundwater input into the stream, was positively correlated with M. olfersii occupancy rates. Boulder substrates increased occupancy rate of M. carcinus and decreased the detection probability of M. olfersii. Our models suggest that shrimp distribution is driven by factors that function at local (substrate and discharge) and landscape (conductivity) scales.

  10. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

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    PRABANG SETYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of CPO (Crude Palm Oil dock activity in Mentaya River of Central Borneo caused degradation of ecosystem, particularly on both mangrove and macrozoobenthos community. One of methods used for monitoring of ecosystem degradation was to determine species that were still survive under the polluted conditions. These survival species were assumed to synthesize alloenzyme that can be used as indicator. Alloenzyme was synthesized as an effort of adaptation processes toward environmental pressures caused by CPO spill on Mentaya River. Alloenzyme would be expressed as phenotypic and genotypic adaptation processes or phenotypic plasticity. Research was carried out, consisted of field research included collecting sample and environmental data (oil content, temperature, pH, electric conductivity and redox potential, and laboratory research included series analysis of water quality (DO, BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and also alloenzyme content of Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. The alloenzyme of root and leaves mangrove and prawn’s hepatopancreas was analyzed using Spencer starch gel electrophoresis modified method of exposed on sucrose solution. Separated components of alloenzyme were detected by special staining for Esterase isozyme. The results revealed that Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man were bioindicator organisms for the polluted site by oil spills from CPO loading activities. The polluted river water by oil spill from CPO activities decreased redox potential, DO, increased oil content, DHL, water temperature, pH sediment, pH water, TDS, BOD, COD, TSS. Gel electrophoretical analysis demonstrated that Mangrove Soneratia caseolaris synthesized alloenzyme consisted of complex enzymes such as EST in its root and leave cells. Those enzymes were nearly similar to those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The oil spill from CPO have ester bonding so its adaptation mechanism with release Esterase

  11. Desempenho de Espécies Florestais e Pastagens em Sistemas Silvipastoris no Estado do Pará Performance of Tree Species and Pastures in Silvopastoral Systems in the State of Pará, Brazil

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    Célia Maria Braga Calandrini de Azevedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Propor modelos alternativos de uso-da-terra que sejam econômicos e ecologicamente sustentáveis tem sido um grande desafio da pesquisa agrícola na Amazônia. Os sistemas silvipastoris (SSPs têm sido considerados promissores para integrar o cultivo arbóreo nos sistemas pecuários e recuperar pastagens degradadas da Amazônia. Em Paragominas, Estado do Pará, foram estudados nove sistemas silvipastoris constituídos da combinação binária das espécies florestais paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum, tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis e eucalipto (Eucalyptus tereticornis, plantadas em faixas de 6 m de largura, afastadas de 12 m, com as pastagens capim braquiarão (Brachiaria brizantha, capim quicuio da amazônia (B. humidicola, e capim colonião (Panicum maximum e em capim dictioneura (B. dictyoneura, plantadas nas entre-faixas. O sistema de manejo se caracterizava por ser rotacionado com 14 dias de permanência e 42 dias de descanso, e foi avaliado no período de agosto de 1990 a novembro de 1991. As melhores interações foram paricá e capim braquiarão e eucalipto e capim braquiarão.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.57

    Proposing economic and ecological land-use alternatives has been a great challenge for agricultural research in the Brazilian Amazon. The silvopastoral systems (SPS are promising to integrate trees in the livestock production system and reclaim degraded pastures in the Amazon region. In Municipality of Paragominas, State of Pará, nine SPS composed by combination of three tree species (Schizolobium amazonicum, Bagassa guianensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis, planted in 6 m-lane, spaced by 12 m – and three pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola and Panicum maximum / dictioneura B. dictyoneura, planted in the inter-lane space. Steers grazed the one-hectare experimental parcels simulating a rotational grazing system with 14 days - grazing period and 42 days – rest period, and was evaluated during August 1990 to

  12. Bioatividade de óleos essenciais no controle de Botrytis cinerea isolado de morangueiro Essential oils bioactivity in strawberry grey mould control

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    E.R. Lorenzetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o uso de óleos essenciais sobre isolados de Botrytis cinerea, causador do mofo cinzento em morangueiro. Foram testados óleos essenciais de capim-limão, palmarosa, citronela, cravo, canela, menta, lavanda, tangerina, eucalipto, melaleuca, alecrim e laranja, todos estes analisados em cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a detector de massas, para identificação dos principais componentes dos óleos. Foram avaliados o crescimento micelial, produção e germinação de conídios de B. cinerea, com a incorporação do óleo no meio de cultura. Realizou-se ainda uma avaliação de voláteis e a eficiência de óleos em isolado resistente a fungicida. Para cada teste, diferentes óleos apresentaram eficiência, contudo capim limão, palmarosa, canela e menta demonstraram os melhores efeitos em todos os testes realizados. Todos os tratamentos a base de óleos demonstraram efeito semelhante a um fungicida recomendado para a cultura, a base de tiofanato metílico. Dois tratamentos mostraram-se efetivos no caso de isolado resistente (óleo de capim limão e de canela. Óleos essenciais mostram-se como opção promissora para o desenvolvimento de possíveis produtos fitossanitários para o manejo de doenças em plantas.This study aimed evaluates essential oils in Botrytis cinerea isolates growth, which causes gray mould on strawberry. Were tested essential oils of lemon grass, palmrose, citronella, clove, cinnamon, mint, lavender, tangerine, eucalyptus, tea tree, rosemary and orange. The oils were analyzed in gas chromatograph attached to mass detector for identifying the mainly oils components. Were evaluated mycelial growth, conidia production and conidia germination of B. cinerea, with oil incorporation in culture medium. Were conducted an evaluation of oils volatile components and the efficiency of oils in fungicide-resistant isolate. For each test, different oils showed efficiency, however lemongrass, palmarosa, cinnamon and mint

  13. A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, N S; Pai, S Somnath; Anas, A; Preetha, R; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2005-12-30

    A marine bacterium, Micrococcus MCCB 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluviallis, V. nereis, V. proteolyticus, V. mediterranei, V cholerae and Aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with Macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. The isolate inhibited the growth of V. alginolyticus during co-culture. The antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable and insensitive to proteases, lipase, catalase and alpha-amylase. Micrococcus MCCB 104 was demonstrated to be non-pathogenic to M. rosenbergii larvae.

  14. Responses of Chironomidae (Diptera; Insecta to the exclusion of shrimps and Ephemeroptera in a coastal forest stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    ML. Souza

    Full Text Available In a benthic community on a continuous flat granite substrate in a third-order coastal forest stream, the dominant chironomid (Cricotopus increased in number when shrimps (Macrobrachium olfersi and Potimirim glabra and baetid ephemeropterans were excluded by electricity. The response appeared to be mediated by an increase in periphyton and sediments, rather than a reduction of direct predation or interference. Chironomids, periphyton and sediments decreased significantly compared to the control when shrimps only were excluded. Baetid ephemeropteran appeared to be the most important determinants of periphyton and sediment mass; the density of chironomids appeared to follow the quantity of periphyton and sediments.

  15. Utilização do mecanismo de transposição de peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica Santa Clara por camarões (Palaemonidae, bacia do rio Mucuri, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of Santa Clara Power Plant fish lift by Palaemonidae shrimps, Mucuri River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Paulo dos S. Pompeu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante a operação do elevador para peixes da Usina Hidrelétrica Santa Clara, de novembro de 2003 a março de 2004, todos os crustáceos palaemonídeos adultos que utilizaram o mecanismo foram contados e o número de jovens estimado. Duas espécies foram registradas: Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836. A utilização do mecanismo por adultos foi bastante restrita, com apenas 185 exemplares registrados. Porém, o número de jovens de M. carcinus utilizando o elevador foi estimado em 19.120 indivíduos. Embora o mecanismo avaliado tenha permitido a passagem dos palaemonídeos para montante do barramento, ficou clara a necessidade de novos arranjos estruturais e de manejo específicos para esses animais. Essas ações se referem ao desenvolvimento de estruturas direcionadas para a sua passagem e a adoção de vertimentos programados durante o período reprodutivo para permitir o carreamento de larvas para jusante. Esses dois caminhos representam formas efetivas de manejo, imprescindíveis para a manutenção das populações deste importante componente da biota aquática.During the Santa Clara Power Plant fish lift operation, from November 2003 to March 2004, Palaemonidae adult specimens were counted and identified and estimated juveniles number. Two Palaemonidae species were recorded: Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836. The use of the fish lift by adults was restricted, since only 185 individuals were registered. However, the estimated juveniles number was 19,120 individuals. Although existing fish passage systems could be considered as an alternative for Palaemonidae migration, planned spills during the reproductive periods could allow the drift of larvae. Moreover, the constructions of specific structures for upstream migration should be considered as an alternative for the maintenance of this important component of aquatic biota.

  16. ESTIMATIVAS DAS PROPRIEDADES FÍSICO-MECÂNICAS DE COMPOSTOS LVL CONFECCIONADOS COM PARICÁ POR MEIO DE ULTRASSOM

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    Rafael Rodolfo de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the utilization of ultrasound nondestructive method to estimate physical and mechanical properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL manufactured with Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke by ultrasound. For this, LVL boards were manufactured in laboratory. After manufacturing, the boards were nondestructively tested using ultrasound and afterwards the following physical and mechanical properties were assessed: water absorption; thickness swelling residual swelling, flatwise static bending; edgewise static bending; compression strength parallel to grain; shear strength parallel to glue-line; shear strength perpendicular to glue-line. Data about speed of sound and dynamic modulus of elasticity were used in different equations to estimate the properties evaluated. The results showed the use of ultrasound as an effective tool for prediction of most of the properties. Among the independent variables, the dynamic modulus of elasticity obtained the best results when compared to the speed of sound.

  17. Diferença de Classe no SUS é inconstitucional!

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    Alethele de Oliveira Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussão sobre a ‘diferença de classe’ decorre do Recurso Extraordinário (RE 581488 interposto pelo Conselho Regional de Medicina do Rio Grande do Sul (Cremers em face da decisão do Tribunal Regional Federal da 4ªRegião (TRF –4ª, em favor do município de Canela (RS (1 junto ao Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF, com repercussão geral  reconhecida sob o número 579. Trata-se da possibilidade de que paciente do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS pague valor financeiro por hotelaria diferenciada, ou ainda, médico de sua preferência.

  18. Obtención de un filtrante de maíz morado (Zea mays L.), evaluación de pérdida de color y degradación de antocianinas en el almacenaje

    OpenAIRE

    Nolazco C., Diana; Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina, Lima, Perú.; Araujo V., Miguel; Universidad Nacional Agraria la Molina, Lima, Perú.

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo de investigación permitió obtener un filtrante de maíz morado, evaluar la pérdida del color y degradación de las antocianinas durante el almacenaje a 70, 80, 90 y 100% de humedad relativa (H.R.). Se obtuvo el filtrante de maíz morado mediante una mezcla de canela 1%, clavo de olor 1%, grano 10% y coronta de maíz morado 88%, con una tamaño de partícula entre 2 y 4mm. La caracterización del filtrante reportó: humedad 7.9%, carbohidratos 74.4%, cenizas 2.4%, grasa 0.2%, proteína 5.1%,...

  19. El cerebro humano y sus productos. El origen del arte desde una perspectiva neurocientífica

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Alonso, M. Carmen; Platón, María

    2015-01-01

    Cartel anunciador de la charla; Presentación del ciclo de charlas “Jam Science-Divulgación Científica” celebrada en esta ocasión en Santander en el Bar Canela (Plaza de Cañadio 5) dentro de la Semana de la Ciencia de 20:00 a 21:30h.Con la colaboración de la Unidad de Cultura Científica y de la Innovación. Ponente: Dr. Manuel Martin-Loeches.Profesor de psicobiología de la UCM. Director de la Sección de Neurociencia Cognitiva del Centro de Evolución y Comportamiento Humano (UCMISCIII).Grabación...

  20. Biological control of Anopheles darlingi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes can act as vectors of important diseases such as malaria, dengue, Zika virus, yellow fever, Chikungunya and Mayaro fever, in addition to filariasis. The use of insecticides, larvicides, bed nets and repellents, besides the use of drugs as chemoprevention and the treatment of the sick are currently the pillars of the control of these vectors. We studied the biological control against of Anopheles darlingi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae using shrimps of the species M. pantanalense, M. amazonicum, M. brasiliense and M. jelskii. Larvae of mosquitoes were collected from the breeding environment and placed in a 500 and 1000 l tank containing 60 shrimps/m2. The predatory activity was evaluated for 30 days and, in all groups it was observed that 100% of the larvae were consumed in few minutes. In the environment, these same species of crustaceans were released in water bodies with the presence of larvae of these insects. In just 72 h there was a marked reduction of the larvae in the release sites of shrimps. Similarly, there was a reduction in the number of adult mosquitoes caught near the breeding sites, allowing to infer that, in places where the crustaceans were released, the predatory activity on the larvae of mosquitoes was sufficient to reduce the number of adult mosquitoes p ≤ 0,05. This is the first description of the predatory activity of M. pantanalense, M. amazonicum, M. brasiliense and M. jelskii on An. darlingi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus larvae, constituting an important tool of biological control of these parasites-vectors.

  1. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

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    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape changes and the election of tree species based on the ecological group information. Some of the critical macronutrients for plant growth were supplied in the holes to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. In addition, growth and survival parameters were taken to evaluate the initial behavior of species. Six native tree species planted with different combinations (10mx10m, 5mx5m and 3mx3m had survival rate and growth (total height, girth stem and crown projection area measured in different intervals: 6-month, 12-month and 24-month after planting. All the species presented survival rate over 90% at 24 months and comparable growth indices to other native species under similar situation and in the region. Overall, Schizolobium amazonicum (bandarra, the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande and Colubrina glandulosa (sóbrasil averaged over 90% the highest girth stem growth all over the area. S. amazonicum and the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande presented the best results for height and canopy area growth parameters, respectively. The combination among native tree species from initial successional ecological groups and fertilizer was favorable to promote reforestation in the conditions of the study area in Rondônia.

  2. Influência de extratos hidroetanólicos de plantas medicinais sobre a quimiotaxia de leucócitos humanos

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    M. M. Presibella

    Full Text Available Vários métodos in vitro têm sido empregados para a investigação das atividades biológicas de plantas usadas na medicina popular para o tratamento de processos inflamatórios. Neste trabalho, investigou-se a influência dos extratos hidroetanólicos de Rauvolfia sellowii Muell. Arg, Hybanthus bigibbosus (St.-Hil Hassler e Anchieta pyrifolia (Mart. G. Don, conhecidas popularmente como pau-pra-tudo, canela-de-veado e cipó-suma, respectivamente, sobre a quimiotaxia de leucócitos humanos, estimulados a migrar contra um gradiente de caseína, utilizando-se o método de Boyden. A dexametasona foi utilizada como substância de referência da inibição da quimiotaxia leucocitária. Os resultados demonstraram efeito inibitório significativo de todos os extratos das plantas testadas, sobre a migração de polimorfonucleares, induzida por caseína. Entretanto, essa atividade variou de intensidade conforme a concentração e a espécie estudada. Efeitos máximos foram observados, nas concentrações de 1000, 10 e 1µg/ml com os extratos de pau-pra-tudo, canela-de-veado e cipó-suma, respectivamente, com migração de 81,6±3,9%; 85,4±2,4% e 91,7±2,2% dos polimorfonucleares, enquanto que, com a dexametasona, este efeito foi de 70,3±5,9%. Embora estudos mais aprofundados sejam necessários, os resultados apresentados podem servir como base preliminar de dados, contribuindo para esclarecer o mecanismo da atividade antiinflamatória atribuída às essas plantas na medicina caseira.

  3. Larval development of Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea from the Amazon region, reared in the laboratory O desenvolvimento larval de Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea da região amazônica, cultivado em laboratório

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    Fernando A. Abrunhosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete larval development of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 was described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were collected at Canela Island in the northeastern region of the State of Pará. The larvae hatch as a prezoea, in which they persist for less than 3 hours. The larval development consists of three zoeal stages and a megalopa. The zoeal development averaged from 69 to 111 hours. The period in the megalopa stage was about 185 hours (about 8 days. The percentage of individuals succeeding in molt into juvenile stage was 91,8%. The first juvenile stage was reached 254 hours (about 10 days after hatching. Morphological comparisons and their relationship with larvae of congeneric species are briefly discussed.O desenvolvimento completo de Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 foi descrito e ilustrado em detalhes a partir de espécimens cultivados em laboratório. Fêmeas ovígeras foram coletadas na ilha de Canela nordeste do Estado do Pará. As larvas eclodem como prezoea e o desenvolvimento larval consiste de 3 estágios de zoea e 1 de megalopa. O desenvolvimento dos 3 estágios de zoea durou em média de 69 a 111 horas. A duração de megalopa foi cerca de 185 horas (cerca de 8 dias. O primeiro juvenil foi alcançado em 254 horas (cerca de 10 dias após a eclosão. Comparações morfológicas com espécies do mesmo gênero são discutidas.

  4. Estrutura fitossociológica da vegetação arbórea do Parque Natural Municipal de Santo Ângelo, Santo Ângelo, RS

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    Alexandre Hüller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado no Parque Natural Municipal de Santo Ângelo (RS, pertencente à Prefeitura Municipal de Santo Ângelo, com o objetivo de avaliar a composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica da floresta, em uma área de 13 hectares. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 12 parcelas de tamanho 10 x 20 m distribuídas sistematicamente na área, nas quais foram medidos e identificados todos os indivíduos com DAP maior ou igual a 10 cm. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e processados com o uso do programa FITOANÁLISE, calculando-se os parâmetros fitossociológicos de densidade, dominância, frequência, valor de importância, valor de cobertura, índice de diversidade de Shannon H' e índice de Morisita. Foram encontradas 35 espécies, pertencentes a 30 gêneros e 21 famílias, das quais branquilho (Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs, açoita-cavalo (Luhea divaricata Mart, maria-preta (Diatenopterix sorbifolia Radlk e canela-preta (Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. foram as que apresentaram maior representatividade nos parâmetros fitossociológicos do componente arbóreo desta floresta. As espécies com maior Valor de Importância (VI foram açoita-cavalo (Luhea divaricata Mart com 50,53; branquilho (Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. com 46,24; maria-preta (Diatenopterix sorbifolia Radlk com 26,93; canela-preta (Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. com 20 e farinha-seca (Machaerium stipitatum Vogel com 16,64. Já na estrutura vertical da floresta, Luehea divaricata apresentou maiores valores no estrato superior e Sebastiania commersoniana Baill. nos estratos médio e inferior.

  5. Decadal morphological response of an ebb-tidal delta and down-drift beach to artificial breaching and inlet stabilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, E.; Sousa, C.; Ferreira, Ó.; Morales, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    The morphodynamic response of a mixed-energy ebb-tidal delta (Guadiana estuary, southern Portugal) and its down-drift barrier island (Canela Island) to channel relocation and stabilisation by jetties is examined using a series of sequential bathymetric maps and vertical aerial photographs spanning five decades. Morphological analysis indicates that the ebb delta is in an immature state, characterised by weak sediment bypassing. Landward-migrating shoals on the swash platform have been produced by the jetty-induced artificial bank-breaching and by the collapse of the eastern portion of the delta. The welding of these shoals has largely controlled the evolution of the coast, with local accretion and erosion lasting for years, and large amounts of regional accretion occurring over decades due to sand accumulation against jetties located further down-drift. These observations provide insights into the potential response of a coast to very large, locally concentrated sand nourishment in the form of shoals. The main effects of the jetties on the coast are observed at the centre of Canela Island, with the production of an erosion hot-spot associated with a temporally persistent and divergent longshore transport providing sand to the adjacent areas. Significant accretion is anticipated for the next decade along the entire island due to the ongoing attachment of the presently observed shoals. After the depletion of this sediment source, and in the context of weak sediment bypassing, the most severe down-drift erosion induced by the jetties is predicted to occur some decades after their construction. This study demonstrates that the geomorphic response of an ebb-tidal delta to jetty construction must be considered at multiple temporal and spatial scales when assessing the impacts of jetties on the down-drift coast.

  6. Replacement

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    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  7. Revisão taxonômica dos camarões de água doce (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae da Amazônia Peruana Taxonomic revision of the freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae, Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia

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    Carmen Rosa García-Dávila

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma revisão taxonômica das espécies de camarões de água doce da Amazônia peruana que abrangeu oito espécies da família Palaemonidae e uma espécie da família Sergestidae. São descritas duas novas espécies do gênero Pseudopalaemon e feitos os primeiros registros de Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 para o Peru. São fornecidos chave de identificação, dados distribucionais e ilustrações para as espécies estudadas.A taxonomic revision of eight species of freshwater shrimps of the family Palaemonidae and one of the family Sergestidae from the Peruvian Amazonia was made. Two new species of the genus Pseudopalaemon are described, and Euryrhynchus amazoniensis Tiefenbacher, 1978, Macrobrachium jelskii Miers, 1877 e Palaemonetes ivonicus Holthuis, 1950 are recorded from Peru for the first time. Key, distributional data and ilustrations for the species are presented

  8. UJI COBA PERANGKAP UDANG DENGAN BENTUK YANG BERBEDA (EXPERIMENTAL FISHING WITH TRAP PRAWN DIFFERENT FORM

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    Irhamsyah Irhamsyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  mengetahui perbedaan hasil tangkapan udang dari tamba dan ayunan modifikasi dan hasil tangkapan selain udang.  Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh perlakuan A (tamba diperoleh hasil tangkapan udang sebanyak 52 ekor, dengan berat total 2.210 gram.  Perlakuan B (ayunan modifikasi lantai bambu, diperoleh hasil tangkapan udang sebanyak 29 ekor, dengan berat total  180 gram.  Total hasil tangkapan udang dengan menggunakan tamba dan ayunan modifikasi lantai bambu selama 16 hari pengamatan adalah 81 ekor dengan berat total 2.390 gram.  Jenis hasil tangkapan utama yaitu Udang Galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man dengan hasil tangkapan sampingan adalah ikan Lundu (Mystus gulio dan  ikan Sapu-Sapu (Hypostomus plecostomus. This study aims to (1 know the difference between the catch of prawns from tamba and ayunan, and (2 to determine the catch other than prawn. The results, treatment A (tamba gained as much as 52 prawns, with a total weight of 2,210 grams. Treatment B (ayunan modifications bamboo flooring, gained as much as 29 prawns, with a total weight of 180 grams. Total catch of prawns using swing modifications and addi bamboo flooring for 16 days of observation was 81 prawns with a total weight of 2,390 grams. Main types of catches fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man with a side of the catch is Lundu (Mystus Gulio and Sapu-sapu (Hypostomus plecostomus.

  9. Curvas de crescimento na produção animal Growth curves in animal production

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    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram discutidas as propriedades de sete modelos não-lineares, considerando-se o ajuste de curvas de crescimento na produção animal. Os modelos utilizados: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy e duas alternativas de Gompertz e de Logístico foram ajustados, pelo método de Gauss Newton por meio do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade de oito espécies: camarão-d'água-doce, rã-pimenta, coelho, frango, ovino, caprino, suíno e bovino. Considerando-se os critérios como: convergência ou não, coeficiente de determinação e interpretabilidade biológica dos parâmetros, concluiu-se que: a o modelo Logístico y= A/(1 + e-ktm estimou o peso em todas as espécies animais, enquanto o de Von Bertalanffy apenas não foi adequado para camarão; b os dois modelos Gompertz foram adequados para camarão, rã, frango, suíno e bovino; c em cada espécie, pelo menos dois dos sete modelos mostraram-se adequados para estimar o crescimento corporal das espécies animais estudadas, pois os coeficientes de determinação foram superiores a 92,0%.The properties of seven nonlinear models were discussed concerning its applications in the fitting of growth curves in animal production. The models used: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy and two alternatives of Gompertz and Logistic models, were fitted by Gauss Newton method to weight-age data from eight animal species: freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, rabbit, poultry, sheep, goat, swine and cattle. Considering results of the fitted models such as convergence or not, coefficient of determination and biological interpretation of parameters, it was concluded that: a the Logisticmethod y = A/(1 + e-ktm estimated body weight in all species, while the Von Bertalanffy model was not adequate only for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi; b both Gompertz models were adequate for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, poultry, swine and cattle; c for each specie, at least two

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de condimentos frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de aves e bovinos Antimicrobial activity of spice essential oils against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry and cattle

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    Deise Flores Santurio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A discutida questão da substituição do uso de antibacterianos em rações (promotores de crescimento requer urgentes alternativas. Face às necessidades de inibidores microbianos nesses alimentos, os óleos essenciais (OES se constituem em alternativa, sob avaliação. Neste estudo, avaliou-se a atividade antimicrobiana dos OES de Origanum vulgare (orégano, Thymus vulgaris (tomilho, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela, Lippia graveolens (orégano mexicano, Zingiber officinale (gengibre, Salvia officinalis (sálvia, Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim e Ocimum basilicum (manjericão frente a amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de fezes de aves (n=43 e de bovinos (n=36. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e a concentração bactericida mínima (CBM foram determinadas para cada isolado através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo, a partir da máxima concentração de 6400µg mL-1 de cada OE testado. Observou-se atividade antimicrobiana para os OES de orégano, orégano mexicano, tomilho, canela. Para todas as amostras testadas, independente de sua origem, os OES mais e menos efetivos quanto à atividade antimicrobiana foram o orégano e a canela, respectivamente. Esses resultados confirmaram o potencial antibacteriano de alguns OES, os quais merecem novas investigações abordando sua adição na alimentação de aves e bovinos.The discussed issue about replacing the use of antibiotics in animal feed (growth promoters requires emerging alternatives. To meet the needs of microbial inhibitors in these foods, the essentials oils (EOS constitute potential alternatives under evaluation. In this study it was evaluated the antimicrobial activities of EOs from Oreganum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon, Zingiber officinale (ginger, Salvia officinalis (sage, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary and Ocimum basilicum (basil against Escherichia coli strains isolated from poultry (n

  11. Análise dos padrões espaciais de Ocotea odorifera (vell. rohwer na floresta nacional de Irati (PR / Spatial patterns analysis of Ocotea odorifera (vell. rohwer in araucarian forest of Paraná state

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    Cilmar Antônio Dalmaso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar algumas ferramentas de Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG utilizadas para analisar os padrões espaciais da espécie Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer na Floresta Nacional de Irati (PR. Foram utilizados três conjuntos de dados com um total de 5549 pares de coordenadas (indivíduos de canela-sassafrás com altura maior que 30 cm, provenientes de três hectares amostrais. O SIG implementado com a integração dos softwares TerraView e SPRING mostrou-se eficaz para análises da distribuição espacial, conversão de dados e na representação cartográfica dos indivíduos da espécie. Os resultados obtidos para as categorias regeneração e árvores adultas de O. odorifera são apresentados. Sentiu-se necessidade de métodos e ferramentas que permitam análises bivariadas dos padrões espaciais e opções de correção de borda na análise espacial com a função L. A espécie apresentou padrão espacial agregado para a regeneração natural em todas as escalas analisadas, indicando um padrão característico da espécie nas fases iniciais. Os indivíduos adultos de canela-sassafrás apresentaram em geral um padrão espacial aleatório.AbstractThe objective of this paper is to present some of the Geographic Information System (GIS tools used to analyse spatial patterns of Ocotea odorifera (Vell. Rohwer in the National Forest of Irati (PR. It was used three data sets with a total of 5549 pairs of coordinates (canela-sassafrás trees with height above than 30 cm, from three sampled hectares. The implemented GIS with integration of TerraView and SPRING softwares showed to be effective for analysis of spatial distribution, data conversion and cartographic representation of each tree of studied species. The results for the categories regeneration and adult trees of O. odorifera are shown. The need of methods and tools that allow bivariate analysis of spatial patters were detected as also options of edge

  12. Influência de diferentes metodologias de esterilização sobre a atividade antifúngica de extratos aquosos de plantas medicinais Influence of different sterilization methods on the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants

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    L.R. Venturoso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Fitopatologia da Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados três experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar in vitro a atividade antifúngica dos extratos aquosos de alho, canela e cravo-da-índia, submetidos a diferentes processos de desinfestação e/ou esterilização sobre o desenvolvimento de Fusarium solani. O delineamento experimental utilizado para cada ensaio foi inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 8 repetições. Utilizaram-se os extratos aquosos na concentração de 20%, submetidos às metodologias de filtragem (FI, banho maria a 65°C (BM, autoclavagem a 100ºC (AT1, autoclavagem a 120ºC (AT2 e a testemunha (somente BDA. Posteriormente os extratos foram incorporados em meio BDA, acondicionados em placas de Petri, onde foram transferidos discos de micélio de F. solani medindo 0,3 cm de diâmetro. Após, as placas foram incubadas a 25ºC, com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Os tratamentos foram analisados em relação ao crescimento micelial da colônia, a porcentagem de inibição e a taxa de crescimento de F. solani. Foi observado em todos os ensaios maior crescimento do fungo na testemunha, evidenciando o potencial antifúngico dos extratos. Foi observada influência da metodologia de esterilização sobre a eficiência dos extratos de alho e canela. Para o alho a FI proporcionou os melhores resultados, enquanto que para o extrato de canela não houve diferenças entre as metodologias FI, BM e AT1. As diferentes metodologias utilizadas não interferiram na eficiência do extrato aquoso de cravo-da-índia.Three experiments were conducted in the Laboratory of Phytopathology of Federal University of Grande Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, to evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of aqueous extracts of garlic, cinnamon and clove subjected to different processes of disinfection and/or sterilization against the development of Fusarium solani. The experimental design for each trial was

  13. Assessment of the efficiency of essential oils in the preservation of postharvest papaya in an antimicrobial packaging system Avaliação da eficiência de óleos essenciais na preservação pós-colheita de mamão mediante um sistema de embalagem antimicrobiana

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    Paula Judith Perez Espitia

    2012-12-01

    orégano, canela e de capim-limão foi avaliada. Os sachês foram testados in vitro contra espécies de fungos fitopatogênicos de Alternaria alternata, Fusarium semitectum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae e Rhizopus stolonifer. Além disso, foram avaliados os efeitos dos sachês quanto aos parametros microbiológicos e físico-químicos de mamão na pós-colheita. Os OE puros ou incorporados em sachê apresentaram atividade antifúngica in vitro contra todos os fungos testados. No acondicionamento de mamão, os sachês com canela, orégano e capim-limão mostraram uma redução significativa do crescimento de mesófilos aeróbicos e de bolores e leveduras, sendo o sachê com canela o de maior atividade na redução destes microrganismos após o tempo de estocagem. Os parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade do mamão, como perda de peso, cor da casca, firmeza, relação sólidos solúveis totais/acidez titulável e pH não foram alterados significativamente pela presença dos sachês com OE, não afetando o processo natural de amadurecimento do mamão.

  14. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M

    1987-09-01

    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  15. Natural diet of three species of shrimp in a tropical coastal lagoon

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    Albertoni Edélti Faria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The gut content of 495 specimens of Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, 131 of F. paulensis (Penaeidae and 102 of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Palaemonidae were analyzed to establish the composition of their diets F. brasiliensis had as the most important feeding items in its diet larvae of Chironomidae, Polychaeta and Heleobia australis (Mollusca. For F. paulensis, the most important items were the same as for F. brasiliensis, but the order of importance of H. australis and Polychaeta was inverted. M. acanthurus had detritus as the most important item, followed by Chironomidae larvae, Odonata nymphs, and fragments of the macroalgae Chara. The results showed that the three species were omnivorous, with a varied diet including both components of macrofauna of benthos and associated to the macroalgae Chara and plant fragments and detritus.

  16. Adaptabilidad ecofisiológica de organismos acuáticos tropicales a cambios de salinidad

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    Kyung S. Chung

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus, marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus, and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1 placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2 tested by increasing salinity 5 ‰ per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3 observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  17. EVALUATION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY OF FRESHWATER PRAWN COLLECTED FROM MAKASSAR-SULAWESI, PANGKALANBUNKALIMANTAN, JAMBI-SUMATRA, SUKABUMI-JAVA, AND GIMacro USING mtDNA CO-I MARKERS

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    Estu Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate the genetic variability of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The genetic variability of freshwater prawn collected from Makassar-Sulawesi, Pangkalanbun-Kalimantan, Jambi-Sumatra, Sukabumi-Java, and GIMacro strain was examined using polymorphism of the mitochondria DNA (mtDNA markers. Twelve composite haplotypes were detected following digestion of CO1 sequences with four endonucleases: Hae III, Rsa I, Mbo I, and Taq I. The average haplotype diversity was 0.217. Significant genetic difference was observed among freshwater prawn populations, especially among Makassar-Sulawesi population and others. Makassar-Sulawesi strain has future prospect for genetic resources in breeding program.

  18. Composição da fauna cavernícola brasileira, com uma análise preliminar da distribuição dos taxons

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    Eleonora Trajano

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available New data on Brazilian cave fauna are added to previous surveys and the relative abundance and distribution of the cavernicolous taxa is discussed. Terrestrial representatives of several arthropod families and genera are common in both tropical and subtropical Brazilian caves: Endecous and Eidmanacris crickets, Reduviidae heteropterans, Carabidae, Catopinae and Ptilodactylidae beetles, dipterans such as the Chironomidae, Keroplatidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae, Hydropsychidae trichopterans, Pseudonnanolenidae and Chelodesnidae millipedes, Plato, Ctenus, Loxosceles and Blechroscelis spiders, Pachylinae opilionids, Chernetidae pseudoscorpions and acarians such as the Macrochelidae and Uropodidae. Other taxa are mainly or exclusively tropical Blattelidae, Blattidae and BlaberidaE cockroaches, Histeridae beetles, Noctuoidea moths, social insects as termites and ants, Styloniscidae isopods, Migalomorpha spiders, Amblypigi On the other hand, Psauridae spiders, Goniosoma and Tricommatinae opilionids, Elmidae beetles, and Philosciidae isopods seems to be mainly subtropical. Brazilian aquatic cave fauna seems to be less diversified than the terrestrial one. Siluriform fishes such as pimelodids, trichomycterids and loricariids predominate throughout the country, besides decapod (Macrobrachium shrimps, Potamidae crabs, Aegla anomurans, the latter exclusive of subtropical caves and amphipod (Spelaeogammarus, in tropical caves, and Hyalella crustaceans. Insect larvae (e.g. Elmidae coleopterans, Nematocera dipterans, trichopterans and adults (e.g. Veliidae and Naucoridae heteropterans, Dytiscidae coleopterans, oligochaetes and gastropods such as the Hydrobiidae, are also relatively common. Blechroscelis spiders, Goniosoma opilionids, Zelurus heteropterans, Eidmanacris crickets, Keroplatidae dipterans and Macrobrachium shrimps, among others, live next to the entrance zone in the majority of the caves. But, these animals become troglofiles under certain

  19. Diferença entre dois métodos de coleta utilizados na captura de crustáceos decápodes em um rio da Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins, São Paulo Differences between two methods used for sampling decapod crustaceans in a stream at Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sérgio Schwarz da Rocha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante os anos 2000 e 2001 foram realizadas coletas sazonais de crustáceos decápodes em dois pontos de um rio na Estação Ecológica Juréia-Itatins, utilizando-se duas metodologias distintas (peneira e armadilha. Comparando-se ambos os métodos de coleta, foram constatadas diferenças quanto à composição e riqueza da carcinofauna capturada, grau de dominância e equitatividade, bem como tamanho e número de indivíduos coletados. Além disso, as razões sexuais de Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 podem diferir dependendo do método de coleta utilizado. Devido à grande variedade de hábitats e hábitos dos crustáceos, pode-se inferir que, para um levantamento qualitativo e/ou quantitativo eficaz e apurado da comunidade de crustáceos decápodes dulcícolas de um determinado rio, é recomendado o uso de mais de um método de coleta.Sampling collections were taken quarterly from Fall 2000 to Summer 2001 at Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station using two different sampling methods (hand sieve and traps. Comparing both sampling methods one can verify differences in faunal composition, richness, degree of dominance, evenness and size and number of individuals. Moreover, the sex ratio of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 may differ according to the sampling method. Decapod crustaceans are known to inhabit a great variety of habitats and niches, therefore to obtain an effective qualitative and/or quantitative sampling, in which the majority of decapod species are collected, the use of more than one sampling method is recommended.

  20. Ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Município de Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi e calcular taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos. O trabalho foi realizado em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil. As prevalências foram obtidas por meio do método de gota espessa de sangue obtido por porção digital. Os simulídeos coletados foram dissecados para estimar a taxa de infecção parasitária. A prevalência de M. ozzardi foi de 27,3% (282/77. Foram observadas maiores prevalências nos homens (31,97% que nas mulheres (22,22%, nos agricultores (48% e nos indivíduos entre: 38-47 (60%, 48-57 (66,66% e 58-67 (75%. A microfilaremia foi maior nos indivíduos entre 58-67 anos (média = 58,41mf/40µL, sexo masculino (41,44mf/40µL e nos agricultores (49,94mf/40µL. Somente o simulídeo Cerqueirellum amazonicum foi encontrado infectado com taxa de infecção parasitária de 0,98%.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282. The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97% than women (22.22%, farmers (48.99%, and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%, 48-57 (66.66%, and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%. Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41mf/40µl, men (41.44mf/40µl, and farmers (49.94mf/40µl. Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%.

  1. Entomofauna associada a reflorestamentos experimentais no município de Pau d'Arco, Pará Entomofauna associated with experimental reforestation in Pau d'Arco, Pará

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    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou verificar a ocorrência de insetos em reflorestamentos experimentais com paricá, Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Fabaceae; acácia, Racosperma mangium (Fabaceae e teca, Tectona grandis (Lamiaceae, na região de Pau d'Arco, PA, associando os efeitos sazonais e ontogenéticos nos plantios. O estudo foi conduzido entre os meses de maio de 2006 a junho de 2007 e constou de levantamentos mensais de insetos associados a plantios com idades de três a 16 meses. Houve associação positiva entre a ocorrência de insetos e suas respectivas injúrias com a sazonalidade e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Ao menos um pico populacional de insetos desfolhadores, sugadores e/ou polinizadores foi observado nas três espécies florestais. A análise de agrupamento confirmou a associação entre ocorrência de insetos, período chuvoso e idade da planta, destacando-se (a lepidópteros em T. grandis, (b coleópteros desfolhadores em S. parahyba; (c acridídeos e lepidópteros em R. mangium; (d cicadelídeos em S. parahyba e T. grandis; e (e apídeos em R. mangium.This study aimed to verify the occurrence of insects in experimental reforestation with Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Fabaceae known as paricá, Racosperma mangium (Fabaceae known as acacia and Tectona grandis (Lamiaceae known as teca in the region of Pau d'Arco, Pará State, Brazil associating the seasonal and ontogenetic effects in plantations. The study was conducted from May 2006 to June 2007 and consisted of monthly surveys of insects associated with plantations aging 3 to 16 months. There was a positive association between the occurrence of insects and their injuries with seasonality and plant development. At least one population peak of defoliators, sucking and / or pollinators were observed in three tree species. Cluster analysis confirmed the association between the occurrence of insects, rainy season and plant age, especially (a lepidopteran in T. grandis, (b

  2. Effect of powdered spice treatments on mycelial growth, sporulation and production of aflatoxins by toxigenic fungi Efeito de tratamentos com condimentos em pó sobre o crescimento micelial, esporulação e produção de aflatoxinas por fungos toxigênicos

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    Sára Maria Chalfoun

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ten powdered spice plants was evaluated at the concentration of 1, 2, 3 and 4% to observe the mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus niger and Eurotium repens. The spices were added to the culture media PDA and CYA20S. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the tested fungi. The other spices: cinnamon, garlic, thyme, mint, anis, oregano and onion were, in a decreasing order, promising antifungals. Bay leaf and basil did not show a pronounced fungistatic effect. The antitoxigenic potential of the spices was tested against one aflatoxin-producing strain of AspergiIIus flavus. The spices were tested at the same concentrations previously mentioned and were added to the culture medium YES, appropriate for the production of those metabolites. Clove completely inhibited the mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus. Cinnamon and anis totally inhibited the production of Bl and B2 aflatoxin. Both bay leaf and basil inhibited the synthesis of aflatoxin starting from the concentration of 2%. The other spices did not have a pronounced antiaflatoxigenic effect.O efeito de dez plantas condimentares em pó foi avaliado nas concentrações de 1, 2, 3 e 4%, para observar o desenvolvimento micelial e esporulação de Aspergillus niger e Eurotium repens. Os condimentos foram adicionados aos meios de cultura BDA e CYA 20S. O cravo inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento micelial dos fungos testados. Os outros condimentos: canela, alho, tomilho, menta, erva-doce, orégano e cebola foram, em ordem decrescente, antifúngicos promissores. Louro e manjericão não apresentaram um efeito fungistático pronunciado. O potencial antitoxigênico dos condimentos foi testado contra uma cepa de Aspergillus flavus, produtora de aflatoxina. Os condimentos foram testados nas mesmas concentrações previamente mencionadas e foram adicionados ao meio de cultura YES, apropriado para a produção daqueles metabólitos. O cravo inibiu completamente o

  3. Dessication tolerance of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness SeedsTolerância à dessecação de sementes de Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness

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    Leandra Matos Barroso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the physiological quality of seeds of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness, submitted to different levels of drying, the fruits of dark brown and fully mature were collected and washed by hand, then the seeds were exposed to drying, on paper towel, under laboratory conditions. Treatments consisted of sampling for the determination of water content, germination and vigor tests at the beginning of the experiment and after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 and 96 hours. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds each. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression. Cinnamon seeds are dispersed with high water content (39.43% and viability is compromised when dehydrated, the germination capacity as well as its speed decreases with dehydration, characterizing the recalcitrant behavior of seeds, with water content 34.82% less than both the percentage and the speed of germination are reduced. The seeds of C. zeylanicum tolerate desiccation to 12 hours without significant loss of vigor. Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Ness submetidas a diferentes níveis de secagem, os frutos de coloração marrom escura e completamente maduros foram coletados e despolpados manualmente, em seguida, as sementes foram expostas para a secagem, sobre papel toalha, em condições de laboratório. Os tratamentos consistiram na amostragem para a determinação do teor de água, testes de germinação e vigor no início do experimento e após 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84 e 96 horas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes cada. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial. As sementes de canela são dispersas com alto teor de água (39,43% e tem a viabilidade comprometida quando desidratadas; a capacidade de germinação bem como a sua

  4. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

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    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L., canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L., que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e 800 mg/mL. Como culturas-teste, foram utilizados os fungos Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium spp.; Eurotium repens e Aspergillus niger, isolados de pães envelhecidos. O óleo essencial da canela inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados. Os óleos de tomilho e alho tiveram o mesmo efeito nas concentrações mais altas. O cravo inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. e Eurotium repens com a concentração de 600 mg/mL e do fungo Penicillium spp. com a de 800 mg/mL.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "in vitro" effect of essential oils of garlic (Allium sativum L., cinnamon (Cinnmomum burnannil Meissn, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. condiments that were added to culture media (PDA and CYA 20S. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL, exept clove, which was tested in concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/mL. The fungi Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp., Eurotium repens and Aspergillus niger, isolated of breads discarded for consumption. The cinnamon essential oil inhibited completely the tested fungi development. The thyme and garlic oils presented a pronounced effect at the higher concentrations. The essencial oil of clove inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Eurotium repens at concetrations above 600 mg/mL and of Penicillium above 800 mg/mL.

  5. Occurrence of the family Pinnotheridae De Haan (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura on the coast of Ceará State, Brazil Ocorrência da família Pinnotheridae De Haan (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura no litoral do Ceará, Brasil

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    Luis Ernesto A. Bezerra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the occurrence of Austinixa bragantina Coelho, 2005; A. leptodactyla (Coelho, 1997 and Zaops ostreum (Say, 1817 for the State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. These records represent the first account of the family Pinnotheridae de Haan, 1883 for the coast of Ceará. A. bragantina was collected on May and June 1995 at Futuro Beach, municipality of Fortaleza (3°42'S, 38°27'W. This species was previously known only for the type locality, Canela Island, Bragança, Pará, Brazil. A. leptodactyla was collected on November 2004 at Baleia Beach, municipality of Itapipoca (3°08'S, 39°27'W and Z. ostreum was obtained from the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae Guilding, 1828, collected on November 2005 at the Jaguaribe River estuary, municipality of Fortim (4°24'S, 37°46'W. Biogeographic considerations regarding the three species and an updated list of all known Brazilian pinnotherid species along with their_geographic distribution are also provided.Este trabalho reporta a ocorrência de Austinixa bragantina Coelho, 2005; A. leptodactyla (Coelho, 1997 e Zaops ostreum (Say, 1817 para o litoral do Estado do Ceará, sendo estes os primeiros registros de representantes da família Pinnotheridae De Haan, 1883 para a costa cearense. A. bragantina foi coletada em maio e junho de 1995, na praia do Futuro, município de Fortaleza (3°42'S, 38°27'W. Esta espécie era conhecida, até o momento, apenas de sua localidade tipo, Ilha Canela, município de Bragança, Pará. A. leptodactyla foi coletada em novembro de 2004, na praia da Baleia, município de Itapipoca (3°08'S, 39°27'W e Z. ostreum foi obtido a partir do exame de ostras da espécie Crassostrea rhizophorae Guilding, 1828, coletadas em novembro de 2005 no estuário do Rio Jaguaribe, município de Fortim (4°24'S, 37°46'W. São apresentadas considerações biogeográficas sobre as três espécies assim como uma lista atualizada de todos os pinoterídeos do litoral brasileiro e sua

  6. Evaluación de los caminos rurales: hacia un enfoque orientado al usuario. / Assessment of rural roads. Towards a user-oriented approach.

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    González, Sergio

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presente algunos resultados de un estudio piloto realizado para el IFRTD (Foro Internacional para el Transporte Rural y el Desarrollo, Londres sobre los temas de movilización y vialidad en la comuna de Canela, IV Región de Chile. El planteamiento es que una política coherente de vialidad rural debe tener como fundamento un entendimiento de las necesidades percibidas por las comunidades rurales y de las prioridades que expresan. Este tema se explora en el proyecto en forma preliminar utilizando metodologías cualitativas y cuantitativas para investigar las necesidades de movilización en diversas comunidades de Canela desde el punto de vista de los usuarios, operadores de transporte y autoridades locales. Se presentará un análisis de los resultados pertinentes al asunto de la vialidad, que pretende establecer de manera tentativa un perfil del usuario de los caminos rurales de la zona y las características de sus traslados más difíciles. Entre los resultados más significativos se destacan:Una percepción de los amplios efectos modernizadores que introduce la pavimentación de un camino de acceso al sector.La existencia de una correlación baja pero positiva entre la dificultad percibida por el usuario de su traslado y su evaluación del camino, que se ve relacionado con el modo de transporte que se ocupa.La conclusión principal del trabajo es que un conocimiento de los criterios propios con los cuales el usuario rural evalúa su traslado es necesario para una gestión exitosa de la vialidad rural./The author argues that a coherent policy for rural roads should be founded on the understanding of the perceived needs of rural communities and the priorities expressed. It describes the Methodological approaches to assess, in this way, rural roads.

  7. Inhibición de Paenibacillus larvae empleando una mezcla de aceites esenciales y timol Inhibition of Paenibacillus larvae employing a mixture of essential oils and thymol

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    S. R. Fuselli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de una mezcla de dos aceites esenciales y timol frente a Paenibacillus larvae, agente causal de la enfermedad Loque americana, que afecta a las abejas. Los aceites esenciales utilizados fueron canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum y tomillo (Thymus vulgaris, con el agregado de timol, componente mayoritario del tomillo presente en un 39,9%. Los parámetros medidos fueron la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM en caldo Muller-Hinton, mediante dilución seriada, y la concentración bactericida mínima (CBM en agar MYPGP. El aceite esencial de tomillo registró valores de CIM entre 150 y 250 μg/ml, y de CBM entre 200 y 300 μg/ml, mientras que para el aceite esencial de canela los valores de CIM y de CBM obtenidos fueron 50 a 100 μg/ml y 100 a 125 μg/ml, respectivamente. El timol presentó valores de CIM y de CBM similares, de 100 a 150 μg/ml. No se detectaron diferencias significativas entre las cepas bacterianas estudiadas, pero sí entre la actividad de los aceites esenciales y la del timol (PIn vitro antimicrobial activity of a mixture of two essential oils and thymol against Paenibacillus larvae, causal agent of American Foulbrood (AFB, was evaluated. The essential oils were extracted from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and thyme (Thymus vulgaris. The third component used, thymol, is the major component of the essential oil of thyme which contains 39.9 % of thymol. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC in Mueller-Hinton broth by the tube dilution method and minimal bactericide concentration (MBC on MYPGP agar were evaluated. Thyme registered MIC values of 150-250 μg/ml and MBC values of 200-300 μg/ml, while the MIC and MBC values obtained for cinnamon were of 50-100 μg/ml and 100-125 μg/ml. Thymol showed similar MIC and MBC values of 100-150 μg/ml. No significant differences between the bacterial strains were detected, but significant differences between essential oils and thymol activity

  8. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

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    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  9. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.

  10. FOREST SPECIES EVALUATION IN THE FOREST REGION IN RORAIMA STATE

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    Helio Tonini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate 19 native and exotic species and to identify potential species for plantation inhomogeneous stands and in agroforestry systems in forest ecosystem in Roraima State. The species were planted from 1997 to 2000.When the objective was sawn wood production the spacing was 4 x 3 m and when the objective was energy and pulp production thespacing was 3 x 2 m. The samples consisted of 9 lines of 9 plants, totaling 81 plants, coming down to 49 useful trees. In each useful treewere measured the DBH (diameter at 1.30 m and total height. The merchantable volume per hectare was obtained with themerchantable form factor determination, through the scaling of two medium trees using the Smalian method. Each species, was alsoevaluated in relation to survival, bole quality, phytossanitary aspects and wind damages.The data analysis indicated as promisingspecies for use in energy, Eucalyptus urograndis; Schizolobium amazonicum as low or medium wood density species for use inveneer production and Bertholettia excelsa as medium to high density for use in sawn timber.

  11. Efeito do Tipo de Chapa de Partículas nas Propriedades Físicas e Mecânicas

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    Carla Priscilla Távora Cabral

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar chapas de partículas do tipo aglomerado convencional, chapas tipo Medium Density Particleboard (MDP e as do tipo aglomerado com inclusão laminar. As chapas avaliadas foram fabricadas com partículas de Acacia mangium e no aglomerado com inclusão laminar utilizaram-se lâminas de Schizolobium amazonicum. O aglomerado convencional e o aglomerado com inclusão laminar apresentaram umidade de equilíbrio higroscópico estatisticamente superior ao MDP. O aglomerado com inclusão laminar apresentou maior índice de inchamento em espessura após duas horas de imersão em água, valores de módulo de ruptura em flexão estática maiores e maior resistência ao arrancamento de parafuso. As chapas do tipo MDP apresentaram maior resistência à tração perpendicular. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas demais propriedades. Conclui-se que a inclusão laminar melhorou o módulo de ruptura e o arrancamento de parafuso, enquanto a utilização de partículas finas nas faces melhorou as propriedades físicas das chapas.

  12. FUNGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES E ADUBAÇÃO FOSFATADA NA PRODUÇÃO DE MUDAS DE PARICÁ

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    Vanessa Nascimento Brito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of degraded ecosystems demands research with native species that can support forest restoration programs. The production of seedlings with native tree species in association with soil microorganisms is an important technique for the rehabilitation of these environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and phosphorus nutrition on growth and nutrient content of paricá seedlings [ Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby]. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse for a period of 75 days, using a completely randomized design in a factorial 4x4, inoculation with AMF: Rhizophagus clarus , Gigaspora margarita , mixed inoculum ( Rhizophagus clarus + Gigaspora margarita and control (without AMF, four P doses: 0, 60, 120 and 180 mg dm -3 soil, with four replications. The variables height, dry matter area, root dry matter, leaf area, stem diameter and the contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in shoots, were evaluated. Paricá seedlings showed higher colonization percentage for Rhizophagus clarus and mixed inoculum (80 and 90%, respectively, different from that observed for the species Gigaspora margarita , with a lower percentage (20%. The Rhizophagus clarus and mixed inoculum, in the absence of P, increased the growth variables relative to the control plants. The contents of N, P, Ca and Mg were influenced by the AMF and by the doses of P.

  13. Morphophysiological Behavior and Cambial Activity in Seedlings of Two Amazonian Tree Species under Shade

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    Monyck Jeane dos Santos Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in light intensity can lead to important anatomical and morphophysiological changes in plants. Aiming to increase knowledge about the Amazonian tree species, this study examines the influence of shade on the cambial activity and development of Parkia gigantocarpa Ducke and Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby seedlings. Seedlings of the two species were grown in a nursery under four shade intensities (treatments: full sun, low, moderate, and high shade (resp., 0%, 23%, 67%, and 73% of shade, or 2000, 1540, 660, and 540 µmol·m−2·s−1 obtained with polyethylene screens. We measured plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration (E, photosynthesis (A, and cambial activity (CA (xylem, cambium, and phloem. Also, we calculated the Dickson Quality Index (DQI. The highest values of biomass production, gs,  E, A, and DQI, were found under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba. In both species high shade intensity reduced CA. We concluded that the CA and the physiological and morphological attributes work together, explaining the radial growth and increasing seedlings quality, which optimized efficient seedling production under full sun, in P. gigantocarpa, and under low shade intensity in S. parahyba.

  14. CONTRIBUIÇÃO DOS ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS DO SOLO NO DESENVOLVIMENTO VEGETATIVO DO PARICÁ EM DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE CULTIVO

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    Possidônio Guimarães Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate some chemical components of an Oxisol and the relationship with the vegetative development of paricá [ Schizolobium amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke] in different cropping systems in reforestation areas in the municipality of Tailandia, northeast paraense. Evaluated the PP [paricá x pueraria ( Pueraria phaseoloides ], PA [paricá x acacia ( Acacia mangium ] and P (monoculture paricá systems conducted in 5 years by the company G.M. Sufredini Industrial LTDA and collected soil samples at a depth of 0-20 cm for analysis of pH, total C and N, H + Al, available P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K and Al and calculated values of C/N, SB, T, V and m. The vegetative development of paricá was assessed by survival, mortality and the number of defective plants beyond the DBH. The results showed that the increase in nitrogen content of the soil in PP treatment, the low soil fertility in PA treatment, but where paricá achieved the highest average in diameter (DBH = 16.64 cm and greater survival rate in P treatment (90.63%. It was concluded that the soil-plant relationship in paricá and pueraria systems and monoculture paricá contributed to the establishment of individuals paricá.

  15. Cost of paricá wood production in Paragominas region, Para State, Brazil

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    Rafaela da Silveira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The silvicultural and economic potential of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum has encouraged the expansion of this crop, mainly in the northern region of the country, provoking the need for studies on the species. The objective of this study was to estimate paricá production in Paragominas region, Para State, Brazil, at 5, 6 and 7 years, in three classes of productivity considering five plant arrangements, being identified the main costs of production, in addition to those most affected by plant arrangements. The volumetric estimation was obtained by modeling in population level and the analysis of the costs, through the methodology of the operational cost. It was possible to infer that the arrangement of plants 3 m x 2 m was superior in volume, compared to the other analyzed plant arrangements. The effective operating cost represented on average 65% of the total production costs. Transport was the most significant individual cost, in all analyzed plant arrangements. The maintenance, among the set of activities, was the most significant in planting, fact that may be related to the number and the long period for the activities execution. Smaller plant arrangements presented the higher total costs of production, depending or not on the remuneration for the use of the permanent and current capital.

  16. Temperature and moisture content effects on compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá

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    Manuel Jesús Manríquez Figueroa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the temperature and moisture content on the compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke from cultivated forests. The experiments were carried out on 3 timber samples under different conditions: heated (HT, thermal treatment (TT and water saturated (WS. The HT sample consisted of 105 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups, the TT consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups and the WS consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 9 groups. The specimens from HT and WS samples were tested at a temperature range from 20 to 230 ºC and 20 to 100 ºC, respectively. The HT specimens were tested at ambient temperature, but after being submitted to thermal treatment. The HT, TT and WS samples present a decrease in the compressive strength, reaching 65%, 76% and 59% of the compressive strength at room temperature, respectively. The decrease in the compressive strength of the HT and WS samples can be associated to the thermal degradation of wood polymers and the moisture content. For the TT sample, the strength increased for a pre-heating temperature of up to 170 °C due to the reduction in the moisture content of the specimens.

  17. Capacidade de recuperação do paricá após simulação de desfolha

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    Daiane Marques Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O paricá, Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby, é uma espécie florestal largamente utilizada em reflorestamentos. Entretanto, os danos causados por insetos podem reduzir a área fotossintética, interferindo no crescimento. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a capacidade de recuperação de paricá em idades precoces, pela simulação de desfolha. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, divididos em quatro experimentos, com quatro repetições, separados em dois períodos (30 e 60 dias após emergência e pela porcentagem de folhas e folíolos. Ao completar 30 e 60 dias após emergência foram realizadas as desfolhas e após mais 30 dias, nas duas fases, avaliou-se altura da planta, diâmetro do caule e recuperação foliar. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e regressão para os percentuais de desfolha. Sob desfolha artificial, o paricá apresentou baixa redução de crescimento e boa capacidade de recuperação de danos, sendo assim considerado tolerante às diferentes porcentagens de danos testadas.

  18. ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS POTENCIAIS PARA A REVEGETAÇÃO DE REJEITO SALINO CONTAMINADO COM ARSÊNIO

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    Lorena Abdalla de Oliveira Prata Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing of gold ores exploited in Paracatu, MG, generates tailings with chemical and physical characteristics adverse to plants growth, mainly by high concentration of arsenic (As and salinity. The revegetation of this material requeres identify species capable of grow under these conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of four tree species for revegetation of saline tailing contaminated with As. The planting substrate consisted of tailings from processing of ore called B1. The species Tibouchina granulosa (quaresmeira, Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke (paricá, Euterpe edulis Mart. (juçara and Cassia grandis (cássia-rósea were planted by seedlings and, after four months, the atributes of the substrate and plants were evaluated. Several plants showed symptoms possibly caused by As-toxicity. These symptoms were more evident and intense in quaresmeira and juçara. However, only the plants of quaresmeira died, probably due to the high rate of As-translocation (51 % and absence of tolerance mechanisms of the specie. The potential use of species for revegetation of tailings follows the order paricá > cássia-rósea. Paricá is the one with the greatest potential for initial deployment of vegetation, demonstrating the greater ability to adapt to tailing characteristics. The juçara and quaresmeira species are not recommended for the revegetation of tailings. Probably arsenic and/or salinity affect the development of plants, being lethal to quaresmeira.

  19. COMPARISON BETWEEN TEST METHODS TO DETERMINE WOOD EMBEDMENT STRENGTH PARALLEL TO THE GRAIN

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    Diego Henrique de Almeida

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study compares the test methods according to the ABNT NBR 7190:1997, EN 383:2007, ASTM D5764:2007, EUROCODE 5:2004, NDS:2001 standards in order to provide support to establish a new test method for determining the embedment strength of wood parallel to the grain. Parallel-to-grain tests were carried out for six wood species (Schizolobium amazonicum; Pinus elliottii; Pinus oocarpa; Hymenaea spp.; Lyptus(r: hybrid Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla, and Goupia glabra using four diameters (8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm and 16 mm for the metal pin fasteners (bolts. The experimental results obtained according to the EN 383:2007 standard were closer to the specific values for the metal-dowel connections design used by ABNT NBR 7190:1997, which are considered equal compression parallel to the grain. The use of maximum embedment force or the force causing displacement of 5 mm between the bolt and the test-piece as criteria for determining embedment strength for EN 383:2007 appears to be more appropriate than the criteria used by the Brazilian and American Standards.

  20. O Elemento Sócio-Histórico e a Administração: Cornelius Castoriadis e a Literatura de Jorge Amado

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    João Gualberto M. Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available Resumo:O propósito deste estudo é examinar, apresentar e discutir a produção teórica de Cornelius Castoriadis, para enriquecer a análise organizacional dentro da esfera da Administração. Ao recuperar, sistematizar e discutir os principais conceitos da obra de Castoriadis, nossa pesquisa instiga a construção de um pensamento mais complexo, denso e dinâmico, apoiado principalmente no conceito do sócio-histórico. Isso é mobilizado no contexto da sociedade brasileira, de suas organizações e de seus padrões de gestão por meio do romance Gabriela, cravo e canela, um dos livros mais populares de Jorge Amado. A metodologia baseia-se na análise discursiva e na ficção como fontes inestimáveis de produção de conhecimento. O enfoque interpretativo recai sobre três campos: a sociedade, as organizações e a Administração.

  1. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

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    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  2. Avian Influenza Virus (H11N9) in Migratory Shorebirds Wintering in the Amazon Region, Brazil

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    de Araujo, Jansen; de Azevedo Júnior, Severino M.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Hurtado, Renata F.; Walker, David; Thomazelli, Luciano M.; Ometto, Tatiana; Seixas, Marina M. M.; Rodrigues, Roberta; Galindo, Daniele B.; da Silva, Adriana C. S.; Rodrigues, Arlinéa M. M.; Bomfim, Leonardo L.; Mota, Marcelo A.; Larrazábal, Maria E.; Branco, Joaquim O.; Serafini, Patricia; Neto, Isaac S.; Franks, John; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Durigon, Edison L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic birds are the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIV). Habitats in Brazil provide stopover and wintering sites for water birds that migrate between North and South America. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possibility of the transport of influenza A viruses by birds that migrate annually between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In total, 556 orotracheal/cloacal swab samples were collected for influenza A virus screening using real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). The influenza A virus-positive samples were subjected to viral isolation. Four samples were positive for the influenza A matrix gene by rRT-PCR. From these samples, three viruses were isolated, sequenced and characterized. All positive samples originated from a single bird species, the ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres), that was caught in the Amazon region at Caeté Bay, Northeast Pará, at Ilha de Canelas. To our knowledge, this is the first isolation of H11N9 in the ruddy turnstone in South America. PMID:25329399

  3. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

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    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  4. diferentes idades e densidades populacionais

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    César Martins Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The variation of the annual growth in different heights of the stem of Pinus taeda L. was studied through the stem analysis, accomplished in dominant and medium stratum trees. Cross sections were collected along the stem from 9 sample trees on the base, breast height diameter (BHD and after these positions, at every meter. The sampling was constituted of 4 trees coming from Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, in a 17-years-old stand, submitted to one thinning, and 6 trees from Ponte Alta do Norte, Santa Catarina, in a 34-years-old stand, submitted to five thinnings. The results, expressed in percentage of the basal area increment in several positions of the tree height, showed strong variation in the annual deposition of wood along the stem in function of the populational density, characterizing the effects of the competition and of the thinning liberation. Trees subjected to the competition showed larger growth on top parts of the stem, while trees under smaller competition presented larger growth on lower positions, easily identified by the form and inclination of the increment curves.

  5. Heroines, Hierarchies, and Space: The Fiction of Cecilia Absatz

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    Naomi Lindstrom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the fiction of Cecilia Absatz (Argentina, 1943, covers three novels: Féiguele (1976, the 1982 Té con canela ‘Tea with cinnamon’ and the 1985 Los años pares ‘The Even-Numbered Years.’ The continuities between the three texts, and especially the similarity of their female protagonists, who age from adolescence to the threshold of middle age, allow these novels to be read as a series. The primary focus of this study is the maturation of the protagonists as they struggle for autonomy while navigating different types of space. These include space that is marked by gender; identified as Jewish; and dominated by members of various elites, whether defined by wealth and lineage, by celebrity, or by specialized cultural knowledge or skills. The protagonists are at a disadvantage in different environments: being female in a corporate workplace dominated by powerful males; craving individuality and solitude in a Jewish space in which community is the ideal; and being barely middle-class in milieux where money, accomplishments, and social connections are crucial. Though in many episodes the heroines, out of insecurity and inexperience, allow themselves to be intimidated and manipulated, they analyze their experiences, learn, and seek to strengthen their autonomy. Only in the third of the novels does the protagonist succeed in breaking the hold that more powerful and prestigious men hold over her and establishing a space for herself.

  6. Produção do Pinus taeda L. em povoamento desbastado na região dos Campos de Cima da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul

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    Luiz Ernesto Grillo Elesbão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective of studying the yield of Pinus taeda L., planted in an initial spacing of 3 x 2 m, located in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul state. The amostral population was submitted to one and two selective thinning, beyond a control sample, without thinning. The selective low thinning was conducted with reduction of the basal area to levels of 28 m2/ha. At age 17, the total yield of the control sample, without thinning, was 886.3 m3ha-1; with one thinning at age 11 the yield was 756.6 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield of 14.6% compared to the control; with two selective at ages 11 and 15, the yield was 732.9 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield in relation with the control sample, without thinning, of 17.3%. The selective thinning allowed a significant gain in diameter, up to age 17; with the execution of a selective thinning at age 11 an average diameter of 33.4 cm; was obtained with two selective thinning at ages 11 and 15 an average diameter of 33.5 cm; and an average diameter of 24.3 cm in the control sample, without thinning.

  7. YIELD OF Pinus taeda L. IN THINNED STAND IN THE CAMPOS DE CIMA DA SERRA REGION, RIO GRANDE DO SUL.

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    Luiz Ernesto Grillo Elesbão

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out with the objective of studying the yield of Pinus taeda L., planted in an initial spacing of 3 x 2 m, located in Canela, Rio Grande do Sul state. The amostral population was submitted to one and two selective thinning, beyond a control sample, without thinning. The selective low thinning was conducted with reduction of the basal area to levels of 28 m2/ha. At age 17, the total yield of the control sample, without thinning, was 886.3 m3ha-1; with one thinning at age 11 the yield was 756.6 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield of 14.6% compared to the control; with two selective at ages 11 and 15, the yield was 732.9 m3ha-1, resulting in losses of yield in relation with the control sample, without thinning, of 17.3%. The selective thinning allowed a significant gain in diameter, up to age 17, with the execution of a selective thinning at age 11 an average diameter of 33.4 cm; with two selective thinning at ages 11 and 15 an average diameter of 33.5 cm; and an average diameter of 24.3 cm in the control sample, without thinning.

  8. [Analysis of human cyst echinococcosis in a northern Chilean region from 2008 to 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Aguilar, Andrea; Junod, Tania; Campillay, Mauricio; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    The Coquimbo Region in Chile has the highest incidence of hydatidosis in central and northern Chile. To analyze the incidence of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the Coquimbo Region between 2008 and 2012. Official records of reported cases were analyzed. The association of the location, age and sex with the presence/absence of CE was analyzed by means of logistic regressions. The incidence was reported as cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The mean annual incidence was 2.6 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which ranged from 3.1 (2010) to 1.9 (2012) cases. The districts with higher incidence were Punitaqui (21.2 cases), Paihuano (9 cases), Rio Hurtado (8 cases), Canela (8.1 cases), Monte Patria (7.9 cases), Vicuña (6.9 cases) and Combarbalá (6.9 cases). The incidence in these locations was significantly higher than elsewhere in the region. Males had a significantly higher incidence than females (3.3 and 1.8 respectively). Incidence increased significantly with age, notably increasing after 45 years of age. Rural locations had the highest incidences of CE in the Coquimbo Region. The disease was reported more commonly in adults and mainly in men.

  9. Distribución y abundancia de crustáceos en humedales de Tabasco, México Abundance and distribution of crustaceans in wetlands of Tabasco

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    Everardo Barba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Tabasco presenta una compleja y alta diversidad de humedales que incluye tipos palustres (20.72%, costeros (3.93%, lacustres (1.74% y ribereños (1.37%, los cuales cubren el 27% del territorio estatal. La diversidad faunística en estos ambientes comprende invertebrados y vertebrados, donde la mayor parte de los registros son de especies de interés comercial. Se presenta el inventario de crustáceos recolectados desde 2003 hasta la fecha en las subregiones Sierra, Ríos y Pantanos. La recolección fue diurna, en 14 localidades (ambientes lóticos y lénticos, mediante nucleador y draga para la infauna, y arrastres con diferentes artes para la epifauna. Se obtuvieron 2 370 organismos que pertenecen a 4 órdenes, 15 familias, 17 géneros y 17 especies. Las especies más abundantes fueron Discapseudes holthuisi Bacescu y Gutu, 1975 (62%, Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 (12%, Leptochirus sp. Zaddach, 1844 (8% y Palaemonetes vulgaris (Say, 1818 (7%, sumando el 89% del total. El 67% de la abundancia correspondió a la infauna y el 33% a la epifauna. El 81% de los crustáceos se capturaron en sistemas lénticos y el resto en sistemas lóticos. Este trabajo contribuye con nuevos registros de crustáceos en humedales de Tabasco.The state of Tabasco is characterised by complex and diverse wetlands of different types: palustrine (20.72%, coastal (3.93%, lacustrine (1.74% and riverine (1.37%, covering 27% of its surface. Faunal diversity of these wetlands includes invertebrates and vertebrates, most of the available records come from species with commercial importance. The list of crustaceans collected from 2003 to date in the subregions Sierra, Ríos and Pantanos, is presented. The sampling at 14 localities was diurnal (lotic and lentic environments, using cores and dredges for the infauna and different nets for epifauna. A total of 2 370 organisms belonging to 4 orders, 15 families, 17 genera and 17 species, was obtained. The most

  10. Prevalence of Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand

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    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to survey the prevalence of some infectious diseases e.g. Taura syndrome virus (TSV and Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei populations and to assess the impact of such infectious agents to indigenous aquatic animals in Thailand. Samples of both larval and juvenile or adult shrimp from each region of the country were collected and screened for TSV and IHHNV using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Viruses isolated from affected shrimp were used for determine the susceptibility to infection of some aquatic species native to Thailand.A total of 163 samples of larval shrimp from hatcheries were screened. The results showed infection with TSV and IHHNV in 3.68 and 44.17%, respectively. As high as 7.32% TSV infection was detected in shrimp samples collected from the South Eastern coast, followed by the Eastern and Central regions with percentages of 5.56 and 4.53, respectively. Shrimp with the highest rate of IHHNV infection, 55.56% were collected from the Eastern region. A total of 192 samples of shrimp reared in grow-out ponds were also collected. The results showed shrimp were infected with TSV and IHHNV with percentages of 6.67 and 67.19, respectively. The highest prevalence of IHHNV (up to 90% was found in samples collected from the lower Southern region. The highest prevalence of TSV infection (11.29% was reported in shrimp from the Central region. A study of the susceptibility to TSV and IHHNV infection of some indigenous aquatic species of Thailand was also carried out. The results showed many aquatic species native to Thailand e.g. black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon, speckled shrimp (Metapenaeus monoceros, dwarf prawn (Macrobrachium equideus, krill (Acetes sp., mantis lobster (Chloridopsis immaculatus, freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri and M. rosenbergii, mangrove crab (Sesarma sp. and mud crab (Scylla serrata were susceptible to viruses and

  11. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

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    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus, prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii and finfish (Mugil cephalus, that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of

  12. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are a group of South American Indians that live in the rainforest along the borderlands of Brazil and Venezuela. They depend on hunting, gardening and wild food for survival; crustaceans are a highly prized food item in their diet. Taxonomical and ethnozoological aspects of the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, state of Amazonas, Brazil, related to the crustaceans are described. Information and specimens were obtained from August to December, 2003. Interviews were conducted with residents of the village and focused on questions about species exploited, indigenous names, modes of capture and use of the species. One shrimp species of the family Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense and two crab species of Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata as well as two of Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius fittkaui, F. platyacanthus were recorded. The indigenous names applied to these species are: shuhu, for shrimp, oko and peimatherimi for each of the two pseudothelphusid crabs, and hesiki tôtôrema for both trichodactylid crabs.Os Yanomami são um grupo de índios que habitam a floresta tropical úmida ao longo da fronteira entre Brasil e Venezuela. Eles dependem da caça, da agricultura e da coleta de produtos da floresta para a sua sobrevivência, sendo os crustáceos um dos itens alimentares mais apreciados. São descritos aspectos taxonômicos e etnozoológicos dos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, no estado do Amazonas, Brasil, relacionados aos crustáceos. Informações e espécimes foram coletados de agosto a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas com habitantes da aldeia com enfoque nas espécies exploradas, nomes indígenas, modos de captura e utilização. Foram registradas uma espécie de camarão da família Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense, duas espécies de caranguejos da família Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata e duas da família Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius

  13. Método para monitoramento de ninfas de cigarras e controle com inseticidas em reflorestamentos com paricá Method for monitoring nymphs of cicadas and control with insecticides in reforestations with paricá

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    Alexandre Mehl Lunz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer um método para o monitoramento da população de cigarras (Quesada gigas e para a avaliação da eficácia de doses de thiamethoxam, carbofuran e imidaclopride no controle de ninfas, em reflorestamento com paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum. Foram utilizadas as seguintes dosagens de inseticidas: 2,0, 4,0 e 6,0 kg ha-1 do produto comercial Actara (250 WG, para o princípio ativo thiamethoxan; 7,15, 14,30, 21,45 L ha-1 de Furadan (350 FS, para o carbofuran; e 4,5, 9,0, 13,5 L ha-1 de Provado (200 SC, para o imidaclopride. As três dosagens de cada produto foram aplicadas em área total. Foram realizadas três avaliações quinzenais, posteriores à aplicação, em que foram contabilizados os números de buracos e de ninfas vivas, por meio da abertura, com implemento tratorizado, de trincheiras com 7 m de comprimento, 0,8 m de largura e 0,07 m de profundidade. Todos os princípios ativos testados foram eficientes na redução da população de ninfas de Q. gigas, mas não houve efeito significativo das doses avaliadas. Os princípios ativos carbofuran e thiamethoxan são os mais promissores, com controle de 75-80% da infestação de ninfas. A abertura de trincheiras com o implemento tratorizado é eficaz no monitoramento da população de ninfas de Q. gigas, em reflorestamentos com paricá.The objective of this work was to establish a method for cicad (Quesada gigas population monitoring and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of thiamethoxam, carbofuran and imidacloprid doses on the control of cicad nymphs, in reforestation with paricá (Schizolobium parahyba var. amazonicum. The following insecticide doses were used: 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kg ha-1 of Actara (250 WG commercial product, for thiamethoxam active principle; 7.15, 14.30, and 21.45 L ha-1 of Furadan (350 FS, for carbofuran; 4.0, 9.0, and 13.5 L ha-1 of Provado (200 SC, for imidacloprid. The three doses of each product were applied in

  14. Phytosociology in agroforestry systems of different ages in the town of Medicilândia, Pará, Brazil = Fitossociologia em sistemas agroflorestais com diferentes idades de implantação no município de Medicilândia, PA

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    Fábio Miranda Leão

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems are emerging as an alternative to the degradation of natural resources, since they allow for harmony between agriculture and forest species, guaranteeing environmental sustainability. The aim of this work was to evaluate floristic composition and compare the structure of three agroforestry systems of 20, 30 and 40 years of age, in the town of Medicilândia, in the State of Pará. For the floristic and structural analysis, a forest census was carried out of the three agroforestry systems, recording all tree individuals with a diameter at breast height >10 cm. In analysing the horizontal structure, the absolute and relative phytosociological parameters of density and dominance were considered. The absolute and relative parameters of sociological position and natural regeneration were calculated when analysing the vertical structural of the systems. For the analysis of the Expanded Importance Value Index (IVIA, all the relative vertical and horizontal parameters were added together. The agroforestry systems displayed an inverted-J diametric distribution. As they are key species when planting forests, Swietenia macrophylla and Tabebuia impetignosa were the most important in each agroforestry system. Natural regeneration favoured the establishment of species with commercial value that were not part of the initial arrangement of the AFSs, such as Bagassa Guianenses, Tabebuia serratifolia, Schizolobium amazonicum and Dipteryx odorata, demonstrating the economic and ecological sustainability of these systems. = Os sistemas agroflorestais surgem como alternativa à degradação dos recursos naturais, pois possibilitam a harmonia entre agricultura e espécies florestais, garantindo a sustentabilidade ambiental. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a composição florística e comparar a estrutura de três sistemas agroflorestais com idades de 20, 30 e 40 anos no Município de Medicilândia, PA. Para análise florística e

  15. Atividade antifúngica de Cimentos de Ionômero de Vidro puros e associados à Cinnamomum zeylanicum

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    Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Considerando a importância da atividade antimicrobiana dos materiais restauradores odontológicos, objetivou-se verificar a atividade antifúngica in vitro de Cimentos de Ionômero de Vidro (CIV puros, associados a nistatina e ao óleo essencial de Cinnamomum zeylanicum (canela sobre Candida albicans (ATCC 289065. Foram avaliados Vitro Fil®, Maxxion R® e Vitro Cem®. A inibição do crescimento fúngico foi dada pela medição do diâmetro dos halos de inibição nos testes de difusão em meio de cultura sólido. Os CIV foram manipulados de acordo com as orientações dos fabricantes e inseridos em poços, confeccionados no meio de cultura, com 6 mm de diâmetro com o auxílio do sistema Centrix (DFL®. Quando preparadas as associações, as substâncias sintética e natural foram adicionadas ao Cimento de Ionômero de Vidro no momento da manipulação. As placas de Petri foram armazenadas em estufa a 37ºC, sob condições ideais de CO2, durante 48h e posteriormente foi feita a leitura dos resultados com auxílio de um paquímetro. O estudo foi realizado em triplicata e os dados foram analisados a partir do teste de Friedman, seguido de pós-teste de Dunns. Frente a cepa de Candida albicans, houve inibição do crescimento fúngico na maioria das associações, exceto quando o Vitro Fil® foi associado a emulsão do óleo essencial da canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum.  /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso

  16. Inclusão da farinha de varredura de mandioca em rações de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4680 Inclusion of cassava waste meal inclusion in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4680

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    Guilherme Rodrigues do Nascimento

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho, a viabilidade econômica e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de inclusão (0,0; 7,5; 15,0; 22,5 e 30,0% de farinha de varredura de mandioca (FVM. Foram utilizados 360 pintainhos de um dia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições contendo 12 aves por parcela. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, custo da alimentação, renda bruta, margem bruta e rentabilidade. Aos 42 dias, foram abatidos dois frangos por parcela para avaliação do peso: da carcaça, dos cortes, das vísceras e da gordura total, para determinar o rendimento de carcaça e calcular as porcentagens de cortes, gordura total e vísceras em relação ao peso vivo e carcaça. O peito e as coxas + sobrecoxas foram desossados para calcular os rendimentos de carne. A pigmentação das canelas das aves foi avaliada. Nos parâmetros de desempenho e avaliação econômica, não houve diferença entre os tratamentos. No peso e porcentagem da moela e pigmentação das canelas, houve efeito linear e, no rendimento da carne da coxa + sobrecoxa, houve efeito quadrático. A FVM pode ser incorporada às rações em níveis de 30%.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, economic viability and carcass traits of broilers fed with diets containing five inclusion levels (0.0; 7.5; 15.0; 22.5 and 30.0% of cassava waste meal (FVM. Three hundred sixty one-day-old pullets were used, distributed in a randomized block design experiment with five treatments and six replications, containing twelve birds per box. The parameters evaluated were feed intake, weight gain, feed-to-gain ratio, feeding costs, gross income, gross margin and profitability. Two broilers per replication were slaughtered at 42 days in order to evaluate the weights of carcass, main cuts, offal and total fat for

  17. Inclusão da farinha de varredura de mandioca em rações de frangos de corte = Inclusion of cassava waste meal inclusion in broiler diets

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    Emanuela Nataly Ribeiro Barbosa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho, a viabilidade econômica e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo níveis de inclusão (0,0; 7,5; 15,0; 22,5 e 30,0% de farinha de varredura de mandioca (FVM. Foram utilizados 360 pintainhos de um dia, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocoscasualizados com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições contendo 12 aves por parcela. Os parâmetros avaliados foram o consumo de ração, ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, custo da alimentação, renda bruta, margem bruta e rentabilidade. Aos 42 dias, foram abatidos doisfrangos por parcela para avaliação do peso: da carcaça, dos cortes, das vísceras e da gordura total, para determinar o rendimento de carcaça e calcular as porcentagens de cortes, gordura total e vísceras em relação ao peso vivo e carcaça. O peito e as coxas + sobrecoxas foram desossados para calcular os rendimentos de carne. A pigmentação das canelas das aves foi avaliada. Nos parâmetros de desempenho e avaliação econômica, não houve diferença entreos tratamentos. No peso e porcentagem da moela e pigmentação das canelas, houve efeito linear e, no rendimento da carne da coxa + sobrecoxa, houve efeito quadrático. A FVM pode ser incorporada às rações em níveis de 30%.The objective of this work was to evaluate performance, economic viability and carcass traits of broilers fed with diets containing five inclusion levels (0.0; 7.5; 15.0; 22.5 and 30.0% ofcassava waste meal (FVM. Three hundred sixty one-day-old pullets were used, distributed in a randomized block design experiment with five treatments and six replications, containing twelve birds per box. The parameters evaluated were feed intake, weight gain,feed-to-gain ratio, feeding costs, gross income, gross margin and profitability. Two broilers per replication were slaughtered at 42 days in order to evaluate the weights of carcass, main cuts, offal and total fat for carcass

  18. Entre o realismo e o ficcional: representações sobre "raça", sexualidade e classe em dois romances paradigmáticos de Jorge Amado Between realism and fiction: representations of race, sexuality, and class in two paradigmatic novels by Jorge Amado

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    Laura Moutinho

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo é apresentada e discutida a forma como as concepções e representações sobre "raça", miscigenação, sexualidade, gênero, erotismo e casamento são operadas em duas obras paradigmáticas representativas de dois importantes períodos da trajetória de Jorge Amado: Jubiabá, da fase nomeada de "romance proletário", e Gabriela, Cravo e Canela, tido como o livro que representa uma virada na carreira do autor, inaugurando o período do chamado "romance dialógico". Esses dois romances são protagonizados por casais inter-raciais que funcionam como o suporte a partir do qual Jorge Amado veicula algumas representações correntes na sociedade (e na ciência da época, não somente sobre a relação entre negros e brancos, como, igualmente, de uma nação que em um nível se percebe como mestiça e em outro enfrentava (e enfrenta o dilema da diferenciação racial. Como será visto, desejo proibido e luta de classes vividos pelo par homem negro / mulher branca (Jubiabá, uma vez contrastados com erotismo, casamento e progresso em foco na relação homem (quase branco / mulher mestiça, lançam luzes sobre algumas das representações de nação presentes e veiculadas na sociedade brasileira por suas mais variadas instituições.This article presents and discusses how concepts and representations of "race", miscegenation, sexuality, gender, erotism, and marriage are operated in two paradigmatic novels by Jorge Amado which represent two important periods in the author's trajectory: Jubiabá, from the period called "proletarian novel", and Gabriela, Cravo e Canela, which marked a twist in Amado's career, beginning of the phase called "dialogical novel". The protagonists in both novels are inter-racial couples who help the author transmit some current social representations (and on science in that time, not only of the relations between blacks and whites, but as well of a nation that, on the one hand, perceives itself as having mixed

  19. Mathematical modelling of the transport of a poorly sorted granular mixture as a debris-flow. The case of Madeira Island torrential floods in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Oliveira, Rodrigo P.; Conde, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    On the 20th February 2010, heavy rainfall was registered at Madeira Island, North Atlantic. Stony debris flows, mudflows and mudslides ensued causing severe property loss, 1.5 m thick sediment deposits at downtown Funchal including 16th century monuments, and a death toll of 47 lives. Debris-flow fronts propagated downstream while carrying very high concentrations of solid material. These two-phase solid-fluid flows were responsible for most of the infrastructural damage across the island, due to their significantly increased mass and momentum. The objective of the present modelling work is to validate a 2DH model for torrential flows featuring the transport and interaction of several size fractions of a poorly-sorted granular mixture typical of stony debris flow in Madeira. The module for the transport of poorly-sorted material was included in STAV-2D (CERIS-IST), a shallow-water and morphology solver based on a finite-volume method using a flux-splitting technique featuring a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, with appropriate source-term formulations to ensure full conservativeness. STAV-2D also includes formulations of flow resistance and bedload transport adequate for debris-flows with natural mobile beds (Ferreira et al., 2009) and has been validated with both theoretical solutions and laboratory data (Soares-Frazão et al., 2012; Canelas et al., 2013). The modelling of the existing natural and built environment is fully explicit. All buildings, streets and channels are accurately represented within the mesh geometry. Such detail is relevant for the reliability of the validation using field data, since the major sedimentary deposits within the urban meshwork of Funchal were identified and characterized in terms of volume and grain size distribution during the aftermath of the 20th February of 2010 event. Indeed, the measure of the quality of the numerical results is the agreement between simulated and estimated volume of deposited sediment and between estimated and

  20. Macrofauna edáfica asociada con sistemas agroforestales en la Amazonía Colombiana

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    Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La densidad, riqueza y diversidad de la macrofauna edáfica son afectadas, entre otros factores, por la configuración de los agroecosistemas y la estacionalidad de la precipitación. Con el fin de evaluar estos efectos en mayo y noviembre de 2011, correspondientes a épocas de máxima y mínima precipitación, respectivamente, se realizaron estudios sobre la composición de la macrofauna edáfica asociada con los arreglos agroforestales ubicados en el Centro de Investigaciones Macagual Cesar Augusto Estrada González, Amazonia, Caquetá, Colombia. El experimento se dispuso en un diseño completo al azar bifactorial con cuatro tratamientos (arreglos agroforestales: AB = abarco - Cariniana pyriformis Miers; CH = caucho Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. ; CP = caucho-parica Schizolobium amazonicum Huber; UV = uvito Genipa Americana L. y dos épocas (máxima y mínima precipitación, y cuatro repeticiones en parcelas divididas. Para explorar las relaciones entre los órdenes de macrofauna, se realizó un análisis de componentes principales y se evalúo el efecto de los arreglos agroforestales con una prueba de Monte Carlo. Los resultados mostraron que la densidad de la macrofauna fue mayor en el periodo de máxima precipitación (1129 individuos en comparación con el de mínima (598 individuos. Los arreglos agroforestales influyen sobre la presencia o ausencia de algunos grupos taxonómicos (P < 0.05 como Homoptera (Insecta y Raphidioptera (Insecta; además los UV y AB pueden favorecer a la macrofauna del estrés por sequía

  1. PLANT GROWTH-PROMOTING MICROBIAL INOCULANT FOR Schizolobium parahyba pv. parahyba

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    Priscila Jane Romano de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSchizolobium parahyba pv. amazonicum (Huber ex Ducke Barneby (paricá occurs naturally in the Amazon and is significant commercial importance due to its rapid growth and excellent performance on cropping systems. The aim of this paper was to evaluate a microbial inoculants such as arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF and Rhizobium sp. that promote plant growth. The inocula was 10 g of root colonized and spores of Glomus clarum and/or 1 mL of cell suspension (107 CFU/mL of Rhizobium sp. and/or 100 g of chemical fertilizer NPK 20-05-20 per planting hole. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with five replications and eight treatments (n = 800. Plant height, stem diameter and plant survival were measured. The results were tested for normality and homogeneity of variances and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. Rhizobium sp and AM fungi showed no effect on plant growth. Environmental factors probably influenced the effectiveness of symbiosis of both microorganisms and plant growth. The chemical fertilizer increased S. parahyba growth. During the first 120 days plants suffered with drought and frost, and at 180 days plants inoculated with microorganism plus chemical fertilizer showed higher survival when compared with control. The results showed that the microbial inoculants used showed an important role on plant survival after high stress conditions, but not in plant growth. Also was concluded that the planting time should be between November to December to avoid the presence of young plants during winter time that is dry and cold.

  2. Perfil dos consumidores de plantas medicinais e condimentares do município de Pato Branco (PR The profile of consumers medicinal plants and spices of Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil

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    José Abramo Marchese

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosticou-se o perfil dos consumidores de supermercados em Pato Branco (PR, com relação às suas preferências pelas plantas medicinais e condimentares, como subsídio à produção por pequenos produtores rurais. Os consumidores preferem produtos orgânicos, observam a aparência e o preço do produto, e vão ao mercado uma vez por semana, preferencialmente aos sábados. As dez plantas medicinais preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são camomila, anis, boldo, carqueja, guaco, malva, poejo, espinheira-santa, menta e sálvia. As dez plantas condimentares preferidas, em ordem decrescente, são cebola, cravo, canela, orégano, alho, nóz-moscada, pimentão, cebolinha, endro e salsinha.The profile of supermarket users in Pato Branco city, Paraná State, Brazil, was obtained, related to their preference for medicinal and spice plants, as a subsidy to production by small farmers. The consumers prefer organic products observing the appearance and price of the product, and they go once a week to the market, preferably on Saturdays. The ten favorite medicinal plants are Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Vernonia condensata, Baccharis sp., Mikania sp., Malva sp., Cunilla sp., Maytenus sp., Mentha sp. and Salvia officinalis. The ten favorite spices are: Allium cepa, Eugenia caryophyllata, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Origanum vulgaris, Allium sativum, Myristicia fragans, Capsicum annuum, Allium schoenoprasum, Anethum graveolens and Petroselinum crispum.

  3. Óleos essenciais e vegetais no controle in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

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    K. RAMOS

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais e vegetais no controle in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente causal da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutíferas. Treze óleos essenciais foram utilizados em concentrações de 0,00%, 0,40%, 0,80%, 1,70%, 3,20%, 6,25%, 12,50%, 25,00%, 50,00% e 100,00%, e uma linhagem padrão de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Foram avaliadas a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração mínima fungicida a fim de caracterizar o potencial de cada um dos óleos essenciais avaliados. Verificou-se que os óleos utilizados apresentaram atividade fungicida em diferentes concentrações, as quais variaram de 0,80% (melaleuca, 3,20%, (eucalipto, 6,25% (limão, capim limão, cravo da índia, canela e nim, 12,5% (hortelã e citronela, 25% (copaíba, 50% (coco e gengibre e 100% (manjericão. O óleo de nim apresentou maior redução da carga microbiana em função do tempo de exposição, sendo necessários 30 minutos para anulação da contagem microbiana. O efeito antifúngico dos óleos essenciais, para controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depende da planta e da concentração empregada.

  4. Una especie nueva de rana arbórea del género Hyloscirtus (Amphibia: Anura: Hylidae de la Cordillera del Cóndor

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    Ana Almendáriz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las ranas ecuatorianas del género Hyloscirtus incluyen 16 especies descritas, de las cuales 11 pertenecen al grupo H. larinopygion. Su distribución se limita a los flancos de la Cordillera de los Andes, tanto al oriente como al occidente. Una evaluación de la herpetofauna en el sector meridional de la Cordillera del Cóndor (bosques montanos sobre mesetas de arenisca en la provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, Ecuador, condujo al descubrimiento de una especie nueva del grupo que describimos aquí como Hyloscirtus condor sp. nov.; se analizan los renacuajos, las llamadas de anuncio y se estima las relaciones filogenéticas de la especie nueva y de las especies relacionadas en base a nuevas secuencias de los genes mitocondriales 12S, tRNA Val y 16S, con un total de hasta 2508 bp. Los resultados muestran que el grupo H. larinopygion está conformado por dos clados, uno distribuido en los Andes norte y centro de Ecuador y el otro al sur. La nueva especie pertenece al clado sur y es hermana de H. tapichalaca y de una especie aparentemente no descrita de la Provincia Morona Santiago. La especie nueva difiere de sus congéneres por su patrón de coloración dorsal, que consiste de puntos amarillo obscuro en un fondo canela. Es la especie más grande del grupo H. larinopygion y comparte con H. tapichalaca la presencia de una espina prepólica grande y curvada y brazos hipertrofiados. La especie nueva habita un área remota y bien conservada de la Cordillera del Cóndor. El descubrimiento de ésta y otras especies nuevas del mismo lugar denota la importancia biológica del área y motivan al desarrollo de planes de conservación.

  5. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) -Processing status and data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Angelika; Brizzi, G.; Barrot, G.; Bovensmann, H.; Canela, M.; Fehr, T.; Laur, H.; Lichtenberg, G.; Niro, F.; Perron, G.; Raspollini, P.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Scarpino, G.; Vogel, P.

    The atmospheric chemistry instruments on board the ENVISAT platform (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) provide a unique dataset of geophysical parameters (e.g.: trace gases, clouds, and aerosol) that allows a comprehensive characterization of the atmosphere's chemical and climatological processes [1]. These instruments started to provide significant science data shortly after the launch of the ENVISAT satellite (March 2002). At the time of writing this paper, these instruments and the whole payload modules are fully working and are well beyond the expected lifetime of 5 years. In addition the orbit control strategy of the platform will be modified starting from 2010, in order to extend the mission lifetime up to 2013 [2]. This means that if no instrument problems will appear, the ENVISAT atmospheric sensors will provide at the end of their life, three separated, but complementary datasets of the most important atmospheric state parameters, spanning a time interval of about 11 years. This represents an extraordinary source of information for the scientific user community, both for the completeness and quality of the data and for the extent of the dataset. The aim of this paper is to present the actual status of the ESA operational atmospheric chemistry dataset provided by the three ENVISAT atmospheric chemistry instruments and the future evolution. The processing and reprocessing status will be described in details for each instrument. The outcomes of the geophysical validation and the planned validation activities will be discussed. Finally the data availability and the source of information will be specified. [1] H. Nett, J. Frerick, T. Paulsen, and G. Levrini, "The atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 -87 (2001) [2] J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond -The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. `Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP

  6. Análise dos co-movimentos entre os mercados de capitais do Brasil e dos EUA

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    Daniel Reed Bergmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, a teoria de cópulas é utilizada para analisar os co-movimentos entre os mercados de capitais do Brasil e dos EUA. Na finalidade de implementação de uma estratégia de alocação de ativos é importante entender os eventos extremos - tanto os positivos (boom como os negativos (crashes - e seus efeitos sobre os mercados. Os índices de mercado usados são o IBOVESPA e o S&P 500 cobrindo o período de 03/2001 a 04/2007. A aderência aos log-retornos das principais cópulas encontradas na literatura financeira é avaliada. Os seguintes critérios foram escolhidos: o Log-likelihod, o critério de informação de Akaike e o critério de informação bayesiano. Os resultados mostram que a cópula de Joe-Clayton simetrizada é a mais adequada para modelar a estrutura de dependência entre os log-retornos do IBOVESPA e os do S&P500. Este trabalho difere de alguns estudos já realizados [e.g. Mendes e Moretti(2005 e Canela e Collazo(2005], pois leva em consideração a modelagem de cópulas dinâmicas introduzida por Patton (2006. Finalmente, através dos índices de dependência caudal ao longo do tempo, pode-se concluir que a ocorrência de eventos extremos negativos (crashes no mercado norte americano tende a afetar mais o mercado brasileiro quando da comparação da ocorrência dos eventos extremos positivos (booms.

  7. Caracterização física em duas bacias hidrográficas do Alto Juruá, Acre

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    Eth R. da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, realizar a caracterização física das Bacias Hidrográficas do Igarapé Canela Fina e Igarapé Preto, ambas localizadas no município de Cruzeiro do Sul, AC. Para a classificação não supervisionada empregou-se o ISODATA através dos produtos do sensor TM, a bordo do satélite Landsat-5 fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais. O período avaliado se estende entre os anos de 2005 a 2010. Os resultados mostram um aumento médio de 48,11% em áreas desflorestadas para essas bacias e redução média em áreas florestadas de 50,58%, em consequência de intervenções antrópicas ocorridas ao longo dos últimos anos. As características físicas calculadas demonstraram similaridade entre as bacias hidrográficas, ambas respondem lentamente a eventos hidrológicos e, portanto, não propícias a enchentes. As modificações realizadas ao longo dos últimos anos na superfície das bacias hidrográficas alteraram possivelmente a dinâmica hídrica dos igarapés e os resultados obtidos indicam a eficiência do Sensoriamento Remoto e Sistema de Informação Geográfica na análise da dinâmica espaço-tempo da vegetação e caracterização morfométrica das bacias hidrográficas.

  8. Eficiência de extratos vegetais no controle de Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, em laboratório

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    Junir Antonio Lutinski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n1p83 Vulgarmente conhecida como “vaquinha”, Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824 ocorre na maioria dos estados brasileiros, destacando-se como uma das mais importantes pragas do feijoeiro e do milho. Visando avaliar a atividade inseticida de extratos brutos aquosos de nove espécies vegetais sobre os adultos deste inseto, realizou-se este trabalho. O experimento, conduzido em laboratório, foi realizado sob delineamento completamente casualizado, com dez tratamentos e quatro repetições. Para tal, utilizou-se um frasco, contendo em seu interior cinco espécimes adultos e uma folha de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus previamente imersa no extrato, tampado com um recorte de pano poroso e fixado por uma borracha. A variável avaliada foi número de espécimes de D. speciosa vivos. Os tratamentos consistiram em extratos de salvia (Salvia officinalis Linnaeus, cravo (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb, noz-moscada (Myristica fragans Houtt, cinamomo (Melia azedarach Linnaeus, timbó (Ateleia glazioveana Baill, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, figueira (Ficus microcarpa Linnaeus f., alecrim (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus e a testemunha (apenas água destilada. As avaliações de sobrevivência foram realizadas a cada 24 horas, durante 10 dias. Sobre o número de espécimes vivos efetuou-se a análise de variância em bifatorial (10 extratos x 11 horários após a aplicação. As médias foram agrupadas pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro. Os extratos mais eficientes foram o timbó, noz-moscada e cinamomo, com porcentagens de eficiência variando entre 80,4% e 100%.

  9. Record of the Solar Activity and of Other Geophysical Phenomenons in Tree Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigozo, Nivaor Rodolfo

    1999-01-01

    Tree ring studies are usually used to determine or verify climatic factors which prevail in a given place or region and may cause tree ring width variations. Few studies are dedicated to the geophysical phenomena which may underlie these tree ring width variations. In order to look for periodicities which may be associated to the solar activity and/or to other geophysical phenomena which may influence tree ring growth, a new interactive image analysis method to measure tree ring width was developed and is presented here. This method makes use of a computer and a high resolution flatbed scanner; a program was also developed in Interactive Data Language (IDL 5.0) to study ring digitized images and transform them into time series. The main advantage of this method is the tree ring image interactive analysis without needing complex and high cost instrumentation. Thirty-nine samples were collected: 12 from Concordia - S. C., 9 from Canela - R. S., 14 from Sao Francisco de Paula - R. S., one from Nova Petropolis - R. S., 2 from Sao Martinho da Serra - R. S. e one from Chile. Fit functions are applied to ring width time series to obtain the best long time range trend (growth rate of every tree) curves and are eliminated through a standardization process that gives the tree ring index time series from which is performed spectral analysis by maximum entropy method and iterative regression. The results obtained show periodicities close to 11 yr, 22 yr Hale solar cycles and 5.5 yr for all sampling locations 52 yr and Gleissberg cycles for Concordia - S. C. and Chile samples. El Nino events were also observed with periods around 4 e 7 yr.

  10. A study of Solar-Enso correlation with southern Brazil tree ring index (1955- 1991)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigozo, N.; Nordemann, D.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.

    The effects of solar activity and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on tree growth in Southern Brazil were studied by correlation analysis. Trees for this study were native Araucaria (Araucaria Angustifolia)from four locations in Rio Grande do Sul State, in Southern Brazil: Canela (29o18`S, 50o51`W, 790 m asl), Nova Petropolis (29o2`S, 51o10`W, 579 m asl), Sao Francisco de Paula (29o25`S, 50o24`W, 930 m asl) and Sao Martinho da Serra (29o30`S, 53o53`W, 484 m asl). From these four sites, an average tree ring Index for this region was derived, for the period 1955-1991. Linear correlations were made on annual and 10 year running averages of this tree ring Index, of sunspot number Rz and SOI. For annual averages, the correlation coefficients were low, and the multiple regression between tree ring and SOI and Rz indicates that 20% of the variance in tree rings was explained by solar activity and ENSO variability. However, when the 10 year running averages correlations were made, the coefficient correlations were much higher. A clear anticorrelation is observed between SOI and Index (r=-0.81) whereas Rz and Index show a positive correlation (r=0.67). The multiple regression of 10 year running averages indicates that 76% of the variance in tree ring INdex was explained by solar activity and ENSO. These results indicate that the effects of solar activity and ENSO on tree rings are better seen on long timescales.

  11. Aspectos florísticos e fitossociológicos da reserva Capão de Tupanciretã, Tupanciretã, RS, Brasil.

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    Suzana Ferreira da Rosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Reserva Capão de Tupanciretã, município de Tupanciretã (RS, em uma área com 8 hectares pertencente à Fundação de Pesquisa Agropecuária do Rio Grande do Sul (FEPAGRO. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica da floresta. Utilizaram-se dez parcelas de tamanho 10 x 20 m distribuídas sistematicamente na área. Nessas parcelas, foram medidos e identificados todos os indivíduos com DAP maior ou igual a 5 cm. Dentro das parcelas principais, alocaram-se subunidades de 5 x 5 m para avaliar o componente arbustivo (DAP entre 1 e 5 cm e de 2 x 2 m para a regeneração natural (DAP menor que 1 cm e altura superior a 30 cm. Os resultados foram analisados usando o programa FITOANALISE, calculando-se os parâmetros fitossociológicos tradicionais de densidade, dominância, freqüência, valor de importância, valor de cobertura e índice de diversidade. As espécies com maior representatividade no componente arbóreo da floresta foram Camboatá-vermelho (Cupania vernalis Cambess. e o Branquilho (Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. L. B. Sm. & Downs. No componente arbustivo e na regeneração, as espécies que apresentaram o maior número de indivíduos foram Camboatá-vermelho (Cupania vernalis Cambess., Primavera (Brunfelsia australis Benth., Chal-chal (Allophylus edulis (A. St.–Hil, Cambess. & A. Juss. e Canela-amarela (Nectandra lanceolata Nees

  12. Variação do incremento anual ao longo do fuste de Pinus taeda L. em diferentes idades e densidades populacionais.

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    César Martins Andrade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A variação do crescimento anual em diferentes alturas do fuste de Pinus taeda L. foi estudada por meio da análise de tronco em árvores do estrato dominante e médio. Foram coletadas secções transversais ao longo do fuste de 9 árvores-amostra, tomadas na base, à altura do peito (DAP, e após, a cada metro. A amostragem foi constituída de 4 árvores provenientes de Canela, Rio Grande do Sul, em floresta com 17 anos de idade, submetida a um desbaste, e 5 árvores de Ponte Alta do Norte, Santa Catarina, em floresta com 34 anos, submetida a cinco desbastes. Os resultados, expressos na forma percentual do incremento em área basal na posição "i", sobre o incremento em área basal ao nível do DAP, mostraram a forte variação na deposição anual de lenho ao longo do fuste em função da densidade populacional, caracterizando os efeitos da competição e da liberação pela execução do desbaste. Árvores sujeitas à competição mostraram maior crescimento nas partes superiores do fuste, enquanto que árvores sob menor concorrência apresentaram maior crescimento em posições inferiores, facilmente identificadas pela forma e inclinação das curvas de incremento.

  13. Desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com mistura de aditivos fitogênicos na dieta

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    Natália Thaís Gonçalves Koiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de misturas de aditivos fitogênicos na dieta de frangos de corte, sobre seu desempenho zootécnico e rendimento de carcaça. Foram avaliados 660 pintos de sexo misto, entre 1 e 42 dias de idade, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições de 22 aves (11 machos e 11 fêmeas. Além do controle, foram avaliados tratamentos com antibiótico (10 ppm de virginiamicina ou com misturas de aditivos fitogênicos: mistura A, 150 ppm de óleos essenciais de alecrim, cravo, gengibre e orégano; mistura B, 150 ppm de óleos essenciais de canela, sálvia, tomilho branco e óleo-resina de copaíba; e mistura A+B, 50% da mistura A e 50% da B. A mistura B proporcionou maior ganho de peso e melhor conversão alimentar das aves, no período de 36 a 42 dias de idade. No período total do experimento, o antibiótico e a mistura B proporcionaram maior ganho de peso das aves. O consumo de ração foi maior com o antibiótico do que com o controle. A mistura A+B e o tratamento controle proporcionaram maior rendimento de coxa+sobrecoxa e maior peso relativo do baço. As mistura B e A+B apresentam potencial como melhoradores de desempenho para frangos de corte.

  14. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  15. A high-performance model for shallow-water simulations in distributed and heterogeneous architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    One of the most common challenges in hydrodynamic modelling is the trade off one must make between highly resolved simulations and the time required for their computation. In the particular case of urban floods, modelers are often forced to simplify the complex geometries of the problem, or to implicitly include some of its hydrodynamic effects, due to the typically very large spatial scales involved and limited computational resources. At CEris - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa - the STAV-2D shallow-water model, particularly suited for strong transient flows in complex and dynamic geometries, has been under development for the past recent years (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2013). The model is based on an explicit, first-order 2DH finite-volume discretization scheme for unstructured triangular meshes, in which a flux-splitting technique is paired with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, yielding a model applicable to discontinuous flows over time-evolving geometries. STAV-2D features solid transport in both Euleran and Lagrangian forms, with the first aiming at describing the transport of fine natural sediments and the latter aimed at large individual debris. The model has been validated with theoretical solutions and laboratory experiments (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2015). This work presents our most recent effort in STAV-2D: the re-design of the code in a modern Object-Oriented parallel framework for heterogeneous computations in CPUs and GPUs. The programming language of choice for this re-design was C++, due to its wide support of established and emerging parallel programming interfaces. The current implementation of STAV-2D provides two different levels of parallel granularity: inter-node and intra-node. Inter-node parallelism is achieved by distributing a simulation across a set of worker nodes, with communication between nodes being explicitly managed through MPI. At this level, the main difficulty is associated with the

  16. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem

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    Nabeel M Alikunhi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos se han utilizado con éxito para estudiar la transferencia de materia orgánica en las redes alimentarias costeras y estuarinas. Para delinear las interacciones tróficas en las redes, se analizaron perfiles de ácidos grasos en las especies de microbios (Azotobacter vinelandii y Lactobacillus xylosus, camarones (Metapenaeus monoceros y Macrobrachium rosenbergii y peces (Mugil cephalus, que están asociadas con la descomposición de las hojas de dos especies de mangle, Rhizophora apiculata y Avicennia marina. Los ácidos grasos, con excepción de los de cadena larga, exhiben cambios durante la descomposición de las hojas de mangle, con una reducción de los ácidos grasos saturados y un aumento de los monoinsaturados. Los ácidos grasos ramificados están ausentes en las hojas de mangle sin descomponer, pero presentes de manera significativa en las hojas descompuestas, en camarones y peces, representando una fuente importante para ellos. Esto revela que los microbios son productores dominantes que contribuyen significativamente con los peces y camarones en el ecosistema de manglar. Este trabajo demuestra que los marcadores biológicos de los ácidos grasos son una herramienta eficaz para la identificación de las interacciones tróficas entre los productores dominantes y consumidores en este manglar.

  17. Trophic structure of macroinvertebrates in tropical pasture streams

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    Bruna Neves da Silveira-Manzotti

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to describe the diet of stream macroinvertebrates and to determine their trophic groups. Methods Invertebrates were sampled with D nets in three pasture streams. They were identified to genus level and submitted to gut content analysis, except for fluid feeders such as hemipterans, to which diet data was obtained from the literature. Trophic groups were determined based on a similarity analysis using the Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. Results Five trophic groups were defined: fine-detritivores (feed mostly on fine particulate organic matter - FPOM, coarse-detritivores/herbivores (feed mostly on coarse particulate organic matter - CPOM - and plant material, omnivores, specialist-predators (prey upon aquatic insects only, and generalist-predators. Ephemeroptera, Diptera (except Tanypodinae, Coleoptera, and Trichoptera (except Smicridea were detritivores. The caddis Macronema (Trichoptera fed exclusively on plant detritus and Tanypodinae and Smicridea were classified as omnivores. The odonate families Calopterygidae and Gomphidae were classified as specialist-predators, while Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Belostoma, and Limnocoris (Hemiptera were generalist-predators. Conclusions The great quantity and frequency of occurrence of FPOM consumed by most taxa highlight the importance of this food resource for macroinvertebrate communities from tropical streams. Furthermore, observed variations on trophic group assignment for some taxa indicate the generalist and opportunistic nature of these aquatic invertebrates. Such findings reinforce the importance of conducting gut content analysis on macroinvertebrates to understand their role in the structure and functioning of tropical streams.

  18. Grupos funcionales alimentarios de macroinvertebrados acuáticos en el río Gaira, Colombia

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    Javier Rodríguez-Barrios

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Colombia, la información sobre grupos funcionales alimentarios de macroinvertebrados acuáticos es muy escasa. Por lo tanto, en este estudio se determinó la riqueza, abundancia y biomasa de los GFAs de estos organismos a escala de río, tramo y unidades funcionales, con el objeto de evaluar su variación espacio-temporal. Se seleccionaron tres tramos de 200m. En total se reportan 109 táxones, con una abundancia de 11 167 individuos que aportaron una biomasa de 107.11g. La densidad de los macroinvertebrados se vio favorecida con el incremento en la altura, la biomasa presentó un patrón inverso pues fue mayor hacia el tramo bajo y la diversidad de táxones fue mayor en el tramo medio del río (H’=3.16. Los valores de biomasa de estos organismos fueron mayores en hojarasca seguida de gravas-arenas, epiliton y sedimento. El tramo bajo fue dominado por Macrobrachium con el 73%, seguido de Leptonema con el 15 % en el tramo alto y Anacroneuria con el 6.56 %, en el tramo medio del río. Entre eventos de lluvia y sequía, la biomasa aportada por los grupos funcionales alimentarios fue mayor en lluvia, pero la abundancia fue muy superior durante eventos de sequía.

  19. Linking in situ bioassays and population dynamics of macroinvertebrates to assess agricultural contamination in streams of the Argentine pampa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergentz, S; Pessacq, P; Mugni, H; Bonetto, C; Schulz, R

    2004-10-01

    The two local crustacean species Hyalella curvispina and Macrobrachium borelli were chosen for assessment of agricultural contamination in two streams (Horqueta and Maguire) in the Argentine pampa. In parallel with in situ bioassays of both species, the population dynamics and the organismic drift of H. curvispina were investigated throughout the main period of insecticide application, from December 2001 to March 2002. In Maguire none of the current-use insecticides (chlorpyrifos, alpha-cypermethrin, and endosulfan) in question were detected throughout the sampling period. During 1-week intervals with no contamination by insecticides the survival rate of H. curvispina varied between 77 +/- 6% (+/- SE, n = 4) and 85 +/- 3%. In Horqueta during a week with a peak insecticide contamination of 64 microg/kg chlorpyrifos in the suspended particles, a mortality of 100% was observed in the in situ bioassays for both species, H. curvispina and M. borelli. At the same time, in Maguire H. curvispina showed reduced survival rates of 23 +/- 5% and 25 +/- 18% at the two sites, while the survival rate of M. borelli was 60 +/- 11% upstream and 93 +/- 5% downstream, below a wetland. During the period with 100% mortality of H. curvispina in Horqueta, the population density of this species decreased correspondingly, from 106 +/- 26 to 0 individuals/m(2). We conclude that in situ bioassays can be successfully linked to in-stream population dynamics for the same species and that this link is very useful for interpreting causal exposure-effect relationships.

  20. Digging deeper: new gene order rearrangements and distinct patterns of codons usage in mitochondrial genomes among shrimps from the Axiidea, Gebiidea and Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda

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    Mun Hua Tan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Whole mitochondrial DNA is being increasingly utilized for comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies at deep and shallow evolutionary levels for a range of taxonomic groups. Although mitogenome sequences are deposited at an increasing rate into public databases, their taxonomic representation is unequal across major taxonomic groups. In the case of decapod crustaceans, several infraorders, including Axiidea (ghost shrimps, sponge shrimps, and mud lobsters and Caridea (true shrimps are still under-represented, limiting comprehensive phylogenetic studies that utilize mitogenomic information. Methods Sequence reads from partial genome scans were generated using the Illumina MiSeq platform and mitogenome sequences were assembled from these low coverage reads. In addition to examining phylogenetic relationships within the three infraorders, Axiidea, Gebiidea, and Caridea, we also investigated the diversity and frequency of codon usage bias and mitogenome gene order rearrangements. Results We present new mitogenome sequences for five shrimp species from Australia that includes two ghost shrimps, Callianassa ceramica and Trypaea australiensis, along with three caridean shrimps, Macrobrachium bullatum, Alpheus lobidens, and Caridina cf. nilotica. Strong differences in codon usage were discovered among the three infraorders and significant gene order rearrangements were observed. While the gene order rearrangements are congruent with the inferred phylogenetic relationships and consistent with taxonomic classification, they are unevenly distributed within and among the three infraorders. Discussion Our findings suggest potential for mitogenome rearrangements to be useful phylogenetic markers for decapod crustaceans and at the same time raise important questions concerning the drivers of mitogenome evolution in different decapod crustacean lineages.

  1. Environmental features and macrofauna of Kahana Estuary, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciolek, J.A.; Timbol, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Lack of ecological information on Hawaiian estuaries prompted an intensive 2-year study of a small (5.7 ha) stream-mouth estuary on windward Oahu. Water quality and macrofauna were sampled weekly at seven stations. The water mass was strongly stratified vertically except during freshets. Average values for water column temperature and bottom salinity were 23.2°C and 12‰ at the head to 28.3°C and 28‰ at the mouth. Dissolved oxygen saturation in the water column varied from about 50% at night to 140% in the afternoon. Usually, bottom waters were 3–6°C warmer than surface waters and sometimes showed severe oxygen depletion.Macrofauna, collected primarily by seining, consisted mainly of decapod crustaceans (four species of crabs, seven species of shrimps) and fishes (24 species). Other typical estuarine taxons (mollusks, barnacles, polychaetes) were scarce or absent. Diversity increased seaward from 14 species near the estuary head to 29 species near the mouth. Three species of crustaceans and six of fishes were captured at all stations. Most abundant were the native prawn, Macrobrachium grandimanus, and mullet, Mugil cephalus. Perennially resident adults occurred among crustaceans and gobioid fishes; most other fishes were present as juveniles and sporadic adults. Comparisons with other data suggest that more than 50 species of native fishes may occur in Hawaiian estuaries, and that estuarine macrofaunal diversity on oceanic islands is much lower than on continents at similar latitudes.

  2. Treatment efficiency of effluent prawn culture by wetland with floating aquatic macrophytes arranged in series

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    MNP Henares

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a series of wetland colonized with Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia molesta to treat the effluent of a giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii broodstock pond was evaluated in this study. The experimental design was completely randomized and was performed in 9 rectangular tanks (1.6 m3 with three treatments (constructed wetlands and three replicates. The treatment types included: a wetland colonized with E. crassipes and S. molesta (EcSm arranged sequentially, a wetland with E. crassipes only (Ec and a wetland with S. molesta only (Sm. The means of suspended particulate material (SPM, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, P-orthophosphate (PO4-P and total phosphorus (TP of the treated effluents were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (P<0.05. The effluent treated in Ec and EcSm wetlands exhibited lower SPM concentrations. The Ec wetland reduced TIN, TKN, PO4-P and TP by 46.0, 43.7, 44.4 and 43.6%, respectively. In the EcSm wetland, the reduction of TIN (23.0%, TKN (33.7% and PO4-P (26.7% was similar to the Sm wetland (19.8% TIN, 30.9% TKN and 23.8% PO4-P. The Ec wetland was more efficient in treating pond effluent due likely to the higher root surface of E. crassipes, which forms an extensive area favorable to retention and adsorption of debris and absorption of nutrients.

  3. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and human health risk in shrimp collected from different farms and rivers at Khulna-Satkhira region, Bangladesh

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    T. Sarkar

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to assess the heavy metals contamination and health risk in Shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon collected from Khulna-Satkhira region in Bangladesh. The results showed that the Pb concentrations (0.52–1.16 mg/kg in all shrimp samples of farms were higher than the recommended limit. The Cd levels (0.05–0.13 mg/kg in all samples and Cr levels in all farms except tissue content at Satkhira farm were higher than the permissible limits. The individual concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr between shrimp tissue and shell in all rivers and farms were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Target hazard quotient (THQ and hazard index (HI were estimated to assess the non-carcinogenic health risks. Shrimp samples from all locations under the current study were found to be safe for consumption, the possibility of health risk associated with non-carcinogenic effect is very low for continuous consumption for 30 years. Keywords: Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Shrimp, Health hazard, Noncarcinogenic risk

  4. Comparison of catching efficiency of two Indonesian traditional traps, Ayunan and Tamba

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    Ahmadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The catching efficiency of traditional traps: Ayunan and Tamba were tested in Sungai Batang River, South Kalimantan of Indonesia. Trials consisted of 320-trap hauls/type using 1-day submersion time of 24 hr. The baited traps sampling accounted for 82 specimens assigned to 5 species of 5 families. There was a large variability in number of catch between prawns and fish species collected (T=2.318, P<0.05. The prawns catch was represented by only the species Macrobrachium rossenbergii with total of 53 and 1,015 g weight. The prawns weight of Tamba was significantly higher than that of Ayunan (T=3.453, P<0.01.The fish catch composed of Mystus gulio 79%, Osteochilus hasselti 10%, Hypostomus plecostomus 7%, and Macrognathus aculeatus 3%, with total weight ranged from 35 to 560 g. A clear difference was found in catching efficiency. Comparative fishing trials showed that Tamba collected specimens were 1.8 times higher than Ayunan (T=2.223, P<0.05. Catch per unit effort for Tamba ranged from 58.13 to 80.00, and for Ayunan ranged from 5.31 to 7.19. The gear modifications and various treatments (e.g. bait odor, light are necessary to be taken to increase their relative catching efficiency.

  5. Crustáceos decápodos de la cuenca del Río Sinú, Córdoba, Colombia

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    Jorge Alexander Quirós Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la composición, abundancia y distribución de los crustáceos decápodos en la cuenca del río Sinú, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia, se estudiaron ocho localidades: cuatro en el río Sinú y cuatro en el complejo cenagoso del bajo Sinú. Para ello, se realizaron seis muestreos entre abril de 2005 y mayo de 2006. En total se registraron 458 crustáceos decápodos distribuidos en tres familias, seis géneros y ocho especies. La familia mejor representada fue Trichodactylidae con cuatro géneros y cuatro especies, seguida de Palaemonidae con un género y tres especies, mientras que de la familia Atyidae solo registró una especie. Especies como Macrobrachium carcinus y M. acanthurus, presentaron el rango más amplio de distribución, siendo características tanto para el rio Sinú como para el CCBS. Entre las especies identificadas, Atya crassa en el río Sinú y Trichodactylus quinquedentatus en el CCBS son nuevos registros para el departamento de Córdoba.

  6. Use of Geothermal Energy for Aquaculture Purposes - Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W C; Smith, K C

    1981-09-01

    This project, financed by the Pacific Northwest Regional Commission (PNRC), was designed to provide information to evaluate the best methods to use for intensive aquaculture of freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, using geothermal energy. The freshwater prawn is a tropical organism and is native to southeast Asia. Earlier projects at Oregon Institute of Technology have shown the feasibility of culturing this aquatic animal in geothermal water. This phase of the project was designed to investigate intensive culture of this animal as well as the advantages of growing rainbow trout, ornamental tropical fin fish, and mosquito fish, Gambusia affnis, for vector control using geothermal energy. The research data collected on the prawns was obtained from the stocking and sampling of two 0.2- ha (half-acre) ponds constructed as a part of the project. The ponds are equipped with recording monitors for temperature and flow. The geothermal energy used is the geothermal effluent from the Oregon Institute of Technology heating system. This water is of potable quality and ranges in temperature from 50 to 70oC. The geothermal water used in the ponds is controlled at 27oC, ± 2oC, by using thermostats and solenoid valves. A small building next to the ponds contains facilities for hatching larvae prawns and tanks for growing post-larvae prawns. The hatchery facility makes the project self-sustaining. The hatchery was obtained as part of an earlier PNRC project.

  7. A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenan C

    1981-01-01

    The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

  8. Insights into the gut microbiota of freshwater shrimp and its associations with the surrounding microbiota and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanting; Duan, Cuilan; Zhang, Xuxiang; Chen, Huangen; Ren, Hongqiang; Yin, Ying; Ye, Lin

    2018-04-23

    The gut microbiota of aquatic animals plays a crucial role in host health through nutrient acquisition and outcompetition of pathogens. In this study, based on the high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, we examined the bacterial communities in the gut of freshwater shrimp ( Macrobrachium nipponense ) and in their living environments (sediment and pond water) and analyzed the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the shrimp gut bacterial communities. High bacterial heterogeneity was observed in the freshwater shrimp gut samples, and the result indicated that both the surrounding bacterial community and water quality factors (particularly dissolved oxygen and temperature) could affect the shrimp gut bacterial community. Despite the observed heterogeneity, 57 genera, constituting 38~99% of the total genera in each of the 40 shrimp gut samples, were identified as the main bacterial population in the gut of M. nipponense . In addition, a high diversity and abundance of lactic acid bacteria (26 genera), which could play significant roles in the digestion process in shrimp, were observed in the shrimp gut samples. Overall, this study provides insights into the gut bacterial communities of freshwater shrimp and basic information for shrimp farming regarding the application of probiotics and disease prevention.

  9. An overview of freshwater prawn fishery in Bangladesh: present status and future prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdous Ahamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn fishery plays an important role in the economy of Bangladesh. The fishery is mainly based on the culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The culture fishery has been growing rapidly, thus, masking the dwindling capture fishery which is faced with serious environmental issues augmented by deleterious fishing methods. Despite the high prospects of the freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh, a lot of research is needed to ensure the sustainable development of the capture fishery which forms a key source of prawn aquaculture seed as well as provide a baseline for future appraisals. Freshwater prawn aquaculture in Bangladesh is based on traditional methods with continuous adaptations by the rural fishers. However, numerous constraints to its full development are evident at all stages of its production. Lack of quality brood stock, seed, feeds and poor technical knowledge at farmers level are but some of the impediments challenging the sustainability of this industry. This paper reviews the freshwater prawn fishery of Bangladesh over the last few decades and outlines approaches for the development of an ecosystem-based management of both the culture and capture sectors of this important fishery.

  10. Reproductive life history of Heterandria bimaculata (Heckel, 1848 (Poeciliinae: Poeciliidae in the Honduran interior highlands: trait variation along an elevational gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Olinger

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined reproductive traits and growth rates of Heterandria bimaculata (Poeciliidae in Cusuco National Park (CNP, a cloud forest reserve in northern Honduras, Central America. In CNP, H. bimaculata occurs in the absence of other fish species and major invertebrate predators along an approximately 1000 m elevation gradient. This allowed for the examination of trait variation along the gradient without the confounding effects of interspecific interactions or habitat patchiness. Heterandria bimaculata exhibited traits characteristic of a low-predation environment: balanced sex ratio, slow growth, late maturity and large female size. Females produced more, smaller eggs from upstream to downstream, but overall reproductive allocation remained constant along the gradient. Maximum male length and annual growth rates increased from upstream to downstream, but female growth showed no trend. The patterns of growth and reproductive allocation tradeoff are consistent with predicted response to a longitudinally-increasing productivity gradient in which food resources become more abundant downstream. Macrobrachium and Bellastoma could have caused some predation, but were sparse and patchily distributed. Fish density remained fairly constant among elevations; if food resources were limiting in upstream habitats, per-capita resource availability would be lower and density-dependent competition would drive selection for larger but fewer, more competitive offspring. Future work should quantify longitudinal changes in productivity and conduct experiments to decouple the effects of stream order and fish density dependence.

  11. Comparison of the acute toxicity for gamma-cyhalothrin and lambda-cyhalothrin to zebra fish and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Cai, D J; Shan, Z J; Chen, W L; Poletika, Nick; Gao, X W

    2007-03-01

    Gamma-cyhalothrin 15CS (GCH) contains only the active stereoisomer of the two isomers found in lambda-cyhalothrin 25EW (LCH). GCH (0.5 x rate) provides equivalent overall insect control as LCH (1 x rate). Both formulations showed high acute toxicity to zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio H.B.) and shrimp (Macrobrachium nippoensis de Haan). The 96-h LC(50(zebra fish,GCH)) is 1.93 microg a.i/L and LC(50(zebra fish,LCH)) is 1.94 microg a.i/L. LC(50(shrimp,GCH)) is 0.28 microg a.i./L and LC(50(shrimp,LCH)) 0.04 microg a.i./L. This indicates that the toxicity to shrimp is likely stereochemistry-dependent. The fates of GCH and LCH are similar in laboratory simulated rice paddy water and their concentrations decrease rapidly, with no GCH or LCH detected after 3 or 4 days. Both are toxic to shrimp in a simulated paddy irrigation reservoir even though treated return water is diluted 5 times. No shrimp fatality is shown in the GCH-treated paddy water after a 4-day holding period, and longer than 5 days is necessary to reach a zero fatality rate for LCH. This is compatible with the 7-day water holding period considered reasonable in agricultural practice.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals contamination and human health risk in shrimp collected from different farms and rivers at Khulna-Satkhira region, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, T; Alam, M Masihul; Parvin, N; Fardous, Z; Chowdhury, Alamgir Z; Hossain, S; Haque, M E; Biswas, N

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the heavy metals contamination and health risk in Shrimp ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Penaeus monodon ) collected from Khulna-Satkhira region in Bangladesh. The results showed that the Pb concentrations (0.52-1.16 mg/kg) in all shrimp samples of farms were higher than the recommended limit. The Cd levels (0.05-0.13 mg/kg) in all samples and Cr levels in all farms except tissue content at Satkhira farm were higher than the permissible limits. The individual concentration of Pb, Cd, and Cr between shrimp tissue and shell in all rivers and farms were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were estimated to assess the non-carcinogenic health risks. Shrimp samples from all locations under the current study were found to be safe for consumption, the possibility of health risk associated with non-carcinogenic effect is very low for continuous consumption for 30 years.

  13. A Layman's Guide to Geothermal Aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kenan C.

    1981-01-01

    The following paper is designed as an aid to anyone contemplating a venture into commercially raising giant freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Oregon Institute of Technology has been actively involved in a research program to determine the feasibility of such a venture and results to date have been very encouraging. This aquaculture research was initiated in 1975 and was developed as an effort to utilize excess energy from the school’s geothermal heating system. Therefore, most of the information gathered here, will apply to flow-through systems which use geothermal water to maintain a suitable environment for the animals. A study of the market potential for freshwater prawns has been conducted and a favorable response received from wholesale distributors in the Pacific Northwest. Not only is a good market available, but distributors have suggested paying from $4.50 to $5.00 per pound for whole prawns in the size category of 16 to 20 tails to the pound, for a constant fresh supply. By maintaining constant temperatures of 27 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) ± 1 degree Celsius in our research ponds, we have been able to produce this size prawn in 6 to 8 months.

  14. Acute toxicity of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan to the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrochium rosenbergii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xilin; Xiong, Zhaodi; Xie, Jian; Ding, Fujiang

    2014-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is highly toxic and effective at controlling pests in agriculture, horticulture, and public health programs. In this study, static bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater prawns ( Macrobrachium rosenbergii) of various lengths (1.5±0.03, 4±0.08, and 7±0.06 cm). Additionally, the activities of peroxidase (POD), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Na+/K+-ATPase were analyzed to reflect the effects of endosulfan exposure. The 96 h LC50 of endosulfan for prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long were 1.86, 4.53, and 6.09 μg/L, respectively, improved tolerance to endosulfan with growth. The POD activities of test organisms exposed to low concentrations of endosulfan were inhibited, indicating the presence of oxygen damaged tissue. Moreover, a notable decrease in AChE activity was observed due to overstimulation of neurotransmission, which might result in abnormal behavior. The effect caused by endosulfan on phosphatase production in the hepatopancreas of prawns 1.5, 4, and 7 cm long was different because the ability of nonspecific immune regulation increased with growth. The 96 h LC50 values obtained in this study could be used in the formulation of water-quality criteria in China. Moreover, the changes in enzymes activities of M. rosenbergii under stress of endosulfan could be applied in the establishment of early warning indicators for bio-safety.

  15. PERSPECTIVAS DE SUSTENTABILIDADE ECOLÓGICA DO TURISMO EM XINGÓ, SE/AL / TOURISM ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY PERSPECTIVES IN XINGÓ, SERGIPE AND ALAGOAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Braghini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A busca da sustentabilidade em várias dimensões implica olhar para o desenvolvimento local nos territórios em que o turismo ocorre. Este estudo analisou de forma sistêmica a relação entre turismo, gastronomia local e os recursos extraídos do rio São Francisco pela pesca artesanal, na região de Xingó, Nordeste do Brasil. A área de estudo abrangeu três municípios, Poço Redondo/SE, Canindé de São Francisco/SE e Piranhas/AL. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, intencional e não probabilística, utilizando entrevistas com roteiro estruturado e aberto, junto aos restaurantes, pescadores artesanais e gestores públicos, visitas locais de reconhecimento, construção de mapa coletivo com pescadores e elaboração de diagramas de alças causais, visando selecionar indicadores de sustentabilidade. Os resultados indicaram o Surubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix e Agassiz, 1829, Pitu Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tubarana Salminus hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850, os pescados típicos mais vendidos, no entanto, dependem de distribuidores e de estoques externos. Observou-se que a redução do pescado na região deveu-se à barragem da UHE de Xingó e a sobrepesca. O fluxo turístico crescente tem forte influência sobre o camarão Pitu. Os indicadores ambientais selecionados apontam necessidade de sistematização de informações sobre a produção pesqueira e o consumo nos restaurantes.Palavras-chaves: Sustentabilidade; Turismo; Xingó; Rio São Francisco; CaatingaABSTRACTThe carrying support and the development of the local tourism involve different looks on its dimensions in the area where it occurs. This study examined in a systematic way the sustainability of tourism in the Northeast - Brazil, region of Xingó: the resources tourist and local gastronomy. The study area covers three districts: Poço Redondo and Canindé do São Francisco at Sergipe and in the state of Alagoas at Piranhas. This research

  16. Primeiro registro da utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros na cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328 First account on the use of fishing resources as medicines in the city of São Félix, Bahia State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1328

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nascimento Andrade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute a utilização medicinal de recursos pesqueiros pelos moradores da cidade de São Félix, Estado da Bahia. O trabalho de campo foi realizado entre maio de 2004 a março de 2005, entrevistando-se 29 indivíduos de ambos os sexos com idades que variaram de 11 a 79 anos. As informações foram obtidas junto a pescadores e a suas famílias por meio de entrevistas abertas e semi-estruturadas. A maior parte das entrevistas foi gravada, usando-se micro-gravador, sempre com o consentimento dos informantes. As transcrições feitas em caderno de campo encontram-se mantidas no Laboratório de Etnobiologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Estado da Bahia. Espécimes de peixes foram coletados, identificados e depositados no Laboratório de Ictiologia da UEFS. Os resultados mostram que, no sistema de classificação etnoictiológico dos pescadores de São Félix, diferentes organismos não sistematicamente relacionados são incluídos no domínio etnozoológico “Peixe”. Por essa razão, sete etnoespécies de peixes foram citadas como recursos medicinais: bagre (Genidens genidens, camarão (Macrobrachium sp., cambotá (Callichthys sp., piau (Leporinus sp., piranha (Serrasalmus branditi, peixe-boi (Trichechus sp. e traíra (Hoplias malabaricus. Esses animais fornecem matérias-primas que são utilizadas na elaboração de medicamentos que visam tratar e/ou curar enfermidades diagnosticadas localmente. O registro escrito da medicina tradicional implica conservação da cultural local, além de permitir que os recursos zooterapêuticos possam ser avaliados quanto à provável existência de compostos biologicamente ativosThis article deals with the medicinal use of fishing resources by the inhabitants of São Félix, Bahia State. Fieldwork was carried out from May 2004 to March 2005 by interviewing 29 individuals of both sexes, whose ages ranged from 11 to 79 years old. Data were obtained by means of open-ended interviews

  17. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS DAN RELUNG MAKANAN IKAN PASCA INTRODUKSI IKAN PATIN SIAM (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus DI WADUK MALAHAYU, KABUPATEN BREBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunto Purnomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studi tentang struktur komunitas ikan dan pembagian sumber daya pakan ikan pasca introduksi ikan patin siam (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus di Waduk Malahayu (620 ha dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi jenis ikan, preferensi makanan, dan luas relung tiap jenis ikan. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan menggunakan metode survei pada bulan Agustus sampai Nopember 2009 dan bulan Maret sampai Oktober 2010. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa struktur komunitas ikan terdiri atas 13 jenis ikan, yang didominansi oleh ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus, udang (Macrobrachium sp., dan gabus (Channa striata. Jenis-jenis sumber daya pakan yang dimanfaatkan oleh ikan adalah fitoplankton (20%, detritus (19%, zooplankton (17%, insekta (11%, tumbuhan air (9%, ikan (9%, udang (9%, dan moluska (6%. Ikan patin siam, mujair (Oreochromis mossambicus, dan beunteur (Puntius binotatus bersifat generalis karena mampu memanfaatkan semua sumber daya pakan alami yang tersedia. Ikan sili (Macrognathus aculeatus dan keting (Mystus nigriceps lebih bersifat spesialis karena hanya memanfaatkan insekta sebagai makanan utamanya. Peluang kompetisi antara ikan patin siam (diintroduksikan tahun 2009 dan ikan nila relatif kecil sebab sumber daya pakan utamanya berbeda, yaitu ikan patin siam memanfaatkan moluska sebagai makanan utamanya sedangkan ikan nila sebagian memanfaatkan fitoplankton. Hasil tangkapan ikan di waduk ini berkisar antara 34,3-1.323,1 ton/tahun dengan rata-rata 157,3 ton/tahun.   Malahayu Reservoir located in Brebes Regency, was impounded in 1930, with a surface area of 620 hectares, a mean water depth of 8 m. Its main function are flood control and irrigation. Study on fish community structure and food resource partitioning of fishes in Malahayu Reservoir were conducted from August to November 2009 and March to October 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the existing condition of fish resources, with emphasis on species composition, food preferency, and

  18. Genetic diversity analysis in Malaysian giant prawns using expressed sequence tag microsatellite markers for stock improvement program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atin, K H; Christianus, A; Fatin, N; Lutas, A C; Shabanimofrad, M; Subha, B

    2017-08-17

    The Malaysian giant prawn is among the most commonly cultured species of the genus Macrobrachium. Stocks of giant prawns from four rivers in Peninsular Malaysia have been used for aquaculture over the past 25 years, which has led to repeated harvesting, restocking, and transplantation between rivers. Consequently, a stock improvement program is now important to avoid the depletion of wild stocks and the loss of genetic diversity. However, the success of such an improvement program depends on our knowledge of the genetic variation of these base populations. The aim of the current study was to estimate genetic variation and differentiation of these riverine sources using novel expressed sequence tag-microsatellite (EST-SSR) markers, which not only are informative on genetic diversity but also provide information on immune and metabolic traits. Our findings indicated that the tested stocks have inbreeding depression due to a significant deficiency in heterozygotes, and F IS was estimated as 0.15538 to 0.31938. An F-statistics analysis suggested that the stocks are composed of one large panmictic population. Among the four locations, stocks from Johor, in the southern region of the peninsular, showed higher allelic and genetic diversity than the other stocks. To overcome inbreeding problems, the Johor population could be used as a base population in a stock improvement program by crossing to the other populations. The study demonstrated that EST-SSR markers can be incorporated in future marker assisted breeding to aid the proper management of the stocks by breeders and stakeholders in Malaysia.

  19. Microbiological Quality of Some Major Fishery Products Exported from India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat, A. S.; Bandekar, J. R.M.; Karani, S.; Jadhav, R.; Shashidhar, A.; Kakatkar, S.; Pingulkar, K.; Ghadge, N; Warrier, S. B.R.; Venugopal, V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Panda, K. [Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai (India); Bhat, A. [Vikram University, Ujjain (India)

    2005-01-15

    The export quality marine and aquaculture fish and fishery products were collected from European Union Approved (EUA) and EU-non-approved (EUN) plants located at east and west coast of India and were analysed for the presence of human bacterial pathogens using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 126 samples comprising of 26 marine shrimp (Penaeus indicus), 18 freshwater prawn, scampi (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), 40 squid (Loligo sp.), six cuttle fish (Sepia sp.), 30 rohu (Lobia rohita) and six long fin herring (Citrocentrus sp.) were analysed. The samples were screened for aerobic plate count (APC) and pathogens including Salmonella spp., Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica. It was observed that the marine products from EUN plants were of poorer microbiological quality as compared with products from EUA plants. Samples of squid (40%) and shrimp (28.5%) from EUN plants were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. However, V. cholerae, L. monocytogenes, and, Y. enterocolitica were not detected in any of the samples tested. Shrimp samples (28%) from EUN plants were positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Shrimp (14.3%) and squid (40%) were also contaminated with coagulase positive S. aureus. Salmonella contamination was observed in 16.7% of the cuttle fish samples from EUN plants. Whole herring samples were of acceptable microbiological quality. Of the freshwater items analyzed, whole rohu samples had higher microbial load as compared to processed rohu samples. All the rohu samples were free from the pathogens, however, 25% of the rohu steak samples had E. coli exceeding the limit of 20 cfu/g. Both whole as well as headless scampi harboured higher microbial load; whole (50%) and headless (41%) scampi samples were contaminated with Salmonella spp. The results suggested a need for implementation of better hygienic practices for the improvement of microbial

  20. Value-chain analysis of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa used for on-farm feeds in the freshwater prawn farming sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A. Nahid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii sector in Bangladesh since 1970s has been supported by natural availability of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa, used for on-farm prawn feeds. The present study identified the current configuration of the value-chain benefits and constraints of freshwater apple snail in south-western Bangladesh in August 2011, based upon Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA approach. The site of snail collection was Chanda Beel in Gopalganj district, while trading, processing and final consumption was represented by Rayer Mahal Bazar in Khulna district. There were seven different nodes recognized throughout the value chain. Snail marketing was identified as a seasonal business and took place during June to November each year. Between 1995 and 2011 the price of whole snail, meat and shell has increased by 800%, 325% and 315%, respectively. The abundance of snail had been reduced and its demand has increased due to the expansion of the prawn farming industry. Prawn farmers preferred snail meat due to its’ low cost (US$ 0.21 kg-1 as a source of protein compared to commercial prawn feed (US$ 0.41 kg-1. Snail harvesting and processing were considered as additional livelihood options for the poor, where 60% of the labour involved in snail harvesting were women, and 95% the de-shelling workforce. Induced breeding in captivity and sustainable management in nature as well as development of commercial production of apple snails might reduce the pressure on ecosystems and positively contributed to the continued expansion of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh.

  1. Poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate content and dose of the bacterial carrier for Artemia enrichment determine the performance of giant freshwater prawn larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Truong Quoc; Wille, Mathieu; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter; De Schryver, Peter

    2014-06-01

    The beneficial effects of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) for aquaculture animals have been shown in several studies. The strategy of applying PHB contained in a bacterial carrier has, however, hardly been considered. The effect of administering PHB-accumulated Alcaligenes eutrophus H16 containing 10 or 80 % PHB on dry weight, named A10 and A80, respectively, through the live feed Artemia was investigated on the culture performance of larvae of the giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). Feeding larvae with Artemia nauplii enriched in a medium containing 100 and 1,000 mg L(-1) A80 significantly increased the survival with about 15 % and the development of the larvae with a larval stage index of about 1 as compared to feeding non-enriched Artemia. The survival of the larvae also significantly increased with about 35 % in case of a challenge with Vibrio harveyi. The efficiency of these treatments was equal to a control treatment of Artemia enriched in an 800 mg L(-1) PHB powder suspension, while Artemia enriched in 10 mg L(-1) A80, 100 mg L(-1) A10, and 1,000 mg L(-1) A10 did not bring similar effects. From our results, it can be concluded that PHB supplemented in a bacterial carrier (i.e., amorphous PHB) can increase the larviculture efficiency of giant freshwater prawn similar to supplementation of PHB in powdered form (i.e., crystalline PHB). When the level of PHB in the bacterial carrier is high, similar beneficial effects can be achieved as crystalline PHB, but at a lower live food enrichment concentration expressed on PHB basis.

  2. Habitat Preferences and Distribution of the Freshwater Shrimps of the Genus Caridina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae in Lake Lindu, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annawaty Annawaty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to reveal ecological preferences and distribution of all species of Caridina found in Lake Lindu and their catchment area. Specimens from 39 sampling sites were caught using tray net and hand net. There are three species of Caridina found in the lake system, i.e. Caridina linduensis, Caridina kaili and Caridina dali. There is no overlapping distribution among the species. Caridina kaili is a true riverine species and it is never encountered sympatric with C. dali nor C. linduensis. This species is abundant in streams and ditches with moderate flow running water and gravel–cobble substrate. It is mainly spread within streams west to the lake. Both C. dali and C. linduensis can be found in the lake and streams with very slow current to almost stagnant water, muddy sand substrate and associated with roots of water plants and leaf litter. However, C. dali is never occurred together with C. linduensis and they are less abundant compare to C. kaili. Distribution of Caridina spp. in Lake Lindu is probably affected by the temperature of their habitats and the occurrence of introduced fish such as Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus, common carp (Cyprinus carpio, and an alien riceland prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri. These introduced and alien species can have the potency to become predators or competitors for the Caridina spp. It is also the first record for M. lanchesteri present in Lake Lindu.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates TNF production and haemocyte phagocytosis in the immune response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoqun; Yang, Bin; Jia, Yunke; Song, Xiaorui; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-08-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase firstly identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis. Recently, it has been proved to be a key regulator of the immune reaction. In the present study, a GSK3 homolog gene (designated as EsGSK3) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1824 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 607 amino acids. There was a conserved Serine/Threonine Kinase domain and a DNA binding domain found in EsGSK3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsGSK3 was firstly clustered with GSK3-β from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in the invertebrate branch, while GSK3s from vertebrates formed the other distinct branch. EsGSK3 mRNA transcripts could be detected in all tested tissues of the crab including haepatopancreas, eyestalk, muscle, gonad, haemocytes and haematopoietic tissue with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas. And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of EsGSK3 mRNA increased significantly at 6 h after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge (p level at 48 h (p > 0.05). The mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α factor (EsLITAF) was also induced by A. hydrophila challenge. However, the mRNA expression of EsLITAF and TNF-α production was significantly suppressed after EsGSK3 was blocked in vivo with specific inhibitor lithium, while the phagocytosis of crab haemocytes was significantly promoted. These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dosimetric consideration of polonium-210 for Tiruchirappalli public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the committed effective dose equivalent from polonium-210 to the public of Tiruchirappalli district in south India on consumption of cereals, vegetables and animal food. It is demonstrated that the activity of 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed between cereals, vegetables and animal food. Among cereals, the green gram recorded a higher activity of 210 Po (0.62 Bq.kg -1 ) than the others tested. The study also recorded a relatively enhanced activity in raw rice (0.90 Bq.kg -1 ) than in boiled rice (0.03 Bq.kg -1 ). Among vegetables, the tubers accumulated more 210 Po than the shoot growing vegetables. The muscle of prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) recorded the highest level of 210 Po activity (13.9 Bq.kg -1 ) among the animal food. With reference to dosimetry, the animal food was identified to contribute higher radiation dose (0.38-29.5 μSv.y -1 ) than the cereals (0.05 - 1.9 μSv.y -1 ) and vegetables (0.05 - 1.9 μSv.y -1 ). Among animal food, the fish contributed a substantial level of α radiation dose to man. Though activity in raw rice was higher than the activity in boiled rice, the dose delivered from raw rice was substantially low since the average consumption of this rice represents only 7 kg.y -1 when compared to the consumption of boiled rice (108 kg.y -1 ). From the dose estimates made, it was evident that the total dose received by the general public (2.7 μSv.y -1 ) from 210 Po was well below the dose limit of 1mSv.y -1 . (author)

  5. 210-Polonium studies in some environmental and biological matrices of Domiasiat uranium deposit area, West Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbaniang, Deswyn G; Poddar, Raj K; Nongkynrih, Phlis; Khathing, Darlando T

    2010-03-01

    The study was performed using a silicon surface barrier alpha spectrometer at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. Through the study, the observed (210)Po activity in water sample from different locations in the Domiasiat area ranges from 0.04 to 0.69 Bq/l. The daily and annual intake of (210)Po through water was also estimated and the mean value of 0.72 and 263.61 Bq, respectively, were observed. It is observed that the effective doses through water were higher than the World Health Organization recommended dose of 0.05 mSv/year. The total annual effective doses through terrestrial ingestion for all the locations was studied and the mean annual effective dose was observed to be 0.315 mSv, which, when compared to the worldwide and the Indian values, was observed to be slightly higher. The mean activity in soil is found to be 124.8 +/-5.7 Bq/kg and in meat the activity is 0.43 +/-0.05 Bq/kg. In fishes, an activity of 0.48 +/-0.07 Bq/kg in Garra lamta, 0.29 +/-0.02 Bq/kg in Neolissocheilus hexaganolepis, and 3.3 +/-0.1 Bq/kg in Macrobrachium sp. is observed. Activity concentration in plant samples was analyzed and the activity ranges from 0.020 +/-0.002 to 9.69 +/-0.35 Bq/kg. Committed effective dose by the adult population of the Domiasiat area through intake of (210)Po through these food items was also determined and compared with the Indian average value and the worldwide average value.

  6. Presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-like peptide in the central nervous system and reproductive organs of the male blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus, and its effect on spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senarai, Thanyaporn; Saetan, Jirawat; Tamtin, Montakan; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sobhon, Prasert; Sretarugsa, Prepee

    2016-08-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (lGnRH-III)-like peptide occurs in the central nervous system (CNS) of decapod crustaceans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Penaeus monodon, Portunus pelagicus), and that lGnRH-III is the most potent in stimulating ovarian maturation compared with other GnRH isoforms. In this study, we examined the localization of lGnRH-III-like peptide in the CNS and male reproductive organs of the blue swimming crab by using anti-lGnRH-III as a probe. In the brain, lGnRH-III immunoreactivity (-ir) was detected in neurons of clusters 6, 10, 11, 14/15, 16, and 17 and in many neuropils. In the subesophageal ganglion, lGnRH-III-ir was present in neurons of the dorso-lateral and ventro-medial clusters. In the thoracic ganglia, lGnRH-III-ir was observed in the large-sized neurons between the thoracic neuropils and in the ventromedial cluster of the abdominal ganglia. In the testis, lGnRH-III-ir was detected in nurse cells, hemocytes, spermatids 2, and the outer and inner zones of the acrosomes of spermatozoa. Bioassay showed that lGnRH-III significantly increased the testis-somatic index, the percentage of late stages of seminiferous tubules (stages VII-IX), the diameter of the seminiferous tubules, and the number of BrdU-labeled early germ cells compared with the control groups. Thus, lGnRH-III-like peptide exists in the male crab and possibly enhances germ cell proliferation and maturation in the testes, leading to increased sperm production.

  7. One precursor, three apolipoproteins: the relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.

  8. CULTIVO DE MILHO SOB INFLUÊNCIA DE RENQUES DE PARICÁ EM SISTEMA DE INTEGRAÇÃO LAVOURA-PECUÁRIA-FLORESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arystides Resende Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de sistemas de integração Lavoura-Pecuária-Floresta (iLPF tem aumentado em função deste sistema proporcionar produção mais eficiente de alimento e madeira de forma sustentável com uma maior produção por área. O sucesso desses sistemas está relacionado com alguns fatores, como o cultivo de espécies tolerantes ao sombreamento e práticas de manejo que permitam a sua produtividade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o milho BRS 1030 cultivado sob influência de renques de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum em sistema de integração Lavoura-Pecuária-Floresta. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por cultivo de milho consorciado com forragem (Brachiaria ruziziensis em parcelas distantes 2,5 m, 5 m e 10 m em relação à linha de plantio do paricá com 3 anos de cultivo. Avaliou-se a altura de planta e espiga, a produção de grãos e estande de plantas. As variáveis altura de planta e altura de espiga não apresentaram diferença significativa em função da distância entre os renques de árvores. O sombreamento dos renques de paricá não afetou a produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1 e saca.ha-1 do milho quando comparado as distâncias entre os renques de árvores e as linhas da cultura. Os renques de paricá com três anos de cultivo na área de estudo não afetou o desenvolvimento do milho em consórcio com forragem.

  9. Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E; Santos, J de F L; Rodrigues, E

    2017-05-05

    hypothetical correlations between CBS as described by the riverine population studied and some "etic" terms. The main importance of this is to help the proposition of target-oriented pharmacological studies of the natural resources used by these communities. Accordingly, the following plants are suggested to be submitted to further studies for antidepressant and anxiolytic activities: Siparuna guianensis, Mansoa alliacea, Leucas martinicensis, Petiveria alliacea, Annona montana and Alpinia nutans; for anti-seizure activity: Protium amazonicum, Protium aracouchini and Protium heptaphyllum; finally for antispasmodic activity: Leucas martinicensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Métodos para atrair e repelir a abelha Apis mellifera (L. em cultura de maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036 Methods to attract and repel Africanize honey bees Apis mellifera, L., to passion fruit (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2036

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    Marta Maria Rossi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Campus Ribeirão Preto, Estado de São Paulo, e teve como objetivos observar a eficiência dos extratos de capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum L. e falsa melissa (Lippia alba, como atrativos, e citronela (C. nardus, extratos de orégano, pimenta-do-reino, canela e cravo, como repelentes, que foram comparados a outros atrativos (eugenol e linalol e repelentes (n.octyl.acetato, 2.heptanona e citronellal, obtidos comercialmente, para a A. mellifera. Foram estudados, ainda, os insetos visitantes nas flores do maracujá amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg., além de testar plantas-iscas para essas abelhas. Os produtos testados in vitro e, posteriormente, testados tanto pulverizados quanto em tubos, não foram eficientes para atrair ou repelir a abelha Apis mellifera. Os produtos n.octyl.acetato e citronellal repeliram completamente tanto as abelhas africanizadas quanto as Xylocopa, não devendo ser utilizado em cultivos comerciais. O girassol (Hellianthus annuus e o cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus podem ser utilizados como alternativas para afastar a abelha A. mellifera das flores do maracujá.This experiment was carried out at Centro Universitário Moura Lacerda, Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil, to study Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L. attractives and repellents in vitro, in tubes and on passion fruit flowers (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa flavicarpa Deg.. Visiting insects were studied in flowers and also, bait-plants to Africanized honey bees were tested. The products were not effective in attracting and repelling the honey bee in vitro and in tube tests. The chemicals n.octyl.acetato and citronellal were repellent to honey bees and Xylocopa bees on passion fruit flowers. Sunflower (Hellianthus annuus and cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus flowers can be used to remove Africanized honey bees from passion fruit crops.

  11. A travessia da terra vermelha: uma saga dos refugiados judeus no Brasil

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    Lucius de Melo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os olhos da soprano viravam pássaros. Fugiam da máscara num sonoro e acelerado bater de asas porque, assim como a boca, também gostavam de cantar. A mágica que os subtraía do rosto fazia da vida uma ilusionista e da cabeça de Nora Naumann, uma cartola. Transformava os olhos em alados e afinados cantores para também tentar libertá-los da gaiola intransponível da memória. Mas, eles nada mais eram que o passado em forma de passarinho. Desprendiam-se com facilidade do corpo para voar sem pressa e prazerosamente sobre os campos verdes formados pelas copas das árvores da infinita floresta brasileira. Voavam sobre as perobas, cedros, caviúnas, marfim, canjeranas, óleo-pardo, canelas, amoreiras, araucárias e as gigantescas e imponentes figueiras brancas cujas raízes aéreas se derramavam tronco abaixo. Rodopiando como um casal em passos de valsa, desviavam do tucano solitário e do bando de papagaios tagarelas da ponta da asa vermelha. Também chegavam às praias tropicais e, misturadas às gaivotas e fragatas, voavam, voavam, ora dando rasantes sobre o mar ora furando as nuvens; depois atravessavam o oceano, cruzavam as montanhas nevadas da Europa, até pousarem cansados sobre o piano de cauda da Escola de Música de Dresden ou no palco de Teatro de Dusseldorf, na Alemanha. Só então descansavam, e, em seguida, voltavam acelerados ao interior do Brasil, cortando o céu como estrelas cadentes, cruzando a escuridão da noite, até chegarem bem perto das tímidas chamas que dançavam sobre as pontas das enferrujadas e oleosas lamparinas. Trêmulas luzes que iluminavam um pedaço de peroba-rosa enfeitado com letras talhadas à mão que identificavam o nome da singela casa de espetáculos: Ópera dos Grilos.

  12. Alelopatia de extratos voláteis na germinação de sementes e no comprimento da raiz de alface Allelopathy of plant volatile extracts on seed germination and radicle length of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Sampaio Alves

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais na germinação e no comprimento da raiz de plântulas de alface. Foram utilizadas cinco concentrações de cada óleo (0,0, 0,001, 0,01, 0,1 e 1,0%, v/v, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes de alface. Os extratos voláteis de óleos essenciais de canela, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela e alfavaca-cravo evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas na germinação e comprimento das raízes de plântulas de alface, efeitos que variaram de acordo com a concentração do óleo. O extrato volátil de óleo de jaborandi estimula o crescimento da radícula e não provoca inibição da germinação de sementes de alface, caracterizando-se como de efeito alelopático benéfico.The objective of this work was to identify allelopathic effects of volatile extracts of essential oils on germination and radicle length of lettuce seedlings. Five concentrations were utilized for each oil (0.0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0%, v/v arranged into a completely randomized design with four replicates of 25 seeds. The volatile extracts of essential oils of cinnamon, alecrim-pimenta, capim-citronela and alfavaca-cravo revealed allelopathic potentialities on lettuce seed germination and radicle growth, effect which varied according to the oil concentration. The volatile extract of Jaborandi essential oil stimulates radicle growth and does not inhibit lettuce seeds germination, which is characterized as a beneficial allelopathic effect.

  13. Avaliação do fosfato de rocha com baixo teor de flúor na alimentação de eqüinos em crescimento Evaluation of rock phosphate with low fluorine level in diets for growing horses

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    Mauro Dal Secco de Oliveira

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 18 potras com idade média de 11 meses e peso vivo médio de 250 kg, alimentadas com 3 dietas contendo fosfato bicálcico (FB; 50% de fosfato bicálcico mais 50% fosfato de rocha de Tapira (BT e fosfato de rocha de Tapira (FT, incorporados ao concentrado (1,5% do peso vivo/animal/dia e ao sal mineralizado (50 g/animal/dia. O nível médio de flúor nas dietas FB, BT e FT foi, respectivamente, de 53,0; 90,0 e 184,0 ppm. O consumo diferenciado de fluoreto nas diferentes dietas não acarretou efeitos sobre os parâmetros ganho de peso, perímetro torácico, perímetro do joelho e perímetro da canela. Os animais que receberam a dieta contendo exclusivamente fosfato de rocha apresentaram menor aumento de altura na cernelha (1,27cm quando comparados àqueles que receberam dietas contendo fosfato bicálcico (1,55 e 1,30cm.Eighteen fillies of Brasileiro de Hipismo breed with initial age between 9 and 12 months and 250kg of average weight were used in a complete block design, during a five-month trial to evaluate the use of three different inorganic phosphorus sources. The sources were dicalcium phosphate (FB, half and half dicalcium phosphate/Tapira rock phosphate mixture (BT and Tapira rock phosphate (FT. They were added to a basal concentrate, given at the rate of 1.5% of average body weight and to a mineralized salt, of which 50 g/animal was offered daily. The mean fluoride level (concentrate plus salt in diets FB, BT and FT was 53, 90 and 184 ppm respectively. The mean monthly withers height gain was 1.55 (FB, 1.30 (BT and 1.27cm (FT and there was a significant difference between FB and FT diets.

  14. Desempenho e parâmetros sangüíneos de eqüinos em crescimento submetidos a dietas com diferentes níveis de farelo de canola Performance and blood parameters of growing equine fed diets with different levels of canola meal

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    Kátia de Oliveira

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando potros, avaliaram-se dietas em que a proteína do farelo de soja foi substituído em diferentes níveis (0; 35; 65 e 100% pela do farelo de canola. As rações foram isoprotéicas ( 17% PB e isocalóricas (4200 kcal/kg. Foram utilizados 16 eqüinos da raça Mangalarga, sendo oito machos e oito fêmeas, com média de dez meses e 218 kg PV inicial, consumindo um total de 2,5% PV, na matéria seca (MS. A dieta era composta por 40% de volumoso e 60% de concentrado. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, considerando quatro blocos e quatro tratamentos. Não se verificou efeito dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis de desempenho (ganho diário de peso vivo, altura na cernelha, perímetro torácico e perímetro da canela e parâmetros sangüíneos (glicose e uréia dos potros em crescimento. Nos concentrados para potros dos 9 a 11,5 meses de idade, o farelo de soja pode ser substituído pelo farelo de canola.Diets composed by four different levels (0; 53; 65 and 100% of canola meal replacing soybean meal crude protein (CP were evaluated using foals. The diets were isoproteic (17% CP and isocaloric (4200 kcal/kg. Sixteen Managalarga breed foals, eight males and eight females, averaging 10 months and 218 kg LW, fed a total intake of 2.5% LW on dry matter (DM basis were used. The diet was composed by 60:40 forage to concentrate ratio. A completely block experimental design, with four blocks and four treatments, was used. There were no effect of treatments on the performance variables (average daily gain, wither height, heart girth and cannon bone circumference and blood parameters (glucose and urea of growing foals. In the concentrate for growing foals from 9 to 11.5 months old, the soybean meal can be replaced by canola meal.

  15. O crescimento da Nectandra megapotamica Mez., em floresta nativa na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul The growth of the Nectandra megapotamica Mez., in natural forest in the central depression of the State of the Rio grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Helio Tonini

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o crescimento em diâmetro, volume comercial, fator de forma comercial e incremento corrente anual do volume comercial em porcentagem (ICA% para duas árvores dominantes de canela-preta (Nectandra megapotamica, em uma Floresta Estacional Decidual, localizada no município de Santa Maria na depressão central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram obtidos mediante análise de tronco e as tendências de crescimento em diâmetro, volume comercial, fator de forma e ICA%, foram ajustados com a utilização dos modelos de Mitscherlich & Sontag (1982, Backman (1943, Richards (1959, e um modelo parabólico do segundo grau. O ajuste dos modelos indicou que, para as variáveis diâmetro e volume comercial, o melhor modelo foi o de Mitscherlich & Sontag, para a árvore 1,sendo que, para a árvore 2, o modelo de Richards apresentou melhor ajuste. Para o incremento corrente anual do volume comercial em porcentagem, o melhor modelo foi o de Backmam, sendo o modelo parabólico, o de melhor ajuste para o fator de forma comercial.This work was carried out with the objective of studying the growth in diameter, commercial volume, form factor, mean annual increment of the commercial volume in percentage for two dominant trees of Nectandra megapotamica, in a Decidual Seasonal Forest, located in the municipal district of Santa Maria in the central depression of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data were obtained from stem analysis and the growth trend in diameter, commercial volume, form factor and mean annual increment of the commercial volume in percentage, were fitted using the models of Mitscherlich & Sontag (1982, Backman (1943, Richards (1959, and a second degree parabolic model. The adjustment of the models indicated that for the diameter and commercial volume, the best model was that one from Mitscherlich & Sontag, for tree number one and for tree number two, the Richard's model

  16. The ENVISAT Atmospheric Chemistry mission (GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY) -Instrument status and mission evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Angelika

    atmospheric instruments and their applications: GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY", ESA Bulletin (ISSN 0376-4265), No. 106, p. 77 -87 (2001) [2] J. Frerick, B. Duesmann, and M. Canela, "2010 and beyond -The ENVISAT mission extension", Proc. `Envisat Symposium 2007', Montreux, Switzerland, 23-27 April 2007 (ESA SP-636, July 2007)

  17. Influência dos compostos fenólicos de especiarias sobre a lipoperoxidação e o perfil lipídico de tecidos de ratos Influence of spices phenolic compounds on lipoperoxidation and lipid profile of rats tissues

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    Ana Vládia Bandeira Moreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho avaliou o efeito antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos de uma mistura de especiarias (mostarda, canela e erva-doce sobre o metabolismo dos ácidos graxos das séries ômega3 e ômega6. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar recém desmamados receberam dieta rica em gorduras essenciais e um chá de especiarias. Após 45 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e tiveram seus tecidos coletados para análise das substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico e perfil lipídico. RESULTADOS: O chá fornecido aos animais apresentou atividade antioxidante equivalente ao hidroxitolueno butilado. Foram identificados no chá, os ácidos fenólicos catecol, salicílico e caféico; as enzimas cicloxigenase e lipoxigenase foram inibidas pelos extratos ricos nestes ácidos fenólicos. O perfil de ácidos graxos apresenta diferença entre os grupos teste e controles. Todos os tecidos dos grupos teste apresentaram menores valores em lipoperoxidação, em comparação aos controles. CONCLUSÃO: Estes dados sugerem, portanto, um efeito antioxidante das substâncias fenólicas identificadas na mistura das especiarias, sobre os ácidos graxos das séries ômega3 e ômega6.OBJECTIVE: This work analyzed the influence of the phenolic compounds from a blend of spices (mustard, cinnamon and anise on the omega3 and omega6 fatty acids metabolism. METHODS: Weaned Wistar rats received a diet rich in essencial lipids and an infusion of blended spices for 45 days. After that period, they were sacrificed their tissues were collected and analized for the TBARS and lipid profile by CGMS. RESULTS: The tea of spices showed an antioxidant activity equivalent to that of the butylated hydroxytoluene. The following phenolic acids were identified in the infusion, using mass chromatography: cathecol, salicilic and cafeic; Lipooxygenase and ciclooxigenase enzymes were inhbited by the phenolic acid extracts. It was observed that the total amount of the fatty acids found in the test

  18. Weight and age at puberty and their correlations with morphometric measurements in crossbred breed Suffolk ewe lambs Peso e idade à puberdade e suas correlações com medidas morfométricas em cordeiras mestiças Suffolk

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    Janine de Campos Ferra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify and to correlate parameters that characterize puberty and estimate the age and weight of Suffolk ewe lambs in Mato Grosso do Sul. This study was carried out with twenty-two Suffolk ewe lambs for 256 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein and centrifugated and the plasma were stored at -20°C until analysis of progesterone (P4 concentration by radioimmunoassay (RIA. The morphometric measurements included: head length and width, body length, elbow height, chest perimeter, back-sternal diameter, croup length, width and height, cannon bone perimeter and shoulder and hip width, using a tape. The animals became pubertal when the plasma progesterone concentration was >1.0 ng/mL, at 34.1 ± 5.2 kg and 39.5 ± 8.5 weeks of age. Meanwhile, the lambs that did not reach puberty (37.7 ± 11.4 weeks of age were lighter. The morphometric measurements has medium to low correlations with age and weight at puberty.Os objetivos neste trabalho foram identificar e correlacionar parâmetros que caracterizem a puberdade e estimar a idade e o peso à puberdade de cordeiras mestiças Suffolk. Amostras de sangue de 22 borregas foram coletadas e centrifugadas e o plasma armazenado a -20 ºC para posterior análise das concentrações de progesterona (P4 por meio de radioimunoensaio. As medidas morfométricas aferidas foram: comprimento e largura da cabeça; comprimento do corpo; altura de cernelha; perímetro torácico; diâmetro dorso-esternal; comprimento, altura e largura de garupa; perímetro de canela; e largura entre ísquios e ílios, utilizando-se fita métrica. Definiu-se como início da puberdade quando os animais apresentaram concentração plasmática de P4 >1,0 ng/mL, o que ocorreu aos 34,1 ± 5,2 kg de peso vivo e 39,5 ± 8,5 semanas de idade. Entretanto, as cordeiras que não atingiram a puberdade (37,7 ± 11,4 semanas de idade apresentaram peso menor. As medidas morfométricas apresentam m

  19. OBTENÇÃO DE BARRAS DE CEREAIS DE CAJU AMEIXA COM ALTO TEOR DE FIBRAS

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    LUíSA HELENA ELLERY MOUR�O

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    As barras de cereais vêm apresentando crescimento constante junto ao público consumidor. Considerando o crescimento do segmento de barras de cereais no setor de alimentos este trabalho teve como objetivos desenvolver barras de cereais de caju ameixa com alto teor de fi bras utilizando ingredientes funcionais e matéria-prima regional; inovar no uso de ingredientes não utilizados nas formulações convencionais; realizar análises físicas, físicoquímicas e químicas e avaliar as propriedades nutricionais. Formulou-se dois tipos de barras, (F1 e (F2 a partir de uma formulação básica (FB. A FB foi processada utilizando-se aveia, fl ocos de arroz, leite em pó desnatado, açúcar mascavo, glucose de milho, gordura vegetal hidrogenada, canela, lecitina de soja e fl ocos de milho. As formulações F1 e F2 diferiram da FB nas concentrações dos ingredientes, na adição de linhaça, de caju ameixa, de castanha de caju, na substituição da gordura vegetal hidrogenada por óleo de canola e na retirada dos fl ocos de milho. A FB resultou 94,39 kcal e F1 e F2 em 95,69 kcal e 101,06 kcal respectivamente em 25g utilizando os coefi cientes de ATWATER. A modifi - cação dos ingredientes provocou aumento signifi cativo no teor de fi bra alimentar tornando as barras F1 e F2 produtos com alto teor de fi bra alimentar (10,58g e 12,69g/100g, respectivamente. Conclui-se que as barras de cereais F1 e F2 podem ser indicadas para indivíduos com constipação intestinal, dislipidemias e sobrepeso. Além disso, ambas poderiam ser enquadradas no conceito de alimento funcional, devido ao fato de conterem um maior teor de fi bras dietéticas que contribuem para a manutenção da boa saúde.

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from selected herbs cultivated in the South of Brazil against food spoilage and foodborne pathogens Composição química e atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais de plantas selecionadas cultivadas no Sul do Brasil contra micro-organismos patogênicos e deteriorantes de alimentos

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    Sheila Mello da Silveira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of 10 selected plant essential oils obtained by steam distillation was determined by GC and GC/MS. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils was screened against 12 important food-related bacterial strains by agar disc-diffusion assay. MIC and MBC were determined for the essential oils that presented the highest activity in the agar disc-diffusion test. The most active essential oils against the tested bacteria were, in descending order, lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, basil (Ocimum basilicum, oregano (Origanum vulgare, cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and laurel (Laurus nobilis. Except for S. Typhimurium, the tested bateria were inhibited at MIC values lower or equal to 0.62mg mL-1 by lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus essential oil. Yersinia enterocolitica presented the highest sensitivity to all essential oils tested (CMI≤0.62mg mL-1. There was a significant correlation (PA composição química de 10 óleos essenciais obtidos por destilação a vapor foi determinada por CG/DIC e CG/EM. A atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais foi detectada através do método de difusão em ágar frente a 12 espécies de bactérias de importância em alimentos. As CMI e CMB foram determinadas para os óleos essenciais que na difusão em ágar evidenciaram maior atividade. Os óleos essenciais que apresentaram maior atividade contra as bactérias testadas foram, em ordem decrescente, os de capim-limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, orégano (Origanum vulgare, folha de canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e louro (Laurus nobilis. Com exceção de S. Typhimurium, o óleo essencial de capim limão (Cymbopogon flexuosus apresentou valores de CMI e CMB iguais ou inferiores a 0,62mg mL-1 contra os micro-organismos testados. Yersinia enterocolitica foi o patógeno mais sensível frente a todos os óleos essenciais avaliados (CMI≤0,62mg mL-1. Foi detectada correlação significativa (P<0,05 entre os n

  1. Dinâmica da estrutura da comunidade de lauráceas no período 1995-2004 em uma floresta de araucária no sul do estado do Paraná, Brasil.

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    Geise de Góes Canalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Várias espécies da família Lauraceae estão entre as mais comuns na Floresta de Araucária. Elas possuem bom potencial silvicultural e econômico, mas são pouco estudadas. Este trabalho trata das mudanças estruturais no período 1995-2004 de oito espécies da família Lauraceae ocorrentes em um fragmento florestal localizado no centro-sul do estado do Paraná. As espécies foram analisadas pelos indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos: IVI, abundância, área basal, volume, distribuição diamétrica, distribuição espacial, recrutamento, mortalidade e incrementos. Os resultados demonstraram que, em 10 anos de dinâmica estrutural, a família Lauraceae, de maneira geral, manteve inalterada sua posição de importância na comunidade. Observou-se que as Lauráceas passam por aumento de densidade, porque o recrutamento está sendo maior que a mortalidade. Já o crescimento das Lauráceas tem sido muito baixo, tanto em diâmetro como em área basal e volume. Embora a maior parte das Lauráceas apresente um padrão dinâmico lento, algumas espécies passam por um intenso processo de mudanças, como é o caso da canela-amarela (Nectandra grandiflora Nees & Mart. ex Nees, que aumentou a maioria dos seus indicadores estruturais e dinâmicos, constituindo-se na espécie de maior destaque entre as analisadas. Essa espécie apresenta recrutamento muito superior à mortalidade, distribuição diamétrica decrescente e ampla distribuição espacial. Esses elementos estão tornando essa espécie em uma das três mais importantes em toda a comunidade, juntamente com a araucária (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze e a erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.. Concluiu-se que, em 10 anos, já é possível distinguir processos ecológicos importantes que podem servir como indicativos em Planos de Manejo para Florestas semelhantes de Araucária.

  2. Produção de serapilheira em sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado no Estado de Rondônia, Brasil Litter production in multistrata agroforestry system in Rondônia State, Brazil

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    Fernando Luíz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produção de serapilheira em diferentes coberturas frutíferas e florestais componentes de um sistema agroflorestal multiestratificado localizado no município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, RO, Brasil. As espécies avaliadas foram: mangueira (Mangifera indica L., fruta-pão (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuaçuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, abacateiro (Persea americana Mill., cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. sombreado com gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. e as espécies florestais, a bandarra (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke e a teca (Tectona grandis L.f.. Como referência foi utilizada uma área de vegetação natural (capoeira, de 8 anos de idade. A deposição anual de serapilheira entre o período de outubro de 2002 e setembro de 2003 foi de 13,38 t ha-1 para a vegetação natural, 4,02 t ha-1 para bandarra, 3,43 t ha-1 para gliricídia, 2,86 t ha-1para abacateiro, 2,54 t ha-1 para fruta-pão, 1,40 t ha-1 para o cupuaçuzeiro, 1,16 t ha-1 para o cacaueiro, 1,12 t ha-1 para mangueira e 1,07 t ha-1 para a teca. A vegetação natural, a bandarra e o cacaueiro apresentaram uma maior deposição no período seco (verão, enquanto que a fruta-pão, cupuaçuzeiro, mangueira, teca, gliricídia e abacateiro as maiores deposições foram no período chuvoso (inverno. Por outro lado a serapilheira acumulada sobre o solo foi de 14,61 t ha-1 na mangueira, 12,8 t ha-1 na bandarra, 12,73 t ha-1 na vegetação natural, 12,04 t ha-1, no abacateiro, 9,87 t ha-1 no cacaueiro/gliricídia, 9,88 t ha-1 no cupuaçuzeiro, 9,05 t ha-1 na fruta-pão e 7,39 t ha-1 na teca.One study was made to evaluate litter production in different fruitful coverings and forest components of a multistrata agroforestry system located in Ouro Preto do Oeste district (RO, Brazil. The studied species were: mango tree (Mangifera indica L., breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson Fosberg, cupuassu tree (Theobroma

  3. Severity and exposure associated to tsunami actions in urban waterfronts. The case of Lisbon, Portugal.

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    Conde, Daniel; Telhado, Maria J.; Viana Baptista, Maria A.; Antunes, Carlos M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2014-05-01

    The Tagus estuary is recognized as an exposed location to tsunami occurrences, given its proximity to tsunamigenic faults such as the Marquês de Pombal and the Horseshoe fault system. Lisbon, bordered by the Tagus estuary, is a critical point of Portugal's tsunami hazard map, having been affected by several tsunamis (Baptista and Miranda, 2009) including the notorious event of November 1st 1755, the last major natural disaster known to have inflicted massive destruction in Portugal. The main objective of this work, a joint initiative of CEHIDRO (IST - Universidade de Lisboa) and the Municipal Civil Protection Services of Lisbon, is to contribute to the quantification of severity and exposure of Lisbon waterfront to tsunami events. For that purpose, the propagation of a tsunami similar to that of the 1st November of 1755 in the Tagus estuary was numerically simulated. Several scenarios were considered, articulating the influence of tidal (low and high tides), atmospheric (increase in water level due to storm surges) and hydrological (flow discharge in Tagus river) conditions. Different initial and boundary conditions were defined for each modelling scenario but the magnitude of the tsunami remained what is believed to be an exceptional event. The extent of the inundation and relevant hydrodynamic quantities were registered for all scenarios. The employed simulation tool - STAV-2D - was developed at CEHIDRO (IST) and is based on a 2DH spatial (Eulerian) shallow-flow approach suited to complex and dynamic bottom boundaries. The discretization technique relies on a finite-volume scheme, based on a flux-splitting technique incorporating a reviewed version of the Roe Riemann solver (Canelas et al. 2013, Conde et al. 2013). STAV-2D features conservation equations for the finer solid phase of the flow and also a Lagrangian model for the advection of larger debris elements. The urban meshwork was thoroughly discretized with a mesh finer than average street width. This fine

  4. Using high-performance mathematical modelling tools to predict erosion and sediment fluxes in peri-urban catchments

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    Pereira, André; Conde, Daniel; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2017-04-01

    Deforestation and urbanization generally lead to increased soil erosion andthrough the indirect effect of increased overland flow and peak flood discharges. Mathematical modelling tools can be helpful for predicting the spatial distribution of erosion and the morphological changes on the channel network. This is especially useful to predict the impacts of land-use changes in parts of the watershed, namely due to urbanization. However, given the size of the computational domain (normally the watershed itself), the need for high spatial resolution data to model accurately sediment transport processes and possible need to model transcritical flows, the computational cost is high and requires high-performance computing techniques. The aim of this work is to present the latest developments of the hydrodynamic and morphological model STAV2D and its applicability to predict runoff and erosion at watershed scale. STAV2D was developed at CEris - Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa - as a tool particularly appropriated to model strong transient flows in complex and dynamic geometries. It is based on an explicit, first-order 2DH finite-volume discretization scheme for unstructured triangular meshes, in which a flux-splitting technique is paired with a reviewed Roe-Riemann solver, yielding a model applicable to discontinuous flows over time-evolving geometries. STAV2D features solid transport in both Euleran and Lagrangian forms, with the aim of describing the transport of fine natural sediments and then the large individual debris. The model has been validated with theoretical solutions and laboratory experiments (Canelas et al., 2013 & Conde et al., 2015). STAV-2D now supports fully distributed and heterogeneous simulations where multiple different hardware devices can be used to accelerate computation time within a unified Object-Oriented approach: the source code for CPU and GPU has the same compilation units and requires no device specific branches, like

  5. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

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    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal

  7. Plankton and Macrobiota Composition and Diversity of Three Tropical Freshwaters Rivers in Ogun and Ondo States, Southwest Nigeria

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    Taofikat Abosede ADESALU

    2016-06-01

    , accounted for 42.2%. A total of seventeen (17 finfish and shellfish species comprised of thirteen (13 finfish and four (4 shellfish species were recorded, being representative of freshwater and brackish water species; Clarias anguillaris (Clariidae, Tilapia zilli (Cichlidae, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Bagridae, Alestes spp. and Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Palaemonidae were the most common species observed.

  8. Phytogenic additive on the diet of dairy heifers: Hematological parameters Parâmetros hematológicos de novilhas leiteiras submetidas a dietas com aditivos fitogênicos

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    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With objective to evaluate the effects of utilization of herbal extracts on supplementation of dairy heifers was conducted an experiment utilizing 12 Jersey’s heifers, with mean age and weight at start of trial of eight months old and 112 kg, respectively. The animals were separated in two groups, with same number of replications, considered a Control group (without addition of herbal extracts and a Treatment group (with inclusion of 500 grams of herbal extracts per ton. of ration. The herbal extracts utilized were a mixture of garlic, onion, cinnamon, clove and linseed. The animals received, daily, divided in two feeding, 2 kg. of ration and, approximately, 3 kg. of alfalfa hay and 10 kg. of chopped fresh black oat and ryegrass. The hematological parameters evaluated were red blood cell count (106 units/ L, hemoglobin and plasmatic protein (g/ dL, hematocrit (%, leukocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes (units/ L. There were observed significantly differences to red blood cell count and monocytes count (P < 0.10, lymphocytes count (P < 0.05 and leukocytes count (P < 0.01. It is concluded what herbal extracts act above hematological parameters of dairy heifers receiving this supplement.Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da utilização de extratos vegetais na suplementação de novilhas leiteiras, foi conduzido um experimento com 12 novilhas Jersey, com idade e peso médio de 8 meses e 112kg, respectivamente. Os animais foram separados em dois grupos, com o mesmo número de repetições, um chamado grupo-controle (sem a adição de extratos vegetais e um grupo-tratamento (com a inclusão de 500 gramas de extratos vegetais por tonelada de ração. Os extratos vegetais utilizados foram uma mistura comercial de alho, cebola, canela, cravo e linhaça. Os animais receberam, diariamente, divididos em duas refeições, 2kg de ração, 3kg de feno de alfafa e 10kg de aveia e azevém fresco. Os parâmetros hematológicos avaliados foram hem

  9. El cacao y sus productos como fuente de antioxidantes: Efecto del procesamiento The cocoa and its products as antioxidant source: Processing effect

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    Janeth Aidé Perea-Villamil

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el contenido de polifenoles y la actividad antioxidante de productos derivados del cacao obtenidos bajo diferentes condiciones de procesamiento. Materiales y métodos: Las muestras fueron tomadas durante las etapas de procesamiento del chocolate amargo, chocolate de mesa con azúcar, chocolate clavos y canela y un sucedáneo de chocolate obtenido a partir de polvo de cacao y grasa vegetal. El contenido de polifenoles se midió usando el método de Folin-Ciocalteu y la actividad antioxidante fue evaluada sobre los radicales 2,2-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH y 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-etiltiazolina-bencenosulfónico-6 (ABTS. Adicionalmente se evaluó la habilidad reductora de las muestras sobre el hierro usando el método de FRAP. Resultados: Todos los productos estudiados presentaron diferencias significativas en contenido total de polifenoles y actividad antioxidante frente a las diferentes especies radicalarias. El chocolate amargo presentó el mayor contenido de polifenoles y la mayor actividad antioxidante después de las semillas de cacao secas y fermentadas. Conclusión: Existe una correlación directa entre el contenido de polifenoles y la actividad antioxidante, pero estas variables se ven afectadas por el proceso de transformación del grano, especialmente durante la etapa de tostado, en la que se presenta una pérdida de polifenoles y de actividad antioxidante alrededor del 23% con respecto a la materia prima sin tratar. Salud UIS 2009; 41: 128-134Objective: To evaluate the content of polyphenols and the antioxidant activity of cocoa products obtained under different processing conditions. Materials and methods: The samples were taken during the processing stages of the chocolate with sugar, chocolate with cloves and cinnamon, bitter chocolate and chocolate from cocoa powder and vegetable oil. The content of polyphenols was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu’s method; the antioxidant activity was evaluated on the 2

  10. Componentes corporais e órgãos internos de cordeiros Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês e Santa Inês puros, terminados em confinamento, com casca de café como parte da dieta Body components and internal organs of Texel x Bergamácia, Texel x Santa Inês and purebred Santa Inês lambs finished in fedlot, with of coffee hull as part of the diet

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    Iraides Ferreira Furusho-Garcia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 cordeiros cruzas Texel x Santa Inês (TS e 12 cordeiros puros Santa Inês (SI, confinados individualmente por 50 dias (dos 130 aos 180 dias de idade. Cada grupo genético constou de seis machos inteiros e seis fêmeas, recebendo três dietas diferentes: 1 = sem casca de café (controle; 2 = com casca de café in natura; 3 = com casca de café tratada com uréia. O rúmen/retículo (RR dos animais que receberam as dietas 2 e 3 foram mais pesados em relação ao RR dos animais submetidos a dieta 1. O abomaso (ABO, fígado (FIG e pâncreas (PAN dos cordeiros alimentados com a dieta 3 foram mais leves comparados aos que receberam as dietas 1 e 2. Os cordeiros cruzas TB e TS apresentaram maior peso para a cabeça (CAB, pés/canelas (PEC, omaso (OMA, ABO, intestinos delgado (IND e grosso (ING. Os machos apresentaram sangue (SAN e RR mais pesados que as fêmeas. Os pesos de pele (PEL, gordura (GOR, esôfago/traquéia (ET, coração (COR e pulmão (PUL também foram analisados e não foram afetados pelas dietas, pelos grupos genéticos e pelo sexo. As fêmeas apresentaram tendência de maior proporção de GOR.Twelve crossbred Texel x Bergamácia (TB, 12 crossbred Texel x Santa Inês (TS and 12 purebred Santa Inês (SI lambs were individually finished in fedlot for 50 days (from 130 to 180 days of age. Each genetic group consisted of six males and six females, fed three different diets: 1 = without coffee hulls (control; 2 = with coffee hulls in nature; 3 = with coffee hulls treated of with urea. The rumen/reticulum (RR of the animals fed diets 1 and 3 were significantly heavier than those fed diet 1. The abomasum (ABO, liver (FIG and pancreas (PAN of the lambs fed diet 3 were lighter than the animals fed diet 2. The TB and TS of crossbred lambs showed greater weights of head (CAB, foot/shin (PEC, omasum (OMA, abomasum (ABO, small intestine (IND and large intestine (ING. The males showed

  11. Avaliação in vitro da atividade fungitóxica de extratos de condimentos na inibição de fungos isolados de pães artesanais In vitro evaluation of the fungitoxic activity of seasonings on the inhibition of fungi isolated from homemade breads

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    Rita de Cássia Zanúncio Araujo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, na presente pesquisa, avaliar a atividade antifúngica in vitro de alho, gengibre, orégano, cravo, canela e tomilho sobre a inibição e o desenvolvimento de Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium roqueforti, Rhizopus stolonifer, desenvolvidos em pães artesanais. Para cada planta foram preparados extratos alcólicos (EA10%, EA20% e EA25%, extrato aquoso (EAQ10%, extrator alcoólico puro (EAP e testemunha sem extrato e álcool. Para alho, gengibre, orégano incluiu-se o extrato alcoólico da planta fresca (EAF 10%. Os experimentos foram instalados no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do EcoCentro/EPAMIG, Lavras, MG e no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do Incaper/CRDS-CS, em Domingos Martins, ES. Os tratamentos foram aplicados sobre os fungos inoculados em placas de petri, em meio BDA. Calcularam-se médias do Índice de Velocidade de Crescimento Micelial (IVCM e esporulação. Os EA de plantas desidratadas a 10%, 20% e 25% inibiram totalmente o crescimento micelial dos fungos estudados, com exceção do EA 25% de alho sobre o Penicillium roqueforti e o EA 25% de gengibre sobre o desenvolvimento do Aspergillus ochraceus que não se diferenciaram da testemunha. O EA de alho teve um efeito não inibitório sobre P. roqueforti. Os EA, EAF e EAP apresentaram menor esporulação em relação à testemunha, exceto com gengibre e cravo sobre a esporulação do R. stolonifer e o EAQ apresentou um efeito semelhante ao da testemunha.This research was carried out to evaluate the in vitro anti-fungus activity of alcoholic extracts of garlic, ginger, oregano, clove, cinnamon, and thyme on the inhibition and development of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium roqueforti, and Rhizopus stolonifer, which develop in homemade breads. For each commercial seasoning, alcoholic extracts (AE were prepared (AE10%, AE20% and AE25% as well as aqueous extract (AQE at 10%, pure alcoholic extract (PAE, and control without extract and alcohol. For garlic, ginger and oregano

  12. Synergistic effects of Combined Therapy: nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current for noninvasive body contouring

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    Canela VC

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vivianne Carvalho Canela,1 Cinthia Nicoletti Crivelaro,1 Luciane Zacchi Ferla,1 Gisele Marques Pelozo,1 Juliana Azevedo,2 Richard Eloin Liebano,3 Caroline Nogueira,4,5 Renata Michelini Guidi,4,5 Clóvis Grecco,4 Estela Sant’Ana4 1Ibramed Center for Education and Advanced Training (CEFAI, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 2CDE Medical Imaging Department, Brazilian College of Radiology (CBR, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 3Department of Physiotherapy, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; 4Research, Development and Innovation Department, Ibramed Research Group (IRG, IBRAMED, Amparo, SP, Brazil; 5Biomedical Engineering Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil Background and objectives: Nowadays, there are several noninvasive technologies being used for improving of body contouring. The objectives of this pilot study were to verify the effectiveness of the Heccus® device, emphasizing the synergism between nonfocused ultrasound plus Aussie current in the improvement of body contour, and to determine if the association of this therapy with whole-body vibration exercises can have additional positive effects in the results of the treatments.Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women aged 20–40 years participated in the study. Ten patients received Combined Therapy treatment (G1 and the other 10 participants received Combined Therapy with additional vibratory platform treatment (G2. Anthropometric and standardized photography analysis, ultrasonography, cutometry and self-adminestered questionnaires of tolerance and satisfaction levels with the treatment were used.Results: Compared with baseline values, reduction of fat thickness was observed by ultrasonography in the posterior thigh area in the G1 group (P<0.05 and in the buttocks (P<0.05 and the posterior thigh areas (P<0.05 in the G2. All the treated areas in both groups showed reduction in cellulite degree in the

  13. À propos de l' influence de la langue Portugaise

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    Fernando V. Peixoto da Fonseca

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur les mots castillans d'origine portugaise, le Prof. Rodrigo de Sá Noguiera écrit: "Il y a une série de mots castillans d'origine claire ou probable portugaise, que le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Espagnole dans la plupart des cas ou omet, ou considère comme d'origine différente". Ceux d'origine claire portugaise, ajoute cet étymologiste, sont ceux qui phonétiquement n'auraient pu avoir en espagnol la forme qu'ils revêtent dans cette langue, tandis qu'ils sont d'accord avec les règles de notre phonétique historique, existant, en outre, sous la même forme (p. ex. chato ou sembllable (p. ex. follaje dans la langue portugaise. Les suivants se trouvent dans ce cas: achantarse, achubascarse, afeitar, aldorta, brinco, barroco, canela, caramelo, cariño, chamada, chapa, chato, chaveta, chinela, chocal!o, chocho, chopa, choza, chubasco, chumacera, chus, chusma, cobra, conchabar, cortiña, desvaído, desvergoñadamente, fado, follaje, fuera, macho, malla, mermelada, morriña, nonio, pintada, vaivén, vergoña. Les vocables d'origine probable (et souvent sûre sont les exotiques, lesquels, dans l'opinion de Sá Nogueira, citée plus haut, ont pénétré dans l'espagnol à travers le portugais. Cet auteur en étudie les suivants: abada, albino, almadía, ananás, bambu, banana, bengala, betel, biombo, bonzo, cacatúa, cachimbo, cacimba, cafre, carcunda, carimbo, catinga, cha, coco, cobra, cornaca, fetiche, jangada, junco, macaco, malagueta, mandarín, mandinga, mandioca, manga, marimba, monzón, naire, pagoda et palanquín. Il est certain qu'ils sont beaucoup plus nombreux, ainsi que l'on s'en rend compte par les ouvrages de Monseigneur Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado et Georg Friederici. Quant au mot chapéu, dit le Prof. Sá Nogueira, il est difficile de garantir si l'espagnol l'a reçu du portugais, ou si le contraire a eu lieu, et c'est également compliqué le problème du mot castillan jeito, à acception differénte de la nôtre, raison pour

  14. Essential oils for rust control on coffee plants Óleos essenciais no controle da ferrugem em cafeeiro

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    Ricardo Borges Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Rust is considered the most important disease in coffee because it causes severe defoliation in plants and, consequently, reduction in productivity. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of essential oils of cinnamon, citronella, lemongrass, clove, tea tree, thyme, neem and eucalyptus on the germination of urediniospores of Hemileia vastatrix; the effectiveness of these oils to control rust on seedlings of coffee cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19 in the greenhouse; and the effect of more promising oils on urediniospores of H. vastatrix by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. All the essential oils inhibited the germination of urediniospores with increasing concentrations. All oils promoted partial control of the disease in the greenhouse. However, the oils of thyme, clove and citronella, at a concentration of 1000 µL L-1, were most effective in controlling the disease on cultivars Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 and Mundo Novo 379/19, respectively. The images generated in TEM showed that urediniospores exposed to oils of clove, citronella and thyme promoted cellular disorganization and cytoplasmic vacuolization, which was more pronounced in urediniospores exposed to citronella oil. The oils of thyme, clove and citronella are promising for the control of rust in coffee.A ferrugem é considerada a doença de maior importância no cafeeiro, pois causa acentuada desfolha nas plantas e, consequentemente, redução na produtividade. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito in vitro de óleos essenciais de canela, citronela, capim-limão, cravo-da-índia, árvore-de-chá, tomilho, nim e eucalipto na germinação de urediniósporos de Hemileia vastatrix; a eficácia desses óleos no controle da ferrugem em mudas de cafeeiro das cultivares Catucaí 2SL, Catuaí IAC 62 e Mundo Novo 379/19 em casa de vegetação; e o efeito dos óleos mais promissores sobre urediniósporos de H. vastatrix por meio de microscopia eletrônica de transmiss

  15. Dietas para frangos de corte contendo quirera de arroz Performance of broiler feed with broken rice in diets

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    Berilo de Souza Brum Júnior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado para avaliar o uso da quirera de arroz na dieta de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 240 pintos machos, alojados em galpão, contendo 12 boxes de 2m² de área. Cada box continha comedouro tubular, bebedouro pendular e campânula nos 21 dias iniciais. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições, as quais receberam dietas contendo 0, 20 e 40% de inclusão de quirera de arroz. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e à análise de variância e, quando houve diferença, aplicou-se o teste de Tukey. O ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de 1-21, 1-35 e 1-42 dias (P>0,05 não foram afetados pela substituição do milho por quirera de arroz. A umidade de cama, o índice de eficiência produtivo, o rendimento de carcaça quente, de fígado, coração, coxa, sobre-coxa e peito não apresentaram diferença (P>0,05. No entanto, os rendimentos de moela, bem como a pigmentação da canela e do bico, diminuíram linearmente com o aumento do nível de quirera de arroz na dieta. Conclui-se que a quirera de arroz pode ser incluída nas dieta, substituindo o milho, para frangos de corte.An experiment was carried to evaluate the performance of broilers fed with diferent levels of broken rice. The experiment was conducted with 240 males broilers chicks, Cobb 500, were distributed in floor pens of 2m² each, with one tubular feeder, one pendular drinker, an electrical brooder and on the top of rice hulls. An entirely randomized experimental design was used, with 3 treatments and 4 replicates with 20 birds each, which received, diets containing 0, 20 and 40% of broken rice. Data were submitted to Analisis of regression. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion to the1- 21, 1- 35 and 1-42 days of age, litter humidity, carcass, liver, breast, thigh and drumstick yield did not present significant difference. The gizzard and the

  16. Editorial Editorial

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    José Luiz Aidar Prado

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O Dossiê desta edição traz o tema "Construções de sentido" em três registros. No primeiro texto, Claude Zilberberg (Sorbonne e CNRS examina a interdependência entre discurso e acontecimento. O conceito de acontecimento é caro a certa vertente de estudos filosóficos franceses, mormente em Badiou, retomado por Zizek e outros autores. Zilberberg trata o acontecimento a partir do estudo de seu sincretismo em três modos semióticos: o da eficiência, o da existência e o modo da junção. Isabella Pezzini e Pierluigi Cervelli (que estarão no Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduados em Comunicação e Semiótica da PUC-SP em novembro próximo observam, por sua vez, outro aspecto das construções de sentido, ligado ao exame dos modos de consumo em sua relação com a cultura em espaços de autocelebração, como stores e museus. Eduardo Peñuela Cañizal (Unip e ECA-USP investiga a sobrevivência das imagens do cinema de vanguarda a partir de um estudo do papel das tecnologias. Entre os Artigos, o leitor terá encontro com nove autores em seis textos: Alzamora; Ferreira e Moraes; Macêdo e Domingues; Pinto e Moran; Rubim; Trotta. Geane Carvalho Alzamora (PUC-MG examina, no ciberespaço, a lógica reticular da hipermídia e os fluxos sociocomunicacionais pela semiótica peirceana. Christine Ferreira (Iphan e Marcelo Jacques de Moraes (UFRJ discutem o circuito comunicacional jovens-museus a partir da consideração da partilha social do sensível. Silvana Macêdo (Udesc e Diana Domingues (UCS investigam tensões nas divisões entre política e estética na cibercultura, desde os utopismos da primeira internet até as intervenções políticas dos grupos antiglobalização e as performances artísticas interativas. Antonio Albino Canelas Rubim (UFBa debate as políticas culturais brasileiras desenvolvidas pelo governo federal desde os anos 1930. Felipe Trotta (UFPe perscruta as estratégias de valorização na prática do samba, em que este é visto

  17. Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante (rbST no desempenho e características corporais de bezerros mestiços alimentados em creep-feeding Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (Rbst on performance and body characteristics of creep-fed crossbred calves

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    Mário de Beni Arrigoni

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar o desempenho e características corpóreas de bezerros mestiços submetidos à somatotropina bovina recombinate, e alimentados em “creep-feeding”. Sessenta e quatro animais com 60 dias de idade foram divididos em quatro grupos: T1 (16 fêmeas com rbST, T2 (17 fêmeas controle, T3 (15 machos com rbST e T4 (16 machos controle. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado fatorial 2 X 2, sendo “A” o sexo e “B”, o rbST. Os animais foram alimentados a pasto “ad libitum” e em “creep-feeding”. A cada quatorze dias os animais receberam doses de rbST (0,15 mg kg/PV/dia de 60 até 210 dias. O peso vivo e o crescimento ósseo foram avaliados com pesagens e mensuração de perímetro de canela a cada 14 dias. Para se avaliar a área do músculo Longissimus dorsi (AOL e espessura de gordura (EGS foi realizada ultra-sonografia aos 150 e 210 dias. Os resultados demostram que não houve diferença signicativa (p > 0,05 entre os machos para o ganho de peso, mas para as fêmeas houve diferença (p 0,05 entre os animais rbST e controle, mas houve diferença entre os sexos. O uso de rbST (0,15 mg kg/Kg/dia aumentou em 9% o peso vivo das fêmeas alimentadas em creep-feeding.This study aimed to evaluate performance and body characteristics of crossbred calves submitted to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST and creep-feeding. Sixty-four animals aging 60 days were divided in four groups: T1 (16 heifers rbST, T2 (17 heifers control, T3 (15 steers rbST, T4 (16 steers control. Randomized factorial 2 x 2 design used as “A” sex and “B” rbST. The animals were fed in pasture “ad libitun” and creep. Every 14 days animals received rbST doses (0,15 mg kg/BW/day from 60 until 210 days. Body weight and bone development were evaluated by weighting and measurement of ankle perimeter every 14 days. For Longissimus dorsi muscle area and thickness fat, ultrasonography at 150 and 210 days was used. Results showed

  18. Óleos essenciais de Cymbopogon nardus, Cinnamomum zeylanicum e Zingiber officinale: composição, atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana Essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon nardus and Zingiber officinale: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

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    Milene Aparecida Andrade

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo caracterizar quimicamente e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de citronela (Cymbopogon nardus, canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum e gengibre (Zingiber officinale. A obtenção do óleo essencial foi realizada utilizando a técnica de hidrodestilação por meio do aparelho de Clevenger modificado e a identificação e quantificação dos constituintes pelas análises em CG/EM e CG-DIC. A avaliação da atividade antibacteriana foi realizada por meio da técnica difusão cavidade em ágar, utilizando os microrganismos Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117, Escherichia coli ATCC 11229, Salmonella Cholerasuis ATCC 6539 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442. A atividade antioxidante foi avaliada utilizando sistema β-caroteno/ácido linoléico e o método de seqüestro de radicais DPPH. Nas análises cromatográficas, os constituintes majoritários encontrados no óleo essencial de C. nardus foram citronelal (47,12%, geraniol (18,56% e citronelol (11,07%, no óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foram identificados (E- cinamaldeído (77,72%, acetato de (E-cinamila (5,99% e o monoterpenóide 1,8-cineol (4,66% e, para Z. officinale os majoritários foram geranial (25,06%, neral (16,47%, 1,8-cineol (10,98%, geraniol (8,51%, acetato de geranila (4,19% e o canfeno (4,30%. Os óleos essenciais apresentaram atividade antibacteriana tanto para bactérias Gram-negativas como para bactérias Gram-positivas, sendo que o óleo essencial de C. zeylanicum foi o mais eficiente. A atividade antioxidante foi evidenciada pelo teste β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, respectivamente, para C. nardus, seguido de Z. officinale e C. zeylanicum, e pelo teste do DPPH foi observada apenas para C. nardus.The aims of this study were to chemically characterize and to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the citronella (Cymbopogon nardus, cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and ginger

  19. PEMANFAATAN KOLAM PENGENDAP TAMBANG BATUBARA UNTUK BUDIDAYA IKAN LOKAL DALAM KERAMBA

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    Asfie Maidie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Uji coba budidaya dalam keramba telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui kelayakan kolam pengendap tambang batubara untuk areal budidaya ikan bagi masyarakat sekitar apabila kegiatan tambang telah ditutup, serta untuk mengetahui apakah produk ikan yang dihasilkan cukup aman untuk dikonsumsi manusia. Percobaan dilakukan pada bekas kolam pengendap DS2 milik PT KPC, dengan mengunakan 5 buah keramba apung berukuran 3 m x 1 m x 1 m yang dalam setiap keramba ditebar benih dari alam untuk ikan repang (Barbodes schwanenfeldii ukuran rata-rata 20,2 g; puyau (Osteichilus kappenii ukuran 66,1 g; dan mas (Cyprinus carpio ukuran 28,96 g dari pemijahan di laboratorium sebanyak masing-masing 200 ekor, serta pepuyu (Anabas testudineus ukuran rata-rata 41,4 g dari alam sebanyak 50 ekor, udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii ukuran 113,8 g juga dari alam sebanyak 50 ekor. Pakan diberikan secara sampai kenyang (ad libitum. DO, pH, suhu, DHL, dan kekeruhan diukur harian, sedangkan ikan diukur pertumbuhan bobotnya. Setelah dipelihara selama 4 bulan dan memenuhi ukuran konsumsi, ikan dan udang diperiksa kandungan Sb, Se, As, Hg, Mn, Cd, Fe, Cu, Pb, dan Zn. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bekas kolam pengendap tambang batubara cukup layak untuk dikembangkan sebagai areal budidaya ikan dengan memberikan pertumbuhan bobot populasi sebesar 570,79% (repang, SR: 95%, 202,57% (puyau, SR: 97%, 573% (mas, SR: 2,5%, 238,92% (udang galah, SR: 10%, 447,10% (pepuyu, SR: 14% dan produknya cukup aman untuk dikonsumsi, dengan kandungan Sb (0,24-2,45 mg/L, rasio terdeteksi dari sample: 100%, Se (0,00-0,06, 57,14%, As (tidak terdeteksi/ttd, Hg (0,00-0,06 mg/L, 50%, Mn (ttd-1,68 mg/L, 14,29%, Cd (ttd, Fe (ttd-5,45 mg/L, 7,14%, Cu (ttd, Pb (ttd, dan Zn (7,82-61,50 mg/L, 100%. The experiment was conducted to study the feasibility of settling or sedimentation pond of coal mining to be used for culturing fish in net cage for local people post  mining activities. Experimental 3 m x 1 m x 1 m

  20. Efeito do Tratamento Crônico com Extrato Aquoso de Cinnamomum zeylanicum em Ratos Induzidos à Obesidade e Hiperglicemia/Chronic Treatment Effect of Aqueous Extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in Mice Induced to Obesity and Hyperglycemia

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    Flavia Oliveira Vilela dos Reis

    2015-06-01

    canela por período prolongado. Introduction: A diet with poor nutrients, but with high lipid index adding to a sedentary lifestyle leads to obesity. Due to the absence of a single drug for treating this factor, the study with intake of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, is relevant due to its possible efficacy in the studies for the treatment of obesity and hyperglycemia. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic treatment with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on weight and blood glucose in rats induced to obesity. Methods: 32 male Wistar rats were used. The induction of obesity and hyperglycemia (insulin resistance was made with monosodium glutamate administration subcutaneously at a dose of 4 mg/kg on alternate days from the 2nd to the 14th day of life. In the 8th week, 32 rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8. Group 1 (C - Control: - Tap water administration by gavage (n = 8; Group 2 (D - Drug Treatment - administration of Metformin - concentration: 500 mg/ kg/ day (n = 8; Group 3 (T1 - Treatment Test 1 - aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum administration (120mg / kg by gavage (n = 8; Group 4 (T2 - Treatment Test 2 - aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum administration (240 mg / kg by gavage (n = 8. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were anesthetized with Ketamine (50mg/kg/ Xylazine (25 mg/kg intraperitoneally and underwent intracardiac puncture. The withdrawal of blood was to dose fasting glucose. Results: Treatment Test 1 (T1 (120mg/kg, Treatment Test 2 (T2 (240mg/Kg and the Drug group produced significant difference (p 0.05. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum showed a decrease in blood glucose. Thus, the studies with the use of cinnamon for longer periods should be considered for they are promissing.

  1. Antibacterial, antifungal and phytoalexins induction activities of hydrolates of medicinal plants/ Atividades antibacteriana, antifúngica e indutora de fitoalexinas de hidrolatos de plantas medicinais

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    Maria Eugênia Silva Cruz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the antifungical, antibacterial and phytoalexins elicitors activities of hydrolates, for using in the alternative control of plant diseases. The hydrolates of Helietta apiculata (HA, Conyza canadensis (CC and Cymbopogon nardus (CN were used in the concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. In the phytoalexins assay, sorghum etiolated mesocotyls were used. The antibacterial effect was evaluated on the growth of the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in liquid nutrient medium and antibiotic (oxytetraciclin 22.5 mg/L + streptomycin 225 mg/L was used as control treatment. The antifungical effect was evaluated on the micelial growth, esporulation, conidia germination and development of germinative tubes of Alternaria brassicae. The fungicide azoxystrobin (0.08 g a.i./ L was used as control treatment. There was increment in the phytoalexins synthesis with the increase in hydrolates concentration. The better result was obtained with CN that promoted increase 4.3 times larger in relation to the value of the control treatment with water, followed by HA (2.5 times and CC (2.1 times. Similar results were obtained to the antibacterial activity with the following inhibition results (% in the development of the bacterium: CN: 29.8, HA: 14.9, CC: 14.6 and antibiotic: 97.7. The main antifungical effect was observed on the development of the germinative tubes. Hydrolates of CC and HA showed inhibition of up to 69.2 and 56.2%, respectively, being similar to the fungicide azoxystrobin. The hydrolate of CN did not show antifungical effect. These results indicate the presence of phytoalexins elicitors, and antibacterial and antifungical compounds in those hydrolates, however in low concentrations.O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a atividade como antifúngico, antibacteriano e indutor da produção de fitoalexinas dos hidrolatos de Helietta apiculata (canela-de-veado (HA, Conyza canadensis (buva (CC e Cymbopogon

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Follow-up photometry and spectroscopy of KELT-17 (Zhou+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Collins, K. A.; Beatty, T.; Oberst, T.; Heintz, T. M.; Stassun, K. G.; Latham, D. W.; Kuhn, R. B.; Bieryla, A.; Lund, M. B.; Labadie-Bartz, J.; Siverd, R. J.; Stevens, D. J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Pepper, J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Eastman, J.; Colon, K.; Cargile, P.; James, D.; Gregorio, J.; Reed, P. A.; Jensen, E. L. N.; Cohen, D. H.; McLeod, K. K.; Tan, T. G.; Zambelli, R.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Blancato, K.; Manner, M.; Samulski, C.; Stockdale, C.; Nelson, P.; Stephens, D.; Curtis, I.; Kielkopf, J.; Fulton, B. J.; Depoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Pogge, R.; Gould, A.; Trueblood, M.; Trueblood, P.

    2017-05-01

    KELT-17, the first exoplanet host discovered through the combined observations of both the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT)-North and KELT-South, is located in KELT-South field 06 (KS06) and KELT-North field 14 (KN14), which are both centered on α=07h39m36s δ=+03°00'00'' (J2000). At the time of identification, the post-processed KELT data set included 2092 images from KN14, taken between UT 2011 October 11 and UT 2013 March 26 and 2636 images from KS06 taken between UT 2010 March 02 and 2013 May 10. The discovery light curves from both KELT-North and KELT-South are shown in Figure1. We obtained higher spatial resolution and precision photometric follow-up observations of KELT-17b in multiple filters. An I-band transit was observed on UT 2015 March 05 at the Canela's Robotic Observatory (CROW) with the 0.3m SCT12 telescope, remotely operated from Portalegre, Portugal. Observations were acquired with the ST10XME CCD camera, with a 30'*20' field of view and a 0.86'' pixel scale. A full multi-color (V and I) transit of KELT-17b was observed on UT 2015 March 12 at Kutztown University Observatory (KUO), located on the campus of Kutztown University in Kutztown, Pennsylvania. KUO's main instrument is the 0.6 m Ritchey-Chretien optical telescope with a focal ratio of f/8. The imaging CCD (KAF-6303E) camera has an array of 3K*2K (9μm) pixels and covers a field of view of 19.5'*13.0'. The Peter van de Kamp Observatory (PvdK) at Swarthmore College (near Philadelphia) houses a 0.62m Ritchey-Chretien reflector with a 4K*4K pixel Apogee CCD. The telescope and camera together have a 26'*26' field of view and a 0.61'' pixel scale. PvdK observed KELT-17b on UT 2015 March 12 in the SDSS z' filter. KELT-17b was observed in both g' and i' on UT 2015 March 12 at Wellesley College's Whitin Observatory in Massachusetts. The telescope is a 0.6m Boller and Chivens with a DFM focal reducer yielding an effective focal ratio of f/9.6. We used an Apogee U230 2K*2K camera with a