WorldWideScience

Sample records for cane mills aprovechamiento

  1. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  2. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  3. Energy advantage of the cane bagasse in the sugar industry; Aprovechamiento energetico del bagazo de cana en la industria azucarera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Alarcon, Luis Alfredo

    1987-07-01

    The present study makes an analysis of the production and bagasse consumption in Mexico related to those indicators that orient and affect the energy advantage of the fiber within the energy structure and global sugar energy balance of the subsector. This global analysis is at the end concentrated on the evaluation of the steam generators of a sugar mill, that like Casasano, went from burning fuel oil only until 1984, to use bagasse and fuel oil simultaneously, in an attempt to reduce its specific consumption of energy, one of highest of the country. In 1985, 534 thousand hectares of sugar cane were cultivated, with field yields of 68.8 t/ha; of the 36.7 million tons of sugar cane produced, 35.7 million were ground to obtain, in the 69 sugar mills of the country 3.2 million tons of sugar, satisfying again the national consumption. In the respective grinding season 12 million tons of humid bagasse, were produced, representing the 34.5% of the total of the ground sugar cane; this bagasse was dedicated in 86.5% to the steam generation, with an average ratio of 1.87 kg of steam per kg of bagasse, contributing to the own energy balance the equivalent of 17.6 trillions of kilo-calories that correspond to the 66.2% of the total energy consumed by the sector, being left 33.8% contributed by the fuel oil. In order to generate steam in 1985 it had installed 543859 HP used with a weighed efficiency of 56.4%, of which the 91.5% used, in simultaneous form bagasse and fuel oil, the 6.38% only fuel oil and the 2.1% only bagasse. In the Casasano sugar mill a similar analysis is made, ending with the evaluation of the energy advantage of the bagasse in their boilers and of the factors that influence the specific energy consumption. In this form one settles down that the bagasse consumed in the last grinding season was burned generating 1.4 kg of steam per kg of bagasse in boilers working with an efficiency of 60% and consuming 1,090 kg of steam per ton of ground sugar cane

  4. Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

    2011-07-01

    A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum.

  5. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site's tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  8. Radiation survey of dwellings in Cane Valley, Arizona and Utah, for use of uranium mill tailings. Final technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, J.M. Jr; Douglas, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    A radiation survey was conducted in the Cane Valley area of Monument Valley, on the Navajo Reservation, to identify dwellings in which uranium mill tailings had been used and to assess the resulting radiation exposures. Sixteen of the 37 dwellings surveyed were found to have tailings and/or uranium ore used in their construction. Tailings were used in concrete floors, exterior stucco, mortar for stone footings, cement floor patchings, and inside as cement 'plaster'. Uranium ore was found in footings, walls, and in one fireplace. Other structures, not used as dwellings, were also identified as having tailings and ore use. Gamma ray exposure rates were measured inside dwellings and structures identified as having tailings and/or ore used in their construction. Indoor radon progeny samples were collected in occupied dwellings where practical

  9. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Hector

    Full Text Available Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans, while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  12. Modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes en las coronas de molinos de caña//Modeling of contact between two pairs of teeth in the sugar cane mills gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Mendoza‐Fernández

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para la modelación del funcionamiento de las coronas de molino de caña de azúcar cuando teóricamente hay dos pares de dientes en contacto. A través del análisis de movilidad del mecanismo se demuestra que no es posible el contacto simultaneo entre dos pares de dientes y que el coeficiente de recubrimiento en estos engranes es igual o menor que la unidad. A partir de los resultados del análisis cinemático del contacto entre un par de dientes, y combinándolo con la modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes se demuestra que el coeficiente de recubrimiento real en estos engranajes es menor que la unidad y se producen impactos entre los dientes al inicio del contacto.Palabras claves: molinos de caña, coronas de molinos, coeficiente de recubrimiento, engranajes._________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe paper proposes an equivalent mechanism for modeling the functioning of the crowns of sugar cane mill when theoretically there are two pairs of teeth in contact. Through mobility analysis of the mechanism is demonstrated that is not possible the simultaneous contact between two pairs of teeth and that the coating coefficient of these gears is equal or less than unity. Combining kinematic analysis results for the contact between a pair of teeth with the modeling the contact between two pairs of teeth, it is demonstrated that gear ratio of these gears is less than unity and impacts occur between the teeth at the start of contact.Key words: sugar cane mills, sugar cane mills gears, contact ratio, gears.

  13. Modelación matemática del funcionamiento de las coronas de molinos considerando la flotación de la maza superior // An equivalent mechanism for the kinetic and dynamic analysis of the sugar cane mill gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Javier Cabello-Ulloa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn este trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para modelar el funcionamiento de lascoronas de los molinos de caña de azúcar, que permite tomar en cuenta la forma real del perfil de losdientes trazados por arcos de círculos y la variación de la distancia entre centros durante sufuncionamiento. Aplicando el método grafo-analítico al modelo propuesto se obtiene una funcióncinemática que define la posición angular instantánea de la corona conducida con dependencia de ladistancia entre ejes de las ruedas y la posición angular de la corona conductora. Aplicando métodosparamétricos se obtienen ecuaciones para la velocidad y aceleración que son generales paracualquier tipo de perfil de dientes en engranajes que trabajan con variación de distancia entrecentros. Finalmente se grafican estos parámetros para el funcionamiento de las coronas de unmolino real concluyéndose que estas tienen relación de transmisión instantánea variable y que por elsolo hecho de la forma del perfil se producen aceleraciones.Palabras claves: corona de molino, engranaje, mecanismo plano, modelación, cinemática del molino.______________________________________________________________________AbstractEquivalent mechanism is proposed for modeling sugar cane mills gears, which allows to take intoaccount the shape of the tooth profile formed by circular arcs and the variation of the distancebetween centers for operation. Applying the graph-analytical method to the proposed model isobtained a function to define the instantaneous angular position of the sugar cane mill gear in relationwith the instantaneous angular position of driver gear and the center distance of gears. Generalequations for the velocity and acceleration for any type of gear tooth profile with variable distancebetween centers are proposed through parametric method. Plotted these parameters for real sugarcane mill gear and it is concluded that the instantaneous speed ratio is variable

  14. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  15. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  16. Modelación matemática de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar // Mathematical model for instant flotation of top shaft in sugar cane mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Javier Cabello‐Ulloa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo matemático de la flotación de la maza superior de losmolinos de caña de azúcar durante su funcionamiento, determinado a partir de medicionesexperimentales de dicha magnitud en el tiempo. Se realiza un ajuste adecuado a los valores medidosexperimentalmente y se obtiene una función analítica que permitirá considerar los efectos de la flotaciónen el estudio del funcionamiento y en los métodos de cálculo de los molinos y sus elementos. Se aplica aun molino en el Complejo Agroindustrial 14 de Julio en Cienfuegos. Se modelan cien segundos defuncionamiento obteniéndose una función que expresa la flotación la que al ser derivada permite obtenerla velocidad y aceleración con que varía la flotación instantánea. Los coeficientes y sus bondades sondados matricialmente para todos los ajustes efectuados al construir la función que define la flotacióninstantánea obtenida en este caso.Palabras claves: molino de caña de azúcar, flotación instantánea, modelación, cinemática del molino._________________________________________________________________AbstractA mathematical model for the instant flotation of the top shaft of sugar cane mill is developed andanalytical function for introduce in the study of other sugar cane mills parts is obtained. The model isapplied to July 14th sugar factory in Cienfuegos. One hundred seconds of work is modeled and a functionsfor floating, velocity and acceleration of floating are obtained. The coefficients and their goodness aregiven in matrix for all the fits made for to build the function that defines the instant flotation obtained in thiscase.Key words: sugar cane mill, instant flotation, modeling, mill kinematics.

  17. Aprovechamiento de Salto Grande Argentina – Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongiovanni, M.

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available The power harnessing of Salto Grande will be the first common project carried out by two South American Countries and this will foster greater integration of both countries. The project involves the following: — One 39 m-high dam — Two hydroelectric power plants — One international bridge — One shipping canal The benefits to be obtained from the project include: increase and improvement of the waterway network; increase of electricity production; railways and highway tie-ups between both countries; industrial development; increased availability of irrigation water; new tourist resorts; increase of fishing resources.

    El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de Salto Grande será el primer aprovechamiento común a dos países sudamericanos, lo que permitirá una mayor integración entre ellos. Consta de las siguientes obras: _ una presa de 39 m de altura; _ dos centrales hidroeléctricas; _ un puente internacional; _ un canal de navegación, etc. Entre los beneficios que se obtendrán destacan: aumento y mejora de la red de navegación; aumento de la producción eléctrica; enlace de las vías de ferrocarril y carreteras entre los dos países; desarrollo industrial; aumento de la disponibilidad de agua de riego; creación de zonas de turismo, e incremento de la riqueza piscícola.

  18. Aprovechamiento de residuos agroindustriales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Victoria Peñaranda Gonzalez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el  Departamento Nacional de Planeación proyectó para el 2018, el 20% en aprovechamiento de residuos que van a los rellenos e incentivar el reciclaje, sin embargo no ha logrado superar el 17%, por lo tanto es prioritario incluir mecanismos de articulación del componente productivo y de investigación científica y tecnológica. En este artículo se  relacionan importantes fuentes de residuos agroindustriales en Colombia, presentando algunas alternativas  de subproductos en las que se aprovechan sus características y propiedades para obtener materiales que pueden ser utilizados en otros procesos como la industria de la construcción, biocombustibles, productos farmacéuticos, cosméticos y  nutricionales;  es el caso del  glicerol, residuos de papa y café tanto de cultivo como procesados, arroz y caña de azúcar en el grupo de las gramíneas, y residuos de frutas y verduras. Se concluye que Colombia debe implementar el desarrollo de diversos procesos y/o productos que sean competitivos y cumplan con las respectivas normas de calidad para incursionar en los mercados del mundo.

  19. Concepto y trascendencia del derecho de aprovechamiento en materia de aguas (Propiedad y Aprovechamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Guerra Daneri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La disciplina de las aguas se encuentra estructurada jurídicamente, sólo en base a dos derechos: el de propiedad y el de aprovechamiento. La caracterización que posee el agua como cosa, impide que puedan ejercerse otros derechos sobre ella.El punto de partida para explicar este fenómeno, radica en que el agua responde a dos hechos técnicos que ofician como fuente material o factor de calificación jurídica: el principio de territorialidad y la unidad del ciclo hidrológico. Estos dan motivo a su comportamiento universal y en ellos se asienta su disciplina, más allá de la regulación particular que cada derecho positivo quiera desarrollar, imponiendo una política en la materia.  En síntesis, el agua es un bien cuyas particularidades determinan que en definitiva, el derecho de propiedad sea desplazado en su trascendencia patrimonial por otro derecho que ocupa su lugar en jerarquía e individualidad: el derecho de aprovechamiento. Sin embargo y a pesar de los sólidos fundamentos que lo sustentan, la identidad de este derecho parece todavía opacada por los reflejos de una propiedad, que en materia de aguas, es inoperante.       

  20. Natural radionuclides as dirt tracers in sugar cane consignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Soil is usually carried out to the mills, as an impurity in sugar cane, leading to economic drawbacks for the industry. The quantification of this dirt is important to identify its causes and for routine quality control. Several methods have been used for this purpose, however, no single one has been pointed out as an industrial standard. The use of a γ-ray emitting radionuclide of natural occurence was investigated and, after several soil and cane radioactivity analyses, 212 Pb was chosen as the best tracer. Calibration curves developed with the addition of soil in clean cane, from 0 to 10% (dry mass), demonstrated the linearity of the method. Analyses of eleven samples taken from consignments showed that the procedure was consistent and reliable when compared to the traditional ash method. (author)

  1. Utilización del factor de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta en árboles de molinos de caña de azúcar. // Use of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arzola de la Peña

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se aplica el criterio de densidad de energía de deformación en el modelo de crecimiento de la grieta para losárboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. La utilización de este criterio permite predecir no solamente la razón decrecimiento de las grietas sino también la inclinación que las mismas van experimentando durante su propagación, conrespecto al plano inicial donde surgen. Son modelados los dos tipos de grietas que usualmente ocurren en estos elementos,la grieta semielíptica superficial y la circunferencial. Se demuestra que la grieta circunferencial siempre crece en un planonormal al eje del árbol, mientras que las semielípticas lo harán en un plano algo inclinado en dependencia del predominiode las tensiones tangenciales. La grieta circunferencial resultó ser más crítica que la semielíptica superficial.Palabras claves: Energía de deformación, molinos de caña, propagación de grietas._______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.In this paper the approach of the density deformation energy factor in the crack growth pattern of sugar cane mills axles isapplied. The use of this approach allows predicting not only the rate of cracks growth but also the inclination that the sameones experienced during its propagation, with regard to the initial plane where they arise. The two types of cracks thatusually happens in these elements are modelled, the semielliptical superficial crack and the circumferential. It isdemonstrated that the circumferential crack always grows in a normal plane to the axis of the axle, while the semiellipticalwill make it in a plane something bowed in dependence of the prevalence of the tangential tensions. The circumferentialcrack turned out to be more critical than the semielliptical superficial.Keywords: Energy of deformation, cane mills, crack propagation.

  2. Relationships among cane fitting, function, and falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, E; Ross, J

    1993-08-01

    Although canes are among the most commonly used mobility aids, little is known about the relationship between cane prescription and effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among cane fitting (ie, cane fitter, cane band, and cane length), reported improvements in function, and reduction in falls. Cane users living in the community (86 women and 58 men with a median age distribution of 61 to 80 years) and sampled from seven urban shopping centers in British Columbia, Canada, participated in the study. The primary reasons cited for using a cane were joint problems (39%), general balance difficulties (30%), and a combination of joint and balance problems (15%). Measures included appropriateness of cane length and responses to closed-ended questions related to qualifications of the cane fitter, cane band, functional ability with a cane, and falling frequency. Overall, cane use was associated with improved confidence and functional ability. Canes fitted by health care workers approximated the clinically recommended length compared with canes fitted by non-health care workers, which tended to be greater than this length. There was no relationship, however, between cane fitting (cane fitter, cane hand, and appropriateness of cane length) and functional ability with a cane and falling frequency [corrected]. We concluded that health care workers may need to reconsider the variables for optimal cane prescription and their specifications for a given individual. The notion of a correct length and cane hand, for example, may be less important than factors such as the indications for cane use, comfort, and enhanced confidence.

  3. Smart Cane-Assistive Cane for Visually-impaired People

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Helmy Abd Wahab; Amirul A Talib; Herdawatie A Kadir; Ayob Johari; A Noraziah; Roslina M Sidek; Ariffin A Mutalib

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that helps visually-impaired people to walk more confidently. The study hypothesizes that a smart cane that alerts visually-impaired people over obstacles in front could help them in walking with less accident. The aim of the paper is to address the development work of a cane that could communicate with the users through voice alert and vibration, which is named Smart Cane. The development work involves coding and physical installation. A series of tests have bee...

  4. Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelise Rasera Bragato

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dados secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas.Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives using the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by

  5. Chemistry Based on Renewable Raw Materials: Perspectives for a Sugar Cane-Based Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Villela Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

  6. Viabilidade econômica de uma Biofabrica para controle da Cigarrinha das Raízesem Usina de Açúcar e Álcool = Economic viability of a biofactory to control a leafhopper the root of cane sugar on sugar mill and alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Adalberto Palucci

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A cigarrinha-da-raiz da cana-de-açúcar, Mahanarva fimbriolata, tem se tornado um sério problema em algumas regiões do Estado de São Paulo, tais como Ribeirão Preto, SP, onde a maioria da cana já é colhida mecanicamente, sem queima. Não havendo queimada palhada, ocorre um acúmulo desse material no solo e um aumento da umidade facilitando assim o crescimento e a disseminação da cigarrinha-da-raiz da cana. Considerando-se ainda que com a nova legislação ambiental de São Paulo a queimada da cana será proibida, espera-se um aumento significativo na população de M. fimbriolata causando prejuízos sérios para as usinas e fornecedores, além do aumento de custos para o controle desta praga. Desse modo, este estudo teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento de custos para implantação de uma Biofabrica de Metharizium anisoplieae em uma usina de açúcar e álcool para estudo de viabilidade, utilizando-se do método análise de fluxo de caixa e alguns indicadores como VPL, TIR e Payback. Os indicadores financeiros foram um VPL de R$ 66.404,28, TIR de 15,49% e o período de recuperação do investimento inicial de 4,21 anos, porém quando analisados as sensibilidade do projeto temos que a, curto prazo, o projeto se faz inviável. = The leafhopper the root of cane sugar, Mahanarva fimbriolata, has become a serious problem in some regions of São Paulo, such as Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, where most of the cane is already harvested mechanically, without burning. There being burned trash, there is an accumulation of this material in the soil and increased moisture thereby facilitating the growth and spread of the leafhopper the root of sugarcane. Considering that even with the new environmental legislation of Sao Paulo burning of sugarcane will be prohibited, it is expected a significant increase in the population of M. fimbriolata causing serious damage to the plants and suppliers, in addition to the cost increase for the control of this

  7. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  8. Smut resistance in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: From a mutation breeding programme with the popular early maturing sugar cane variety CoC 671 fourteen clones could be selected which were found to be free of smut infection after three successive years of artificial testing. Smut resistance was also found after in-vitro culture propagation of susceptible cultivars G80-454 and CoC 671. (author)

  9. Estilos de aprendizaje y aprovechamiento en ingresantes universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González Lomeli

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un modelo estructural de las valoraciones de 229 estudiantes acerca de sus estrategias de aprendizaje y el efecto en sus calificaciones escolares. Se realizó un análisis de ecuaciones estructurales que utilizó las respuestas a un inventario de estilos de aprendizaje y las calificaciones escolares del primer semestre. El modelo confirmó la presencia de estrategias de adquisición, de administración de recursos de memoria y de procesamiento de información, similar a lo propuesto por Castañeda (1995. Dado que el modelo explicó sólo 7% del aprovechamiento escolar, se discute la necesidad de modelar la variable dependiente como una variable latente conformada por un conjunto de indicadores que den cuenta cabal del logro escolar

  10. APROVECHAMIENTO DE RESIDUOS AGROINDUSTRIALES COMO BIOCOMBUSTIBLE Y BIOREFINERÍA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEYANIRA MUÑOZ-MUÑOZ

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento de residuos generados en procesos agroindustriales, es de interés en el ámbito mundial. En la actualidad se investiga en biomasa lignocelulósica para obtener energía, combustibles, biomateriales y productos químicos, mediante tecnologías limpias y sistemas cerrados que permitan conservar el medio ambiente. En esta investigación, a partir de características de residuos agroindustriales típicos del Departamento del Cauca, bagacillo de caña, polvillo de fique, afrecho de yuca y sus mezclas, se evalúo el aprovechamiento como biorefinería. Se determinaron las propiedades térmicas, físicas químicas y morfológicas en siete muestras de residuos, se realizaron ensayos exploratorios de pre-tratamientos y posibles usos. Se concluye que la muestra M6 con el 9,93% de humedad, 4,12% de ceniza, 43,97% de carbono, 5,86% de hidrogeno, 0,43% nitrógeno, poder calorífico inferior de 15MJ/kg y con 22,25% de celulosa, 9,30% de hemicelulosa y 4,56% de lignina, presenta características apropiadas para ser utilizada en hornos y calderas de menor potencia para el sector rural por la cantidad de ceniza, la cual mantiene estable el poder calorífico inferior y reduce la emisión de material particulado. Por las características térmicas, físicas, químicas y morfológicas, todas las muestras de M1 a M7, pueden ser hidrolizadas, densificadas y aprovechadas como biocombustible y/o biorefinería.

  11. Aprovechamiento integral de la Fuente del Ojo (Cieza-Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Martínez Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante más de quinientos años, el agua de la Fuente del Ojo, gestionada por el Heredamiento del Ojo, ha servido para el abastecimiento de personas y ganados, para usos domésticos e industriales, conventuales, lúdicos y recreativos, y para riego en el núcleo urbano de Cieza y en su entorno de la margen izquierda del río Segura. La sobrexplotación del acuífero Ascoy-Sopalmo, en el último tercio del siglo XX, ocasionó una disminución de caudales en este alumbramiento de aguas y finalmente la seca de la Fuente del Ojo. Su aprovechamiento integral nos ha dejado un patrimonio inmaterial como las ordenanzas y reglamentos, las conversaciones del lavadero o el espíritu de los baños que definen una cultura popular. También un cuantioso patrimonio hidráulico material como canalizaciones, partidores, abrevaderos, balsas, molino, lavadero, etc., disperso en el espacio del regadío histórico tradicional de Cieza, actualmente en grave peligro de desaparición.

  12. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    1997-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond

  13. Aprovechamiento de la semilla de aguacate variedad Lorena como un colorante natural y del aceite de mesocarpios residuales de la variedad Hass como componentes funcionales en un jabón líquido

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessey Ramos, Licelander

    2017-01-01

    Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables, Económicas y Administrativas. CIMAD, 2017 El presente trabajó exploró dos alternativas para el aprovechamiento de residuos generados por semilla de Persea Americana Mill Variedad Lorena, la primera, mediante la obtención de extractos acuosos tipo colorante de Agua, Solución acuosa de NaOH al 0.5% y mezcla de 50% Agua y 50% Alcohol etílico manteniendo constante la relació...

  14. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  15. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  16. Multiculturalidad, interculturalismo y el aprovechamiento social de los conocimientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Olivé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Un modelo interculturalista adecuado para las sociedades multiculturales, tanto global como localmente, requiere del reconocimiento del derecho de los pueblos a la diferencia y a preservar su identidad colectiva, necesita también incluir formas para estimular la interacción respetuosa y cooperativa entre sí de los distintos pueblos y culturas, pero también debe incorporar el reconocimiento del derecho a disfrutar de las condiciones que permitan su florecimiento, así como formas efectivas para lograrlo. Para esto, en el mundo actual es necesario que se satisfagan dos condiciones: 1 reconocer los derechos económicos de los pueblos y establecer garantías para su ejercicio, y 2 garantizar que los distintos pueblos y culturas tienen la capacidad, y disfrutan de las condiciones adecuadas, para generar y apropiarse del conocimiento y de las tecnologías que se necesiten para comprender y resolver los problemas sociales y ambientales, de acuerdo con las cosmovisiones y los sistemas de valores de cada uno. Lo anterior lleva consigo tanto la posibilidad de apropiación y aprovechamiento de conocimiento científico-tecnológico moderno, como de conocimiento tradicional y local, con las debidas protecciones para evitar apropiaciones indebidas.An intercultural model suitable for multicultural societies, both globally and locally, requires recognition of the right of peoples to preserve their difference and collective identity, and it also needs to include ways to encourage respectful and cooperative interaction with each of the different peoples and cultures but must also incorporate the recognition of the right to enjoy the conditions for their development, and effective ways to achieve it. For this, in today’s world it is necessary to satisfy two conditions: 1 recognize the economic rights of the people and provide guarantees for its exercise, and 2 ensure that the different peoples and cultures have the capacity, and enjoy the adequate

  17. Organic solvents from sugar cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, H

    1970-01-01

    The production of organic solvents by fermentation of low priced cane molasses is discussed. Processes described and illustrated in detail include the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol, acetic acid, ethyl acetate and butyl acetate.

  18. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  19. Economical impact of the BIG/CC technology use on the sugar cane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, L.C. de; Nascimento, M.J.M. do [Brascep Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The use of biomass as primary fuel for power and steam production using modern conversion technology such as the Biomass Integrated Gas Turbine/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) has both technical and commercial potential. Brazil is implementing a BIG/CC Demonstration Plant to burn wood from eucalyptus short rotation forest and to test sugar cane bagasse as feedstock. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of using biomass as a feedstock for power generation, its suitability for applications in developing countries, and the possibilities it offers for commercial activities in regions which currently have a low level of economic activities. The purpose of this paper is to show the potential applicability of this technology in the sugar cane industries of Developing Countries such as Brazil. The same quantity of sugar cane already processed in each sugar mill can produce sizable quantities of electric power at competitive costs, in addition to the traditional products -- sugar and/or ethanol, which will cause an economical impact, duplicating the revenue of these industries. The application of the BIG/CC technology in the Sugar Cane Industry may lead to the following scenario in developing countries: (1) power shall be produced at very competitive prices by specialized private firms associated with sugar mills; (2) plant sizes will be smaller -- 15 to 100 MW -- when based on biomass, a compared to large fossil fuel plants now prevailing; (3) ethanol and sugar production costs will be reduced due to more efficient and economical processes and due to the additional revenue from power production; (4) becoming more competitive with gasoline, ethanol production tends to increase, which will influence the automobile industry and improve the quality of life in big cities.

  20. The sustainability of small scale cane growers through youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane farming makes an important contribution to the socio-economic development of the rural areas where it takes place. These cane growing areas are characterised by high levels of poverty and youth unemployment. The current crop of cane growers is ageing and there is a need to prepare to handover the baton to the ...

  1. Aprovechamiento sostenible de los recursos naturales del Valle de Valdavia (Palencia)

    OpenAIRE

    Doncel Macho, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Búsqueda de soluciones al desarrollo de una Comarca azotada por las dolencias comunes del medio rural en España, a través del aprovechamiento sostenible de unos valiosos recursos naturales, infrautilizados a día de hoy. Economía Aplicada Máster en Desarrollo Económico Regional, Local y Gestión del Territorio

  2. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

  3. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Information Assurance IATO - Interim Authority to Operate ICD - Initial Capability Document IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture IOC - Initial...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Defense Acquisition Management...Executive DoD - Department of Defense DoDAF - DoD Architecture Framework FD - Full Deployment FDD - Full Deployment Decision FY - Fiscal Year IA

  5. CANE WEAVING IN ONITSHA: PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    printserver

    reveals that the local craft industry of cane weaving possesses latent potentialities in terms of skill and market ... Great care and efforts are usually taken to collect them from the jungle. A very sharp knife is needed to be able to cut the tough flexible stems covered with spikes, which can easily tear one‟s skin. The stems are ...

  6. CANE WEAVING IN ONITSHA: PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    printserver

    generally are “hollow or pith filled and are usually slender and flexible plants which grow ... This local cane industry provides jobs for the jobless and local .... of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), when there was a ban on the importation ...

  7. Aprovechamiento de semillas de Dipteryx odorata (Aublet.) Willd. (Shihuahuaco) como producto alimenticio

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Limache Alonzo

    2015-01-01

    Considerando la necesidad de contribuir a la diversificación de insumos alimenticios mediante el aprovechamiento masivo de las partes no maderables de las especies forestales tropicales con énfasis en la región Ucayali - Perú, se exploró la posibilidad de utilizar a las semillas o almendras del Dipteryx odorata como producto alimenticio de consumo humano. Para ello, se sometió a un análisis nutricional, determinación de contenido de minerales y se complementó con una investigación bibliográfi...

  8. Sistema de Aprovechamiento de la Energía de las Olas del Mar

    OpenAIRE

    Pi Amorós, Gabriel

    2010-01-01

    Este documento describe un sistema de aprovechamiento de la energía transportada por el oleaje o energía undimotriz. El sistema no transformará la energía únicamente en electricidad si no que aprovecha dicha electricidad para producir hidrógeno mediante el proceso de la electrólisis del agua de mar. Es decir, el sistema propuesto es un sistema de generación de hidrógeno de origen renovable a partir de una fuente de energía renovable, la energía undimotriz. Las característica...

  9. Aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del río Eume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordi de Carricarte, Luciano

    1960-02-01

    Full Text Available En la provincia de La Coruña, junto a la desembocadura del río Eume, y en las proximidades del pueblo de Puentedeume, se ha realizado el aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico de dicho río, formado, en cuestión, por tres elementos básicos: una presa de embalse de doble curvatura, de 103 m de altura; una conducción forzada, integrada por un túnel de 2.839 m de longitud y dos tuberías de 310; y una central, equipada con dos grupos de 75.000 CV.

  10. Ergonomic factors related to drop-off detection with the long cane: effects of cane tips and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert S Wall; Curtis, Amy B

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user's ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user's characteristics and the nature of the travel environment.

  11. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  12. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  13. Canes Implementation: Analysis of Budgetary, Business, and Policy Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF BUDGETARY, BUSINESS...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 2014 MBA Professional Rep01t 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS CANES IMPLEMENTATION: ANALYSIS OF...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School REPORT NUMBER Monterey, CA 93943-5000 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10

  14. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments... of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State will receive an allotment to accommodate a new processor's allocation under 1435.308. (c) Subject to paragraphs...

  15. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  16. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  17. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  18. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  19. Navegación y aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del Río San Lorenzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Editorial

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Descripción de las obras más importantes que constituyen el gran proyecto de mejora para la navegación y aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del rio San Lorenzo en el tramo comprendido entre Ogdensburg, del estado de Nueva York, y Cornwall, del de Ontario (Canadá. El plazo previsto para la terminación de estas obras cumplirá al final del año 1959, pero se empezará a generar energía eléctrica en septiembre de 1958. El presupuesto previsto para la realización total del proyecto se eleva a 600 millones de dólares, y la potencia que ha de instalarse es de aproximadamente 1.880.000 kW.

  20. Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, L.S.; Cundiff, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

  1. Aprovechamiento de semillas de Dipteryx odorata (Aublet. Willd. (Shihuahuaco como producto alimenticio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparicio Limache Alonzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la necesidad de contribuir a la diversificación de insumos alimenticios mediante el aprovechamiento masivo de las partes no maderables de las especies forestales tropicales con énfasis en la región Ucayali - Perú, se exploró la posibilidad de utilizar a las semillas o almendras del Dipteryx odorata como producto alimenticio de consumo humano. Para ello, se sometió a un análisis nutricional, determinación de contenido de minerales y se complementó con una investigación bibliográfica para identificar los antecedentes de uso y exigencias que implica su conversión en un bionegocio. Así, se determinaron la materia seca, extracto etéreo, fibra cruda y proteína cruda en 88,89 %, 19 %, 16,75 % y 1,51 % respectivamente. Al cuantificar los oligoelementos como el zinc, hierro, cobre, sodio, plomo, magnesio se encontraron valores de 39,29; 25,86; 12,36; 4,79; 3,04; 1,31 ppm respectivamente. La investigación bibliográfica, demostró que en áreas rurales dichas almendras son utilizadas en la dieta alimenticia de la población. En Europa, son consideradas gourmet básico para la coctelería e ideal para repostería exótica. Se concluye indicando que por su contenido nutricional y de minerales las almendras de shihuahuaco en cantidades pequeñas, son aptas para consumo humano. Como limitante para su aprovechamiento en bionegocio, es el contenido de plomo que requiere desarrollo de estudios previos para neutralizar su efecto nocivo que genera problemas gastrointestinales por exceso de consumo.

  2. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Saunders, M.; Herrerra, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Mendoza, A.; Meneses, N.; Griffith, J.; Mesa, S.; Zhuk, L.I.; Danilova, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  3. Assessment of TS-1, a thick cane mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shama Rao, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    A true breeding thick cane mutant TS-1, induced by radiations, was obtained in variety Co-419. TS-1 was found to be superior to Co-419 with respect to cane size, weight, yield and juice quality. The thick canes of TS-1 were found to be solid even at 14 months age and so also their ratoons. The tillering habit of TS-1 has a definite advantage over other varieties with respect to easy intercultural field operations. TS-1 is now being tested under various agroclimatic zones in Karnataka, Maharashtra and U.P. (auth.)

  4. Dirt in cane removal influenced by soil characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Dirt level in sugar cane consignments delivered to the factory is dependent on soil type, in association with harvesting system and weather conditions. Efforts for reducing soil in harvested cane have been made by sugar cane millers, especially improving the washing system installed before crushing. Instrumental neutron activation analysis has shown its potential for assessing dirt reductions in the washed material. Knowledge of elemental concentrations in the different soil fractions highlights the reliability of such measurements especially when taking into account the soil characteristics. (author)

  5. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  6. Optimisation of power generation in the Local Cane Sugar Factories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) system by investing in high pressure boilers and generating on a firm basis throughout the year. However, it is shown that by using bagasse and cane tops and leaves and investing in high pressure boilers and condensing-extraction ...

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Marrufo-Curtido, Almudena; Serrano, Maria Jose; Palma, Miguel

    2016-06-16

    An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying) and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others) on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5) for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  9. Factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, F; Edwards, N

    2000-01-01

    Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined factors associated with cane use among community dwelling older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 106 community residing older adults in Ottawa, Canada. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, subjective norms, attitudes, and age surfaced as the key variables associated with cane use in this sample. The discriminant function accounted for 67% of the variance in cane use and correctly classified 91% of cases (Wilks's lambda = 0.33, lambda2 = 110.12, df = 3, p cane use behaviors of older persons and have important implications for the design of theory-based fall prevention interventions to enhance the acceptance and effective use of mobility aids.

  10. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  11. Analysis of Calorific Value of Tibarau Cane Briquette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, H.; Hasanuddin, H.; Darmawi, D.; Prasetya, F.

    2018-04-01

    The development of product diversification through tibarau cane briquettes as an effort in obtaining alternative fuels. Tibarau cane is one of the potential materials of renewable energy sources that can be processed into briquette. So as to reduce dependence on energy fuel oil, which for the middle to lower class is the main requirement. Efforts and innovations tibarau cane briquettes in producing fuel that has quality and performance can be measured with calorific value. Prior to development of this potential required the existence of test and evaluation stages according to the order of the flow of new material product development. Through process technology of briquette product making with compaction and optimization of composition content on tapioca adhesive and mesh particles suitable to get optimum calorific value. The results obtained in this research are the development of tibarau cane briquette model which is recommended as replacement fuel. Where the calorific value of tibarau cane briquette is 11.221,72 kJ / kg at composition percentage 80: 20 and its density is 0,565 gr/cm3. The comparison of mass tibarau with tapioca, particle size, pressure force (compaction), can affect the calorific value and density of tibarau cane briquette.

  12. Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reductions in additional costs for inventory management; 50% of the resources used for loading the containers; and an 11.4% increment in the efficiency of operations. In addition, the new planning strategy was also evaluated with either a positive or negative variation of the demand. It should be underscored that the improved scenarios (out of those simulated do not involve investments in facilities or in machinery purchasing.  

  13. Aprovechamiento de recursos renovables en la obtención de nuevos materiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Liliana Gómez Ayala

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available La producción de plásticos a nivel mundial presenta cifras abrumadoras debido a que tienen aplicaciones en diferentes campos, desde la medicina hasta la industria de empaques. Uno de los problemas radica en que la materia prima para preparar esos plásticos proviene de fuentes fósiles, los principales responsables de las emisiones de dióxido de carbono a la atmósfera y después de usar esos materiales se desechan y tardan varios años en descomponerse. Otro problema está enfocado hacia la agricultura e incluye los procesos que generan desechos orgánicos como la industria azucarera y del café, que pueden contaminar el medio ambiente sin tratamiento adecuado. Cada vez cobra más importancia reemplazar los plásticos convencionales por biomateriales cuyos sustratos de partida provengan de fuentes renovables, que sean biodegradables y que puedan tener aplicaciones similares a los materiales convencionales. Por ello, en este artículo se destacan los últimos avances en el área de los materiales a partir de recursos renovables, en especial de los polímeros biobasados, de su biodegradabilidad y sus aplicaciones, para generar curiosidad y propiciar la búsqueda de alternativas de aprovechamiento de las fuentes renovables en la obtención de nuevos biopolímeros.

  14. El aprovechamiento de residuos solidos y su incidencia cultural, social y ambiental en Tunja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Liseth Angarita Lozano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es el resultado de un proyecto de investigación que comenzó en el año 2007, motivado por la articulación de entidades públicas y privadas interesadas en crear cultura ambiental urbana en la ciudad de Tunja, a partir de la concienciación ambiental particularmente enfocada al adecuado manejo de los residuos sólidos desde la fuente y con el aporte de la Academia en la sensibilización a la comunidad y a los principales actores de la Gestión Integral de Residuos Sólidos. Como resultado, se creó la Primera Asociación de Recicladores de Tunja; se crearon cuatro rutas selectivas de material aprovechable en la ciudad, lo cual generó la reducción de la cantidad de residuos sólidos dispuestos en el Relleno Sanitario de Pirgua y permitió el aprovechamiento del material recuperado, se redujeron las tarifas del servicio de aseo en la ciudad, se motiváron cambios en la comunidad tunjana con respecto al manejo de los residuos desde los hogares, así como también se logró la aceptación social y reconocimiento de la población recicladora de la ciudad.

  15. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids.

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at the Fifth Symposium on Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Advances made with regard to uranium mill tailings management, environmental effects, regulations, and reclamation are reviewed. Topics considered include tailings management and design (e.g., the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, environmental standards for uranium mill tailings disposal), surface stabilization (e.g., the long-term stability of tailings, long-term rock durability), radiological aspects (e.g. the radioactive composition of airborne particulates), contaminant migration (e.g., chemical transport beneath a uranium mill tailings pile, the interaction of acidic leachate with soils), radon control and covers (e.g., radon emanation characteristics, designing surface covers for inactive uranium mill tailings), and seepage and liners (e.g., hydrologic observations, liner requirements)

  17. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  18. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the result of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using the INAA from thermal reactor. The behaviour of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves is uniform and independent of sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant

  19. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  20. Reproductive history of cane rat: a review of the reproduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates in a review the reproduction and reproductive performance of cane rat. Breeding time in cane rat depends on which part of Africa the Animal is found and the weather. In the wild, cane rat lives in groups of males and females during the breeding season. The wet season of the year is the usual breeding ...

  1. Assessment of canes used by older adults in senior living communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao Howe; Eaves, Joshua; Wang, Wen; Womack, Jill; Bullock, Paige

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to provide basic but essential information about how older cane users obtain their canes and how they use these canes for their daily mobility, since there is still lack of information on these areas. Ninety-three older (≥65 years old) subjects who use canes for daily activities were recruited from four assisted living facilities and five retirement centers for this cross-sectional study. The assessment involved interviewing cane users with a questionnaire, examining their canes, and investigating how these canes were used by their owners during ambulation. The commonly used canes are (from most to least): adjustable single-tip, un-adjustable (wooden), small quad, and large quad. Five major problems from data analysis were identified: lack of medical consultation for device selection/use, incorrect cane height/maintenance, placement of cane in improper hand, inability to maintain the proper reciprocal gait pattern, and improper posture during ambulation. Only forward-leaning posture during ambulation might be associated with increased falls among the older cane users. Knowledge of these problems could assist health professionals to implement appropriate interventions in clinical settings and to provide community service to address all problems related to cane use. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Regional-based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with regional cane production records in South Africa. These were used to provide regional estimates of water use of commercial rain-fed and irrigated sugar-cane as affected by environmental limitations. The mean water use of sugar-cane at an industry scale was 598 ...

  3. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  4. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  5. Characteristics of fermentation of refined cane sugar syrup for alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raev, Z A; Bazilevich, K K

    1956-01-01

    Technological properties of cane sugar syrup, obtained on refining of raw cane sugar, were investigated. Its poor fermentation is caused by the lack of nitrous substances (1/10 as much as in sugar beet) necessary for the nutrition of yeast. It is necessary to introduce into the mixture of yeast and must 0.8% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ based on weight of syrup (at a permanent aeration the assimilability of N from (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ by the yeast will be higher and the dosage has to be increased), 1% of superphosphate or 0.12% of a 70% phosphoric acid solution, and 0.5% of a yeast autolyst. For the fermentation of cane sugar syrup the mixture of yeast and must has to be prepared with a concentration of 10 to 11/sup 0/ by the saccharometer scale, but the average initial concentration of the fermentive must has to be 17 to 18/sup 0/ with the intention to keep the alcohol content of the ripe must at 8.7 to 8.8% by volume. Considering the low buffer ability of the syrup from cane sugar, the acidity of the must, mixed with yeast, has to be kept less than or equal to 0.4 to 0.5/sup 0/, the pH at 4.6 to 4.8; on a higher acidity the pH drops to a value which inhibits the fission of the yeast cells. On a joint fermentation of syrup from sugar cane and sugar beets 1% of superphosphate in the form of an aqueous extract and an autolyst of yeast in an amount of 0.5% of the weight of syrup was introduced into the must; the yield of alcohol from cane sugar syrup increased compared with the yield on separate processing.

  6. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Timm, Luis Carlos; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Castro Navarro, Roberta de; Cassaro, Fabio Augusto Meira; Dourado-Neto, Durval; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia

    2000-01-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15 N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The 15 N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  7. "Aprovechamiento de los Recursos Naturales y Culturales en el Municipio de Santiago Chazumba, Oaxaca para el Desarrollo Local"

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Velasco, Jorge Luis

    2016-01-01

    A partir de la confluencia de una población que conserva un sólido tejido social y prácticas colectivas heredadas de su condición étnica, la existencia de propiedad social de la tierra y la peculiaridades que impone el formar parte de la Reserva de la Biósfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, se presenta un modelo de aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales y culturales en el municipio de Chazumba, Oaxaca que espera generar recursos complementarios para conservar el estilo de vida, la cultura y la biodiv...

  8. Las redes sociales en la enseñanza universitaria : aprovechamiento didáctico del capital social e intelectual

    OpenAIRE

    Colás Bravo, María Pilar; Conde Jiménez, Jesús; Martín Gutiérrez, Ángela

    2015-01-01

    Un porcentaje muy elevado de jóvenes universitarios está familiarizado y utiliza con asiduidad las redes sociales; sin embargo, no se está haciendo un aprovechamiento didáctico y educativo de las mismas. Esta aportación indaga sobre el potencial didáctico de las redes sociales en los procesos de tutorización de prácticas externas en el alumnado del Grado de Pedagogía. Se analizan cualitativamente las interacciones sociales de la red mediante el software ATLAS. TI.v.7. ...

  9. Optimización del costo del sistema de aprovechamiento de madera en bosques naturales de Pinus caribaea

    OpenAIRE

    Cándano Acosta,Fidel; Leite,Angelo Marcio Pinto; Martínez Cantón,José Luis

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo se realizó en bosques naturales de Pinus caribaea en áreas de la empresa forestal La Palma en la provincia de Pinar del Río - Cuba. El objetivo de la investigación fue minimizar el costo del sistema de aprovechamiento de madera a partir de la interacción entre el costo de camino y el costo de arrastre en base a la densidad de camino y patios de carga, además de la interacción del costo de camino y el costo del transporte de madera en base a la calidad de la capa de rodamiento del c...

  10. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  11. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. .... the fruit market in D/Line area of Port Harcourt. .... [16] Neville A.M. 2006 . Properties of concrete. 4th ed.,. Dorling Kindersley, New Delhi, India. [17] NIS 235 (1987). Nigerian Industrial Standards. Standards for ...

  12. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Núñez-Jaquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement. Six prismatic specimens (7×7×10 cm with an embedded steel rod were prepared. Three contained 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement and the other three did not. All specimens were placed in a 3.5% NaCl solution and the corrosion rate was determined using polarization resistance. The results showed that reinforced concrete containing sugar cane bagasse ash has the lowest corrosion rates in comparison to reinforced concrete without the additive.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  14. Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for various raspberries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... each cultivar and determine the cane trait(s) with the positive and negative effect among these ... potassium (K2O) with soil pH of 7.2 in distilled water (1.5 v/v). Agronomic observations were recorded for ... Multiple Regression Model must be the highest determination coefficient, but the lowest RMSE value.

  15. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  16. Quality evaluation of compost produced from agro-industrialbyproducts of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bohórquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh by products of the sugar industry (sugarcane sludge, bagasse and vinasse incorporated into the soil generate a negative impact on plants. Therefore, compost is an alternative solution to the use of sugarcane byproducts, which must meet the requirements of the Colombian technical standard 5167 for use as biofertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of compost made from different combinations of products of the milling process of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Composting piles were established in the Ingenio Riopaila-Castilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, using a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. 100% sugarcane sludge (T1, 75% sugarcane sludge and 25% bagasse (T2, 50% bagasse and 50% sugarcane sludge (T3, 25% sugarcane sludge and 75% bagasse (T4 and 100% bagasse (T5, all supplemented with 2 m3 of vinasse. The response variables: pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, organic matter, moisture retention, the carbon-nitrogen ratio, the total oxidizable organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese and zinc, were evaluated at the time when the initial compost piles were prepared, and the 42, 51, 59, 73 and 90 days after beginning the process. The results showed that the carbon-nitrogen mixtures initial ratio is critical for obtaining a good quality of compost. The T3 provided the best quality with the highest content of nutrients. The composting time ensuring adequate maturation levels for nutrients in the compost was 90 days.

  17. Use of a cane for recovery from backward balance loss during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Masaki; Saito, Mayumi; Ushiba, Junichi; Tomita, Yutaka; Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    To study whether a cane improved balance recovery after perturbation during walking. This study was a crossover comparison comparing the effect of walking with and without a cane for balance recovery after perturbation during treadmill walking. Five normal young volunteers participated. The velocity and acceleration of a marker sited on the seventh cerebral vertebra (C7) and vertical hand motion were measured by a motion analysis system. When using a cane, C7 backward velocity increased by approximately 15% (413 SD 95 mm/s with cane vs. 358 SD 88 mm/s without). In addition, C7 backward acceleration increased by approximately 23% (3.2 SD 0.7 m/s(2) with cane vs. 2.6 SD 0.8 m/s(2) without) and the vertical motion of the right hand decreased (187 SD 98 mm with cane vs. 372 SD 260 mm without). Additionally, no subject was able to use a cane to broaden their base of support. The ability to limit trunk extension is crucial for preventing falls. Therefore, using a cane jeopardizes recovery from backward balance loss. The results encourage further research on the risk of a cane on balance recovery for the elderly population and habitual cane users.

  18. Productos a base de jugo de manzana : aprovechamiento agroindustrial de un excedente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Gioscia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda una propuesta tecnológica para encontrar salidas de aprovechamiento agroindustrial a los crecientes excedentes de manzanas que presenta el sector de la fruticultura en Uruguay. Se pretende contribuir a la identificación de alternativas de industrialización mediante el desarrollo de una gama de productos a base de manzana que se destinen tanto para consumo en el mercado interno como el de exportación. La variedad de manzana utilizada es la Malus domestica (nombre comercial Cripp’s Pink. Dentro de los productos ensayados se encuentran bebidas fermentadas y no fermentables. Los mismos fueron: jugo de manzana gasificado, sidra seca, sidra gasificada diluida, sidra gasificada sin diluir, sidra obtenida por fermentación en botella (Método Champenoise, aguardiente de manzana y jugo de manzana apagado con alcohol etílico. El proceso de elaboración seguido en todos los casos es similar en las etapas primarias, con particularidades específicas en las siguientes deacuerdo al tipo de producto que se trate. Todos los productos obtenidos fueron analizados desde el punto de vista fisicoquímico y sensorial. A través de los resultados obtenidos, la propuesta muestra que desde el punto de vista tecnológico es factible alcanzar productos de calidad y que existe una posibilidad concreta de industrialización. Se espera que este trabajo constituya un principio de diferentes salidas alternativas a un problema importante que se plantea a nivel de la fruticultura, y que sea a su vez detonador de un intercambio constructivo entre todos los interesados, actores de la cadena productiva.AbstractThis is a technological proposal for finding ways to maximize the use of the increasing surplus of apples in the Uruguayan fruit growing industry. This paper is meant as a contribution to identify industrial alternatives, by developing a number of apple based products that may be used for internal consumption and also for export. The variety of

  19. Butanol-acetone fermentation of sugar-cane juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, E V

    1958-01-01

    Sixteen new varieties of Clostridium acetobutylicum of varying activity were isolated from different sources. The most active one was obtained from sugar-cane roots. The effects of 86 additives were studied. The following formulation gave a 32% yield (with respect to sucrose) of solvent mixture (73% BuOH, 19 to 23% acetone, and 3 to 4% EtOH) sugar-cane juice (I) (20/sup 0/ Brix) 250 ml, ground Vicia sativa 1 g, KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ 2.5 g, CaCO/sub 3/ 4 g, H/sub 2/O 1000 ml; the pH of this solution was 5.6 to 6.0. Unclarified, it was inverted by invertase; the other components were added and the mixture was sterilized (20 minutes, 15 pounds).

  20. Work and health conditions of sugar cane workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi-Saeng

    2010-12-01

    This is an exploratory research, with a quantitative approach, developed with the objective of analyzing the work and of life situations that can offer risks to the workers' health involved in the manual and automated cut of the sugar cane. The sample was composed by 39 sugar cane cutters and 16 operators of harvesters. The data collection occurred during the months of July and August of 2006, by the technique of direct observation of work situations and workers' homes and through interviews semi-structured. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. Data were analyzed according to Social Ecological Theory. It was observed that the workers deal with multiple health risk situations, predominantly to the risks of occurrence of respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological problems and work-related accidents due to the work activities. The interaction of individual, social and environmental factors can determine the workers' tendency to falling ill.

  1. Smoking, caning, and delinquency in a secondary modern school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J W

    2015-02-01

    This study was designed in 1962 to investigate the reformative effect of a particular punishment (caning) for a particular offence (smoking by schoolboys). In 1964, in the course of a larger study of juvenile offences, delinquency records were obtained from the police, and the relationship between smoking and delinquency is also discussed in this paper. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  3. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  4. Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksiazek, K; Wacke, S; Gorecki, T; Gorecki, Cz

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

  5. Effect of a cane on sit-to-stand transfer in subjects with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Po-Ting; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Lu, Tung-Wu; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hu, Ming-Hsia; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of using a cane on movement time, joint moment, weight symmetry, and muscle activation patterns during sit-to-stand (STS) transfer in healthy subjects and subjects who have had a stroke. Nine subjects with hemiparesis (mean [SD] age, 61.11 [12.83] yrs) and nine healthy adults (mean [SD] age, 63.11 [10.54] yrs) were included. The subjects with hemiparesis performed STS transfer in two randomly assigned conditions: (1) without a cane and (2) with a cane. The healthy subjects performed only STS transfer without a cane. A three-dimensional motion system, force plates, and eletromyography were used to examine STS transfer. The symmetry index between the two limbs was calculated. The movement time of the subjects with hemiparesis in both conditions without a cane and with a cane was longer than that of the healthy subjects without a cane (P hemiparesis resulted in shorter movement time, greater knee extensor moment of the paretic limb, and more symmetry of weight bearing than in those without a cane (P hemiparesis. Cane use may promote more symmetrical STS transfers rather than compensation by the unaffected limb.

  6. Uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-11-01

    This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts)

  7. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeter, W.

    1976-01-01

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK) [de

  8. Regional based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water use of rain-fed sugar-cane has come under the spotlight in South Africa, largely as a result of changes in legislation and a focus on streamflow reduction activities. In this study a robust relationship between sugar-cane yield and evapotranspiration derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with ...

  9. 21 CFR 890.3790 - Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads. 890.3790 Section 890.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., crutch, and walker tips and pads. (a) Identification. Cane, crutch, and walker tips and pads are rubber...

  10. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  11. Sugar cane wastes drier and pellet plant; Instalacao de secagem e peletizacao de bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferres, Juan Diego; Macias, Eduardo; Rasi, Jose Roberto [Granol Industria, Comercio e Exportacao S.A., Tupa, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows the design of a sugar cane waste drier and boiler in a alcohol distillery that produce about 65-70% of partially dried wastes to be burned in the distillery boiler with much better thermal efficiency than the one obtained with standard sugar cane wastes. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    and hollow-core TOPAS canes were doped with a solution of dopants in acetone/methanol and hexane/methanol, respectively. Doping time, solvent mixture concentration and doping temperature were optimised. A long and stepwise drying process was applied to the doped canes to ensure complete solvent removal...

  13. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  14. Feasible conditions for converting Cuban cane molasses into alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchev, S

    1968-01-01

    Conditions for fermentation of Cuban cane molasses were found: 0.5 to 1.0% yeast, addition of 100g. H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, 1 to 2 kg urea or (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to 1 ton molasses, and fermentation at high molasses concentrations. During the process, solid residue formed containing mainly CaSO/sub 4/; this was limited when the molasses was clarified before the fermentation, or when it was distilled without the use of acids (particularly H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), or when fermented molasses with a low alcohol content was distilled.

  15. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country reallocations of the FY 2011 in-quota quantity...

  16. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar. USTR is also reallocating a portion of the unused original FY 2011 TRQ... imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C...

  17. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar...

  18. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country reallocations of the FY 2012 in-quota quantity...

  19. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of...

  20. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice...) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: May 11, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of...

  1. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010... cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d) (3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3...

  2. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  3. The sugar cane agro-industry - its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, I. de C.

    1992-01-01

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil is 222 million tonnes (harvested wet weight)/year and is processed to sugar (7.5 million tonnes) and ethanol (11.8 million m 3 ) in 1990. The use of fossil fuels in sugar cane production is 271 MJ/t of cane. Sugar cane bagasse and ethanol substitute for fuel oil in the food and chemical industry (including sugar production) and for gasoline (9.75 million m 3 /year), thus avoiding CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels. Considering the fast carbon cycling in sugar cane production and use, net emissions of 9.45 million tonnes of C/year are avoided; this corresponds roughly to 18% of the total CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels in Brazil. (author)

  4. Shear Roll Mill Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    pneumatically operated paste dumper and belt conveyor system, the loss in weight feeder system, the hydraulically operated shear roll mill, the pellet...out feed belt conveyor , and the pack out system comprised of the metal detector, scale, and pack out empty and full drum roller conveyors . Page | 4...feed hopper and conveyor supplying the loss in weight feeder were turned on, and it was verified that these items functioned as designed . The

  5. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ( 15 N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in 15 N atoms) and 14 Mg ha -1 crop residues - 9 Mg ha -1 of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha -1 of root system, labeled with 15 N (1.07 and 0.81% in 15 N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the 15 N-urea, 15 N-SS and 15 N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  6. [Walking with canes and forearm-crutches (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, G; Kölbel, R; Rauschenbach, N; Rohlmann, A

    1978-02-01

    Partial weight bearing is frequently prescribed but cannot be controlled adequately. In a previous paper the change of forces at the hip joint as effected by a one sided cane was determined by instrumentation of the cane and a mechanical analysis of gait on a walkway. In the present study we looked at the conditions for control of partial weightbearing when two forearm crutches are used. Instrumented crutches and a forceplate were used. In walking with two forearm crutches the total of the ground reaction forces and the force pattern differ from those in free walking. The total of two crutch forces plus the force at the leg with partial weightbearing exceeds that caused by body weight alone. This is due to mass accelerations in a changed gait pattern. When the maximal leg force is reduced from 100% body weight to zero, the additional dynamic forces exceed those caused by body weight alone by 4%-19%. Only 2% of the additional dynamic forces act on the controlateral crutch while the rest is transmitted through the ipsilateral crutch. The crutch force pattern on the ipsilateral side depends more on individual gait characteristics than does that on the controlateral side. Load reduction is more pronounced in the late stages of the stand phase than in the early ones.

  7. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  8. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  9. Biomass by-product from crystal sugar production: A comparative study between Ngadirejo and Mauritius sugar mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan; Bantacut, T.; Romli, M.; Noor, E.

    2018-03-01

    Sugarcane has been used as raw material in crystal sugar industry. Sugar cane that contains high sugar will be utilized into crystals sugar. In addition, the productivity of sugarcane is large enough in 2016 approximately 360 713 tons/year. Crystal sugar itself is a daily necessity for its use in the food and beverage industry. Problem that occurs in Indonesia is the energy consumption. The sugar mills supposed to be an independent energy source which means it can produce its own energy by utilization the material that is available in the sugar mills such as by-product (bagasse, molasses, filter cake, etc.), the by product in every production stage are quite a lot in sugar industry especially in Indonesia. In this paper, a comparison between two sugar mills was examined between Ngedirejo sugar mill and Mauritius sugar mill which has the same geological state as Indonesia. The results of comparison between the two sugar factories demonstrated the difference in terms of productivity of the sugar that has been produced and the effectiveness of the production process in a sugar mill seen from the amount of waste and the by product.

  10. Aprovechamiento de semillas de hule (Hevea brasiliensis L. para alimentación de tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Elías-Ogaldez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Se elaboró un concentrado artesanal para tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. con la finalidad de contribuir al aprovechamiento de los subproductos del cultivo de hule (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg y de reducir los costos de producción de la tilapia. La investigación fue tipo aplicada y experimental, realizándose en la zona costera del Pacifico guatemalteco. Se concluyó que la harina de semilla de hule es un insumo apropiado para sustituir parcial o totalmente la harina de semilla de soya, en la formulación de concentrados artesanales para tilapia. Todos los tratamientos donde se utilizó harina de semilla de hule presentaron una mejor supervivencia y FCA frente al testigo. El tratamiento T3 presentó la mejor tasa de retorno marginal frente al testigo y los demás tratamientos. Por último, se recomienda continuar la investigación tomando en cuenta que la semilla de hule es deficiente en aminoácidos esenciales, los cuales se pueden adicionar para mejorar su rendimiento nutricional.

  11. El aprovechamiento de palma camedor en la Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, México. ¿Conservación con desarrollo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Buda Arango

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de recursos forestales no maderables se asocia a la conservación de ecosistemas y la generación de ingresos para las poblacio - nes de bosques y selvas. Esta no es una rela - ción directa. En la Selva Lacandona, la ven - ta de palma camedor genera ingresos para las comunidades, pero el tipo de aprovecha - miento parece sobreexplotar el recurso. El gobierno ha intentado regular su uso a tra - vés de Unidades de Manejo para la Conser - vación de la Vida Silvestre ( UMA , pero con un limitado desempeño ambiental y social. Caracterizamos el aprovechamiento y la producción de palma en la Lacandona y analizamos la efectividad de las UMA de palma en la región. Las deficiencias y esca - sos resultados de estas derivan de su enfoque técnico y normativo, asi como de la escasa negociación y conciliación de intereses entre sus actores.

  12. Aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos en un sistema hidro-orgánico de agricultura urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo por objeto diseñar un sistema hidroorgánico de producción de hortalizas en áreas pequeñas, con el fin de contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la población urbana y al aprovechamiento de los residuos sólidos de la ciudad de Popayán. Se diseñó un sistema a partir de material reciclado y se evaluó utilizando tres tratamientos como fuente nutricional (Lixiviado orgánico, Lixiviado orgánico suplementado, solución nutritiva común y como indicador biológico cilantro (Coriandrum sativum l.. La respuesta de las plantas fue evaluada por crecimiento y desarrollo. El sistema para producción urbana de hortalizas permitió obtener producciones hasta de 627 g m-2, superando la producción en agricultura tradicional (227 g. La mejor fuente nutricional fue la solución nutritiva comercial.

  13. Aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos en un sistema hidro-orgánico de agricultura urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Tovar Diego Fernando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo por objeto diseñar un sistema hidroorgánico de producción de hortalizas en áreas pequeñas, con el fin de contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la población urbana y al aprovechamiento de los residuos sólidos de la ciudad de Popayán. Se diseñó un sistema a partir de material reciclado y se evaluó utilizando tres tratamientos como fuente nutricional (Lixiviado orgánico, Lixiviado orgánico suplementado, solución nutritiva común y como indicador biológico cilantro (Coriandrum sativum l.. La respuesta de las plantas fue evaluada por crecimiento y desarrollo. El sistema para producción urbana de hortalizas permitió obtener producciones hasta de 627 g m-2, superando la producción en agricultura tradicional (227 g. La mejor fuente nutricional fue la solución nutritiva comercial.

  14. Economic impacts of implementing the new plants to sugar cane; Impactos economicos da implementacao das novas usinas de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terciote, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2006-07-01

    The sugar industry goes through an important moment: invest and develop to supply future demand, mainly by fuel alcohol (around 70% of new vehicles sales are from flex fuel models - and the majority of these vehicles are supplied by alcohol). Due to this foreseeable increase of alcohol demand, sugar industry has already announced 41 new projects, which will contribute with the milling of 70 million tons of sugar cane by the conclusion of these plants. In this phase of expansion, the alcohol market must be pressured for the demand, managing the supplying of the domestic and external markets. With this scenario and the possibility of sector growth which has an important role in Brazil development, this work evaluates the economic impacts of the new plants implementation investments. (author)

  15. The "EyeCane", a new electronic travel aid for the blind: Technology, behavior & swift learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Hanassy, Shlomi; Abboud, Sami; Buchs, Galit; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Independent mobility is one of the most pressing problems facing people who are blind. We present the EyeCane, a new mobility aid aimed at increasing perception of environment beyond what is provided by the traditional White Cane for tasks such as distance estimation, navigation and obstacle detection. The "EyeCane" enhances the traditional White Cane by using tactile and auditory output to increase detectable distance and angles. It circumvents the technical pitfalls of other devices, such as weight, short battery life, complex interface schemes, and slow learning curve. It implements multiple beams to enables detection of obstacles at different heights, and narrow beams to provide active sensing that can potentially increase the user's spatial perception of the environment. Participants were tasked with using the EyeCane for several basic tasks with minimal training. Blind and blindfolded-sighted participants were able to use the EyeCane successfully for distance estimation, simple navigation and simple obstacle detection after only several minutes of training. These results demonstrate the EyeCane's potential for mobility rehabilitation. The short training time is especially important since available mobility training resources are limited, not always available, and can be quite expensive and/or entail long waiting periods.

  16. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  17. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, R.J.; Cain, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  18. Effect of gamma-radiation on sugar cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Maria Djiliah Camargo Alvarenga de

    2000-01-01

    Irradiation has appeared as an alternative technique in food preservation. Besides cold decontamination irradiation can increase the quality of the food through the improvement of technological properties. For alcoholic beverages ionizing radiation has been applied to wines, whiskeys and beers in countries such as Thailand and China. In those cases, the purpose of the technique was to accelerate aging, to improve the sensory characteristics and as sterilization treatment. The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on the quality of sugar cane spirit by gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds and sensory analysis. The sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples and commercial samples from different states (SP, CE and RJ) were irradiated either in glass or oak cask (Quercus alba sp) in a 60 Co Gammacell 220 at dose rate of 7.7 kGy/h and total doses of 0; 0.1; 2; 5 and 10 kGy. The analytical determination of esters, acetaldehyde and higher alcohols were performed in a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detector employing a Megabore CG-745 column. The alcoholic graduation was measured in a Gay-Lussac alcohometer and the pH was determined using an Analyser 300 pHmeter. The color change was measured by the absorbance at 420 nm in a Shimadzu UV 1601 spectrophotometer. The acceptance tests related to odor, taste, global impression and color were analyzed using Tukey average tests (p ≤0,05), ANOVA and histograms of panelists' scores frequency. A correlation between acetaldeyde, esters, higher alcohols levels and radiation dose was found in the sugar cane spirit newly distilled samples irradiated in oak cask and commercial samples. An increase in methanol concentration was verified, although remaining enough below the permissible limit accepted by the Brazilian Legislation. A decrease in the alcoholic graduation and pH in the irradiated samples was observed. A slight discoloration in the irradiated samples was verified. According to ANOVA

  19. Uranium mill tailings management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

  20. Optimizing peracetic acid pretreatment conditions for improved simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of sugar cane bagasse to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Lincoln C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Setor de Biotecnologia e Tecnologia Quimica, Minas Geraid (Brazil); Linden, James C.; Schroeder, Herbert A. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Bioresource Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The use of several lignocellulosic materials for ethanol fuel production has been studied exhaustively in the U.S.A. Strong environmental legislation has been driving efforts by enterprise, state agencies, and universities to make ethanol from biomass economically viable. Production costs for ethanol from biomass have been decreasing year by year as a consequence of this massive effort. Pretreatment, enzyme recovery, and development of efficient microorganisms are some promising areas of study for reducing process costs. Sugar cane bagasse constitutes the most important lignocellulosic material to be considered in Brazil as new technology such as the production of ethanol fuel. At present, most bagasse is burned, and because of its moisture content, has a low value fuel. Ethanol production would result in a value-added product. The bagasse is available at the sugar mill site at no additional cost because harvesting, transportation and storage costs are borne by the sugar production. The present paper presents an alternative pretreatment with low energy input where biomass is treated in a silo type system without need for expensive capitalisation. Experimentally, ground sugar cane bagasse is placed in plastic bags and a peracetic acid solution is added to the biomass at concetrations of 0, 6, 9, 15, 21, 30 and 60% w/w of peracetic acid based on over dried biomass. The ratio of solution to wood is 6:1; a seven day storage period had been used. Tests using hydrolysing enzymes as an indicator for SSCF have been performed to evaluated the pretreatment efficiency. As an auxiliary method, a series of pre-pretreatments using stoichiometric amounts of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide based on 4-methyl-glucuronic acid and acetate content in the sugar cane bagasse have been performed before addition of peracetic acid. The alkaline solutions are added to the raw bagasse in a ratio of 17:1 solution to biomass and mixed for 24 hours at room temperature. Biomass is filled

  1. Production of bacterial protein from sugar cane bagasse pith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, O E; Callieri, D A.S.; Perotti de Galvez, N

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial protein was produced during the fermentation of sugar cane bagasse pith (BP) by a mixture of cellulolytic bacteria, one of them being a species of Cellulomonas. If the BP were treated with 1% NaOH prior to fermentation, the liquor could be used twice more without affecting the yield of bacterial protein. After that, the liquor became too dark and impaired the subsequent washing of BP. If the concentration of N (as NaN0/sub 3/) in the fermentation medium were raised, the conversion factor to protein was lowered, but the amount of protein formed per L per h and the ratio of protein to BP became higher. The evolution of pH, the dry matter content, cellulolytic activity, and protein yield were all affected by the type of N source used. The yield of bacterial protein can probably be increased by automatically controlling the pH and dissolved O levels of the culture.

  2. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  3. Seguidor Solar, optimizando el aprovechamiento de la energía solar ; Solar tracker, optimizing ofimprovementof the solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Machado Toranzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se realizó el diseño e implementación de un dispositivo encargado de obtener las coordenadas del Sol en cualquier momento del día, es decir, un seguidor solar a dos ejes por punto luminoso. Este seguidor consta de dos bloques principales: la tarjeta controladora y la parte mecánica. Su diseño se basó en el uso de fotorresistencias, microcontroladores y motores de pasos, el mismo posee altas prestaciones y bajo costo. El prototipo construido es utilizado en las investigaciones de aprovechamiento de la energía solar que se realizan en el Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicadas (GERA de la Universidad de Oriente, particularmente en los paneles fotovoltaicos y los calentadores de agua. Se realizó una prueba experimental en los laboratorios y en el polígono de dicho grupo y se comprobó que el seguidor solar funciona adecuadamente, cumpliendo con las expectativas deseadas.The design and implementation of a device for obtaining the coordinates of the sun at any time during the day, it means, a solar tracker of type two axis by luminous point is developed in this paper. This tracker consists of two main blocks: the controller board and the mechanical part. The design is based on the use of photoresistences, microcontrollers and stepper motors. The prototype is used on investigations about solar energy developed at the GERA (Grupo de Energía Renovable Aplicada of Universidad de Oriente, particularly in photovoltaic panels and water heaters. An experimental test was conducted in the laboratories and at the site of the group and it was found that the solar tracker is functioning properly, meeting the desired expectations.

  4. Bioassay for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschaeche, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

  5. Indian Americans at Mille Lacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Victoria L.; And Others

    The Training Center for Community Programs prepared a report on the Mille Lacs (Chippewa) Reservation in Minnesota. Data for the report were from 2 separate sources: a survey conducted by the Training Center with the assistance of the Mille Lacs community action program (1967) and an attitudinal survey conducted by Victoria Holbert during 1969.…

  6. Surplus electricity production in sugarcane mills using residual bagasse and straw as fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Moises; Ponce, Gustavo H.S.F.; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Ensinas, Adriano V.

    2015-01-01

    The cogeneration system is one of the most important parts of sugarcane mills which use the bagasse as fuel. In the recent years, modern equipments and energy efficiency measures made possible to the sugarcane industry, the production of surplus electricity which become, besides the sugar and ethanol, a third product from the same renewable source, the sugarcane. This work analyses the surplus electric power systems for three different schemes of cogeneration system in the sugarcane industry through the simulator Thermoflow"®. The analysis is made considering both the available bagasse and sugarcane straw recovery as fuel in three different scenarios for the industrial process energy requirements. The results show that the CEST (Condensing Extraction Steam Turbine) system can have a surplus of electricity of up to four times higher than the BPST (Backpressure Steam Turbine) system. The system CEST can have an increase in surplus power above 23% and 102% for the rate of 10% and 50% of cane straw recovery in the field respectively. The BPST-C (Backpressure and Condensing Turbines) system can produce similar values of surplus electricity when compared with the system CEST, but may represent an opportunity of flexible operation of the cogeneration systems in harvest and off-seasons. - Highlights: • At least three cogeneration system options are available in sugarcane mills. • Nowadays, only steam-based cycle cogeneration systems are used in sugarcane mills. • BPST system is limited to 70 e kWh/t cane of surplus electricity production. • CEST system increases the surplus electricity up to four times than the BPST. • Operation during off-season of the BPST-C system is an advantage for this option.

  7. Modelado Energético de Convertidores Primarios para el Aprovechamiento de las Energías Renovables Marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amable López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo principal de este artículo es presentar los métodos más habituales de aprovechamiento de distintos tipos de energías renovables procedentes del mar y analizar los modelos energéticos de los dispositivos utilizados para su explotación. Estos modelos son necesarios para el diseño del dispositivo así como para el estudio de su comportamiento dinámico. Su conocimiento resulta imprescindible también para su simulación dinámica y para el diseño de los algoritmos de control necesarios para conseguir una optimización energética y económica. En este trabajo se presentan algunos de los diferentes tipos de energías del mar, y se j ustifica el interés en el desarrollo de dispositivos específicos para el aprovechamiento de las corrientes marinas y de las olas, junto con una pequeña clasificación en función de la profundidad del agua en la zona de instalación de estos dispositivos. Para los convertidores de energía de las olas, generalmente, de tipo resonante, se presenta una metodología de tipo general, analizando los distintos campos de fuerzas actuantes y los métodos de obtención de las respuestas temporal y frecuencial. Para los dispositivos de aprovechamiento de las corrientes, se propone una metodología simplificada de modelado dinámico que puede ser utilizada en análisis del dispositivo concreto. Para ello se tiene en cuenta los perfiles hidrodinámicos que utilizan estos dispositivos, los datos del perfil de la corriente con la profundidad y del modelo de oleaje, y la dinámica propia del conjunto multiplicadora y generador eléctrico. La metodología propuesta se aplica al estudio de un caso concreto, correspondiente a un rotor de eje horizontal de un convertidor de energía de las corrientes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten analizar los efectos del oleaje y de las condiciones de flujo de la corriente no uniforme sobre las magnitudes energéticas más importantes. Abstract: The main objective of

  8. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  9. Ergonomics productivity enhancement at government-owned sugar cane factories in east Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuaba, A

    1995-06-01

    To cope, both with the increasing demand for sugar and to win the global competition as well, government-owned sugar cane limited number xxi-xxii, has decided to enhance its productivity, among other things, by implementing ergonomics principles within their factories. In the execution, ergonomics application have been carried out since 1992, which resulted in safer, healthier, and more efficient working conditions and environment. Some of the improvements yielded economic gains through higher productivity via increased output, lower cost, faster processing, etc. Improvements related to cane transloading and unloading processes resulted in a higher amount of cane being transferred from the trucks to the lorries as well as from the lorries to the cane table. Fewer clinical visits, lower health care costs, more efficient inspection, and fewer fatigue complaints are also achieved by improvement steps, which increase the productivity as end results. With all those economic gains, full and long lasting management's concern and commitment could be created without a doubt.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Herbaspirillum seropedicae cultivated in the presence of sugar cane extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Fabio Aparecido; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Zibetti; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Monteiro, Rose Adele; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial endophytes of the genus Herbaspirillum colonize sugar cane and can promote plant growth. The molecular mechanisms that mediate plant- H. seropedicae interaction are poorly understood. In this work, we used 2D-PAGE electrophoresis to identify H. seropedicae proteins differentially expressed at the log growth phase in the presence of sugar cane extract. The differentially expressed proteins were validated by RT qPCR. A total of 16 differential spots (1 exclusively expressed, 7 absent, 5 up- and 3 down-regulated) in the presence of 5% sugar cane extract were identified; thus the host extract is able to induce and repress specific genes of H. seropedicae. The differentially expressed proteins suggest that exposure to sugar cane extract induced metabolic changes and adaptations in H. seropedicae presumably in preparation to establish interaction with the plant.

  11. Ethanol from sugar cane with simultaneous production of electrical energy and biofertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueiras, G.

    1981-08-04

    A flexible nonpolluting industrial scheme is described for converting sugar cane into fuel-grade ethanol, fertilizer, and electric power. The cleaned cane is treated in a diffuser to separate the juice, which is enzymically hydrolyze d to ethanol, and bagasse containing 65-85% moisture, which is mechanically ground with the rest of the cane plant (leaves and buds) and biochemically digested to provide liquid and solid fertilizers as well as a methane-containing gas, which is burned in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The vinasse from the ethanol fermentation is also cycled to the digestion step. The process conditions can be varied depending upon the desired product ratio; if fuel is preferred, each ton of cane (dry weight) can produce 135 L ethanol, 50 kW electric power, and 150 kg fertilizer; if electric energy is preferred, each ton can give 75 L ethanol, 115 kW power, and 220 kg fertilizer.

  12. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  13. Connected cane: Tactile button input for controlling gestures of iOS voiceover embedded in a white cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Jared M; Martin, Vincent F; Yeung, Derek; Walker, Bruce N

    2018-01-01

    Accessibility of assistive consumer devices is an emerging research area with potential to benefit both users with and without visual impairments. In this article, we discuss the research and evaluation of using a tactile button interface to control an iOS device's native VoiceOver Gesture navigations (Apple Accessibility, 2014). This research effort identified potential safety and accessibility issues for users trying to interact and control their touchscreen mobile iOS devices while traveling independently. Furthermore, this article discusses the participatory design process in creating a solution that aims to solve issues in utilizing a tactile button interface in a novel device. The overall goal of this study is to enable visually impaired white cane users to access their mobile iOS device's capabilities navigation aids more safely and efficiently on the go.

  14. Influence of gamma radiation on microbiological parameters of the ethanolic fermentation of sugar-cane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, A.R.; Walder, J.M.M.; Horii, J.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on reducing the population of some bacteria Bacillus and Lactobacillus that usually contaminate the sugar-cane must and its effects on acidity of the medium and viability of the yeast during fermentation were evaluated. The treatment with gamma radiation reduced the bacterial load of the sugar-cane must. Consequently, the volatile acidity produced during the fermentation of the must decreased and the viability of the yeast afterwards added increased

  15. Production of amino acids by mucor geophillus using sugar cane waste as a substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almani, F.; Dahot, U.

    2006-01-01

    In this study Mucor geophillus was used for amino acid production from acid/base hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse. The Effects of substrate as well as influence of hydrolyzing agent on amino acid production by Mucor geophillus were investigated. Result reveals that higher amount of amino acids were accumulated when acid hydrolysates of sugar cane bagasse were used as substrate in comparison to NH/sub 4/OH and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ hydrolysates. (author)

  16. Cane (Rattan) entreprises as family business in Bangladesh : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mahbubul; Furukawa, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    Cane (Calamus spp), also known as rattan, is an important non-timber forest product used extensively all over Bangladesh as a raw material for making furniture, handi-craft and other household articles. The study has attempted to generate information on existing state of cane based family business, identify problems, and recommend solu-tions. Structured questionnaire has been employed in the field survey. During survey it was found that about 80% enterprises are traditionally inherited to the...

  17. La política y legislación forestal nicaragüense: implicaciones para el fomento y aprovechamiento arbóreo en fincas ganaderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Marín

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ESTE ESTUDIO VINCULA LA PROBLEMÁTICA FORESTAL Y AMBIENTAL A NIVEL MICRO con el nivel de políticas más sectorial a través de un estudio de caso y consulta a expertos locales y nacionales. Aporta al conocimiento de las principales barreras legales e institucionales que impiden a los finqueros ganaderos fomentar y aprovechar mejor el recurso arbóreo en sus fincas. Identifica medidas de políticas y ajustes al marco legal forestal que podrían contribuir a favorecerlo. El estudio discute sobre el desconocimiento de la legislación forestal del país entre los finqueros y una falta de coordinación entre los actores institucionales, INAFOR y alcaldías, en relación con la gestión del recurso y el otorgamiento de permisos para aprovechamiento, lo que favorece la ilegalidad y la no sostenibilidad de los recursos forestales. Se concluye que en zonas ganaderas del interior existe un potencial de aprovechamiento forestal que puede ser explotado de manera sostenible si se dirige la atención a mejorar los conocimientos del marco regulatorio, la capacidad de manejo técnico del recurso arbóreo en fincas, el entrenamiento en el manejo de la legislación y los procedimientos para el aprovechamiento forestal, y la articulación entre el INAFOR y las municipalidades en un marco de descentralización

  18. Residual of fosforo in ratoon-cane for forage yield in the noth of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Lisboa Parente

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar cane can be used as bovine supplementation option in the Centro Oeste region during dry periods. However, the low phosphorus availability in the soil becomes a limiting factor in the development of culture, mainly for ratoon cane. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ratoon cane under different levels of phosphorus, applied in corrective phosphate and of the maintenance in the plant cane. The experiment was conducted in Alta Floresta (MT, end the experimental design was a randomized block with split plots, being four doses of corrective phosphate and five of maintenance. The corrective phosphating was carried out in the entire area with natural reactive phosphate Arad in the doses of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and the maintenance done in the furrow with triple superphosphate, at rates of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5. The fertilization in plant cane promoted residual effect for cane ratoon, however, only the Arad phosphate promoted significant differences in green mass productivity, occurring linear increase for the tested doses.

  19. Primera Aproximación Para El Aprovechamiento Y Generación De Energía Con Gas Natural Desde Mecanismo De Desarrollo Limpio (MDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rosas Cadena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un panorama referente aplicaciones de Mecanismos de desarrollo limpio (MDL a nivel regional y nacional enfocado a la recuperación de energía. Con base en este panorama se presenta una aproximación del desarrollo de proyectos de aprovechamiento y generación  de energía a partir del uso de gas natural y su elegibilidad como MDL, tomando como base las metodologías existentes aprobadas por la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas (CMNUCC.

  20. Estudio y optimización de los sistemas de intercambio de calor en generación termoeléctrica aplicada al aprovechamiento del calor residual

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral estudia el aprovechamiento del calor residual mediante generación termoeléctrica para la obtención de potencia eléctrica generada gracias al efecto Seebeck. Dos son las aproximaciones empleadas, la simulación computacional, empleando variables obtenidas experimentalmente y la experimentación de escenarios reales. Ambas dos han obtenido valores muy prometedores para la generación eléctrica a través de los gases residuales. Con el desarrollo de esta tesis doctoral,...

  1. UNA ISLA QUE SE MUEVE (Aproximación a la isla de calor urbana de Algemesí, Valencia y su aprovechamiento didáctico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Ramiro y Roca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La constatación de la existencia de la isla de calor urbana en pequeñas localidades de 25.000 habitantes es el núcleo de esta investigación. El proceso que se ha seguido para desarrollar esta experiencia en alumnos de secundaria dentro de la asignatura de Ciencias Sociales: Geografía e Historia, y su aprovechamiento didáctico, son los dos ejes que recorre el artículo para invitar a su realización en otros lugares.

  2. UNA ISLA QUE SE MUEVE (Aproximación a la isla de calor urbana de Algemesí, Valencia y su aprovechamiento didáctico)

    OpenAIRE

    Enric Ramiro y Roca

    2006-01-01

    La constatación de la existencia de la isla de calor urbana en pequeñas localidades de 25.000 habitantes es el núcleo de esta investigación. El proceso que se ha seguido para desarrollar esta experiencia en alumnos de secundaria dentro de la asignatura de Ciencias Sociales: Geografía e Historia, y su aprovechamiento didáctico, son los dos ejes que recorre el artículo para invitar a su realización en otros lugares.

  3. Aprovechamiento solar en los terrenos agrarios de la Masía Can Gili, término municipal de Barberá del Vallés

    OpenAIRE

    Seven Porte, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    El objeto del presente proyecto define los conceptos y desarrolla cálculos necesarios para llevar a cabo el aprovechamiento energético mediante el uso de energías renovables, en nuestro caso la energía solar. La naturaleza de la energía solar proviene de esa gigantesca esfera formada de gases a alta temperatura. La temperatura en su interior se estima que es de 107 K, en su superficie oscila entre los 5762 y los 6300 K. El Sol genera energía mediante reacciones nucleares de ...

  4. Estructuración de un modelo de negocio basado en el aprovechamiento de residuos eléctricos y electrónicos

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Gallego, Juan Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Teniendo en cuenta la problemática ambiental, social y económica que se genera a partir de los desechos de residuos eléctricos y electrónicos (RAEE), el presente documento describe el desarrollo de un modelo de negocio para una empresa que se basa en la gestión y aprovechamiento de los RAEE generados por los dispositivos obsoletos o inutilizados derivados de los equipos informáticos y de telecomunicaciones proporcionados por las empresas y puntos urbanos donde se concentre su recolección y su...

  5. Modelación de la transferencia de energía entre un aprovechamiento hidroenergético y turbomáquinas

    OpenAIRE

    Arévalo Llumipanta, Héctor Reynaldo

    2017-01-01

    El presente estudio expone un procedimiento para determinar el potencial hidroenergético que lleva una corriente hídrica natural y para la cual se fija el tipo de turbomáquina más adecuado con su dimensionamiento respectivo. El proceso inicia con el estudio de bibliografía científica sobre investigaciones a nivel mundial en relación a la generación de energía para establecer la importancia del aprovechamiento del potencial hídrico en las centrales hidroeléctricas. Se identifican los component...

  6. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large...... part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification...

  7. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  8. Avances al estudio de impacto ambiental del proyecto de aprovechamiento integral de recursos naturales "Mar de Trafalgar"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bejarano, A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The project "Sea of Trafalgar" was conceived with the objective to take advantage of the natural resources the gulf of Cadiz, of a clean, sustainable form and with little or null environmental repercussion, settling down as it bases of the mentioned development the advantage of the enormous aeolian potential that displays the areas that they surround to the Straight of Gibraltar bounded to offshore electrical wind generation were considered in parallel way, other vectors of development, being the impulse of a modern aquaculture in open sea and the regeneration of the traditional places for casting fishing-nets were the best alternatives selected to profit the excellent bioclimatic conditions of the gulf of Cadiz. The group of all this considerations in a single performance does that the project "Sea of Trafalgar" appears to the vanguard of the present technological development, not telling on any type of referring to European nor world-wide level.El proyecto "Mar de Trafalgar" fue concebido con el objetivo de aprovechar íntegramente los recursos naturales del golfo de Cádiz, de una forma limpia, sostenible y con escasa o nula repercusión ambiental, estableciéndose como base del citado desarrollo el aprovechamiento del enorme potencial eólico que presentan las áreas que circundan al Estrecho de Gibraltar. Íntimamente ligado a la aerogeneración eléctrica offshore se plantearon, de forma paralela, otros vectores de desarrollo, siendo el impulso de una moderna acuicultura en mar abierto y la regeneración de los caladeros artesanales de pesca las alternativas seleccionadas para la internalización de las excelentes condiciones bioclimáticas del golfo gaditano. El agrupamiento de toda esta batería de consideraciones en una sola actuación hace que el proyecto "Mar de Trafalgar" se presente a la vanguardia del desarrollo tecnológico actual, no contando con ningún tipo de referentes a nivel europeo ni mundial.

  9. Nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas para el aprovechamiento de las cactáceas en la elaboración de alimentos. Componentes funcionales y propiedades antioxidantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Azucena Nazareno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Las cactáceas han sido consideradas por nuestros ancestros y contemporáneos una fuente de alimento y también de medicinas. La mayoría presenta frutos y cladodios comestibles que a su vez pueden ser procesados a una amplia variedad de nuevos productos. Se ha demostrado que su consumo ofrece beneficios nutricionales y promueve la salud, y debido a esto existe un marcado interés en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías y la adquisición de nuevos conocimientos sobre su naturaleza química y propiedades para un mejor aprovechamiento, lo que genera nuevos estudios. En tal sentido, en este trabajo se recopiló información de la literatura que fue revisada, con el propósito de aportar una visión general sobre las nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas para el aprovechamiento de los cactus en la elaboración de alimentos con énfasis en sus componentes bioactivos y propiedades antioxidantes. Se concluye que un amplio espectro de nuevas tecnologías está siendo explorado a fin de obtener alimentos cuya función no sea solamente un aporte nutricional sino también que represente un beneficio para la salud de los consumidores.

  10. Nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas para el aprovechamiento de las cactáceas en la elaboración de alimentos. Componentes funcionales y propiedades antioxidantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Azucena Nazareno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cactáceas han sido consideradas por nuestros ancestros y contemporáneos una fuente de alimento y también de medicinas. La mayoría presenta frutos y cladodios comestibles que a su vez pueden ser procesados a una amplia variedad de nuevos productos. Se ha demostrado que su consumo ofrece beneficios nutricionales y promueve la salud, y debido a esto existe un marcado interés en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías y la adquisición de nuevos conocimientos sobre su naturaleza química y propiedades para un mejor aprovechamiento, lo que genera nuevos estudios. En tal sentido, en este trabajo se recopiló información de la literatura que fue revisada, con el propósito de aportar una visión general sobre las nuevas tecnologías desarrolladas para el aprovechamiento de los cactus en la elaboración de alimentos con énfasis en sus componentes bioactivos y propiedades antioxidantes. Se concluye que un amplio espectro de nuevas tecnologías está siendo explorado a fin de obtener alimentos cuya función no sea solamente un aporte nutricional sino también que represente un beneficio para la salud de los consumidores.

  11. Effect of organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other nutrient from the soil; therefore continuous cropping of the plant at the same soil would bring consequences of more Si and organic matter depletion. Silicon (Si is considered as a beneficial nutrient for sugarcane production while organic matter is well known as soil amendment. Field study was carried out to know the effect of organic and Si liquid fertilizer on growth, Si and N uptake, and yield of cane variety of PSBM 901. The study field was located at Kempleng village, Purwoasri, East Java and the study was done from May 2013 up to September 2014. Split plot design with three replicates was employed to arrange treatments. Organic matter types (no organic matter, Crotalaria juncea and manure were set as main plots while Si liquid fertilizer concentration (0, 15% Si and 30% S were arranged as sub plots. C juncea was planted at 15 days before planting of sugar cane, and after 35 days the C juncea were chopped and mixed into the soil. Manure was added one week before sugar cane was planted. Si liquid fertilizer was sprayed to the whole part of sugar cane plant at 30 and 50 days after sugar cane was planted. All treatments received basal fertilizer of 800 kg ZA/ha, 200 kg SP 36/ha and 300 kg KCl/ha. Results showed that interaction between organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer significantly affected on Si and N absorption, length of stem, yield and rendement of sugar cane. Addition of manure and followed by spraying of 30% Si liquid fertilizer gave the highest value of S and N absorption (869 g SiO2/plant and 720 g N/plant, cane yield (155.74 tons/ha and rendement (8.15%.

  12. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  13. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Faramarzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by adding ethanol after 48 hours. Response surface design was used for qualitative identification of the polarization of dextran and statistical analysis methods. Results: After assessing the separation and interactive effects of the parameters on the optimum amount of dextran produced from sugarcane molasses as 50 g, 35 º C and 5/8 = pH , the Dextran produced was more than 82 g/l. The correlation of the computational model for the dextran produced was 99.5%, which indicated excellent agreement with the experimental and computational models of high accuracy. Conclusion: Dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria and sugarcane molasses as substrate, is a cheap and affordable compared to current methods of dextran production. In addition to producing a clinical product, the molasses pollution could be dramatically decreased. Key words: Dextran, Molasses, Leuconostoc Mesenteroides

  14. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  15. Uranium mill tailings stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Koehmstedt, P.L.; Esterl, D.J.; Freeman, H.D.

    1980-02-01

    Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

  16. Rice polishings as a supplement in sugar cane diets: effect of giving it as a separate meal or mixed with sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, J M; Priego, A; Wilson, A; Preston, T R

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out. In the first, 40 Zebu bulls in groups of 5 were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design to study the following main treatments in a basal feed of chopped whole sugar cane and urea: (1) 500 or 1000 g/day of rice polishings; (2) mixing the supplement with the sugar cane or giving it as a separate meal before the cane was offered. In the second experiment, a changeover design was used with 3 rumen - cannulated Zebu bulls to study the effect on rumen fermentation of giving the rice polishings (500 g/day) mixed with the sugar cane or as a separate meal. In experiment 1, the rate of liveweight gain was increased from 421 to 559 g/day by the higher level of supplementation with rice polishings but there were no differences due to the method of giving this supplement. Voluntary dry matter intake was increased by the higher level of supplementation and there was an improvement in feed conversion. Neither of these parameters was affected by the method of giving the rice polishings. In the second experiment, there was an indication of slightly lower values for pH of rumen fluid between 11:00 am and 5:00 pm, but no effects on the molar proportion of the VFA (volatile fatty acids), when rice polishings were given as a separate meal rather than mixed in the cane. There were significant changes in molar proportions of VFA with time of sampling, with increases in C/sub 3/ and decreases in C/sub 2/ after feeding; C/sub 4/ molar proportions did not change.

  17. Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm 3 ) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

  18. Electronic white cane with GPS radar-based concept as blind mobility enhancement without distance limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Suharsono; Handafiah, Finna; Aprilliyani, Ria; Udhiarto, Arief

    2018-02-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs, in July 2012, informed that the number of blind in Indonesia has been the largest among to the people with other disabilities. The most common tools utilized to help the blind was a conventional cane which has limited features and therefore it was difficult to be used as a mobilization tools. Moreover, the conventional cane cannot assist them or their family when the blind gets lost. In this research, we designed and implemented an electronic white cane with the concept of radar and global positioning system (GPS). The purpose of this research was to design and develop an electronic white cane which can enhance the mobility of the blind without distance coverage limitation. Utilizing ultrasonic sensors as a distance measurement and a servo motor as an actuator, the produced radar system is able to map an area with maximum distance and coverage angle of 5 meters and 180° respectively. The blind senses the obstacle around them from the vibration generated by five vibration motors. The vibration becomes more intense when the obstacle is detected closer. In addition, we implemented a GPS to monitor the blind's position and allow their family to find them easily when the blind need a help. Based on the tests performed, we have successfully developed an electronic white cane that can be a solution to improve the blind's mobility.

  19. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex(trademark) fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package

  20. The future of sugar cane in China and India - Supply constraints and expansion potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostka, Genia; Polzin, Christine; Scharrer, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The last decade has seen a surging demand for biofuels in the wake of increasing oil prices and rising environmental concerns. The most common biofuel is bio-ethanol accounting for more than 90% of total biofuel usage. It is increasingly produced from sugar cane making cane a strategic crop for biofuels. Given the growing demand for 'green' fuels, bio-ethanol production has been supported by energy policies in the past decade, which have consequently been accused of contributing to the global trend of rising food prices and thus jeopardising food security. However, while biofuel policies are an important driver, prices as much as food security will ultimately be determined by supply constraints of strategic crops. This paper hence investigates drivers of and constraints to sugar cane production in China and India and shows that supply side constraints vary significantly in the two countries. China and India both face serious limitations with regard to suitable available land for the further expansion of sugar cane production. Equally they are both faced with challenges to increasing yield output per hectare, albeit different ones. With regard to productivity, China achieved 2.7% annual yield growth since 1997, while India has seen yield decreases of -0.1% p.a. over the same period. The authors conclude that cane used as a feedstock to meet the rising energy demand will come at the expense of converting fertile land for non-food purposes.

  1. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC, which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  2. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  3. The impact of invasive cane toads on native wildlife in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Christopher J; Shine, Richard; Greenlees, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Commonly, invaders have different impacts in different places. The spread of cane toads (Rhinella marina: Bufonidae) has been devastating for native fauna in tropical Australia, but the toads' impact remains unstudied in temperate-zone Australia. We surveyed habitat characteristics and fauna in campgrounds along the central eastern coast of Australia, in eight sites that have been colonized by cane toads and another eight that have not. The presence of cane toads was associated with lower faunal abundance and species richness, and a difference in species composition. Populations of three species of large lizards (land mullets Bellatorias major, eastern water dragons Intellagama lesueurii, and lace monitors Varanus varius) and a snake (red-bellied blacksnake Pseudechis porphyriacus) were lower (by 84 to 100%) in areas with toads. The scarcity of scavenging lace monitors in toad-invaded areas translated into a 52% decrease in rates of carrion removal (based on camera traps at bait stations) and an increase (by 61%) in numbers of brush turkeys (Alectura lathami). The invasion of cane toads through temperate-zone Australia appears to have reduced populations of at least four anurophagous predators, facilitated other taxa, and decreased rates of scavenging. Our data identify a paradox: The impacts of cane toads are at least as devastating in southern Australia as in the tropics, yet we know far more about toad invasion in the sparsely populated wilderness areas of tropical Australia than in the densely populated southeastern seaboard.

  4. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  5. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  6. Carbon 14 absorption and translocation in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, R.M.M.; Sampaio, E.V.S.; Salcedo, I.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plant-cane stools were labelled with sup(14) CO sub(2), in the field, at Goiana-PE, Brazil, when 3, 7 and 11 months old. Each stool was enclosed in a chamber with sup(14) CO sub(2) for 90 minutes. The sub(14) C photosynthetic were measured in leaves, stalks, roots and soil 24 hours after labelling. Roots were divided into alive and dead and soil into rhizosphere and outer soil. At the end of the labelling period at 3, 7 and 11 months, 2, 19 and 1% of the initial sup(14) CO sub(2) were recovered in the plant and the soil. The low recovery of sub(14) C at 3 months could be attribute to losses by respiration and lack of sampling of the top growing point. The low CO sub(2) fixation and losses at first sampling in the 7 month old labelling were attributed to low light intensity during the day of labelling. Most of the recovered sub(14) C (>80%) was founded in the leaves but all plant parts received labelled photosynthetic. At 3 months, most of the sub(14) C translocated from the leaves went to the living roots (83%); at 7 and 11 months it went to the stalks (69 and 66%). While the roots received less than 2%. Root masses did not vary consistently along the plant cycle and dead root masses were always less than 10% of the total root mass. Radioactivity in the dead roots was always very low. These results suggest that the root system have a low turnover rate after 3 months old. (author)

  7. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, G. A. R.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Scherder, E. J. A.; Brouwer, D. M.; van der Velde, J.; Verstraten, P. F. J.; Kempen, G. I. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and validly evaluated O&M-training in using the identification cane is lacking. Recently a standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane was developed. This training consists of tw...

  8. Einstein-Yang-Mills from pure Yang-Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Plefka, Jan [Institut für Physik and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Schlotterer, Oliver [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-14

    We present new relations for scattering amplitudes of color ordered gluons and gravitons in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Tree-level amplitudes of arbitrary multiplicities and polarizations involving up to three gravitons and up to two color traces are reduced to partial amplitudes of pure Yang-Mills theory. In fact, the double-trace identities apply to Einstein-Yang-Mills extended by a dilaton and a B-field. Our results generalize recent work of Stieberger and Taylor for the single graviton case with a single color trace. As the derivation is made in the dimension-agnostic Cachazo-He-Yuan formalism, our results are valid for external bosons in any number of spacetime dimensions. Moreover, they generalize to the superamplitudes in theories with 16 supercharges.

  9. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars...) 2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar...

  10. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 200,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  11. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States... quantity of the tariff-rate quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar... imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional U.S. Note 8 to Chapter 17 of the HTS...

  12. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  13. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY... August 17, 2010 concerning Fiscal Year 2011 tariff-rate quota allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the effective date of that notice to...

  14. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 325,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  15. The Acceptability of Caning Children in Singapore: The Fine Line Between Discipline and Physical Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Xin Ying; Tung, Serena S W

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a worldwide phenomenon with far-reaching negative consequences, and physical abuse is its most visible and widely reported form of maltreatment. There is a fine line between nonabusive physical punishment and physical child abuse, and where this line is drawn is often influenced by prevailing cultural practices and child-rearing beliefs. This article focus on Singapore-a modern Asian society that remains rooted in traditional attitudes and practices-as a case study in exploring the boundaries. In particular, the local practice of caning (hitting with a rattan cane) as a disciplinary measure for children, the ambiguity of the law on the issue of physical abuse, and the influence of judicial caning on the acceptability of this common practice are examined. Finally, the possible means of safeguarding children and discouraging the use of physical punishment in the home are discussed.

  16. The classification of wood chips parameters by crushing of waste cane from different varieties of grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deales with exploitatives parameters monitoring of wood shreder PEZZOLATO 110 Mb by crushing of waste cane of six varieties. The results shows that the wood shreders efficiency, fuel consumption and the wood chips elements size can be influenced by varieties characters of cane. The va­lued machines efficiency was 230–470 kg . h−1 by average volume 40.70 % water in wood. The hig­hest values by cane crushing had the variety Saint Laurent (0.47 t . h−1 and the lowest variety ­Blauer Portugieser (0.23 t . h−1. The specific consumption of petrol Natural 95 was 4.52.10−3–8.12.10−3 l . kg−1. The average middle elements lenght was 6.64 mm by crushed varieties.

  17. Impurities in sugar cane and their influence on industrial processing evaluated by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    During the cutting and loading operations, impurities, mainly soil, are added to sugar cane in amounts that can impair industrial processing due to excessive wear of metallic members and contamination of juice and bagasse. Mechanization of loading operation has showed a considerable enhancement of the impurity content, leading to the improvement of cane washing technology. Nevertheless, for a correct understanding of the problem and the process optimization, it is necessary and exact and fast quantification of these impurities as well as of its consequences. Nuclear techniques, in special neutron activation analysis, have been proved to be appropriate for estimating soil level in sugar cane, washing process efficiency and wearing of cases and moving parts. (author)

  18. Distribution and importance of spiders inhabiting a Brazilian sugar cane plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria Piovesan Rinaldi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider fauna (Araneae of a sugar eane plantation was surveyed monthly by hand colteetion and beating vegetation in sugar cane fields across Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Composition and rchness (family and species where identifieation to species was possible microhabitat preferenees were reeorded, and diversity and evenness indices were calculated. A total of 1291 spiders belonging to 73 species and 20 families were collected. The most diverse families were Theridiidae, Salticidae, and Araneidae, and the most abundant ones were Theridiidae, Saltieidae, Anyphaenidae, and Araneidae, Seven species represented 58.6% of the total fauna, with Crysso pulcherrima (Mello-Leitão,1917 (Theridiidae composing 28.2%. About 65% of the spiders occupied the upper part of the plants (above 20 cm. Five spider species were present in the sugar cane throughout crop development. Evidence of spiders feeding on sugar cane pest species was observed.

  19. Current uranium mill licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarano, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The problems encountered to insure environmentally safe mining and milling of uranium ores are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the management of tailings resulting from milling operations. It is pointed out that although the concentration of radioactivity in the tailings is relatively low, control measures are necessary because of the large quantities involved and because of the long half-life of the parent radionuclides present. The major concerns with mill tailings are radon release to the atmosphere and isolation of the tailings from the human environment. Since it is anticipated that the amount of tailings created by the year 2000 will be more than an order of magnitude greater than the quantities that have been generated during the past 30 years, it is recommended that all mill tailings storage areas be located remote from public contact and in areas such that disruption and dispersion by natural forces and seepage of toxic materials into ground water systems are reduced to the maximum extent achievable. Technical issues that receive attention during the NRC licensing process for uranium mills and the preparation of environmental impact statements are discussed briefly

  20. Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazle, A.J.; Franz, G.A.; Gamewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

  1. Prospective evaluation for the sugar cane factory transformation in biorefinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Plaza, Rocío; Armas Martínez, Ana Celia de; Rodríguez Carvajal, Lily Elena; García Orozco, Yamila; Torres, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The present work has as goal to evaluate prospectively alternative of transformation in the '5 de Septiembre' sugar industry, located in Cienfuegos, for a superfine alcohol biorefinery. Two alternatives were taking into account; the first one was the installation of a distillery for a capacity of 500 hl/d of superfine alcohol, using the molasses and 10% of the filters juice coming from the sugar mill, as complement of the stage of fermentation, and also a plant of biodiesel production starting from microalgae biomass and of mud separated in the sugar mill and another installation of a distillery for a similar capacity of 500 Hl/d of superfine ethanol using molasses, the filters juices and microalgae hydrolysate. For the second alternative, it intends a distillery where saving of 67 % for the molasses, and 22.73 % for the water, these results are experimentally obtained. The most feasible alternative obtain 5 years of payback period, 21 % of an IRR and U$D 37104 419.21 of NPV. (author)

  2. PROSPECTIVE EVALUATION FOR THE SUGAR CANE FACTORY TRANSFORMATION IN BIOREFINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rodríguez Plaza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work has as goal to evaluate prospectively alternative of transformation in the "5 de Septiembre" sugar industry, located in Cienfuegos, for a superfine alcohol biorefinery. Two alternatives were taking into account; the first one was the installation of a distillery for a capacity of 500 hl/d of superfine alcohol, using the molasses and 10% of the filters juice coming from the sugar mill, as complement of the stage of fermentation, and also a plant of biodiesel production starting from microalgae biomass and of mud separated in the sugar mill and another installation of a distillery for a similar capacity of 500 Hl/d of superfine ethanol using molasses, the filters juices and microalgae hydrolysate. For the second alternative, it intends a distillery where saving of 67 % for the molasses, and 22.73 % for the water, these results are experimentally obtained. The most feasible alternative obtain 5 years of payback period, 21 % of an IRR and U$D 37104 419.21 of NPV.

  3. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  4. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasanee Thitakamol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. Only the saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly decreased under non-application of fertilizer. Under the application of distillery slop, chemical fertilizer had no significant effect on the yield and the juice quality of sugar cane for both crop years. However, under non-application of distillery slop in the first crop year, application of 21-0-0 and 20-20-0 fertilizer had a significant effect on cane yield. With the application of chemical fertilizer, distillery slop had an influence on the yield of sugar cane in both crop years while different doses of slop did not make any significant difference on cane yield. The average yields of the first crop year were 126.7, 195.6, 203.0 and 187.2 ton/hectare and those of the second crop year were 85.0, 150.0, 150.8 and 142.4 ton/hectare after the application of 0, 187.5, 375 and 562.5 m3/hectare, respectively. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not have any significant effect on juice quality for both crop years. Investigation of slop trace under the ground surface indicated that application of distillery slop did not affect the quality of underground water as the deepest level of trace was only 50 centimeters.

  5. Production of Microbial Transglutaminase on Media Made from Sugar Cane Molasses and Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vázquez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase is an enzyme that catalyses an acyl transfer reaction between γ-carboxamide groups of glutaminyl residues and lysine residues in proteins. Due to this property, this enzyme is used for enhancing textural properties of protein-rich food. The transglutaminase used as food additive is obtained by microorganisms, mainly by Streptoverticillium ladakanum. On the other hand, sugar cane molasses is a viscous liquid rich in noncrystallized carbohydrates (saccharose, glucose and fructose. In this work, the feasibility of using sugar cane molasses as a carbon source for the production of microbial transglutaminase by Streptoverticillium ladakanum NRRL 3191 has been studied. Carbon sources including sugar cane molasses (60 g of total sugars per L, glycerol (60 g/L and their mixture in a ratio of 1:1 (30 g/L of each were evaluated. Time course of microbial growth, transglutaminase activity and carbon source consumption were determined every 24 h during 120 h of fermentations at three agitation speeds (200, 300 or 400 rpm. The results showed that with the increase in agitation speed, the biomass concentration increased up to 8.39 g/L in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone or the mixture of molasses and glycerol. The highest transglutaminase activity was obtained at 400 rpm in the medium containing a mixture of molasses and glycerol, reaching 0.460 U/mL, while in the medium containing sugar cane molasses alone, the activity was 0.240 U/mL, and using glycerol alone it was 0.250 U/mL. These results show that sugar cane molasses is a suitable medium for transglutaminase production when it is combined with glycerol.

  6. Can use of walkers or canes impede lateral compensatory stepping movements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateni, Hamid; Heung, Evelyn; Zettel, John; McLlroy, William E; Maki, Brian E

    2004-08-01

    Although assistive devices, such as walkers and canes are often prescribed to aid in balance control, recent studies have suggested that such devices may actually increase risk of falling. In this study, we investigated one possible mechanism: the potential for walkers or canes to interfere with, or constrain, lateral movement of the feet and thereby impede execution of compensatory stepping reactions during lateral loss of balance. Lateral stepping reactions were evoked, in 10 healthy young adults (ages 22-27 years), by means of sudden unpredictable medio-lateral support surface translation. Subjects were tested while holding and loading a standard pickup walker or single-tip cane or while using no assistive device (hands free or holding an object). Results supported the hypothesis that using a walker or cane can interfere with compensatory stepping. Collisions between the swing-foot and mobility aid were remarkably frequent when using the walker (60% of stepping reactions) and also occurred in cane trials (11% of stepping reactions). Furthermore, such collisions were associated with a significant reduction (26-37%) in lateral step length. It appeared that subjects were sometimes able to avoid collision by increasing the forward or backward displacement of the swing-foot or by moving the cane; however, attempts to lift the walker out of the way occurred rarely and were usually impeded due to collision between the contralateral walker post and stance foot. The fact that compensatory stepping behavior was altered significantly in such a healthy cohort clearly demonstrates some of the safety limitations inherent to these assistive devices, as currently designed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Propuesta de un sistema de aprovechamiento de agua lluvia como alternativa para el ahorro de agua potable, en la institución educativa María Auxiliadora de Caldas, Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio Castañeda Natalia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento del agua lluvia es una práctica interesante, tanto ambiental como económicamente, si se tiene en cuenta la gran demanda del recurso sobre las cuencas hidrográficas, el alto grado de contaminación de las fuentes superficiales y los elevados costos por el consumo de agua potable en una institución educativa. Este proyecto presenta la ingeniería conceptual de una propuesta de diseño de un si stema de aprovechamiento de agua lluvia como alternativa para el ahorro de agua potable en usos tales como la descarga de sanitarios, el lavado de zonas comunes, entre otros. Se presenta, adicionalmente, un análisis aproximado de la viabilidad técnica y económica de dicho aprovechamiento en una institución educativa del municipio de Caldas, Antioquia. Se desarrollan en este documento tres aspectos principales: el cálculo de los volúmenes disponibles de agua lluvia en la zona, la evaluación del volumen de agua potable ahorrado con el aprovechamiento del agua lluvia, la estimación del presupuesto para la construcción del sistema y la proyección del ahorro generado al utilizarlo. Los resultados sugieren que el aprovechamiento de agua lluvia es una opción técnicamente viable, pero financieramente no, pues la inversión inicial es alta, por lo que es importante buscar financiación externa para desarrollar este tipo de proyectos que representan una solución interesante para contribuir al desarrollo sostenible de la institución educativa.

  8. The sugar cane and the coconut palm: research and development sources for environmental improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes two plants that were important in the past for the human development in tropical areas: the sugar cane and the coconut palm, being considered now as possible solution for environmental problems. The sugar cane can be considered as a precursor plant to obtaine recyclable combustible, able to correct along the time the hothouse effect happening at global level. As for the coconut palm, it has been demonstrated that the shell of the coconut palm is one of the best raw materials for the preparation of activated coal, an absorbent material used in environmental protection applications [es

  9. The yang mills gravity dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick

    2003-01-01

    We describe a ten dimensional supergravity geometry which is dual to a gauge theory that is non-supersymmetric Yang Mills in the infra-red but reverts to N=4 super Yang Mills in the ultra-violet. A brane probe of the geometry shows that the scalar potential of the gauge theory is stable. We discuss the infra-red behaviour of the solution. The geometry describes a Schroedinger equation potential that determines the glueball spectrum of the theory; there is a mass gap and a discrete spectrum. The glueball mass predictions match previous AdS/CFT Correspondence computations in the non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, and lattice data, at the 10% level. (author)

  10. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil; Kakkar, Ashish; Mehra, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  11. Galilean Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan. Pune 411008 (India); Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-04-11

    We investigate the symmetry structure of the non-relativistic limit of Yang-Mills theories. Generalising previous results in the Galilean limit of electrodynamics, we discover that for Yang-Mills theories there are a variety of limits inside the Galilean regime. We first explicitly work with the SU(2) theory and then generalise to SU(N) for all N, systematising our notation and analysis. We discover that the whole family of limits lead to different sectors of Galilean Yang-Mills theories and the equations of motion in each sector exhibit hitherto undiscovered infinite dimensional symmetries, viz. infinite Galilean Conformal symmetries in D=4. These provide the first examples of interacting Galilean Conformal Field Theories (GCFTs) in D>2.

  12. Diseño de minicentrales hidroléctricas. Modelo de aprovechamiento en el río Bernesga (Léon)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Muñoz, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    Se redacta el siguiente proyecto en el que se desarrolla el diseño de un aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico, así como la guía de etapas a llevar a cabo para su elaboración, con un ejemplo de minicentral de caudal fluyente en el río Bernesga, en la ciudad de León. Tiene como objetivo potenciar las fuentes de energía renovables, utilizando la energía mini-hidroeléctrica, y obtener energía eléctrica de una forma limpia y no contaminante utilizando cualquier curso de agua, para ello se...

  13. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanchey, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  14. Soil Carbon 4 per mille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minasny, Budiman; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    The '4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate' was launched at the COP21 aiming to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per mille (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia) and asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible. This study highlights region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates generally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha-1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas that have reached equilibrium but not at their saturation level will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration globally only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille initiative was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille on global topsoil of agricultural land, SOC sequestration is about 3.6 Gt C per year, which effectively offset 40% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become

  15. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  16. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  17. Factores que influyen en el contenido de escualeno, fitoesteroles totales y esterificados en el subproducto ácidos grasos destilados de soya para su potencial aprovechamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Una necesidad actual de la industria de extracción y refinación de aceite vegetal es la reducción y/o explotación de sus subproductos. Uno de estos, conocido como Ácidos Grasos Destilados de Aceite de Soya (AGDAS, resulta potencialmente valioso para las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética por la presencia de compuestos con actividad biológica favorable, como los fitoesteroles y el escualeno, los primeros como agentes hipocolesterolemiantes y el escualeno como emoliente y humectante. En este trabajo, mediante cromatografía de gases se determinó el contenido de escualeno y fitoesteroles libres y esterificados para evaluar la viabilidad de aprovechamiento de AGDAS como fuente de dichos compuestos y establecer si la procedencia del grano de soya (americano o nacional, la condición de cultivo (Sequía o Normal, años 2011 y 2012 respectivamente y el grado de calidad del aceite (Genérico o Premium son factores determinantes en el contenido de dichos compuestos en el subproducto. En conclusión AGDAS representa una fuente viable de fitoesteroles totales con 14.92% p/p, no así de escualeno con 1.75% p/p. La concentración de escualeno está influenciada por la procedencia del grano y la condición de cultivo, mientras que la de fitoesteroles esterificados por el grado de calidad y condición de cultivo. Ninguno de los factores influyó en el contenido de fitoesteroles totales. Esto permite establecer que la composición del subproducto AGDAS no es constante y se justifican protocolos como el de este estudio para su caracterización con fines de aprovechamiento.

  18. Haptic Cues for Balance: Use of a Cane Provides Immediate Body Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sozzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haptic cues are important for balance. Knowledge of the temporal features of their effect may be crucial for the design of neural prostheses. Touching a stable surface with a fingertip reduces body sway in standing subjects eyes closed (EC, and removal of haptic cue reinstates a large sway pattern. Changes in sway occur rapidly on changing haptic conditions. Here, we describe the effects and time-course of stabilization produced by a haptic cue derived from a walking cane. We intended to confirm that cane use reduces body sway, to evaluate the effect of vision on stabilization by a cane, and to estimate the delay of the changes in body sway after addition and withdrawal of haptic input. Seventeen healthy young subjects stood in tandem position on a force platform, with eyes closed or open (EO. They gently lowered the cane onto and lifted it from a second force platform. Sixty trials per direction of haptic shift (Touch → NoTouch, T-NT; NoTouch → Touch, NT-T and visual condition (EC-EO were acquired. Traces of Center of foot Pressure (CoP and the force exerted by cane were filtered, rectified, and averaged. The position in space of a reflective marker positioned on the cane tip was also acquired by an optoelectronic device. Cross-correlation (CC analysis was performed between traces of cane tip and CoP displacement. Latencies of changes in CoP oscillation in the frontal plane EC following the T-NT and NT-T haptic shift were statistically estimated. The CoP oscillations were larger in EC than EO under both T and NT (p < 0.001 and larger during NT than T conditions (p < 0.001. Haptic-induced effect under EC (Romberg quotient NT/T ~ 1.2 was less effective than that of vision under NT condition (EC/EO ~ 1.5 (p < 0.001. With EO cane had little effect. Cane displacement lagged CoP displacement under both EC and EO. Latencies to changes in CoP oscillations were longer after addition (NT-T, about 1.6 s than withdrawal (T-NT, about 0.9 s of haptic

  19. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  20. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration By application dated July 22... regarding the eligibility of workers and former workers of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North...

  1. Would John Stuart Mill have regulated pornography?

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, C.; Ward, I.

    2014-01-01

    John Stuart Mill dominates contemporary pornography debates where he is routinely invoked as an authoritative defence against regulation. This article, by contrast, argues that a broader understanding of Mill's ethical liberalism, his utilitarianism, and his feminism casts doubt over such an assumption. New insights into Mill's approach to sex, sexual activity, and the regulation of prostitution reveal an altogether more nuanced and activist approach. We conclude that John Stuart Mill would a...

  2. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of uranium conversion facilities where the possibility of exposure...

  3. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  4. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  5. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  6. Soil carbon 4 per mille

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil

  7. Massive Yang-Mills fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Reiff, J.

    1969-01-01

    Two problems are studied in the paper: (i) the relation between Lagrangian and Feynman rules if the Lagrangian contains derivative couplings and/or vector meson fields and (ii) the behaviour of certain two closed loop diagrams in the perturbation theory of Yang-Mills fields. With respect to ( i ) .

  8. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan; Balík, J.; Horník, Štěpán; Cuřínová, Petra; Sýkora, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2015), s. 6093-6112 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L * grape cane * stilbenes * accelerated solvent extraction ( ASE ) * microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) * LC-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2015

  9. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many

  10. Genetic diversity analysis of nine chewing cane varieties (lines) and construction of their DNA fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to provide theoretical basis for variety identification and parental selection during sugarcane breeding process, the present study was conducted to analyze genetic diversity of nine chewing cane varieties (lines) and construct their DNA fingerprints. Combining twenty-one SSR molecular mark...

  11. Hydraulic conductivity in sugar cane cultivated in soils previous vin aza application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musso, M.; Pereira, S.; Fajardo, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work analyzes the hydraulic conductivity in soil clay loams developed in Libertad formation in Bella Union where grows sugar cane with vinaza. In the agricultural activities are used different chemical additives such as organic and inorganic fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides, which interact with the biotic (roots, soil microbiology) and abiotic (clay, soil solution, etc.) elements

  12. Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs | Chicco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane molasses and NaOH teated bagacillo diets for lambs. C.F. Chicco, G Garcia, C Fernandez, C.R. Prays. Abstract. The eftect of alkali-treated bag acillo in diets varying in proportion of bagacillo and mollasses was studied in lambs. The bagacillo was treated with a concentration solution of NaOH in a horizontald rum-type ...

  13. Giant cane propagation techniques for use in restoration of riparian forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Sexton; James J. Zaczek; John W. Groninger; Stephen D. Fillmore; Karl W. J. Williard

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine factors important for rhizome cutting propagation of giant cane for use in canebreak restoration. Experiment I showed that greater numbers of culms were produced for rhizomes with more internodes especially when surface planted rather than buried. Experiment II determined that 76 percent of the 435 rhizomes tested produced at least...

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  15. Varietal Distributions of Stilbenes in Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 11-14 ISSN 1335-2563 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14038 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Vitis vinifera L. * varieties * grape canes * stilbenes * distribution Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  16. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Proclamation All Americans deserve the freedom to participate in every aspect of our society and pursue their full measure of happiness. For blind Americans, the white cane is a potent symbol of that freedom... productivity. In recent years, refreshable Braille displays and speech synthesis devices have given these...

  17. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varble, J

    2007-01-01

    Cane-based Celotex(trademark) has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex(trademark) for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex(trademark) is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex(trademark) manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex(trademark). The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex(trademark) from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package

  18. Nancay "blind" 21 cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, RC; van Driel, W; Briggs, F; Binggeli, B; Mostefaoui, TI

    A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nancay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350

  19. Breeding Energy Cane Cultivars as a Biomass Feedstock for Coal Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and advanced breeding have demonstrated that energy cane possesses all of the attributes desirable in a biofuel feedstock: extremely good biomass yield in a small farming footprint; negative/neutral carbon footprint; maximum outputs from minimum inputs; well-established growing model for fa...

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  1. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...... by micro milling. Examples of test parts are shown and used as an experimental validation....

  2. Yang-Mills gravity in biconformal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B; Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    We write a gravity theory with Yang-Mills-type action using the biconformal gauging of the conformal group. We show that the resulting biconformal Yang-Mills gravity theories describe 4-dim, scale-invariant general relativity in the case of slowly changing fields. In addition, we systematically extend arbitrary 4-dim Yang-Mills theories to biconformal space, providing a new arena for studying flat-space Yang-Mills theories. By applying the biconformal extension to a 4-dim pure Yang-Mills theory with conformal symmetry, we establish a 1-1, onto mapping between a set of gravitational gauge theories and 4-dim, flat-space gauge theories

  3. Longevity of Cane Corso Italiano dog breed and its relationship with hair colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evžen Korec

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Cane Corso Italiano belongs among the new dog breeds that were fully recognised by Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI in 2007. For the first time, this study describes a median lifespan using the data of 232 dogs of the Cane Corso Italiano breed collected from kennels and individual owners from 25 countries. The median lifespan of the whole examined group is 9.29 years (IQR 6.98-11.12, IQR = Interquartile Range. This paper is the first to describe the possible relationship between median lifespan and hair colour within one breed. The longest living group is formed by black brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.30 years (IQR 8.33-13.00, and brindle coloured dogs, with a median of 10.13 years (IQR 7.12-11.25. The median lifespan of black brindle dogs exceeded the overall median lifespan of all dogs by 1.01 year and the median lifespan of other colour dogs by 2.21 years. Our results suggest a possible way for a prolongation of age at death of the Cane Corso Italiano breed using appropriate breeding. The median lifespan of male Cane Corso Italiano dogs is 9.25 years (IQR 6.97-11.00 and female Cane Corso Italiano dogs 9.33 years (IQR 7.00-11.31. The statistical analysis using the Independent Samples Student’s t test confirmed that the lifespan of female dogs did not exceed the median lifespan of male dogs (P>0.01.

  4. Influence of milling process on efavirenz solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the milling process on the solubility of efavirenz. Materials and Methods: Milling process was done using Nanomilling for 30, 60, and 180 min. Intact and milled efavirenz were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, spectroscopy infrared (IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and solubility test. Results: The X-ray diffractogram showed a decline on peak intensity of milled efavirenz compared to intact efavirenz. The SEM graph depicted the change from crystalline to amorphous habit after milling process. The IR spectrum showed there was no difference between intact and milled efavirenz. Thermal analysis which performed by DSC showed a reduction on endothermic peak after milling process which related to decreasing of crystallinity. Solubility test of intact and milled efavirenz was conducted in distilled water free CO2with 0.25% sodium lauryl sulfate media and measured using high-performance liquid chromatography method with acetonitrile: distilled water (80:20 as mobile phases. The solubility was significantly increased (P < 0.05 after milling processes, which the intact efavirenz was 27.12 ± 2.05, while the milled efavirenz for 30, 60, and 180 min were 75.53 ± 1.59, 82.34 ± 1.23, and 104.75 ± 0.96 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: Based on the results, the solubility of efavirenz improved after milling process.

  5. Growth of Pediococcus acidilactici on sugar cane blackstrap molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 has grown in MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth modified by substitution of glucose by 2.0% (MRS-2, 3.0% (MRS-3, 4.0% (MRS-4 and 5.0% (MRS-5 sugar cane blackstrap molasses. The highest acid production was obtained in MRS-5 broth maintained at a constant pH of 5.0. The highest biomass production was obtained when P. acidilactici was grown in MRS-5 broth at initial pH 6.5, while productivity was higher in MRS-2 broth (28.16%. When the MRS-2 broth was utilized at initial pH 6.5 for a 20-hour fermentation period, the highest growth rate (dx/dt was found in a period of 8 to 16 hours (0.290 g cells/L.h, while the specific growth rate (µ was 0.175 (h-1 for that period, differently from the 0.441 (h-1 obtained for the period comprising the 4th to the 12th hour. The growth in MRS broth was 5.08% (2.95 g/l higher than in MRS-2 broth (2.80 g/l. The data obtained have shown that P. acidilactici has had a significant growth in molasses as the main carbon source, and that it is possible to substitute MRS glucose by this carbon source with the purpose of obtaining a more economical growth medium for the potential large scale productions.Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 cresceu em caldo MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe modificado por adição de 2,0% (MRS-2, 3,0% (MRS-3, 4,0% (MRS-4 and 5,0% (MRS-5 de melaço de cana de açúcar, em substituição à glicose. A maior produção de ácido ocorreu em caldo MRS-5 com pH constante 5,0. A produção de biomassa foi mais acentuada em caldo MRS-5 com pH inicial de 6,5, embora a produtividade tenha sido maior em caldo MRS-2 (28,16%. Em caldo MRS-2 e em pH inicial de 6,5 durante uma fermentação de 20 horas, a velocidade de crescimento (dx/dt foi maior entre a 8ª e 16ª hora (0,290 g celulas/L.h enquanto a velocidade específica de crescimento µ foi 0,175 (h-1 para este período, diferente de 0,441 (h-1 obtido no período compreendido entre a 4ª e 12ª hora. O crescimento em caldo MRS foi 5

  6. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Cardoso, Vanessa M.; Mori, Manoel N.; Duarte, Celina L.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  7. Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpa; Arya, Namita; Tiwari, Priyanka; Suman, Archna; Rai, R K; Shrivastava, A K; Solomon, S

    2008-08-27

    Sugar cane is sensitive to enormous sucrose losses induced by physio-chemical and microbial changes, the severity being increased during the time lag between harvest and crushing in the mills. Minimization of the sucrose losses in the field is essential for better sugar recovery and prevention of sucrose losses. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for their effects on the microbial counts and physio-chemical changes responsible for sucrose losses. Glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride (1000 + 250 ppm) reduced the losses in sucrose content to 7.1% as compared to the 30.8% loss in the control, thus improving the performance by 76.9%. The application of chemicals reduced the acid invertase activity (by 60%), lowered weight loss, titrable acidity, reducing sugars content, dextran, ethanol, and ethylene production and respiration rates. The application led to the reduction in the total bacterial, fungal, Leuconostoc, and yeast counts by 67.92, 51.3%, 26.08, and 51.2%, respectively.

  8. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  9. Mill Glaze: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a condition called “mill glaze” (also called planer’s glaze) has sometimes been blamed for the failure of a coating on smooth flat-grained siding and some other wood products. The exact cause of this problem has been a subject of controversy. Many people believe that the coating fails as a result of the planing and/or drying processes. They...

  10. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  11. Evaluating the effects of heavy sugar cane truck operations on repair cost of low volume highways : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Current Louisiana state laws allow truck operators hauling certain agricultural commodities to purchase : overweight permits and haul at gross vehicle weights (GVW) in excess of the legislated GVW limit of : 80,000 lb. For instance, sugar cane trucke...

  12. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and...

  13. "Candy cane syndrome:" an underappreciated cause of abdominal pain and nausea after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaie, Amir H; Fayezizadeh, Mojtaba; Wen, Yuxiang; Alshehri, Mohammed; Abbas, Mujjahid; Khaitan, Leena

    2017-09-01

    "Candy cane" syndrome (a blind afferent Roux limb at the gastrojejunostomy) has been implicated as a cause of abdominal pain, nausea, and emesis after Roux-n-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) but remains poorly described. To report that "candy cane" syndrome is real and can be treated effectively with revisional bariatric surgery SETTING: All patients underwent "candy cane" resection at University Hospitals of Cleveland. All patients who underwent resection of the "candy cane" between January 2011 and July 2015 were included. All had preoperative workup to identify "candy cane" syndrome. Demographic data; pre-, peri-, and postoperative symptoms; data regarding hospitalization; and postoperative weight loss were assessed through retrospective chart review. Data were analyzed using Student's t test and χ 2 analysis where appropriate. Nineteen patients had resection of the "candy cane" (94% female, mean age 50±11 yr), within 3 to 11 years after initial RYGB. Primary presenting symptoms were epigastric abdominal pain (68%) and nausea/vomiting (32%), particularly with fibrous foods and meats. On upper gastrointestinal study and endoscopy, the afferent blind limb was the most direct outlet from the gastrojejunostomy. Only patients with these preoperative findings were deemed to have "candy cane" syndrome. Eighteen (94%) cases were completed laparoscopically. Length of the "candy cane" ranged from 3 to 22 cm. Median length of stay was 1 day. After resection, 18 (94%) patients had complete resolution of their symptoms (Psyndrome is a real phenomenon that can be managed safely with excellent outcomes with resection of the blind afferent limb. A thorough diagnostic workup is paramount to proper identification of this syndrome. Surgeons should minimize the size of the blind afferent loop left at the time of initial RYGB. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic of N fertilizers: urea (15 N) and aqua ammonia (15 N) incorporated to the sugar cane soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.

    1988-05-01

    The dynamic of N fertilizers, urea and aqua ammonia, in the soil of sugar cane crops are studied with an emphasis on the horizontal and vertical moving. The nitrogen routing from urea and aqua ammonia sources, by isotopic technique with 15 N in relation to the leaching, volatilization and extraction by the cultivation and residue of N immobilized manure in the soil with sugar cane plantation is also analysed. (C.G.C.)

  15. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  16. Mechanical alloying and reactive milling in a high energy planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianjin; Trunov, Mikhaylo A.; Schoenitz, Mirko; Dave, Rajesh N.; Dreizin, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    Powder refinement in a planetary mill (Retsch PM 400-MA) is investigated experimentally and analyzed using discrete element modeling (DEM). Refinement is defined as the average size of the individual components in a composite powder. The specific milling dose, defined as the product of charge ratio and milling time, is used as an experimental parameter tracking the progress of the material refinement. This parameter is determined experimentally for milling of boron and titanium powders, for which the time of initiation of a self-sustained reaction is measured under different milling conditions. It is assumed that the reaction becomes self-sustaining when the same powder refinement is achieved. The DEM calculations established that the milling balls primarily roll along the milling container's perimeter. The inverse of the rate of energy dissipation resulting from this rolling motion is used as the DEM analog of the specific milling dose. The results correlate well with experimental observations.

  17. 75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated July 22, 2010, petitioners requested administrative [[Page 49525

  18. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization...... of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems...

  19. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  20. Characterisation of sugar cane straw waste as pozzolanic material for construction: Calcining temperature and kinetic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Moises; Villar-Cocina, E.; Valencia-Morales, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of calcining temperature (800 and 1000 deg. C) on the pozzolanic activation of sugar cane straw (SCS). The reaction kinetics of SCS ash-lime mixtures were inferred from physicochemical characteristics (X-ray diffraction patterns and thermogravimetry analysis. The fitting of a kinetic-diffusive model to the experimental data (fixed lime versus time) allowed the computing of the kinetic parameters (reaction rate constant) of the pozzolanic reaction. Results obtained confirm that the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) calcined at 800 and 1000 deg. C have properties indicative of very high pozzolanic activity. No influence of calcining temperature on the pozzolanic activity was observed. Also, no crystalline compounds during the pozzolanic reaction were identified up to 90 days of reaction. Environmental durability and strength of the consequential mortars remain to be assessed

  1. Biomass-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine cogeneration for the cane sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, E.D.; Williams, R.H.; Ogden, J.M.; Hylton, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Steam injection for power and efficiency augmentation in aeroderivative gas turbines has been commercially established for natural gas-fired cogeneration since 1980. Steam-injected gas turbines fired with coal and biomass are being developed. A performance and economic assessment of biomass integrated-gasifier steam-injected gas turbine (BIG/STIG) cogeneration systems is carried out here. A detailed economic case study is presented for the second largest sugar factory in Jamaica, with cane residues as the fuel. BIG/STIG cogeneration units would be attractive investments for sugar producers, who could sell large quantities of excess electricity to the utility, or for the utility, as a low-cost generating option. Worldwide, the cane sugar industry could support some 50,000 MW of BIG/STIG electric generation capacity. The relatively modest development effort required to commercialize the BIG/STIG technology is discussed in a companion paper prepared for this conference

  2. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  3. Congeners in sugar cane spirits aged in casks of different woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoletto, Aline M; Alcarde, André R

    2013-08-15

    The profile of volatile compounds and aging markers in sugar cane spirits aged for 36 months in casks made of 10 types of wood were studied. The ethanol content, volatile acidity, aldehydes, esters, higher alcohols, and methanol were determined. In addition, gallic, vanilic and syringic acids, siringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde, vanillin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural were identified and quantified. The profile of volatile compounds characterised aging in each type of wood. The beverage aged in oak cask achieved the highest contents of maturation-related congeners. The Brazilian woods, similar to oak, were jequitibá rosa and cerejeira, which presented the highest contents of some maturation-related compounds, such as vanillin, vanilic acid, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. Although oak wood conferred more chemical complexity to the beverage, Brazilian woods, singly or complementarily, present potential for spirit characterisation and for improving the quality of sugar cane spirits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanical behavior of cementitious composites with processed sugar cane bagasse ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Augusto C.S.; Saraiva, Sergio L.C.; Sena, Natalia O.; Pereira, Gabriela M.; Rodrigues, Conrado S.; Ferreira, Maria C.N.F.; Castro, Laurenn W.A.; Silva, Marcos V.M.S.; Gomes, Romero C.; Aguilar, Maria T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is waste from the sugar and ethanol industry and is primarily intended for burning in boilers to generate energy. As waste from the cogeneration of energy, sugar cane bagasse ashes (SCBA) are produced with no honorable destination. This paper studies the use of SCBA to partially replace Portland cement in producing cementitious composites. The ashes were processed by reburning and grinding, and after processing were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, laser granulometry, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After characterization, cement compounds were fashioned, replacing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the cement with SCBA. The composites were mechanically evaluated by means of compression strength tests, tensile strength tests by bending. The results proved significant, indicating the possible use of SCBA when added to the cement on manufacture. (author)

  5. Indagine retrospettiva sulle neoplasie testicolari del cane in Abruzzo e Molise, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita D’Angelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le neoplasie testicolari sono piuttosto frequenti nel cane e condividono alcune caratteristiche con quelle umane, rendendole un potenziale modello in patologia comparata. Si riportano i dati relativi ai tumori testicolari del cane conferiti ed esaminati Istituto G. Caporale nel corso degli ultimi 12 anni, dal 2000 al 2011. In totale, sono stati diagnosticati 183 tumori: 108 seminomi, 37 sertoliomi, 18 tumori a cellule interstiziali del Leydig, 10 tumori misti, 9 neoplasie primitive di diversa natura una metastasi. La raccolta dettagliata di informazioni (segnala-mento, anamnesi, manifestazioni cliniche e follow-up messa in atto, consentirà di valutare al meglio il comportamento biologico delle neoplasie animali il potenziale oncogeno di specifici fattori, sia intrinseci che estrinseci.

  6. Influence of calcination temperature in pozolanicity of gray sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.A.; Argolo, R.A.; Andrade, H.M.C.; Ribeiro, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    BCA (Sugar Cane Bagasse) is burned in boilers in the process of electricity cogeneration causing the generation of CBCA (Gray Sugar Cane Bagasse), which is the final residue of sucroalcooeira industry. Currently, several studies seek alternative materials that can replace Portland cement, promoting discussions on the use of pozzolanic materials in cementitious matrices. Thus, this research seeks to analyze the pozzolanicity the CBCA, obtained by calcining the residue at different temperatures, to be determined by TG / DTG and DTA tests. For analysis of pozzolanicity these ashes were used electrical conductivity techniques, chemical titration NP EN 196-5, chapelle modified NBR 15895/2010 and the IAP method (Activity Index pozzolanic NBR:5752). The results obtained during the study demostraramm no difference between the ash calcined at temperatures of 500 ° C, 600 ° C and 700 ° C. (author)

  7. Vulnerabilidad por aprovechamiento y distribución de especies leñosas desde la perspectiva comunitaria en la reserva cañón del Usumacinta, Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Cabrera-Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue docu-mentar los usos y grado de vulnerabilidad de la flora leñosa multiuso, usando para ello la perspectiva de los pobladores, así como describir la distribución en los ambientes de estas especies sobre el territorio que ocupa la comunidad de Niños Héroes, Tenosique, Tabasco, México. Se emplearon métodos etnobotánicos tales como: recorridos de campo con conocedores de la flora del sitio, colecta botánica y aplicación de entrevistas en cada vivienda de la comunidad. Estas últimas, incluyeron preguntas generales y específicas para documentar los usos y pedir colaboración para la realización de un taller comunitario para fundamentar la construcción del índice vulnerabilidad por aprovechamiento de la flora leñosa. Se identificaron 168 especies de flora leñosa útil, de las cuales 97 son multiusos. Éstas se agruparon en 20 categorías de utilidad, entre las que destaca la leña con 71 especies, seguidas por materiales para instrumentos de trabajo de campo (65, materiales para la construcción de casas rurales (63, cerco muerto (53, comestible (53, y cerco vivo (50. La selva y el acahual son los hábitats con mayor número de especies de flora multiusos y proveen al colectivo 27 y 26% del total respectivamente. El 22% de las especies multiusos presentan alta vulnerabilidad de aprovechamiento, mientras que 50% están categorizadas con vulnerabilidad baja por aprovechamiento. El índice aquí evaluado, permite detectar el grado de vulnerabilidad al aprovechamiento de manera local o regional, pero no se corresponde a los índices de amenaza establecidos por la Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT de protección ambiental de especies nativas de México. Este índice permite poner alertas a nivel local o regional con relación a la fragilidad de las especies. La información generada, sienta bases para el manejo de los recursos y puede servir de guía para las agencias del gobierno, instituciones

  8. EL TRATAMIENTO METODOLÓGICO DE LOS PROBLEMAS AMBIENTALES DE LOS APROVECHAMIENTOS HIDROENERGÉTICOS EN EL MARCO DE LAS PÓLITICAS NACIONALES E INTERNACIONALES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo M. de Jong

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available En la República Argentina la gestión ambiental ha sido incorporada recientemente con carácter obligatorio, por medio de la Resolución 718/87 de la secretaría de Energía que puso en vigencia el Manual de Gestión Ambiental para Grandes Obras Hidráulicas con aprovechamiento Energético, para ser aplicado a las obras hidroeléctricas. Dicha Resolución tiene como objetivo máximo la preservación y manejo del entornoo ambiental para las futuras generaciones y lograr un uso más eficiente de los recursos y sus potencialidades, en el marco del mejoramiento de la calidad de vida, mediante el perfeccionamiento de losmecanismos de toma de decisiones para mejor satisfacción de las necesidades de la sociedad en su conjunto. Recientemente (promulgada el 24 de octubre 1990 el Congreso de la Nación ha transformado en Ley este Manual.

  9. Análisis de la seguridad y salud laboral en los aprovechamientos forestales de cortas de claras en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ambrosio Torrijos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo de ocho años se han controlado de forma directa un total de 34 explotaciones forestales españolas, correspondientes a cortas de claras de masas de repoblación. Se ha reunido información sobre equipos materiales y humanos, riesgos de accidente y para la salud, pautas de seguridad e incidencias ocurridas a lo largo de más de 2,200 horas de cronometraje de las distintas operaciones de explotación y alrededor de 3,000 horas de presencia en el monte. El estudio pone en evidencia las deficiencias de equipamiento activo y pasivo que tienen los equipos utilizados, poniendo especial relevancia en los trabajos realizados manualmente, en donde la falta de profesionalidad, la forma de retribución y la falta de planes reales de seguridad y salud laboral en los aprovechamientos forestales llevan consigo una alta accidentabilidad. Respecto de los riesgos de salud, se ha incorporado como factores de riesgo importantes en los trabajos manuales, la enfermedad de los dedos blancos, causadas por las vibraciones que transmite la motosierra y la enfermedad de Leyme causada por las garrapatas, ambas consideradas enfermedades profesionales en muchos países de Europa pero que en España no se le reconoce su importancia.

  10. Aprovechamiento de partículas de ultrafinos de carbón de una planta lavadora en la producción de coque metalúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el aprovechamiento en mezclas de ultrafinos provenientes de una planta de lavado de carbón para la producción de coque por el proceso de briquetación, utilizando 6% en peso de alquitrán de carbón como aglomerante. Se caracterizaron las materias primas y se realizó una prueba piloto de coquización en un horno tipo Koppers. Se determinó la calidad del coque por pruebas de análisis próximo, estabilidad (Micum 10, M10 y Micum 40, M40, índice de reactividad del coque al CO2 (CRI y de resistencia después de la reacción con dióxido de carbono (CSR. Los resultados mostraron que la briquetación permite obtener un coque con un CRI de 19,0% y un CSR de 75,6%, características requeridas en los procesos metalúrgicos.

  11. Utilization of sites of final disposition of municipal wastes for electrical power generation; Aprovechamiento de sitios de disposicion final de residuos municipales para generacion de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Sanchez, Felipe; Sarmiento Bleicher, Conrado [Departamento del Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    Mexico confronts very comprehensive environmental problems, and the solid wastes and their control are not the minor of the preoccupations on the matter. The present work tries to demonstrate the usefulness or the economic advantages and the use of a sanitary land fill as a power source, outlining the necessity and convenience of planning and of designing the future sanitary land fills, specially those of the important urban centers, thinking of its usefulness beyond a confinement of the materials that lack use or commercial value. [Spanish] Mexico afronta una problematica ambiental muy amplia, y los residuos solidos y su control no son la menor de las preocupaciones al respecto. El presente trabajo trata de demostrar la utilidad o rentabilidad del aprovechamiento de un relleno sanitario como fuente energetica, perfilando la necesidad y conveniencia de planear y disenar los futuros rellenos sanitarios, especialmente los de los centros urbanos importantes, pensando en su utilidad mas alla de un confinamiento de los materiales que carecen de uso o valor comercial.

  12. Aprovechamiento del lactosuero como fuente de energía nutricional para minimizar el problema de contaminación ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Vicente Araujo Guerra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se trata de conceptuar el potencial que tienen algunos desechos orgánicos que pueden ser utilizados como fuentes de energía, como es el caso del lactosuero, provenientes de la industria de productos lácteos, el cual genera un serio problema ambiental, debido a que afecta física y químicamente la estructura del suelo, lo que genera una disminución en el rendimiento de cultivos agrícolas y cuando se desecha en el agua, reduce la vida acuática al agotar el oxígeno disuelto; por lo tanto es necesaria la búsqueda de alternativas para disminuir el impacto causado por este tipo de residuo de la agroindustria, los cuales buscan el aprovechamiento de desechos orgánicos como fuentes de energía para que microrganismos seleccionados sinteticen los compuestos orgánicos y posteriormente se logre la obtención de masas microbianas que constituyen una gran fuente alimenticia de alto valor proteico, que so­lucionen el problema de alimentación humana, el cual también implica resolver el problema de las fuentes de proteínas para la alimentación animal y de igual manera se haría un aporte para minimizar el problema de contaminación ambiental.

  13. Black holes with Yang-Mills hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, B.; Kunz, J.; Sood, A.; Wirschins, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric

  14. Focused ion beam milling of carbon fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huson, Mickey G.; Church, Jeffrey S.; Hillbrick, Linda K.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Sridhar, Manoj; Van De Meene, Allison M.L.

    2015-01-01

    A focused ion beam has been used to mill both individual carbon fibres as well as fibres in an epoxy composite, with a view to preparing flat surfaces for nano-indentation. The milled surfaces have been assessed for damage using scanning probe microscopy nano-indentation and Raman micro-probe analysis, revealing that FIB milling damages the carbon fibre surface and covers surrounding areas with debris of disordered carbon. The debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. The energy of milling as well as the orientation of the beam was varied and shown to have an effect when assessed by Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Focused ion beam (FIB) milling was used to mill flat surfaces on carbon fibres. • Raman spectroscopy showed amorphous carbon was generated during FIB milling. • The amorphous debris is detected as far as 100 μm from the milling site. • This surface degradation was confirmed by nano-indentation experiments.

  15. Particle deformation during stirred media milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamey, Rhye Garrett

    Production of high aspect ratio metal flakes is an important part of the paint and coating industry. The United States Army also uses high aspect ratio metal flakes of a specific dimension in obscurant clouds to attenuate infrared radiation. The most common method for their production is by milling a metal powder. Ductile metal particles are initially flattened in the process increasing the aspect ratio. As the process continues, coldwelding of metal flakes can take place increasing the particle size and decreasing the aspect ratio. Extended milling times may also result in fracture leading to a further decrease in the particle size and aspect ratio. Both the coldwelding of the particles and the breakage of the particles are ultimately detrimental to the materials performance. This study utilized characterization techniques, such as, light scattering and image analysis to determine the change in particle size as a function of milling time and parameters. This study proved that a fundamental relationship between the milling parameters and particle deformation could be established by using Hertz's theory to calculate the stress acting on the aluminum particles. The study also demonstrated a method by which milling efficiency could be calculated, based on the amount of energy required to cause particle deformation. The study found that the particle deformation process could be an energy efficient process at short milling times with milling efficiency as high as 80%. Finally, statistical design of experiment was used to obtain a model that related particle deformation to milling parameters, such as, rotation rate and milling media size.

  16. Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pene, C.B.G.

    1995-01-01

    A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs

  17. Muscle synergies with Walkaround® postural support vs. “cane/therapist” assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miljkovic, Nadica; Milovanovic, Ivana; Dragin, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The main clinical measures of walking recovery in stroke patients were compared for training assisted by Walkaround® postural support (WPS) and conventional (CON) support by a cane/therapist. OBJECTIVE: We attributed the differences between the trainings to modified muscular synergies that occurred...... be the superior training scheme. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that assistance by WPS changed the motor control output relative to CON assistance in most patients....

  18. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cane toads a threat to West Indian wildlife: mortality of Jamaican boas attributable to toad ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron S. Wilson; Susan E. Koenig; Rick van Veen; Erika Miersma; D. Craig. Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    The notorious ‘‘cane toad’’ (Bufo marinus) is considered to be one of the 100 worst invasive species in the world. A native of South and Central America, Mexico, and the Rio Grande Valley of the United States, this large toad was intentionally introduced to islands in the Caribbean, and subsequently throughout the southern Pacific, as a biological control agent to...

  20. Determination of phosphorus and potassium in sugar cane leaves by 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.A.; Nagy, A.Z.; Bakos, L.; Soria, J.C.

    1979-04-01

    The possibilities of N, P, K evaluation in samples of sugar cane leaves were discussed. A method for determining P and K content in this samples by 14 MeV neutron activation analysis is described. Corrections for K and Si were taken into account. The limit of detection for P was 0.1 mg and for K it was 4 mg. The precision for P and K was 10% in agreement with the values given by other authors. (author)

  1. Do Canes or Walkers Make Any Difference? NonUse and Fall Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Clare; Bush, Tamara; Shen, Xiaoxi

    2017-04-01

    Examine patterns of cane and walker use as related to falls and fall injuries. Among people who fall at home, most do not have an assistive device with them when they fall. Nonusers who fall sustain more severe injuries. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered written survey completed by 262 people aged 60 and older who were community dwelling, cognitively intact, and current cane/walker users with a history of falls. They were recruited through clinical practice sites, churches, and senior housing in central Michigan. Outcomes of interest included patterns of device use, reasons for nonuse, device use at time of fall, and fall-related injuries. Seventy-five percent of respondents who fell were not using their device at the time of fall despite stating that canes help prevent falls. Reasons for nonuse included believing it was not needed, forgetfulness, the device made them feel old, and inaccessibility. Perceived risk was not high enough to engage in self-protective behavior. However, nonuse led to a significantly higher proportion of falls resulting in surgery than among device users. Among respondents requiring surgery, 100% were nonusers. Most respondents never received a home safety evaluation (68%) and only 50% received training on proper device use. Providers must place increased emphasis on the importance of cane/walker use for injury prevention through patient education to promote personal relevance, proper fitting, and training. New strategies are needed to improve device acceptability and accessibility. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Augmenting white cane reliability using smart glove for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernieri, Giuseppe; Faramondi, Luca; Pascucci, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The independent mobility problem of visually impaired people has been an active research topic in biomedical engineering: although many smart tools have been proposed, traditional tools (e.g., the white cane) continue to play a prominent role. In this paper a low cost smart glove is presented: the key idea is to minimize the impact in using it by combining the traditional tools with a technological device able to improve the movement performance of the visually impaired people.

  3. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of grape canes extracts from vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y.; Zhang, A.; Fang, Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Grape canes are the main agro-wastes from vineyards. This work studied the antioxidant activities of the defatted methanolic extracts (ME) of canes from 11 genotypes: 5 Vitis vinifera widely known cultivars and 6 Chinese wild varieties from three species (V. amurensis, V. davidii, and V. pentagona) and the antioxidant activities of the ME’s chloroform fractions (CF), ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) and water fractions (WF). Among ME and its three fractions, EAF’s total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were the highest, at 586 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent and 320 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant power of the fractions/extracts was in the order EAF > ME > WF > CF, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging power and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity, while the order was EAF > CF > WF >ME based on the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching activity. Methanolic extracts demonstrated the strongest Fe2+-chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions generally correlated with the TPC and TFC in all assays, except with the Fe2+-chelating test. Grape canes from V. davidii had the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities compared with those from other grape species. Catechin, epicatechin and trans-resveratrol were the predominant phenolic components of fractions/extracts. In light of these valuable bioactivities, grape canes from annual pruning practice considered as waste material have good commercial potential for utilization as a promising natural antioxidant in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, given its low cost and availability in large amounts. (Author)

  4. Fast oxidative pyrolysis of sugar cane straw in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa-Pérez, Juan Miguel; Rocha, José Dilcio; Barbosa-Cortez, Luis Augusto; Penedo-Medina, Margarita; Luengo, Carlos Alberto; Cascarosa, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the technical viability evaluation of the fast pyrolysis of sugar cane straw for its energy use. By means of this thermochemical process, the sugar cane straw is converted into bio-fuels (biochar, bio-oil) and non-condensable gases. The bio-fuels obtained could be used as fuel or as raw material in the chemical industry. The fast pyrolysis of sugar cane straw has been developed in a fluidized bed reactor. In order to improve this process to obtain high bio-oil yield, the influence of the operational conditions (equivalence ratio and temperature) on the product yields and on their characteristics was evaluated. The product yields of bio-oil and char were up to 35.5 wt.% and 48.2 wt.% respectively. The maximum bio-oil yield was achieved at temperature and equivalence ratio conditions of 470 °C and 0.14. The bio-oil obtained has low oxygen content (38.48 wt.% dry basis), very low water content, and a lower heating value of 22.95 MJ/kg. The gas chromatographic analyses allowed the identification of oxygenated compounds and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The bio-oil pH ranged between 3.14 and 3.57 due to the presence of acid organic compounds. The char obtained has a high fixed carbon and volatile matter content. Its HHV value is 13.54 MJ/kg. -- Highlights: • Pyrolysis of sugar cane straw was studied in a fluidized bed reactor. • The product yields were evaluated. • The composition of the liquid and solid products obtained was analyzed. • This is an environmentally friendly use for this waste

  5. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  6. Differences in the Limits of Stability Between Older Rolling Walker Users and Older Single-Tip-Cane Users - A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao Howe; Quiben, Myles; Holmes, Clayton; Connors, Michael; Salem, Yasser

    To identify the differences in the limits of stability (LOS) between older rolling walker and single-tip-cane users. This was a matched paired t-test design with repeated measure. Eighteen older subjects were matched based on age, gender, and functional level. The subjects were assessed using the multidirectional reach test initially and 5-month later in four directions: forward, backward, leftward, and rightward. Initially, there were no differences between cane users and rolling walker users in the LOS in all directions. However, 5-month later, the cane users who held their canes in their right hand had significantly better stability in forward and rightward reach than the walker users (p walker users demonstrated significantly decreased functional reach in forward reach (p walker users in the forward direction and in the direction toward the side holding the cane. This study may provide guide for clinicians including nurses for selecting appropriate rehabilitative interventions for older adults using walkers and canes.

  7. Full chain energy analysis of fuel ethanol from cane molasses in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Garivait, Savitri [The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2008-08-15

    An analysis of energy performance and supply potential was performed to evaluate molasses utilization for fuel ethanol in Thailand. The Thai government recently has set up a production target of 1.925 million litres a day of sugar-based ethanol. The molasses-based ethanol (MoE) system involves three main segments: sugar cane cultivation, molasses generation, and ethanol conversion. Negative net energy value found for MoE is a consequence of not utilizing system co-products (e.g. stillage and cane trash) for energy. Taking into account only fossil fuel or petroleum inputs in the production cycle, the energy analysis provides results in favour of ethanol. A positive net energy of 5.95 MJ/L which corresponds to 39% energy gain shows that MoE is efficient as far as its potential to replace fossil fuels is concerned. Another encouraging result is that each MJ of petroleum inputs can produce 6.12 MJ of ethanol fuel. Regarding supply potential, if only the surplus molasses is utilized for ethanol, a shift of 8-10% sugar cane produce to fuel ethanol from its current use in sugar industry could be a probable solution. (author)

  8. Toxicity of two effluents from agricultural activity: Comparing the genotoxicity of sugar cane and orange vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Camila Fernandes H; Souza, Raphael B de; de Souza, Cleiton Pereira; Christofoletti, Cintya Ap; Fontanetti, Carmem S

    2017-08-01

    Vinasse, produced by several countries as a by-product of agricultural activity, has different alternatives for its reuse, mainly fertirrigation. Several monocultures, such as sugar cane and orange crops, produce this effluent. Sugar cane vinasse is already widely used in fertirrigation and orange vinasse has potential for this intention. However, its use as a fertilizer has caused great concern. Thus, ecotoxicological evaluation is extremely important in order to assess the possible effects on the environment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of vinasse of two different crops: sugar cane and orange. For this purpose, bioassays with Allium cepa as a test organism were performed with two vinasse dilutions (2.5% and 5%) to detect chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus induction. The results showed that both types of vinasse are able to induce chromosomal aberrations in meristematic cells, mainly nuclear and anaphasic bridges, suggesting genotoxic potential. The induction of micronuclei in cells of the F 1 region suggests that the two residues have mutagenic potential. Thus, caution is advised when applying these effluents in the environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Study On Ethanol Production From Sugar Cane Molasses By Using Irradiated Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.; Armed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to- their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to their ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose; two easily assimilable hexoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 KGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168 h). The data showed that the rate of ethanol production reached its maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks.

  10. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  11. Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

  12. Study on Ethanol Production from Sugar Cane Molasses by Using Irradiated Saccharomyces cervisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.; Ahmed, A.S.; Farag, S.S.; Hassan, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    In commercial ethanol production procedures often use sugar cane molasses as a raw material due to their abundance and low costs. The most employed microorganisms used for fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts due to its ability to hydrolyze sucrose from sugar cane molasses into glucose and fructose, two easily assimilable hexoses.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of S. cerevisiae in the ethanol production yeast cells exposed to different doses of gamma rays (0.05, 0.10, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 kGy. The sugar cane substrate was optimized after maintaining deferent levels of sugar concentrations (12-21%), medium ph (4.0-5.5), incubation temperature (25-40 degree C) and rate of fermentation (24-168) h. Data showed that rate of ethanol production was maximum by using the irradiated S. cerevisiae cells at 0.1 kGy. dose at fermentation conditions as 15% sugar concentration, initial ph 4.5, incubation temperature 30 degree C, fermentation time 96 h at a fermentation medium volume 250 ml found in 500 ml erlenmyer flasks.

  13. Modelling the costs of energy crops. A case study of US corn and Brazilian sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejean, Aurelie; Hope, Chris

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices, uncertainties about the consequences of climate change and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the prospects of alternative fuels, such as biofuels. This paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of energy crops, drawing on the user's degree of belief about a series of parameters as an input. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of production constraints and experience on the costs of corn and sugar cane, which can then be converted to bioethanol. Land is a limited and heterogeneous resource: the crop cost model builds on the marginal land suitability, which is assumed to decrease as more land is taken into production, driving down the marginal crop yield. Also, the maximum achievable yield is increased over time by technological change, while the yield gap between the actual yield and the maximum yield decreases through improved management practices. The results show large uncertainties in the future costs of producing corn and sugar cane, with a 90% confidence interval of 2.9-7.2$/GJ in 2030 for marginal corn costs, and 1.5-2.5$/GJ in 2030 for marginal sugar cane costs. The influence of each parameter on these supply costs is examined. (author)

  14. Locomotor performance of cane toads differs between native-range and invasive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Georgia; Christian, Keith; Brown, Gregory; Shine, Richard

    2017-07-01

    Invasive species provide a robust opportunity to evaluate how animals deal with novel environmental challenges. Shifts in locomotor performance-and thus the ability to disperse-(and especially, the degree to which it is constrained by thermal and hydric extremes) are of special importance, because they might affect the rate that an invader can spread. We studied cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) across a broad geographical range: two populations within the species' native range in Brazil, two invasive populations on the island of Hawai'i and eight invasive populations encompassing the eastern, western and southern limits of the toad invasion in Australia. A toad's locomotor performance on a circular raceway was strongly affected by both its temperature and its hydration state, but the nature and magnitude of those constraints differed across populations. In their native range, cane toads exhibited relatively low performance (even under optimal test conditions) and a rapid decrease in performance at lower temperatures and hydration levels. At the other extreme, performance was high in toads from southern Australia, and virtually unaffected by desiccation. Hawai'ian toads broadly resembled their Brazilian conspecifics, plausibly reflecting similar climatic conditions. The invasion of Australia has been accompanied by a dramatic enhancement in the toads' locomotor abilities, and (in some populations) by an ability to maintain locomotor performance even when the animal is cold and/or dehydrated. The geographical divergences in performance among cane toad populations graphically attest to the adaptability of invasive species in the face of novel abiotic challenges.

  15. Square baler field test under different sugar cane crop residue conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Miola de; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano Cannavan; Gadanha Junior, Casimiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: ammello@esalq.usp.br; Ripoli, Marco Lorezzo Cunali [John Deere, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy demand increase of the country allows the sugar cane business sector to be a major player in production and commercialization areas of electric energy using cogeneration powered by bagasse and sugar cane residues. The objective of the study was to evaluate some of the performance parameters of an Express 5040 baler, brand Nogueira, used to collect residues. The tests were conducted in a sugar cane mechanized harvest area. The baler was submitted to three different conditions of residues windrowing: 'in natura', under single and double raking operations. For all treatments soil sampling analyzes were done to find out ground homogeneity conditions were the test took place. The simple raking operation offered better conditions for the machine: Effective Capacity of 8.21 t.{sup h}-{sup 1} and 0.88 ha.h{sup -1}; average bale weight of 22.33 kg (SD=3.58, CV=16.01 %); costs of 7.45 R$.t{sup -1} of baled residue; 0.17 R$.fardo{sup -1} and 69.47 R$.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  16. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  17. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  18. Museum material reveals a frog parasite emergence after the invasion of the cane toad in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalen David N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A parasite morphologically indistinguishable from Myxidium immersum (Myxozoa: Myxosporea found in gallbladders of the invasive cane toad (Bufo marinus was identified in Australian frogs. Because no written record exists for such a parasite in Australian endemic frogs in 19th and early 20th century, it was assumed that the cane toad introduced this parasite. While we cannot go back in time ourselves, we investigated whether material at the museum of natural history could be used to retrieve parasites, and whether they were infected at the time of their collection (specifically prior to and after the cane toad translocation to Australia in 1935. Results Using the herpetological collection at the Australian Museum we showed that no myxospores were found in any animals (n = 115 prior to the cane toad invasion (1879-1935. The green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii, the green tree frog (Litoria caerulea and the striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii were all negative for the presence of the parasite using microscopy of the gallbladder content and its histology. These results were sufficient to conclude that the population was free from this disease (at the expected minimum prevalence of 5% at 99.7% confidence level using the 115 voucher specimens in the Australian Museum. Similarly, museum specimens (n = 29 of the green and golden bell frog from New Caledonia, where it was introduced in 19th century, did not show the presence of myxospores. The earliest specimen positive for myxospores in a gallbladder was a green tree frog from 1966. Myxospores were found in eight (7.1%, n = 112 frogs in the post cane toad introduction period. Conclusion Australian wildlife is increasingly under threat, and amphibian decline is one of the most dramatic examples. The museum material proved essential to directly support the evidence of parasite emergence in Australian native frogs. This parasite can be

  19. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  20. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  1. ( Rosa damascena Mill.) by microbial inoculation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial inoculation in breaking seed dormancy and on the germination of Rosa damascena Mill. Seeds of R. damascena Mill. are the most used scented rose species in rose oil production. The most important production centers around the world are Turkey and ...

  2. Optimisation of milling parameters using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipski Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and test an intelligent computer software developed with the purpose of increasing average productivity of milling not compromising the design features of the final product. The developed system generates optimal milling parameters based on the extent of tool wear. The introduced optimisation algorithm employs a multilayer model of a milling process developed in the artificial neural network. The input parameters for model training are the following: cutting speed vc, feed per tooth fz and the degree of tool wear measured by means of localised flank wear (VB3. The output parameter is the surface roughness of a machined surface Ra. Since the model in the neural network exhibits good approximation of functional relationships, it was applied to determine optimal milling parameters in changeable tool wear conditions (VB3 and stabilisation of surface roughness parameter Ra. Our solution enables constant control over surface roughness parameters and productivity of milling process after each assessment of tool condition. The recommended parameters, i.e. those which applied in milling ensure desired surface roughness and maximal productivity, are selected from all the parameters generated by the model. The developed software may constitute an expert system supporting a milling machine operator. In addition, the application may be installed on a mobile device (smartphone, connected to a tool wear diagnostics instrument and the machine tool controller in order to supply updated optimal parameters of milling. The presented solution facilitates tool life optimisation and decreasing tool change costs, particularly during prolonged operation.

  3. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

  4. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafid

    2008-01-01

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  5. Developing capacities in aging studies in the Middle East: Implementation of an Arabic version of the CANE IV among community-dwelling older adults in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbiHabib, Laurie E; Chemaitelly, Hiam S; Jaalouk, Lina Y; Karam, Nadim E

    2011-07-01

    To assess the feasibility, reliability, and construct validity of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) in identifying needs among community-dwelling older adults in South Lebanon with a view towards expanding ageing research in the country. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 322 individuals, using the CANE, the EQ5d and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Reliability was determined through measuring internal consistency of the CANE. Construct validity was performed through examining CANE inter-item correlations, and comparing correlations with the EQ5d and socio-demographic indicators. A factor analysis was conducted using varimax orthogonal rotation. Cronbach alpha was 0.71. For construct validity, correlations were highest in items measuring needs in looking after the house and food (r = 0.557); company and intimate relationships (r = 0.572); and medication and written/verbal information (r = 0.586). Moderate correlations were found with EQ5d items assessing the same measure, including: EQ5d 'problems taking care of self' and CANE self-care (r = 0.578) and daytime activities (r = 0.523); EQ5d 'problems performing usual activities' and CANE daytime activities (r = 0.553), self-care (r = 0.511) and mobility (r = 0.500); and EQ5d 'problems while walking' and CANE mobility/falls (r = 0.509). Corresponding items of the CANE and EQ-5d were significantly correlated with similar socio-demographic variables. The factor analysis supported results obtained in the CANE inter-item correlations. The Arabic version of the CANE appears acceptable in assessing needs of older adults in South Lebanon. Given that the CANE is an interesting tool that promotes the integration of older persons' perspectives for appropriate interventions, further research is recommended to establish its validity and applicability in other communities in Lebanon and the region.

  6. Effects of cane girdling on yield, fruit quality and maturation of (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Flame Seedless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of cane girdling on coloration, maturation, yield and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Flame Seedless table grape variety. Cane girdling practices were treated at pea-size stage (G2 and veraison period (G1 over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the canes after first shoot was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife. On the other hand control vines were left untouched. Statistical analyses showed that TSS, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of Flame Seedless was significantly affected by the cane girdling treatments in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, titrable acidity and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value than control vines although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed 9 and 12 days earliness with G2 treatments compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  7. Aprovechamiento metabólico de granos de sorgo entero con diferentes contenidos de taninos en novillos británicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E Fernández

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la digestibilidad in vivo del almidón (DIVA del grano de sorgo entero, con altos y bajos contenidos de taninos (GSAT y GSBT, respectivamente, como suplemento, en machos bovinos en crecimiento; así como las pérdidas en heces y el efecto diferencial de estas pérdidas, según el contenido de taninos. Se establecieron dos tratamientos (T1 y T2 y dos repeticiones. Se empleó un diseño totalmente aleatorizado y cada animal constituyó una unidad experimental. Las dietas se suministraron una vez al día y estaban compuestas por diferentes proporciones de GSAT y GSBT, pellet de harina de girasol y heno de pastura mixta. El nivel proteínico fue de 18 y 15 % para el T1 y el T2, respectivamente. Se midió el consumo de MS (CMS, la digestibilidad in vivo de la MS (DIVMS, la DIVA y el consumo de agua por kilogramo de MS consumida. El CMS fue de 8,5 y 12,0 kg para el T1 y el T2, respectivamente, mientras que la DIVMS fue similar (71,64 y 71,66 %. La DIVA fue mayor en T1 (74,25 vs. 66,67 %; mientras que la pérdida de almidón en heces lo fue en T2 (31,56 vs. 27,27 %. El consumo de agua fue similar (1,8 L de agua/ kg de MS. Se concluye que hubo un comportamiento diferenciado en el aprovechamiento del grano de sorgo entero, debido al tamaño del animal y a los diferentes contenidos de taninos. Los terneros aprovecharon el 33 % de la oferta, y los novillos, el 25 %.

  8. APROVECHAMIENTO DE PULPA Y CÁSCARA DE PLÁTANO (Musa paradisiaca spp PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE MALTODEXTRINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA VICTORIA MELO-SABOGAL

    Full Text Available Los subproductos de las cadenas agroindustriales constituyen alrededor del 90% de la parte del cultivo, por lo cual, establecer alternativas de aprovechamiento puede ser importantes para los productores. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto del tratamiento enzimático sobre almidón obtenido de pulpa y cáscara de plátano (Musa paradisiaca spp. y se estableció el efecto de la temperatura de secado en almidón hidrolizado sobre propiedades químicas, físicas y reológicas. Se cuantificó la actividad de agua, el contenido de humedad y el contenido de dextrosa equivalente, azúcares reductores presentes en la maltodextrina por cromatografía líquida de alta eficacia; además se determinaron parámetros de color y reológicos. La hidrólisis enzimática presentó efecto significativo sobre la cantidad de dextrosa equivalente, permitió la obtención de maltotriosa, maltosa y glucosa, compuestos propios de maltodextrina, además, tuvo efecto sobre los parámetros reológicos, evidenciándose el cambio de la estructura del almidón. La temperatura de 130°C fue la que tuvo mayor efecto sobre las variables de actividad de agua, contenido de humedad y cambio de color. Lo anterior demuestra que es posible la obtención de maltodextrinas a partir de pulpa y cáscara de plátano por vía enzimática y secado por atomización a temperatura de 130°C.

  9. Elaboración de néctar de durazno (Prunus persica L., endulzado con sucralosa como aprovechamiento de pérdidas poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Alberto Pinto Medina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el durazno (Prunus persica L, así como en la mayoría de los frutos climatéricos, la calidad y el tiempo de vida útil comercial son afectados por los inadecuados manejos durante la cosecha, transporte y empaque, evidenciados por una serie de daños y defectos que el consumidor rechaza a la hora de adquirir el producto en fresco y que representan cuantiosas pérdidas al final del proceso de mercadeo, esta investigación se basó principalmente en el aprovechamiento de las pérdidas en durazno en el eslabón de la poscosecha, agroindustrializando la materia prima; se realizaron pruebas sensoriales para determinar la variedad más aceptada de tres probadas: Rubidoux, Dorado y Rubidoux-Dorado, no se evidenciaron diferencias significativas entre las muestras. Para darle valor agregado al producto, se fabricó néctar de la variedad Rubidoux endulzado con sucralosa, se realizaron análisis fisicoquímicos, microbiológicos y bromatológicos siguiendo la normatividad vigente. Se encontró que la sucralosa contribuyó a disminuir considerablemente el aporte calórico en el néctar elaborado, pasando de 48 Kcal/100g a 38,69 Kcal/100g. Se concluye que el costo de producción unitario para envase de 350ml ($ 1.054 resulta favorable, puesto que la rentabilidad puede superar el 40%, para un precio de venta de $1.476, generando un producto competitivo en el mercado, dada la calidad y el valor agregado como alimento funcional

  10. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  11. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertello, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author) [es

  12. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  13. Análisis de la dinámica de poblaciones silvestres de Chigüiros Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 como herramienta de manejo hacia el aprovechamiento sostenible y la conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mesa González

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el comportamiento de la dinámica de poblaciones silvestres de chigüiros bajo diferentes condiciones del hábitat y presiones antrópicas, y se formuló una herramienta técnica para apoyar la gestión de manejo que realiza la autoridad ambiental regional relacionada con el aprovechamiento sostenible y la conservación de la especie. Se generó un modelo de simulación determinístico que representa la dinámica de poblaciones silvestres de chigüiros, como resultado de procesos biológicos de natalidad y mortalidad, y del aprovechamiento extractivo anual de individuos en hatos de los municipios de Paz de Ariporo y Hato Corozal (Casanare, Colombia. Una interfase fue diseñada para facilitar el uso del modelo y construir escenarios para simular diferentes alternativas de manejo. El modelo fue usado para evaluar el efecto a largo plazo de la cosecha o extracción de individuos mediante la caza comercial, la cosecha selectiva de adultos por sexos, la presencia de adecuaciones y la variación del área de hábitat adecuado disponible sobre la tendencia de abundancia de tres poblaciones silvestres de chigüiros en la zona de estudio. Las simulaciones realizadas bajo los diferentes escenarios permitieron establecer las distintas respuestas de cada población a los cambios realizados en la tasa de cosecha y el área de hábitat y así recomendar acciones de manejo. Los escenarios evaluados destacan la importancia de hacer una extracción selectiva de adultos por sexos para realizar un aprovechamiento sostenible de la población y garantizarsu conservación. Así mismo, se destaca la importancia de mantener mayores áreas con hábitat adecuado.

  14. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, Jackie A; Halliday, Damien C T; Robinson, Anthony J; Venables, Daryl; Voysey, Rhonda D; Boyle, Donna G; Shanmuganathan, Thayalini; Hardy, Christopher M; Siddon, Nicole A; Hyatt, Alex D

    2011-01-25

    The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus) marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs), developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin) and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels) measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  15. Comparison of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Copper in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sarah Adriana R; Costa, Silvânio Silvério L; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny O; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Dantas, Alailson Falcão

    2018-05-01

    Three spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of copper (Cu) in sugar cane spirit using the chromogenic reagents neocuproine, cuprizone, and bathocuproine. Experimental conditions, such as reagent concentration, reducer concentration, pH, buffer concentration, the order of addition of reagents, and the stability of the complexes, were optimized. The work range was established from 1.0 to 10.0 µg/mL, with correlation coefficients of >0.999 for all three optimized methods. The methods were evaluated regarding accuracy by addition and recovery tests at five concentration levels, and the obtained recoveries ranged from 91 to 105% (n = 3). Precision was expressed as RSD (relative standard deviation), with values ranging from 0.01 to 0.17% (n = 10). The method using the chromogenic reagent cuprizone presented the greatest molar absorptivity, followed by bathocuproine and neocuproine. The methods were applied for the determination of Cu in sugar cane spirit, and the results were compared with a reference method by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Calibration curve solutions for FAAS analysis were prepared in a 40% (v/v) alcohol medium in a range of concentrations from 0.5 up to 5 µg/mL. Measurements for Cu determination were carried out at a wavelength of 324.7 nm. The concentrations obtained for Cu in sugar cane spirit samples from Brazil were between 1.99 and 12.63 µg/mL, and about 75% of the samples presented Cu concentrations above the limit established by Brazilian legislation (5.0 µg/mL or 5.0 mg/L).

  16. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  17. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  18. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  19. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Sampaio Barbosa Matos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. Methods: This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1, 7 (EG7, and 21 (EG21. After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. Results: No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively. In comparison with the CG and EG1, angiogenesis in the lung parenchyma and collagen deposition in tracheal tissues were significantly greater only in EG21 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively. Conclusions: In this sample, emissions from sugar cane burning induced acute focal and diffuse inflammation in the lamina propria of tracheal tissues, with no loss of ciliated epithelial tissue. In the lung parenchyma of the animals in the experimental groups, there was interstitial and alveolar edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates.

  20. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.60 Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane... Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii in the State of Hawaii. [40 FR 8504, Feb. 27, 1975] ...

  1. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G. A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Brouwer, D. M.; van der Velde, J.; Verstraten, P. F.; Kempen, G.I.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and

  2. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision : design of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G. A. R.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Scherder, E. J. A.; Brouwer, D. M.; van der Velde, J.; Verstraten, P. F. J.; Kempen, G. I. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training) in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and

  3. Estructura flotante e instalación para el aprovechamiento de la energía del oleaje utilizando un catamarán flotante con varias cámaras de columna de agua oscilante.

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Pascual, César; Medina Santamaría, Raúl; Losada Rodríguez, Íñigo

    2011-01-01

    Una estructura flotante para el aprovechamiento de la energía del oleaje, que comprende múltiples cámaras independientes de columna de agua oscilante (CAO) alineadas, abiertas por el fondo, estando cada cámara comunicada por la parte superior con la atmósfera a través de un grupo turbo-generador formado por un conducto de aire, en cuyo interior se ubican una válvula de control del flujo de aire y una turbina de aire auto-rectificadora conectada a un alternador. Solicitud: 201100242 (28.02....

  4. Evaluación de residuos sólidos generados en la industria del aserrío y su aprovechamiento con alternativas de tecnologías limpias, Iquitos - Loreto - Perú, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollón Maestre, Guillermo Enrique; Silva Doza, Luz Liliana

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en el departamento de Loreto, provincia de Maynas, en los aserraderos que se encontraban en actividad, las mismas que recayeron en: Netrimac SAC, Raúl Oswaldo Oliveira García E.I.R.L, Zambito E.I.R.L.y Sico Maderas S.A.C. La información fue recolectada en los meses de Marzo - Abril del presente año. El estudio tuvo como finalidad cuantificar la generación residuos sólidos en los aserraderos de Iquitos y proponer alternativas de aprovechamiento c...

  5. Aprovechamiento de energía, cinemática y estabilidad en la marcha de un paciente con amputación transfemoral sin abordaje de rehabilitación

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Fábrica; Iliana Peña; Valentina Silva-Pereyra; Virginia Ramos-Arim

    2018-01-01

    Introducción. Los pacientes con amputación de miembros inferiores presentan marcadas asimetrías en la marcha, las cuales pueden aumentar cuando no se cumple con un adecuado proceso de rehabilitación, comprometiendo los objetivos fundamentales de la marcha e incrementando factores de riesgo. Objetivo. Analizar el grado de aprovechamiento de energía mecánica, la estabilidad dinámica y las variables cinemáticas de interés clínico en la marcha de un paciente con amputación transfemoral que no...

  6. An extended topological Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Shinichi

    1992-01-01

    Introducing infinite number of fields, we construct an extended version of the topological Yang-Mills theory. The properties of the extended topological Yang-Mills theory (ETYMT) are discussed from standpoint of the covariant canonical quantization. It is shown that the ETYMT becomes a cohomological topological field theory or a theory equivalent to a quantum Yang-Mills theory with anti-self-dual constraint according to subsidiary conditions imposed on state-vector space. On the basis of the ETYMT, we may understand a transition from an unbroken phase to a physical phase (broken phase). (author)

  7. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  8. Environmental design of a uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, C.H.; Ring, R.J.; McNaughton, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

  9. Sugar cane consumption on Rapanui (Easter Island) and the indicence of caries : evidence from stable isotope values of human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, B.F.; Quinn, C.J.; Seelenfreund, A.

    2017-01-01

    Pre-European people on Rapanui are known to have had a high rate of dental caries. One proposed explanation for this is that the people consumed a considerable amount of sugar cane, as a thirst quencher, since fresh water is scarce on the island. Human bone samples were analysed by isotope analysis to see if this explanation could be sustained. Results for three isotopes δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N and δ"3"4S were then used in a stochastic model to estimate the proportions of five main food types in the diet of these people. This indicated that daily consumption of dry raw sugar cane was only about 32 to 42 g per day. This is very low and sugar cane consumption is therefore unlikely to be the only cause of the high rate of dental caries. (author).

  10. Chemometric characterization of alembic and industrial sugar cane spirits from cape verde and ceará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Regina F R; Vidal, Carla B; de Lima, Ari C A; Melo, Diego Q; Dantas, Allan N S; Lopes, Gisele S; do Nascimento, Ronaldo F; Gomes, Clerton L; da Silva, Maria Nataniela

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate); copper; and sulfates.

  11. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  12. Optimization of solid state fermentation of sugar cane by Aspergillus niger considering particles size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Delgado, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba)); Espinosa, M.E. (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas, La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    The protein enrichment of sugar cane by solid state fermentation employing Aspergillus niger was optimized in a packed bed column using a two Factor Central Composit Design {alpha} = 2, considering as independent factors the particle diameter corresponding to different times of grinding for a sample and the air flow rate. It was significative for the air flow rate (optimum 4.34 VKgM) and the particle diameter (optimum 0.136 cm). The average particle size distribution, shape factor, specific surface, volume-surface mean diameter, number of particles, real and apparent density and holloweness for the different times of grinding were determined, in order to characterize the samples. (orig.).

  13. Relation between climate and diesel fuel rate consumption for sugar cane agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, some results are shown of a study carried out within the ENERCLIMA project. The principal objective was to establish the relationship between diesel fuel rate consumption by agricultural equipment in activities related to sugar cane production and simple climatic variables. Through a statistical analysis, we show the possibility of obtaining statistical models of an acceptable confidence level, as applied to some of these activities, which could be used in order to plan more rationally the level of fuel consumption of the agricultural companies with access to meteorological stations located nearby

  14. Potential of Trichoderma species on Helminthosporium causing leaf spot on cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Svinningen, A; Mikunthan, G

    2008-01-01

    The cane palm, Chrysalidocarpus lutescens is one among the plant material of the export industries in Sri Lanka. The export quality of C. lutescens was declined due to the repeated occurrence of a leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium. Widespread occurrence of the leaf spot affected the cane palm production and succumb it to a huge setback in the floriculture industry in Sri Lanka. Being an export industry eco-friendly means of disease control was the prime focus for a better management of such vulnerable disease. Trichoderma is a potential bio agent, which has definite role in suppressing the inoculum of Helminthosporium sp. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to control naturally established leaf spot in cane palm under field conditions. Three isolates of T. viride and two isolates of T. harzianum were evaluated. All the Trichoderma species performed significantly in reducing the disease incidence. T. viride + T. harzianum combination (1 x 10(10) cfu/ml) was the best compared to chemical in decreasing the mean disease severity index and improving the frequency of healthy plants. The colour of the leaves regained due to the application of Trichoderma sp. The results revealed that leaf spot incidence was lowered significantly in cane palms treated with Trichoderma species followed by treatment with combination of Trichoderma sp. and fungicides. The fungicide mixture (hexaconozole 50 g/l + Isoprothiolane 400 g/l) failed to lower the disease incidence and had no effect in suppressing the inocula of Helminthosporium, although recommended. Mixing of Trichoderma species with fungicide did not exhibit any additive effect. The combination of different species of Trichoderma would target species of Helminthosporium that exist as a complex group under field conditions. The results also proved that the existence of heterogeneity in Helminthosporium that could be tackled and effectively controlled by a combination of different species of the bio

  15. Cyclic AMP regulates the biosynthesis of cellobiohydrolase in Cellulomonas flavigena growing in sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Herrera, Jesús Antonio; Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    Cellulomonas flavigena produces a battery of cellulase components that act concertedly to degrade cellulose. The addition of cAMP to repressed C. flavigena cultures released catabolic repression, while addition of cAMP to induced C. flavigena cultures led to a cellobiohydrolase hyperproduction. Exogenous cAMP showed positive regulation on cellobiohydrolase production in C. flavigena grown on sugar cane bagasse. A C. flavigena cellobiohydrolase gene was cloned (named celA), which coded for a 71- kDa enzyme. Upstream, a repressor celR1, identified as a 38 kDa protein, was monitored by use of polyclonal antibodies.

  16. Kinetics of volatile metabolites during alcoholic fermentation of cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachot, T; Mueller, M; Pons, M N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and fusel alcohols during alcoholic fermentations on cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been obtained via an in-situ gas membrane sensor connected to a gas chromatograph. Various operation parameters have been investigated such as inoculum rate, molasses concentration, operation mode (batch, fed-batch). The modification of fusel alcohols kinetics in response to addition of amino acids has been studied as well as the assimilation of two intermediary aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde and isobutyraldehyde) in the fusel alcohol synthesis pathway. (orig.).

  17. Unintentional fall injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults treated in U.S. emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A; Thomas, Karen; Teh, Leesia; Greenspan, Arlene I

    2009-08-01

    To characterize nonfatal, unintentional, fall-related injuries associated with walkers and canes in older adults. Surveillance data of injuries treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs), January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program, which collects data from a nationally representative stratified probability sample of 66 U.S. hospital EDs. People aged 65 and older treated in EDs for 3,932 nonfatal unintentional fall injuries and whose records indicated that a cane or a walker was involved in the fall. Sex, age, whether the fall involved a cane or walker, primary diagnosis, part of the body injured, disposition, and location and circumstances of the fall. An estimated 47,312 older adult fall injuries associated with walking aids were treated annually in U.S. EDs: 87.3% with walkers, 12.3% with canes, and 0.4% with both. Walkers were associated with seven times as many injuries as canes. Women's injury rates exceeded those for men (rate ratios=2.6 for walkers, 1.4 for canes.) The most prevalent injuries were fractures and contusions or abrasions. Approximately one-third of subjects were hospitalized for their injuries. Injuries and hospital admissions for falls associated with walking aids were frequent in this highly vulnerable population. The results suggest that more research is needed to improve the design of walking aids. More information also is needed about the circumstances preceding falls, both to better understand the contributing fall risk factors and to develop specific and effective fall prevention strategies.

  18. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated feed mill license applications (Forms FDA 3448) may...

  19. 40 CFR 61.142 - Standard for asbestos mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for asbestos mills. 61.142... § 61.142 Standard for asbestos mills. (a) Each owner or operator of an asbestos mill shall either discharge no visible emissions to the outside air from that asbestos mill, including fugitive sources, or...

  20. Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-05-01

    This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rough mill simulator version 3.0: an analysis tool for refining rough mill operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Thomas; Joel Weiss

    2006-01-01

    ROMI-3 is a rough mill computer simulation package designed to be used by both rip-first and chop-first rough mill operators and researchers. ROMI-3 allows users to model and examine the complex relationships among cutting bill, lumber grade mix, processing options, and their impact on rough mill yield and efficiency. Integrated into the ROMI-3 software is a new least-...

  2. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  3. A cane reduces loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy: results from a challenging unipedal balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton-Miller, J A; Yeh, M W; Richardson, J K; Galloway, T

    1996-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that use of a cane in the nondominant hand during challenging balance tasks would significantly decrease loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy while transferring from bipedal to unipedal stance on an unsteady surface. Nonrandomized control study. Tertiary-care institution. Eight consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and eight age- and gender-matched controls (C) with a mean (SD) age of 65 (8.2) years. Subjects were asked to transfer their weight onto their right foot, despite a rapid +/- 2 degrees or +/- 4 degrees frontal plane tilt of the support surface at 70% of weight transfer, and balance unipedally for at least 3 seconds. The efficacy of their weight transfer was evaluated over 112 consecutive randomized and blocked trials by calculating loss of balance as failure rates (%FR) with and without visual feedback, and with and without use of a cane in the nondominant (left) hand. Results were analyzed using a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance (rm-ANOVA) and post hoc t tests. The rm-ANOVA showed that the FR of the PN subjects (47.6% [18.1%]) was significantly higher than C (29.2% [15.2%], p = .036). Removing visual feedback, simulating the dark of night, increased the FR fourfold (p = .000). Use of a cane in the contralateral nondominant hand significantly reduced the FR (p = .000), particularly in the PN group (cane x disease interaction: p = .055). Post hoc t tests showed that with or without visual feedback, the cane reduced the FR of the PN group fourfold and enabled them to perform more reliably than matched controls not using a cane (p = .011). An inversion perturbation resulted in a higher FR than an eversion perturbation (p = .007). The PN group employed larger mean peak cane forces (21.9% BW) than C (13.6% BW) in restoring their balance (p = .000). Use of a cane by PN patients significantly reduced their risk of losing balance on unstable surfaces, especially under low

  4. Environmental impact estimation of the sugar cane cultivation, using the methodology of the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra D, Juan Felipe; Vargas V, Olga Rocio

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the results of a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) for traditional and organic cultivation of sugar cane in Valle del Cauca. Eco-scores obtained for each case, shown that organic cultivation is less harmful, in environmental terms, than traditional one. In the last one, the biomass burning process, made to facilitate the crop, is the principal environmental problem, while in the first one, it is the use of pollinaza, an organic fertilizer based on these results recommendations were made to obtain significant reduction in the impact of the sugar cane cultivation

  5. Effects of milling on functional properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, R S; Bryant, R J; Miller, J A

    2008-05-01

    A commercial long-grain rice flour (CRF) and the flours made by using a pin mill and the Udy mill from the same batch of broken second-head white long-grain rice were evaluated for their particle size and functional properties. The purpose of this study was to compare the commercial rice flour milling method to the pin and Udy milling methods used in our laboratory and pilot plant. The results showed that pin milled flour had more uniform particle size than the other 2 milled flours. The chalky kernels found in broken white milled rice were pulverized more into fines in both Udy milled flour and CRF than in the pin milled flour. The excessive amount of fines in flours affected their functional properties, for example, WSI and their potential usage in the novel foods such as rice breads (RB). The RB made from CRF collapsed more than loaves made from pin milled Cypress long-grain flours.

  6. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  7. Two loop diagrams in Yang Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.T.

    1974-01-01

    A calculation of the renormalization constants of the Yang Mills field to 0(g 4 ) is presented. The function β(g) is hence evaluated to 0(g 5 ) and possible implications for gauge theories of the strong interactions discussed

  8. Health risks from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the risk to public health and the environment from uranium mill tailings. The steps taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reduce this risk from tailing are summarized

  9. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, M.; Somot, S.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated three main types of uranium mill tailings: (1) acid mill tailings (Mounana, Gabon), (2) neutralized acid mill tailings (Ecarpiere and Jouac, France) and (3) alkaline mill tailings (Lodeve, France). We have focused especially on radium behaviour which is of major environmental concern in these tailings, but other metals were also studied. It is shown that in type 1 , trapping of 226 Ra by anglesite and barite is dominant whereas in types 2 and 3, 226 Ra is mainly or significantly scavenged by Fe- Mn oxyhydroxides. This study points out the importance of keeping conditions in which these oxyhydroxides will be stable for the long-term. Uranium would be also released during acidification of the tailings. This shows the importance to know more about the behavior of Ra during the crystallization of oxyhydroxides and during tailings diagenesis. Therefore, it is very important to study the sorption of Ra by clay minerals or late authigeneous minerals such as barite. (author)

  11. Infrared finiteness in Yang--Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Carazzone, J.; Kluberg-Stern, H.; Roth, M.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared divergences of renormalizable theories with coupled massless fields (in particular, the Yang--Mills theory) are shown to cancel for transition probabilities corresponding to finite-energy-resolution detectors, just as in quantum electrodynamics. This result is established through lowest nontrivial order in perturbation theory for the detection of massive muons in a quantum electrodynamic theory containing massless electrons or the detection of massive quarks in a Yang--Mills theory

  12. VOC Control in Kraft Mills; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA)

  13. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  14. Yang Mills instantons, geometrical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.

    1977-09-01

    The word instanton has been coined by analogy with the word soliton. They both refer to solutions of elliptic non linear field equations with boundary conditions at infinity (of euclidean space time in the first case, euclidean space in the second case) lying on the set of classical vacua in such a way that stable topological properties emerge, susceptible to survive quantum effects, if those are small. Under this assumption, instantons are believed to be relevant to the description of tunnelling effects between classical vacua and signal some characteristics of the vacuum at the quantum level, whereas solitons should be associated with particles, i.e. discrete points in the mass spectrum. In one case the euclidean action is finite, in the other case, the energy is finite. From the mathematical point of view, the geometrical phenomena associated with the existence of solitons have forced physicists to learn rudiments of algebraic topology. The study of euclidean classical Yang Mills fields involves naturally mathematical items falling under the headings: differential geometry (fibre bundles, connections); differential topology (characteristic classes, index theory) and more recently algebraic geometry. These notes are divided as follows: a first section is devoted to a description of the physicist's views; a second section is devoted to the mathematician's vie

  15. Crescimento da parte aérea de cana crua e queimada Shoot growth of green and burned canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan André Alvarez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos: 1. comparar o crescimento de cana colhida crua, mecanizada e de cana após a queima, colhida manualmente; 2. avaliar a influência do clima sobre as duas condições de crescimento e 3. analisar o comportamento do crescimento de cana crua e cana queimada nos 1º e 2º anos de rebrota, através de curvas adaptadas. A pesquisa foi realizada no município de Morro Agudo, SP, de julho de 1995 a julho de 1997. A variedade cultivada foi a SP 70 -1143. Utilizaram-se como indicadores de crescimento os seguintes índices biométricos: número de perfilhos, número de folhas, matéria seca de colmos e de folhas, IAF e avaliou-se a influência das temperaturas e das umidades do ar, do solo e das folhas. Adotou-se regressão polinomial e regressão não-linear para se adaptar os dados às curvas de crescimento. O crescimento no primeiro ciclo foi semelhante para cana crua e cana queimada. No início do segundo ciclo ocorreu maior crescimento em cana crua, enquanto que no final, foi maior em cana queimada. O perfilhamento da cana crua não apresentou diferenças significativas que confirmem a influência negativa da palha na rebrota. Os fatores climatológicos, isoladamente, não provocaram mudanças nos ciclos de crescimento de maneira que se identificasse uma tendência geral. As diferenças expressas na curva de crescimento do 1º para o 2º ano são devidas aos fatores climatológicos, tanto para cana crua como para cana queimada.This work had as objectives: 1. to compare the shoot growth between green cane, mechanically harvested and burned cane, harvested manually; 2. to evaluate the influence of the weather on the two conditions of growth and 3. to analyze the growth of green cane and cane burned in the 1st and 2nd years of second ratoon cane crop, by means of adapted curves. The research was performed in Morro Agudo, SP, Brazil from July 1995 to July 1997. The cultivar was the SP 70 -1143. As growth indicators the

  16. SOURCES OF GROWTH OF SUGAR CANE PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL AND SOUTHEAST OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Moreira Bittencourt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing the determinants of variations in the production of sugar cane in Southeast and Midwest of the Brazil, between 1990 and 2009, measuring the effects area, productivity and composition. The theoretical framework consists of the conceptualization of the modernization of agriculture and the description of the theory of induced innovation. The empirical analysis is based on the work of the Shift-Share model, also known as a differential structure. In the results from 1990 to 2009 (total period, there is the hypothesis of the higher average yield of sugarcane in the Southeast and of the pattern of growth production by area in the Midwest. On the other hand, in the period 2005 to 2009, where the two regions in question had the highest growth rates of production of sugar cane, the composition effect revealed the most significant values, showing that the expansion of sugarcane production has occurred in these regions, mainly by substituting other crops by land less profitable.

  17. Evaluation of Sugar Cane Genotypes in different Environments in Ingenio Ofelina, Republic of Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Jorge Suárez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and classification of the different test sites and their evaluation for the study of the genotypes becomes obligatory, in the breeding programs, also the knowledge of the adaptability of the cultivars allows to maximize their production. The objective of the work was to determine the adaptability and phenotypic stability of new cultivars introduced in CALESA by means of the Twodimensional Representation method (Biplot, in two crops, as well as recommending those with the best agroproductive behavior under soil and climate conditions, of the Ingenio Ofelina. Twenty cultivars were planted in red Ferralitic, Brown without carbonate and Ferralitic quartzitic soils. The crop variables studied were: cane yield, pol yield and percentage of pol in cane. The environmental effect and the genotype-environment interaction were superior to that of the genotypes in the contribution to the total phenotypic variation. The cultivars E07-04, E07-09, BT84102 and Na56-42 in the three agrosugar characters were stable and adapted to the different environmental conditions and showed a sugar content similar or superior to the controls. The main component’s analysis offered the formation of six different groups which correspond to the environments evaluated, there being a small approach between environment 2 and 4.

  18. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  19. Formation of Polyphenol-Denatured Protein Flocs in Alcohol Beverages Sweetened with Refined Cane Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-11-08

    The sporadic appearance of floc from refined, white cane sugars in alcohol beverages remains a technical problem for both beverage manufacturers and sugar refiners. Cane invert sugars mixed with 60% pure alcohol and water increased light scattering by up to ∼1000-fold. Insoluble and soluble starch, fat, inorganic ash, oligosaccharides, Brix, and pH were not involved in the prevailing floc-formation mechanism. Strong polynomial correlations existed between the haze floc and indicator values (IVs) (color at 420 nm pH 9.0/color at pH 4.0-an indirect measure of polyphenolic and flavonoid colorants) (R 2 = 0.815) and protein (R 2 = 0.819) content of the invert sugars. Ethanol-induced denaturation of the protein exposed hydrophobic polyphenol-binding sites that were further exposed when heated to 80 °C. A tentative mechanism for floc formation was advanced by molecular probing with a haze (floc) active protein and polyphenol as well as polar, nonpolar, and ionic solvents.

  20. Rudimentary, low tech incinerators as a means to produce reactive pozzolan out of sugar cane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirena, Fernando; Middendorf, Bernhard; Day, Robert L.; Gehrke, Matthias; Roque, Pablo; Martinez, Lesday; Betancourt, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The ashes of agricultural wastes from the processing of sugar cane are recognized as having pozzolanic properties. Burning of these wastes under controlled conditions, e.g. temperature and residence time results in significant improvement in reactivity. There are many reports of low-tech incinerators that have been successfully used to produce reactive rice husk ash in Asia. The paper presents the results of the evaluation of a rudimentary incinerator where sugar cane straw is burnt in order to obtain a reactive ash. The incinerator is designed and constructed according to state-of-the-art recommendations for this kind of device. Various burning trials were performed in order to obtain ash for the experiment. X-ray diffraction analysis performed on powdered ash shows significant presence of amorphous (glassy) material. Lime-pozzolana pastes were prepared. The pastes were subjected to X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, chemical titration, and SEM observation, as a means to examine the pozzolanicity of the ash via the progress with time of calcium hydroxide consumption, and changes in the pore size distribution and strength. Calcium silicate hydrate phases are the main reaction product of the pozzolanic reaction. The long residence time of the ash in the burning chamber seems to be the reason for the fairly low reactivity of the ash; the reactivity of the ash was not significantly improved in comparison with that of the ash burnt in uncontrolled conditions in the open air

  1. Development and application of a thermophysical property model for cane fiberboard subjected to high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensel, S.J.; Gromada, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A thermophysical property model has been developed to analytically determine the thermal response of cane fiberboard when exposed to temperatures and heat fluxes associated with the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident condition (HAC) and associated post fire cooling. The complete model was developed from high temperature cane fiberboard 1-D test results and consists of heating and cooling sub-models. The heating property model accounts for the enhanced heat transfer of the hot gases in the fiberboard, the loss of energy via venting, and the loss of mass from venting during the heating portion of the test. The cooling property model accounts for the degraded material effects and the continued heat transfer associated with the hot gases after removal of the external heating source. Agreement between the test results of a four inch thick fiberboard sample with the analytical application of the complete property model is quite good and will be presented. A comparison of analysis results and furnace test data for the 9966 package suggests that the property model sufficiently accounts for the heat transfer in an actual package

  2. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  3. Multiscale Alterations in Sugar Cane Bagasse and Straw Submitted to Alkaline Deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cleilton S. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rabelo, Sarita C. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Ciesielski, Peter N. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Roberto, Inês C. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rocha, George J. M. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Driemeier, Carlos [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    2018-01-31

    Alkaline deacetylation has emerged as a promising chemistry for pretreatments performed prior to enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. This process avoids complex pressurized reactors and opens new opportunities for lignin covalorization. In this work, we evaluate the chemical and morphological response of sugar cane bagasse and straw submitted to alkaline treatments. Alkaline solutions for deacetylation (0.4% w/w NaOH, 70 degrees C, 3 h) as well as proximal conditions (0.1-0.7% NaOH, 55-85 degrees C, 1-5 h) chosen by 23 experimental design were evaluated. The deacetylation treatment removes ~90% of the acetyl groups and 20-30% of the lignin from both bagasse and straw, while removal of ~20% of the xylan and glucan is observed in straw, but not in bagasse. Considering nanoscale structural alterations, neither cellulose cocrystallization (evaluated by X-ray diffraction) nor formation of lignin aggregates (evaluated by thermoporometric signature) are observed after the alkaline conditions, in contrast to observations after hydrothermal treatments. Furthermore, calorimetric thermoporometry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies show substantial introduction of nanoscale porosity and loosening of the tissue and cell wall structures, indicating desirable mechanical weakening and gains in enzyme accessibility. These results provide fundamental and practical knowledge for biorefineries based on alkaline deacetylation of sugar cane bagasse and straw.

  4. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo, E-mail: augustobezerra@des.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de, E-mail: laurenn@cemig.com [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Gomes, Romero Cesar, E-mail: romero@nugeo.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino, E-mail: teresa@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  5. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  6. Cane molasses fermentation for continuous ethanol production in an immobilized cells reactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, Farshid; Younesi, Habibollah; Esmaeili Sari, Abbas [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, P.O. Box: 64414-356 (Iran); Najafpour, Ghasem [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran)

    2011-02-15

    Sodium-alginate immobilized yeast was employed to produce ethanol continuously using cane molasses as a carbon source in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR). The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was performed by entrapment of the cell cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase (16 h) with 3% sodium alginate. During the initial stage of operation, the ICR was loaded with fresh beads of mean diameter of 5.01 mm. The ethanol production was affected by the concentration of the cane molasses (50, 100 and 150 g/l), dilution rates (0.064, 0.096, 0.144 and 0.192 h{sup -1}) and hydraulic retention time (5.21, 6.94, 10.42 and 15.63 h) of the media. The pH of the feed medium was set at 4.5 and the fermentation was carried out at an ambient temperature. The maximum ethanol production, theoretical yield (Y{sub E/S}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub P}) and total sugar consumption was 19.15 g/l, 46.23%, 2.39 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 96%, respectively. (author)

  7. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo; Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de; Gomes, Romero Cesar; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  8. Sugar cane manufacturing is associated with tuberculosis in an indigenous population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Flávia Patussi Correia; Croda, Mariana Garcia; Estevan, Anderson Oliveira; Ko, Albert I; Croda, Julio

    2013-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among indigenous peoples in Brazil, and identifying the risk factors for TB in this population secondary to specific epidemiological conditions is essential for recommending interventions aimed at disease control. This case-control study was conducted with an indigenous population between June 2009 and August 2011 in Dourados, Brazil. Tuberculosis cases reported to the national disease surveillance programme were paired with two control cases matched by age and geographic location. There were 63 cases included in this study, and the annual incidence of TB in the indigenous communities examined was 222 (95% CI, 148-321) per 100 000 inhabitants. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the variables associated with TB infection included male gender (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3-5.3), not owning a home (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2-10.1), illiteracy (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.0), TB contact (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8) and work performed in a sugar cane factory (OR 6.8; 95% CI 1.2-36.9). There is a potential relationship between exposure to sugar cane manufacturing processes and tuberculosis infection among indigenous populations.

  9. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  10. Effects of Dry-Milling and Wet-Milling on Chemical, Physical and Gelatinization Properties of Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitranut Leewatchararongjaroen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice flour from nine varieties, subjected to dry- and wet-milling processes, was determined for its physical and chemical properties. The results revealed that milling method had an effect on properties of flour. Wet-milling process resulted in flour with significantly lower protein and ash contents and higher carbohydrate content. Wet-milled flour also tended to have lower lipid content and higher amylose content. In addition, wet-milled rice flour contained granules with smaller average size compared to dry-milled samples. Swelling power at 90 °C of wet-milled samples was higher while solubility was significantly lower than those of dry-milled flour. Dry milling process caused the destruction of the crystalline structure and yielded flour with lower crystallinity compared to wet-milling process, which resulted in significantly lower gelatinization enthalpy.

  11. Exploitation of biogas in municipal in slaughterhouses: Technical-economical evaluation; Aprovechamiento de biogas en rastros y mataderos municipales: Evaluacion tecnica-economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Hernandez, Donaji A; Castaneda Sanchez, Arlem M; Garcia Galeana, Erika [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Facultad de Ingenieria (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays the treatment of the solid and liquid remainders in the municipal slaughter houses is small because of the idea that the treatment is expensive; nevertheless, it is important to take advantage of them, since this can reduce to the environmental impacts they cause, as well as the discharge of greenhouse effect gas. The use of bio digesters for the treatment of these remainders has become an efficient process to avoid the exit of methane gas to the atmosphere, taking advantage of the biogas and other residues to produce electricity. The elaboration of a technical-economical evaluation of a pilot plant shows the costs of investment, maintenance, as well as the income that can be obtained by the total usage of these residues and the savings in the electrical power consumption. The analysis of this study demonstrates that the use of biogas through bio-digesters for the generation of electrical energy is a profitable option for the treatment of the residues, because the income by the sale of compost, blood flour, as well as the diminution of the electrical tariff, justifies the initial investment. These projects will be more attractive, if they use financing and are registered as MDL projects. [Spanish] Actualmente el tratamiento de los desechos solidos y liquidos en los rastros y mataderos municipales es poco pues se tiene la idea de que el tratamiento es costoso; sin embargo, es importante que se aprovechen ya que esto puede reducir los impactos ambientales que provocan, asi como la emision de gases de efecto invernadero. El uso de biodigestores para el tratamiento de estos desechos, se ha convertido en un proceso eficiente para evitar la salida de gas metano a la atmosfera, aprovechando el biogas y otros residuos para producir electricidad. La elaboracion de una evaluacion tecnica-economica de una planta piloto, muestra los costos de inversion, mantenimiento, asi como los ingresos que se pueden obtener por el aprovechamiento total de estos residuos y el

  12. Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Oliveira Ferreira Mendes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mendes C.deO.F., Silva A.C., Leal L.C.deS.R., Barbosa C.G & Bittencourt A.J. [Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae biology in byproducts of sugar cane industry.] Biologia de Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera:Muscidae em subprodutos da indústria sucroalcoleira. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:23-30, 2016. Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23.890-000, Brasil. E-mail: camilamendes1009@gmail.com Stomoxys calcitrans fly is one of the dipterans of importance for livestock farming due to the considerable economic losses it determines worldwide. An aspect that favors the occurrence of this insect's outbreaks in Brazil is the generation of large quantities of by-products from the alcohol industry, such as vinasse, sugarcane straw, bagasse, filtercake and ashes. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible interference of vinasse and ashes on the immature stages of S. calcitrans, by comparing the biological parameters observed with or without the presence of these substrates. In Experiment I, three groups of 50 eggs were deposited in a diet composed of one kilogram of chopped cane and 250mL, 500mL and 1L of vinasse (groups 1, 2 and 3. In the control groups, distilled water was added to the chopped cane in the same proportions used in the groups treated with vinasse. In Experiment II, three groups of 50 larvae from eight to 10 days of emergence were deposited on a diet composed of cane, vinasse and ashes. The ashes were used in the proportion of 1, 2 and 3% (groups 1, 2 and 3 of sugar cane (100g and vinasse was used in the proportion of 100mL for all groups and their respective controls. The control group contained only sugarcane and vinasse. Both experiments were kept in a climatized chamber (27 ± 1°C and 70-80% RH, and three replications were performed. After Experiment I, it was verified that

  13. Tecnologías para el aprovechamiento del gas producido por la digestión anaeróbica de la materia orgánica Technologies for the utlilzation of gas derived from anaerobic digestion of organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández A. Luis Alfredo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento energético del gas metano, compuesto principal del biogás, subproducto gaseoso producido de la fermentación anaeróbica de la materia orgánica, en forma sólida o soluble, constituye un factor importante que complementa las bondades tenológicas para la implantación y desarrollo de sistemas de tratamiento de residuos orgánicos mediante la digestión anaeróbica. El presente artículo muestra las bondades técnicas y operativas en la implementación de tecnologías para el aprovechamiento energético del biogás en motores de combustión, lámparas para alumbrado, quemadores domésticos e idustriales y calderas.Energetic use of methane gas, main component of biogas, by product gas of anaerobic fermentation of organic material both solid or soluble forms. It's a more important factor that helps to implantation of technologies for the development of sistem for trataments of organic wastes from anaerobic digestions. The present article shows the technical operative advantages in the improvement of technologies for energetics use of biogas for
    combustion engines, lamps of lightening, domestic and industrial fires and boilers.

  14. Hybrid ABC Optimized MARS-Based Modeling of the Milling Tool Wear from Milling Run Experimental Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garc?a Nieto, Paulino Jos?; Garc?a-Gonzalo, Esperanza; Ord??ez Gal?n, Celestino; Bernardo S?nchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Milling cutters are important cutting tools used in milling machines to perform milling operations, which are prone to wear and subsequent failure. In this paper, a practical new hybrid model to predict the milling tool wear in a regular cut, as well as entry cut and exit cut, of a milling tool is proposed. The model was based on the optimization tool termed artificial bee colony (ABC) in combination with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. This optimization mechanism i...

  15. Influence of rice sample preparation and milling procedures on milling quality appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of sample preparation and milling procedure on milling quality appraisals of rough rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium-grain rice (M202) with different initial moisture contents (MCs) ranging from 20.2% to 25.1% (w.b.) were used for...

  16. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  17. Improving milling and production of a dust-producing unit equipped with hammer mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorotnikov, Ye.G.; Nikiforov, A.A.; Rasputin, O.V.; Sukhunin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents generalized experience for deriving coarse ground coal dust in hammer mills by providing comparison data on improving efficiency of operation of the unit when switching to a coarser-type grind of the fuel. Need to have more precise formulas to calculate grinding potential of hammer mills when using a coarser grind is shown.

  18. Uranium mill tailings conditioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.; O'Brien, P.D.; Thode, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings involves the physicochemical alteration of tailings to remove or immobilize mobile radionuclides and toxic trace elements before disposal in a repository. The principal immobilization approach under investigation is sintering tailings at high temperatures (1100-1200 deg. C) to radically alter the structure of tailings. This thermal stabilization at 1200 deg. C reduced radon emanation power for tailings sands by factors of 20 to 200 and for tailings fines by factors of 300 to 1100. Substantial reductions in the leachability of most contaminants have been found for thermally conditioned tailings. Obvious mineral transformations occur, including an increase in amorphous material, the conversion of gypsum to anhydrite and its subsequent decomposition, the disappearance of clay minerals, and some decrease in quartz content. A conceptual thermal stabilization process has been developed wherein obsolete coal-fired rotary cement kilns perform the sintering. An economic analysis of this conceptual process has shown that thermal stabilization can be competitive at certain tailings sites with other remedial actions requiring the excavation, transportation, and burial of tailings in a repository. An analysis of the long-term radiological hazard posed by untreated tailings and by tailings conditioned by radionuclide removal has illustrated the necessity of extracting both 226 Ra and 230 Th to achieve long-term hazard reductions. Sulphuric acid extraction of residual mineral values and important radionuclides from tailings has been investigated. Concentrated H 2 SO 4 can extract up to 80% of the 226 Ra, 70% of the Ba, and 90% of the 230 Th from tailings in a single stage extraction. An economic analysis of a sulphuric acid leach process was made to determine whether the value of minerals recovered from tailings would offset the leaching cost. For one relatively mineral-rich tailings pile, the U and V values would more than pay for the

  19. INAA and AAS of different products from sugar cane industry in Pakistan. Toxic trace elements for nutritional safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, S.; Gill, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) have been used to determine As, Br, Hg, Sb and Se in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) as a complementary technique for the quantification of Cd and Pb in jaggery, brown sugar, white sugar and molasses. All sugar cane products were collected from the local sugar cane industry of Pakistan. The highest concentration of these potentially toxic elements was quantified in molasses; however, molasses together with jaggery, brown sugar and white sugar contains trace amounts of all of these elements. Due to very low concentration of Cd it could only be detected in molasses. To evaluate the percentage contribution of these elements in the sugar cane products to the weekly recommended values, intakes on weekly consumption of 100 g of each item have also been calculated which follow the pattern Br>Se>Pb>Hg>As>Sb. The elevated Br contents may be attributed to the use of Br-containing chemicals for fumigation; however, these contents are well within the tolerance levels. The estimated weekly intake of all toxic elements is very low indicating that sugar cane products can be safely ingested as part of the diets. (author)

  20. A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

  1. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing allotment and the associated production history will be transferred from MDFC to WSG, effective... Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit... publish the modifications to the fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company...

  2. Studies on microbiological treatment and utilization of cane molasses distillery wastes. Part 1. Screening of useful yeast strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaki, M.; Takahashi, T.; Ishiguro, K.

    1981-01-01

    Cane molasses distillation slops were used as substrate for the cultivation of 203 strains of yeast. Most yeast strains, especially Hansenula, Debaryomyces, and Rhodotorula, assimilated the molasses distillation wastes. Yeast cell dry weight reached 0.9 grams/100 mL, and yeasts removed greater than 30% of the COD of the waste material.

  3. Impact of financial environmental incentives in the potential of electric power generation on the sugar cane plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Claudio Plaza; Walter, Arnaldo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work is to present the electric power generation from biomass and the economic potential from sugar cane plants in Brazil. Computerized electricity costs simulation are presented and several financial incentives and external market effects are considered. The results are also presented and criticized

  4. Reclamation of uranium mining and milling disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, E.E.; Schuman, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1945 the history of uranium mining and milling in the US has been a story of wide fluctuations in market prices and in mining and milling capacity. The late 1960's and the 1970's saw a sizeable reduction in the production of yellowcake because of an earlier over-supply, a leveling off of the military demand, and a failure of the nuclear electric power industry to create the anticipated commercial demand. The decline in the domestic production of yellowcake has continued through the early 1980's to the present. Today, there are five operating uranium mills in the US: one in Wyoming, two in Utah, one in New Mexico, and one in Texas. Of these five mills, three are operating on a reduced schedule, as little as three days a month. A significant portion of the current US production of uranium goes overseas to fulfill Japanese, French, and other European contracts. There is still a sizeable reclamation job to be accomplished on old uranium wastes, both tailings impoundments and overburden embankments. Before the Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act of 1978 (PL 95-604), reclamation was frequently omitted altogether, or else done in a haphazard fashion. We do not know the total area of unreclaimed, radioactive, uranium overburden wastes in the western US, but the area is large, probably several thousand hectares. Fortunately, these overburden wastes are almost entirely located in remote areas. Mill tailings are more difficult to reclaim than overburden, and tailings represent a more serious health hazards. There are approximately 25 million metric tons of unreclaimed uranium mill tailings, with variable health hazards, located in the US

  5. The German version of the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE): evaluation of content validity and adaptation to the German-speaking context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2015-11-01

    The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was developed for the assessment of physical-, psychological-, and environment-related needs in the elderly. The aim of this study was to revise and adapt the German version of the CANE with regard to the content validity of the instrument. Following a multistage approach, face-to-face interviews using the CANE, an expert survey and a multidisciplinary consensus conference were conducted in order to evaluate the frequency and relevance of met and unmet needs in the German elderly population, and to modify the content of the CANE for the German-speaking countries. In Germany, unmet physical needs including physical health, medication, eyesight/hearing/communication, mobility/falls, self-care, and continence were found to have top priority closely followed by social needs (company, intimate relationships, daytime activities, information, and abuse/neglect). Psychological needs were the lowest ranked care category. Experts' proposals for the improvement of the German version of the CANE were collected. All findings were discussed and integrated in the multidisciplinary consensus conference with the result of a revised and adapted CANE that is applicable in the German-speaking context. The provision of an adapted and improved German version of the CANE may substantially contribute to a comprehensive and valid assessment of needs in the elderly population. The results of this study represent an important basis for comprehensive needs assessment in the elderly in the theoretical and practical field of healthcare and health services research.

  6. Impacts of harvesting methods of sugar cane on the soil macrofauna in production area in Espírito Santo – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa dos Santos Benazzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of harvesting methods on the macrofauna, a known indicator of soil quality that detects changes in the system and indicates management alternatives. The experimental design was randomized blocks with six replications, with each block consisting of four parcels that corresponded to treatments green cane (CC, burnt cane (CQ, green cane – burnt cane (CC-Q and burnt cane – green cane (CQ-C. Samples were collected in February and July 2010. The animals were divided into major taxonomic groups and accounted. Were evaluated ecological indexes (Shannon, Pielou and richness and average total density of individuals and groups. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric statistical tools by Friedman or Signal test at 5%. To check relationships between soil fauna and environmental variables, was used a multivariate conditional ordination method, the redundancy analysis (RDA. The index richness was more efficient than the total average density to evaluate the influence of cane harvesting systems, with the highest values related to areas harvested without burning. Further, the occurrence of key groups in the areas harvested without burning configures the establishment of a trophic web. There was dominance of the social group Formicidae in all treatments

  7. Decontamination effect of milling by a jet mill on bacteria in rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotome, Itaru; Nei, Daisuke; Tsuda, Masuko; Mohammed, Sharif Hossen; Takenaka, Makiko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro

    2011-06-01

    The decontamination effect of milling by a jet mill was investigated by counting the number of bacteria in brown and white rice flour with mean particle diameters of 3, 20, and 40µm prepared by the jet mill. In the jet mill, the particles are crushed and reduced in size by the mechanical impact caused by their collision. Although the brown and white rice grains were contaminated with approximately 10(6) and 10(5) CFU/g bacteria, the microbial load of the rice flour decreased as the mean particle diameter decreased, ultimately decreasing to approximately 104 and 103 CFU/g in the brown and white rice flour. The temperature and pressure changes of the sample were not considered to have an effect on reducing the bacterial count during the milling. Hence, it was thought that the rice flour was decontaminated by other effects.

  8. Character & Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2009-01-01

    They say first impressions can be deceiving. The difficulty of getting to know someone increases when that person is mostly fictional. Whatever the author writes is all readers can know. Whatever they read about the character is all they have to go on. Now take it another step back, and imagine a portrait drawing, painting or print of that…

  9. Mineralization and volatilization of nitrogen from vinasse-15 N in the presence or absence of urea and sugar cane straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Vilma Maria; Colaco, Waldeciro; Encarnacao, Fernando Antonio Franco da; Cabezas, Waldo Alejandro Ruben Lara

    1999-01-01

    The mineralized and volatilized nitrogen derived from vinasse labelled with 15 N were determined in a laboratory experiment, using samples of two soils [a sandy Red-Yellow-Podzolic-PV and a clayey Latosol - LR (Oxisol)], collected in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of four treatments: application of vinasse (V * ); vinasse with urea (V * +U); vinasse with sugar cane straw (V * +P); and vinasse with urea and sugar cane straw (V * +U+P). Vinasse, labelled with 15 N (V * ) was applied at a rate of 100 mg.kg -1 of N-vinasse. All treatments, were incubated for 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. N-urea and sugar cane straw were incorporated in the soil at rates of 220 mg.kg -1 and 22 g.kg -1 , respectively. N H 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N concentrations, as a result of the vinasse addition, were affected by soil type. A larger availability of N H 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N derived from vinasse were observed, when urea was added. Sugar cane straw plus vinasse did not alter the concentrations of N H 4 + - N and NO 3 - - N derived from vinasse. Urea plus sugar cane straw did not affect N H 4 + -N concentrations, and affected the NO 3 - -N concentration in LR soil over time. Losses of vinasse-N, due to volatilization, increased with time for all treatments, and were larger for PV (14%) than for LR(5%); but such losses were similar in LR soil. (author)

  10. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  11. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  12. Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

  13. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants/lubricants, ......The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants....../lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface topography, the chip formation, the cutting forces and the tool-life. The dimensions of certain...... geometrical details, as for instance the cutting edge radius, are determined by characteristics of the manufacturing process, tool material, coating etc. While for conventional size end mills the basic tool manufacturing process is well established, the reduction of the size of the tools required...

  14. Optimization of FIB milling for rapid NEMS prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malm, Bjarke; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Lei, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate an optimized milling technique to focused ion beam (FIB) milling in template silicon membranes for fast prototyping of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Using a single-pass milling strategy the highly topology dependent sputtering rate is boosted and shorter milling time...... is achieved. Drift independence is obtained for small critical features using a radial scan strategy, and a back scan routine ensures minimal line width deviation removing redeposited material. Milling a design similar to a nano four-point probe with a pitch down to 400nm we display what optimized FIB milling...

  15. The postharvest of mill olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousfi, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado

  16. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  17. Higher derivative super Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Rakowski, M.; Sezgin, E.

    1986-11-01

    The most general higher derivative Yang-Mills actions of the type (F 2 +α2F 4 ) which are globally supersymmetric up to order α 2 in six and ten dimensional spacetimes are given. The F 4 -terms turn out to occur in the combination α 2 (tr F 4 - 1/4(tr F 2 ) 2 ), where the trace is over the Lorentz indices. This result agrees with the low energy limit of the open superstring in ten dimensions, where α is the string tension. Surprisingly, the transformation rules of the Yang-Mills multiplet receive order α 2 corrections even in the off-shell formulation. For the case of Abelian Yang-Mills group, the action is expressed in Born-Infeld form with a metric generically given by (1+α 2 F 2 +...). (author)

  18. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hussiny N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the amount of ready made sinter, sinter strength and productivity of the sinter machine and productivity at blast furnace yard. Also, the increase of coke breeze leads to an increase the ready made sinter and productivity of the sintering machine at blast furnace yard. The productivity of the sintering machine after 5% decreased slightly due to the decrease of vertical velocity.

  19. Environmental factors affecting sporulation of Fuligo septica (Myxomycetes on sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappeta Alda de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on sporulation of Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and the abundance of this species on sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L., stored outdoors was studied.In Northeastern Brazil, between January/1997 and January/1998, a total of 29 specimens were collected through monthly collections of aethalia. The relationships between the abundance of aethalia and rainfall, temperature, relative humidity of the air and insolation were studied. Results indicated that on the substrate analyzed, F. septica was an abundant species. Sporulation occurred in all seasons of the year, with a well-defined peak at the end of winter and beginning of spring (August/September,which was strongly influenced by rainfall.

  20. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  1. Growth Indicators of a 48-Clone Sugar Cane Population (Saccharum spp. with Forage Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoslen Fernández Gálvez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine growth indicators in a 48-clone sugar cane population, with promising phenotypical features for forage production. The following indicators were assessed: leaf area (A, leaf area index (LA1; leaf area ratio (LAR; specific leaf area (SLA; leaf weight ratio (LWR; crop growth rate (CGR; net assimilation rate (NAR; relative growth rate in weight (RGR; biomass production speed (G; leaf area duration (LAD; and biomass duration (Z, monthly (187 - 370 days. The minimum, the mean, the maximum values, and the population variance were determined for all cutting ages and the variables assessed. The results achieved have provided quantitative values that can be used as reference for selection and assessment of forage genotypes for ruminant nutrition.

  2. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  3. Fluidized bed gasification of sugar cane bagasse. Influence on gas composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esperanza, E.; Aleman, Y. [Univ. of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba). Biomass Thermoconversion group/CETA; Arauzo, J.; Gea, G. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1999-07-01

    Air and steam gasification of biomass has been studied at different temperatures. The experiments have been carried out in a bench scale plant. It consists of an atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed gasifier heated by an electric furnace. The gasification process have been carried out at high heating rates and low residence time of the gases. The biomass used has been Cuban sugar cane bagasse. Three operating parameters have been evaluated to improve the gas composition: Equivalence Ratio (E.R.) in the range of 0.15 to 0.55; the bed temperature from 780 to 920 deg C; and steam/biomass ratio (S/B) from 0.1 g/g to 0.5 g/g. The results obtained show the effect of these operating parameters in gas composition and the conditions to obtain higher yield to gas and else the maximum energy.

  4. Identification and dosage by HRGC of minor alcohol and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, Mauricio; Bezerra, Cicero W.B.; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Lima Neto, Benedito S.; Franco, Douglas W. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2000-02-01

    The presence of 51 volatile compounds, among alcohols and esters in Brazilian sugar-cane spirit (cachaca), were investigated by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The following alcohols and esters were identified and quantified: methanol, 1,4-butanodiol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, cetyl alcohol, cynamic alcohol, n-decanol, geraniol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, menthol, n-butanol, n-dodecanol, n-propanol, n-tetradecanol, amyl propionate, ethyl acetate, ethyl benzoate, ethyl heptanoate, isoamyl valerate, methyl propionate, propyl butyrate. The average higher alcohols content (262 mg/100 mL in anhydrous alcohol a.a) and total esters content (24 mg/100 mL a.a) in cachacas, are smaller than in other spirits. The average methanol content in cachacas (6 mg/100 mL a.a) is the same as in rum, but smaller than in wine spirit. No qualitative differences of chemical profile among cachacas have been observed. (author)

  5. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...... expansion and two allocation procedures for estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of molasses ethanol. As seen from our results, system expansion yields the highest estimate among the three. However, no matter which procedure is used, a significant reduction of emissions from the fuel stage...... in the abatement scenario, which assumes implementation of substituting bioenergy for fossil-based energy to reduce GHG emissions, combined with a negligible level of emissions from the use stage, keeps the estimate of ethanol life cycle GHG emissions below that of gasoline. Pointing out that indirect land use...

  6. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of Hydrogen Sulphide sugar cane juice and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeviah, S.; Galil, Mansour S.; Kumar, M.S. Yogender; Suresha, M.S.; Nagendrappa, G.

    2006-01-01

    A sensitive spectrophotometric is developed for the determination of hydrogen sulphide in water and sugarcane juice. The method is based on the reaction of hydrogen sulphide with phospomolybdate (ammonium molybdate and phosphate) in sulphuric acid medium. The system obeys Lambert-Beer's law at 715 nm in the concentration range of 0.284-5.68 ug ml. Molar absorptivity, correlation coefficient and Sandell sensitivity values were found to be 5x10 l mol cm, 0.9995 and 0.0494 ug cm respectively. The method was employed for the determination of hydrogen sulphide in sugar cane juice and in water samples. The results obtained were reproducible with acceptable standard deviation 0.1140-0.1337 and relative standard deviation varies from 0.0797-0.6038%. For comparison, hydrogen sulphide present in sugarcane juice and water samples were also determined separately following the methylene blue official method. The results of the proposed method compare well with the official method. (author)

  7. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Andrea P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Marcia M.C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nobrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaca) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaca were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaca of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachacas, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees

  8. Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses into glutamic acid by gamma irradiated corynebacterium glutamicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum (ATCC 13058) was used for glutamic acid production from sugar cane molasses which contain sufficient. The addition of 5 units ml 4 of penicillin G was superior in glutamic acid production (11.5 g L 4 ). Tweens and their saturated fatty acids were effective on the accumulation of glutamic acid in the culture medium and the maximum yield (16.6 g L 4 ) was the addition of 5 mg ml 4 Tween 40. Gamma irradiation prior to Tween-40 treatment of bacterial cells resulted in an obvious increase in glutamic acid production and it was maximum (23.72 g L 4 ) at 0.1 k Gy exposure dose of inocula. 5 tabs

  9. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as raw material for the production of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredericci, C.; Indelicato, R.L.; Ferreira Neto, J.B.; Ribeiro, T.R.; Landgraf, F.J.G.; Silva, G.F.B. Lenz e

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the sugar cane bagasse ash from three Sugar and Alcohol Plant of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. We intend to show the discrepancies between them, so that this raw material could be used with greater quality control in ceramic industries. The bagasse were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The ashes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and granulometric separation. The results indicated that the content of SiO 2 ranging from 50-80% by weight depends on the granulometry of the bagasse and on the region where it was collected. The analyses of X-ray diffraction indicate SiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , K 2 SO 4 and Mg 2 P 2 O 7 as crystalline phases. (author)

  10. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO_2) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  11. Utilization of cane molasses as a source of energy in the diet of young pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.K.; Pathak, N.N.; Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Lakshmanan, V.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of addition of different levels of cane molasses in the diet of young pigs was studied. During early periods (0-7 weeks) growth rate was depressed by above 10% levels of molasses but in later periods (7-19 weeks) compensatory growth in the high molasses groups (20, 40% levels) resulted in no overall (0-19 weeks) difference in growth performance among different groups. While feed efficiency was reduced in high molasses groups, there was no effect on carcass quality. It was concluded that more than 10% molasses was not safe for young pigs, but adult, or near-adult, pigs could tolerate up to 47.5% of molasses in their diets. 6 references.

  12. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt, E-mail: edelioalvarez42@gmail.com [Instituto Superior Minero Metalúrgico (ISMM), Moa 83300 (Cuba); Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda, E-mail: yodalgis@imre.uh.cu [Institute of Materials Science and Technology-Havana University, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Montoro, Luciano Andrey, E-mail: landrey.montoro@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901 (Brazil); Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy, E-mail: nelcydsm@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901 (Brazil); Cabrera, Humberto, E-mail: hcabrera@ictp.it [SPIE-ICTP Anchor Research in Optics Program Laboratory, International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34151 (Italy); Centro Multidisciplinario de Ciencias, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), 5101 Mérida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Pérez, Guillermo Mesa, E-mail: guille@ceaden.edu.cu [National Center for Technological Research (CEADEN), La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Frutis, Miguel Aguilar, E-mail: mafrutis@yahoo.es [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del., Miguel Hidalgo CP 11500 (Mexico); Cappe, Eduardo Pérez, E-mail: cappe@imre.uh.cu [Institute of Materials Science and Technology-Havana University, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)

    2017-02-15

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10{sup −7} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) and conductivity (1.1 W m{sup −1} K{sup −1}) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173–293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g{sup −1} was reached. - Graphical abstract: TEM image and electrochemistry behavior of a new graphene oxide-like carbon. - Highlights: • A high disordered graphene oxide-like conducting carbon is reported. • The synthesis was based on palygorskite and sugar cane molasses as precursors. • The disordered conducting carbon is composed of doped- graphene heterogeneous domains. • This material combines a large specific surface area and high electric conductivity. • The thermophysical and electrochemical properties of this material reveal adequate behavior.

  14. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  15. Effect of pH on the Removal of Chromium (Cr (VI by Sugar Cane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Ahmed Khan

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial estates in India are dominated by small and medium scale industries, which are posing a serious threat to the environment by virtue of discharging effluents of a polluting nature. The problems become severe due to the presence of heavy metals in the effluents. Chromium is widely used in a number of industries such as electroplating, metal finishing, cooling towers, dyes, paints, anodising and leather tanning industries. The toxicity of chromium (VI is well known and is considered a hazard to the health of humans and animals. The presence of chromium (VI in aquatic environments at high concentrations is also lethal to marine species. The treatment of chromium bearing effluents have been reported through several methods, such as chemical reduction,  precipitation, ion exchange, electrochemical reduction, evaporation, reverse osmosis and adsorption. However among these, adsorption is found to be highly effective, inexpensive and an easy method to operate. India is an agricultural country and generates a considerable amount of agricultural wastes such as sugar cane bagassess, coconut jute, nut shell, rice straw, rice husk, waste tea leaves, ground nut husk, crop wastes, peanut hulls and fertilizer wastes. Successful studies on these materials could be beneficial to developing countries and could be easily applied as adsorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater. Most of the previous work highlights the use of commercial activated carbon but these adsorbents are relatively expensive and less feasible to be used in developing countries. Keeping these in view batch experiments have been designed to study the feasibility of sugar cane bagasse to remove chromium (VI from the aqueous solutions. While evaluationg the impact of various parameters, such as adsorbent does, contact time, initial concentration and pH on chromium removal efficiency, the results indicate a prominent effect of pH on the chromium reduction by the adsorbent

  16. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt; Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda; Montoro, Luciano Andrey; Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy; Cabrera, Humberto; Pérez, Guillermo Mesa; Frutis, Miguel Aguilar; Cappe, Eduardo Pérez

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m 2 g −1 ). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10 −7 m 2 s −1 ) and conductivity (1.1 W m −1 K −1 ) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173–293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g −1 was reached. - Graphical abstract: TEM image and electrochemistry behavior of a new graphene oxide-like carbon. - Highlights: • A high disordered graphene oxide-like conducting carbon is reported. • The synthesis was based on palygorskite and sugar cane molasses as precursors. • The disordered conducting carbon is composed of doped- graphene heterogeneous domains. • This material combines a large specific surface area and high electric conductivity. • The thermophysical and electrochemical properties of this material reveal adequate behavior.

  17. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  18. Analysis of energy performance in two systems of cogeneration used in plants of sugar cane; Analise de desempenho energetico em dois sistemas de cogeracao empregados em usinas de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Felipe A.A.; Rosa, Rodrigo A. [Cogeracao Sistemas de Energia Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the options to overcome the current volatility in Brazil's power consumption outlook relates to the employment of other sources for power generation, namely solar energy, wind power or the use of biomass, namely the power generation through the cane bagasse. One should realize, however, that the economic accomplishment for launching a generation system should depend on the level of effectiveness of all processes and/or equipment comprising the system thereof. As far as the sugar-alcohol industry is concerned, the larger the system effectiveness is, the bigger the surplus of bagasse becomes and, hence, the better the chance of achieving financial earnings. Two generation systems shall be evaluated, aiming to thermo-dynamically identify the differences between the use of small equipment-driven turbines (like choppers, shredders and mills) and multi-stage turbo-generators, in order to replace the electric-powered drive units. Therefore, one shall follow thermodynamic-based criteria, namely the steam specific consumption, the equipment availability and effectiveness, thus allowing a comparison for each engine. Such survey shows that the effectiveness reaches nearly 68% for the turbo-generators and 43% for the small turbines. Under the economic perspective, one can find a saving of 89.500 tonnes per crop of bagasse, standing for an additional turnover of US$ 895.000,00 annually. (author)

  19. Los otros noruegos de Caneliñas: la campaña ballenera de 1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Hansen, Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown document from the Compañía Ballenera Española (Spanish Whaling Company, ceded to the author of this article, reveals new facts about the Norwegian whalers´ activity in Galicia in the 20th. century. Therefore an updating of what we know about their activity at the Caneliñas factory becomes unavoidable. This activity was interrupted in the year 1927 due to the decreasing number of captures, especially in the Straits of Gibraltar, with a decrease in the Company´s benefits and an increase in production costs, and the interest shown by the Norwegian management to relocate their activity in the Antarctic area. The 1928 failure on the part of the International Whaling Company to keep the factory open sealed the short term destiny of the Caneliñas factory. However, in 1929 the factory was briefly reopened again for a short period, when the newly acquired fleet that same year by S. Foyn Bruun and A. von der Lippe anchored there before joining their new floating factory, the Pontos, in their course to the Antarctic Ocean. This new documental source –the salaries register of CBE for the year 1929– provides a most valuable and previously unavailable information such as the work organization, a list of the company´s payroll, specifying salaries and production and capture bonuses, and many other facts. These are «he other Norwegian whalers», of whom nothing was known up to this moment, as the present article is going to show.El préstamo al autor de un documento inédito de la Compañía Ballenera Española, el libro de salarios de 1929, ha revelado nuevos datos sobre la actividad de los balleneros noruegos en Galicia en el siglo XX. Ello exige actualizar lo que sabíamos sobre su presencia en la factoría de Caneliñas, donde interrumpieron la actividad en 1927 ante la disminución de capturas (sobre todo en el estrecho de Gibraltar, la consiguiente caída de los beneficios y el aumento de los costos de explotación; adem

  20. Predicting radon flux from uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1983-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, is developing technology for the design of radon barriers for uranium mill tailings piles. To properly design a radon cover for a particular tailings pile, the radon flux emanating from the bare tailings must be known. The tailings characteristics required to calculate the radon flux include radium-226 content, emanating power, bulk density, and radon diffusivity. This paper presents theoretical and practical aspects of estimating the radon flux from an uranium tailings pile. Results of field measurements to verify the calculation methodology are also discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  1. Einstein-Yang-Mills-Lorentz black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembranos, Jose A.R.; Gigante Valcarcel, Jorge [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Madrid (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    Different black hole solutions of the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations have been well known for a long time. They have attracted much attention from mathematicians and physicists since their discovery. In this work, we analyze black holes associated with the gauge Lorentz group. In particular, we study solutions which identify the gauge connection with the spin connection. This ansatz allows one to find exact solutions to the complete system of equations. By using this procedure, we show the equivalence between the Yang-Mills-Lorentz model in curved space-time and a particular set of extended gravitational theories. (orig.)

  2. Prototyping of Dental Structures Using Laser Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A. O.; Kosenko, M. S.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Mironov, V. D.

    2016-02-01

    The results of experimental studies of the effect of an ytterbium fiber laser radiation parameters on processing efficiency and quality of ZrO2 ceramics widely used in stomatology are presented. Laser operating conditions with optimum characteristics for obtaining high quality final surfaces and rapid material removal of dental structures are determined. The ability of forming thin-walled ceramic structures by laser milling technology (a minimum wall thickness of 50 μm) is demonstrated. The examples of three-dimensional dental structures created in computer 3D-models of human teeth using laser milling are shown.

  3. Gauged supersymmetries in Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissier, Matthieu; Wschebor, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we show that Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari-Delbourgo-Jarvis gauge admits some up to now unknown local linear Ward identities. These identities imply some nonrenormalization theorems with practical simplifications for perturbation theory. We show, in particular, that all renormalization factors can be extracted from two-point functions. The Ward identities are shown to be related to supergauge transformations in the superfield formalism for Yang-Mills theory. The case of nonzero Curci-Ferrari mass is also addressed.

  4. Automation for pilger mills at NZFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoher; Ramesh, K.; Rout, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Pilgering is the critical operation in production of zircaloy fuel tubes. The in-going tube is required for feeding in pilgering and the outgoing pilger tube length is measured and is cut into required lengths and transferred to storage tank before sending for degreasing. The paper deals with the automation of the above operation carried out on the pilger mills of New Zircaloy Fabrication Plant (NZFP). This has helped in improving the quality of the pilgered tubes and productivity of the mill besides eliminating manual handling and cutting operations

  5. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  6. Nonperturbative Results for Yang-Mills Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Schechter, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Some non perturbative aspects of the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory are investigated assuming a specific form of the beta function, based on a recent modification by Ryttov and Sannino of the known one for supersymmetric gauge theories. The characteristic feature is a pole at a particular value....... Assuming the usual QCD value one finds it to be 1.67 GeV, which is in surprisingly good agreement with a quenched lattice calculation. A similar calculation is made for the supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory where the corresponding beta function is considered to be exact....

  7. Barium Ferrite Ball Milled in Vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, S.J.; Wu, E.; Kaczmarek, W.A.; Wang, G.

    1998-01-01

    The structural and magnetic behaviour of BaFe 12 O 19 subjected to milling in vacuum for 1000 h has been investigated by x-ray powder diffraction and Moessbauer effect spectroscopy techniques. Pronounced structural disorder is obtained along with partial decomposition of BaFe 12 O 19 to α-Fe 2 O 3 and evidence for superparamagnetic relaxation effects due to the fine particles produced on milling. Restoration of the fully crystallised BaFe 12 O 19 structure on annealing at 1000 deg. C is accompanied by a six fold enhancement in the magnetic coercivity. This behaviour is linked with the fine crystallites

  8. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    countries. The known alternative in such condition is ... Key words: Hollow mill, stripped screws, titanium locked plates ... used a locally manufactured stainless steel hollow mill, ... head ‑ plate hole” assembly as a mono‑block single unit. In.

  9. Electropolishing or chemical milling of beryllium to remove machining defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helms, J.R.

    1975-12-01

    The techniques of electropolishing and chemical milling to remove machine damage from beryllium are compared. Both techniques are found to be effective; chemical milling is recommended because it is easier to use and control

  10. Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parametric optimization of CNC end milling using entropy measurement technique combined with grey-Taguchi method. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Keywords: CNC end milling, surface finish, material removal rate (MRR), entropy measurement technique, Taguchi method ...

  11. Investigation of the milling capabilities of the F10 Fine Grind mill using Box-Behnken designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bernice Mei Jin; Tay, Justin Yong Soon; Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2015-01-01

    Size reduction or milling of the active is often the first processing step in the design of a dosage form. The ability of a mill to convert coarse crystals into the target size and size distribution efficiently is highly desirable as the quality of the final pharmaceutical product after processing is often still dependent on the dimensional attributes of its component constituents. The F10 Fine Grind mill is a mechanical impact mill designed to produce unimodal mid-size particles by utilizing a single-pass two-stage size reduction process for fine grinding of raw materials needed in secondary processing. Box-Behnken designs were used to investigate the effects of various mill variables (impeller, blower and feeder speeds and screen aperture size) on the milling of coarse crystals. Response variables included the particle size parameters (D10, D50 and D90), span and milling rate. Milled particles in the size range of 5-200 μm, with D50 ranging from 15 to 60 μm, were produced. The impeller and feeder speeds were the most critical factors influencing the particle size and milling rate, respectively. Size distributions of milled particles were better described by their goodness-of-fit to a log-normal distribution (i.e. unimodality) rather than span. Milled particles with symmetrical unimodal distributions were obtained when the screen aperture size was close to the median diameter of coarse particles employed. The capacity for high throughput milling of particles to a mid-size range, which is intermediate between conventional mechanical impact mills and air jet mills, was demonstrated in the F10 mill. Prediction models from the Box-Behnken designs will aid in providing a better guide to the milling process and milled product characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mill Designed Bio bleaching Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Institute of Paper Science Technology

    2004-01-30

    generation of laccase has a broad spectrum of operating parameters. Nonetheless, the development of future genetically engineered laccases with enhanced temperature, pH and redox potentials will dramatically improve the overall process. A second challenge for LMS bleaching technologies is the need to develop effective, catalytic mediators. From the literature we already know this is feasible since ABTS and some inorganic mediators are catalytic. Unfortunately, the mediators that exhibit catalytic properties do not exhibit significant delignification properties and this is a challenge for future research studies. Potential short-term mill application of laccase has been recently reported by Felby132 and Chandra133 as they have demonstrated that the physical properties of linerboard can be improved when exposed to laccase without a chemical mediator. In addition, xxx has shown that the addition of laccase to the whitewater of the paper machine has several benefits for the removal of colloidal materials. Finally, this research program has presented important features on the delignification chemistry of LMS{sub NHA} and LMS{sub VA} that, in the opinion of the author, are momentous contributions to the overall LMS chemistry/biochemistry knowledge base which will continue to have future benefits.

  13. Effect of the use of molasses and efficient microorganisms, over the rate of decomposition of the sugar cane leaf (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Eduardo Sanclemente Reyes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of decomposition of sugar cane leaves mixed with an organic fertilizer compost type was evaluated, using a finite accelerator (molasses and an infinity accelerator (effective microorganisms. The trial was conducted in the greenhouse facilities of the National University of Colombia in Palmira. The results showed that molasses is a decomposition accelerator of the wastes of sugar cane leaf, since it shows a marked influence on the initial decomposition rate of the waste, but once the carbohydrates that constitute it are consumed, the rate of decomposition decreases significantly. Then the potential is evident on the waste of sugar cane leaf elements for the maintenance and/or biophysical capital improvement in the productive system of the sugar cane, as the result of their high photosynthetic efficiency.

  14. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  15. Machinability Evaluation in Hard Milling of AISI D2 Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitonde, Vinayak Neelakanth; Karnik, Sulse Ramesh; Maciel, Caio Henrique Alves; Rubio, Juan Carlos Campos; Abrão, Alexandre Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Milling of hardened steel components provides considerable benefits in terms of reduced manufacturing cost and time compared to traditional machining. Temperature variation in milling is an important factor affecting the wear of cutting tools. The poor selection of milling parameters may cause excessive tool wear and increased work surface roughness. Hence, there is a need to study the machinability aspects during milling of hardened steel components. In the present work, influence of cutting...

  16. Management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.T.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations have not given rise to much concern about their hazards, and with advancing technologies for mill processing and waste management, the situation will continue to improve. However, the disposal of large quantities of waste produced in mining and milling does have an environmental impact, owing to the long half-lives and the ready availability of the toxic radionuclides Ra-226 and Rn-222. This article deals with the management of wastes from uranium mines and mills

  17. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  18. Some issues on water in the southeast peninsula during Roman times and its use for agriculture | Algunas cuestiones sobre: «El agua en el sureste peninsular durante época romana. Su aprovechamiento para la agricultura»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Juana López Medina

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the importance of water and the development of different items to take of it advantage for the farming activity in the Roman world, and in the particular case of the south-east the Iberian Peninsula. To get to that point we analyse the documental sources (written as well as archeological. | Este trabajo es una reflexión sobre la importancia del aprovechamiento del agua para la actividad agrícola en el mundo romano, y en concreto en el sureste peninsular. Para ello se analiza tanto la documentación escrita como arqueológica, teniendo en cuenta que los datos que aporta esta última cada vez son mayores.

  19. Aprovechamiento de la energía eólica mediante turbinas savonius para bombeo de agua en el poblado de San Jerónimo, Región Junín (2011 - 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Tacza Casallo, Óscar Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    La investigación se realizó en el poblado de San Jerónimo, Región Junín, en la cual el diseño propuesto permite el aprovechamiento de la energía eólica para transformarla en energía mecánica mediante turbinas Savonius. El diseño propuesto permite el bombeo del agua de 2 709,6 litros por hora, que es utilizado para solucionar el problema de la escasez del agua y así poder obtener hasta dos cosechas por año. Para el diseño del sistema se determinó la localización de la zona, en la rivera del ri...

  20. Desafíos frente al fortalecimiento del talento humano para al aprovechamiento de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones (TIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Patricia Nocua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo que está liderando el MinTIC para fortalecer el sector de tecnologías de información (TI es prioridad orientar acciones tendientes a promover la formación y actualización del talento humano que responda a las características y proyecciones que este sector tiene para movilizar el crecimiento económico y el desarrollo social del país. En el diseño e implementación de las diferentes iniciativas han surgido inquietudes, aprendizajes y reflexiones que nos permiten lograr impactos en la calidad, la cantidad y la pertinencia del equipo humano que contribuya al sector de las TIC. Los desafíos nacionales e internacionales frente al aprovechamiento de las potencialidades de las tecnologías de la información, exigen promover la expansión de capacidades del talento humano.

  1. A suspected parasite spill-back of two novel Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea causing disease in Australian endemic frogs found in the invasive Cane toad.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlie Hartigan

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are contributing to the decline of endangered amphibians. We identified myxosporean parasites, Myxidium spp. (Myxosporea: Myxozoa, in the brain and liver of declining native frogs, the Green and Golden Bell frog (Litoria aurea and the Southern Bell frog (Litoria raniformis. We unequivocally identified two Myxidium spp. (both generalist affecting Australian native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (Bufo marinus, syn. Rhinella marina and demonstrated their association with disease. Our study tested the identity of Myxidium spp. within native frogs and the invasive Cane toad (brought to Australia in 1935, via Hawaii to resolve the question whether the Cane toad introduced them to Australia. We showed that the Australian brain and liver Myxidium spp. differed 9%, 7%, 34% and 37% at the small subunit rDNA, large subunit rDNA, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, but were distinct from Myxidium cf. immersum from Cane toads in Brazil. Plotting minimum within-group distance against maximum intra-group distance confirmed their independent evolutionary trajectory. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the brain stages localize inside axons. Myxospores were morphologically indistinguishable, therefore genetic characterisation was necessary to recognise these cryptic species. It is unlikely that the Cane toad brought the myxosporean parasites to Australia, because the parasites were not found in 261 Hawaiian Cane toads. Instead, these data support the enemy-release hypothesis predicting that not all parasites are translocated with their hosts and suggest that the Cane toad may have played an important spill-back role in their emergence and facilitated their dissemination. This work emphasizes the importance of accurate species identification of pathogens relevant to wildlife management and disease control. In our case it is paving the road for the spill-back role of the Cane toad and the parasite emergence.

  2. 46 CFR 50.25-3 - Manufacturer or mill certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer or mill certification. 50.25-3 Section 50... PROVISIONS Acceptance of Material and Piping Components § 50.25-3 Manufacturer or mill certification. (a) A manufacturer or mill producing materials used in certain products for installation on inspected vessels, shall...

  3. ROMI 4.0: Updated Rough Mill Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timo Grueneberg; R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann

    2012-01-01

    In the secondary hardwood industry, rough mills convert hardwood lumber into dimension parts for furniture, cabinets, and other wood products. ROMI 4.0, the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service's ROugh-MIll simulator, is a software package designed to simulate the cut-up of hardwood lumber in rough mills in such a way that a maximum possible component yield...

  4. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 100 / Thursday, May...-OAR-2012-0640; FRL-9815-9] RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection... performance standards for kraft pulp mills. These revised standards include particulate matter emission limits...

  5. 7 CFR 58.419 - Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment. 58.419 Section... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.419 Curd mill and miscellaneous equipment. Knives, hand rakes... of the curd mill should be of stainless steel. All pieces of equipment shall be so constructed that...

  6. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and at...

  7. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motozuka, S.; Hayashi, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu National College of Technology, 2236-2 Kamimakuwa, Motosu, Gifu 501-0495 (Japan); Tagaya, M. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Morinaga, M. [Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, 41-1, Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method.

  8. Texture formation in iron particles using mechanical milling with graphite as a milling aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motozuka, S.; Hayashi, K.; Tagaya, M.; Morinaga, M.

    2015-01-01

    Crystallographically anisotropic platelet iron particles were successfully prepared using a conventional ball mill with addition of graphite (Gp) particles. The morphological and structural changes resulting from the milling were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The spherical iron particles were plastically deformed into platelet shapes during the milling. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the size of the Gp particles decreased and adhered as nanoparticles on the surface of the iron particles. The adhered Gp particles affected the plastic deformation behavior of the iron particles: the (001) planes of α-iron were oriented parallel to the particle face, and no preferred in-plane orientation was observed. This study not only details the preparation of soft magnetic metal particles that crystallographically oriented to enhance their magnetic properties but also provides new insight into the activities of the well-established and extensively studied mechanical milling method

  9. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  10. CVD carbon powders modified by ball milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazmierczak Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon powders produced using a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD methods are an interesting subject of research. One of the most interesting methods of synthesizing these powders is using radio frequency plasma. This method, originally used in deposition of carbon films containing different sp2/sp3 ratios, also makes possible to produce carbon structures in the form of powder. Results of research related to the mechanical modification of these powders have been presented. The powders were modified using a planetary ball mill with varying parameters, such as milling speed, time, ball/powder mass ratio and additional liquids. Changes in morphology and particle sizes were measured using scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Phase composition was analyzed using Raman spectroscopy. The influence of individual parameters on the modification outcome was estimated using statistical method. The research proved that the size of obtained powders is mostly influenced by the milling speed and the amount of balls. Powders tend to form conglomerates sized up to hundreds of micrometers. Additionally, it is possible to obtain nanopowders with the size around 100 nm. Furthermore, application of additional liquid, i.e. water in the process reduces the graphitization of the powder, which takes place during dry milling.

  11. Radiosensitivity of quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Orto, F.A.C.; Ojima, M.; Hiroce, R.; Igue, T.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation with quince seeds (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) radiosensitivity and the mineral composition of the plants obtained for mutation breeding are related. The concentration of some macro and micronutrients in quince seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Yang-Mills formulation of interacting strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Hongmo; Tsou Sheungtsun

    1988-06-01

    A suggestion that the theory of interacting open bosonic string be reformulated as a generalised Yang-Mills theory is further elucidated. Moreover, a serious reservation regarding the ordering of operators in the earlier 'proof' of equivalence between the new and standard formulations is now removed. (author)

  13. Credentialism: Why We Have Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstein, George

    1982-01-01

    The demand for credentials and college degrees in the United States has spawned the establishment of many degree-granting institutions that are nothing more than diploma mills. Despite some indicators of institutional quality, such as accreditation and state licensing, the identification of substandard colleges is not always an easy task. (WD)

  14. Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1984-04-01

    Work done in estimating projected health effects for persons exposed to mill tailings at vicinity properties is described. The effect of the reassessment of exposures at Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the risk estimates for gamma radiation is discussed. A presentation of current results in the epidemiological study of Hanford workers is included. 2 references

  15. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  16. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  17. Lucky Mc Uranium Mill. Draft environmental statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The Environmental Impact Statement addressed the following: the existing environment; operations; environmental impacts; environmental effects of accidents; monitoring programs and other mitigating measures; unavoidable adverse environmental impacts; relationship between short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; alternatives; and NRC benefit-cost summary for the Lucky Mc Mill

  18. Random geometry and Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.

    1981-01-01

    The author states various problems and discusses a very few preliminary rigorous results in a branch of mathematics and mathematical physics which one might call random (or stochastic) geometry. Furthermore, he points out why random geometry is important in the quantization of Yang-Mills theory. (Auth.)

  19. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    simple model systems. ... times in a planetary mill are shown in figure 2. ... dynamics (CD) model, based on Martin's model for driven systems,21 along with an ... feature of the phase diagram is the self closing miscibility gap at low temperature.

  20. Understanding Biomass Ignition in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzer, Lars; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Converting existing coal fired power plants to biomass is a readily implemented strategy to increase the share of renewable energy. However, changing from one fuel to another is not straightforward: Experience shows that wood pellets ignite more readily than coal in power plant mills or storages...

  1. Cuttable Ruled Surface Strips for Milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Kasper Hornbak; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for industrial robotic CNC-milling. The method targets a hybrid machining process, in which the main bulk of material is removed through robotic hot or abrasive wire cutting, after which regular CNC-machining is employed for removal of the remaining...

  2. On the bistable zone of milling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan; Stepan, Gabor

    2015-09-28

    A modal-based model of milling machine tools subjected to time-periodic nonlinear cutting forces is introduced. The model describes the phenomenon of bistability for certain cutting parameters. In engineering, these parameter domains are referred to as unsafe zones, where steady-state milling may switch to chatter for certain perturbations. In mathematical terms, these are the parameter domains where the periodic solution of the corresponding nonlinear, time-periodic delay differential equation is linearly stable, but its domain of attraction is limited due to the existence of an unstable quasi-periodic solution emerging from a secondary Hopf bifurcation. A semi-numerical method is presented to identify the borders of these bistable zones by tracking the motion of the milling tool edges as they might leave the surface of the workpiece during the cutting operation. This requires the tracking of unstable quasi-periodic solutions and the checking of their grazing to a time-periodic switching surface in the infinite-dimensional phase space. As the parameters of the linear structural behaviour of the tool/machine tool system can be obtained by means of standard modal testing, the developed numerical algorithm provides efficient support for the design of milling processes with quick estimates of those parameter domains where chatter can still appear in spite of setting the parameters into linearly stable domains. © 2015 The Authors.

  3. VENVAL : a plywood mill cost accounting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Spelter

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a package of computer programs called VENVAL. These programs prepare plywood mill data for a linear programming (LP) model that, in turn, calculates the optimum mix of products to make, given a set of technologies and market prices. (The software to solve a linear program is not provided and must be obtained separately.) Linear programming finds...

  4. A class of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo, L.; Kugler, M.

    1980-09-01

    We investigate a class of solutions of the classical SU(2) Yang-Mills equations. The symmetry of this class prescribes a natural set of gauge invariant degrees of freedom. Using these degrees of freedom we obtain a simple set of equations which enables us to find all the solutions belonging to the class under discussion. (Author)

  5. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  6. Conjunto de actividades físicas recreativas para el aprovechamiento del tiempo libre del Adulto Mayor de la Circunscripción # 188, Consejo Popular “Hermanos Cruz”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Duque Estevez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al envejecimiento de la población a nivel mundial existe una prioridad en la necesidad de la participación cada vez más activa del Adulto Mayor en las diferentes esferas sociales en que pueda dar su aporte manteniendo la calidad de vida que le permita transmitir sus experiencias a las nuevas generaciones. La realización de actividades físico–recreativas  en el Adulto Mayor propicia el aprovechamiento  de  su tiempo  libre,  permitiendo, entre  otras  cosas  que cumplan  con  satisfacción la  función  del  individuo  como  miembro  de  la Sociedad.  Son   las   personas que forman parte de esta las máximas responsables de que este miembro llegue  con más salud a esta etapa de la vida. Resulta importante propiciar el aprovechamiento del tiempo libre  para lo cual se proponen un conjunto de actividades físico-recreativas para el Adulto Mayor perteneciente  a  la  Circunscripción  #  188  del  Consejo  Popular “Hermanos Cruz”,. La investigación se sustenta en las teorías más actualizadas y se establecen los fundamentos teóricos de dicho conjunto de actividades con  la participación de la  familia y la comunidad  Resultando novedosa dada su utilidad para las comunidades de la provincia, el Ministerio de Salud Pública y el INDER  encargados del trabajo con el Adulto Mayor

  7. Compensación fiscal de pérdidas: Determinantes de su activación, impacto en las cuentas anuales y aprovechamiento de los créditos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Monterrey Mayoral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de las compañías que experimentan bases imponibles negativas, la opción de activar los créditos fiscales surgidos de estas tiene como incentivos la posibilidad de reducir los resultados adversos y la mejora de los ratios de endeudamiento. Los resultados empíricos que documentamos en este trabajo indican que la decisión de registrar los créditos fiscales se ve estimulada por su favorable impacto sobre el endeudamiento y el tamaño empresarial y, en menor medida, por la posibilidad de reducir pérdidas, y limitada tanto por las posibilidades reales de aprovechamiento como por el riesgo de continuidad del negocio, sin que las expectativas de la dirección sobre los resultados futuros parezcan tener influencia alguna en la opción por activar. Además, hemos constatado un débil grado de aprovechamiento real de los créditos fiscales, que en promedio no supera el 31% del importe compensable en los 7 ejercicios siguientes al de la generación de la pérdida fiscal, si bien este se eleva al 80% en aquellas empresas en las que las bases imponibles negativas se generaron exclusivamente por el efecto de resultados extraordinarios negativos. Finalmente, nuestros hallazgos confirman el acierto del regulador de confinar la activación de los créditos a los casos en los que las pérdidas fiscales surgen como consecuencia de acontecimientos no habituales.

  8. The progress in the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-waste uranium ore milling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jintang

    1990-01-01

    The production of uranium mill tailings and their risk assessment are described. The moethods of uranium mill tailings disposal and management are criticized and the necessity of the researches for uranium mill tailings cleaning treatment and no-wasle uranium ore milling process are demonstrated. The progress for these researches in China and other countries with uranium production is reviewed, and the corresponding conclusions are reported

  9. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazini da Conceicao, Fabiano; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Jimenez-Rueda, Jairo Roberto; Frutuoso Roveda, Jose Arnaldo

    2009-01-01

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbatai river basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order 40 K> 226 Ra> 232 Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  10. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  11. Surface Quality of Staggered PCD End Mill in Milling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Machined surface quality determines the reliability, wear resistance and service life of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP workpieces. In this work, the formation mechanism of the surface topography and the machining defects of CFRPs are proposed, and the influence of milling parameters and fiber cutting angles on the surface quality of CFRPs is obtained, which can provide a reference for extended tool life and good surface quality. Trimming and slot milling tests of unidirectional CFRP laminates are performed. The surface roughness of the machined surface is measured, and the influence of milling parameters on the surface roughness is analyzed. A regression model for the surface roughness of CFRP milling is established. A significance test of the regression model is conducted. The machined surface topography of milling CFRP unidirectional laminates with different fiber orientations is analyzed, and the effect of fiber cutting angle on the surface topography of the machined surface is presented by using a digital super depth-of-field microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. To study the influence of fiber cutting angle on machining defects, the machined topography under different fiber orientations is analyzed. The slot milling defects and their formation mechanism under different fiber cutting angles are investigated.

  12. Determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in sugar-cane spirits commercialized in Southeastern Brazil by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha e Silva, R.M.; Almeida, E.; Valencia, E.P.E.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2004-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine simultaneously the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in seven sugar-cane spirit samples ('aguardente'), a processed alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane juice. The limits of detection ranged from 35 to 8 ng x ml -1 for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Se. Excluding Fe, Cu and Zn, the concentrations were below their limits. Two samples showed Cu concentrations higher than the value allowed by Brazilian legislation (5 μg x ml -1 ), and concerning Fe and Zn, no sample were above the limits permitted by WHO for drinking water (2 and 3 μg x ml -1 , respectively). (author)

  13. Yang-Mills theory for non-semisimple groups

    CERN Document Server

    Nuyts, J; Nuyts, Jean; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2003-01-01

    For semisimple groups, possibly multiplied by U(1)'s, the number of Yang-Mills gauge fields is equal to the number of generators of the group. In this paper, it is shown that, for non-semisimple groups, the number of Yang-Mills fields can be larger. These additional Yang-Mills fields are not irrelevant because they appear in the gauge transformations of the original Yang-Mills fields. Such non-semisimple Yang-Mills theories may lead to physical consequences worth studying. The non-semisimple group with only two generators that do not commute is studied in detail.

  14. Uranium mill tailings management practices in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, A.W.; Barsi, R.G.; Melis, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium was discovered in Saskatchewan in 1934. The first major mill began operating at Beaverlodge in 1953; two other mills began production in the same area in 1955 and 1957. Waste management measures were limited at the early mills. A new generation of mills was brought into production beginning in 1975 utilizing engineered waste management systems. The paper presents a brief description of the geography and physical environment of northern Saskatchewan, Canada; reviews milling operations and waste managements systems; describes the evolution of waste management systems; and, comments on environmental control measures regulating the industry

  15. The use of C-14 as tracer in the carbon flow assimilated by the plants (maize, sugar cane, bean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Eduardo, B. de; Cerri, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    The flow of carbon in three different crops (maize, beans and sugar cane) was studied by use of C-14. The plants were exposed to an atmosphere with a constant concentration of the tracer for 12 hours in a biosynthesis chamber. The detection of the isotope permitted the distribution and concentration of the photosynthetates in the various organs of the plants to be followed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. IN VITRO FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY OF MIXTURES OF Cynodon nlemfuensis, Leucaena leucocephala AND TWO ENERGY SOURCES (MAIZE OR SUGAR CANE MOLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Martin Estrada-Liévano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fermentation efficiency of Cynodon nlemfuensis forage (star grass and Leucaena leucocephala foliage (leucaena and two energy sources (i.e. maize and sugar cane molasses mixture was evaluated. Mixture samples (1 g DM were incubated for 24 h. All the mixtures were added with 500 mg of polyetilenglycol (PEG. Adding molasses to star grass increased dry matter true digestibility and carbohydrate fermentation (P

  17. RESEARCH OF KINETIC AND DIFFUSIVE MECHANISMS IN THE ADSORPTION OF Cu (II IN SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Omar Prieto García

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a kinetic and diffusive study regarding adsorption of ions Cu (II on a sample of sugar cane bagasse ash is made. The results show that the second-order kinetic model better adjusts the experimental data than the Elovich and first-order kinetic model. The diffusive mechanism study shows that the diffusion in the liquid pellicle and in the micro-pores of the adsorbent prevail in the adsorption phenomenon.

  18. Fiber degradability of sugar cane bagasse treated by alkaline solutions, through the “in situ” nylon bag technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Carlo Franco Morgulis

    1996-09-01

    treated bagasse (A was higher than in B or C treatments; degradability of B was higher than in C at 72h and 96h of incubation time. NDF degradability at 48 hour incubation time showed the following results: A = 74.0%; B = 41.6% and C = 35.7%. In conclusion, alkaline (NaOH and wood ash treated sugar cane bagasse improves ruminal degradability, and NaOH is better than wood ash.

  19. Commercial electric energy generation in sugar cane industry; Geracao comercial de energia eletrica no setor sucro-alcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koblitz, Luiz Otavio Gomes [Koblitz Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    The sugar cane has been cultivated in Brazil since 400 years ago. It is a crop that can be used in extensive way and features the most efficient solar energy conversion process in the world: the photosynthesis. Unfortunately, despite of the elapsed time, only 50% of this solar energy has been effectively used. Now, because the crisis in the electric power production in Brazil today we have possibility to exploit this wasted energy, converting it into electric energy. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  20. Corrosion inhibitors for neutral aqueous media based on the products on sugar cane processing. 1.Furfural derivatives as inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledovskikh, V.M.; Kamekho Khinnebra, Kh.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    A series of carboxy-, nitrogen- and nitroderivaties of furfural - the main product of sugar cane processing (furancasboxylic acid, 5-nitrofurancarboxylic acid and its salts, furfurine, furfurylamine) was studied as inhibitors of iron and copper, corrosion in aqueous-salt media. Nitrofuroates of sodium and ammonium, which decelerate anode process, intensity cathode one and provide the stable passive state, are considered to be the most effective

  1. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... amended, the sugar beet sector was allotted 5,278,064 STRV (54.35 percent of the OAQ), and the cane sugar sector was allotted 4,433,186 STRV (45.65 percent of the OAQ). CCC will distribute the sector allotments... tranches will each be equal to 20,003 MTRV, with the third opening on January 11, 2013; the fourth, on...

  2. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 23 experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio; Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Felissia, Fernando; Castro, Eulogio

    2010-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H 2 SO 4 or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2 3 full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and β-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work.

  3. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli, Vinícius N; Akasaki, Jorge L; Melges, José L P; Tashima, Mauro M; Soriano, Lourdes; Borrachero, María V; Monzó, José; Payá, Jordi

    2013-07-25

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter ( ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part of the BFS by SCBA from 0 to 40% by weight. The mechanical strength of mortar was measured, obtaining values about 60 MPa of compressive strength for BFS/SCBA systems after 270 days of curing at 20 °C. Also, microstructural properties were assessed by means of SEM, TGA, XRD, pH, electrical conductivity, FTIR spectroscopy and MIP. Results showed a good stability of matrices developed by means of alkali-activation. It was demonstrated that sugar cane bagasse ash is an interesting source for preparing alkali-activated binders.

  4. Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.

  5. Loop quantum corrected Einstein Yang-Mills black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protter, Mason; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the homogeneous interiors of black holes possessing SU(2) Yang-Mills fields subject to corrections inspired by loop quantum gravity. The systems studied possess both magnetic and induced electric Yang-Mills fields. We consider the system of equations both with and without Wilson loop corrections to the Yang-Mills potential. The structure of the Yang-Mills Hamiltonian, along with the restriction to homogeneity, allows for an anomaly-free effective quantization. In particular, we study the bounce which replaces the classical singularity and the behavior of the Yang-Mills fields in the quantum corrected interior, which possesses topology R ×S2 . Beyond the bounce, the magnitude of the Yang-Mills electric field asymptotically grows monotonically. This results in an ever-expanding R sector even though the two-sphere volume is asymptotically constant. The results are similar with and without Wilson loop corrections on the Yang-Mills potential.

  6. Book review, Principi di video-otoendoscopia nel cane e nel gatto, Giovanni Ghibaudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Per il veterinario libero professionista le malattie auricolari dei cani e dei gatti sono il pane quotidiano, ciò nonostante il loro studio è progredito lentamente anche perché molti veterinari trovavano difficoltà nell’effettuare l’otoscopia e nel riconoscere la patologia otologica. L’avvento del video-otoscopio ha permesso di rilevare le malattie e i cambiamenti dell’orecchio. L'autore ha pertanto sentito la necessità di sviluppare i principi di video-otoendoscopia nel cane e nel gatto e inserirli in un’opera, unica in Italia nel suo genere, basandosi sulla propria esperienza clinica e sul materiale iconografico presente in letteratura. Nell’agile libro ci sono 94 figure video-otoscopiche che fanno comprendere visivamente la normale anatomia e le malattie dell’orecchio. Sono presentati 68 casi in cui è visibile l’immagine dell’orecchio esterno, sempre accompagnata da visioni video-otoscopiche di ciò che sta succedendo nel canale uditivo più in profondità. Nella prima parte del volume viene descritta l’anatomia dell’orecchio esterno e medio, sono fornite le informazioni essenziali per un corretto approccio e per la gestione delle otiti, per la preparazione del paziente e, infine, vengono indicati strumenti e metodiche di video-otoendoscopia. La seconda parte, attraverso immagini endoscopiche, illustra l’aspetto dell’orecchio normale del cane e del gatto. Successivamente, immagini endoscopiche chiare ed esemplificative accompagnano la descrizione delle lesioni presenti in corso di otiti acute, croniche e neoplastiche. Lo stesso schema è stato seguito nell’illustrare l’aspetto normale e alterato della membrana timpanica e dell’orecchio medio. Per ogni causa di otite sono state affiancate, a un testo essenziale d’immediata comprensione, immagini endoscopiche per una collezione iconografica il più possibile completa. Inoltre, Giovanni Ghibaudo fornisce utili consigli per esempio sull’utilizzo di spugne

  7. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root

  8. Effects of emissions from sugar cane burning on the trachea and lungs of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Verena Sampaio Barbosa; Gomes, Felipe da Silva; Oliveira, Tarcio Macena; Schulz, Renata da Silva; Ribeiro, Lídia Cristina Villela; Gonzales, Astria Dias Ferrão; Lima, Januário Mourão; Guerreiro, Marcos Lázaro da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure to emissions from sugar cane burning on inflammatory mechanisms in tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma in Wistar rats after different periods of exposure. This was an experimental open randomized study. The animals were divided into four groups: a control group (CG) underwent standard laboratory conditions, and three experimental groups were exposed to emissions from sugar cane burning over different periods of time, in days-1 (EG1), 7 (EG7), and 21 (EG21). After euthanasia with 200 mg/kg of ketamine/xylazine, fragments of trachea and lung were collected and fixed in 10% formalin. Histological analyses were performed with H&E and picrosirius red staining. No inflammatory infiltrates were found in the tissues of CG rats. The histological examination of tissues of the trachea and lung parenchyma revealed that the inflammatory process was significantly more intense in EG7 than in the CG (p edema, together with polymorphonuclear cell infiltrates. Avaliar os efeitos da exposição à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar sobre mecanismos inflamatórios em tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar de ratos Wistar após diferentes períodos de exposição. Estudo experimental, randomizado, não cego. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos: controle (GC), sob condições padrão de laboratório e os demais expostos à fumaça da queima da cana-de-açúcar por diferentes períodos: em 1 (GE1), 7 (GE7) e 21 (GE21) dias. Após a eutanásia com 200 mg/kg de ketamina/xilazina, foram coletados fragmentos de traqueia e pulmão e fixadas em formol 10%. Análises histológicas foram realizadas com coloração com H&E e picrosírius. Não houve infiltrado inflamatório nos tecidos no GC. O processo inflamatório na análise histológica de tecidos de traqueia e de parênquima pulmonar foi significativamente mais intenso no GE7 quando comparado ao GC (p pulmonar e aumento significativo de depósitos de colágeno em tecido de

  9. Improvements in the exploitation of hydraulic resources for the energy sustainable development; Mejoras en el aprovechamiento de recursos hidraulicos al desarrollo sustentable energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiak S, Janusz; Urquiza B, Gustavo [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos(UAEM), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    to modify runners. This series of actions will allow the optimization of the hydraulic resources, which improve the negative effects on the environment. [Spanish] La energia hidraulica representa una alternativa a gran escala para la generacion de combustibles fosiles, contribuyendo solo en muy pequenas cantidades de emisiones de gases de invernadero y otros contaminantes atmosfericos. Sin embargo, para desarrollar el potencial hidroelectrico remanente se deben realizar cambios con miras al medio ambiente y al desarrollo social que tiendan al incremento del aprovechamiento de recursos hidraulicos. Sin embargo, en el contexto de la reestructuracion del sector electrico, el mercado favorece opciones mas contaminantes (menor costo). Parte de este articulo, esta basado sobre datos de la Agencia Internacional de Energia sobre Hidraulica, y se propone una serie de acciones para conocer y desarrollar el potencial hidraulico remanente en una via sustentable considerando generacion distribuida, centrales pequenas y centrales grandes. En la primera parte, se presentan las ventajas de la aplicacion de pequenas turbinas hidraulicas instaladas en las proximidades del usuario. Esto es, la ventaja de la generacion distribuida reside en que no es necesario construir lineas de transmision. En la segunda parte, se presentan las ventajas al instalar pequenas centrales en lugares geograficos de dificil acceso. El tamano de estas centrales puede variar de 100 kW a 5 MW dependiendo de la disponibilidad de los recursos hidraulicos con costos muy accesibles a un usuario individual o a una comunidad pequena. Ademas, esto mejorara el abastamiento del agua. En la tercera parte, se presentan resultados de mediciones de flujo y calculos de eficiencia en unidades de diferentes tamanos, entre 37.5 y 320MW. Los objetivos de estas mediciones y calculos fueron: Elaborar las caracteristicas de la turbina (eficiencia vs. Potencia); Medicion y cuantificacion de fugas en la turbina; Proporcionar

  10. Método para determinar la cantidad de agua de imbibición a utilizar en la caña // Methodology to determine the amount of imbibition water to use in the sugar cane industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix González-Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe hizo un estudio del uso del agua de imbibición en la industria del azúcar de caña de Cuba y, serevisaron más de 200 fuentes bibliográficas llegándose a conclusiones importantes en cuanto a lacantidad y temperatura del agua de imbibición, así como la revisión del esquema de imbibición másutilizado.A partir de aquí se obtiene un procedimiento para determinar la cantidad óptima de agua deimbibición teniendo en cuenta los precios actualizados del azúcar y el bagazo como combustible ypara otros usos, Es utilizado para su validación en dos empresas azucareras de la provincia deCienfuegos, se obtuvo que en las condiciones económicas actuales, es recomendable utilizar entre10,4 – 15,4 % caña en dependencia del uso que se le dé al bagazo y no entre 18-22 % caña como seviene haciendo históricamente, lo que permitió lograr un ahorro de agua de 66670,1 t, esto haceque se ahorren 9531.77 kWh de energía eléctrica por bombeo, permitiendo un efecto económicototal entre 22939,92 – 218505,47 USD.Palabras claves: imbibición, ingenios azucareros, energía______________________________________________________________AbstractA study was performed of the use of the water of imbibition in the industry of the sugar cane ofCuba and internationally. More than 200 bibliographical sources were reviewed reaching importantconclusions as far as the amount and temperature from the imbibition water, as well as the schemeused of imbibition water most commonly used.A very simple procedure is obtained to determine the optimal amount of imbibition waterconsidering the updated prices of the sugar and the bagasse as fuel and for other uses. It is appliedfor his validation in two sugar companies of the province of Cienfuegos. In the present economicconditions the results showed that it is advisable to use an amount of imbibition water between10.4 -15,4 % of the amount of cane processed based on the use of the bagasse and not between18-22% as it

  11. Avaliação do desempenho de dispositivo de corte de base de colhedora de cana-de-açúcar Evaluation of the performance of a base cutting device of a sugar cane harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Salvi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização da colheita mecanizada na cana-de-açúcar faz surgir preocupações quanto à qualidade do corte e à perda de matéria-prima; para minimizar esses problemas, os fabricantes de colhedoras têm desenvolvido dispositivos para auxiliar o operador no controle da altura de corte. Em vista disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho qualitativo de um dispositivo semi-automático de controle de altura de corte basal, instalado em uma colhedora de cana picada. Analisou-se em duas situações, com e sem o uso do dispositivo, a variabilidade da altura de corte, tocos arrancados e impureza mineral, por meio de estatística descritiva. Para as condições analisadas, o corte de base não está sob controle estatístico, não sendo possível manter a altura de corte determinada pela usina. O uso do dispositivo pode ser útil para a manutenção de altura de corte menor, mas é influenciado pelo estado do canavial e não mostrou vantagens quanto à impureza mineral; no entanto, apresentou menor freqüência de tocos arrancados. Existem diferenças na altura do toco e na impureza mineral quando se considera o período de trabalho (manhã/tarde.The use of mechanized harvesting in sugar cane brings up some concerns related to cut quality and raw material losses. In order to minimize this problem, harvester producers have developed devices that help the operator to control the cutting height. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of a semi-automatic cutting control device at the base, fitted onto a chopped sugar cane harvester. The variability of the cutting height, removed stems' base and mineral impurities were analyzed. Under the studied conditions, the height of the base cut, with or without the use of the control device is not under statistical control, and the process can not meet the cutting height specification determined by the sugar mill. The use of the control device can be helpful to maintain a lower cutting

  12. Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

  13. Assessing met and unmet needs in the oldest-old and psychometric properties of the German version of the Camberwell assessment of need for the elderly (CANE)--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Janine; Luppa, Melanie; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2014-02-01

    The current demographic and social developments in our society will lead to a significant increase in treatment and healthcare needs in the future, particularly in the elderly population. The Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) was developed in the United Kingdom to measure physical-, psychological-, and environment-related treatment as well as healthcare needs of older people in order to identify their unmet needs. So far, the German version of the CANE has not been established in health services research. Major reasons for this are a lack of publications of CANE's German version and the missing validation of the instrument. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the currently available German version of the CANE in a sample of older primary care patients. Descriptive statistics and inference-statistical analyses were calculated. Patients reported unmet needs mostly in CANE's following sections: mobility/falls, physical health, continence, company, and intimate relationships. Agreement level between patients' and relatives' ratings in CANE was moderate to low. Evidence for the construct validity of CANE was found in terms of significant associations between CANE and other instruments or scores. The study results provide an important basis for studies aiming at the assessment of met and unmet needs in the elderly population. Using the German version of the CANE may substantially contribute to an effective and good-quality health and social care as well as an appropriate allocation of healthcare resources in the elderly population.

  14. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  15. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations - dental milling machines from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. Part A: chairside milling machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Nicolas; Tapie, Laurent; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The dental milling machine is an important device in the dental CAD/CAM chain. Nowadays, dental numerical controlled (NC) milling machines are available for dental surgeries (chairside solution). This article provides a mechanical engineering approach to NC milling machines to help dentists understand the involvement of technology in digital dentistry practice. First, some technical concepts and definitions associated with NC milling machines are described from a mechanical engineering viewpoint. The technical and economic criteria of four chairside dental NC milling machines that are available on the market are then described. The technical criteria are focused on the capacities of the embedded technologies of these milling machines to mill both prosthetic materials and types of shape restorations. The economic criteria are focused on investment costs and interoperability with third-party software. The clinical relevance of the technology is assessed in terms of the accuracy and integrity of the restoration.

  16. Analytic representations of Yang–Mills amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N.E.J. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Bourjaily, Jacob L., E-mail: bourjaily@nbi.ku.dk [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Damgaard, Poul H. [Niels Bohr International Academy and Discovery Center, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Feng, Bo [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou City, 310027 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Scattering amplitudes in Yang–Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space—fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Möbius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is the foundations of a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang–Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities.

  17. An ambitwistor Yang-Mills Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.J.; Skinner, D.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a Chern-Simons Lagrangian for Yang-Mills theory as formulated on ambitwistor space via the Ward, Isenberg, Yasskin, Green, Witten construction. The Lagrangian requires the selection of a codimension-2 Cauchy-Riemann submanifold which is naturally picked out by the choice of space-time reality structure and we focus on the choice of Euclidean signature. The action is shown to give rise to a space-time action that is equivalent to the standard one, but has just cubic vertices. We identify the ambitwistor propagators and vertices and work out their corresponding expressions on space-time and momentum space. It is proposed that this formulation of Yang-Mills theory underlies the recursion relations of Britto, Cachazo, Feng and Witten and provides the generating principle for twistor diagrams for gauge theory

  18. John Stuart Mill's Philosophy of Persuasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Ruth McCabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In his youth, John Stuart Mill followed his father’s philosophy of persuasion but, in 1830, Mill adopted a new philosophy of persuasion, trying to lead people incrementally towards the truth from their original stand-points rather than engage them antagonistically. Understanding this change helps us understand apparent contradictions in Mill’s cannon, as he disguises some of his more radical ideas in order to bring his audience to re-assess and authentically change their opinions. It also suggests a way of re-assessing the relationship between Mill’s public and private works, to which we should look if we are attempting to understand his thought.

  19. Decommissioning of the Zirovski Vrh Uranium Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabukovec, I.; Logar, Z.; Arh, S.

    1996-01-01

    First of the inventions, which will ensure the beginning of the permanent closure of uranium ore exploitation and prevent the consequences of mining in the Zirovski Vrh Uranium Mine, abandoned according to the law from July 1992, will be soon realized. After obtaining the location permit for dismantling the equipment, foundations and installations in four main buildings of the uranium mill, current procedures are carried out in order to obtain the permission for performing the mentioned activities and to make contracts with acting organizations. Those buildings contain sources of radiation, which were considered within the legal procedures and design of technical documentation. Instructions for decontamination and protection against radiation, both issued with those projects, highly contribute to the Slovenian experience in the field of practical management of radiation sources. Additional requirement, which enters difference between decommissioning of similar mills worldwide and the one mentioned, is preservation of buildings in order to change their purpose. (author)

  20. Optimization of uranium mill tailings disposal practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Allan C.B.; Rowe, William D.

    1984-01-01

    So far as we have been to discern, no uranium mill tailings pile has yet been properly stabilized for long-term disposal. And although considerable effort is now being directed at developing practical solutions and at establishing standards for permanent disposal, the difficulties in application are diverse. They arise from the variety of environments in which milling is conducted, the significant costs associated with disposing of the large volumes of materials involved, the diverse nature of the hazards to be protected against, and uncertainties in both performance of controls and in how to determine societal responsibilities for management of the long term hazards to human populations from uranium tailings. There are 24 uranium tailings piles in the United States which no longer have responsible owners, and must now be disposed of by the U.S. Government in order to protect public health