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Sample records for cane valley arizona

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards

  5. Centro Valley Phoenix, Arizona – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welton Becket y Asociados, Arquitectos e ingenieros

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available This office building is the administrative Centre for the National Valley Bank, Arizona. Being 155 m in height it is at present the highest building in the state. The construction consists of three towers, respectively 35, 37 and 39 storeys high, connected by means of a subterranean passage with an 8-storeyed parking building with a capacity of 1,700 vehicles. The first structure is of concrete in its nucleus and is enclosed by curtain walls which gives it a surface with extraordinary reflections. The entire parking building is of unfaced concrete. The bank occupies the floors 3-12, floor 36 and 38 and the remaining premises are for rent.Este edificio de oficinas es la central administrativa de la banca Valley National, de Arizona. Con 155 m de altura es, actualmente, el más alto del estado. Consta de tres torres de 35,37 y 39 plantas, adosadas y enlazadas, mediante un paso subterráneo, a un bloque de aparcamiento con ocho alturas y capacidad para 1.700 automóviles. El primero tiene estructura de hormigón en su núcleo central de comunicación vertical y cerramientos de muro-cortina, lo que le confiere una fisonomía brillante y reflectante de gran espectacularidad. El aparcamiento es todo él de hormigón visto. La banca ocupa las plantas 3 a 12, la 36 y la 38, destinándose el resto a alquiler.

  6. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight: Yavapai College, Chino Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-22

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Yavapai College of Chino Valley, Arizona. These college students built a Building America Builders Challenge house that achieved the remarkably low HERS score of -3 and achieved a tight building envelope.

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive.

  8. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings: Monument Valley Site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevalated the Monument Valley site in order to revise the March 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 1.1 million tons of tailings at the Monument Valley site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings to remote disposal sites and decontamination of the tailings site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from about $6,600,000 for stabilization in-place, to about $15,900,000 for disposal at a distance of about 15 mi. Three principal alternatives for reprocessing the Monument Valley tailings were examined: heap leaching; Treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovery is economically unattractive

  9. Fossil proboscidea and edentata of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidley, James Williams

    1926-01-01

    A preliminary report on the fossil vertebrates of the San Pedro Valley, Ariz., collected by Kirk Bryan and me in the winter of 1920 and 1921 was published in 1922. This report includes a brief statement regarding the geology of the locality and a preliminary list of fossil vertebrates obtained by the expedition of 1921, with descriptions of the rodents and rabbits. Two additional papers on this interesting fauna have also appeared, one on the turtles by C.W. Gilmore and one on the birds by Alexander Wetmore. The present contribution deals with the proboscideans and edentates and gives a somewhat fuller discussion of the geology of the fossil-bearing beds.

  10. Remedial action plan for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the series of activities which are proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Monument Valley, Arizona It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement.

  11. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  12. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  13. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  14. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  15. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  16. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  17. Can We Mitigate Climate Extremes using Managed Aquifer Recharge: Case Studies California Central Valley and South-Central Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Uhlman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Frequent long-term droughts interspersed with intense floods in the southwestern U.S. underscore the need to store more water to manage these climate extremes. Here we show how managed aquifer recharge can enhance drought resilience in the southwestern U.S. with ~ 70% of California under extreme drought and 75% of Arizona under moderate drought. Data on water sources, transportation, and users were compiled for managed aquifer recharge systems in the Central Valley and south-central Arizona. Groundwater depletion of 115 to 145 km3 in the 1900s created large subsurface reservoirs in thick alluvial basins in these regions. Large canals and aqueducts up to several 100 km long allow water to be imported from reservoirs, mostly in more humid regions. Imported water is either used instead of groundwater or is applied in surface spreading basins primarily during wet periods (≤1.3 km3/yr Central Valley, ≤0.7 km3/yr Arizona) and is extracted during droughts. The dominant water users include irrigators and municipalities both within and outside the managed aquifer recharge systems. Groundwater modeling indicates that recharge basins significantly increase groundwater storage in the Central Valley. Managed aquifer recharge systems significantly enhance drought resilience and increase sustainability of water resources in semiarid regions, complementing surface water reservoirs and conjunctive surface water/groundwater use by providing longer term storage.

  18. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site.

  19. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site—10281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Miller, D.E. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Morris, S.A. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Sheader, L.R. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Glenn, E.P. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Moore, D. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Carroll, K.C. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Benally, L. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Roanhorse, M. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, CO; none,

    2010-03-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Navajo Nation, and the University of Arizona are exploring natural and enhanced attenuation remedies for groundwater contamination at a former uranium-ore processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. DOE removed radioactive tailings from the Monument Valley site in 1994. Nitrate and ammonium, waste products of the milling process, remain in an alluvial groundwater plume spreading from the soil source where tailings were removed. Planting and irrigating two native shrubs, fourwing saltbush and black greasewood, markedly reduced both nitrate and ammonium in the source area over an 8-year period. Total nitrogen dropped from 350 mg/kg in 2000 to less than 200 mg/kg in 2008. Most of the reduction is attributable to irrigation-enhanced microbial denitrification rather than plant uptake. However, soil moisture and percolation flux monitoring show that the plantings control the soil water balance in the source area, preventing additional leaching of nitrogen compounds. Enhanced denitrification and phytoremediation also look promising for plume remediation. Microcosm experiments, nitrogen isotopic fractionation analysis, and solute transport modeling results suggest that (1) up to 70 percent of nitrate in the plume has been lost through natural denitrification since the mill was closed in 1968, and (2) injection of ethanol may accelerate microbial denitrification in plume hot spots. A field-scale ethanol injection pilot study is underway. Landscape-scale remote sensing methods developed for the project suggest that transpiration from restored native phreatophyte populations rooted in the aquifer could limit further expansion of the plume. An evaluation of landfarm phytoremediation, the irrigation of native shrub plantings with high nitrate water pumped from the alluvial aquifer, is also underway.

  20. Long term effects of climate on human adaptation in the middle Gila River Valley, Arizona, America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, T.; Ertsen, M.W.; Van der Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Hohokam, an irrigation-based society in the American South West, used the river valleys of the Salt and Gila Rivers between 500 and 1500 AD to grow their crops. Such irrigated crops are linking human agency, water sources and the general natural environment. In order to grow crops, water availab

  1. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Options I and II), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with 2 ft of cover material (Option II). Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  2. Bringing the Universe to the Valley of the Sun: Astronomy Outreach at Arizona State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Knierman, K. A.; Taylor, W. L.; Rutkowski, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The focal point of astronomy outreach at ASU is Astronomy Open House, which has run for more than 3 decades. It is a free event for the local community and provides an opportunity for night sky viewings with telescopes, interactions with scientist, and discussion of contemporary topics. Typically each Open House will also offer a planetarium show, activities for kids, and displays on meteorites, the Moon, and geology. During the 2010-2011 academic year approximately 900 people attended the 6 Open Houses. This was a record attendance and was in part due to targeted advertisement to K-12 student groups. To accommodate this growth we recruited additional undergraduate student volunteers, including those from both science and non-science academic backgrounds. We present here a summary of traditional Open House activities and new partnerships developed as a result of the increased volunteer pool. Through Open House we were able to partner with other programs at ASU and in the Phoenix area and the expanded community presence developed into new events at local schools and museums (e.g., Arizona Science Center, Phoenix Zoo). Additionally, in conjunction with the International Year of Astronomy, we hosted two events for local, traditionally under-served students in which the students learned about Galileo and built their own Galileoscopes for free. In June 2011, we visited the Tsaile Public School on the Navajo Reservation to present a series of hands-on astronomy activities including a guided program inside a portable STARLAB planetarium to over 60 Navajo students. T. Ashcraft is supported by an Arizona NASA Space Grant Fellowship. Open House is partially supported by ASU USG. Funding for Galileoscopes provided by ASU GPSA. NASA Summer of Innovation program supports events in Tsaile, AZ.

  3. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid; King, K.A.; Andrews, Brenda; Roberts, William

    1997-01-01

    Because of concerns expressed by the U.S. Congress and the environmental community, the Department of the Interior began a program in late 1985 to identify the nature and extent of water-quality problems induced by irrigation that might exist in the western States. Surface water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from March through September 1995 along the lower Colorado River and in agricultural drains at nine sites in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, and analyzed for selected inorganic and organic constituents. Analyses of water, bottom sediment, and biota were completed to determine if irrigation return flow has caused, or has the potential to cause, harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife in the study area. Concentrations of dissolved solids in surface-water samples collected in March generally did not vary substantially from surface-water samples collected in June. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 712 to 3,000 milligrams per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Concentrations of chloride in 9 of 18 water samples and concentrations of sulfate in 16 of 18 water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Calcium and sodium were the dominant cations, and chloride and sulfate were the dominant anions. The maximum selenium concentration of 8 micrograms per liter exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic-life chronic criterion of 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of lead in 7 of 18 water samples and concentrations of mercury in 4 of 18 water samples exceeded the aquatic-life cronic criteria of 3.2 and 0.012 micrograms per liter, respectively. Concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, and silver in the water samples were below analytical reporting limits. Arsenic was detected in 3 of 9 bottom-sediment samples

  4. Quaternary stratigraphy and tectonics, and late prehistoric agriculture of the Safford Basin (Gila and San Simon river valleys), Graham County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Brenda B.; Pearthree, Phillip A.; Homburg, Jeffry A.; Thrasher, Lawrence C.

    2004-01-01

    This guidebook accompanied the 46th annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain Cell of the Friends of the Pleistocene (FOP) and the 2002 Fall Field Trip of the Arizona Geological Society. The meeting and field trip were held in the Safford Basin, southeastern Arizona. The Friends of the Pleistocene is an informal gathering of Quaternary geologists, geomorphologists, and pedologists who meet annually for a field conference. The first part of the guidebook consists of road logs with descriptions of stops covering the three days of the field trip. An overview of the geology of the Safford Basin is given in Stop 1-1. The second part of the guidebook consists of four short papers that discuss adjacent areas or that expand upon the road log descriptions of the field trip stops. The first paper by Reid and Buffler is a summary of upper Cenozoic depositional facies in the Duncan Basin, the first basin to the east of the Safford Basin. The next three papers expand upon (1) the soil study of the gridded field agricultural complex (Stop 2-3, Homburg and Sandor), (2) the vertebrate fossils of the San Simon Valley in the southeastern part of the Safford Basin (Stop 3-1, Thrasher), and (3) paleoIndian irrigation systems and settlements in Lefthand Canyon at the foot of the Pinaleno Mountains (Stop 3-2, Neely and Homburg).

  5. Using a cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000343.htm Using a cane To use the sharing features on this page, ... a walker may be better options for you. Cane Basics The most common question about using a ...

  6. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. [Environmental effects, health hazards, and options for stabilization of tailings or fencing of site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-03-31

    An engineering assessment was made of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile. Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000.

  7. Characterization and quantification of groundwater sulfate sources at a mining site in an arid climate: The Monument Valley site in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ziheng; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Monument Valley site, a former uranium mining site located in the state of Arizona in the Southwest USA, has high concentrations of sulfate in groundwater. Stable isotope analysis of S and O for sulfate, in combination with geochemical and hydrogeological data, was used to characterize the sources and fate of sulfate. The results indicate the existence of two discrete sources of sulfate (in excess of baseline levels): sulfuric acid released during ore processing and sulfate generated via sulfide-mineral oxidation. The contributions of the sources are related to spatial distributions of sulfate in the plume through analysis of groundwater travel times. Quantification of the sources using two isotope-analysis methods yielded similar results. The results indicate that sulfuric acid served as the primary source (mean = 427 mg/L, 74%), with sulfide-mineral oxidation providing a smaller contribution (mean = 147 mg/L, 26%). It appears that the major contribution to the sulfide-mineral oxidation component originates from oxidation of sulfide minerals in exposed bedrock residing in the primary recharge zone of the local aquifer, which provides an elevated sulfate background for groundwater. Conversely, the oxidation of sulfide minerals associated with the mine tailings appears to provide a relatively minor contribution (∼8% of the overall total). Interestingly, it appears that sulfuric acid served as a sustained source of sulfate for approximately 40 years. This may be related to the accumulation of sulfate salts (formed after neutralization and disposal of the sulfuric acid) in the source zone due to the arid climate of the site. Contrary to the typical assumption applied at many mining sites that sulfide-mineral oxidation is the primary source of sulfate, these sulfate salts are hypothesized to be the primary source for this site. PMID:24729633

  8. 21 CFR 890.3075 - Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane. 890.3075 Section 890.3075 Food and Drugs... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3075 Cane. (a) Identification. A cane... walking. Examples of canes include the following: A standard cane, a forearm cane, and a cane with...

  9. "Cane" as Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, Benjamin F.

    1970-01-01

    Cane...represents the apotheosis of one man's attempt to bear witness to the reality and the power of an idea . . . that the Negro is not an apprentice to equality but a journeyman in suffering." (Author)

  10. Revised geologic cross sections of parts of the Colorado, White River, and Death Valley regional groundwater flow systems, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Langenheim, V.E.; Berger, Mary A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents revisions to parts of seven of the ten cross sections originally published in U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1040. The revisions were necessary to correct errors in some of the original cross sections, and to show new parts of several sections that were extended and (or) appended to the original section profiles. Revisions were made to cross sections C-C', D-D', E-E', F-F', G-G', I-I', and J-J', and the parts of the sections revised or extended are highlighted below the sections on plate 1 by red brackets and the word "revised," or "extended." Sections not listed above, as well as the interpretive text and figures, are generally unchanged from the original report. Cross section C-C' includes revisions in the east Mormon Mountains in the east part of the section; D-D' includes revisions in the Mormon Mesa area in the east part of the section; E-E' includes revisions in the Muddy Mountains in the east part of the section; F-F' includes revisions from the Muddy Mountains to the south Virgin Mountains in the east part of the section; and J-J' includes some revisions from the east Mormon Mountains to the Virgin Mountains. The east end of G-G' was extended about 16 km from the Black Mountains to the southern Virgin Mountains, and the northern end of I-I' was extended about 45 km from the Muddy Mountains to the Mormon Mountains, and revisions were made in the Muddy Mountains part of the original section. This report contains 10 interpretive cross sections and an integrated text describing the geology of parts of the Colorado, White River, and Death Valley regional groundwater flow systems in Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. The primary purpose of the report is to provide geologic framework data for input into a numerical groundwater model. Therefore, the stratigraphic and structural summaries are written in a hydrogeologic context. The oldest rocks (basement) are Early Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive crystalline rocks that are considered

  11. LOCATING SUGAR CANE LOADING STATIONS UNDER VARIATIONS IN CANE SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    SUPACHAI PATHUMNAKUL; CHATKLAO SANMUANG; NAWAPAK EUA-ANANT; KULLAPAPRUK PIEWTHONGNGAM

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of locating sugar cane loading stations and allocating cane fields to those stations. The problem is different from the general location–allocation problem in so far as this framework takes into account the different maturity periods of each cane field. If the loading station is improperly located, it can result in high transportation costs from cane fields to the station and significant fluctuations in the station utilization rate. A modification of the well-...

  12. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  13. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    OpenAIRE

    W. J. R. Castro; A. M. Zanine; D.J. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with f...

  14. Estimates of consumptive use and ground-water return flow and the effect of rising and sustained high river stage on the method of estimation in Cibola Valley, Arizona and California, 1983 and 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1990-01-01

    In Cibola Valley, Arizona, water is pumped from the Colorado River to irrigate crops and to maintain wildlife habitat. Unused water percolates to the water table and, as groundwater, moves downgradient into areas of phreatophytes, into a drainage ditch, out of the flood plain, and back to the river. In 1983 and 1984, groundwater return flow was negligible because in most of Cibola Valley the river lost water to the aquifer. Evapotranspiration was used as an approximation for consumptive use by vegetation. Evapotranspiration was calculated as the sum of the products of the area of vegetation types and water-use rate by vegetation type. Evapotranspiration was estimated to be 70,100 acre-ft in 1983 and 62,600 acre-ft in 1984. These estimates may be in error because of the effect of sustained inundation on the rate of water use by phreatophytes. The effects cannot be quantified and therefore adjustments to rates calculated for dry-surface conditions could not be made. The method of estimating consumptive use of water by vegetation and groundwater return flow is affected by changing conditions during years of rising and sustained high river stage caused by flood-control releases at Parker Dam. Most of the bank storage that will return to the river when the high river stage subsides did not originate as irrigation water. High river stage caused some areas to be flooded directly or raised groundwater levels above the land surface. No crops could be grown in flooded fields. The decreased depth to water and inundation with fresh water resulted in new phreatophyte growth in some areas. In some areas that were flooded, many phreatophytes died. Changes in the inundated and flooded areas throughout the years made it difficult to estimate the evaporation losses from the increased water surface. (USGS)

  15. Coccidiodomycosis in Arizona 2007-2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-13

    This podcast looks at the impact of Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, in Arizona in 2007 and early 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Tom Chiller discusses what researchers learned about this fungal disease.  Created: 10/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/27/2010.

  16. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  17. 21 CFR 168.130 - Cane sirup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sirup” or “Sugar cane sirup”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled “syrup”. (d) Label... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane sirup. 168.130 Section 168.130 Food and Drugs... § 168.130 Cane sirup. (a) Cane sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat treatment...

  18. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  19. The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)

  20. Irradiation of cane sugar spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

  1. August 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The August 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 8/27/14 at Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were about 30 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep and radiology communities. A presentation was given by Julie Reid of the American Lung Association in Arizona on their Lung Force initiative. This is an initiative to make women more aware that lung cancer is the number 1 cause of cancer deaths in women. There will be a fund raising Lung Force Walk on November 15, 2014 in Phoenix. More information can be found at http://www.lungforce.org/walk-events or http://www.lung.org/associations/states/arizona/local-offices/phoenix/ or contact Julie Reid at JReid@Lung Arizona.org or (602 258-7505. A discussion was instigated by Dr. Parides on whether there is an increased risk of clinical Valley Fever in patients previously treated who begin therapy with biological therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. The ...

  2. Effect of Cane Length on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall

    2012-01-01

    Although individuals who are blind have used a stick or a cane for their independent travel since the early years of human history, designs for modern long canes did not appear until World War II, when the systematic long cane techniques were developed by Hoover (1962). Ergonomic factors, such as the length of the cane, may affect how well a cane…

  3. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and Puerto Rico will be allotted a total of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State...

  4. Development of a Preschool "Kiddy Cane."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, R. L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a "kiddy cane" for use with young children with blindness, aged 2-6, is described including development of the prototype, field testing, modifications resulting from feedback from specialists, and ongoing evaluation. (Author/DB)

  5. Evaluation of chemical control of marsh cane

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the feasibility of effective spraying of marsh cane (Phragmites communus) with a plant herbicide Amino Triazole (Weedazol) at Fish Springs...

  6. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Welson Lima Simões; Marcelo Calgaro; Daniela Siqueira Coelho; Delfran Batista dos Santos; Moisés Alves de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design ...

  7. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar....

  8. Drop-Off Detection with the Long Cane: Effects of Different Cane Techniques on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the drop-off detection performance with the two-point touch and constant contact cane techniques using a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample of 15 cane users with visual impairments. The constant contact technique was superior to the two-point touch technique in the drop-off detection rate and the 50% detection…

  9. Riparian restoration framework for the Upper Gila River, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Bruce K.; Leverich, Glen L.; Diggory, Zooey E.; Dudley, Tom L.; Hatten, James R.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Orr, Devyn A.

    2014-01-01

    This technical report summarizes the methods and results of a comprehensive riparian restoration planning effort for the Gila Valley Restoration Planning Area, an approximately 53-mile portion of the upper Gila River in Arizona (Figure 1-1). This planning effort has developed a Restoration Framework intended to deliver science-based guidance on suitable riparian restoration actions within the ecologically sensitive river corridor. The framework development was conducted by a restoration science team, led by Stillwater Sciences with contributions from researchers at the Desert Botanical Garden (DBG), Northern Arizona University (NAU), University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). All work was coordinated by the Gila Watershed Partnership of Arizona (GWP), whose broader Upper Gila River Project Area is depicted in Figure 1-1, with funding from the Walton Family Foundation’s Freshwater Initiative Program.

  10. Preliminary Biotic Survey of Cane Creek, Calhoun County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biotic survey of Cane Creek (Calhoun County, AL) was completed in the Fall (1992) and Winter (1993) at six sites within Cane Creek to determine the effects of...

  11. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  12. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment quantity. (b) The allotment for cane sugar will be 45.65 percent of...

  13. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  14. Arizona's Florence Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallam, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Florence Immigrant and Refugee Rights Project (Florence, Arizona) in which lawyers help individuals who are being detained in Florence. Explains that the project offers service to individuals at the detention center, helps children without guardians, and provides information to immigrant communities on their rights when arrested.…

  15. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Van RANST, E.; Debaveye, J.; Mahop, F.

    1999-01-01

    The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as...

  16. 77 FR 68816 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Sun Valley to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Proposed Sun Valley to Morgan 500/230kV Transmission Line Project (Formerly Called TS-5 to TS-9), Arizona... (EIS) for the Proposed Sun Valley to Morgan 500/230-kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line Project (Project... . Email: SunValley-Morgan@blm.gov . Fax: 623-580-5580. Mail: BLM Phoenix District Office, Hassayampa...

  17. The Virtual Arizona Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M. L.; Davis, R.; Conway, F. M.; Bellasai, R.

    2012-12-01

    To commemorate the once-in-a-lifetime event of Arizona's hundredth birthday, the Centennial Commission and the Governor of Arizona envisioned a museum and companion website that would capture the state's history, celebrate its people, and embrace its future. Working with world-renowned museum designers, the state began to seek ideas from across Arizona to create plans for a journey of discovery through science and the humanities. The museum would introduce visitors to some of the people who nurtured the state through its early years and others who are innovating its tomorrows. Showcases would include the resources and experiences that shaped the state's history and are transforming its present day, highlighting the ingenuity that tamed the wild frontier and is envisioning Arizona's next frontiers through science and technology. The Arizona Experience (www.arizonaexperience.org) was initially intended to serve as the web presence for the physical museum, but as delays occurred with the physical museum, the site has quickly developed an identify of its own as an interactive, multimedia experience, reaching a wider audience with functions that would be difficult or expensive to produce in a museum. As leaders in scientific and technological innovation in the state, the Arizona Geological Survey was tasked with designing and creating the Arizona Experience site. The general themes remain the same; however, the site has added content and applications that are better suited to the online environment in order to create a rich, dynamic supplement to a physical museum experience. The website offers the features and displays of the future museum with the interactive nature and learning environment of the web. This provides an encyclopedic overview of the State of Arizona by subject matter experts in a manner that is free and open to the public and erases socio-economic, political, and physical boundaries. Over the Centennial Year of 2012 the site will release a new theme and

  18. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.)

  19. ECOSTATIC CANE PROCESSING SYSTEM PROTOTYPE PHASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate a systems environmental management approach, from field to final product, for the processing of raw cane sugar. Specific sub-systems which were to be developed and demonstrated as part of this systems approach were: (a) har...

  20. A Cognitive Basis for Teaching Cane Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for emphasizing discovery instruction over guided instruction in teaching cane travel skills to people with severe visual impairments. Discovery instruction is seen to facilitate the use of intrinsic feedback in developing perceptual-cognitive skills as well as promoting problem solving, retention, and transfer of…

  1. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  2. Kaljujooniste keskus Arizonas / Andres Kurg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kurg, Andres, 1975-

    1998-01-01

    Arhitekt William Bruderi projekteeritud kaljujooniste uurimis- ja eksponeerimiskeskus Phoenixis, Arizonas säilitab kivijooniseid, mille autoriteks olid sealset piirkonda kuni 16. sajandini asustanud hohokamid

  3. Energy Cane: Its Concept, Development, Characteristics, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizuo Matsuoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional sugar cane (Saccharum spp. energy cane is a cane selected to have more fiber than sucrose in its composition. This is obtained simply by altering the genetic contribution of the ancestral species of sugarcane using traditional breeding methods. The resulting key feature is a significant increase in biomass yield. This happens because accumulating sugar is not physiologically a simple process and results in penalty in the side of fiber and yield. This review paper describes the initial conception of fuel cane in Puerto Rico in the second half of 1970s, the present resurgence of interest in it, how to breed energy cane, and the main characteristics that make it one of the most favorable dedicated bioenergy crops. The present status of breeding for energy cane in the world is also reviewed. Its potential contribution to the renewable energy market is discussed briefly.

  4. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  5. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  6. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva; Cícera Josefa Rozangela Borges; Walker Gomes de Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler) from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soi...

  7. Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, J.L.; A. T. N. Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de Souza; A.A.Ulson de Souza

    2004-01-01

    Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constan...

  8. Energy Cane: Its Concept, Development, Characteristics, and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sizuo Matsuoka; Anthony J. Kennedy; Eder Gustavo D. dos Santos; Tomazela, André L.; Luis Claudio S. Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Unlike conventional sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) energy cane is a cane selected to have more fiber than sucrose in its composition. This is obtained simply by altering the genetic contribution of the ancestral species of sugarcane using traditional breeding methods. The resulting key feature is a significant increase in biomass yield. This happens because accumulating sugar is not physiologically a simple process and results in penalty in the side of fiber and yield. This review paper describe...

  9. Technical Efficiency in Louisiana Sugar Cane Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jason L.; Zapata, Hector O.; Heagler, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    Participants in the Louisiana sugar cane industry have provided little information related to the efficiency of sugar processing operations. Using panel data from the population of Louisiana sugar processors, alternative model specifications are estimated using stochastic frontier methods to measure the technical efficiency of individual sugar factories. Results suggest the Louisiana sugar processing industry is characterized by a constant returns to scale Cobb-Douglas processing function wit...

  10. Supply Response of Sugar Cane in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Soetrisno

    1984-01-01

    The paper investigates the supply response of sugar cane using an extended Nerlovian model, The analysis is separated into sugar mills and farmers’ responses. Output response is decomposed into area response and yield response. An important finding shows farmers to be responsive to price while millers are not, The insignificant results on sugar mills indicate that when they are under strict control, and are no longer profit maximizing, the Nerlovian supply response does not apply.

  11. System for automatic separation of sugar cane top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, mechanical sugarcane harvesting has been introduced in many regions. It improves the efficiency of sugarcane harvesting, but also brings the cane tops into sugar factories, which decreases the yield and causes economic losses. This study investigated a system that can distinguish cane tops from the mechanically harvested raw sugarcane materials. We used a green He-Ne laser (wavelength 543.5 nm, output 4 mW) to scan the raw sugarcane materials and measured the back-reflected light intensity by a light sensor (avalanche photodiode module). Since the surface roughness is different between cane top and cane stalk, analyzing the different patterns of the distribution of the back reflected light intensity enables the cane top and stalk to be distinguished. In the experiment, 22 cane tops and 32 cane stalks were used as samples. Using kurtosis as a parameter to analyze the patterns, the percentage of correctly identifying cane tops was 90.9, and that of cane stalks was 71.9, and the percentage of correct answers of all samples was 79.6. (author)

  12. Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

  13. Ecoregions of Arizona (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Johnson, Colleen Burch; Turner, Dale S.

    2014-01-01

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources; they are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance. These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across federal agencies, state agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources within the same geographical areas. The Arizona ecoregion map was compiled at a scale of 1:250,000. It revises and subdivides an earlier national ecoregion map that was originally compiled at a smaller scale. The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity. These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions. At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions. Level IV is a further subdivision of level III ecoregions. Arizona contains arid deserts and canyonlands, semiarid shrub- and grass-covered plains, woodland- and shrubland-covered hills, lava fields and volcanic plateaus, forested mountains, glaciated

  14. Isotopic paleoecology of Clovis mammoths from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Jessica Z.; Longstaffe, Fred J.; Ballenger, Jesse A. M.; Vance Haynes, C., Jr.

    2011-11-01

    The causes of megafaunal extinctions in North America have been widely debated but remain poorly understood. Mammoths (Mammuthus spp.) in the American Southwest were hunted by Clovis people during a period of rapid climate change, just before the regional onset of Younger Dryas cooling and mammoth extirpation. Thus, these mammoths may provide key insights into late Pleistocene extinction processes. Here we reconstruct the seasonal diet and climatic conditions experienced by mammoths in the San Pedro Valley of Arizona, using the carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) isotope compositions of tooth enamel. These records suggest that Clovis mammoths experienced a warm, dry climate with sufficient summer rainfall to support seasonal C4 plant growth. Monsoon intensity may have been reduced relative to the preceding time period, but there is no isotopic evidence for severe drought. However, it is possible that the "Clovis drought", inferred from stratigraphic evidence, occurred suddenly at the end of the animals' lives and thus was not recorded in the enamel isotopic compositions. Unlike mammoths that lived before the Last Glacial Maximum, Clovis mammoths regularly increased C4 grass consumption during summer, probably seeking seasonally green grasslands farther from the river valley. This predictable seasonal behavior may have made mammoths easier to locate by Clovis hunters. Furthermore, Clovis mammoths probably had no previous experience of such sudden climatic change as is believed to have occurred at the time of their extinction.

  15. SUPERSTITION WILDERNESS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Donald W.; Jinks, Jimmie E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic studies and mineral evaluations most of the Superstition Wilderness and adjoining areas are judged to have little promise for occurrence of mineral resources. However, two areas in an east-trending zone near the southern margin of the area, marked by spotty occurrences of mineralized rock, prospect pits, and a band of geochemical anomalies that coincides with aligned magnetic anomalies, are considered to have probable mineral-resource potential. This zone lies within about 6 mi of two productive mines in Arizona's great copper belt, and the trend of the zone is parallel to many of the significant mineralized structures of this belt. A small isolated uranium anomaly was found in the northeastern part of the wilderness, but no evidence of other energy resources, such as petroleum, coal, or geothermal, was found.

  16. 75 FR 64619 - White Cane Safety Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8588 of October 15, 2010 White Cane Safety Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The white cane, in addition to being a practical mobility...

  17. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane w

  18. Rotating cross arm trellis and cane training for brambles

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the combination of primocane training and cane positioning techniques using a rotatable cross-arm (RCA) trellis system and covering plants in winter to protect buds and canes from freezing temperatures in 'Apache', 'Boysenberry', 'Siskiyou', and 'Triple Crown' blackberry. After tying p...

  19. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Caning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on chair caning is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of caning; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Kingman Quadrangle, Arizona, Nevada, and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature research, surface geologic investigations, and rock sampling were conducted for the Kingman Quadrangle, Arizona, Nevada, and California, to identify geologic environments and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Favorability criteria developed during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program were used. The studies were augmented by aerial radiometric and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment surveys. No environments favorable for uranium deposits of at least 100 tons U3O8 were found. Unfavorable environments include all sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian to Laramide age; Tertiary volcanic sequences; and Quaternary caliche. Unevaluated environments include the Bird Spring Formation and the intermontane valleys

  1. An experimental study on target recognition using white canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, Kiyohiko; Ino, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    To understand basic tactile perception using white canes, we compared tapping (two times) and pushing (two times) methods using the index finger and using a white cane, with and without accompanying auditory information. Participants were six visually impaired individuals who used a white cane to walk independently in their daily lives. For each of the tapping and pushing and sound or no sound conditions, participants gave magnitude estimates for the hardness of rubber panels. Results indicated that using a white cane produces sensitivity levels equal to using a finger when accompanied by auditory information, and suggested that when using a white cane to estimate the hardness of a target, it is most effective to have two different modalities of tactile and auditory information derived from tapping. PMID:21096512

  2. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar....

  3. Design Algorithm and Performance Analysis of Conventional and Fuzzy Controller for Maintaining the Cane Level during Sugar Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yogesh Misra; H. R. Kamath

    2014-01-01

    The amount of cane fiber carried by cane carrier varies due to non-uniformity of cane supply. The continuous variation of cane in chute during the cane juice extraction inversely affects the cane juice extraction efficiency of mill. This paper deals with the development and performance comparison of conventional controller and fuzzy controller to maintain the cane level in chute during juice extraction. The conventional controller is developed using VHDL language and simulated by using Xilinx...

  4. 77 FR 31037 - Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... sales laws, for a period of up to 2 years. This is for the purpose of processing one solar energy right... Hyder Valley Solar Energy Project in Maricopa County, Arizona. DATES: Effective Date: This segregation... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Segregation of Public Lands for the Proposed Hyder Valley...

  5. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  6. Dirt in cane removal influenced by soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirt level in sugar cane consignments delivered to the factory is dependent on soil type, in association with harvesting system and weather conditions. Efforts for reducing soil in harvested cane have been made by sugar cane millers, especially improving the washing system installed before crushing. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has shown its potential for assessing dirt reductions in the washed material. Knowledge of elemental concentrations in the different soil fractions highlights the reliability of such measurements especially when taking into account the soil characteristics. (author)

  7. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  8. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas are…

  9. Method for producing tip-layered, long-cane blackberry plants using the rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rotating cross-arm trellis and a unique cane training technique was used to produce 5- to 6-ft-long tall-cane plants of semi-erect (cv. Triple Crown) and trailing (cv. Siskiyou) blackberries. The primocanes were bent to grow horizontally at 18 in height and the lateral canes that developed on th...

  10. May 2013 Arizona Thoracic Society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on Wednesday, 5/15/2013 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 13 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, thoracic surgery, and radiology communities. Dr. George Parides will have served his 2 year tenure as Arizona Thoracic Society President by July, 2013. However, he will be unable to attend the June meeting and for this reason Presidential elections were held. Dr. Lewis Wesselius was nominated and unanimously elected as President. Three cases were presented:1. Dr. Gerald Schwartzberg presented the case of a 49 year old woman with a history of Valley Fever in 2009. She was a nonsmoker and had no other known medical diseases. However, she developed shortness of breath beginning earlier this year along with a cough productive of clear, jelly-like sputum. Her physical was normal. Pulmonary function testing revealed restrictive disease with significant improvements in the FEV1 and FVC …

  11. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  12. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:27322224

  13. The Uneven Performance of Arizona's Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Arizona enrolls a larger share of its students in charter schools than any other state in the country, but no comprehensive examination exists of the impact of those schools on student achievement. Using student-level data covering all Arizona students from 2006 to 2012, we find that the performance of charter schools in Arizona in improving…

  14. The Effect of Arizona Language Policies on Arizona Indigenous Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Mary Carol; Nicholas, Sheilah E.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of Arizona's language policies on school districts serving Native American students. Although these policies were designed to restrict the access of Spanish-speaking immigrant and citizen students to bilingual education programs, their reach has extended into schools and school districts serving Native Americans.…

  15. AZ State Profile. Arizona: Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). The purpose of the test is to determine prospective high school graduates' mastery of the state curriculum and to meet a state mandate. [For the main report, "State High School Tests: Exit Exams and Other Assessments", see ED514155.

  16. Texture analysis for the segmentation of sugar cane multispectral images

    OpenAIRE

    Solano, Agustin; Schneider, Gerardo; Kemerer, Alejandra; Hadad, Alejandro Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented an analysis of the impact of texture features for segmentation of multispectral aerial images of sugar cane. Currently there are no precise techniques to estimate objectively areas of fallen cane and this causes significant losses in crop productivity and industrialization. For the real-ization of this work was made an image dataset. To build this dataset was im-plemented a software from which were obtained labeled regions in the images related to this agronomic phe...

  17. Studio di alcuni tratti del temperamento nel cane

    OpenAIRE

    Beghelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Il temperamento può essere definito come l’attitudine che un cane esprime verso le persone e verso altri animali, la combinazione di tratti fisici e mentali, acquisiti e non, che determinano il comportamento del cane. Tale parametro delinea perciò il carattere di un individuo, inclinazioni e tendenze, eccitabilità, tristezza, rabbia e il modo caratteristico di comportarsi di un individuo, con particolare riferimento alle interazioni sociali. La presente tesi di Dottorato rappresenta uno s...

  18. Wonder Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, William

    2013-01-01

    You might have passed through here, maybe. Thought you'd stick to the blue roads, hit the casinos of Vegas by the back way. As you blew through this nowhere corner of the Mojave Desert you might have noticed the rat-trap shacks rotting into the sparse hardscrabble of greasewood scrub. And you'd have thought, "What the hell is this place?" Wonder Valley. Out here, thousands of dilapidated cabins crumble into the desert, each one 12 by 20, an outhouse out back. They sit on a grid of five acre p...

  19. A Melioidosis Case in Arizona

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-03

    David Blaney, Medical Officer, Bacterial Special Pathogens Branch, discusses an unusual melioidosis case in Arizona.  Created: 10/3/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/5/2011.

  20. Arizona TeleMedicine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Coll. of Medicine.

    Designed to provide health services for American Indians living on rurally isolated reservations, the Arizona TeleMedicine Project proposes to link Phoenix and Tucson medical centers, via a statewide telecommunications system, with the Hopi, San Carlos Apache, Papago, Navajo, and White Mountain Apache reservations. Advisory boards are being…

  1. Boots on the Ground: Arizona

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-12-26

    In this podcast, we talk to CDC public health advisor Lisa Speissegger about her response efforts during the 2013 Arizona wildfires.  Created: 12/26/2013 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 12/26/2013.

  2. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test).

  3. Nutritional status of sugar cane (planted cane) in 15N experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies with stable isotopes are becoming more common due to the increased safety of operation and quality and reliability of results. However, the use of microplots is required to decrease the costs of such studies. Since microplots are small compared to regular plot areas, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether nutritional data based on microplot samples can adequately represent the whole area, in a comparison of the nutritional status of microplot sugar cane plants at their maximum development stage with those of the regular plots in experiments with N rates. Three experiments were set up, with three N rates (40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 N) and a control, with four repetitions, in a randomized complete block design, in the state of Sao Paulo. Microplots of 3 m2 containing 15N-fertilizer (5.04% atom 15N) were included in the main plots formed by 48 lines of sugar cane spaced 1.5 m apart. At the time of maximum development stage, diagnostic leaves were collected in the main and microplots to evaluate the nutritional status of plants by analyzing the total concentration of macro nutrients. There were no differences in N, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations in the diagnostic leaves from the main and microplots, so that the latter can be considered representative of the experimental area. Higher nitrogen fertilizer rates induced increased concentrations of not only N, but also of P, Ca, Mg, and S in the diagnostic leaves. (author)

  4. Performance of dairy females fed dried yeast from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Oliveira Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal in dairy heifers’ diets. Twenty-four heifers, with an initial body weight (BW of 178 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were four levels of inclusion of dried yeast from sugar cane replacing to soybean meal (0, 33, 67 and 100% on a dry matter (DM basis. While there was no difference in DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy or roughage intakes, the intakes of non-fiber carbohydrates and concentrate were increased. The crude protein intake decreased according to the dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal. The digestibility coefficients of DM and NDF showed no difference. Replacement of soybean meal with dried yeast from sugar cane had no effect on performance, because average daily gain and body measurements studied were similar for all animals and inclusion levels. Soybean meal can be completely replaced with dried yeast from sugar cane in diets for growing dairy heifers without restrictions; this will not affect the intake, digestibility, physical development of animals or metabolization of protein compounds.

  5. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  6. Water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Rodrigues da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of water consumption of cane sugar crop is important for maximum productivity with less investment. The objective of this study was to determine the water requirements of sugar cane grown in tropical environments. The field experiment was carried out in Paraiba state, during the productive cycle of sugar cane crop variety RB 92 579 irrigated by central pivot irrigation (sprinkler from October 2009 to September 2011. The crop evapotranspiration was obtained based on soil water balance and reference evapotranspiration by Penman-Monteith method (FAO/56, using the data of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation from Data Collection Platform, next to the experimental site. Soil water moisture was monitored by TDR probes (Frequency Domain Reflectometry, Model PR2/6, Delta-T. The results showed that the crop coefficients values proposed by the FAO for sugar cane are not suitable for tropical regions. The water consumption of sugar cane ranged from 2.6 mm day-1, at initial crop growth stage, to 6.38 mm day-1, with an average of 4.3 mm day-1 for all cycle. Similarly, the crop coefficient ranged from 0.56 to 1.43, with an average of 0.99 for the same development crop growth stages.

  7. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids. PMID:24228787

  8. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  9. A Model for Touch Technique and Computation of Adequate Cane Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plain-Switzer, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a model for the motion of a long-cane executing the touch technique and presents formulas for the projected length of a cane adequate to protect an individual with blindness against wall-type and pole-type hazards. The paper concludes that the long-cane should reach from the floor to the user's armpit. (JDD)

  10. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3790 Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are...

  11. Climate Superiority of Sugar Cane Planting in Longzhou County of Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Aizhen; Zeng, Xingji; Huang, Zhongxiong

    2013-01-01

    According to meteorological conditions for sugar cane growth and development, surface meteorological observation data of Longzhou County in 1981-2010 were taken as basis, to analyze influence of local temperature, precipitation and sunshine conditions on sugar cane planting. Results show that unique climate of Longzhou County is extremely suitable for sugar cane planting and growth.

  12. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  13. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departme

  14. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  15. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  16. Climate Superiority of Sugar Cane Planting in Longzhou County of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aizhen; CHENG; Xingji; ZENG; Zhongxiong; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    According to meteorological conditions for sugar cane growth and development,surface meteorological observation data of Longzhou County in 1981-2010 were taken as basis,to analyze influence of local temperature,precipitation and sunshine conditions on sugar cane planting.Results show that unique climate of Longzhou County is extremely suitable for sugar cane planting and growth.

  17. Natural radionuclides as dirt tracers in sugar cane consignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil is usually carried out to the mills, as an impurity in sugar cane, leading to economic drawbacks for the industry. The quantification of this dirt is important to identify its causes and for routine quality control. Several methods have been used for this purpose, however, no single one has been pointed out as an industrial standard. The use of a γ-ray emitting radionuclide of natural occurence was investigated and, after several soil and cane radioactivity analyses, 212Pb was chosen as the best tracer. Calibration curves developed with the addition of soil in clean cane, from 0 to 10% (dry mass), demonstrated the linearity of the method. Analyses of eleven samples taken from consignments showed that the procedure was consistent and reliable when compared to the traditional ash method. (author)

  18. Saline Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2 These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  20. Avian hosts of West Nile virus in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Nicholas; Panella, Nicholas A; Young, Ginger R; Brault, Aaron C; Levy, Craig E

    2013-09-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes sporadic outbreaks of human encephalitis in Phoenix, Arizona. To identify amplifying hosts of WNV in the Phoenix area, we blood-sampled resident birds and measured antibody prevalence following an outbreak in the East Valley of metropolitan Phoenix during summer, 2010. House sparrow (Passer domesticus), house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus), great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus), and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) accounted for most WNV infections among locally resident birds. These species roost communally after early summer breeding. In September 2010, Culex vector-avian host contact was 3-fold greater at communal bird roosts compared with control sites, as determined by densities of resting mosquitoes with previous vertebrate contact (i.e., blood-engorged or gravid mosquitoes). Because of the low competence of mourning doves, these were considered weak amplifiers but potentially effective free-ranging sentinels. Highly competent sparrows, finches, and grackles were predicted to be key amplifying hosts for WNV in suburban Phoenix. PMID:23857022

  1. The Impact of Cane Supply on Rattan Trade in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Rattan-related products from China are popular and well known in international market, but China is facing shortage of rattan cane supply, and extinction of some rattan species. The big gap between demand and supply of rattan canes in China market is urgent to be bridged. This paper makes a brief introduction on rattan in the world and analyzes the rattan trade in China. The loss of habitats, overexploitation and inadequate replenishment of rattan result in a depleting resource and there are many challe...

  2. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The 15N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  3. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, F. F. C.; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Davies, C. A.; Holbrook, N M; K. Paustian; Maia, S. M. F.,; Galdos, M. V.,; BERNOUX, MARTIAL,; Cerri, C. C.,

    2014-01-01

    Thee effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops(1-3). There have been few direct fieldmeasurements that quantify thee effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer(1-3). We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sam...

  4. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Timm, Luis Carlos; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Castro Navarro, Roberta de; Cassaro, Fabio Augusto Meira [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica do Solo. E-mail: lctimm@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Dourado-Neto, Durval [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Producao Vegertal; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biogeoquimica

    2000-09-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a {sup 15}N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The {sup 15}N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  5. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  6. Ethanol from Sugar Cane: Flask Experiments Using the EX-FERM Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Rolz, Carlos; de Cabrera, Sheryl

    1980-01-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. Two types of cane treatments were used: chips and shredded pith, either fresh or dried. A mother culture of the yeast was prepared in enriched cane juice and then added to the cane-water mixture. After static fermentatio...

  7. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs. PMID:26965194

  8. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%. The pozzolanic activity of the SCSA was evaluated by the Fratini test and the pozzolanic activity index. In order to interpretate the pozzolan activity, the Feret method was used. It is conclude that the SCSA presents pozzolanic characteristics for blending Portland cement.

    En el siguiente artículo se presenta una evaluación de la hoja de caña de azúcar calcinada bajo condiciones controladas en aras a obtener ceniza reactiva (con propiedades puzolánicas. La ceniza fue analizada mediante las técnicas de difracción de rayos X, fluorescencia de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que la ceniza de hoja de caña de azúcar sí contiene una significante presencia de material amorfo y un alto porcentaje de sílice (81,0%. Se valoró la aptitud de las cenizas obtenidas como puzolana mediante métodos químicos, como el ensayo de Frattini y métodos mecánicos, como el índice de actividad puzolánica. Como modelo a seguir para la interpretación de la puzolanicidad de la ceniza de hoja de caña se utilizó el método de Feret. Se concluye que la ceniza de hoja de caña sí es apta para ser utilizada como adición puzolánica.

  9. Libraries in Arizona: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.library.pima.gov/ University of Arizona Main Library 1510 E. University Blvd. Tucson, AZ 85721-0055 520-621-6438 http://ahsl.arizona.edu/outreach Whiteriver Whiteriver Indian Hospital, USPHS, IHS Clinical Information Resources 200 West Hospital Drive Whiteriver, AZ 85941 928- ...

  10. Arizona: In Search of the Displaced Homemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Doris

    The model described offers information about displaced homemakers that, while specific to Arizona, can provide a guide to persons in any state responsible for program planning. The report presents results of an Arizona Department of Education study which was conducted to: (1) identify the "displaced homemaker;" (2) define the need for services;…

  11. Microbial activity CO2 performance in soils planted in sugar cane Saccharum officinarum, L. with and without burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pre-harvesting burning and residues utilization on sugar cane crops, on the characteristics in a mollisol in Cauca Valley (Colombia), was evaluated between January 1997 and February 1998. The treatments were soil samples from two topped systems on green harvesting sugarcane and pre-harvest burning. Soil from forest was used to compare the characteristics. Sampling was made ten days before and after [he third and fourth ratoon and eight months after the third ratoon. the experimental design was complete randomized blocks, with three repetitions. high levels of microbial activity were found in soils under green harvesting and they showed variations through the time influenced by the humidity and organic matter contents. CO2 production was increasing in the places were the harvest residues were topped, but later it was reduced

  12. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Núñez-Jaquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement. Six prismatic specimens (7×7×10 cm with an embedded steel rod were prepared. Three contained 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement and the other three did not. All specimens were placed in a 3.5% NaCl solution and the corrosion rate was determined using polarization resistance. The results showed that reinforced concrete containing sugar cane bagasse ash has the lowest corrosion rates in comparison to reinforced concrete without the additive.

  13. Attitudes of Visually Impaired Persons toward Cane Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainapel, S. F.

    1989-01-01

    Semistructured telephone interviews with 10 visually impaired adult cane users found that early negative attitudes of stigma were usually replaced by more positive attitudes and that there was a mean of 1 3/4 years between the onset of severe visual impairment and commencement of orientation and mobility training. (Author/DB)

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of a Computer Simulation of Long Cane Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubon, Robert A.; Keith, Ashley D.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and evaluated long cane mobility computer simulation as visual rehabilitation training device and research tool in graduate students assigned to instruction (BI) (N=10) or enhanced instruction (EI) (N=9). Found higher percentage of EI students completed simulation task. Concluded that students registered positive understanding changes,…

  15. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, H. B.; Sculaccio, S. A.; Thiemann, O H; G Oliva

    2004-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa.

  17. Manganese uptake and its redistribution in sugar cane settlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation was conducted to study manganese uptake and partitioning after 2 hr of feeding and its redistribution in settlings after 30 days of growth in two cultivars of sugar cane which differed in their yield, maturity and nutritional and physiological characteristics. (author). 6 refs

  18. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  19. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  20. Lateral cane lengths affect yield components in 'Triple Crown' blackberry on rotating cross-arm trellis and cane training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three primocanes of mature ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry plants were trained on the rotating cross-arm trellis (RCA) trellis. By the end of the summer, as many as 30 lateral canes with lengths greater than 3.5 m had developed on three primocanes that had been bent at a 0.50-m height and allowed to exte...

  1. The energetic analysis of ethanol systems production from the manioc, the sugar cane and the corn crops; Analise energetica de sistemas de producao de etanol de mandioca, cana-de-acucar e milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salla, Diones Assis [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: diones.salla@gmail.com; Cabello, Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CERAT/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes e Amidos Tropicais], E-mail: dircerat@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was the analysis of the energetic ethanol production systems using as source of carbohydrates, manioc, sugar cane and maize crops. The searches were carried from the field in the Paranapanema River Valley, state of Sao Paulo in the operations of cultivation and industrial processing of raw materials for analysis. The expenditure of energy concerning the agricultural part was made by the energy consumption of stage production of one hectare of sugar cane, cassava and corn, tillage and planting procedure, inputs, driving the crop, harvest, transport industry and energy draining. The expenditure of energy referring to the part was made by the industry energy consumption of stage processing of one tonne of sugar cane, cassava and corn, in the operations of disintegration / milling, hydrolysis / treatment of the broth, fermentation, distillation and maintenance of equipment. Under the system of agronomic production of raw materials, manioc presented an energy expenditure below that of sugar cane and maize (9,528.33 MJ ha{sup -1}; 14,370.90 MJ ha{sup -1} and 15,633.83 MJ ha{sup -1}, respectively). For the ethanol produced, the operations of cultivation has consumed 1.54 MJ l{sup -1} with manioc; MJ 1.99 l{sup -1} with sugar cane, and 7.9 MJ l{sup -1} with the corn. In the industrial processing of a ton of raw material, sugar cane presented an energy cost less than the cassava and maize (1,641.56 MJ t{sup -1}; 2,208.28 MJ t{sup -1} and MJ 3,882.39 t{sup -1}, respectively), however, showed a higher cost than when they related to ethanol produced (19.38 MJ l{sup -1}; 11.76 MJ l{sup -1} and 11.76 MJ l{sup -1}, respectively). In the final energy balance for each mega joules of energy invested in sugar cane were required 1.09 MJ (9%), for each mega joules of energy invested in manioc were required 1.76 MJ (76%) and for each mega joules energy invested in maize were required 1.19 MJ (19%). Overall, it appears that the manioc consumes less energy than

  2. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p < 4.3 × 10(-5), standard t-test) in distance estimation. Each sensor unit can detect an object with a surface area as small as 1 cm(2) (1 cm × 1 cm) located 70 cm away. Our results showed that the walking speed for an obstacle course was increased by 23% on average when subjects used the Wearable Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test). PMID:26334037

  3. Interaction Effects of the Amount of Practice, Preferred Cane Technique, and Type of Cane Technique Used on Drop-Off Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert Wall; Curtis, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interaction effects of the amount of practice and the cane technique used in drop-off detection with a sample of 32 adults who were blind. The advantage of the constant contact technique over the two-point touch technique was significantly greater for the less experienced cane users than for the more experienced ones.…

  4. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca.

  5. STRAWBERRY CRATER ROADLESS AREAS, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  6. Enhancing drought resilience with conjunctive use and managed aquifer recharge in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Faunt, Claudia; Pool, Donald R.; Uhlman, Kristine;

    2016-01-01

    Projected longer‐term droughts and intense floods underscore the need to store more water to manage climate extremes. Here we show how depleted aquifers have been used to store water by substituting surface water use for groundwater pumpage (conjunctive use, CU) or recharging groundwater with surface water (Managed Aquifer Recharge, MAR). Unique multi‐decadal monitoring from thousands of wells and regional modeling datasets for the California Central Valley and central Arizona were used to assess CU and MAR. In addition to natural reservoir capacity related to deep water tables, historical groundwater depletion further expanded aquifer storage by ~44 km3 in the Central Valley and by ~100 km3 in Arizona, similar to or exceeding current surface reservoir capacity by up to three times. Local river water and imported surface water, transported through 100s of km of canals, is substituted for groundwater (≤15 km3/yr, CU) or is used to recharge groundwater (MAR, ≤1.5 km3/yr) during wet years shifting to mostly groundwater pumpage during droughts. In the Central Valley, CU and MAR locally reversed historically declining water‐level trends, which contrasts with simulated net regional groundwater depletion. In Arizona, CU and MAR also reversed historically declining groundwater level trends in Active Management Areas. These rising trends contrast with current declining trends in irrigated areas that lack access to surface water to support CU or MAR. Use of depleted aquifers as reservoirs could expand with winter flood irrigation or capturing flood discharges to the Pacific (0 – 1.6 km3/yr, 2000–2014) with additional infrastructure in California. Because flexibility and expanded portfolio options translate to resilience, CU and MAR enhance drought resilience through multi‐year storage, complementing shorter term surface reservoir storage, and facilitating water markets.

  7. Enhancing drought resilience with conjunctive use and managed aquifer recharge in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Reedy, Robert C.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Pool, Donald; Uhlman, Kristine

    2016-03-01

    Projected longer-term droughts and intense floods underscore the need to store more water to manage climate extremes. Here we show how depleted aquifers have been used to store water by substituting surface water use for groundwater pumpage (conjunctive use, CU) or recharging groundwater with surface water (managed aquifer recharge, MAR). Unique multi-decadal monitoring from thousands of wells and regional modeling datasets for the California Central Valley and central Arizona were used to assess CU and MAR. In addition to natural reservoir capacity related to deep water tables, historical groundwater depletion further expanded aquifer storage by ˜44 km3 in the Central Valley and by ˜100 km3 in Arizona, similar to or exceeding current surface reservoir capacity by up to three times. Local river water and imported surface water, transported through 100s of km of canals, is substituted for groundwater (≤15 km3 yr-1, CU) or is used to recharge groundwater (MAR, ≤1.5 km3 yr-1) during wet years shifting to mostly groundwater pumpage during droughts. In the Central Valley, CU and MAR locally reversed historically declining water-level trends, which contrasts with simulated net regional groundwater depletion. In Arizona, CU and MAR also reversed historically declining groundwater level trends in active management areas. These rising trends contrast with current declining trends in irrigated areas that lack access to surface water to support CU or MAR. Use of depleted aquifers as reservoirs could expand with winter flood irrigation or capturing flood discharges to the Pacific (0-1.6 km3 yr-1, 2000-2014) with additional infrastructure in California. Because flexibility and expanded portfolio options translate to resilience, CU and MAR enhance drought resilience through multi-year storage, complementing shorter term surface reservoir storage, and facilitating water markets.

  8. Audio-magnetotelluric survey to characterize the Sunnyside porphyry copper system in the Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    The Sunnyside porphyry copper system is part of the concealed San Rafael Valley porphyry system located in the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project. To help characterize the size, resistivity, and skin depth of the polarizable mineral deposit concealed beneath thick overburden, a regional east-west audio-magnetotelluric sounding profile was acquired. The purpose of this report is to release the audio-magnetotelluric sounding data collected along that east-west profile. No interpretation of the data is included.

  9. 3D-structure of the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Uklein, R I

    2009-01-01

    We present the improved distance moduli of 30 galaxies in the Canes Venatici I Cloud using advanced Tip of Red Giant Branch (TRGB) method (Makarov et.al. 2006). The method was determined for accurate estimation of the distances even if TRGB situated near photometric limit. The data were taken from the Archive of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Based on ACS and WFPC2 images of the HST we construct the color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stellar population of the galaxies using Dolphot and HSTPhot packages. New refined method of the distance determination allows us to clarify the 3D structure of the Canes Venatici I Cloud. It consists of the central group of galaxies around M94 and the outskirt which is situated in gravitational field of the "core". The mass and mass-to-light ratio of the CVn have been estimated.

  10. A New Milky Way Dwarf Satellite in Canes Venatici

    CERN Document Server

    Zucker, D B; Evans, N W; Wilkinson, M I; Irwin, M J; Sivarani, T; Hodgkin, S; Bramich, D M; Irwin, J M; Gilmore, G; Willman, B; Vidrih, S; Fellhauer, M; Hewett, P C; Beers, T C; Bell, E F; Grebel, E K; Schneider, D P; Newberg, H J; Wyse, R F G; Rockosi, C M; Yanny, B; Lupton, R; Smith, J A; Barentine, J C; Brewington, H; Brinkmann, J; Harvanek, M; Kleinman, S J; Krzesínski, J; Long, D; Nitta, A; Snedden, S A

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, we announce the discovery of a new dwarf satellite of the Milky Way, located in the constellation Canes Venatici. It was found as a stellar overdensity in the North Galactic Cap using Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). The satellite's color-magnitude diagram shows a well-defined red giant branch, as well as a horizontal branch. As judged from the tip of the red giant branch, it lies at a distance of ~220 kpc. Based on the SDSS data, we estimate an absolute magnitude of Mv ~ -7.9, a central surface brightness of mu_0,V ~ 28 mag arcsecond^-2, and a half-light radius of \\~ 8.5' (~ 550 pc at the measured distance). The outer regions of Canes Venatici appear extended and distorted. The discovery of such a faint galaxy in proximity to the Milky Way strongly suggests that more such objects remain to be found.

  11. Chromatographic detection of sugar cane samples via polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Juan Carlos; Fajer, Victor; Rodríguez, Carlos W.; Naranjo, Salvador; Mora, Luis; Ravelo, Justo; Cossio, Gladys; Avila, Norma

    2004-03-01

    The combination of molecular exclusion cromatography with the laser polarimetry has become a powerful technique to separate and evaluate some carbohydrates of sugar cane plants. In the following work it has been obtained chromatograms of carbohydrates standards, which has been used as comparison patterns in the studies of the juice quality in different cane varieties of different physiological stadiums and stress conditions. By means of the employment of this technique, it has also been determined the influence of carbohydrates of medium molecular mass in the determination of the apparent sucrose in the routine sugar analysis. On the other hand, discreet determination of the fractions causes time consuming and a troublesome manipulation. In the present work some modifications to the system are shown, obtaining a small volume sample (less than 1 ml) and angular readings on line, avoiding the employment of fraction collectors.

  12. Design and Evaluation of the Walking Cane Handle Grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimitomo Taniguchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to optimize the grip shape of canes used as walking aids. We developed a prototype shaped to reduce the dorsiflexion of the wrist joint, which we believe is a cause of wrist pain. The stability of the prototype grip is evaluated using a floor reaction force gauge based on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board [RVL-021]. The grips of conventional (S grip and the prototype (P grip cane were compared to find a significant difference in the behavior of anterior-posterior movement. These results indicate that the prototype showed good weight shift, and that the proposed grip design improved the stability of weight transfer during walking. 

  13. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the results of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using INAA from a thermal reactor. The behavior of minor and trace elements in sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant. (author). 25 refs., 2 figs

  14. Evapotranspiration from a Sugar Cane Field in the Miyako Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evapotranspiration from a sugar cane field was observed during the summer season in the Miyako Islands. Interpolation was also conducted for the data deficit period by using the bulk transfer coefficient and evapotranspiration efficiency, which were represented as a function of solar radiation and soil water content. Evapotranspiration was 6.4 mm day-1 in late June, and decreased gradually. It was under 3.5 mm day-1 (100 Wm-2) at the end of October. (author)

  15. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    OpenAIRE

    M Faramarzi; Y Rahimi Kashkouli; HR RahimiKashkouli; D Gholamzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by addi...

  16. PHOSPHORUS BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING IN A SUGAR CANE AGROECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual harvest of sugarcane plantations together with the burning of the crop before harvest, a common practice of management of sugarcane plantations in South America, leads to the loss of significant amounts of nutrients in those agroecosystems. Thus prescribed burning operations could progressively diminish the level of soil organic matter and increase nutrient deficiency in soils of sugar cane agrosystems. This study is an attempt to quantify the P distribution during the period of growth in a plantation of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum located near San Felipe, Yaracuy State, Central, Venezuela focusing on processes related to the cycling of the element as affected by burning operations. The work was performed in 4.5 ha experimental plots planted with the varieties Puerto Rico (PR 1028 and Venezuela (V 58-4. The principal flows of phosphorus, as well the quantities of this element in the soil-plant components were measured throughout the growing cycle of the crop (third ratoon. The inputs through precipitation (wet and dry were high, that was associated with the intense agricultural (prescribed burning and industrial activities occurring in the area. The annual balance for both varieties was negative (-17.31 and -23.63 kg ha–1 for V 58-4 and PR 1028, respectively. The negative budget is mainly due to the important amounts of P that are exported with the cane stems. The losses must be compensated through fertilization; nonetheless, preliminary results indicated no response to P dressing, suggesting that in the studied mollisols the internal processes e.g., Organic-P (Po mineralization and P solubilization efficiently operate generating important available P levels. It was also found that the burning of the sugar cane plantation plays an important role in the recycling of phosphorus, since 25-28 % of the P requirements of the varieties are reincorporated into the soil from the ashes coming as bulk deposition.

  17. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez-Jaquez, R. E.; J. E. Buelna-Rodríguez; C. P. Barrios-Durstewitz; Gaona-Tiburcio, C.; Almeraya-Calderón, F.

    2012-01-01

    Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar ...

  18. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  19. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used. PMID:26530907

  20. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction data have been collected from crystals of recombinant sugar cane phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthase (PRS) and analysis has revealed its quaternary structure, localizing this PRS into the class of enzymes forming an hexameric oligomer of 223 kDa. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthases (PRS; EC 2.7.6.1) are enzymes that are of central importance in several metabolic pathways in all cells. The sugar cane PRS enzyme contains 328 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.6 kDa and represents the first plant PRS to be crystallized, as well as the first phosphate-independent PRS to be studied in molecular detail. Sugar cane PRS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Using X-ray diffraction experiments it was determined that the crystals belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P21212 and unit-cell parameters a = 213.2, b = 152.6, c = 149.3 Å. The crystals diffract to a maximum resolution of 3.3 Å and a complete data set to 3.5 Å resolution was collected and analysed

  1. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  2. Evaluation of cyclone gasifier performance for gasification of sugar cane residue - Pt. 1: gasification of cane trash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabra, M.; Pettersson, E.; Kjellstrom, B. [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden). Div. of Energy Engineering; Backman, R. [Abo Akademi University, Abo (Finland). Div. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-11-01

    In Part 1 of this two-part paper, results from gasification of bagasse in a cyclone gasifier have been reported. In this paper results from gasification of cane trash in the same cyclone gasifier are presented. The cane trash powder is injected into the cyclone with air as transport medium. The gasification tests were made with two feeding rates, 39 and 46 kg/h at two equivalence ratios of 0.25 and 0.20 and the gasification temperature ranging from 820{sup o}C to 850{sup o}C. It was found that the heating value of the producer gas is in the range of 4.5-4.8 MJ/Nm{sup 3} (dry gas), which is sufficient for stable gas turbine combustion. Significant alkali separation has been achieved in the cyclone stage. However, the alkali levels and carryover particle concentrations in the producer gas were found to be higher than allowable in a gas turbine. Despite high ash melting temperatures found by the TGA-DTA, deposition problems cannot be excluded since some carryover particles in the producer gas seem to have been melted and since some gasification of K and Na compounds is indicated. As an overall assessment, cane trash appears as a more problematic fuel than bagasse for this application. Integrated experiments with a gas turbine need to be done for accurate evaluation of the possibilities to use the producer gas from the gasification of cane trash to run a gas turbine without problems of hard deposits and corrosion on the turbine blades. (author)

  3. 77 FR 25741 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Reservation, Arizona; and the Tohono O'odham Nation of Arizona. History and Description of the Remains In 1930... individuals were identified. The three associated funerary objects are one ceramic bowl, one ceramic jar, and one ceramic pitcher. Queen Creek Ruin was a large habitation site that included trash mounds,...

  4. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.

    1998-01-01

    The Central Arizona Basins study area in central and southern Arizona and northern Mexico is one of 60 study units that are part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical, chemical, and environmental characteristics that may affect water quality in the Central Arizona Basins study area and present an overview of water quality. Covering 34,700 square miles, the study area is characterized by generally north to northwestward-trending mountain ranges separated by broad, gently sloping alluvial valleys. Most of the perennial rivers and streams are in the northern part of the study area. Rivers and streams in the south are predominantly intermittent or ephemeral and flow in response to precipitation such as summer thunderstorms. Effluent-dependent streams do provide perennial flow in some reaches. The major aquifers in the study area are in the basin-fill deposits that may be as much as 12,000 feet thick. The 1990 population in the study area was about 3.45 million, and about 61 percent of the total was in Maricopa County (Phoenix and surrounding cities). Extensive population growth over the past decade has resulted in a twofold increase in urban land areas and increased municipal water use; however, agriculture remains the major water use. Seventy-three percent of all water with drawn in the study area during 1990 was used for agricultural purposes. The largest rivers in the study area-the Gila, Salt, and Verde-are perennial near their headwaters but become intermittent downstream because of impoundments and artificial diversions. As a result, the Central Arizona Basins study area is unique compared to less arid basins because the mean surface-water outflow is only 528 cubic feet per second from a total drainage area of 49,650 square miles. Peak flows in the northern part of the study area are the result of snowmelt runoff; whereas, summer thunderstorms account for the peak flows in

  5. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  6. Silicon Valley Ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is unlikely that any industrial region of the world has received as much scrutiny and study as Silicon Valley. Despite the recent crash of Internet and telecommunications stocks,Silicon Valley remains the world's engine of growth for numerous high-technology sectors.

  7. Dendrogeomorphically derived slope response to decadal and centennial scale climate variability: Black Mesa, Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Scuderi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A major impediment to an understanding of the links between climate and landscape change, has been the relatively coarse resolution of landscape response measures (rates of weathering, sediment production, erosion and transport relative to the higher resolution of the climatic signal (precipitation and temperature on hourly to annual time scales. A combination of high temporal and spatial resolution dendroclimatic and dendrogeomorphic approaches were used to study relationships between climatic variability and hillslope and valley floor dynamics in a small drainage basin in the Colorado Plateau of northeastern Arizona, USA Dendrogeomorphic and vegetation evidence from slopes and valley bottoms, including root exposure, bending of trunks, change in plant cover and burial and exhumation of valley bottom trees and shrubs, suggest that the currently observed process of root colonization and rapid breakdown of the weakly cemented bedrock by subaerial weathering, related to periodic dry/wet cycle induced changes in vegetation cover, has lead to a discontinuous, climate-controlled production of sediment from these slopes. High-amplitude precipitation shifts over the last 2000-years may exert the largest control on landscape processes and may be as, or more, important than other hypothesized causal mechanisms (e.g. ENSO frequency and intensity, flood frequency in eroding slopes and producing sediments that ultimately impact higher order drainages in the region. Current vegetation response to a prolonged drought over the past decade suggests that another major transition, incorporating vegetation change, slope erosion, sediment production and subsequent valley floor deposition, may be in its initial phase.

  8. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  9. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  10. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  11. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to...

  12. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    and hollow-core TOPAS canes were doped with a solution of dopants in acetone/methanol and hexane/methanol, respectively. Doping time, solvent mixture concentration and doping temperature were optimised. A long and stepwise drying process was applied to the doped canes to ensure complete solvent removal...

  13. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  14. Variables of the Touch Technique that Influence the Safety of Cane Walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Raoul M.; Schellingerhout, Roelef; van Grinswen, Roland; Smitsman, Ad W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated variables that determined the safety of 15 cane users who were using the touch technique. The results showed that none of the walkers used a touch technique as described and recommended in the literature, that the detection of obstacles was related mainly to the height of the cane tip during the sweep, and that the early…

  15. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  16. Floods of October 1977 in southern Arizona and March 1978 in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Eychaner, James H.

    1984-01-01

    Major floods occurred in October 1977 and March 1978 in Arizona. As much as 14 inches of rain fell during October 6-9, 1977, over the mountains of southern Arizona and northern Mexico resulting in the highest discharge since at least 1892 on the Santa Cruz River upstream from Tucson. The flood inundated areas as much as 4 miles wide, covered at least 16,000 acres of farmland, and caused $15.2 million in damage. Residential losses occurred at Nogales, Amado, Green Valley, and Sahuarita. Severe erosional damage occurred along the Santa Cruz River, Agua Fria Canyon, Potrero Creek, and many small drainages in the Sonoita Creek basin. The peak discharge in Agua Fria Canyon was the highest since before 1900. Less severe flooding occurred along the San Pedro River and the Gila River downstream from the San Pedro. Widespread rainfall of 3 to 6 inches and 9 to 14 inches in some areas in the central mountains during February 27 to March 3, 1978, caused the highest discharge since 1920 on the Salt River in Phoenix and resulted in three deaths. Flooding along the Salt and Gila Rivers and several lesser streams caused statewide damage totaling $65.9 million, of which about $37 million occurred in Maricopa County. Nine counties were declared disaster areas. During the flood of March 1978, moderate peak discharges and unusually high volumes of runoff occurred on tributaries to the Salt and Verde Rivers upstream from a system of reservoirs. Flood magnitudes were greater at the main-stem gaging stations than on the tributaries. The peak discharge into Theodore Roosevelt Lake, which was 21 percent full at the start of the flood, was about 155,000 cubic feet per second, the largest known from 1890 to 1978. The reservoirs stored large quantities of water and greatly reduced the magnitude of the flood. The peak discharge of the Salt River was 125,000 cubic feet per second below Granite Reef Dam and 122,000 cubic feet per second at Phoenix. Discharges in excess of 100,000 cubic feet per

  17. SOURCE PHENOMENOLOGY EXPERIMENTS IN ARIZONA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessie L. Bonner; Brian Stump; Mark Leidig; Heather Hooper; Xiaoning (David) Yang; Rongmao Zhou; Tae Sung Kim; William R. Walter; Aaron Velasco; Chris Hayward; Diane Baker; C. L. Edwards; Steven Harder; Travis Glenn; Cleat Zeiler; James Britton; James F. Lewkowicz

    2005-09-30

    The Arizona Source Phenomenology Experiments (SPE) have resulted in an important dataset for the nuclear monitoring community. The 19 dedicated single-fired explosions and multiple delay-fired mining explosions were recorded by one of the most densely instrumented accelerometer and seismometer arrays ever fielded, and the data have already proven useful in quantifying confinement and excitation effects for the sources. It is very interesting to note that we have observed differences in the phenomenology of these two series of explosions resulting from the differences between the relatively slow (limestone) and fast (granodiorite) media. We observed differences at the two SPE sites in the way the rock failed during the explosions, how the S-waves were generated, and the amplitude behavior as a function of confinement. Our consortium's goal is to use the synergy of the multiple datasets collected during this experiment to unravel the phenomenological differences between the two emplacement media. The data suggest that the main difference between single-fired chemical and delay-fired mining explosion seismograms at regional distances is the increased surface wave energy for the latter source type. The effect of the delay-firing is to decrease the high-frequency P-wave amplitudes while increasing the surface wave energy because of the longer source duration and spall components. The results suggest that the single-fired explosions are surrogates for nuclear explosions in higher frequency bands (e.g., 6-8 Hz Pg/Lg discriminants). We have shown that the SPE shots, together with the mining explosions, are efficient sources of S-wave energy, and our next research stage is to postulate the possible sources contributing to the shear-wave energy.

  18. The sugar cane agro-industry - its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil is 222 million tonnes (harvested wet weight)/year and is processed to sugar (7.5 million tonnes) and ethanol (11.8 million m3) in 1990. The use of fossil fuels in sugar cane production is 271 MJ/t of cane. Sugar cane bagasse and ethanol substitute for fuel oil in the food and chemical industry (including sugar production) and for gasoline (9.75 million m3/year), thus avoiding CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. Considering the fast carbon cycling in sugar cane production and use, net emissions of 9.45 million tonnes of C/year are avoided; this corresponds roughly to 18% of the total CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in Brazil. (author)

  19. Adrenocortical function in cane toads from different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2016-05-01

    The adrenocortical function of cane toads (Rhinella marina) exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as captured from different environments, was assessed by challenging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It was found that restriction stress as well as cannulation increased plasma corticosterone (B) levels for up to 12h. A single dose of dexamethasone (DEX 2mg/kg) significantly reduced B levels demonstrating its potential for use in the evaluation of the HPA axis in amphibia. We also demonstrate that 0.05 IU/g BW (im) of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) significantly increased plasma B levels in cane toads. Changes in size area of the cortical cells were positively associated with total levels of B after ACTH administration. We also found differences in adrenal activity between populations. This was assessed by a DEX-ACTH test. The animals captured from the field and maintained in captivity for one year at the animal house (AH) present the highest levels of total and free B after ACTH administration. We also found that animals from the front line of dispersion in Western Australia (WA) present the weakest adrenal response to a DEX-ACTH test. The animals categorized as long established in Queensland Australia (QL), and native in Mexico (MX), do not shown a marked difference in the HPA activity. Finally we found that in response to ACTH administration, females reach significantly higher levels of plasma B than males. For the first time the adrenocortical response in cane toads exposed to different experimental procedures, as well as from different populations was assessed systematically. PMID:26877241

  20. Growth of Pediococcus acidilactici on sugar cane blackstrap molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Anna Ernani S.; Torres Regina Coeli O.

    1998-01-01

    Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01) has grown in MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) broth modified by substitution of glucose by 2.0% (MRS-2), 3.0% (MRS-3), 4.0% (MRS-4) and 5.0% (MRS-5) sugar cane blackstrap molasses. The highest acid production was obtained in MRS-5 broth maintained at a constant pH of 5.0. The highest biomass production was obtained when P. acidilactici was grown in MRS-5 broth at initial pH 6.5, while productivity was higher in MRS-2 broth (28.16%). When the MRS-2 broth was utilize...

  1. Mark A. Cane Receives 2013 Maurice Ewing Medal: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philander, S. George

    2014-01-01

    Mark Cane started his career when theories for the ocean circulation were "dreamlike" (in the words of Henry Stommel). He made major contributions to a complete change in those perceptions by producing theoretical results that explain and by developing computer models that simulate realistically the variability of the complex system of tropical currents, undercurrents, and countercurrents. His results served as the basis for the design of several international field programs in the three tropical oceans whose different dimensions and different surface winds provide stringent tests for the results concerning the interactions between the waves and currents that determine how the oceans adjust to changing winds.

  2. Nuclear techniques in total quality programs to sugar cane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil contents in sugar cane consignments were monitored with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the soil tracers Fe, Hf, Sc and Th. Data showed problems related with heteroscedasticity, non-normality and outliers, which implied in the application of power transformation in ANOVA and MANOVA, and use of non parametric tests. these statistical techniques showed the need for stratification as function of soil type, weather conditions and number of harvesting. Sampling size presently used in factory shows inefficiency to estimate a soil amount. Shewhart control chary with Box-Plot fitted properly for monitoring the process on line. (author)

  3. Using cane sensor networks for people monitoring applications

    OpenAIRE

    Khssibi, Sabri

    2015-01-01

    The world is undergoing profound demographic changes closely linked with the development of the field of public health. The increase in life expectancy is accompanied by an increase in the number of elderly people, in particular those with chronic diseases. Several existing research projects have as objective to ensure the maintenance to homes of the elderly, by a better follow-up by using new technologies. Among them, we find the proposed CANet who proposed the use of sugar cane as a tool fo...

  4. Ethnic Segregation in Arizona Charter Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey D. Cobb

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the criticisms of charter schools is their potential to further stratify schools along ethnic and class lines. This study addressed whether Arizona charter schools are more ethnically segregated than traditional public schools. In 1996-97, Arizona had nearly one in four of all charter schools in the United States. The analysis involved a series of comparisons between the ethnic compositions of adjacent charter and public schools in Arizona's most populated region and its rural towns. This methodology differed from the approach of many evaluations of charter schools and ethnic stratification in that it incorporated the use of geographic maps to compare schools' ethnic make-ups. The ethnic compositions of 55 urban and 57 rural charter schools were inspected relative to their traditional public school neighbors.

  5. The use of sugar cane on traditional ceremony in Tabanan, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane or tebu (Saccharum officinarum L. is useful in Hinduism ceremonies in Bali, so that the people plant it in the home yard. Its population is not big but it spreads all over Bali. The farmers use it to be the merchandise at the markets, especially for the ritual ceremonies uses. The use of sugar cane in ritual ceremonies is very popular as symbolize of wedding ceremony. The sugar cane is put in front part of the cars when they go to the bride’s house for the permission. The sugar cane stem cut into two parts used as the parts of the offering, as the tegen-tegenan as the offering as the earth product, raka-raka fruit for canang/offering, pedangal for tooth ceremony etc. The research was conducted in Tabanan Bali to know the varieties of sugar cane and the function in ritual ceremony in Bali. The result showed that people used 8 kinds of sugar cane for the ceremonies such as: tebu ratu/raja, tebu tiying, tebu kuning, tebu selem/cemeng/hitam/ireng, tebu malem, tebu tawar, tebu salah, and tebu suwat. They had function as identities, offering, worship, protection, and food of white cows. This showed that Balinese people had a little knowledge of sugar cane as the offering and the plantation is not maximal. The belief of the sugar cane function in ritual ceremony in Bali supports its reservation. For that it needs to build reservation and introduce new varieties, the clearness of the sugar cane meaning as the facilities of the ceremony and the availability of young sugar cane.

  6. Energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study (single-group was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 - length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 - length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 - length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years. Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001, as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  7. Molecular detection of airborne Coccidioides in Tucson, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Nancy A.; Griffin, Dale W.; Barker, Bridget M.; Loparev, Vladimir N.; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental surveillance of the soil-dwelling fungus Coccidioides is essential for the prevention of Valley fever, a disease primarily caused by inhalation of the arthroconidia. Methods for collecting and detectingCoccidioides in soil samples are currently in use by several laboratories; however, a method utilizing current air sampling technologies has not been formally demonstrated for the capture of airborne arthroconidia. In this study, we collected air/dust samples at two sites (Site A and Site B) in the endemic region of Tucson, Arizona, and tested a variety of air samplers and membrane matrices. We then employed a single-tube nested qPCR assay for molecular detection. At both sites, numerous soil samples (n = 10 at Site A and n = 24 at Site B) were collected and Coccidioides was detected in two samples (20%) at Site A and in eight samples (33%) at Site B. Of the 25 air/dust samples collected at both sites using five different air sampling methods, we detected Coccidioides in three samples from site B. All three samples were collected using a high-volume sampler with glass-fiber filters. In this report, we describe these methods and propose the use of these air sampling and molecular detection strategies for environmental surveillance of Coccidioides.

  8. Geology of the Cane Branch and Helton Branch watershed areas, McCreary County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Erwin J.

    1957-01-01

    Cane Branch and Helton Branch in McCreary County, Kentucky, are about 1.4 miles apart (fig. 1). Can Branch, which is about 2.1 miles long, emptied into Hughes Fork of Beaver Creek. Its watershed area of about 1.5 square miles lies largely in the Wiborf 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (SW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle), but the downstream part of the area extends northward into the Hail 7 1/2-minute quadrangle (NW/4 Cumberland Falls 15-minute quadrangle). Helton Branch, which is about 1.1 miles long, has two tributaries and empties into Little Hurricane Fork of Beaver Creek. It drains an area of about 0.8 square mile of while about 0.5 square mile is in the Hail quadrangle and the remainder in the Wilborg quadrangle. The total relief in the Can Branch area is about 500 feet and in the Helton Branch area about 400 feet. Narrow, steep-sided to canyon-like valley and winding ridges, typical of the Pottsville escarpment region, are characteristic of both areas. Thick woods and dense undergrowth cover much of the two areas. Field mapping was done on U.S. Geological Survey 7 1/2-minute maps having a scale of 1:24,000 and a contour interval of 20 feet. Elevations of lithologic contacts were determined with a barometer and a hand level. Aerial photographs were used principally to trace the cliffs formed by sandstone and conglomerate ledges. Exposures, except for those of the cliff- and ledge-forming sandstone and conglomerates, are not abundant. The most complete stratigraphic sections (secs. 3 and 4, fig. 2) in the two areas are exposed in cuts of newly completed Forest Service roads, but the rick in the upper parts of the exposures is weathered. To supplement these sections, additional sections were measured in cuts along the railroad and main highways in nor near the watersheds.

  9. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen (15N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15N atoms) and 14 Mg ha-1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha-1 of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha-1 of root system, labeled with 15N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15N-urea, 15N-SS and 15N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  10. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes. PMID:17532626

  11. Performance of exotic varieties of sugar cane in varietal trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty sugar cane varieties introduced from Canal Point, ARS-USDA Florida, USA, were evaluated for two years to identify the high yielding varieties for cultivations in Sind. Some of the exotic varieties were superior to check BL4 and PR1000, the local commercial varieties. In cane yield and its components the varieties CP65-3577, CP68-1067, CP70-321, CP52-68, CP67-412, CP56-59, L62-96 and CP68-1026 were better than the checks. In sugar content the varieties CP68-1067, CL61-5, CP67-412, CL54-378, CP68-1026, L62-96, CP65-357 AND CP70-321 were superior to checks. Of the 20 exotic varieties, 7 namely CP65-357, CP68-1067, CP67-321, CP57-412, L62-96, CP68-1026 and CP56-59 have shown the potential to become commercial varieties in Sind. (author)

  12. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  13. Blitzen Valley Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 64,000 acre Blitzen Valley unit of Malheur National Wildlife Refuge is not producing enough wildlife to meet the refuge's migratory bird objectives. The area...

  14. Geometry of Valley Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Petroff, Alexander P; Abrams, Daniel M; Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Kudrolli, Arshad; Rothman, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Although amphitheater-shaped valley heads can be cut by groundwater flows emerging from springs, recent geological evidence suggests that other processes may also produce similar features, thus confounding the interpretations of such valley heads on Earth and Mars. To better understand the origin of this topographic form we combine field observations, laboratory experiments, analysis of a high-resolution topographic map, and mathematical theory to quantitatively characterize a class of physical phenomena that produce amphitheater-shaped heads. The resulting geometric growth equation accurately predicts the shape of decimeter-wide channels in laboratory experiments, 100-meter wide valleys in Florida and Idaho, and kilometer wide valleys on Mars. We find that whenever the processes shaping a landscape favor the growth of sharply protruding features, channels develop amphitheater-shaped heads with an aspect ratio of pi.

  15. Analysis of user characteristics related to drop-off detection with long cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Shik Kim, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how user characteristics affect drop-off detection with the long cane. A mixed-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 32 visually impaired adults attempted to detect the drop-offs using different cane techniques. Younger cane users detected drop-offs significantly more reliably (mean +/- standard deviation = 74.2% +/- 11.2% of the time than older cane users (60.9% +/- 10.8%, p = 0.009. The drop-off detection threshold of the younger participants (5.2 +/- 2.1 cm was also statistically significantly smaller than that of the older participants (7.9 +/- 2.2 cm, p = 0.007. Those with early-onset visual impairment (78.0% +/- 9.0% also detected drop-offs significantly more reliably than those with later-onset visual impairment (67.3% +/- 12.4%, p = 0.01. No interaction occurred between examined user characteristics (age and age at onset of visual impairment and the type of cane technique used in drop-off detection. The findings of the study may help orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques in accordance with the cane user's age and onset of visual impairment.

  16. Turnover of Public School Superintendents in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joyce Ntsoaki

    2013-01-01

    This study used a descriptive qualitative design utilizing a phenomenological approach to determine and examine the reasons behind the voluntary or involuntary turnover of Arizona school superintendents. Open-ended questions were used to interview five superintendents who had left their districts between 2008 and 2013 about their perceptions on…

  17. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  18. 78 FR 57923 - Arizona Disaster #AZ-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arizona Disaster AZ-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is...: 06/13/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  19. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness. PMID:25571333

  20. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  1. The use of sugar cane on traditional ceremony in Tabanan, Bali

    OpenAIRE

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA; I NYOMAN PENENG

    2005-01-01

    Sugar cane or tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) is useful in Hinduism ceremonies in Bali, so that the people plant it in the home yard. Its population is not big but it spreads all over Bali. The farmers use it to be the merchandise at the markets, especially for the ritual ceremonies uses. The use of sugar cane in ritual ceremonies is very popular as symbolize of wedding ceremony. The sugar cane is put in front part of the cars when they go to the bride’s house for the permission. The sugar ca...

  2. Soil ratio evaluation in industrial sugar cane by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope induced energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis has been used for the determination of total contents of Al, Si, Ti, Fe, and Zr, chosen as soil tracers in sugar cane consignments. These elements have been evaluated in ten different types of soils from the sugar cane growing area of the sate of Sao Paulo, aiming to establish elemental ratios which could helping the identification and quantification of the soil loaded with the stalks in the field during harvesting of sugar cane. (author). 16 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  3. Chemical composition and dry matter digestibility of sugar cane oxide treated with calcium

    OpenAIRE

    C.O. Romão; G.G.P. Carvalho; V.M. Leite; Santos, A. S.; D.M.T. Chagas; O.L. Ribeiro; P.A. Oliveira; Magalhães, A F; A.J.V. Pires

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most adequate level of calcium oxide (CaO) in the treatment of sugar cane by evaluating the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. The sugar cane was homogenized with CaO levels 0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25, 3.0, 3.75 and 4.5%, in natura matter, for 24 hours. The dry matter and mineral matter increased, while the organic matter of the sugar cane decreased (P

  4. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    OpenAIRE

    Minussi Rosana Cristina; Soares-Ramos Juliana Rocha Lopes; Coelho Jorge Luiz Cavalcante; Silva Daison Olzany

    1998-01-01

    The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL) and polygalacturonase (PG) by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3) in a rotary shaker (150 rpm) for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium pro...

  5. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira; Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira; Saulo Tannus Azevedo; Ricardo Dias Signoretti; Gustavo Rezende Siqueira; Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg ...

  6. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva; Dayana do Nascimento Ferreira; Nayara Gabriela Gonçalves de Souza; Anatalha Marinho Alexandre; Isrrael Felix Alves Gomes; Ricardo Targino Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to che...

  7. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a 60Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p ≤0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA

  8. Valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in photonic valley crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaodong; Dong, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    Valley, as a degree of freedom, has been exploited to realize valley-selective Hall transport and circular dichroism in two-dimensional layered materials. On the other hand, orbital angular momentum of light with helical phase distribution has attracted great attention for its unprecedented opportunity to optical communicagtions, atom trapping, and even nontrivial topology engineering. Here, we reveal valley-contrasting orbital angular momentum in all-dielectric photonic valley crystals. Selective excitation of valley chiral bulk states is realized by sources carrying orbital angular momentum with proper chirality. Valley dependent edge states, predictable by nonzero valley Chern number, enable to suppress the inter-valley scattering along zigzag boundary, leading to broadband robust transmission in Z-shape bend without corner morphological optimization. Our work may open up a new door towards the discovery of novel quantum states and the manipulation of spin-orbit interaction of light in nanophotonics.

  9. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction–diffusion–mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity. (paper)

  10. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  11. Iron-binding properties of sugar cane yeast peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Lucia; Ponezi, Alexandre N; Milani, Raquel F; Nunes da Silva, Vera S; Sonia de Souza, A; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability.

  12. Rural electrification in multiethnic Arizona: A study of power, urbanization and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Leah Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    From as early as the 1880s until as late as the 1970s, electrical power served as a critical tool for bringing America's diverse western communities into an urban industrial era. This study examines the process of electrification in three demographically diverse rural regions of Eastern Arizona. These three regions include the valleys of the Southeast, the White Mountains, and the Navajo Reservation to the north. While federal programs aided rural residents, local and regional factors determined the timing and nature of electrification and its impact. Access to electricity depended upon economics and technological advances, as well as a combination of local community and regional characteristics such as location, landscape, demographics, politics, and culture. At the turn of the century, electricity, with its elaborate and extensive infrastructure of wires, towers, and poles, emerged across America's cultural landscapes as the industrial era's most prominent symbol of progress, power, and a modern, urban lifestyle. Technological innovations and mechanization flourished, but primarily in the urban areas of the Northeast. People living outside concentrated settlements, of all ethnic backgrounds, had few hopes for delivery due to the cost of building power lines to a limited market. Arizona's rural population has historically been ethnically diverse, and its landscape varies from desert valleys to mountains of alpine forest. The federal government owns much of the land. Aided by federal guidance and funding sources like the New Deal's Rural Electrification Administration (REA), the existing rural communities took the initiative and constructed electrical systems specific to their local and regional needs. While products of the communities that built them, these systems symbolized and defined newly urbanized regions within the context of old rural landscapes, lifestyles, and traditions. In some ways the rural electrification process urbanized rural Arizona. The

  13. Molecular characterization of MHC class II in the Australian invasive cane toad reveals multiple splice variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, Mette; Cui, Jian; Shine, Richard; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    The cane toad has gained notoriety for its invasion across the Australian landscape, with significant impacts on the native Australian fauna. The invasion has accelerated over time, with invading cane toads adapted for highly dispersive traits. This, however, has come at the cost of the immune system, with lower investment in some immune functions. To investigate the cane toad's immunogenetics, we characterized four major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class IIA and three MHC class IIB loci. Preliminary observations suggest very low allelic diversity at all loci. We also observed various splice isoforms. One isoform seen at one class IIA and two class IIB loci was missing exon 2, which is essential to peptide binding and presentation. The other isoform, observed at a class IIA locus, is likely to be a soluble MHC product. These results may suggest a significant role of alternative splicing of MHC loci in the Australian cane toad. PMID:27233954

  14. Diet composition of the invasive cane toad (Chaunus marinus) on Rota, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R.N.; Bakkegard, K.A.; Desy, G.E.; Plentovich, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    The cane or marine toad (Chaunus marinus, formerly Bufo marinus) was introduced to the Northern Mariana Islands starting in the 1930s. The effects of this exotic predator on native vertebrates (especially lizards) are largely unknown. We analysed the stomach contents of 336 cane toads collected from the island of Rota, with the goal of estimating the level of toad predation on native vertebrates. Beetles, ants, millipedes, and grasshoppers/crickets comprised the majority of prey classes consumed by toads. The introduced Brahminy blindsnake (Ramphotyphlops braminus; N = 6) and conspecific cane toads (N = 4) were the vertebrates most commonly found in toad stomachs. Skinks (Emoia; N = 2) were the only native vertebrates represented in our sample. The small numbers of nocturnal terrestrial vertebrates native to Rota likely translates to relatively low rates of predation by cane toads on native vertebrates.

  15. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  16. Compensatory mechanisms operating in sugar cane: phosphorus uptake by the shoot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, role of shoot roots in imparting compensatory ability to the sugar cane plant has been investigated by studying uptake of 32P in plants, where dry matter supported by a unit root varied

  17. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  18. Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Carlos H; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo

    2012-03-01

    Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar cane root through the emergent lateral roots. The microorganisms were capable of coexisting both intra and intercellularly, producing changes in the cell wall, thus allowing colonization and interaction between the organisms. These changes increased the number of microorganisms inside the root as well as acetylene nitrogen reduction. Sugar cane plant biomass increased with joint-inoculation. The number of endophytic microorganisms and nitrogen fixing activity increased when they were colonized by Azospirillum and Glomus together.

  19. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano José Corbi; Claudio Gilberto Froehlich; Susana Trivinho Strixino; Ademir dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated b...

  20. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased

  1. Production of amino acids by mucor geophillus using sugar cane waste as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study Mucor geophillus was used for amino acid production from acid/base hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse. The Effects of substrate as well as influence of hydrolyzing agent on amino acid production by Mucor geophillus were investigated. Result reveals that higher amount of amino acids were accumulated when acid hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse were used as substrate in comparison to NH/sub 4/OH and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ hydrolysates. (author)

  2. Firmicutes dominate the bacterial taxa within sugar-cane processing plants

    OpenAIRE

    Farhana Sharmin; Steve Wakelin; Flavia Huygens; Megan Hargreaves

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane processing sites are characterised by high sugar/hemicellulose levels, available moisture and warm conditions, and are relatively unexplored unique microbial environments. The PhyloChip microarray was used to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition in three Australian sugar cane processing plants. These ecosystems were highly complex and dominated by four main Phyla, Firmicutes (the most dominant), followed by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi. Signif...

  3. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A.; P.M Durgawale; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  4. Determining the Future for Louisiana Sugar Cane Products, Inc.: A Case Study Analyzing Vertical Coordination Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gunderson, Michael A.; Johnson, Aaron J.; Michael E. Salassi; Lonnie P. CHAMPAGNE; DeVuyst, Cheryl Sinn

    2009-01-01

    Deciding how to coordinate activities can be a challenge posed in any marketing chain. This case involves an agricultural cooperative that has focused entirely on marketing raw sugar cane for additional refinement. Recent dramatic shifts in the sector have caused the members of the cooperative to consider building a facility that will process the raw sugar cane. In so doing, the cooperative can consider using the spot market, using contracts, vertically coordinating, or vertically integrating...

  5. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, A.R. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, J.M.M.; Horii, J

    2003-04-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased.

  7. Cost-effective lignocellulolytic enzyme production by Trichoderma reesei on a cane molasses medium

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jun; Wu, Ai-Min; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Zheng, Ping; Yu, Jie; Tian, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Cane molasses, an important residue of the sugar industry, have the potential as a cost-effective carbon source that could serve as nutrients for industrial enzyme-producing microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi. However, the enzyme mixtures produced in such a complex medium are poorly characterized. In this study, the secretome of Trichoderma reesei grown on a cane molasses medium (CMM) as well as on a lactose-based conventional medium (LCM) were compared and analyzed by us...

  8. The water relations and irrigation requirements of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum): a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, M. K. V.; Knox, Jerry W.

    2011-01-01

    The results of research on the water relations and irrigation needs of sugar cane are collated and summarized in an attempt to link fundamental studies on crop physiology to irrigation practices. Background information on the centres of production of sugar cane is followed by reviews of (1) crop development, including roots; (2) plant water relations; (3) crop water requirements; (4) water productivity; (5) irrigation systems and (6) irrigation scheduling. The majority of th...

  9. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivo Soural; Naděžda Vrchotová; Jan Tříska; Josef Balík; Štěpán Horník; Petra Cuřínová; Jan Sýkora

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. ...

  10. Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Bellone, Carlos H.; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar c...

  11. May 2013 Arizona Thoracic Society notes

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2013-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on Wednesday, 5/15/2013 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 13 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, thoracic surgery, and radiology communities. Dr. George Parides will have served his 2 year tenure as Arizona Thoracic Society President by July, 2013. However, he will be unable to attend the June meeting and for this reason Presidential elections were held. Dr. Lewis Wes...

  12. DNA polymorphisms in banana and sugar cane varieties revealed by RAPD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar cane is the fourth most important cash crop of Pakistan and is grown on 1 million hectares of land, with a total production of 37 million tonnes. It does not flower under existing environmental conditions. Sugar cane is vegetatively propagated and the national breeding programmes is restricted to the adaptation and multiplication of exotic varieties. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to establish polymorphisms among various local sugar cane varieties. DNA from the varieties L-118, L-116, BL-4, BF-162, Col-44, Col-54, Triton and Puri was isolated and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ten nucleotide primers. The amplification profiles of all the sugar cane varieties were compared and the polymorphisms detected. DNA was isolated from the embryogenic calli of sugar cane subjected to gamma irradiation at different doses (0, 0.5, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 krad) and salt stresses (NaCl: 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM), and was amplified with random primers to detect the polymorphisms introduced by stress. The banana is another important vegetatively propagated crop in Pakistan. DNA isolation from micropropagated banana was optimized and RAPD analysis performed on several clones of the banana variety Williams. The level of genetic variability revealed from calli and vegetatively propagated sugar cane and banana by RAPD analysis is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Development of a sugar cane residue feeding system for a cyclone gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabra, M.; Salman, H.; Kjellstroem, B. [Lulea University of Technology, (Sweden). Energy Technology Centre in Pitea

    1998-12-31

    For the smooth and continuous operation of a cyclone gasifier, the fuel must be fed continuously and without interruption or large fluctuations. A feeding system for bagasse/cane trash powder was therefore designed, built and tested. It consisted of a feeding bin with four feeder screws in the bottom which deliver the fuel to two downcomers from which the fuel is injected by steam into the gasifier. During the first tests, the low bulk density and cohesive characteristics of a crushed bagasse/cane trash power were found to cause an accumulation of the fuel in the feeding system, creating difficulties for the flow into the gasifier. In addition, once the flow of the crushed bagasse/cane trash powder is interrupted by a build-up in the downcomer channels, the crushed bagasse/cane trash powder becomes progressively compacted into a dense structure, resulting in blockage of the discharge. It was found possible to eliminate this problem by changing the shape of the slivers of the crushed bagasse/cane trash powder to render them more homogeneous. This was achieved by pelletizing the crushed bagasse or cane trash before grinding it to powder. (author)

  14. April 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The April 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 4/23/2014 at Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 15 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology and radiology communities. It was announced that there will be a wine tasting with the California, New Mexico and Colorado Thoracic Societies at the American Thoracic Society International Meeting. The tasting will be led by Peter Wagner and is scheduled for the Cobalt Room in the Hilton San Diego Bayfront on Tuesday, May 20, from 4-8 PM. Guideline development was again discussed. The consensus was to await publication of the IDSA Cocci Guidelines and respond appropriately. George Parides, Arizona Chapter Representative, gave a presentation on Hill Day. Representatives of the Arizona, New Mexico and Washington Thoracic Societies met with their Congressional delegations, including Rep. David Schweikert, to discuss the Cigar Bill, NIH funding, and the Medicare Sustainable Growth ...

  15. University of Arizona Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Joseph; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2012-12-31

    Boiled down to its essentials, the grant’s purpose was to develop and demonstrate the viability of compressed air energy storage (CAES) for use in renewable energy development. While everyone agrees that energy storage is the key component to enable widespread adoption of renewable energy sources, the development of a viable scalable technology has been missing. The Department of Energy has focused on expanded battery research and improved forecasting, and the utilities have deployed renewable energy resources only to the extent of satisfying Renewable Portfolio Standards. The lack of dispatchability of solar and wind-based electricity generation has drastically increased the cost of operation with these components. It is now clear that energy storage coupled with accurate solar and wind forecasting make up the only combination that can succeed in dispatchable renewable energy resources. Conventional batteries scale linearly in size, so the price becomes a barrier for large systems. Flow batteries scale sub-linearly and promise to be useful if their performance can be shown to provide sufficient support for solar and wind-base electricity generation resources. Compressed air energy storage provides the most desirable answer in terms of scalability and performance in all areas except efficiency. With the support of the DOE, Tucson Electric Power and Science Foundation Arizona, the Arizona Research Institute for Solar Energy (AzRISE) at the University of Arizona has had the opportunity to investigate CAES as a potential energy storage resource.

  16. November 2013 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The November Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 11/20/2013 at Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 26 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, nursing, radiology, and infectious disease communities. As per the last meeting a separate area for upcoming meetings has been created in the upper left hand corner of the home page on the SWJPCC website. A short presentation was made by Timothy Kuberski MD, Chief of Infectious Disease at Maricopa Medical Center, entitled “Clinical Evidence for Coccidioidomycosis as an Etiology for Sarcoidosis”. Isaac Yourison, a medical student at the University of Arizona, will be working with Dr. Kuberski on his scholarly project. Mr. Yourison hypothesizes that certain patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis in Arizona really have coccidioidomycosis. It would be predicted that because of the immunosuppression, usually due to steroids, the sarcoidosis patients would eventually express the Coccidioides infection. The investigators will be …

  17. December 2013 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Robbins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A breakfast meeting of the Arizona Thoracic Society and the Tucson winter lung series was held on Saturday, 12/14/2013 at Kiewit Auditorium on the University of Arizona Medical Center Campus beginning at 8:30 AM. There were 31 in attendance. A lecture was presented by Joe G. N. "Skip" Garcia, MD, the senior vice president for health sciences at the University of Arizona. The title of Garcia’s talk was “Personalizing Medicine in Cardiopulmonary Disorders: The Post ACA Landscape”. Garcia began with reiterating that the Affordable Care Act (ACA, Obamacare is fact and could pose a threat to academic medical centers. However, he views the ACA as an opportunity to develop personalized medicine which grew from the human genome project. Examples cited included the genetic variability among patients in determining the dose of warfarin and bronchodilator response to beta agonists in asthma (1,2. Garcia’s laboratory has studied predominately 6 diseases including the …

  18. January 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The January Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 1/22/2014 at Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 11 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology and radiology communities. A discussion was held how to encourage attendance of young physicians to the Arizona Thoracic Society. A short presentation was made by Rick Robbins on the SWJPCC reiterating the material published in the yearly report from the editor (1. Three cases were presented: Dr. Tom Colby from the Pathology at the Mayo Clinic Arizona presented the first case. The patient was a 62 year old with polycythemia vera and shortness of breath. CT scan showed diffuse ground glass densities. The right ventricle and the pulmonary artery were slightly enlarged. A VATS lung biopsy was performed. The biopsy showed an increase in megakarocytes, immature red blood cells and immature white cell precursors consistent with extramedullary hematopoiesis. There was …

  19. Evaluation of the Arizona Medical Student Exchange Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, T R; Nichols, A W

    1977-10-01

    In this article the authors describe and present an evaluation of the Arizona Medical Student Exchange Program of the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education. The program is designed to help defray the cost that an Arizona student faces in attending an out-of-state medical school by paying, in the student's behalf, the difference between the resident and nonresident tuition at the out-of-state school. Furthermore, the accepting medical school is paid an additional sum as an inducement to accepts more Arizona students in the future. The program's goal is to increase the number of graduating physicians who will return to practice in Arizona, especially in areas of medical need. While the program apparently has been successful in increasing the number of Arizona students studying medicine and the number of physicians returning to the state--both to metropolitan areas and to areas of medical need--these increases have not kept pace with Arizona's growing population. PMID:903947

  20. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  1. Silicon Valley Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Silicon Valley is home to the most dynamic industries in the California economy. These industries--the high-tech sector--are driven by innovation, and each new wave of innovation is usually led by creative entrepreneurs starting new firms.

  2. Silicon Valley's Turnaround

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ During Silicon Valley's dramatic economic growth fueled by the Internet boom and business investment in information technology, employment in the region's high-tech sec tor tripled between 1995 and 2000. The economic boom gave rise to many new firms,drawing em ployees into high-tech jobs from other regions and other industries.

  3. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Allan N. S. Dantas; Lopes, Gisele S.; Ronaldo F. do Nascimento; Gomes, Clerton L.; Maria Nataniela da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of...

  4. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  5. Scallopleaf sage (salvia vaseyi: Lamiaceae) discovered in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, J.W., III; Felger, R.S.; Jansen, B.D.; Krausman, P.R.

    2010-01-01

    During the course of field work in Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge, southwestern Arizona, in 2003, James Cain and Brian Jansen collected Salvia vaseyi, previously known only from the western edge of the Sonoran Desert in California and Baja California. Our findings indicate this shrub might be more widespread in southwestern Arizona mountains. Salvia vaseyi in Arizona seems to represent a relict population. There are other shrubby Salvia in Arizona, but S. vaseyi is the most xeric-mhabiting species and has the narrowest ecological and geographical range.

  6. Bringing Silicon Valley inside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Silicon Valley companies produced 41 IPOs, which by January 1999 had a combined market capitalization of $27 billion--that works out to $54,000 in new wealth creation per worker in a single year. Multiply the number of employees in your company by $54,000. Did your business create that much new wealth last year? Half that amount? It's not a group of geniuses generating such riches. It's a business model. In Silicon Valley, ideas, capital, and talent circulate freely, gathering into whatever combinations are most likely to generate innovation and wealth. Unlike most traditional companies, which spend their energy in resource allocation--a system designed to avoid failure--the Valley operates through resource attraction--a system that nurtures innovation. In a traditional company, people with innovative ideas must go hat in hand to the guardians of the old ideas for funding and for staff. But in Silicon Valley, a slew of venture capitalists vie to attract the best new ideas, infusing relatively small amounts of capital into a portfolio of ventures. And talent is free to go to the companies offering the most exhilarating work and the greatest potential rewards. It should actually be easier for large, traditional companies to set up similar markets for capital, ideas, and talent internally. After all, big companies often already have extensive capital, marketing, and distribution resources, and a first crack at the talent in their own ranks. And some of them are doing it. The choice is yours--you can do your best to make sure you never put a dollar of capital at risk, or you can tap into the kind of wealth that's being created every day in Silicon Valley.

  7. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  8. Fungal Staining of Daemonorops margaritae Canes%黄藤材的真菌变色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文华; 刘杏娥; 刘君良

    2011-01-01

    The new felled fresh cane of Daemonorops margaritae is attractive yellowish white or creamy, but often change color during the course of transportation, storage, processing and utilization. Through the chemical composition analysis, the scanning electron microscope observation and the stain-fungi inoculation test of normal cane, the causes and types of the rattan cane are discussed, which is important for further research in preventing and removing the cane discoloration. Results showed that: 1 ) The cane' s yellow discoloration was mainly chemical discoloration or photodiscoloration. The cane' s blue, dark-brown and red stains were mainly caused by fungi, since there were always much fungus mycelia in the vessel and basic parenchyma tissue cells of the stained canes. 2) Compared with the normal cane, the extractive contents in all items of the fungal stained cane were decreased, and the pH value, the content of moisture, pentosan, holocellulose and ash were all increased. The chemical compositions of the core had greater change than the cortex, which indicated that the stain-fungi had greater influence on the core than on the cortex. 3 ) Fifteen fungi species were mainly isolated from the stained canes. After being inoculated with these fungi respectively, weight loss of all the normal canes was a little, but changed color greatly. The discoloration of the inoculated cane was consistent with the color of the stained cane from which the inoculating fungi were separated. Considering the stain-fungal cultivating characteristics, the blue, dark-brown and red discolorations of D. margaritae cane were mainly resulted from the colors of the stain-fungal mycelia or the pigments secreted by the stain-fungi such as melanin.%黄藤(Daemonorops margaritae),是我国热带和南亚热带森林中的主要伴生植物,是我国的优良商品棕榈藤种,为中国特有种(许煌灿等,1994a).天然分布以海南岛为中心,延伸至23°30′N以南的广东和广西南

  9. Biological nitrogen fixation in sugar cane: A key to energetically viable biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddey, R.M. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agrobiologia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1995-05-01

    The advantages of producing biofuels to replace fossil energy sources are derived from the fact that the energy accumulated in the biomass in captured directly from photosynthesis and is thus renewable, and that the cycle of carbon dioxide fixation by the crop, followed by burning of the fuel makes no overall contribution to atmospheric CO{sub 2} or, consequently, to global warming. However, these advantages are negated if large quantities of fossil fuels need to be used to grow or process the biofuel crop. In this regard, the Brazilian bioethanol program, based on the fermentation/distillation of sugar cane juice, is particularly favorable, not only because the crop is principally hand harvested, but also because of the low nitrogen fertilizer use on sugar cane in Brazil. Recent {sup 15}N and N balance studies have shown that in some Brazilian cane varieties, high yields are possible without N fertilization because the plants are able to obtain large contributions of nitrogen from plant-associated biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF). The N{sub 2}-fixing acid-tolerant bacterium Acetobacter diazotrophicus was first found to occur within roots, stems, and leaves of sugar cane. Subsequently, two species of Herbaspirillum also have been found to occur within the interior of all sugar cane tissues. The discovery of these, and other N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria that survive poorly in soil but thrive within plant tissue (endophytic bacteria), may account for the high BNF contributions observed in sugar cane. Further study of this system should allow the gradual elimination of N fertilizer use on sugar cane, at least in Brazil, and opens up the possibility of the extension of this efficient N{sub 2}-fixing system to cereal and other crops with consequent immense potential benefits to tropical agriculture. 44 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. How Arizona's Dropout Crisis Affects Communities, Creates Economic Losses for the State of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One-in-five of Arizona's youth did not complete high school and a similarly large proportion of the state's youth is disconnected from either work or education. These youth face higher risks of unemployment and economic insecurity and are more reliant on government supports. This situation, which fails to ensure that the state's youth are…

  11. 77 FR 25737 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    .... History and Description of the Cultural Items In 1930, cultural items were removed from Queen Creek Ruin... donated to the Arizona State Museum. The 30 unassociated funerary objects are 12 ceramic bowls, 8 ceramic jars, 1 ceramic ladle, 3 ceramic pitchers, 5 ceramic scoops, and 1 ceramic sherd. Queen Creek Ruin...

  12. 76 FR 28079 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... worked stick object, 2 wooden awls, 89 glass beads, 1 lot of blue pigment, and 1 stick pin. The five... that are both sacred and cultural patrimony are 4 eagle feathers, 1 stone purifying bowl, 3 medicine... Arizona State Museum in 1943. In 1954, Mr. Joel Shiner collected 89 glass beads and 1 lot of blue...

  13. 78 FR 13889 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    .... In 1929, an unknown donor presented a Hopi turtle shell rattle (catalog no. 18498) to the Arizona... through identification by Hopi cultural specialists. Specific knowledge provided by the Society Priests of the Hopi Tribe gives a positive identification to substantiate ownership of these sacred and...

  14. Galaxy Flow in the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Dolphin, A E; Grebel, E K; Geisler, D; Guhathakurta, P; Hodge, P W; Karachentseva, V E; Sarajedini, A; Seitzer, P

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 images of eighteen galaxies in the Canes Venatici I cloud. We derive their distances from the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch stars with a typical accuracy of ~12 %. The resulting distances are 3.9 Mpc (UGC 6541), 4.9 Mpc (NGC 3738), 3.0 Mpc (NGC 3741), 4.5 Mpc (KK 109), >6.3 Mpc (NGC 4150), 4.2 Mpc (UGC 7298), 4.5 Mpc (NGC 4244), 4.6 Mpc (NGC 4395), 4.9 Mpc (UGC 7559), 4.2 Mpc (NGC 4449), 4.4 Mpc (UGC 7605), 4.6 Mpc (IC 3687), 4.7 Mpc (KK 166), 4.7 Mpc (NGC 4736), 4.2 Mpc (UGC 8308), 4.3 Mpc (UGC 8320), 4.6 Mpc (NGC 5204), and 3.2 Mpc (UGC 8833). The CVn I cloud has a mean radial velocity of 286 +- 9 km/s, a mean distance of 4.1 +- 0.2 Mpc, a radial velocity dispersion of 50 km/s, a mean projected radius of 760 kpc, and a total blue luminosity of 2.2 * 10^{10} L_{\\sun}. Assuming virial or closed orbital motions for the galaxies, we estimated their virial and their orbital mass-to-luminosity ratio to be 176 and 88 M_{\\sun}/L_{\\sun}, respecti...

  15. Distances to Dwarf Galaxies of the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, D I; Uklein, R I

    2013-01-01

    We determined the spatial structure of the scattered concentration of galaxies in the Canes Venatici constellation. We redefined the distances for 30 galaxies of this region using the deep images from the Hubble Space Telescope archive with the WFPC2 and ACS cameras. We carried out a high-precision stellar photometry of the resolved stars in these galaxies, and determined the photometric distances by the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) using an advanced technique and modern calibrations. High accuracy of the results allows us to distinguish the zone of chaotic motions around the center of the system. A group of galaxies around M94 is characterized by the median velocity VLG=287 km/s, distance D=4.28 Mpc, internal velocity dispersion sigma=51 km/s and total luminosity LB=1.61x10^10 Lo. The projection mass of the system amounts to Mp=2.56x10^12 Mo, which corresponds to the mass-luminosity ratio of (M/L)p=159 (M/L)o. The estimate of the mass-luminosity ratio is significantly higher than the typical ratio M/LB...

  16. A blind HI survey in the Canes Venatici region

    CERN Document Server

    Kovac, K; Van der Hulst, J M

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a blind HI survey using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope to make an inventory of objects with small HI masses (between 10^6 and 10^8 Msol) and to constrain the low-mass end of the HI mass function. The survey has been conducted in a part of the volume containing the nearby Canes Venatici groups of galaxies. The surveyed region covers an area on the sky of about 86 square degrees and a range in velocity from about -450 to about 1330 km/s. We find 70 sources in the survey by applying an automated searching algorithm. Two of the detections have not been catalogued previously, but they can be assigned an optical counterpart, based on visual inspection of the second generation Digital Sky Survey images. Only one of the HI detections is without an optical counterpart. This object is detected in the vicinity of NGC4822 and it has been already detected in previous HI studies. Nineteen of the objects have been detected for the first time in the 21-cm emission line in this survey. The distri...

  17. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  18. Improvement of sugar-cane through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results obtained on the use of induced mutations in sugar-cane breeding are summarized. Six commercial varieties under cultivation in India were subjected to mutagenic treatment for inducing mutations for specific characters. More than 50 mutants for various morphological characters, disease resistance and higher sugar content were obtained in these varieties. They were multiplied and studied for their stability for four to five years. Mutants of economic value include glabrous leaf sheath, non-flowering, vigorous and high-yielding mutants in Co 527, high-sugared and early maturing mutants in Co 419 and mutants for smut and disease resistance in Co 1287 and Co 740. Two mutants, one in Co 527 and the other in Co 419, have entered the All India Co-ordinated trials because of their superiority in yield and quality over the parent variety. Smut-resistant mutants of Co 1287 and Co 740 are being evaluated in large-scale trials. Tissue culture techniques have been used for propagating the mutants. Genetic variability has also been created by obtaining plants from callus culture with different chromosome numbers. (author)

  19. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Faramarzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by adding ethanol after 48 hours. Response surface design was used for qualitative identification of the polarization of dextran and statistical analysis methods. Results: After assessing the separation and interactive effects of the parameters on the optimum amount of dextran produced from sugarcane molasses as 50 g, 35 º C and 5/8 = pH , the Dextran produced was more than 82 g/l. The correlation of the computational model for the dextran produced was 99.5%, which indicated excellent agreement with the experimental and computational models of high accuracy. Conclusion: Dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria and sugarcane molasses as substrate, is a cheap and affordable compared to current methods of dextran production. In addition to producing a clinical product, the molasses pollution could be dramatically decreased. Key words: Dextran, Molasses, Leuconostoc Mesenteroides

  20. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  1. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  2. Revitalizing the Mahoning Valley

    OpenAIRE

    T F Buss; Vaughan, R J

    1987-01-01

    For nearly a decade, since the closing of its steel mills, the Mahoning Valley in northeast Ohio has pursued a traditional development strategy, based upon large capital subsidies, to attract new or support existing businesses. These policies have failed. As a result, local business leaders have questioned the foundations of traditional policy and have developed an alternative strategy that involves a far broader set of state and local programs in the development process. The new strategy aim...

  3. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: System Procurement Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    Providing general specifications and system descriptions for segments within the Arizona TeleMedicine Project (a telecommunication system designed to deliver health services to rurally isolated American Indians in Arizona), this document, when used with the appropriate route segment document, will completely describe the project's required…

  4. 7 CFR 1131.2 - Arizona marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Arizona marketing area. 1131.2 Section 1131.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order...

  5. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  6. Effects on Funding Equity of the Arizona Tax Credit Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Glen Y.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the results from the first year (1998) of the Arizona Education Tax Credit program, a law that allows individuals a dollar-for-dollar credit up to $500 for donations to private schools and a credit up to $200 for donations to public schools. Concludes that the credit increases educational inequity in Arizona, where those who are well off…

  7. A Model To Avoid: Arizona's Tuition Tax Credit Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arohi; Holmes, Dwight; Mincberg, Elliot; Neas, Ralph G.

    In 1997, Arizona enacted a tuition tax credit law. Supporters consider this law a model for improving public education. Opponents believe it is a model for seriously undermining public education, particularly public schools serving poor children. The two types of tax credits Arizona offers are a private tuition tax credit and tax credit for public…

  8. 75 FR 3694 - Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services, Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Media Licenses, LLC, proposing the allotment of FM Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs, Arizona. The reference coordinates for Channel 281C3 at Peach Springs are 35-33-46 NL and 113-27-12 WL. DATES:...

  9. Transformational Leadership and Teacher Motivation in Southwestern Arizona High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between transformational leadership and teacher motivation in Southwestern Arizona high schools. Teachers in a school district in Southwestern Arizona comprised of high schools were surveyed using two instruments, Leithwood and Jantzi's (1998) The Leadership and Management of Schools in…

  10. Financing Arizona's Schools: Faltering Steps Toward the "Good Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Patricia F.

    2007-01-01

    John Kenneth Galbraith proposed a test for the "good society" that deals directly with the financing of education. The Arizona Constitution may require that the legislature establish and maintain a "general and uniform" public school system, but, as the author argues in this article, the chronicle of the school funding cases in Arizona is more of…

  11. Arizona State Capitol Museum. Teacher Resource Guide. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    Information about Arizona's history, government, and state capitol is organized into two sections. The first section presents a timeline of Arizona history from the prehistoric era to 1992. Brief descriptions of the state's entrance into the Union and the city of Phoenix as the selection for the State Capitol are discussed. Details are given about…

  12. Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

    2011-10-01

    A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol.

  13. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex(trademark) fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package

  14. The future of sugar cane in China and India - Supply constraints and expansion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for 'green' fuels, bio-ethanol production has been supported by energy policies in the past decade, which have consequently been accused of contributing to the global trend of rising food prices and thus jeopardising food security. However, while biofuel policies are an important driver, prices as much as food security will ultimately be determined by supply constraints of strategic crops. This paper hence investigates drivers of and constraints to sugar cane production in China and India and shows that supply side constraints vary significantly in the two countries. China and India both face serious limitations with regard to suitable available land for the further expansion of sugar cane production. Equally they are both faced with challenges to increasing yield output per hectare, albeit different ones. With regard to productivity, China achieved 2.7% annual yield growth since 1997, while India has seen yield decreases of -0.1% p.a. over the same period. The authors conclude that cane used as a feedstock to meet the rising energy demand will come at the expense of converting fertile land for non-food purposes.

  15. The future of sugar cane in China and India - Supply constraints and expansion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for ''green'' fuels, bio-ethanol production has been supported by energy policies in the past decade, which have consequently been accused of contributing to the global trend of rising food prices and thus jeopardising food security. However, while biofuel policies are an important driver, prices as much as food security will ultimately be determined by supply constraints of strategic crops. This paper hence investigates drivers of and constraints to sugar cane production in China and India and shows that supply side constraints vary significantly in the two countries. China and India both face serious limitations with regard to suitable available land for the further expansion of sugar cane production. Equally they are both faced with challenges to increasing yield output per hectare, albeit different ones. With regard to productivity, China achieved 2.7% annual yield growth since 1997, while India has seen yield decreases of -0.1% p.a. over the same period. The authors conclude that cane used as a feedstock to meet the rising energy demand will come at the expense of converting fertile land for non-food purposes. (author)

  16. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation. PMID:25930125

  17. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  18. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation.

  19. Substitution of sugar cane bagasse in the chicken diet and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, R A; el-Faramawy, A A

    2001-10-01

    Total proteins and protein electrophoresis were made in the sera of broiler chicken (Arber Acres) to evaluate the effect of substitution of basal diet for 4 weeks by either 8% sugar cane bagasse +2% wheat germ or 16% sugar cane bagasse +4% wheat germ whether untreated or incubated with rumen liquor for 72 h and then sterilized with 2 Mrad gamma-irradiation (treated). Both levels of untreated sugar can bagasse (8 and 16%) showed significant decrease in gamma globulins but this decrease had no effect on broiler chicken (45 days) while there was significant increase in total proteins in treated sugar cane bagasse 8% with concomitant increase in alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2 and gamma globulins. These results denoted that addition of rumen liquor to 8% sugar cane bagasse diet have resulted in an improvement in the transportation of micro nutrients and immune response most probably due to its high content of microorganisms constituting high quality animal protein; also more vaccines were recommended in feeding of chicken with sugar cane bagasse for a longer period e.g. laying hens to overcome its suppressive effect on the gamma globulins. PMID:11715352

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  1. 76 FR 14048 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... traditional Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by... the sacred object/object of cultural patrimony and the Navajo Nation of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah... sacred object/ object of cultural patrimony to the Navajo Nation of Arizona, New Mexico and Utah...

  2. 78 FR 21412 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... organizations, has determined that the cultural item listed in this notice meets the definition of unassociated... Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, that meets the definition of unassociated.... Architectural features, the mortuary program, ceramic types, and other items of material culture are...

  3. October 2012 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on 10/24/2012 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 23 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, infectious disease, pathology, and radiology communities. An announcement was made that the Colorado Thoracic Society has accepted an invitation to partner with the Arizona and New Mexico Thoracic Societies in the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine. Discussions continue to be held regarding a combined Arizona Thoracic Society meeting with Tucson either in Casa Grande or electronically. Six cases were presented: Dr. Tim Kuberski, chief of Infectious Disease at Maricopa Medical Center, presented a 48 year old female who had been ill for 2 weeks. A CT of the chest revealed a left lower lobe nodule and a CT of the abdomen showed hydronephrosis and a pelvic mass. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA was elevated. All turned out to be coccidioidomycosis on biopsy. CEA decreased …

  4. June 2014 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The June 2014 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 6/25/14 at the Bio5 building on the University of Arizona Medical Center campus in Tucson beginning at 5:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were about 33 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology and radiology communities. Four cases were presented: Eric Chase presented a 68 year old incarcerated man shortness of breath, chest pain and productive cough. The patient was a poor historian. He was supposed to be receiving morphine for back pain but this had been held. He also had a 45 pound weight loss over the past year. His PMH was positive for COPD, hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic back pain and hepatitis C. Past surgical history included a back operation and some sort of chest operation. On physical examination he was tachypneic, tachycardic and multiple scars over his neck ...

  5. September 2013 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The September Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 9/25/2013 at Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 13 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and pathology communities. After a brief discussion, Gerry Swartzberg was selected as Arizona’s 2014 nominee for Clinician of the Year. There was 1 case presented: Dr. Thomas Colby, pulmonary pathologist from Mayo Clinic Arizona, presented the case of a 67 year old woman with multiple pulmonary nodules. The largest was 1.2 cm CT scan. She had a fine needle aspiration of one of the nodules. The pathology revealed spindle-shaped cells which were synaptophysin + (also known as the major synaptic vesicle protein p38. Synaptophysin marks neuroendocrine tissue and on this basis the patient was diagnosed with multiple carcinoid tumors. Aguayo et al. (1 described six patients with diffuse hyperplasia and dysplasia of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, multiple carcinoid tumorlets, and peribronchiolar fibrosis …

  6. August 2013 Arizona Thoracic Society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. The August Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, 8/28/2013 at Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 23 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and pathology communities. A brief discussion was held about the audio-visual aids available. It was generally agreed that our current projector is inadequate. Judd Tillinghast will inquire about using a hospital overhead projector. If that is not possible, it was agreed to purchase a new projector. Plans for telecasting the meeting between Phoenix and Tucson continue. A trial of a link between Shea and the University in Tucson failed. Once the link is successfully established, it is hoped that the meeting can be telecasted. There were 6 cases presented: 1. Dr. Thomas Colby, pulmonary pathologist from Mayo Clinic Arizona, presented the case of a 10 year old boy with chronic dyspnea for > 4 yrs. He had growth retardation since age …

  7. Sweet and bitter: trajectories of sugar cane investments in Northern Luzon, the Philippines, and Aceh, Indonesia, 2006-13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Shohibuddin; M.L. Alano; G. Nooteboom

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the complex process of investment and land deal making through the in-depth study of three cases of sugar cane investment in the Philippines and Indonesia. It focuses on three different trajectories of sugar cane schemes—one in northern Luzon, the Philippines, and two

  8. Variability in the occurrence of the sugar cane froghopper Aeneolamia flavilatera (Homoptera: Cercopidae), on sugar estates in Guyana and Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedijk, F.

    1982-01-01

    Significant numbers of the sugar cane froghopper, Aeneolamia flavilatera, are generally not found to be present on sugar cane during the periodically occurring prolonged dry periods. This is primarily attributable to drought induced quiescence in the froghopper eggs, which delays the appearence of t

  9. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On June 21, 2011, the Secretary of Agriculture announced an... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  10. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 23, 2010... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane...

  11. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 19, 2012, the Secretary of Agriculture... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...

  12. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 11, 2011, The Secretary of Agriculture announced an additional in-quota... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...

  13. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  14. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...

  15. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  16. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 29... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar....

  17. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.

  18. Properties of aerosols from sugar-cane burning emissions in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, L. L.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Victoria, R. L.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    The influences of biomass burning emissions in the composition of aerosol have been studied during 1 year around the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil). Inhalable particles, separated in PM 2.5 and coarse particulate mode (CPM, with size in the range (2.5cane burning is the main source of PM 2.5 representing 60% of PM 2.5, soil dust accounted for 14%, and industries and oil combustion contributed with 12% each one. Resuspended soil is the main source of CPM followed by industrial emissions and sugar-cane burning. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed that sugar-cane burning and agricultural practices are the main sources of inhalable particles, possibly altering the aerosol composition around the city of Piracicaba.

  19. Enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of dilute ammonia pretreated energy cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, G A; Salvi, D A; Walker, M S

    2011-03-01

    This study is the first one ever to report on the use of high fiber sugarcane (a.k.a. energy cane) bagasse as feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Energy cane bagasse was pretreated with ammonium hydroxide (28% v/v solution), and water at a ratio of 1:0.5:8 at 160°C for 1h under 0.9-1.1 MPa. Approximately, 55% lignin, 30% hemicellulose, 9% cellulose, and 6% other (e.g., ash, proteins) were removed during the process. The maximum glucan conversion of dilute ammonia treated energy cane bagasse by cellulases was 87% with an ethanol yield (glucose only) of 23 g ethanol/100g dry biomass. The enzymatic digestibility was related to the removal of lignin and hemicellulose, perhaps due to increased surface area and porosity resulting in the deformation and swelling of exposed fibers as shown in the SEM pictures.

  20. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives. PMID:27498012

  1. Pre-irradiation effects of γ-rays on sugar cane bagasse liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, pre-irradiation of sugar cane bagasse with several doses of γ-irradiation was studied. The irradiated samples were submitted to liquefaction and subsequently fractionated. The results show that with increasing doses (until 80 kGy) there is an increase in the product yield, which decreases with higher doses. The results obtained by the fractionation demonstrated that the product quality decreases with higher doses of irradiation. Obtaining compounds of interest, such as hydrocarbons and resins, upon liquefaction suggests a better use for sugar cane bagasse. Since sugar cane is a renewable source, its bagasse is a viable alternative for obtaining feedstocks for chemical and pharmaceutical industries. (author) 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane use in cane toads (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kaleigh E; Strahl-Heldreth, Danielle; Clark-Price, Stuart C

    2016-01-01

    Anaesthetic chamber concentrations of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane that resulted in loss of righting reflex within 15 minutes in 50 per cent of toads (Rhinella marina) exposed (ED50-LRR<15MIN) were identified. The median and range ED50-LRR<15MIN was 1.4 (0.9-1.4) per cent for isoflurane, 1.75 (1.1-1.9) per cent for sevoflurane and 4.4 (4.3-5.5) per cent for desflurane. Subsequently, toads were exposed to 1.5 times the ED50-LRR<15MIN and times to loss and return of righting reflex were identified. All toads for all anaesthetics lost righting reflex. The median and range loss of righting reflex was 4:00 (3:00-5:30) minutes for isoflurane, 4:45 (3:30-7:00) minutes for sevoflurane, and 4:15 (4:00-5:30) minutes for desflurane and was not different between anaesthetics. Time to return of righting reflex was 175 (123-211) minutes for isoflurane, 192 (116-383) minutes for sevoflurane and 74 (52-220) minutes for desflurane. Time to return of righting reflex was significantly shorter for desflurane compared with isoflurane or sevoflurane. The use of isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane can be used to provide immobilisation to cane toads and potentially other anurans. Induction times are likely similar when using an anaesthetic chamber to provide anaesthesia. However recovery time may take twice as long when utilising isoflurane or sevoflurane over desflurane. PMID:27651914

  3. Carbon 14 absorption and translocation in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant-cane stools were labelled with sup(14) CO sub(2), in the field, at Goiana-PE, Brazil, when 3, 7 and 11 months old. Each stool was enclosed in a chamber with sup(14) CO sub(2) for 90 minutes. The sub(14) C photosynthetic were measured in leaves, stalks, roots and soil 24 hours after labelling. Roots were divided into alive and dead and soil into rhizosphere and outer soil. At the end of the labelling period at 3, 7 and 11 months, 2, 19 and 1% of the initial sup(14) CO sub(2) were recovered in the plant and the soil. The low recovery of sub(14) C at 3 months could be attribute to losses by respiration and lack of sampling of the top growing point. The low CO sub(2) fixation and losses at first sampling in the 7 month old labelling were attributed to low light intensity during the day of labelling. Most of the recovered sub(14) C (>80%) was founded in the leaves but all plant parts received labelled photosynthetic. At 3 months, most of the sub(14) C translocated from the leaves went to the living roots (83%); at 7 and 11 months it went to the stalks (69 and 66%). While the roots received less than 2%. Root masses did not vary consistently along the plant cycle and dead root masses were always less than 10% of the total root mass. Radioactivity in the dead roots was always very low. These results suggest that the root system have a low turnover rate after 3 months old. (author)

  4. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  5. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  6. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasanee Thitakamol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. Only the saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly decreased under non-application of fertilizer. Under the application of distillery slop, chemical fertilizer had no significant effect on the yield and the juice quality of sugar cane for both crop years. However, under non-application of distillery slop in the first crop year, application of 21-0-0 and 20-20-0 fertilizer had a significant effect on cane yield. With the application of chemical fertilizer, distillery slop had an influence on the yield of sugar cane in both crop years while different doses of slop did not make any significant difference on cane yield. The average yields of the first crop year were 126.7, 195.6, 203.0 and 187.2 ton/hectare and those of the second crop year were 85.0, 150.0, 150.8 and 142.4 ton/hectare after the application of 0, 187.5, 375 and 562.5 m3/hectare, respectively. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not have any significant effect on juice quality for both crop years. Investigation of slop trace under the ground surface indicated that application of distillery slop did not affect the quality of underground water as the deepest level of trace was only 50 centimeters.

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions in giant cane in the Cache River watershed, southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. M.; Williard, K. W.; Schoonover, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large stands of Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) Muhl, called canebrakes, were vital to wildlife and lowland ecosystem functions and historically covered millions of acres in the southeastern United States. Since European settlement, human disturbances (e.g., clearing for agriculture and fire suppression) have caused giant cane to decline to approximately 2% of its historic range. Cane's ecological importance has led to an increased interest in canebrake restoration in riparian zones. Giant cane is a good candidate to include in multispecies riparian buffers designs, as it promotes infiltration of surface runoff and deposition of sediment and associated nutrients through its high density culms and extensive shallow rooting network. In addition, nitrous oxide is produced naturally in the soil during the microbial processes of nitrification and denitrification. To examine the role that cane plays in nutrient cycling, we have designed a research strategy to determine physical and chemical properties of existing riparian stands of native giant cane and their associated soils. We collected data on soil carbon/nitrogen ratios and monthly nitrous oxide release in both canebrakes and nearby forested riparian areas. Soil in the canebrakes had significantly higher C:N ratios (10.9) than that in cropfields (9.8), but showed no significant difference than that in the forest (10.8). Nitrous oxide emissions had a strong correlation with soil water content (r2 = 24%), but no relation with soil temperature (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in N2O releases between forest and cane, nor among the monthly samples.

  8. Sugar Cane Burning and Human Health: An Analysis Using Spatial Propensity Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Chagas, Andre; Almeida, Alex; Azzoni, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The production of ethanol and sugar from sugar cane has sharply increased for the last 20 years. If there are overall incentives to substitute the consumption of fossil fuels by biofuels, the increase of production and the expansion of new cultivated areas of sugar cane have eventually an impact on human health and employment mainly at regional levels. To harvest the crop--mostly manually done by low-skill workers--the practice of burning to clean dry grasses and poisonous insects has been ex...

  9. Aging Model For Cane Fiberboard Overpack In The 9975 Shipping Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate a cane fiberboard overpack for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. Changes in each of the properties have been fit to a model to allow predictions of degradation under various storage scenarios. Additional data continue to be collected to provide for future refinements to the model.

  10. Cane Fiberboard Degradation within the 9975 Shipping Package during Long-Term Storage Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  11. Determination of trace elements in sugar cane refuse by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of micro, trace and ultratrace amounts of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, F, Fe, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Sc, V and W in sugar cane refuses of various Egyptian factories. The element concentrations are below the safety baseline levels. Variations of results may be related to different botanic structures, different compositions of sugar cane plants of ecological changes in soil. The method is accurate and precise. The relative errors are in the range of 0.3-12.3%. (author)

  12. Evaluation of soil contents in sugar cane loading using activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol mills, a significant quantity of soil is loaded with the stalks. This content has been reduced to 1% due to improvement in harvesting methods. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers in the determination of unwanted minerals. Samples of different soils were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radioactivity measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  13. Gamma radiation attenuation to study soil particle distribution to forest and sugar cane soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a new soil particle size distribution analysis methodology is presented in connection with the study of particle size distribution in soils covered by natural forest and sugar cane crop cultivated during 16, 30 and 50 years, continuously. The technique is based on the attenuation of a gamma ray beam by a conventional soil/water suspension under sedimentation. Results show a significant difference in clay content for the upper soil layer as a function of sugar cane cultivation. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  14. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José Corbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and that the collector organisms as Chironomus species accumulated higher concentration of metals than the predator organisms.

  15. Fungal Invertase as an Aid for Fermentation of Cane Molasses into Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Y. K.; SATO H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Comparative studies of the fermentation of cane molasses into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence or absence of fungal invertase were performed. When cane molasses was fermented by the yeast at 30°C and pH 5.0, the presence of the enzyme had no effect on ethanol production. At pH 3.5, ethanol production was increased by the addition of invertase. At 40°C, the addition of invertase increased ethanol production by 5.5% at pH 5.0 and by 20.9% at pH 3.5.

  16. The sugar cane and the coconut palm: research and development sources for environmental improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes two plants that were important in the past for the human development in tropical areas: the sugar cane and the coconut palm, being considered now as possible solution for environmental problems. The sugar cane can be considered as a precursor plant to obtaine recyclable combustible, able to correct along the time the hothouse effect happening at global level. As for the coconut palm, it has been demonstrated that the shell of the coconut palm is one of the best raw materials for the preparation of activated coal, an absorbent material used in environmental protection applications

  17. Silicon Valley Lifestyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ As we embrace the rapid developments of the new media age,competitiveness in the field of internet and computer technology is an increasingly crucial factor in stimulating new business,jobs and new industry in the region.Accelerating advancements in new media,internet,software and computer technologies offer new commercial opportunities and sources of economic revenue. Silicon Valley has been a model of the new age since its existence.While the dream place not only has a unique business model,but also has a very special lifestyle.

  18. Solar energy system performance evaluation: Seasonal report for Elcam Tempe Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system, Elcam-Tempe, was designed by Elcam Incorporated, Santa Barbara, California, to supply commercial domestic hot water heating systems to the Agriculture Department residence at Arizona State University. The building is a single story residence located at the agriculture experiment farm of the Arizona State University. The energy system's four modes of operation are described. Electrical energy savings at the site was a net of 5.54 million Btu after the 0.17 million Btu of operating energy required to operate collector loop circulating pump were subtracted. The energy savings due to solar was less than the system's potential. On an average, twice as much hot water could have been used with significant solar energy contribution. The system corrosion and deposits caused by using dissimilar metals in the collector loop was the only problem noted with the Elcam-Tempe system.

  19. Proeftuin Food Valley : duurzame voedselketens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agricola, H.J.; Vijn, M.P.; Groot Nibbelink, M.

    2012-01-01

    De regio FoodValley heeft veel intensieve veehouderij en secundaire bedrijven die aan deze sector zijn gerelateerd. De uitdaging voor verduurzaming van de agrofoodketen in de regio FoodValley is om bij betrokken partijen veranderingen tot stand te brengen op basis van een win-win situatie. Ofwel inn

  20. EVALUATION OF APPROPRIATENESS OF SUGAR CANE PURCHASE RATE GIVEN BY SUGAR FACTORIES TO SUGAR CANE GROWERS IN KOLHAPUR DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA (A Case Study of Shri. Chhatrapati Shahu Sahakari Sakhar Karkhana Ltd., Kagal, Tehsil-Kagal)

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, P. T.

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane occupies an area of 20.42 million ha with a total production of 1333 million metric tons worldwide. Now, in India sugar industries are categorized as a co-operative, private and public sectors. Now few crises were come up in case of cooperative sugar factories in Kolhapur district particularly associated with sugar cane purchase rate given to the sugar cane growers by sugar cane factory. For in-depth analysis out of 14 efficiently working co-operative sugar factories in Kolhapur ...

  1. Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vin aza application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work analyzes the hydraulic conductivity in soil clay loams developed in Libertad formation in Bella Union where grows sugar cane with vinaza. In the agricultural activities are used different chemical additives such as organic and inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, which interact with the biotic (roots, soil microbiology) and abiotic (clay, soil solution, etc.) elements

  2. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  4. Modification of the Two-Point Touch Cane Technique: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, William H.; Ehresman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Four blind adults were observed to determine the extent of the natural movement of their centers of gravity in relation to arc height during the two-point touch technique for long cane travel. The Ss learned and practiced a modified technique using their center of gravity as much as possible. (Author)

  5. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex(trademark) manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex(trademark). The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package

  6. Biotic Resistance to an Alien Amphibian: Larval Competition between Japanese Frogs and Invasive Cane Toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Understanding negative effects of native species on introduced taxa may suggest novel ways to control the invasive species by enhancing such effects. Previous studies have reported that the larvae of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) are suppressed by competition with the larvae of native anurans in Australia, but not in North America. We conducted laboratory trials to measure the effect of exposure to the larvae of Japanese frogs (Microhyla ornata, Fejervarya sakishimensis, Rhacophorus owstoni) on rates of survival, growth and development of cane toad tadpoles in Ishigaki Island, in southern Japan. Survival rates were not affected by native species, but competition with Dicroglossids and Rhacophorids (but not Microhylids) strongly reduced rates of growth and development in the tadpoles of cane toads. Dicroglossid tadpoles also reduced the body condition to toad tadpoles in addition to effects on SVL and mass. Encouraging populations of native frogs in toad-invaded areas of Japan thus may help to reduce the numbers of invasive cane toads. PMID:27253973

  7. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many topogr

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  9. Dispersion of Sphenophorus levis Vaurie, 1978 (Col., Curculionidae) in sugar-cane labelled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments are described, in which the dispersion of S.levis by applying radiolabelled techniques is investigated: the insects are treated by immersion in a solution of sodium phosphate (Na2H32PO4) for 15 minutes after that insects are released in the field. The capture is mode by using sugar-cane pieces as a trap. (M.A.C.)

  10. Nancay "blind" 21 cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, RC; van Driel, W; Briggs, F; Binggeli, B; Mostefaoui, TI

    1999-01-01

    A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nancay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350

  11. Nancay blind 21cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Driel, W. van; Briggs, F.; Binggeli, B.; Mostefaoui, T. I.

    1998-01-01

    Submitted to: Astron. Astrophys. Abstract: A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21cm line with the Nancay Radio Telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350 < V_hel < 2350 km/s produced 53 spectral fe

  12. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Proclamation All Americans deserve the freedom to participate in every aspect of our society and pursue their full measure of happiness. For blind Americans, the white cane is a potent symbol of that freedom... productivity. In recent years, refreshable Braille displays and speech synthesis devices have given...

  13. Teaching the Use of a Long Cane Step by Step: Suggestions for Progressive, Methodical Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerburger, Dona; Bourquin, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental part of the orientation and mobility curriculum is the acquisition and retention of skills in using a long cane automatically and proficiently to detect and negotiate obstacles and drop-offs. Using practitioners' experiences and the principles of learning theory, instructors can monitor students' advancement and adapt teaching…

  14. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  15. Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loarie, Scott R.; Lobell, David B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Mu, Qiaozhen; Field, Christopher B.

    2011-05-01

    The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and evapotranspiration, but these effects have been poorly documented. Here we quantify the direct climate effects of sugar-cane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, on the basis of maps of recent sugar-cane expansion and natural-vegetation clearance combined with remotely sensed temperature, albedo and evapotranspiration over a 1.9millionkm2 area. On a regional basis for clear-sky daytime conditions, conversion of natural vegetation to a crop/pasture mosaic warms the cerrado by an average of 1.55 (1.45-1.65)°C, but subsequent conversion of that mosaic to sugar cane cools the region by an average of 0.93 (0.78-1.07)°C, resulting in a mean net increase of 0.6°C. Our results indicate that expanding sugar cane into existing crop and pasture land has a direct local cooling effect that reinforces the indirect climate benefits of this land-use option.

  16. Salmonella arizonae in the United Kingdom from 1966 to 1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M. L.; Rowe, B.

    1992-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae are rarely isolated in the UK. Since 1966 there have been sixty-six isolates from humans of whom 35% gave a recent history of foreign travel. Terrapins and snakes are potential sources of infection.

  17. The Tree Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (treeline)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 arcs representing the tree lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The tree lines were collected by a Trimble...

  18. Honeymoon Trail at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (honeytrl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 1 arc that represents the Honeymoon Trail inside of Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The Honeymoon Trail was...

  19. Walkways at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_walkways)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 23 arcs representing the walkways (or sidewalks) at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The walkways were collected...

  20. The Gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (gates)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 7 points representing gates at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The gates were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS...

  1. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by...

  2. Contaminants in fish and wildlife of Lynx Lake, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water, crayfish, and fish were collected at Lynx Creek and Lynx Lake, Arizona in 2004 and 2005. Granite Basin Lake was used as a reference site. Both...

  3. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form.

  4. Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2010-10-15

    Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol.

  5. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  6. 亚利桑那的爵士%Arizona Jazz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布雷德利·惠勒

    2008-01-01

    @@ The complexion and complexity of Tucson,Arizona's urban core is experiencing dynamic improvement at the hands of a socially minded architect who is also the developer.This southern Arizona community,(city population 518,956/metropolitan area population 946,362)Iocated 96 kilometers(60 miles)north of the Mexican border,is an island of civilization amid the"magnificent desolation"of the Desert Southwest.

  7. A new cane variety-Guitang No.22 bred by 60Co γ-ray induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guitang No.22 was developed through seed stems of Xintaitang No.1 exposed at a dosage of 80 Gy 60Co γ-radiation. In Guangxi regional variety test, the results show that the cane yield and the sugar yield are about 106.95 and 14.21 t/hm2 respectively. Moreover, the highest tonnage of biomass and fermentable carbohydrates reaches about 188.1 and 48.92 t/hm2, respectively. Guitang 22 is a new variety which has the characteristic of both sugar cane and energy cane. (authors)

  8. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by 31P NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of 31P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The 31P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  9. Experimental study on compressive strength of concrete by partially replacement of cement with sugar cane bagasse ash

    OpenAIRE

    Jayminkumar A. Patel; Dr. D. B. Raijiwala

    2015-01-01

    Use of waste material in concrete is important for environmental aspect. Sugar cane bagasse ash is a waste by product of sugar mill. Present study is to investigate impact of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete. In this experimental work sugar cane bagasse ash which is taken from Maroli sugar mill, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA is partially replace with cement at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight in concrete. The grade of concrete is M25 and w/c ratio is 0.49 taken as a reference. 150*1...

  10. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A

    2011-12-01

    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively.

  11. Utilization of boron (10B) derived from fertilizer by sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of 10B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B (10B) derived from fertilizer (boric acid), an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m) where 4 kg ha-1 B (boric acid with 85.95 % in 10B atoms) dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005). The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006) the B content and 10B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots) were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha-1 in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots). The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha-1) and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha-1), totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha-1). The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount. (author)

  12. Impacts of energy cane expansion on ecosystem services: A Florida case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, J. E.; VanLoocke, A.; Jaiswal, D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Long, S.

    2012-12-01

    There is a rising demand for sustainable and secure sources of energy. This demand is driving the development of second-generation biofuel crops across the United States. However, in a changing climate the capability of these crops to meet energy demands are uncertain. Additionally, the impacts of energy crop adoption on biophysical and biochemical ecosystem services need to be refined. Central Florida has been identified as a test bed for energy cane in anticipation of increased investment for energy crop production in the southeastern United States. Currently, the land cover in this region is characterized by pasturelands with relatively low rates of productivity and evapotranspiration. By replacing these lands with highly productive and irrigated energy cane significant perturbations to the local and regional budgets of water, energy, and carbon are anticipated. In this study, we extend the Agro-IBIS LSM with a mechanistic multilayer canopy model of biofuel crops to simulate inter-canopy fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon. We validate the model using published leaf area, surface flux, and yield observations taken from studies that encompassed variable soil types, climatic conditions, and management decisions. This extended Agro-IBIS model is used to simulate the growth of energy cane in central Florida. Using this model we assess the potential impacts of large-scale changes in land cover on future ecosystem services for the region. In particular, we focus on how changes in atmospheric CO2 and temperature influence energy cane's regulation of surface fluxes and storage. Using a series of simulations that represent a range of climatic regimes we test how increased atmospheric carbon concentrations may enhance or diminish stresses associated with changes in regional climate, and how the physiological plant responses feedback on fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. This allows us to quantitatively evaluate how large-scale energy cane production

  13. Utilization of boron ({sup 10}B) derived from fertilizer by sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, E-mail: hjfranco@cena.usp.b, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Centro Sul; Otto, Rafael, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Tovajar, Joao Gabriel, E-mail: jgtoaliari@bol.com.b [Cosan S.A., Valparaiso, SP (Brazil). Unidade Univalem

    2009-11-15

    The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of {sup 10}B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B ({sup 10}B) derived from fertilizer (boric acid), an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m) where 4 kg ha{sup -1} B (boric acid with 85.95 % in {sup 10}B atoms) dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005). The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006) the B content and {sup 10}B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots) were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha{sup -1} in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots). The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha{sup -1}) and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha{sup -1}), totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha{sup -1}). The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount. (author)

  14. Irrigated Lands and Features, Irrigated Areas in Arizona - 1960's, Published in unknown, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Irrigated Lands and Features dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Irrigated Areas in Arizona - 1960's'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  15. Cities, Towns and Villages, Point locations of cities and towns in Arizona., Published in 2006, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cities, Towns and Villages dataset as of 2006. It is described as 'Point locations of cities and towns in Arizona.'. Data by this publisher are often provided...

  16. 27 CFR 9.58 - Carmel Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carmel Valley. 9.58... Carmel Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Carmel Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Carmel Valley...

  17. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  18. Arizona geothermal institutional handbook: Arizona geothermal commercialization planning team, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malysa, L.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist in understanding the various procedures and requirements necessary for the development of geothermal energy in the State of Arizona. It contains the names of key persons and agencies who are directly or indirectly involved in the institutional process. A detailed assessment of all agencies and the role they play in geothermal energy development is provided. The handbook is divided into four sections: State and Local rules and regulations, the Federal rules and regulations, references, and a technical bibliography. (MHR)

  19. Growth of Pediococcus acidilactici on sugar cane blackstrap molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 has grown in MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth modified by substitution of glucose by 2.0% (MRS-2, 3.0% (MRS-3, 4.0% (MRS-4 and 5.0% (MRS-5 sugar cane blackstrap molasses. The highest acid production was obtained in MRS-5 broth maintained at a constant pH of 5.0. The highest biomass production was obtained when P. acidilactici was grown in MRS-5 broth at initial pH 6.5, while productivity was higher in MRS-2 broth (28.16%. When the MRS-2 broth was utilized at initial pH 6.5 for a 20-hour fermentation period, the highest growth rate (dx/dt was found in a period of 8 to 16 hours (0.290 g cells/L.h, while the specific growth rate (µ was 0.175 (h-1 for that period, differently from the 0.441 (h-1 obtained for the period comprising the 4th to the 12th hour. The growth in MRS broth was 5.08% (2.95 g/l higher than in MRS-2 broth (2.80 g/l. The data obtained have shown that P. acidilactici has had a significant growth in molasses as the main carbon source, and that it is possible to substitute MRS glucose by this carbon source with the purpose of obtaining a more economical growth medium for the potential large scale productions.Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 cresceu em caldo MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe modificado por adição de 2,0% (MRS-2, 3,0% (MRS-3, 4,0% (MRS-4 and 5,0% (MRS-5 de melaço de cana de açúcar, em substituição à glicose. A maior produção de ácido ocorreu em caldo MRS-5 com pH constante 5,0. A produção de biomassa foi mais acentuada em caldo MRS-5 com pH inicial de 6,5, embora a produtividade tenha sido maior em caldo MRS-2 (28,16%. Em caldo MRS-2 e em pH inicial de 6,5 durante uma fermentação de 20 horas, a velocidade de crescimento (dx/dt foi maior entre a 8ª e 16ª hora (0,290 g celulas/L.h enquanto a velocidade específica de crescimento µ foi 0,175 (h-1 para este período, diferente de 0,441 (h-1 obtido no período compreendido entre a 4ª e 12ª hora. O crescimento em caldo MRS foi 5

  20. Geologic Map of Wupatki National Monument and Vicinity, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.; Felger, Tracey J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The geologic map of Wupatki National Monument is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the National Park Service, and the Navajo Nation to provide geologic information for resource management officials of the National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, Navajo Indian Reservation (herein the Navajo Nation), and visitor information services at Wupatki National Monument, Arizona. Funding for the map was provided in part by the Water Rights Branch of the Water Resources Division of the National Park Service. Field work on the Navajo Nation was conducted under a permit from the Navajo Nation Minerals Department. Any persons wishing to conduct geologic investigations on the Navajo Nation must first apply for, and receive, a permit from the Navajo Nation Minerals Department, P.O. Box 1910, Window Rock, Arizona 86515, telephone (928)-871-6587. Wupatki National Monument lies within the USGS 1:24,000-scale Wupatki NE, Wupatki SE, Wupatki SW, Gray Mountain, East of SP Mountain, and Campbell Francis Wash quadrangles in northern Arizona. The map is bounded approximately by longitudes 111? 16' to 111? 32' 30' W. and latitudes 35? 30' to 35? 37' 40' N. The map area is in Coconino County on the southern part of the Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The map area is locally subdivided into three physiographic parts, the Coconino Plateau, the Little Colorado River Valley, and the San Francisco Volcanic Field as defined by Billingsley and others (1997) [fig. 1]. Elevations range from 4,220 ft (1,286 m) at the Little Colorado River near the northeast corner of the map area to about 6,100 ft (1,859 m) at the southwest corner of the map area. The small community of Gray Mountain is about 16 mi (26 km) northwest of Wupatki National Monument Visitor Center, and Flagstaff, Arizona, the nearest metropolitan area, is about 24 mi (38 km) southwest of the Visitor Center (fig. 1). U.S. Highway 89 provides access to the west entrance of

  1. The effect of extended sensory range via the EyeCane sensory substitution device on the characteristics of visionless virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel Robert; Namer-Furstenberg, Rinat; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Mobility training programs for helping the blind navigate through unknown places with a White-Cane significantly improve their mobility. However, what is the effect of new assistive technologies, offering more information to the blind user, on the underlying premises of these programs such as navigation patterns? We developed the virtual-EyeCane, a minimalistic sensory substitution device translating single-point-distance into auditory cues identical to the EyeCane's in the real world. We compared performance in virtual environments when using the virtual-EyeCane, a virtual-White-Cane, no device and visual navigation. We show that the characteristics of virtual-EyeCane navigation differ from navigation with a virtual-White-Cane or no device, and that virtual-EyeCane users complete more levels successfully, taking shorter paths and with less collisions than these groups, and we demonstrate the relative similarity of virtual-EyeCane and visual navigation patterns. This suggests that additional distance information indeed changes navigation patterns from virtual-White-Cane use, and brings them closer to visual navigation.

  2. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 2, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Stanley G.; Banta, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the Ground Water Atlas of the United States describes the aquifers in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. These four States, which comprise Segment 2 of this Atlas, are located in the Southwestern United States and extend from the rolling grasslands of the Great Plains on the east across the Rocky Mountains and Continental Divide to the desert basins of the Southwest. The 425,000-square-mile area ranges in altitude from about 14,400 feet above sea level in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado to about 100 feet near the lower Colorado River in southwestern Arizona. All the ground water in Segment 2 ultimately is derived from infiltration of precipitation, which varies considerably with the altitude and topography of the area. The Great Plains Physiographic Province of the Central United States extends into eastern Colorado and New Mexico (fig. 1), where flat to rolling prairie (fig. 2) with scattered hills and bluffs gradually rises westward to 5,000 to 7,000 feet above sea level and abruptly gives way to the frontal ranges of the Rocky Mountains in the Southern Rocky Mountain and Basin and Range Physiographic Provinces. West of the frontal ranges in Colorado and northern New Mexico are additional and higher mountain ranges generally oriented north-south but with many spurs and extensions oriented in other directions. The many ranges of the Rocky Mountains are separated by valleys and high mountain parks (fig. 3). Colorado contains about three-fourths of the Nation's land area above 10,000 feet and has 53 mountain peaks higher than 14,000 feet. Most of these high peaks are located near the Continental Divide (fig. 1), which extends approximately north-south through central Colorado and western New Mexico. The altitude of the divide decreases in southern New Mexico to less than 4,500 feet in a few areas. Farther westward, the mountains are less prevalent and are interspersed with broad structural basins. These basins and the broad valleys of the

  3. CRIA Sians A areement with Rubber Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The signing ceremony of establishing strategic partnership between China Rubber Industry Association and Rubber Valley Co., Ltd. was held in Rubber Valley on September 13. Leaders such as Xu Wenying, Deputy Secretary-General of CRIA, repre-senting CRIA, and Zhang Yan, Deputy Director of Rubber Valley Management Committee and General Manager of Rubber Valley Co., Ltd., representing Rubber Valley, signed on the cooperation agreement. Fan Rende, President of CRIA, Cai Quanji,

  4. The History of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2005-01-01

    @@ Just as Manchester was once the center for indus trial progress, the microelectronics industry also has a heartland. Silicon Valley is located in a thirty by ten miles strip between San Francisco and San Jose,California.

  5. RailroadValleySpringfish_CH

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data identify the areas where final critical habitat for the Railroad Valley springfish (Crenichthys nevadae) occur. The irrigation ditch that is on the north...

  6. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  7. Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the states of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and...

  8. Social Networks in Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph; Leu

    2006-01-01

      Social network is a dominant, distinguishing characteristic of Silicon Valley. Because innovation entails coping with a high degree of uncertainty,such innovation is particularly dependent on networks.……

  9. January 2015 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesselius LJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Dr. Jud Tillinghast was presented a plaque in recognition of being chosen by his colleagues as the Arizona Thoracic Society Physician of the Year In 2014. Dr. Rajeev Saggar made a presentation entitled "Pulmonary fibrosis-associated pulmonary hypertension: a unique phenotype". This presentation focused on new echocardiographic methods of assessing right ventricular (RV function and the pathophysiology of RV dysfunction. Dr. Saggar presented data from a paper he authored on parenteral treprostinil in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary artery hypertension which was published in Thorax (1. There were 2 case presentations, both from the Phoenix VA by Dr. Elijah Poulos: 1. A 65 year-old man presented with cough and chills. His past medical history included multiple myeloma treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy to spine and bone marrow transplant. He had a prior vertebroplasty. His symptoms did not improve with doxycycline. Computerized tomography angiography was done and showed areas of ...

  10. May 2015 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The May 2015 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, May 27, 2015 at the Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 16 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. Ms. Georgann VanderJagt, RN, MSN gave an update on clinical trials at Dignity Health including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. To contact Ms. VanderJagt call her office at 602-406-3825, her cell at 602-615-2377 or by email at georgann.vaderjagt@digniftyhealth.org. Dr. Michael Smith, the surgical director for the lung transplant program at Dignity Health, gave an overview of their lung transplant program. They are currently the fifth busiest transplant program in the US. They have done 46 lung transplants so far this year. They are on a par with UCLA in number of transplants and survival has been at the National average. Average wait time ...

  11. November 2015 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The November 2015 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, November 18, 2015 at the Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 14 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. There were 3 case presentations: 1. Dr. Gerald Schwartzberg presented a case of a 56-year-old man with a history of diabetes, alcoholism and tobacco abuse who has a history of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI with a residual thin-walled cavity in his right upper lobe (RUL. After quitting drinking and smoking and years of being asymptomatic, he presented with hemoptysis. Chest x-ray showed increasing density in the RUL. CT scan showed an intracavitary density in his previous cavity presumably a fungus ball. Sputum cultures are pending. Discussion followed on management of fungus balls. Bronchoscopy was recommended to view the bronchial anatomy to exclude other diagnosis as well ...

  12. September 2012 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on 9/26//2012 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 18 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology, and radiology communities.A discussion was held on Pending Premium Cigar Legislation HR. 1639 and S.1461, the "Traditional Cigar Manufacturing and Small Business Jobs Preservation Act of 2011”. This bill would exempt "premium cigars" from FDA oversight. The definition of premium cigars is so broad that candy flavored cigars, cigarillos and blunts would be exempted from FDA regulation. Teenage cigar smoking is increasing and this legislation may result in a further increase. The Arizona Thoracic Society is opposed to this bill. Dr. Robbins is to put a link on the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care website linking to the ATS website. This will enable members to contact their Congressmen opposing this legislation. A discussion was also held on a proposed combined Tucson/Phoenix …

  13. VEGETATION INVENTORY OF BALABANDERE VALLEY

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Ulvi Erhan

    2009-01-01

    Balabandere Valley where Belgrad forest and Bosphorus meet in the easterly orientation of the forest has a very important ecological wealth within the greater Istanbul manucipality. The area, in which this study was conducted, has a potantial to become an outdoor recreation laboratory in and around Istanbul city. Balabandere valley and its vicinity can as well be described as a conservation zone with its cultural and ecological landscaoe history. It harbors a very crucial watershed for the ci...

  14. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. PMID:26245813

  15. 14C fixation and translocation in two clones of sugar-cane with contrasting rates of sucrose uptake in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of 14CO2 fixation and translocation of 14C labelled assimilates were measured in field experiments at two times of the day in two sugar-cane clones known to have different rates of sucrose uptake in vitro but the same weight of leaf per unit weight of cane. The rate of 14CO2 fixation and the velocity and rate of translocation were significantly greater at both times in the clone with the higher rate of sucrose uptake in vitro. The velocities of translocation were 2.18 and 2.36 cm/min-1 for the clone with high sucrose uptake and 1.46 cm min-1 at both times in the clone with low uptake. It is suggested that among sugar-cane clones the ability of their canes to store sugar may play a part in determining their rates of photosynthesis and translocation. (author)

  16. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  17. Solar energy system performance evaluation: seasonal report for Elcam Tempe Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The analysis used is based on instrumented system data monitored and collected for at least one full season of operation. The objective of the analysis is to report the long-term field performance of the installed system and to make technical contributions to the definition of techniques and requirements for solar energy system design. The solar system, Elcam-Tempe, was designed to supply commercial domestic hot water heating systems that utilize two, four by eight foot flat plate collectors to heat water in a fifty-two gallon preheat tank or a fifty-two gallon domestic hot water (DHW) tank. The DHW tank provides hot water to the Agriculture Department residence at Arizona State University. The system uses an automatic cascade control system to control three independent actuators, the coolant circulation pump, the cascade valve, and the electric heating element. The system provides freeze protection by automatically circulating hot water from the hot water tank through the collectors when the collector outlet temperature is below a specified value. The building is a single story residence located at the agriculture experiment farm of the Arizona State University. The Elcam-Tempe Solar Energy System has four modes of operation.

  18. Preliminary estudies on the use of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in the manufacture of alkali activated binders

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldelli, V.N.; Mitsuuchi Tashima, Mauro; Melges, J.L.; Monzó Balbuena, José Mª; AKASAKI, JORGE LUIS; Borrachero Rosado, María Victoria; Soriano Martinez, Lourdes; Paya Bernabeu, Jorge Juan

    2014-01-01

    Alkali activated binders require the addition of a mineral-rich amorphous silica and alumina. This paper proposes the use of a mineral residue from the burning of sugar cane bagasse. The alkali activated mixtures were prepared containing binary mixtures of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and other mineral admixtures: fly ash (FA) or blast furnace slag (BFS). As alkaline activators, mixtures of alkali (Na+ or K+) hydroxide and alkali (Na+ or K+) silicate were used. Alkali-activated pastes and mo...

  19. Managing Quantity, Quality and Timing in Cane Sugar Production: Ex Post Marketing Permits or Ex Ante Production Contracts?

    OpenAIRE

    Patlolla, Sandhyarani

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane produced in India is utilized to manufacture three sweetening agents: sugar, gur, and khandsari. Sugar processors must comply with a floor price for cane, but gur and khandsari producers are exempt from the floor price. Thus, any effect of the sugar processor’s choice of procurement method on the incentives facing farmers will depend on the expected cane price in these competing unregulated markets. In Andhra Pradesh (AP), India, private sugar processors use an unusual form of verti...

  20. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

    OpenAIRE

    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  1. Dynamic of N fertilizers: urea (15 N) and aqua ammonia (15 N) incorporated to the sugar cane soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic of N fertilizers, urea and aqua ammonia, in the soil of sugar cane crops are studied with an emphasis on the horizontal and vertical moving. The nitrogen routing from urea and aqua ammonia sources, by isotopic technique with 15 N in relation to the leaching, volatilization and extraction by the cultivation and residue of N immobilized manure in the soil with sugar cane plantation is also analysed. (C.G.C.)

  2. Impact of sugar cane cultivation on biogeochemistry and phytoplankton dynamics in a tropical lagoon and estuary in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Spörl, Gertrud

    2011-01-01

    Sugar cane cultivation has become the main land use in northeast and southeast Brazil and it is still increasing because of a growing national and international demand of sugar and biofuel. Shallow coastal lagoons and estuaries are the linkage between terrestrial and marine environments and are susceptible to anthropogenic modifications. Little is know about the impact of sugar cane cultivation in these systems. Aim of this study was to gain knowledge on the impact of effluents from sugar can...

  3. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  4. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  5. Spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Glecio; Silva, Jucicléia; Bezerra, Joel; Silva, Enio; Montenegro, Abelardo

    2013-04-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane in Brazil occupies a prominent place in national production chain, because the country is the main world producer of sugar and ethanol. Accordingly, studies are needed that allow an integrated production and technified, and especially that estimates of crops are consistent with the actual production of each region. The objective of this study was to determine the spatial relationship between the productivity of cane sugar and soil electrical conductivity measured by electromagnetic induction. The field experiment was conducted at an agricultural research site located in Goiana municipality, Pernambuco State, north-east of Brazil (Latitude 07 ° 34 '25 "S, Longitude 34 ° 55' 39" W). The surface of the studied field is 6.5 ha, and its mean height 8.5 m a.s.l. This site has been under sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum sp.) monoculture during the last 24 years and it was managed burning the straw each year after harvesting, renewal of plantation was performed every 7 years. Studied the field is located 10 km east from Atlantic Ocean and it is representative of the regional landscape lowlands, whose soils are affected by salinity seawater, sugarcane plantations with the main economical activity. Soil was classified an orthic the Podsol. The productivity of cane sugar and electrical conductivity were measured in 90 sampling points. The productivity of cane sugar was determined in each of the sampling points in plots of 9 m2. The Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa, mS m-1) was measured with an electromagnetic induction device EM38-DD (Geonics Limited). The equipment consists of two units of measurement, one in a horizontal dipole (ECa-H) to provide effective measurement distance of 1.5 m approximately and other one in vertical dipole (ECa-V) with an effective measurement depth of approximately 0.75 m. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The results showed that productivity in the study area

  6. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively.

  7. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively. PMID:25997008

  8. Influence of a Third Set of Knives on the Efficiency of the Sucrose Extraction from Sugar Cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales-Suárez Jorge Michel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The index of cane preparation is one of the variables that influence on efficiency the sucrose extraction process from sugar cane mills in tandem. This influence can be measured by the % sucrose (% Pol and % humidity in the final bagasse and power demand tandem, these three variables are the dependent variables on this research. The index of cane preparation was the independent variable. The objective of this research is to show the impact of an increased rate of cane preparation, achieved with addition of a third set of knives in tandem, on the efficiency of the extraction process and the tandem power demand. This research was carried out in two stages. A first stage where the tandem was operated with two sets of existing knives and a second stage where it was operated with the addition of a set of knives (that to say with three sets of knives, the third set of knives mounted to increase the rate of cane preparation. A statistical analysis concludes that with increasing the rate of cane preparation both in the final bagasse the % Pol and % Humidity decrease significantly and tandem power demand decreases by 2.87%.

  9. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  10. The Galileoscope project: community-based technology education in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Fine, Leonard W.; Sparks, Robert T.; Walker, Constance E.; Dugan, Charles L.; Dokter, Erin F. C.

    2014-07-01

    A program model has been developed and implemented over the last three years to provide a robust optical technologybased science education program to students aged 9-11 years (5th grade), a formative time in the development of a student's interest in science and engineering. We have created well-tested and evaluated teaching kits for the classroom to teach about the basics of image formation and telescopes. In addition we provide professional development to the teachers of these students on principles of optics and on using the teaching kits. The program model is to reach every teacher and every student in a number of mid-sized rural communities across the state of Arizona. The Galileoscope telescope kit is a key part of this program to explore optics and the nature of science. The program grew out of Module 3 of the NSF-Supported Hands-On Optics project (SPIE, OSA, and NOAO) and from the Science Foundation Arizona-supported Hands-On Optics Arizona program. NOAO has conducted this program in Flagstaff, Yuma, Globe, and Safford, Arizona and is being expanded to sites across the entire state of Arizona (295,254 square kilometers). We describe the educational goals, evaluations, and logistical issues connected to the program. In particular, we proposed that this model can be adapted for any rural or urban locations in order to encourage interest in science, astronomy and optics.-

  11. PN velocity beneath Western New Mexico and Eastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksha, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The experiment involved observing Pn arrivals on an areal array of 7 seismic stations located in the transition zone and along the Jemez lineament. Explosions in coal and copper mines in New Mexico and Arizona were used as energy sources as well as military detonations at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Yuma, Arizona, and the Nevada Test Site. Very preliminary results suggest a Pn velocity of 7.94 km/s (with a fairly large uncertainty) beneath the study area. The Pn delay times, which can be converted to estimates of crustal thickness given knowledge of the velocity structure of the crust increase both to the north and east of Springerville, Arizona. As a constraint on the velocity of Pn, researchers analyzed the reversed refraction line GNOME-HARDHAT which passes through Springerville oriented NW to SE. This analysis resulted in a Pn velocity of 7.9-8.0 km/s for the transition zone. These preliminary results suggest that a normal Pn velocity might persist even though the crust thins (from north to south) by 15 km along the length of the Arizona-New Mexico border. If the upper mantle is currently hot anywhere in western New Mexico or eastern Arizona then the dimensions of the heat source (or sources) might be small compared to the intra-station distances of the seismic arrays used to estimate the velocity of Pn.

  12. VEGETATION COVER ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES IN UTAH AND ARIZONA USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.; Jungho, I.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, R.; Gladden, J.; Waugh, J.

    2012-01-17

    Remote sensing technology can provide a cost-effective tool for monitoring hazardous waste sites. This study investigated the usability of HyMap airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (126 bands at 2.3 x 2.3 m spatial resolution) to characterize the vegetation at U.S. Department of Energy uranium processing sites near Monticello, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Grass and shrub species were mixed on an engineered disposal cell cover at the Monticello site while shrub species were dominant in the phytoremediation plantings at the Monument Valley site. The specific objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate leaf-area-index (LAI) of the vegetation using three different methods (i.e., vegetation indices, red-edge positioning (REP), and machine learning regression trees), and (2) map the vegetation cover using machine learning decision trees based on either the scaled reflectance data or mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF)-derived metrics and vegetation indices. Regression trees resulted in the best calibration performance of LAI estimation (R{sup 2} > 0.80). The use of REPs failed to accurately predict LAI (R{sup 2} < 0.2). The use of the MTMF-derived metrics (matched filter scores and infeasibility) and a range of vegetation indices in decision trees improved the vegetation mapping when compared to the decision tree classification using just the scaled reflectance. Results suggest that hyperspectral imagery are useful for characterizing biophysical characteristics (LAI) and vegetation cover on capped hazardous waste sites. However, it is believed that the vegetation mapping would benefit from the use of 1 higher spatial resolution hyperspectral data due to the small size of many of the vegetation patches (< 1m) found on the sites.

  13. Measuring IPM Impacts in California and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, J. J.; Baur, M. E.; Elliott, S. F.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a method of reducing economic, human health, and environmental risks from pests and pest management strategies. There are questions about the long-term success of IPM programs in relation to continued use of pesticides in agriculture. Total pounds of pesticides applied is a mis-measure of the impact of IPM in agriculture. A more complete measurement of the long-term impact of IPM includes consideration of changes in agricultural production practices and productivity, toxicity of the pesticides used, risks from human exposure to pesticides, and environmental sampling for pesticides in air and water resources. In recent decades, agricultural IPM programs have evolved to address invasive pests, shifts in endemic pest pressures, reductions in pest damage tolerance in markets, and increases in crop yields. Additionally, pesticide use data from Arizona and California revealed reduced use of pesticides in some toxicity categories but increased use of pesticides in a couple of categories. Data from federal and California programs that monitored pesticide residue on food have documented low pesticide risk to consumers. Environmental monitoring programs documented decreased pesticide levels in surface water resources in agricultural watersheds in the western United States and low levels of pesticides in air resources in agricultural areas in California. The focus of IPM assessment should be on reducing economic, human health, and environmental risks, not on pounds of pesticides applied. More broadly, IPM programs have evolved to address changes in pests and agricultural production systems while continuing to reduce human health and environmental risk from pesticides. PMID:27812396

  14. Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) accuracy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szajgin, John; Pettinger, L.R.; Linden, D.S.; Ohlen, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative accuracy assessment was performed for the vegetation classification map produced as part of the Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) project. This project was a cooperative effort between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. The objective of the accuracy assessment was to estimate (with a precision of ?10 percent at the 90 percent confidence level) the comission error in each of the eight level II hierarchical vegetation cover types. A stratified two-phase (double) cluster sample was used. Phase I consisted of 160 photointerpreted plots representing clusters of Landsat pixels, and phase II consisted of ground data collection at 80 of the phase I cluster sites. Ground data were used to refine the phase I error estimates by means of a linear regression model. The classified image was stratified by assigning each 15-pixel cluster to the stratum corresponding to the dominant cover type within each cluster. This method is known as stratified plurality sampling. Overall error was estimated to be 36 percent with a standard error of 2 percent. Estimated error for individual vegetation classes ranged from a low of 10 percent ?6 percent for evergreen woodland to 81 percent ?7 percent for cropland and pasture. Total cost of the accuracy assessment was $106,950 for the one-million-hectare study area. The combination of the stratified plurality sampling (SPS) method of sample allocation with double sampling provided the desired estimates within the required precision levels. The overall accuracy results confirmed that highly accurate digital classification of vegetation is difficult to perform in semiarid environments, due largely to the sparse vegetation cover. Nevertheless, these techniques show promise for providing more accurate information than is presently available for many BLM-administered lands.

  15. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  16. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estim

  17. Microbiological attributes of the soil under cultivation of sugar cane with and without burning straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pereira Paredes Junior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sugar cane cultivation with and without burning of residues on microbial biomass, soil basal respiration and their derived indices. The study was carried out from 2009 to 2010, at the sugar mills, Itahum district, the city of Dourados, MS, on a Hapludox soil. An adjacent area of native vegetation was included in the study as a reference the original condition of the soil. Soil samples were collected at three depths: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 cm, with five composite samples, from five subsamples collected at intervals of ten feet between each other, along a transect. Considering the different cropping systems, the results demonstrated the system without burning (mechanized harvesting of the sugar cane residues, favored microbial biomass and basal respiration and soil chemical properties, compared with the system with burning, especially in the upper layers of soil.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics approach to the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, L.; Kirtman, B.

    2014-01-01

    The predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model is investigated using nonlinear dynamics analysis. Newer theoretical concepts are applied to the coupled model in order to help quantify maximal prediction horizons for finite amplitude perturbations on different scales. Predictability analysis based on the maximum Lyapunov exponent considers infinitesimal perturbations, which are associated with errors in the smallest fastest-evolving scales of motion. However, these errors become irrelevant for the predictability of larger scale motions. In this study we employed finite-size Lyapunov exponent analysis to assess the predictability of the Cane-Zebiak coupled ocean-atmosphere model as a function of scale. We demonstrate the existence of fast and slow timescales, as noted in earlier studies, and the expected enhanced predictability of the anomalies on large scales. The final results and conclusions clarify the applicability of these new methods to seasonal forecasting problems.

  19. The structure of groups of galaxies in the Ursa Major/Canes Venatici region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutral hydrogen survey has been made of galaxies in an area of the order of 110 degree2 in Ursa Major and Canes Venatici, and the data yield many new accurate systemic velocities, H I masses and total masses. The spatial distribution and velocity structure of the area is presented and a detailed discussion is given of the global properties of the individual galaxies. The results of the survey show that the Ursa Major/Canes Venatici region contains possibly four associations of galaxies identifiable both in position and velocity. For this part of the sky, any method of defining groups of galaxies based on positional information alone can be subject to serious problems because of contamination by foreground and background groups. (author)

  20. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  1. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed

  2. Economic evaluation of the obtaining process of fuel ethanol from sugar cane and corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the economic evaluation of two processes for fuel ethanol production, one from corn and another from sugar cane. It was found that for Colombian conditions the process with greater feasibility is the one involving sugar cane. It was confirmed that the greater contribution to production costs is due to the raw material, and that the mayor energy consumption in the process occurs in the separation and ethanol dehydration stage. In order to carry out the economic analysis, the simulation of the two selected schemes was made in Aspen Plus for obtaining the minimum data needed for equipment sizing and determination of utility requirements. The capital costs, the operational costs, and the feasibility indicators of both processes were obtained using the package Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator, under the specific conditions of Colombia

  3. Avoiding emissions of carbon dioxide through the use of fuels derived from sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows that the use of ethyl alcohol and sugar cane bagasse as fuel substitutions for gasoline, and natural gas, fuel oil or coal, can have an important role to avoid GHG emissions. The Brazilian Alcohol program and the use of sugar cane bagasse for generating electricity may prove to be an important alternative for the reduction of GHG emissions. Large-scale production and the use of renewable energy from biomass may qualify Brazil for recognition at an international level. It is shown that the cost of alcohol is higher than that of gasoline with the present low price of oil on the international market, but the costs could be reduced by feasible technological improvements 10 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  4. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  5. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  6. Maximizing the xylitol production from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate by controlling the aeration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.S.; Ribeiro, J.D.; Felipe, M.G.A. [Faculty of Chemical Enginering of Lorena (Brazil); Vitolo, M. [Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Batch fermentations of sugar cane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated for removing the inhibitors of the fermentation were performed by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037 for xylitol production. The fermentative parameters agitation and aeration rate were studied aiming the maximization of xylitol production from this agroindustrial residue. The maximal xylitol volumetric productivity (0.87 g/L {center_dot} h) and yield (0.67 g/g) were attained at 400/min and 0.45 v.v.m. (K{sub L}a 27/h). According to the results, a suitable control of the oxygen input permitting the xylitol formation from sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate is required for the development of an efficient fermentation process for large-scale applications. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Valley blockade quantum switching in Silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prati, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    In analogy to the Coulomb and the Pauli spin blockade, based on the electrostatic repulsion and the Pauli exclusion principle respectively, the concept of valley blockade in Silicon nanostructures is explored. The valley parity operator is defined. Valley blockade is determined by the parity conservation of valley composition eigenvectors in quantum transport. A Silicon quantum changeover switch based on a triple of donor quantum dots capable to separate electrons having opposite valley parity by virtue of the valley parity conservation is proposed. The quantum changeover switch represents a novel kind of hybrid quantum based classical logic device.

  8. IMPROVING COMPETITIVENESS OF THE AUSTRALIAN SUGAR INDUSTRY BY ANALYSING CANE SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS ACROSS THE VALUE CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Lisa E.; Muchow, Russell C.; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Higgins, Andrew J.

    1999-01-01

    The term “value chain” describes the collection of activities that are performed to design, produce, market, deliver and support a product. The Australian sugar industry value chain has a number of distinct stages involved in the transformation of the cane crop into raw and refined sugar and other manufactured products. These stages include production, processing and distribution functions. Despite its linear direction, a critically important feature of the sugar industry value chain is that ...

  9. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  10. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  11. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo Villela Filho; Carlos Araujo; Alfredo Bonfá; Weber Porto

    2011-01-01

    Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical i...

  12. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  13. Dosimetric evaluation of sucrose and granulated cane sugar in the therapeutic dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulated cane sugar has been used as a dosimetric material to report dose in high dose accidental irradiations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether clinical dosimetry is also plausible with such a commonly available material. The behavior of cane sugar was explored with respect to therapeutically relevant radiation quantities (dose, dose rate) and qualities (energy, radiation type) as well as under different temperature conditions. The stability of the signal postirradiation was also measured. Absorbed dose was measured by spectrophotometric readout of a ferrous ammonium sulfate xylenol orange (FX)-sugar solution in 10 cm path length cells. A visible color change was produced as a function of dose when the irradiated sugar samples were dissolved in FX solution (10% dilution by mass). A comparison of the optical absorbance spectra and dose response of cane sugar with analytical grade sucrose was done to establish a benchmark standard from which subsequent dosimetry measurements can be validated. The response of the sugar dosimeter read at 590 nm was found to be linear over the dose range of 100-2000 cGy, independent of energy (6-18 MV) and of the average dose rate (100-500 cGy/min). The readout of sugar samples irradiated with mixed photon and electron fields was also shown to be independent of radiation type (photons and electrons). Sugar temperature (20-40 degree sign C) during irradiation did not affect dose estimates, making it a promising dosimeter for in vivo dosimetry, particularly in cases where the dosimeter must remain in contact with the patient for an extended period of time. Sugar can be used as an integrating dosimeter, since it exhibits no fractionation effects. Granulated cane sugar is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  14. Fast oxidative pyrolysis of sugar cane straw in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the technical viability evaluation of the fast pyrolysis of sugar cane straw for its energy use. By means of this thermochemical process, the sugar cane straw is converted into bio-fuels (biochar, bio-oil) and non-condensable gases. The bio-fuels obtained could be used as fuel or as raw material in the chemical industry. The fast pyrolysis of sugar cane straw has been developed in a fluidized bed reactor. In order to improve this process to obtain high bio-oil yield, the influence of the operational conditions (equivalence ratio and temperature) on the product yields and on their characteristics was evaluated. The product yields of bio-oil and char were up to 35.5 wt.% and 48.2 wt.% respectively. The maximum bio-oil yield was achieved at temperature and equivalence ratio conditions of 470 °C and 0.14. The bio-oil obtained has low oxygen content (38.48 wt.% dry basis), very low water content, and a lower heating value of 22.95 MJ/kg. The gas chromatographic analyses allowed the identification of oxygenated compounds and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The bio-oil pH ranged between 3.14 and 3.57 due to the presence of acid organic compounds. The char obtained has a high fixed carbon and volatile matter content. Its HHV value is 13.54 MJ/kg. -- Highlights: • Pyrolysis of sugar cane straw was studied in a fluidized bed reactor. • The product yields were evaluated. • The composition of the liquid and solid products obtained was analyzed. This is an environmentally friendly use for this waste

  15. Evapotranspiration from a sugar cane [Saccharum officinarum] field in the Miyako Islands [Okinawa, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evapotranspiration from a sugar cane field was observed during the summer season in the Miyako Islands. Interpolation was also conducted for the data deficit period by using the bulk transfer coefficient and evapotranspiration efficiency, which were represented as a function of solar radiation and soil water content. Evapotranspiration was 6.4 mm day(-1) in late June, and decreased gradually. It was under 3.5 mm day(-1)(100 Wm(-2)) at the end of October

  16. Augmenting white cane reliability using smart glove for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernieri, Giuseppe; Faramondi, Luca; Pascucci, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The independent mobility problem of visually impaired people has been an active research topic in biomedical engineering: although many smart tools have been proposed, traditional tools (e.g., the white cane) continue to play a prominent role. In this paper a low cost smart glove is presented: the key idea is to minimize the impact in using it by combining the traditional tools with a technological device able to improve the movement performance of the visually impaired people. PMID:26738160

  17. Economics and Uncertainty of Lignocellulosic Biofuel Production from Energy Cane and Sweet Sorghum in South Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Monge, Juan J.; Ribera, Luis A.; Jifon, John L.; Silva, Jorge A. da; Richardson, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Government support uncertainty, scarce yiel d information, and the inherent risk in bio- economic phenomena are some of the deterrents faced by investors in the nascent cellulosic biofuel industry. A financial probabilistic model was developed to contrast the economic feasibility of producing cellulosic biofuels from energy cane and sweet sorghum using three technologies: hydrolysis, pyrolysis, and gasification. Hydrolysis and pyrolysis proved feasible (showed possibilities of a positive net ...

  18. Depithers for Efficient Preparation of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fibers in Pulp and Paper Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lois-Correa J.A

    2012-01-01

    Among the by-products originated in the agro-industrial process of sugar cane, bagasse is one of the most relevant (Paturau, 1989). The negative influence of signifi cant amount of pith, or parenchymatous tissue, present in sugarcane bagasse is discussed. Since this non-fi brous material does not give any desired properties in the pulp and paper, agglomerated boards and polymer productions, it is remarked the importance of its maximum removal. A brief historical review in the development of b...

  19. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. PMID:20493626

  20. Cane molasses as a source of precursors in the bioproduction of tryptophan by Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh; Zahra Moosavi-Nejad; Sara Gharavi; Jamshid Fooladi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The essential amino acid L-tryptophan can be produced by a condensation reaction between indole and L-serine, catalyzed by B. subtilis with tryptophan synthase activity. Application of the tryptophan is widespread in the biotechnology domain and is sometimes added to feed products as a food fortifier. Materials and Methods The optimum concentration of the Iranian cane molasses was determined by measuring the amount of biomass after growth in 1 to 30 g/mL of molasses....

  1. Influence of Ammonium Salts and Cane Molasses on Growth of Alcaligenes eutrophus and Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, M.; Beaulieu, Y.; Melinard, J.; Pandian, S.; GOULET, J.

    1995-01-01

    The production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545 was studied in a synthetic medium with 3% glucose at pH 7.0 supplemented with several ammonium substrates and cane molasses. Growth was measured by dry cell weight, and the PHB content was measured by gas chromatography. The effects of ammonium sources such as sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, and chloride salts and those of different ammonium sulfate concentrations were evaluated. The best growth and PHB production were ...

  2. VARIATION OF THE ETHANOL YIELD DURING VERY RAPID BATCH FERMENTATION OF SUGAR-CANE BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    Borzani W.; Jurkiewicz C.H.

    1998-01-01

    During rapid ethanol fermentation (2-3 h) of sugar-cane blackstrap molasses, a significant increase in the ethanol yield was frequently observed as fermentation proceeded, eventually leading to yields higher than the theoretical value when the end of the process was approached. In order to explain the above facts, three assumptions were examined: 1. temporary ethanol accumulation within the yeast cells; 2. variation of the dry matter content and/or of the microorganism density during the ferm...

  3. Effect of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of sugar cane silage

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia do Rosario Rodrigues; Antonio Delunardo Pandolfi Filho; Bráulio Pêgo de Faria; Guilherme Santos Freitas; Rodrigo Santos Freitas; Bruno Borges Deminicis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of different additives on chemical composition, pH, ethanol production, content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), nutritional losses during fermentation, and changes in fibrous fractions, in the levels of non-fibrous and total carbohydrates during the sugar cane silage fermentation process with different additives. The treatments consisted of control (no additive); corn meal, at 10% of natural matter; molasses, at 10% of natural matter; u...

  4. Differentially delayed root proteome responses to salt stress in sugar cane varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Cinthya Mirella; Pestana-Calsa, Maria Clara; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Mansur Custodio Nogueira, Rejane Jurema; Menossi, Marcelo; Calsa, Tercilio

    2013-12-01

    Soil salinity is a limiting factor to sugar cane crop development, although in general plants present variable mechanisms of tolerance to salinity stress. The molecular basis underlying these mechanisms can be inferred by using proteomic analysis. Thus, the objective of this work was to identify differentially expressed proteins in sugar cane plants submitted to salinity stress. For that, a greenhouse experiment was established with four sugar cane varieties and two salt conditions, 0 mM (control) and 200 mM NaCl. Physiological and proteomics analyses were performed after 2 and 72 h of stress induction by salt. Distinct physiological responses to salinity stress were observed in the varieties and linked to tolerance mechanisms. In proteomic analysis, the roots soluble protein fraction was extracted, quantified, and analyzed through bidimensional electrophoresis. Gel images analyses were done computationally, where in each contrast only one variable was considered (salinity condition or variety). Differential spots were excised, digested by trypsin, and identified via mass spectrometry. The tolerant variety RB867515 showed the highest accumulation of proteins involved in growth, development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species metabolization, protein protection, and membrane stabilization after 2 h of stress. On the other hand, the presence of these proteins in the sensitive variety was verified only in stress treatment after 72 h. These data indicate that these stress responses pathways play a role in the tolerance to salinity in sugar cane, and their effectiveness for phenotypical tolerance depends on early stress detection and activation of the coding genes expression. PMID:24251627

  5. Muscle synergies with Walkaround® postural support vs. “cane/therapist” assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miljkovic, Nadica; Milovanovic, Ivana; Dragin, Aleksandra;

    2013-01-01

    The main clinical measures of walking recovery in stroke patients were compared for training assisted by Walkaround® postural support (WPS) and conventional (CON) support by a cane/therapist. OBJECTIVE: We attributed the differences between the trainings to modified muscular synergies that occurred...... be the superior training scheme. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that assistance by WPS changed the motor control output relative to CON assistance in most patients....

  6. Augmenting white cane reliability using smart glove for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernieri, Giuseppe; Faramondi, Luca; Pascucci, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The independent mobility problem of visually impaired people has been an active research topic in biomedical engineering: although many smart tools have been proposed, traditional tools (e.g., the white cane) continue to play a prominent role. In this paper a low cost smart glove is presented: the key idea is to minimize the impact in using it by combining the traditional tools with a technological device able to improve the movement performance of the visually impaired people.

  7. Design of Evaporation Systems and Heaters Networks in Sugar Cane Factories Using a Thermoeconomic Optimization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano V. Ensinas; Nebra, Silvia Azucena; Miguel A. Lozano; Serra, Luis M.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar cane production in Brazil is one of the most competitive segments of the national economy, producing sugar and ethanol for internal and external markets. Sugar production is done basically in several steps: juice extraction, juice clarification and evaporation, syrup treatment and sugar boiling, crystallization, centrifugation and drying. Much heat exchange equipment is used in this process.. An optimized design of the evaporation system with the correct distribution of the vapor bleed ...

  8. Design of Evaporation Systems and Heaters Networks in Sugar Cane Factories Using a Thermoeconomic Optimization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Luis M.; Miguel A. Lozano; Silvia Azucena Nebra; Adriano V. Ensinas

    2007-01-01

    Sugar cane production in Brazil is one of the most competitive segments of the national economy, producing sugar and ethanol for internal and external markets. Sugar production is done basically in several steps: juice extraction, juice clarification and evaporation, syrup treatment and sugar boiling, crystallization, centrifugation and drying. Much heat exchange equipment is used in this process.. An optimized design of the evaporation system with the correct distribution of the vap...

  9. Increased Incidence of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer in Arizona: A Comprehensive 15-year Analysis of the Arizona Cancer Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; DiGiovanni, Ryan M.; Ohlson, Eric; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Jandova, Jana; Nfonsam, Valentine N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer in Arizona, using the Arizona Cancer Registry. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with colorectal cancer reported in the Arizona Cancer Registry from 1995-2010. Outcome measure: incidence of CRC in patients younger than 50 years. Results 39,623 cases of colorectal cancer were reported to the Arizona Cancer Registry during a period of 15 years. Overall, there was a 17% decrease in the incidence of CRC. However, there was a 23% increase in incidence among patients in the age group 10-50. During the same time period, 15% and 41% increase in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer was observed, respectively. The most significant increase (102%) in overall CRC incidence was seen in the age group 10-29. The highest increase (110%) in incidence of colon cancer was observed in the same age group, while the most significant increase in incidence rates (225%) of rectal cancer was seen in the age group 30-34. Conclusion Although there is an overall decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer in Arizona, alarming increase in incidence of early-onset CRC was observed; mirroring the national trends.

  10. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  11. Cane molasses as a source of precursors in the bioproduction of tryptophan by Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential amino acid L-tryptophan can be produced by a condensation reaction between indole and L-serine, catalyzed by B. subtilis with tryptophan synthase activity. Application of the tryptophan is widespread in the biotechnology domain and is sometimes added to feed products as a food fortifier.The optimum concentration of the Iranian cane molasses was determined by measuring the amount of biomass after growth in 1 to 30 g/mL of molasses. The maximum amount of biomass was obtained in 10 g/mL molasses. Chromatographic methods, TLC and HPLC, were used to assay the amount of tryptophan produced in the presence of precursors of tryptophan production (indole and serine and/or molasses.Our results indicate the importance of the Iranian cane molasses not only as carbon source, but also as a source of precursors for tryptophan production.This report evaluates the potential of cane molasses as an economical source for tryptophan production by B. subtilis, hence eliminating the requirement for additional serine and indole as precursors.

  12. Bagasse paper from squeezed sugar cane refuse; Satokibi no shiborikasu kara umareta bagasse shi ni suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T.; Mochizuki, Y.; Hara, H. [Mishima Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes paper making from sugar cane bagasse. Sugar cane stem includes water content of 70-75% and sugar content of nearly 20%. Squeezed sugar cane bagasse is composed of water content of 45%, cell content of 50% and sugar content of 5%. Chemical composition of bagasse is composed of cellulose of 46.0-62.9%, lignin of 16.4-22.5%, pentosan of 25.5-33.4% and ash of 1.0-5.4%, including rich lignin and hemicellulose as compared with flax. Bagasse fiber is featured by length of 0.5-2.5mm and weight average fiber length of nearly 1.5mm, showing a property more close to wood pulp than flax or cotton fiber. Under the same beating condition, non-wood pulp such as flax and kenaf (ambary) pulp forms bulky low-density sheet, while bagasse pulp generally forms high-density sheet. Bagasse paper with basic characteristics as printing paper can be manufactured through appropriate beating treatment of bagasse pulp after appropriate de-pith, digestion and bleaching treatments. 14 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Variable Stars in the Newly Discovered Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Satellite Canes Venatici I

    CERN Document Server

    Kuehn, Charles; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Clementini, Gisella; Dall'Ora, Massimo; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Rodgers, Christopher T; Greco, Claudia; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria; Smith, Horace A; Catelan, Márcio; Beers, Timothy C; Pritzl, Barton J

    2007-01-01

    We have identified 23 RR Lyrae stars and 3 possible Anomalous Cepheids among 84 candidate variables in the recently discovered Canes Venatici I dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The mean period of 18 RRab type stars is = 0.60 +/-0.01 days. This period, and the location of these stars in the period-amplitude diagram, suggest that Canes Venatici I is likely an Oosterhoff-intermediate system. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars = 22.17 +/-0.02 is used to obtain a precision distance estimate of 210 +7/-5 kpc, for an adopted reddening E(B-V)=0.03 mag. We present a B,V color-magnitude diagram of Canes Venatici I that reaches V about 5 mag, and shows that the galaxy has a mainly old stellar population with a metal abundance near [Fe/H] = -2.0 dex. The width of the red giant branch and the location of the candidate Anomalous Cepheids on the color-magnitude diagram may indicate that the galaxy hosts a complex stellar population with stars from about 13 Gyr to as young as about 0.6 Gyr.

  14. The Measurement of Sucrose Content of Sugar Cane Using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoranto Trisnobudi, Tjia Liong Hoei, Enung Rosihan Nugraha

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of sucrose content of sugar cane is usually carried out by using polarimeter and Brix Wager scale. These two apparatus are operated manually so that the accuracy of the measurement results is depended on the operator skill. To overcome this problem we have developed an alternative method that can measure the sucrose content more quickly and accurately than the conventional methods. This new method was carried out by using ultrasonic waves whose velocity depends on the sucrose content. Firstly, the electronic apparatus used was calibrated with 37 samples of sugar cane with various sucrose content from 4.46 % to 7.29 %. The result of this calibration was an empirical equation between the ultrasonic wave velocity V and the sucrose content R, i.e. R = 2.65 V2 - 11,95 V + 17,65 where R in % and V in km/s. Then this equation was stored as database in a computer program that will be used to calculate the sucrose content. Finally, this sucrose content measurement system was tested by using 30 samples of sugar cane. The maximum error of the measurement result was 6.4 %.

  15. Fate of Tebuthiuron and Hexazinone in Green-Cane Harvesting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniêto, Thiago Antônio Pinheiro; de Pierri, Letícia; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2016-05-25

    In Brazil, fire prior to sugar cane harvesting has to be phased out by 2017, but it has already been phased out in up to 85-90% of the cropped area. The new system is called green cane and has entirely changed weed management practices. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the straw presence as well as humic acid (HA), formulation, soil type, and aging on the sorption and leaching of (14)C-tebuthiuron and hexazinone. Both herbicides presented low sorption for all treatments (Kd,app ≤ 3.25 L kg(-1)), but it was higher for tebuthiuron in the clayer soil (LVd). Straw and aging only slightly enhanced sorption. The HA effects were not clear. Sorption was mostly affected by herbicide and soil type. Straw may promote physical trapping (∼40% of applied amount), which cannot be accessed by "batch" sorption (∼15% of the applied amount is sorbed), attenuating leaching of highly mobile herbicides in green-cane systems. To properly assess leaching through straw residues under laboratory condition, rainfall distribution is very important. PMID:26731582

  16. Modelling the costs of energy crops. A case study of US corn and Brazilian sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High crude oil prices, uncertainties about the consequences of climate change and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the prospects of alternative fuels, such as biofuels. This paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of energy crops, drawing on the user's degree of belief about a series of parameters as an input. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of production constraints and experience on the costs of corn and sugar cane, which can then be converted to bioethanol. Land is a limited and heterogeneous resource: the crop cost model builds on the marginal land suitability, which is assumed to decrease as more land is taken into production, driving down the marginal crop yield. Also, the maximum achievable yield is increased over time by technological change, while the yield gap between the actual yield and the maximum yield decreases through improved management practices. The results show large uncertainties in the future costs of producing corn and sugar cane, with a 90% confidence interval of 2.9-7.2$/GJ in 2030 for marginal corn costs, and 1.5-2.5$/GJ in 2030 for marginal sugar cane costs. The influence of each parameter on these supply costs is examined. (author)

  17. Modelling the costs of energy crops: A case study of US corn and Brazilian sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High crude oil prices, uncertainties about the consequences of climate change and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the prospects of alternative fuels, such as biofuels. This paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of energy crops, drawing on the user's degree of belief about a series of parameters as an input. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of production constraints and experience on the costs of corn and sugar cane, which can then be converted to bioethanol. Land is a limited and heterogeneous resource: the crop cost model builds on the marginal land suitability, which is assumed to decrease as more land is taken into production, driving down the marginal crop yield. Also, the maximum achievable yield is increased over time by technological change, while the yield gap between the actual yield and the maximum yield decreases through improved management practices. The results show large uncertainties in the future costs of producing corn and sugar cane, with a 90% confidence interval of 2.9-7.2$/GJ in 2030 for marginal corn costs, and 1.5-2.5$/GJ in 2030 for marginal sugar cane costs. The influence of each parameter on these supply costs is examined.

  18. Study On Ethanol Production From Sugar Cane Molasses By Using Irradiated Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to- their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to their ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose; two easily assimilable hexoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 KGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168 h). The data showed that the rate of ethanol production reached its maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks.

  19. Study on Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane Molasses by Using Irradiated Saccharomyces cervisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to its ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose, two easily assimilable hexoses.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.10, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168) h. Data showed that rate of ethanol production was maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy. dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, initial ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml erlenmyer flasks.

  20. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1). PMID:19297150

  1. Full chain energy analysis of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2008-08-15

    An analysis of energy performance and supply potential was performed to evaluate molasses utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 1.925 million litres a day of sugar-based ethanol. The molasses-based ethanol (MoE) system involves three main segments: sugar cane cultivation, molasses generation, and ethanol conversion. Negative net energy value found for MoE is a consequence of not utilizing system co-products (e.g. stillage and cane trash) for energy. Taking into account only fossil fuel or petroleum inputs in the production cycle, the energy analysis provides results in favour of ethanol. A positive net energy of 5.95 MJ/L which corresponds to 39% energy gain shows that MoE is efficient as far as its potential to replace fossil fuels is concerned. Another encouraging result is that each MJ of petroleum inputs can produce 6.12 MJ of ethanol fuel. Regarding supply potential, if only the surplus molasses is utilized for ethanol, a shift of 8-10% sugar cane produce to fuel ethanol from its current use in sugar industry could be a probable solution. (author)

  2. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

  3. Square baler field test under different sugar cane crop residue conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Miola de; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano Cannavan; Gadanha Junior, Casimiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: ammello@esalq.usp.br; Ripoli, Marco Lorezzo Cunali [John Deere, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy demand increase of the country allows the sugar cane business sector to be a major player in production and commercialization areas of electric energy using cogeneration powered by bagasse and sugar cane residues. The objective of the study was to evaluate some of the performance parameters of an Express 5040 baler, brand Nogueira, used to collect residues. The tests were conducted in a sugar cane mechanized harvest area. The baler was submitted to three different conditions of residues windrowing: 'in natura', under single and double raking operations. For all treatments soil sampling analyzes were done to find out ground homogeneity conditions were the test took place. The simple raking operation offered better conditions for the machine: Effective Capacity of 8.21 t.{sup h}-{sup 1} and 0.88 ha.h{sup -1}; average bale weight of 22.33 kg (SD=3.58, CV=16.01 %); costs of 7.45 R$.t{sup -1} of baled residue; 0.17 R$.fardo{sup -1} and 69.47 R$.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  4. Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

  5. Wearable gait measurement system with an instrumented cane for exoskeleton control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-17

    In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

  6. Various extraction methods for obtaining stilbenes from grape cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soural, Ivo; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, Josef; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w.) for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w.) were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol. PMID:25856060

  7. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  8. The Stellar Populations and Structural Properties of Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxies, Canes Venatici I, Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, and Leo IV

    CERN Document Server

    Okamoto, Sakurako; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Onodera, Masato

    2011-01-01

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Bootes I (Boo I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The colour-magitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below the main sequence turn-offs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of faint three galaxies, Boo I, CVn II and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) are estimated as old as a Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Boo I dSph has no intrinsic colour spread in the MSTO, and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Boo I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age (-12.6 Gyr) with respect to Boo I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the centre than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Bo...

  9. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  10. Annual summary of ground-water conditions in Arizona, spring 1979 to spring 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1981-01-01

    Withdrawal of ground water, about 4.0 million acre-feet in Arizona in 1979, is about 200,000 acre-feet less than the amount withdrawn in 1978. The withdrawals in 1978 and 1979 are the smallest since the mid-1950 's except in 1966. Nearly all the decrease was in the amount of ground water used for irrigation in the Basin and Range lowlands province. The large amount of water in storage in the surface-water reservoirs, release of water from the reservoirs, floods, and conservation practices contributed to the decrease in ground-water use and caused water-level rises in the Salt River Valley, Gila Bend basin, and Gila River drainage from Painted Rock Dam to Texas Hill. Two small-scale maps show ground-water pumpage by areas and the status of the ground-water inventory in the State. The main map, which is at a scale of 1:500,000, shows potential well production, depth to water in selected wells in spring 1980, and change in water level in selected wells from 1975 to 1980. A brief text summarizes the current ground-water conditions in the State. (USGS)

  11. Water System Operator Training for the Central Arizona Project

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlin, Brian; Clemmens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.85 billion cubic meters (1.5 million acre-feet) of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. The CAP canal system is a 540-km (336-mile) long system of conveyance aqueducts, tunnels, pumping plants, and pipelines that is monitored and remotely controlled using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software from CAP headquarters in Phoenix, AZ. Because the CAP is crucial to the renew...

  12. On the Effectiveness of SB1070 in Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes; Cynthia Bansak; Allan A. Zebedee

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of Arizona’s omnibus immigration law SB1070, which made it a misdemeanor crime for an alien to not carry proper documentation and asked police to determine the immigration status of any person suspected of being an illegal alien during a lawful stop. We find that SB1070’s enactment coincided with the stalling to slight recovery of the share of non-citizen Hispanics in Arizona three years after the enactment of an employment verification mandate to all empl...

  13. 77 FR 58862 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    .... Stephen K. Hansen, Chief Cadastral Surveyor of Arizona. BILLING CODE 4310-32-P ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... described lands were officially filed in the Arizona State Office, Bureau of Land Management,...

  14. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... hours. Stephen K. Hansen, Chief Cadastral Surveyor of Arizona. BILLING CODE 4310-32-P ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... described lands were officially filed in the Arizona State Office, Bureau of Land Management,...

  15. 75 FR 43045 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico... currently prescribed under the California, Arizona, and New ] Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico and...

  16. State of Outrage: Immigrant-Related Legislation and Education in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jeanne M.; Williams, Tiffany R.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, Arizona made national headlines when Governor Jan Brewer signed SB 1070, the "Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act" which was aimed at deterring illegal immigration to Arizona. SB 1070 is the most prominent of a series of laws and other state policies targeting immigrants in Arizona that date back to the late…

  17. Arizona Likely Voter Survey on Proposed Legislation to Enhance School Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenski, Margaret C.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains the results of a telephone survey of 602 likely Arizona voters on various measures to enhance school choice in Arizona. This research was conducted by Arizona Opinion of Tucson for The Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation of Indianapolis. All fieldwork was conducted on March 23-26, and 28-29, 2005 by DataCall Inc. of…

  18. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  19. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  20. Geologic map of the Topock 7.5’ quadrangle, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; John, Barbara E.; Nielson, Jane E.; Miller, Julia M.G.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    The Topock quadrangle exposes a structurally complex part of the Colorado River extensional corridor and also exposes deposits that record landscape evolution during the history of the Colorado River. Paleoproterozoic gneisses and Mesoproterozoic granitoids and intrusive sheets are exposed through tilted cross-sectional thicknesses of many kilometers. Intruding them are a series of Mesozoic to Tertiary igneous rocks including dismembered parts of the Late Cretaceous Chemehuevi Mountains Plutonic Suite. Plutons of this suite in Arizona, if structurally restored for Miocene extension, formed cupolas capping the Chemehuevi Mountains batholith in California. Thick (1–3 km) Miocene sections of volcanic rocks, sedimentary breccias, conglomerate, and sandstone rest nonconformably on the Proterozoic rocks and record the structural and depositional evolution of the Colorado River extensional corridor. Four major Miocene low-angle normal faults and a steep block-bounding fault that developed during this episode divide the deformed rocks of the quadrangle into major structural plates and tilted blocks in and east of the Chemehuevi Mountains core complex. The low-angle faults attenuate crustal section, superposing supracrustal and upper crustal rocks against gneisses and granitoids originally from deeper crustal levels. The transverse block-bounding Gold Dome Fault Zone juxtaposes two large hanging-wall blocks, each tilted 90°, and the fault zone splays at its tip into folds in layered Miocene rocks. A synfaulting intrusion occupies the triangular zone where the folded strata detached from an inside corner along this fault between the tilt blocks. Post-extensional upper Miocene to Quaternary strata, locally deformed, record post-extensional landscape evolution, including several Pliocene and younger aggradational episodes in the Colorado River valley and intervening degradation episodes. The aggradational sequences include (1) the Bouse Formation, (2) fluvial deposits

  1. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  2. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: Engineering Master Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    As the planning document for establishing a statewide health communications system initially servicing the Papago, San Carlos and White Mountain Apache, Navajo, and Hopi reservations, this document prescribes the communications services to be provided by the Arizona TeleMedicine Network. Specifications include: (1) communications services for each…

  3. Arizona TeleMedicine Network: System Procurement Specifications, Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic Research Corp., Alexandria, VA.

    Defining the system procurement specifications for a telecommunications system designed to provide health services to rurally isolated American Indians living on reservations in Arizona, this document presents detailed specifications for: (1) a complete communications facility; (2) a mobile health communications treatment and diagnosis unit; (3)…

  4. 78 FR 26739 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Ehrenberg, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... filed by S and H Broadcasting, LLC, proposing the substitution of Channel 228C2 for vacant Channel 286C2... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa...

  5. Moral Consideration Regarding the Arizona Tax Credit Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rud, Anthony G., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Comments on the language used in the Arizona tax credit law and by commentators on this law and discusses a factor that fuels the impetus for sectarian education. Explores these questions in the context of the social, cognitive, and moral costs of privatization. (SLD)

  6. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  7. Pasteurization of salted whole egg inoculated with Arizona or Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, H; Garibaldi, J A; Ijichi, K; Mihara, K L

    1979-06-01

    Recently, Arizona bacteria, close relatives of Salmonella, were recovered from salted whole egg that had been pasteurized by the presently recommended process of 63.3 degrees C (146 degrees F) for 3.5 min. Because of this and the fact that the heat resistance of Arizona in salted whole egg had not been determined, the present study was undertaken. Arizona or Salmonella, grown in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 2% yeast extract in Fernbach flasks covered with aluminum foil over cotton and guaze at 35 degrees C with shaking at 176 rpm for about 96 h, were found to have the greatest degree of heat resistance. As expected, these cells, when inoculated into salted whole egg at 10(7) cells per ml, survived heating at 63.3 degrees C (146 degrees F) for 3.5 min in a two-phase slug flow heat exchanger. To consistently achieve a 7-log kill of typical Salmonella or Arizona, a treatment of 67 degrees C (152.6 degrees F) for 3.5 min was required. However, if a 7-log kill is mandatory, it remains to be determined whether this process affect the functional properties of this product.

  8. A Study of Arizona's Teachers of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Gonzalez-Canche, Manuel; Moll, Luis C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study a representative sample of 880 elementary and secondary teachers currently teaching in 33 schools across the state of Arizona were asked about their perceptions of how their ELL students were faring under current instructional policies for ELL students. Teachers were surveyed during the Spring of 2010. Overall findings show that most…

  9. 78 FR 25861 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Peach Springs, Arizona AGENCY: Federal Communications... Channel 265A as a first Tribal Allotment and a potential second local transmission service at Peach....) Channel 265A can be allotted at Peach Springs, consistent with the minimum distance...

  10. Arizona State's Origins Project Starts with a Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    For 12 hours at Arizona State University, a sold-out crowd of 3,000 people gave a group of famous scientists a pop-star welcome, cheering their remarks and lining up for autographs after a day full of discussion about black holes, string theory, and evolutionary biology. At a time when program cuts and faculty layoffs dominate the headlines of…

  11. Atmospheric turbidity over Kathmandu valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Balkrishna; Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    The atmosphere of Kathmandu Valley has been investigated by using Sunphotometer and Nephelometer during the pre-monsoon period of 1999. The atmospheric turbidity parameters (extinction coefficient for 500 nm wavelength τAG and Angstrom coefficient β) are found high in the morning and show decreasing trends from morning to late afternoon on average. Vertical dispersion of pollutants and increasing pollutant flushing rate by increasing wind speed from morning to late afternoon is the cause for this decreasing trend of turbidity over the valley. Being surrounded by high hills all around the valley, horizontal exit of pollutants without vertical dispersion is not possible. The scattering coefficient bscat of aerosols in ground level troposphere is also found high in the morning, which decreases and becomes minimum during afternoon. During late afternoon, bscat again shows a slightly increasing trend. The reason is the increasing vehicular emission during late afternoon rush period. The average values of Angstrom exponent α, β, τAG and bscat are found to be 0.624±0.023, 0.299±0.009, 0.602±0.022 and 0.353±0.014 km -1, respectively. About 76.8% of the observed values of β lie above 0.2 indicating heavy particulate pollution in the valley. A comparison of observed values of turbidity parameters with other major cities of the world shows that Kathmandu is as polluted as cities like Jakarta, Kansas, Beijing, Vienna, etc.

  12. The Future of Silicon Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Leu

    2006-01-01

    @@ By the end of 1984, Silicon Valley was going through the down cycle fol lowing the PC boom. A hundred PC companies wanted just 10 percent of the market, wanting to strike it rich, as rich as the Apple IPO (Initial Public Of fering) -the Google celebrity IPO of its day.

  13. Supai salt karst features: Holbrook Basin, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    More than 300 sinkholes, fissures, depressions, and other collapse features occur along a 70 km (45 mi) dissolution front of the Permian Supai Formation, dipping northward into the Holbrook Basin, also called the Supai Salt Basin. The dissolution front is essentially coincident with the so-called Holbrook Anticline showing local dip reversal; rather than being of tectonic origin, this feature is likely a subsidence-induced monoclinal flexure caused by the northward migrating dissolution front. Three major areas are identified with distinctive attributes: (1) The Sinks, 10 km WNW of Snowflake, containing some 200 sinkholes up to 200 m diameter and 50 m depth, and joint controlled fissures and fissure-sinks; (2) Dry Lake Valley and contiguous areas containing large collapse fissures and sinkholes in jointed Coconino sandstone, some of which drained more than 50 acre-feet ({approximately}6 {times} 10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) of water overnight; and (3) the McCauley Sinks, a localized group of about 40 sinkholes 15 km SE of Winslow along Chevelon Creek, some showing essentially rectangular jointing in the surficial Coconino Formation. Similar salt karst features also occur between these three major areas. The range of features in Supai salt are distinctive, yet similar to those in other evaporate basins. The wide variety of dissolution/collapse features range in development from incipient surface expression to mature and old age. The features began forming at least by Pliocene time and continue to the present, with recent changes reportedly observed and verified on airphotos with 20 year repetition. The evaporate sequence along interstate transportation routes creates a strategic location for underground LPG storage in leached caverns. The existing 11 cavern field at Adamana is safely located about 25 miles away from the dissolution front, but further expansion initiatives will require thorough engineering evaluation.

  14. The University of Arizona College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture,Tucson,Arizona%亚和桑那大学的建筑和景观设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布拉得利·韦勒

    2008-01-01

    @@ A textbook illustration of modern, sustainable, site specific and symbolically iconographic architecture stands as an addition to the renowned University of Arizona College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture.

  15. Judicial Performance Review in Arizona: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca White Berch

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluations are a relatively new tool for assessing judges and providing information to voters to help them determine whether to retain judges in contested or retention elections. Arizona implemented its judicial evaluation program about 20 years ago, and since that time, the state has continually strived to improve its process. The result is that today Arizona has one of the most progressive and comprehensive judicial performance evaluation programs in the United States. This article takes a critical look at the strengths and weaknesses of Arizona’s program, keeping in mind two key values that the system seeks to protect: judicial accountability and judicial independence. Las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial son una herramienta relativamente nueva para evaluar a los jueces y ofrecer información a los votantes, que les ayude a decidir si quieren reelegir a los jueces en las elecciones. Arizona implementó su programa de evaluación judicial hace unos 20 años, y desde ese momento, el Estado se ha esforzado continuamente en mejorar el proceso. El resultado es que hoy en día, Arizona tiene uno de los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial más progresistas e integrales de los Estados Unidos. Este artículo ofrece una mirada crítica a las fortalezas y debilidades del programa de Arizona, teniendo en cuenta dos valores clave que el sistema trata de proteger: la responsabilidad judicial y la independencia judicial. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2533868

  16. Topological spin and valley pumping in silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Sheng, L; Wang, B G; Xing, D Y

    2016-01-01

    We propose to realize adiabatic topological spin and valley pumping by using silicene, subject to the modulation of an in-plane ac electric field with amplitude Ey and a vertical electric field consisting of an electrostatic component and an ac component with amplitudes and . By tuning and , topological valley pumping or spin-valley pumping can be achieved. The low-noise valley and spin currents generated can be useful in valleytronic and spintronic applications. Our work also demonstrates that bulk topological spin or valley pumping is a general characteristic effect of two-dimensional topological insulators, irrelevant to the edge state physics. PMID:27507592

  17. Examining Arizona's Policy Response Post "Flores v. Arizona" in Educating K-12 English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Gomez, Laura; Cisneros, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of Arizona's policy response in educating English language learners by conducting a narrative review. A critical Latina/o theory approach was used to analyze the data. This study reveals 5 salient policy responses: (a) severely limit bilingual education, (b) develop controversial funding solutions, (c)…

  18. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  19. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups,...

  20. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA FAINT DWARF GALAXIES, CANES VENATICI I, BOÖTES I, CANES VENATICI II, AND LEO IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We take deep images of four ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, Canes Venatici I (CVn I), Boötes I (Boö I), Canes Venatici II (CVn II), and Leo IV, using the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) extend below main-sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) and yield measurements of the ages of stellar populations. The stellar populations of three faint galaxies, the Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), are estimated to be as old as the Galactic globular cluster M92. We confirm that Boö I dSph has no intrinsic color spread in the MSTO and no spatial difference in the CMD morphology, which indicates that Boö I dSph is composed of an old single stellar population. One of the brightest UFDs, CVn I dSph, shows a relatively younger age (∼12.6 Gyr) with respect to Boö I, CVn II, and Leo IV dSphs, and the distribution of red horizontal branch (HB) stars is more concentrated toward the center than that of blue HB stars, suggesting that the galaxy contains complex stellar populations. Boö I and CVn I dSphs show the elongated and distorted shapes. CVn II dSph has the smallest tidal radius of a Milky Way satellite and has a distorted shape, while Leo IV dSph shows a less concentrated spherical shape. The simple stellar population of faint UFDs indicates that the gases in their progenitors were removed more effectively than those of brighter dSphs at the occurrence of their initial star formation. This is reasonable if the progenitors of UFDs belong to less massive halos than those of brighter dSphs.

  1. Radiation Role in Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Stenotorphomonas maltophilia Using Rice Straw and Cane Bagasses Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable raw materials such as rice straw and cane bagasses look promising for replacing environmentally the traditional risky chemical surfactants raw materials and hence, creating green products. Rice straw is a by-product of rice production. A great bio-source Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, bio surfactant producer strain was tested for the bio surfactant production capacity on irradiated rice straw and sugar cane bagasses. The two substrates subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve its availability for bio surfactant production which resulted in promising exhibition of the bio surfactant production at dose level 10 kGy for both substrates after 72 hours. Generally, the irradiated rice straw showed lower bio surfactant production capacity than in case of sugar cane bagasses for both Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Suez Gulf microbial consortia

  2. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  3. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  4. Effects of carbohydrate and nitrogen source on the utilization of sugar-cane diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 133-day feedlot trial and a digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance experiment were conducted to compare sugar-cane-based diets supplemented with either molasses/cotton seed meal (MCS), molasses/urea (MU) or corn meal/urea (CoU). Sugar-cane comprised 70% of the diets' dry matter (DM), while urea supplied 50% of the nitrogen in the diets containing urea. The diets contained 10.4, 10.6 and 11.2% crude protein (CP) on a DM basis for MCS, MU and CoU, respectively. DM intakes on the feedlot trial were similar, but steers fed either MCS or CoU showed, on average, a higher (P>0.05) daily gain than those given MU. The DM intake of steers offered the MU diet in the digestibility and N balance experiment was lower (P<0.02) than that of steers fed MCS but similar to that of steers given CoU. Digestibility coefficients for DM were highest for steers fed MU (P<0.05). The digestibility coefficients for crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and lignin were similar for all dietary treatments. The digestibility of N was lower (P<0.03) for the MCS diet than for the MU and CoU diets. Nitrogen retention was similar for the MCS and CoU diets, but both groups retained more N than the MU diet. There were no differences in any rate of passage parameters, rumen fluid ammonia levels and plasma glucose levels. Propionic acid was higher (P<0.05) in the rumen fluid of steers fed MU than for those fed either the MCS or CoU diets. The studies showed that urea was inferior to cotton seed meal as a CP source in sugar-cane diets when fed with molasses as an energy supplement. (author)

  5. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  6. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  7. Effect of type of food supplement on the reproductive and growth performances of cane rats (Tryonomys swinderianus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Cane rat (Tryonomys swinderianus) is a wild rodent hunted in West Africa for its meat and its estimated that 80 million are killed each year. This species will soon be extinguished if nothing is done to ensure its survival. Domestication attempts have not been as successful as desired due to paucity of information on its nutritional and reproduction requirements. An experiment was carried out in the teaching and experimental farm of the University of Dschang between July 2007 and April 2008, to evaluate the effect of food supplement type on the reproductive and growth performances of cane rats. Twenty-six female cane rats: 11 primiparous and 15 multiparous (1.5 to 3.0 kg Body weight) were used for this study. The 26 female cane rats were randomly distributed to four treatment diets i.e. T0 (permanently fed a mixture of maize and wheat bran), T1 (permanently fed a complete diet), T2 (fed maize and wheat bran until detection of gestation and a complete diet onwards) or T3 (fed maize and wheat bran for 50 d after detection of gestation and a complete diet onwards). These animals received in addition to the basal diet (Pennisetum purpureum), water and a piece of bone. Fifty-nine young cane rats from primiparous and 31 from multiparous were used to evaluate growth performances. The results are as follows: As concerns growth performances, average feed consumption (25,641 ± 854 g) of treatment T3 was significantly (P 2 ≥ 0.95). It was concluded that supplementing the diets of cane rat breeders improves fertility rate and litter size in primiparous. (author)

  8. Peningkatan kualitas nata de cane dari limbah nira tebu metode Budchips dengan penambahan ekstrak tauge sebagai sumber nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIARDA ARIFIANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arifiani N, Sani TA, Utami AS. 2015. Improving the quality of nata de cane juice from sugar cane waste Budchips method with the addition of bean sprouts extract as nitrogen source. Bioteknologi 12: 29-33. Budchips method is a method of sugarcane cultivation in minimalist land use buds with special treatment that can produce large quantities of sugar cane segments. This method leaves of sugarcane weevil does not germinate but it still contains a lot of sugar cane juice containing sucrose and potentially as a substrate for making nata de cane. Nata is a cellulose matrix resulted from Acetobacter activity that has a chewy texture and commonly used as a food ingredient. Nata could be formed in media containing adequate of C, H, and N. Bean sprouts contain lots of protein and nitrogen sources that can support the growth of Acetobacter xylinum. The aim of this study was to determine the effect on bean sprouts extract on the quality of produced nata. The best result was shown by bean extract concentration of 300 g/500 mL of distilled water with a thickness of 0.913 mm, weighs 244.56 grams, the yield of 61.14% and 89.13% water content. Based on organoleptic test of the 30 panelists, the most preferred nata is the treatment of bean sprouts extract with the highest concentration of 300 g/500 mL of distilled water. Based on analysis of variance that sprouts extract treatment given influence on thickness, moisture content, color, flavor and texture of nata de cane.

  9. Desert fires fueled by native annual forbs: effects of fire on communities of plants and birds in the lower Sonoran Desert of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Todd C.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Van Riper, Charles; McCreedy, Chris; Smythe, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, fire ignited by humans swept from Yuma Proving Grounds into Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, burning ca. 9,255 ha of Wilderness Area. Fuels were predominantly the native forb Plantago ovata. Large fires at low elevations were rare in the 19th and 20th centuries, and fires fueled by native vegetation are undocumented in the southwestern deserts. We estimated the area damaged by fire using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, which are more accurate and reduce subjectivity of aerial surveys of perimeters of fires. Assemblages of upland and xeroriparian plants lost 91 and 81% of live cover, respectively, in fires. The trees Olneya tesota and Cercidium had high amounts of top-kill. King Valley was an important xeroriparian corridor for birds. Species richness of birds decreased significantly following the fire. Numbers of breeding birds were lower in burned areas of King Valley 3 years post-fire, compared to numbers in nearby but unburned Alamo Wash. Although birds function within a large geographic scale, the extent of this burn still influenced the relative abundance of local species of breeding birds. This suggests that breeding birds respond to conditions of localized burns and slow recovery of vegetation contributes to continued lower numbers of birds in the burned sites in King Valley.

  10. Relation between climate and diesel fuel rate consumption for sugar cane agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, some results are shown of a study carried out within the ENERCLIMA project. The principal objective was to establish the relationship between diesel fuel rate consumption by agricultural equipment in activities related to sugar cane production and simple climatic variables. Through a statistical analysis, we show the possibility of obtaining statistical models of an acceptable confidence level, as applied to some of these activities, which could be used in order to plan more rationally the level of fuel consumption of the agricultural companies with access to meteorological stations located nearby

  11. Diets Based on Sugar Cane Treated with Calcium Oxide for Lambs

    OpenAIRE

    G.G.P. Carvalho; R. Garcia; A.J.V. Pires; R.R. Silva; Detmann, E.; Filho, A. Eustaquio; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; L.M. Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and the effect of total collection days (two and four days) on apparent digestibility estimates for lambs fed diets containing sugar cane treated with calcium oxide (CaO). Eight Santa Inês castrated male lambs with a 16.6±1.8 kg body weight were used. The lambs were distributed in two 4×4 Latin squares, with four experimental periods of 14 d each. The animals were kept in 1.2 m2 individual pens, and the inta...

  12. Optimization of solid state fermentation of sugar cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Delgado, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba)); Espinosa, M.E. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    The protein enrichment of sugar cane by solid state fermentation employing Aspergillus niger was optimized in a packed bed column using a two Factor Central Composit Design {alpha} = 2, considering as independent factors the particle diameter corresponding to different times of grinding for a sample and the air flow rate. It was significative for the air flow rate (optimum 4.34 VKgM) and the particle diameter (optimum 0.136 cm). The average particle size distribution, shape factor, specific surface, volume-surface mean diameter, number of particles, real and apparent density and holloweness for the different times of grinding were determined, in order to characterize the samples. (orig.).

  13. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Soares de Lima; Claudete Regina Alcalde; Hanna Sakamoto Freitas; Bruna Susan de Labio Molina; Francisco de Assis Fonseca de Macedo; José Augusto Horst

    2012-01-01

    The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43) on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking). Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%). Animals fed the dry yeast diet sh...

  14. Cauliflower waste incorporation into cane molasses improves ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh; Bansal, Sunil; Oberoi, Harinder Singh

    2007-01-01

    Diluted cane molasses having total sugar and reducing sugar content of 9.60 and 3.80% (w/v) respectively was subjected to ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 178. Incorporation of dried Cauliflower Waste (CW) in molasses at the level of 15 % increased ethanol production by nearly 36 % compared to molasses alone. Addition of 0.2 % yeast extract improved ethanol production by nearly 49 % as compared to molasses alone. When the medium containing diluted molasses and 0.2 % yeast e...

  15. A cost effective fermentative production of glutathione by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with cane molasses and glycerol

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Anschau; Lucielen Oliveira dos Santos; Ranulfo Monte Alegre

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sugar cane molasses and glycerol on glutathione (GSH) fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 7754 in flask culture using response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions (80 g/L of molasses and 60 g/L of glycerol), the highest GSH and biomass concentration achieved were 119.6 mg/L and 25.3 g/L, respectively. Further studies done in 5 L bioreactor resulted 241.3 mg/L GSH after 96 h in batch fermentation without amino acids addition and t...

  16. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    OpenAIRE

    J. N. de Vasconcelos; C.E. Lopes; F. P. de França

    2004-01-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 ± 1.51 g/L without any further ...

  17. Optimization of ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis in sugar cane molasses fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Roberto de Oliveira; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi; João Batista Buzato; Doumit Camilios Neto

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed at the optimization of the ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis CP4, during the fermentation of sugar cane molasses. As for the optimization process, the response surface methodology was applied, using a 33 incomplete factorial design, being the independent variables: total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in the molasses from 10, 55 and 100 g/L (x1); yeast extract concentration from 2, 11 and 20 g/L (x2), and fermentation time from 6, 15 and 24 hours (x3). The de...

  18. A Virtual Blind Cane Using a Line Laser-Based Vision System and an Inertial Measurement Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Quoc Khanh; Chee, Youngjoon; Pham, Duy Duong; Suh, Young Soo

    2016-01-01

    A virtual blind cane system for indoor application, including a camera, a line laser and an inertial measurement unit (IMU), is proposed in this paper. Working as a blind cane, the proposed system helps a blind person find the type of obstacle and the distance to it. The distance from the user to the obstacle is estimated by extracting the laser coordinate points on the obstacle, as well as tracking the system pointing angle. The paper provides a simple method to classify the obstacle's type by analyzing the laser intersection histogram. Real experimental results are presented to show the validity and accuracy of the proposed system. PMID:26771618

  19. Environmental impact estimation of the sugar cane cultivation, using the methodology of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the results of a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for traditional and organic cultivation of sugar cane in Valle del Cauca. Eco-scores obtained for each case, shown that organic cultivation is less harmful, in environmental terms, than traditional one. In the last one, the biomass burning process, made to facilitate the crop, is the principal environmental problem, while in the first one, it is the use of pollinaza, an organic fertilizer based on these results recommendations were made to obtain significant reduction in the impact of the sugar cane cultivation

  20. The substitution of iodine 131 by Technetium 99m in the application of radiotracers in the sugar cane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the behaviour of Technetium 99m is performed to know if it is possible its use as radiotracer in the evaluation of massecuite crystalizer C or of third. After positive results, it was done a comparative study of the measured doses provoked by the use of iodine 131 and of Technetium 99m on this sugar cane installation. We reached the conclusion that technetium 99m is an obliged substitute of Iodine 131 because it is a radiotracer with better radiologic characteristics to be used on the food-production industry, for example in the sugar cane industry