WorldWideScience

Sample records for cane bio-energy systems

  1. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity...... and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  2. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  3. System expansion for handling co-products in LCA of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish a procedure for handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) of a typical sugar cane system. The procedure is essential for environmental assessment of ethanol from molasses, a co-product of sugar which has long been used mainly for feed. We compare system...

  4. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  5. Market development problems for sustainable bio-energy systems in Sweden. (The BIOMARK project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helby, Peter (ed.); Boerjesson, Paal; Hansen, Anders Christian; Roos, Anders; Rosenqvist, Haakan; Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-03-01

    The report consists of three case studies relating to Swedish bio-energy markets. The first is concerned with a general analysis of costs and benefits of transition to biomass-based electricity in Sweden. The analysis indicates that many price relations in Sweden do not support the transition to bio-energy. Future prospects for biomass conversion technologies versus natural gas based technologies may not be in favour of bio-energy with the existing fuel prices. Additionally, there is no effective utilisation of the large economic benefits that could be gained by coordinating the bio-energy fuel chain with the management of other material flows such as the nutrient flows in the water cycle. In government policies, the supply of biomass does not seem to receive the same attention as the conversion technologies. Potentially, this could lead to a shortage of biomass feedstock when the conversion technology part of the programmes succeeds. The second study is about market development for energy crops, specifically Salix. The analysis shows that real-life development is far behind prognoses and scenarios, confirming worries about future supplies of biomass. While Salix is associated with significant positive externalities and provides a large potential for co-benefits, the institutional setting is not favourable for the exploitation of these advantages. A particular problem is the high risk farmers face when planting Salix, as future demand is uncertain and prices difficult to predict. A better distribution of risk among the market actors, particularly between farmers and district heating companies, might be the best strategy for renewed growth in this sector. The third study is concerned with the wood pellets market, which experienced a supply crisis in the winter 2001/02, as producers were unable to satisfy demand or did so only at highly elevated prices. The analysis points to weakness in market governance, especially insufficient information flows between actors

  6. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  7. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shude; Wang, Xianghui; Zhong, Lisheng

    2016-07-25

    The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole-dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge-Kutta method and Pang's soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs) depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the corresponding theory are

  8. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Pang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole–dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge–Kutta method and Pang’s soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the

  9. BioEnergy transport systems. Life cycle assessment of selected bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Goeran

    1999-07-01

    Biomass for energy conversion is usually considered as a local resource. With appropriate logistic systems, access to biomass can be improved over a large geographical area. In this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as method to investigate the environmental impacts of selected bioenergy transport chains. As a case study, chains starting in Sweden and ending in Holland have been investigated. Biomass originates from tree sections or forest residues, the latter upgraded to bales or pellets. The study is concentrated on production of electricity, hot cooling water is considered as a loss. Electricity is, as the main case, produced from solid biomass in the importing country. Electricity can also be produced in the country of origin and exported via the trans-national grid as transportation media. As an alternative, a comparison is made with a coal cycle. The results show that contribution of emissions from long-range transportation is of minor importance. The use of fuels and electricity for operating machines and transportation carriers requires a net energy input in bioenergy systems which amounts to typically 7-9% of delivered electrical energy from the system. Emissions of key substances such as NO{sub x}, CO, S, hydrocarbons, and particles are low. Emissions of CO{sub 2} from biocombustion are considered to be zero since there is approximately no net contribution of carbon to the biosphere in an energy system based on biomass. A method to quantify non-renewability is presented. For coal, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be 110%. For most of the cases with bioenergy, the non-renewability factor is calculated to be between 6 and 11%. Reclamation of biomass results in certain losses of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and base cations such as K, Ca and Mg. These are balanced by weathering, vitalisation or ash recirculation procedures. Withdrawal of N from the ecological system is approximately 10 times the load from the technical

  10. Influence of structure disorders and temperaturesof systems on the bio-energy transport in proteinmolecules (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-feng PANG

    2008-01-01

    The influence of molecular structure disor-ders and physiological temperature on the states and properties of solitons as transporters of bio-energy are numerically studied through the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a new theory based on my paper [Front. Phys. China, 2007, 2(4): 469]. The structure dis-orders include fluctuations in the characteristic parame-ters of the spring constant, dipole-dipole interaction con-stant and exciton-phonon coupling constant, as well as the chain-chain interaction coefficient among the three channels and ground state energy resulting from the dis-order distributions of masses of amino acid residues and impurities. In this paper, we investigate the behav-iors and states of solitons in a single protein molecu-lar chain, and in α-Helix protein molecules with three channels. In the former we prove first that the new soli-tons can move without dispersion, retaining its shape, velocity and energy in a uniform and periodic protein molecule. In this case of structure disorder, the fluctu-ations of the spring constant, dipole-dipole interaction constant and exciton-phonon coupling constant, as well as the ground state energy and the disorder distribu-tions of masses of amino acid residues of the proteins influence the states and properties of motion of solitons. However, they are still quite stable and are very robust against these structure disorders, even in the presence of larger disorders in the sequence of masses, spring con-stants and coupling constants. Still, the solitons may disperse or be destroyed when the disorder distribution of the masses and fluctuations of structure parameters are quite great. If the effect of thermal perturbation of the environment on the soliton in nonuniform proteins is considered again, it is still thermally stable at the biolog-ical temperature of 300 K, and at the longer time period of 300 ps and larger spacing of 400 amino acids. The new soliton is also thermally stable in the case of motion

  11. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The 15N label permitted to determine, at the end of the...

  12. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Timm, Luis Carlos; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Castro Navarro, Roberta de; Cassaro, Fabio Augusto Meira [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica do Solo. E-mail: lctimm@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Dourado-Neto, Durval [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Producao Vegertal; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuse [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis; Piccolo, Marisa de Cassia [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biogeoquimica

    2000-09-01

    Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a {sup 15}N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw), soil components (five soil organic matter fractions) and evaluating leaching losses. The {sup 15}N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments. (author)

  13. Nutrient flows in small-scale bio-energy use in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the opportunities for the retention and return of nutrients in local bio-energy production using energy crops (oil palm, jatropha and cassava), fuel wood, manure, rice husks and a common pest plant (water hyacinth). For all bio-energy systems some return of nutrients is possible,

  14. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  15. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Wearable gait measurement system with an instrumented cane for exoskeleton control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Modar; Kadone, Hideki; Suzuki, Kenji; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-17

    In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

  17. Wearable Gait Measurement System with an Instrumented Cane for Exoskeleton Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modar Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we introduce a wearable sensory system for motion intention estimation and control of exoskeleton robot. The system comprises wearable inertial motion sensors and shoe-embedded force sensors. The system utilizes an instrumented cane as a part of the interface between the user and the robot. The cane reflects the motion of upper limbs, and is used in terms of human inter-limb synergies. The developed control system provides assisted motion in coherence with the motion of other unassisted limbs. The system utilizes the instrumented cane together with body worn sensors, and provides assistance for start, stop and continuous walking. We verified the function of the proposed method and the developed wearable system through gait trials on treadmill and on ground. The achievement contributes to finding an intuitive and feasible interface between human and robot through wearable gait sensors for practical use of assistive technology. It also contributes to the technology for cognitively assisted locomotion, which helps the locomotion of physically challenged people.

  18. Fate of Tebuthiuron and Hexazinone in Green-Cane Harvesting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniêto, Thiago Antônio Pinheiro; de Pierri, Letícia; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2016-05-25

    In Brazil, fire prior to sugar cane harvesting has to be phased out by 2017, but it has already been phased out in up to 85-90% of the cropped area. The new system is called green cane and has entirely changed weed management practices. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the straw presence as well as humic acid (HA), formulation, soil type, and aging on the sorption and leaching of (14)C-tebuthiuron and hexazinone. Both herbicides presented low sorption for all treatments (Kd,app ≤ 3.25 L kg(-1)), but it was higher for tebuthiuron in the clayer soil (LVd). Straw and aging only slightly enhanced sorption. The HA effects were not clear. Sorption was mostly affected by herbicide and soil type. Straw may promote physical trapping (∼40% of applied amount), which cannot be accessed by "batch" sorption (∼15% of the applied amount is sorbed), attenuating leaching of highly mobile herbicides in green-cane systems. To properly assess leaching through straw residues under laboratory condition, rainfall distribution is very important.

  19. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  20. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  1. Mapping of combined heat and power systems in cane sugar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, M.S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Sreekariyam (India). Energy Research Centre

    2001-12-01

    Cogenerating systems based on steam turbines (1-20 MWt) are indispensable when the source of energy is a solid fuel such as bagasse as in a sugar industry. These systems provide a wide range of heat to power ratios from 0 to as high as 100. The energy productivity of sugar plants differ vastly because of variations in equipment efficiency, system configuration and operating steam conditions. In this paper a mapping of the entire operating range of steam based combined heat and power plants spanning pure back pressure to pure condensing environments, based on standard steam conditions in installations and efficiencies which are currently being achieved experimentally, is presented. This will enable the rational choice of combinations, which will yield the best economic advantage. As the operating steam pressure is increased (and consequently the matching superheated temperatures) the in-house steam requirement reduces drastically and simultaneously the exportable power increases. Improvements in the systems by the use of advanced designs of steam turbines and introduction of information technologies and associated supervision control and data acquisition, energy management system, multi-media interaction, etc., is also briefly highlighted. The maximum exportable electrical power from a sugar mill after meeting the internal requirement is around 146 kW h/t of cane. The maximum exportable of steam (no power export) is around 0.65 t/t of cane. (author)

  2. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  4. Bio-energy status document 2012; Statusdocument bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.L.; Van Grinsven, A.H.; Bergsma, G.C.; Croezen, H.C.

    2013-05-15

    In 2012 bio-energy contributed over 71 PJ to the Dutch energy supply, a rise of almost 2 PJ over 2011. This means that 75% of the renewable energy consumed in the Netherlands is now derived from biomass. The growth is due mainly to the increase in the mandatory biotransport fuel percentage from 4.25% to 4.5%. The use of energy from 'other biomass combustion' (incl. paper sludge, green waste and chicken excrement) recovered to the level of 2010, following a marked drop in 2011 due to plant maintenance, termination of the MEP ('Environmental Quality of Power Generation') subsidy scheme and high biomass prices. At large power stations there was a considerable decrease in co-incineration of biomass because of incidents (a fire at the Nijmegen coal-fired plant) and a maintenance backlog (at the Amer power station). These are some of the results reported in the 'Bio-energy status document 2012', prepared by CE Delft for NL Agency. In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] De bijdrage van bio-energie aan de Nederlandse energievoorziening bedroeg in 2012 ruim 71 PJ, een stijging van bijna 2 PJ ten opzichte van 2011. Daarmee is 75% van het verbruik van hernieuwbare energie in Nederland afkomstig van bio-energie. De stijging wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de oplopende bijmengplicht van biotransportbrandstoffen van 4,25% naar 4,5%. Verbruik van energie uit 'overige biomassaverbranding' (o.a. papierslib, groenafval en kippenmest) herstelde zicht tot het niveau van 2010, na een forse daling in 2011 door onderhoud aan installaties, afloop van MEP-subsidies en hoge prijzen van biomassa. Het bij- en meestoken van biomassa in grote elektriciteitscentrales daalde juist aanzienlijk door calamiteiten en uitloop van onderhoud (brand kolencentrale bij Nijmegen

  5. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  6. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States); Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Maglinao, Randy Latayan [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    2017-03-02

    The goal of this project was to establish the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) of Montana State University Northern (MSUN) as a Regional Research Center of Excellence in research, product development, and commercialization of non-food biomass for the bio-energy industry. A three-step approach, namely, (1) enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities, (2) develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops, and (3) educate the community through outreach programs for public understanding and acceptance of new technologies was identified to achieve this goal. The research activities aimed to address the obstacles concerning the production of biofuels and other bio-based fuel additives considering feedstock quality, conversion process, economic viability, and public awareness. First and foremost in enhancing the capabilities of the Center is the improvement of its laboratories and other physical facilities for investigating new biomass conversion technologies and the development of its manpower complement with expertise in chemistry, engineering, biology, and energy. MSUN renovated its Auto Diagnostics building and updated its mechanical and electrical systems necessary to house the state-of-the-art 525kW (704 hp) A/C Dynamometer. The newly renovated building was designated as the Advanced Fuels Building. Two laboratories, namely Biomass Conversion lab and Wet Chemistry lab were also added to the Center’s facilities. The Biomass Conversion lab was for research on the production of advanced biofuels including bio-jet fuel and bio-based fuel additives while the Wet Chemistry lab was used to conduct catalyst research. Necessary equipment and machines, such as gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry, were purchased and installed to help in research and testing. With the enhanced capabilities of the Center, research and testing activities were very much facilitated and more precise. New biofuels derived from Camelina sativa (camelina), a locally

  7. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Intelligence , Surveillance and Reconnaissance, Information Operations, Logistics and Business domains require the CANES infrastructure to operate...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Defense Acquisition Management...Programs 3 Program Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 6 Program Status 7

  8. Zhongrun,Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology%Zhongrun, Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Huaibei Zhongrun Bio-energy Technology Development Co.,Ltd.is a high-tech Sino-US joint venture,also a participator of the 12th CHITEC.Its majority shareholder is Anhui Huaibei Mining Group and it is co-sponsored by Anhui Guohua Group and US Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

  9. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  10. Analysis of Norwegian bio energy statistics. Quality improvement proposals; Analyse av norsk bioenergistatistikk. Forslag til kvalitetsheving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the current model and presentation form of bio energy statistics. It appears proposed revision and enhancement of both collection and data representation. In the context of market development both in general for energy and particularly for bio energy and government targets, a good bio energy statistics form the basis to follow up the objectives and means.(eb)

  11. The effect of sugar cane molasses on the immune and male reproductive systems using in vitro and in vivo methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Rahiman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Sugar cane molasses is a commonly used ingredient in several food products. Contrasting reports suggest that molasses may have potential adverse or beneficial effects on human health. However, little evidence exists that examines the effects of molasses on the different physiological systems. This study investigated the effects of sugar cane molasses on various physiological systems using in vivo and in vitro methods. Materials and Methods: Molasses was administered orally to BALB/c, male mice and animals were randomly assigned into either a treatment or control group. General physiological changes, body weight and molasses intake of animals were monitored. At the end of the exposure period, collected blood samples were evaluated for potential toxicity using plasma biomarkers and liver enzyme activity. Immunised treated and untreated mice were evaluated for antibody titre to determine the effect of molasses on the immune response. To investigate the impact of molasses on testicular steroidogenesis, testes from both treated and control groups were harvested, cultured and assayed for testosterone synthesis.  Results: Findings suggest that fluid intake by molasses-treated animals was significantly increased and these animals showed symptoms of loose faeces. Molasses had no significant effect on body weight, serum biomarkers or liver enzyme activity (P>0.05.  Immunoglobulin-gamma anti-antigen levels were significantly suppressed in molasses-treated groups (P=0.004. Animals subjected to molasses exposure also exhibited elevated levels of testosterone synthesis (P=0.001. Conclusion: Findings suggests that molasses adversely affects the humoral immune response. The results also promote the use of molasses as a supplement to increase testosterone levels.

  12. Metal levels in sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) samples from an area under the influence of a municipal landfill and a medical waste treatment system in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Muñoz, S I; da Silva Oliveira, A; Nikaido, M; Trevilato, T M B; Bocio, A; Takayanagui, A M M; Domingo, J L

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003, duplicated samples of roots, stems and leaves of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) were collected in 25 points of an area under direct influence of the municipal landfill site (MLS) and medical waste treatment system (MWTS) of Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The following concentrations (mg/kg) were found in roots: Cd, 0.22+/-0.12; Cr, 64.3+/-48.7; Cu, 140.6+/-27.7; Hg, 0.04+/-0.02; Mn, 561.6+/-283.3; Pb, 7.9+/-2.1 and Zn, 177.4+/-64.9. For some metals, these levels are higher than the concentrations previously reported for different plants, reaching, in some cases, values that might be considered toxic for vegetables. Metal levels in stems were 80-90% of those found in roots, while the concentrations detected in leaves were significantly lower than those in roots. The present results suggest that MLS and MWTS activities might have been increasing metal concentrations in edible tissues of sugar cane grown in the area under their influence. Moreover, the traditional agricultural practices in the production of sugar cane could be also another determinant factor to reach the current metal levels. The results of this study indicate that sugar cane is a crop that is able to grow in areas where metals in soils are accumulated.

  13. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  14. Improvements of the Crusher System of Cane Shredder and Its Application%糖厂撕裂机破碎系统的改造及其效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志雄

    2012-01-01

    针对自动卸蔗输送机卸蔗效果存在的欠缺问题,调整撕裂机动力配置,改造破碎系统,增大处理量和保证甘蔗破碎质量,提高糖分抽出率,在2010/11年榨季取得明显效果,基本实现预期改造目标。%The paper mainly introduces the technology reform on the automatic unloading cane conveyor. By adjusting the cane shredder power and modifying the crushing system, there had been obvious achievement in 2010/11 sugar production campaigns and realized the expected target. This reformed system had been proved to ensure the quality of sugarcane crushing, improve sugar extraction efficiency and increase treatment capacity.

  15. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Alcorn-Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Maglinao, Randy [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2014-09-30

    MSU-Northern established the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) into a Regional Research Center of Excellence to address the obstacles concerning biofuels, feedstock, quality, conversion process, economic viability and public awareness. The Center built its laboratories and expertise in order to research and support product development and commercialization for the bio-energy industry in our region. The Center wanted to support the regional agricultural based economy by researching biofuels based on feedstock’s that can be grown in our region in an environmentally responsible manner. We were also interested in any technology that will improve the emissions and fuel economy performance of heavy duty diesel engines. The Center had a three step approach to accomplish these goals: 1. Enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities 2. Develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops. 3. Educate and outreach for public understanding and acceptance of new technology. The Center was very successful in completing the tasks as outlined in the project plan. Key successes include discovering and patenting a new chemical conversion process for converting camelina oil to jet fuel, as well as promise in developing a heterogeneous Grubs catalyst to support the new chemical conversion process. The Center also successfully fragmented and deoxygenated naturally occurring lignin with a Ni-NHC catalyst, showing promise for further exploration of using lignin for fuels and fuel additives. This would create another value-added product for lignin that can be sourced from beetle kill trees or waste products from cellulose ethanol fuel facilities.

  16. Theory of bio-energy transport in protein molecules and its experimental evidences as well as applications (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiao-feng

    2007-01-01

    A new theory of bio-energy transport along pro-tein molecules, where energy is released by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), has recently been proposed for some physical and biological reasons. In this theory, Davydov's Hamiltonian and wave function of the systems are simultaneously improved and extended. A new interac-tion has been added into the original Hamiltonian. The original wave function of the excitation state of single parti-cles has been replaced by a new wave function of the two-quanta quasi-coherent state. In such a case, bio-energy is carried and transported by the new soliton along protein molecular chains. The soliton is formed through the self-trapping of two excitons interacting with amino acid resi-dues. The exciton is generated by the vibration of amide-Ⅰ (C=O stretching) arising from the energy of the hydrolysis of ATP. The properties of the soliton are extensively studied by analytical methods and its lifetime for a wide range of parameter values relevant to protein molecules is calculated using the nonlinear quantum perturbation theory. The life-time of the new soliton at the biological temperature of 300 K is large enough and belongs to the order of 10-10 s or τ/τ 0 ≥700. The different properties of the new soliton are fur-ther studied. The results show that the new soliton in the new model is a better carrier of bio-energy transport and it can play an important role in biological processes. This model is a candidate of the bio-energy transport mechanism in protein molecules.

  17. Environmental consequences of processing manure to produce mineral fertilizer and bio-energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, J W; Groenestein, C M; De Boer, I J M

    2012-07-15

    Liquid animal manure and its management contributes to environmental problems such as, global warming, acidification, and eutrophication. To address these environmental issues and their related costs manure processing technologies were developed. The objective here was to assess the environmental consequences of a new manure processing technology that separates manure into a solid and liquid fraction and de-waters the liquid fraction by means of reverse osmosis. This results in a liquid mineral concentrate used as mineral nitrogen and potassium fertilizer and a solid fraction used for bio-energy production or as phosphorus fertilizer. Five environmental impact categories were quantified using life cycle assessment: climate change (CC), terrestrial acidification (TA), marine eutrophication (ME), particulate matter formation (PMF), and fossil fuel depletion (FFD). For pig as well as dairy cattle manure, we compared a scenario with the processing method and a scenario with additional anaerobic digestion of the solid fraction to a reference situation applying only liquid manure. Comparisons were based on a functional unit of 1 ton liquid manure. System boundaries were set from the manure storage under the animal house to the field application of all end products. Scenarios with only manure processing increased the environmental impact for most impact categories compared to the reference: ME did not change, whereas, TA and PMF increased up to 44% as a result of NH3 and NO(x) emissions from processing and storage of solid fraction. Including digestion reduced CC by 117% for pig manure and 104% for dairy cattle manure, mainly because of substituted electricity and avoided N2O emission from storage of solid fraction. FFD decreased by 59% for pig manure and increased 19% for dairy cattle manure. TA and PMF remained higher compared to the reference. Sensitivity analysis showed that CH4 emission from manure storage, NH3 emission from processing, and the replaced nitrogen

  18. The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

    2010-12-01

    Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets ('technical potential'). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ≈30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160-270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization ('cascade utilization') of biomass flows.

  19. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N. Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese, using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min-1, 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L-1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min-1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L-1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L-1, n=7. The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%.

  20. Nitrogen dynamics in a soil-sugar cane system Dinâmica do nitrogênio em um sistema solo-cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Martins de Oliveira

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of an organic matter management experiment of a sugar cane crop are reported for the first cropping year. Sugar cane was planted in October 1997, and labeled with a 15N fertilizer pulse to study the fate of organic matter in the soil-plant system. A nitrogen balance is presented, partitioning the system in plant components (stalk, tip and straw, soil components (five soil organic matter fractions and evaluating leaching losses. The 15N label permitted to determine, at the end of the growing season, amounts of nitrogen derived from the fertilizer, present in the above mentioned compartments.São apresentados resultados de um experimento sobre matéria orgânica em cultura de cana-de-açúcar, relativos ao primeiro ano (cana planta. A cultura foi instalada em outubro de 1997 e marcada com um pulso de fertilizante 15N, para estudar o destino da matéria orgânica no sistema solo-planta. É apresentado um balanço de nitrogênio, subdividindo o sistema em componentes de planta (colmo, ponteiro e palha, componentes de solo (cinco frações de matéria orgânica do solo e estimando perdas por lixiviação. O 15N permitiu a determinação das quantidades de nitrogênio provenientes do fertilizante nos compartimentos acima mencionados, no final do ciclo da cultura.

  1. The energetic analysis of ethanol systems production from the manioc, the sugar cane and the corn crops; Analise energetica de sistemas de producao de etanol de mandioca, cana-de-acucar e milho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salla, Diones Assis [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Pos-graduacao em Agronomia], E-mail: diones.salla@gmail.com; Cabello, Claudio [Universidade Estadual Paulista (CERAT/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Centro de Raizes e Amidos Tropicais], E-mail: dircerat@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was the analysis of the energetic ethanol production systems using as source of carbohydrates, manioc, sugar cane and maize crops. The searches were carried from the field in the Paranapanema River Valley, state of Sao Paulo in the operations of cultivation and industrial processing of raw materials for analysis. The expenditure of energy concerning the agricultural part was made by the energy consumption of stage production of one hectare of sugar cane, cassava and corn, tillage and planting procedure, inputs, driving the crop, harvest, transport industry and energy draining. The expenditure of energy referring to the part was made by the industry energy consumption of stage processing of one tonne of sugar cane, cassava and corn, in the operations of disintegration / milling, hydrolysis / treatment of the broth, fermentation, distillation and maintenance of equipment. Under the system of agronomic production of raw materials, manioc presented an energy expenditure below that of sugar cane and maize (9,528.33 MJ ha{sup -1}; 14,370.90 MJ ha{sup -1} and 15,633.83 MJ ha{sup -1}, respectively). For the ethanol produced, the operations of cultivation has consumed 1.54 MJ l{sup -1} with manioc; MJ 1.99 l{sup -1} with sugar cane, and 7.9 MJ l{sup -1} with the corn. In the industrial processing of a ton of raw material, sugar cane presented an energy cost less than the cassava and maize (1,641.56 MJ t{sup -1}; 2,208.28 MJ t{sup -1} and MJ 3,882.39 t{sup -1}, respectively), however, showed a higher cost than when they related to ethanol produced (19.38 MJ l{sup -1}; 11.76 MJ l{sup -1} and 11.76 MJ l{sup -1}, respectively). In the final energy balance for each mega joules of energy invested in sugar cane were required 1.09 MJ (9%), for each mega joules of energy invested in manioc were required 1.76 MJ (76%) and for each mega joules energy invested in maize were required 1.19 MJ (19%). Overall, it appears that the manioc consumes less energy than

  2. Bio-energy in China. Content analysis of news articles on Chinese professional internet platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Mei [Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, College of Forestry (China); Tahvanainen, Liisa; Pelkonen, Paavo [Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa [Faculty of Social Sciences and Regional Studies, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study is to discuss how information about the development and use of bio-energy is forwarded and disseminated to general public via the Internet in China. Furthermore, this study also explores in what manner the information of renewable energy policies is presented. A research method used in this study is an application of content analysis. Altogether 19 energy-related web platforms were found by searching keywords, such as 'energy net' or 'renewable energy net' or 'bio-energy net' on www.Google.cn. A thorough analysis was conducted by focusing on one of them: www.china5e.com. The news articles on www.china5e.com were examined according to whether the use of bio-energy was articulated positively or negatively in the contents of articles. It was also considered whether the articles were imported from abroad. The results of this study indicated that in China there is a tendency on the Internet to disseminate primarily the positive information about bio-energy with a great emphasis on its benefits. In addition, the study shows that when analyzing the content of the news articles, biogas and liquid bio-fuels will be the main bio-energy development trends in China in the near future. (author)

  3. Bio-energy in China: Content analysis of news articles on Chinese professional internet platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Mei [Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, College of Forestry (China)], E-mail: qu@cc.joensuu.fi; Tahvanainen, Liisa [Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa [Faculty of Social Sciences and Regional Studies, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pelkonen, Paavo [Faculty of Forest Sciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study is to discuss how information about the development and use of bio-energy is forwarded and disseminated to general public via the Internet in China. Furthermore, this study also explores in what manner the information of renewable energy policies is presented. A research method used in this study is an application of content analysis. Altogether 19 energy-related web platforms were found by searching keywords, such as 'energy net' or 'renewable energy net' or 'bio-energy net' on (www.Google.cn). A thorough analysis was conducted by focusing on one of them: (www.china5e.com). The news articles on (www.china5e.com) were examined according to whether the use of bio-energy was articulated positively or negatively in the contents of articles. It was also considered whether the articles were imported from abroad. The results of this study indicated that in China there is a tendency on the Internet to disseminate primarily the positive information about bio-energy with a great emphasis on its benefits. In addition, the study shows that when analyzing the content of the news articles, biogas and liquid bio-fuels will be the main bio-energy development trends in China in the near future.

  4. Functional genomics of bio-energy plants and related patent activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    With dwindling fossil oil resources and increased economic growth of many developing countries due to globalization, energy driven from an alternative source such as bio-energy in a sustainable fashion is the need of the hour. However, production of energy from biological source is relatively expensive due to low starch and sugar contents of bioenergy plants leading to lower oil yield and reduced quality along with lower conversion efficiency of feedstock. In this context genetic improvement of bio-energy plants offers a viable solution. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current status of functional genomics studies and related patent activities in bio-energy plants. Currently, genomes of considerable bio-energy plants have been sequenced or are in progress and also large amount of expression sequence tags (EST) or cDNA sequences are available from them. These studies provide fundamental data for more reliable genome annotation and as a result, several genomes have been annotated in a genome-wide level. In addition to this effort, various mutagenesis tools have also been employed to develop mutant populations for characterization of genes that are involved in bioenergy quantitative traits. With the progress made on functional genomics of important bio-energy plants, more patents were filed with a significant number of them focusing on genes and DNA sequences which may involve in improvement of bio-energy traits including higher yield and quality of starch, sugar and oil. We also believe that these studies will lead to the generation of genetically altered plants with improved tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses.

  5. A smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback improves cane loading for people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routson, Rebecca L; Bailey, Marcus; Pumford, Isabelle; Czerniecki, Joseph M; Aubin, Patrick M

    2016-08-01

    Nine million adults have symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the U.S. and almost half of those people have a walking aid such as a cane. Proper cane loading (e.g. 15% body weight [BW]) can reduce knee loading and may slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel smart cane with vibrotactile biofeedback that aims to facilitate increased cane loading. Ten subjects with knee OA performed a 50 m hallway walk test under four conditions: 1) naïve, 2) conventional cane with verbal instruction, 3) smart cane, and 4) conventional cane post smart cane. The cane load (% BW; mean ± 1 standard deviation) for the four conditions was 9.0 ± 1.9 (naïve), 12.7 ± 2.6 (conventional cane), 17.6 ± 2.4 (smart cane), and 15.6 ±3.1 (conventional cane post smart cane). These results indicate that the smart cane's vibrotactile biofeedback helped the users achieve the target cane loading of 15% BW or more as compared to naïve or verbal instruction alone. After using the smart cane, conventional cane loading was higher than the naïve and verbal instruction conditions demonstrating a potential smart cane training effect. Long term increased cane loading may reduce knee pain and improve joint function.

  6. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  7. Combattimenti col cane nero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La depressione è stata definita in svariati modi: una volta si chiamava esaurimento nervoso, oggi è “il male oscuro”, “il male di vivere”, “umor nero” o, come l’aveva soprannominata Winston Churchill, “black dog”, un “cane nero” che ci divora. Sia come sia, oggi la depressione è riconosciuta come vera e propria malattia, una patologia subdola che colpisce a tradimento. Arriva silenziosa e devastante, preceduta o meno dai micidiali attacchi di panico, e taglia le gambe, chiude la persona sofferente in un limbo di silenzio e apatia; fa vedere tutto grigio, opaco, annienta interessi, desideri e, non di rado, la voglia di vivere. Tanti sono stati vittime della depressione. Anche fra le persone più note e di successo.

  8. Bio-energy retains its mitigation potential under elevated CO2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Liberloo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: If biofuels are to be a viable substitute for fossil fuels, it is essential that they retain their potential to mitigate climate change under future atmospheric conditions. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] stimulates plant biomass production; however, the beneficial effects of increased production may be offset by higher energy costs in crop management. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: We maintained full size poplar short rotation coppice (SRC systems under both current ambient and future elevated [CO2] (550 ppm and estimated their net energy and greenhouse gas balance. We show that a poplar SRC system is energy efficient and produces more energy than required for coppice management. Even more, elevated [CO2] will increase the net energy production and greenhouse gas balance of a SRC system with 18%. Managing the trees in shorter rotation cycles (i.e., 2 year cycles instead of 3 year cycles will further enhance the benefits from elevated [CO2] on both the net energy and greenhouse gas balance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adapting coppice management to the future atmospheric [CO2] is necessary to fully benefit from the climate mitigation potential of bio-energy systems. Further, a future increase in potential biomass production due to elevated [CO2] outweighs the increased production costs resulting in a northward extension of the area where SRC is greenhouse gas neutral. Currently, the main part of the European terrestrial carbon sink is found in forest biomass and attributed to harvesting less than the annual growth in wood. Because SRC is intensively managed, with a higher turnover in wood production than conventional forest, northward expansion of SRC is likely to erode the European terrestrial carbon sink.

  9. Techno-economic assessment of micro-algae as feedstock for renewable bio-energy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.G.G.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper determines the energy consumption ratio and overall bio-energy production costs of microalgae cultivation, harvesting and conversion to secondary energy carriers, thus helping to clarify future perspectives of micro-algae production for energy purposes. A limitation growth model is develo

  10. Prospect of Chinese Bio-energy Grasses to Produce Fuel Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Q.Z.; Xu, L.J. (Grassland Research Inst. of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Hohhot 010010 (China)). E-mail:sunqz@126.com; Yu, Z. (College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural Univ., Beijing 100094 (China))

    2008-10-15

    The current energy shortage is seriously restricting the economic development of countries around the world. To seek bio-energy resources to replace liquid fossil fuels is inevitable. In China, energy grasses, Medicago sativa, Panicum virgatum, Astragalus adsurgens, Sorghum sudanense, Caragana Korshinskii and Lespedeza hedysaroides play more important role in development and utilization of fuel ethanol, and have a board application prospect

  11. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  12. The scientometric biography of a leading scientist working on the field of bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konur, Ozcan [Sirnak University Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey)], email: okonur@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a scientometric biography of a Turkish scientist, Prof. Dr. Ayhan Demirbas, who is a leading figure in the field of bio-energy. It describes the method and importance of doing such biographies and suggests that there are too few of them, this one being the first in this specific area. It provides insight into the individual, his work, his research and links in his field of studies and research. Prof. Dr. Demirbas has spent almost three decades in research, particularly in the field of bio-energy. He has researched and taught in the field of renewable energies including biodiesels, biofuels, biomass pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification, biogas, bioalcohols, and biohydrogen. He has also studied a great variety of subjects, such as the development of pulp from plants, chemical and engineering thermodynamics, chemical and energy education, global climate change, drinking water and cereal analyses. He has published 454 articles as of 2011.

  13. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capareda, Sergio [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Hall, Kenneth R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Holtzapple, Mark [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Searcy, Royce [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Biological & Agricultural Engineering; Thompson, Wayne H. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Baltensperger, David [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Myatt, Robert [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences; Blumenthal, Jurg [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Soil and Crop Sciences

    2012-11-30

    significantly exceed those of multiple-cut high biomass sorghum systems. Our agronomic yield and quality data will be uploaded to the Bioenergy KDF Website before the end of February 2013, with a date for public access to be determined pending peer-reviewed publication of our findings.

  14. Sistema de sincronismo entre a colhedora de cana-de-açúcar e o veículo de transbordo System of synchronism between sugar cane harvest machine and infield wagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. G. Magalhães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos problemas encontrados na colheita mecanizada da cana-de-açúcar é a falta de sincronismo entre a colhedora e o transbordo, ocasionando perdas tanto de material como de capacidade operacional. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo desenvolver um sistema capaz de auxiliar no sincronismo entre a colhedora e o veículo de transbordo por meio de comunicação sem fio. Dois sensores de ultra-som acoplados ao elevador e um microprocessador gerenciam tais informações, gerando correta sincronia entre as máquinas. O sistema foi testado em laboratório e em campo, cumprindo corretamente a função de manter as máquinas em sincronia, indicando e alertando aos operadores as suas posições relativas. O sistema desenvolvido reduziu as perdas de rebolo em cerca de 60 kg ha-1, comparado com a colheita realizada com o sistema desligado.One of the problems found in mechanical harvest of sugar cane is the lack of synchronism between the harvest machine and the infield wagon, causing crop losses as well as operational capacity. The objective of the present research was to design a system capable of helping to synchronize the sugar cane harvest machine with the wagon. The communication between tractor and harvest machine is wireless. Two ultrasound sensors coupled to the elevator and a microprocessor manage such information, generating a correct synchronization among the machines. The system was tested in laboratory and on field performing its function adequately, maintaining the two machines in synchronization, indicating and alerting the operators their relative positions. The developed system reduced the sugar cane lost in 60 kg ha-1 comparing to the harvest with the system turned off.

  15. Validation of a kinetic-diffusive model to characterize pozzolanic reaction kinetics in sugar cane straw-clay ash/lime systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Cociña, E.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic-diffusive model proposed by the authors in previous papers to describe pozzolanic reaction kinetics in sugar cane straw-clay ash (SCSCA/calcium hydroxide (CH systems is validated in this study. Two different methods (direct and indirect for determining pozzolanic activity were applied and their effect on pozzolanic reaction rate kinetic constants evaluated. Determined by fitting a model to the data, these constants are used to quantitatively characterize pozzolanic activity. The values of the kinetic constants calculated with the model were similar for the two methods. Classic kinetic models, such as the Jander, modified Jander and Zhuravlev models, were also applied to the system studied and the results were compared to the figures calculated with the model proposed. The kinetic-diffusive approach proposed was found to be valid regardless of the method for determining pozzolanic activity used, and to be the most suitable model for describing pozzolanic reaction kinetics in the SCSCA/lime system.

    Se valida la aplicación de un modelo cinético-difusivo propuesto por los autores en trabajos anteriores para describir la cinética de reacción puzolánica en sistemas ceniza de paja de caña-arcilla (CPCAñúdróxido de calcio (CH. Se aplican 2 métodos diferentes de actividad puzolánica (directo e indirecto y se valora el efecto que pudieran tener los mismos sobre las constantes cinéticas de velocidad de reacción de la reacción puzolánica. Estas constantes cinéticas son determinadas en el proceso de ajuste del modelo y permiten caracterizar cuantitativamente la actividad puzolánica. Los resultados muestran la similitud de las constantes cinéticas de velocidad de reacción calculadas, aplicando el modelo a los resultados experimentales obtenidos por ambos métodos. Además, fueron aplicados al sistema estudiado modelos cinéticos el chicos como: modelo de Jander, modelo de Jander Modificado y el modelo de Zhuravlev y

  16. Mechanisms of adreno- and cholinoreceptors in isolated pulmonary and systemic vasculature of the cane toad (Rhinella marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pil Birkefeldt Møller; Wang, Tobias; Brøndum, Emil Toft

    site of regulation of resistance and therefore holds the capacity to control blood flow and pressure. This vascular control allows amphibians to regulate their shunt, i.e. partially bypassing either the pulmonary or systemic circuit. Shunting in amphibians has been studied due to their multiple...

  17. Proceedings of the Bio-Energy '80 world congress and exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Many countries are moving with increasing urgency to obtain larger fractions of their energy from biomass. Over 1800 leading experts from 70 countries met on April 21 to 24 in Atlanta to conduct a World Congress and Exposition on Bio-Energy. This summary presents highlights of the Congress and thoughts stimulated by the occasion. Topics addressed include a comparison of international programs, world and country regionalism in the development of energy supplies, fuel versus food or forest products, production of ethyl alcohol, possibilities for expanded production of terrestrial vegetation and marine flora, and valuable chemicals from biomass. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 164 papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. The system of innovation of Brazilian sugar cane agribusiness; O sistema de inovacao da agroindustria canavieira brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica], e-mail: furtado@ige.unicamp.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: mirna@fem.unicamp.br; Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne Gaya [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    Ethanol has been recently of great interest due to two main reasons. First, it is a viable alternative to oil derivates used in light vehicles, which price has been substantially raised in the last years. In second place because ethanol is a renewable source of energy, that mitigates the emission of greenhouse effect gases. Although Brazil is losing its leadership of ethanol production for the United States, it raises internationally as the leading country to develop its ethanol production from biomass. Differently from the American system which relies on corn as principal raw material, Brazilian ethanol is produced from sugarcane. The Brazilian route shows up as much more competitive and much less pollution contributor than the American one. The objective of this work is to analyze the leading aspects of the Brazilian Innovation System built around the sugarcane industry. The Brazilian success in terms of sugarcane can not be understood just as based in a natural comparative advantage, but it is a result of accumulation of efforts which ended in a virtuous trajectory of technological learning, relying, mostly, in incremental innovations. That process had, as inflection point, the Pro Alcohol Program, launched after the first oil crisis in 1973. From that Program on, the agricultural industry started the diffusion of innovations making possible constant increases of productivity and cost reduction on its production. The technological advance brought benefit to the alcohol and sugar production, of which Brazil became the main world producer. This work is based on the approach of national systems of innovation, according to which the innovative performance of a country, region or even a sector, can not be learned only by focusing the efforts and performance of the companies. Innovation results from the interaction of actors from different institutional nature. To analyze the institutional arrangements as the basis to the innovative process, this work will get

  19. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  20. Analysis of the market for bio energy - locally and internationally. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    This report aims to describe the market potential for biogas and biomass heat and power applications, and to assess the opportunities and barriers for development of such biomass markets locally and internationally. The project has been commissioned by ENERCOAST whose overall aim is to create a market for bio energy in the North Sea area. The project uses Denmark, Central Denmark Region, and three Danish municipalities (Randers, Norddjurs, and Syddjurs) to illustrate the challenges related to developing a more substantial market for bio energy trade. A parallel study also commissioned by ENERCOAST and carried out by Ea Energy Analyses assessed the sustainability of relevant biomass supply chains related to the resource accessibility in the three municipalities. The primary focus was on biogas, straw, wood residues, and energy crops for combined heat and power production and the results were presented in a report released in July of 2010 entitled 'SSCM Analysis of the Bioenergy Resources in Randers, Norddjurs and Syddjurs' (Ea Energy Analyses, 2010). The data basis for both studies is very similar, and as such the current report incorporates and builds upon many of the SSCM reports findings. The present report describes the market structures and price developments of the aforementioned biomass resources. The market structures and trade conditions are described on a local (the 3 municipalities), national (Denmark) and regional/international (European/global) level. (LN)

  1. Stabilization of the Soliton Transported Bio-energy in Protein Molecules in the Improved Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiao-Feng; LUO Yu-Hui

    2004-01-01

    We study the stabilization of the soliton transported bio-energy by the dynamic equations in the improved Davydov theory from four aspects containing the feature of free motion and states of the soliton at the long-time motion and at biological temperature 300 K and behaviors of collision of the solitons by Runge-Kutta method and physical parameter values appropriate to the α-helix protein molecules. We prove that the new solitons can move without dispersion at a constant speed retaining its shape and energy in free and long-time motions and can go through each other without scattering. If considering further influence of the temperature effect of heat bath on the soliton, it is still thermally stable at biological temperature 300 K and in a time as long as 300 ps and amino acid spacings as large as 400, which shows that the lifetime of the new soliton is at least 300 ps, which is consistent with analytic result obtained by quantum perturbation theory. These results exhibit that the new soliton is a possible carrier of bio-energy transport and the improved model is possibly a candidate for the mechanism of this transport.

  2. A study of the development of bio-energy resources and the status of eco-society in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Huang, Yongmei; Gong, Jirui [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Xinshi [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of Botany, CAS, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Industrialization of bio-energy relies on the supply of resources on a large scale. The theoretical biomass resources could reach 2.61-3.51 billion tce (tons of coal equivalent)/a in China, while the available feedstock is about 440-640 million tce/a, however, among this only 1.5-2.5% has been transferred into energy at present. Marginal land utilization has great prospects of supplying bio-energy resources in China, with co-benefits, such as carbon sequestration, water/soil conservation, and wind erosion protection. There is a large area of marginal land in China, especially in northern China, including about 263 million ha of desertification land, 173 million ha of sand-land, and 17 million ha of salinizatin land. The plant species suitable to be grown in marginal lands, including some species in Salix, Hippophae, Tamarix, Caragana, and Prunus is also abundant Biomass feedstock in marginal lands would be 100 million tce/a in 2020, and 200 million tce/a in 2050. As a result, a win-win situation of eco-society and bio-energy development could be realized, with an expected 4-5% reduction of total CO{sub 2} emission in China in 2020-2050. Although much progress has been made in the field of bio-energy research in China, yet significant efforts should be taken in the future to fulfill large-scale industrialization of bio-energy. (author)

  3. Amelioration of drought-induced negative responses by elevated CO2 in field grown short rotation coppice mulberry (Morus spp.), a potential bio-energy tree crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, Kalva Madhana; Reddy, Kanubothula Sitarami; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2017-02-25

    Present study describes the responses of short rotation coppice (SRC) mulberry, a potential bio-energy tree, grown under interactive environment of elevated CO2 (E) and water stress (WS). Growth in E stimulated photosynthetic performance in well-watered (WW) as well as during WS with significant increases in light-saturated photosynthetic rates (A Sat), water use efficiency (WUEi), intercellular [CO2], and photosystem-II efficiency (F V/F M and ∆F/F M') with concomitant reduction in stomatal conductance (g s) and transpiration (E) compared to ambient CO2 (A) grown plants. Reduced levels of proline, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and higher contents of antioxidants including ascorbic acid and total phenolics in WW and WS in E plants clearly demonstrated lesser oxidative damage. Further, A plants showed higher transcript abundance and antioxidant enzyme activities under WW as well as during initial stages of WS (15 days). However, with increasing drought imposition (30 days), A plants showed down regulation of antioxidant systems compared to their respective E plants. These results clearly demonstrated that future increased atmospheric CO2 enhances the photosynthetic potential and also mitigate the drought-induced oxidative stress in SRC mulberry. In conclusion, mulberry is a potential bio-energy tree crop which is best suitable for short rotation coppice forestry-based mitigation of increased [CO2] levels even under intermittent drought conditions, projected to prevail in the fast-changing global climate.

  4. Energy life cycle assessment of rice straw bio-energy derived from potential gasification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chen, Ci-Syuan; Shaw, Dai-Gee; Chen, Yi-Hung; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Ma, Hsiao-Kan

    2011-06-01

    To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain and be capable of being produced in large quantities without reducing food supplies. Amounts of agricultural waste are produced and require treatment, with rice straw contributing the greatest source of such potential bio-fuel in Taiwan. Through life-cycle accounting, several energy indicators and four potential gasification technologies (PGT) were evaluated. The input energy steps for the energy life cycle assessment (ELCA) include collection, generator, torrefaction, crushing, briquetting, transportation, energy production, condensation, air pollution control and distribution of biofuels to the point of end use. Every PGT has a positive energy benefit. The input of energy required for the transportation and pre-treatment are major steps in the ELCA. On-site briquetting of refused-derived fuel (RDF) provides an alternative means of reducing transportation energy requirements. Bio-energy sources, such as waste rice straw, provide an ideal material for the bio-fuel plant.

  5. Utilization of Boron (10B) derived from fertilizer by sugar cane

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of 10B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B (10B) derived from fertilizer (boric acid), an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installatio...

  6. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  7. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  8. Mathematical algorithm to transform digital biomass distribution maps into linear programming networks in order to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  9. Mathematical algorithm to relate digital maps of distribution of biomass with algorithms of linear programming to optimize bio-energy delivery chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velazquez-Marti, B.; Annevelink, E.

    2008-01-01

    Many linear programming models have been developed to model the logistics of bio-energy chains. These models help to determine the best set-up of bio-energy chains. Most of them use network structures built up from nodes with one or more depots, and arcs connecting these depots. Each depot is source

  10. Evaluation of chemical control of marsh cane

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the feasibility of effective spraying of marsh cane (Phragmites communus) with a plant herbicide Amino Triazole (Weedazol) at Fish Springs...

  11. Determining the potential of inedible weed biomass for bio-energy and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Premjet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of indigenous weeds in six provinces located in the low northern part of Thailand were undertaken to determine the potential of weed biomass for bio-energy and bio-ethanol. The results reveal that most of the weed samples had low moisture contents and high lower heating values (LHVs. The LHVs at the highest level, ranging from 17.7 to 18.9 Mg/kg, and at the second highest level, ranging from 16.4 to 17.6 Mg/kg, were obtained from 11 and 31 weed species, respectively. It was found that most of the collected weed samples contained high cellulose and low lignin contents. Additionally, an estimate of the theoretical ethanol yields based on the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose in each weed species indicated that a high ethanol yield resulted from weed biomasses with high cellulose and hemicellulose contents. Among the collected weed species, the highest level of ethanol yield, ranging from 478.9 to 548.5 L/ton (substrate, was achieved from 11 weed species. It was demonstrated that most of the collected weed species tested have the potential for thermal conversion and can be used as substrates for ethanol production.

  12. Bionics and Structural Biology: A Novel Approach for Bio-energy Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Karthikeyan; R. Krishnan; S. Adline Princy

    2008-01-01

    Cellular metabolism is a very complex process. The biochemical pathways are fundamental structures of biology. These pathways possess a number of regeneration steps which facilitate energy shuttling on a massive scale. This facilitates the biochemical pathways to sustain the energy currency of the cells. This concept has been mimicked using electronic circuit components and it has been used to increase the efficiency of bio-energy generation. Six of the carbohydrate biochemical pathways have been chosen in which glycolysis is the principle pathway. All the six pathways are interrelated and coordinated in a complex manner. Mimic circuits have been designed for all the six biochemical pathways. The components of the metabolic pathways such as enzymes, cofactors etc., are substituted by appropriate electronic circuit components. Enzymes arc related to the gain of transistors by the bond dissociation energies of enzyme-substrate molecules under consideration. Cofactors and coen-zymes are represented by switches and capacitors respectively. Resistors are used for proper orientation of the circuits. The energy obtained from the current methods employed for the decomposition of organic matter is used to trigger the mimic circuits. A similar energy shuttle is observed in the mimic circuits and the percentage rise for each cycle of circuit functioning is found to be 78.90. The theoretical calculations have been made using a sample of domestic waste weighing 1.182 kg. The calculations arrived at finally speak of the efficiency of the novel methodology employed.

  13. Bio energy in regions. An advisor - based on the results of the competition bio energy regions; Bioenergie in Regionen. Ein Ratgeber - basierend auf den Ergebnissen des Wettbewerbs Bioenergie-Regionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Dirk [nova-Institut GmbH - Chemiepark Knapsack, Huerth (Germany); Elbe, Sebastian; Elbe, Judith [SPRINT GbR, Darmstadt (Germany); Bohnet, Sebastian; Haak, Falko; Thraen, Daniela [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH (DBFZ), Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    25 quite different regions in Germany are the godparents for this brochure. The spectrum includes the wind power region North Friesland in Northern Germany, the Achen Valley on the edge of the Alps in Southern Germany, the low mountain ranges of the Eifel in Western Germany and the Saxon Switzerland in East Germany. All regions contribute to the climate protection, increase of the regional value creation, job creation as well as regional alternatives of energy. The brochure under consideration describes the experiences of these 25 bio energy regions and makes these experiences available to other regions and actors. It is all about practically relevant instructions and opportunities for action in order to mobilize and utilize bio energy in regions.

  14. Sugar cane management with humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizer: impacts on Oxisol some physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M. C.; Campos, F. S.; Souza, Z. M.

    2012-04-01

    The present investigation has as objective to study the impact of cultive systems, humic extract and organic and mineral fertilizers on Oxisol some physical properties cultivated of sugar cane. It was developed in Aparecida do Taboado, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in Manufactores Alcoolvale. The study was in sugar cane culture implanted on 3th and 4th cycle. The experimental design was at randomized blocks following scheme in zone with eight treatments and four replications. The two treatments in main zone were represented by cultivation systems (with and without chisel) and the subzone fertilization (T1-mineral, T2-mineral+sugar cane residue, T3-mineral+humic and fulvic acids and T4-mix of mineral, sugar cane residue and humic and fulvic acids). In three soil layers: 0.00-0.05; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m were studied the physical soil properties: macroporosity, microporosity, total porosity and soil bulk density. Also evaluate the technological quality of sugar cane. The conclusions are: the application of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue+humic extract (Humitec ®) and cropping system with chisel were more effective in improving soil physical; the system of crop of sugar cane ratton implanted in the 2th and 3th cycle, without the use of chisel was better in the recovery of soil physical properties; the crop system without the chisel and the combination of mineral fertilizer+sugar cane residue was promising to increase of Brix, Pol juice, Pol sugar cane and total recoverable sugars Pol.

  15. 2010 World bio-energy conference; Compte-rendu de la conference internationale sur les bioenergies 25-27 mai a Joenkoeping en Suede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  16. Analysis of energy performance in two systems of cogeneration used in plants of sugar cane; Analise de desempenho energetico em dois sistemas de cogeracao empregados em usinas de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Felipe A.A.; Rosa, Rodrigo A. [Cogeracao Sistemas de Energia Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the options to overcome the current volatility in Brazil's power consumption outlook relates to the employment of other sources for power generation, namely solar energy, wind power or the use of biomass, namely the power generation through the cane bagasse. One should realize, however, that the economic accomplishment for launching a generation system should depend on the level of effectiveness of all processes and/or equipment comprising the system thereof. As far as the sugar-alcohol industry is concerned, the larger the system effectiveness is, the bigger the surplus of bagasse becomes and, hence, the better the chance of achieving financial earnings. Two generation systems shall be evaluated, aiming to thermo-dynamically identify the differences between the use of small equipment-driven turbines (like choppers, shredders and mills) and multi-stage turbo-generators, in order to replace the electric-powered drive units. Therefore, one shall follow thermodynamic-based criteria, namely the steam specific consumption, the equipment availability and effectiveness, thus allowing a comparison for each engine. Such survey shows that the effectiveness reaches nearly 68% for the turbo-generators and 43% for the small turbines. Under the economic perspective, one can find a saving of 89.500 tonnes per crop of bagasse, standing for an additional turnover of US$ 895.000,00 annually. (author)

  17. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  18. Preliminary Biotic Survey of Cane Creek, Calhoun County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biotic survey of Cane Creek (Calhoun County, AL) was completed in the Fall (1992) and Winter (1993) at six sites within Cane Creek to determine the effects of...

  19. A Conversation with Blake Simmons, Vice President, Deconstruction Division, and Jon Magnuson, Director, Fungal Biotechnology Group, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2013-05-03

    An interview of myself and Blake Simmons conducted by Vicki Glaser, Executive Editor of Industrial Biotechnology. The subject of the interview was the relatively new PNNL led Fungal Biotechnology Group within the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI).

  20. The Role of Bio-productivity on Bio-energy Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. J. Janssens

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The principal photosynthetic pathways convert solar energy differently depending on the environmental conditions and the plant morphotype. Partitioning of energy storage within crops will vary according to environmental and seasonal conditions as well. Highest energy concentration is found in terpens like latex and, to a lesser extent, in lipids. Ideally, we want plant ingredients with high energy content easily amenable to ready-to-use bio-fuel. Generally, these crops are adapted to drier areas and tend to save on eco-volume space. Competition with food crops could be avoided by fetching energy from cheap agricultural by-products or waste products such as bagasse in the sugar cane. This would in fact mean that reducing power of agricultural residues should be extracted from the biomass through non-photosynthetic processes like animal ingestion or industrial bio-fermentation. Conversion and transformation efficiencies in the production chain are illustrated for some relevant crops in the light of the maximum power theorem.

  1. Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

    2011-10-01

    A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol.

  2. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  3. When a cane was the necessary complement of a physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, D

    1999-01-01

    Although Dr John Radcliffe's gold-headed cane, presented to the Royal College of Physicians in 1825, became well-known following the publication two years later of Dr William Macmichael's book, The gold-headed cane, little consideration has previously been given either to medical canes, or to the custom of cane-carrying by doctors in the 18th century. This article makes a brief assessment of medical canes within the social and historical framework of the period, and views Macmichael's book in its literary context, with mention of other relevant examples of books in this genre.

  4. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  5. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  6. Addressing the Need for Alternative Transportation Fuels: The Joint BioEnergy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanch, Harvey; Adams, Paul; Andrews-Cramer, Katherine; Frommer, Wolf; Simmons, Blake; Keasling, Jay

    2008-01-18

    activity of enzymes used to deconstruct biomass, and the inhibitory effect of fuels and processing byproducts on organisms responsible for producing fuels from biomass monomers. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center that will address these roadblocks in biofuels production. JBEI draws on the expertise and capabilities of three national laboratories (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)), two leading U.S. universities (University of California campuses at Berkeley (UCB) and Davis (UCD)), and a foundation (Carnegie Institute for Science, Stanford) to develop the scientific and technological base needed to convert the energy stored in lignocellulose into transportation fuels and commodity chemicals. Established scientists from the participating organizations are leading teams of researchers to solve the key scientific problems and develop the tools and infrastructure that will enable other researchers and companies to rapidly develop new biofuels and scale production to meet U.S. transportation needs and to develop and rapidly transition new technologies to the commercial sector. JBEI's biomass-to-biofuels research approach is based in three interrelated scientific divisions and a technologies division. The Feedstocks Division will develop improved plant energy crops to serve as the raw materials for biofuels. The Deconstruction Division will investigate the conversion of this lignocellulosic plant material to sugar and aromatics. The Fuels Synthesis Division will create microbes that can efficiently convert sugar and aromatics into ethanol and other biofuels. JBEI's cross-cutting Technologies Division will develop and optimize a set of enabling technologies including high-throughput, chipbased, and omics platforms; tools for synthetic biology; multi-scale imaging facilities; and integrated data analysis to

  7. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of solid wastes of cane sugar industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, A.

    1983-01-01

    The cane sugar manufacturing industry generates large quantities of lignocellulosic solid wastes, namely bagasse and cachaza. Bagasse is the fibrous residue of the cane after extracting the juice. Cachaza is the filter cake of the precipitated insoluble sugars. This research investigates the feasibility of anaerobic digestion of a mixture of bagasse and cachaza to produce methane. Two rations of bagasse-cachaza mix as substrates were investigated. The first one was 8:1 which represents the average ratio of bagasse and cachaza produced in a raw sugar mill. The second ratio investigated was 2.4:1 which represents the proportion of bagasse and cachaza wastes after 70% of the bagasse is burned in sugar mill boilers. An acclimated microbial culture for this substrate was developed. Organic Loading-Detention Time relationships were established for an optimum system. Pre-treatment techniques of the substrate were investigated as a means of enhancing the digestibility of the cellulosic substrate. Recirculation of the filtrate was evaluated as a method for increasing solids retention time without increasing hydraulic detention time. The kinetics of the digestion process for bagasse-cachaza mixed substrate was investigated and growth constants were determined. The bionutritional characteristics of the substrate used for the digestion were evaluated. Based on the results obtained, mass balances and preliminary economic analysis of the digestion system were developed.

  9. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  10. Energy Cane: Its Concept, Development, Characteristics, and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizuo Matsuoka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional sugar cane (Saccharum spp. energy cane is a cane selected to have more fiber than sucrose in its composition. This is obtained simply by altering the genetic contribution of the ancestral species of sugarcane using traditional breeding methods. The resulting key feature is a significant increase in biomass yield. This happens because accumulating sugar is not physiologically a simple process and results in penalty in the side of fiber and yield. This review paper describes the initial conception of fuel cane in Puerto Rico in the second half of 1970s, the present resurgence of interest in it, how to breed energy cane, and the main characteristics that make it one of the most favorable dedicated bioenergy crops. The present status of breeding for energy cane in the world is also reviewed. Its potential contribution to the renewable energy market is discussed briefly.

  11. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  12. Structure of the Canes Venatici I cloud of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Dmitry I.; Makarova, Lidia N.; Uklein, Roman I.

    2016-10-01

    We study the spatial distribution of the sparse cloud of galaxies in the Canes Venatici constellation. We determined distances of 30 galaxies using the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. This homogeneous sample allows us to distinguish the zone of chaotic motions around the center of the system. A group of galaxies around M94 is characterized by the mass-luminosity ratio of M/L B=159 (M/L)⊙. It is significantly higher than the typical ratio M/L B=159 (M/L)⊙ for the nearby groups of galaxies. The CVn I cloud of galaxies contains 4-5 times less luminous matter compared with the well-known nearby groups, such as the Local Group, M 81 and Centaurus A. The central galaxy M 94 is at least 1 mag fainter than any other central galaxy of these groups. However, the concentration of galaxies in the Canes Venatici may have a comparable total mass.

  13. Bio-Energy Connectivity And Ecosystem Services. An Assessment by Pandora 3.0 Model for Land Use Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pelorosso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Landscape connectivity is one of the major issues related to biodiversity conservation and to the delivery of Ecosystem Services (ES. Several models were developed to assess landscape connectivity but lack of data and mismatching scale of analysis often represent insurmountable constraints for the correct evaluation and integration of ecological connectivity into plans and assessment procedures. In this paper a procedure for ES assessment related with Habitat and Bio-Energy Landscape Connectivity (BELC is proposed. The method is based on the connectivity measure furnished by the last version of PANDORA model and uses a modified formulation of current ES evaluation. The implementation of the model in a real case has highlighted its potential multi-scale workability. The spatial approach of the model aims at furnishing a further tool for the spread of ES and landscape ecology concepts into procedures of assessment (e.g. EIA, SEA and land use planning at different administrative scales.

  14. Optimization of inoculum to substrate ratio for bio-energy generation in co-digestion of tannery solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sri Bala Kameswari, K.; Chitra Kalyanaraman,; Porselvam, S. [Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Environmental Technology Division, Chennai (India); Thanasekaran, K. [Anna University, Centre for Environmental Studies, Chennai (India)

    2012-04-15

    The inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratio is an important factor which influences the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the effect of different I/S ratios on the performance of co-digestion of fleshings along with mixture of sludge generated during treatment of tannery wastewater was investigated. The parameters studied were biogas generation, volatile solids reduction, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, and the stability of the digestion process based on VFA to alkalinity ratio was evaluated for various I/S ratios. Economical significance of I/S ratio as related to the volume of the anaerobic digester and the potential benefit of bio-energy generated are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  15. Properties of Soliton-Transported Bio-energy in α-Helix Protein Molecules with Three Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We study numerically the propagating properties of soliton-transported bio-energy excited in the α-helix protein molecules with three channels in the cases of the short-time and long-time motions and its features of collision at temperature T = 0 and biological temperature T = 300 K by the dynamic equations in the improved Davydov theory and fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, respectively. From these simulation experiments we see that the new solitons in the improved model can move without dispersion at a constant speed retaining its shape and energy in the cases of motion of both short-time or T = 0 and long time or T = 300 K and can go through each other without scattering in their collisions. In these cases its lifetime is, at least, 120 ps at 300 K, in which the soliton can travel over about 700 amino acid residues. This result is consistent with analytic result obtained by quantum perturbed theory in this model. In the meanwhile, the influences of structure disorder of α-helix protein molecules, including the inhomogeneous distribution of amino acids with different masses and fluctuations of spring constant, dipole-dipole interaction, exciton-phonon coupling constant and diagonal disorder, on the solitons are also studied by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results show that the soliton still is very robust against the structure disorders and thermal perturbation of proteins at biological temperature 300 K. Therefore we can conclude that the new soliton in the α-helix protein molecules with three channels is a possible carrier of bio-energy transport and the improved model is possibly a candidate for the mechanism of this transport.

  16. Sistemas de colheita da cana-de-açúcar e alterações nas propriedades físicas de um solo podzólico amarelo no Estado do Espírito Santo Sugar cane harvesting systems and changes on physical properties of a yellow podzolic soil in Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bacis Ceddia

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento de longa duração (1989-1994 com cana-de-açúcar (variedade RB 739735 no município de Linhares, ES, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos seguintes sistemas de colheita da cana-de-açúcar: a Sistema Cana Crua - corte da cana sem queima, com posterior espalhamento do palhiço sobre o solo; e b Sistema Cana Queimada - corte da cana com queima prévia do palhiço, sobre algumas propriedades físicas de solo Podzólico Amarelo em área de tabuleiro. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com seis repetições. Após seis anos de cultivo, constatou-se alteração do solo no sistema Cana Queimada, evidenciada pela diminuição do diâmetro médio ponderado dos agregados estáveis em água e pelo aumento da densidade do solo na profundidade de 0-5 cm. Foram também detectadas alterações significativas na porosidade total e distribuição de poros, na profundidade de 0-5 cm, devido às práticas de manejo do sistema de colheita. Verificou-se, ainda, que a velocidade de infiltração instantânea foi maior nas áreas sob tratamento sem queima. Os mesmos resultados não foram encontrados quando se avaliou o fluxo de água saturado através do método do permeâmetro.A long term (1989-1994 experiment with sugar cane (RB 739735 was carried out, in Linhares, ES, Brazil, in order to evaluate the effect of two systems of sugar cane harvesting: the first with previous burning (burned cane, and the second with crop residue remaining on the soil surface (green cane, on some physical properties of a tableland Yellow Podzolic soil. The statistical design was in randomized blocks, replicated six times. After six years of cultivation, a process of soil degradation was observed in the burned cane system, with decreasing of aggregate mean diameter and increasing of soil bulk density at the 0-5 cm soil depth. There were also differences in total porosity and porous distribution at the 0-5 cm soil depth as a consequence

  17. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J.; Hamelin, L.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for anaer

  18. Comparing environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy – A life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vries, J.W.; Vinken, T.M.W.J; Hamelin, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co-substrates for an......The aim of this work was to assess the environmental consequences of anaerobic mono- and co-digestion of pig manure to produce bio-energy, from a life cycle perspective. This included assessing environmental impacts and land use change emissions (LUC) required to replace used co......-substrates for anaerobic digestion. Environmental impact categories considered were climate change, terrestrial acidification, marine and freshwater eutrophication, particulate matter formation, land use, and fossil fuel depletion. Six scenarios were evaluated: mono-digestion of manure, co-digestion with: maize silage......, maize silage and glycerin, beet tails, wheat yeast concentrate (WYC), and roadside grass. Mono-digestion reduced most impacts, but represented a limited source for bio-energy. Co-digestion with maize silage, beet tails, and WYC (competing with animal feed), and glycerin increased bio-energy production...

  19. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  20. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment...

  1. Utilization of boron ({sup 10}B) derived from fertilizer by sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, E-mail: hjfranco@cena.usp.b, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Centro Sul; Otto, Rafael, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Tovajar, Joao Gabriel, E-mail: jgtoaliari@bol.com.b [Cosan S.A., Valparaiso, SP (Brazil). Unidade Univalem

    2009-11-15

    The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of {sup 10}B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B ({sup 10}B) derived from fertilizer (boric acid), an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m) where 4 kg ha{sup -1} B (boric acid with 85.95 % in {sup 10}B atoms) dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005). The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006) the B content and {sup 10}B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots) were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha{sup -1} in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots). The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha{sup -1}) and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha{sup -1}), totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha{sup -1}). The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount. (author)

  2. Wastewater management in a cane molasses distillery involving bioresource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Tapas; Shastry, Sunita; Kaul, S N

    2002-05-01

    Waste management involving bioresource recovery in a cane molasses-based distillery engaged in the manufacture of rectified spirit (alcohol) is described. The spentwash generated from the distillation of fermenter wash is highly acidic (pH 4.0-4.3) with high rates of biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD: 52-58, COD: 92-100 kg/m3) and suspended solids (2.0-2.5 kg/m3). Biogas is recovered from high strength raw spentwash through the full-scale application of a biomethanation system as pretreatment option, comprising anaerobic fixed film reactors. This, combined with subsequent concentration through multiple effect evaporators (MEE), and utilization of concentrated effluent for biocomposting of pressmud (another by-product of the industry) for production of biomanure contributes to the elimination of effluent discharges.

  3. Iron-binding properties of sugar cane yeast peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Lucia; Ponezi, Alexandre N; Milani, Raquel F; Nunes da Silva, Vera S; Sonia de Souza, A; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The extract of sugar-cane yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was enzymatically hydrolysed by Alcalase, Protex or Viscozyme. Hydrolysates were fractionated using a membrane ultrafiltration system and peptides smaller than 5kDa were evaluated for iron chelating ability through measurements of iron solubility, binding capacity and dialyzability. Iron-chelating peptides were isolated using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). They showed higher content of His, Lys, and Arg than the original hydrolysates. In spite of poor iron solubility, hydrolysates of Viscozyme provided higher iron dialyzability than those of other enzymes. This means that more chelates of iron or complexes were formed and these kept the iron stable during simulated gastro-intestinal digestion in vitro, improving its dialyzability.

  4. Avaliação da acurácia no direcionamento com piloto automático e contraste da capacidade de campo operacional no plantio mecanizado da cana-de-açúcar Auto guidance accuracy evaluation and contrast of the operational field capacity on the mechanized plantation system of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio H. R. Baio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da mecanização da cana-de-açúcar, é necessária uma dinamização dos processos, como no uso de técnicas de agricultura de precisão para uma diminuição do custo de produção. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de contrastar a acurácia nas passadas orientadas por dois sistemas de direcionamento, autodirecionamento via satélite versus manual, assim como comparar as capacidades de campo e a eficiência operacional envolvidos no plantio mecanizado da cana-de-açúcar. Foram analisados dois tratamentos: com e sem o auxílio do piloto automático por GPS RTK na operação de plantio mecanizado. As avaliações foram realizadas em condições de campo, na Usina IACO Agrícola S.A., em Chapadão do Sul - MS. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, afirmou-se que o uso do piloto automático na operação de plantio da cana-de-açúcar ofereceu uma acurácia de 0,033 m entre as passadas, sendo cinco vezes maior do que aquela obtida com o direcionamento manual, e que o seu uso não melhorou a eficiência operacional do conjunto mecanizado na operação de plantio, sendo limitada pelo sistema de colheita e transporte da cana muda para a plantadora.With the growth of mechanization on the sugar cane plantation, the processes need to be speeded up, such as with the use of precision farming techniques to decrease the production cost. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy achieved by an auto guidance system driving the passes of a sugar cane planter machine over the field versus the manual system, compare the operational field capacity and compare the operational efficiency. Two treatments were analyzed: auto guidance by RTK GPS and manual guidance on the sugar cane planting operation. The evaluations were conducted under field conditions at IACO Agrícola S/A mill, in Chapadão do Sul-MS. According to the results, it was stated that the use of auto guidance system on sugar cane planting operation

  5. Nitrous oxide emissions after sewage sludge and inorganic N-fertilization of a willow bio-energy plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemedtsson, Leif; Hedenrud, Anna; Rychlik, Sophie; Weslien, Per; Kasimir Klemedtsson, Åsa; Achberger, Christine; Lindroth, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The use of sewage sludge as fertilizer after harvest or inorganic N-fertilization of bio-energy plantations can give rise to high emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Plantations of e.g. willow (Salix) are today grown and used for bioenergy purposes. They could serve as carbon and nitrogen sinks, lowering greenhouse gas emissions and helping to mitigate a change in climate. However, since N2O is such a powerful greenhouse gas it can have a large impact on the total emission of greenhouse gases from a bio-energy plantation. The magnitude of N2O emissions after fertilization is therefore important to investigate. This study concerns N2O emissions from a conventionally grown bio-energy plantation of Salix. The aim of the study was to investigate the use of sewage sludge after harvest as well as inorganic N-fertilization in a growing plantation, and its effect on emissions of N2O from the soil ecosystem. The field site is a Salix plantation in south-western Sweden, a representative site in management practices and abiotic conditions. The site was divided into two areas, a larger field and smaller plots. The field was applied with sewage sludge after harvest 2013. Emissions of N2O were measured using the micrometeorological Eddy covariance technique, with a Quantum Cascade laser (Aerodyne). The fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured using a LI-7200(Li-cor) instrument. The flux was calculated using the EddyPro software. On the plots, N2O emissions from inorganic N-fertilization (2013) were monitored using automatic chambers (height 1.05 m, volume 0.2625 m3) and a trace gas analyzer (TGA100, Campbell Scientific, USA) during approximately one (1) year. The N2O emissions from the plots (inorganic fertilizer) and field (sewage sludge) were compared with non-fertilized plots (controls) using the automatic chambers for both comparisons. The N2O emissions from the control plot for the inorganic fertilizer had an emission over the growing season that was 0.33 kg N2O

  6. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  7. Weeds in raw sugar cane renovation area with different systems of management on soil and green manure succession = Plantas daninhas em área de reforma de cana crua com diferentes manejos do solo e adubos verdes em sucessão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willians Cesar Carrega

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The renewal of plantations is important to maintain high agricultural productivity of the culture of sugar cane and is performed after 5 cuts. In order to compare the residual effects of crop succession in different planting systems on the spontaneous occurrence of weeds in the area of reform of sugarcane, the experiment was done on Acrisol eutrophic soil, located in the city of Novais, São Paulo, in sugar cane harvested without prior burning in the last five cuts. The randomized block design with treatments arranged in split plot and arranged in four replications was used. The main treatments consisted of three cropping systems, conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and no tillage. Secondary treatments consisted of two choices of green manure (sunnhemp and velvet bean and a fallow plot. After 180 days of harvest of sugar cane was counted the number of weeds.m-2 and determined the dry mass of shoots, calculating their phytosociological index. Among the management systems of soil, the no tillage system showed a suppressive effect of weeds, resulting in fewer plants, less dry mass of plants and less variety of species, suppressing species that are considered important in the culture of sugar cane. The minimum tillage method revealed intermediate results and conventional tillage was most affected by weeds. Among the green manure planted in succession to sugar cane, the velvet bean is highlighted, and shows suppressive effect of the most important weeds in fields planted with conventional soil tillage. = A renovação dos canaviais é importante para manter elevada a produtividade agrícola da cultura e é realizada em média após cinco cortes, com o objetivo de comparar o efeito residual das culturas de sucessão nos diferentes sistemas plantio sobre a ocorrência espontânea de plantas daninhas em área de reforma de cana crua, instalou-se o experimento sobre ARGISSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO Eutroférrico, localizado no município de Novais-SP, em

  8. Microbiological attributes of the soil under cultivation of sugar cane with and without burning straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pereira Paredes Junior

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sugar cane cultivation with and without burning of residues on microbial biomass, soil basal respiration and their derived indices. The study was carried out from 2009 to 2010, at the sugar mills, Itahum district, the city of Dourados, MS, on a Hapludox soil. An adjacent area of native vegetation was included in the study as a reference the original condition of the soil. Soil samples were collected at three depths: 0-5, 5-10, 10-20 cm, with five composite samples, from five subsamples collected at intervals of ten feet between each other, along a transect. Considering the different cropping systems, the results demonstrated the system without burning (mechanized harvesting of the sugar cane residues, favored microbial biomass and basal respiration and soil chemical properties, compared with the system with burning, especially in the upper layers of soil.

  9. Agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass a key to unlock the future bio-energy: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Anwar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of bio-sourced lignocellulosic biomass. Agro-industrial biomass comprised on lignocellulosic waste is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant and provides a unique natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bio-energy collection. To expand the range of natural bio-resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of the product of interest. In this background green biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert most of the solid agricultural wastes particularly lignocellulosic materials into liquid bio based energy-fuels. In fact, major advances have already been achieved to competitively position cellulosic ethanol with corn ethanol. The present summarized review work begins with an overview on the physico-chemical features and composition of agro-industrial biomass. The information is also given on the multi-step processing technologies of agro-industrial biomass to fuel ethanol followed by a brief summary of future considerations.

  10. The role of sugar cane straw on soil reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretto,Roberto Antunes; Carneiro, Cristine Elizabeth Alvarenga; Pavan,Marcos Antonio; Fioretto, Conrado Cagliari; Büll, Leonardo Theodoro

    2009-01-01

    Two laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of sugar cane straw on soil acidity. Sugar cane straw residues were added on the surface of a Typic Harplortox in a polyvinyl chlorid (PVC) column at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 76 g kg-1, the soil was incubated to field capacity with distilled water and incubated for 0, 7, 14, 45, and 90 days. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, and 20-25 cm depth. With the increase of sugar cane straw rates one verified the incr...

  11. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  12. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  13. Fratture e lussazioni della colonna vertebrale lombosacrale nel cane

    OpenAIRE

    Di Dona, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Le fratture e le lussazioni della colonna vertebrale sono delle lesioni piuttosto comuni e sono la principale causa di disturbi neurologici nel cane (Jeffery, 2010) e circa il 25% delle lesioni traumatiche della colonna vertebrale riguardano la regione lombare caudale e sacrale (Bali, 2009). La frattura/lussazione della settima vertebra lombare nel cane è una lesione comune caratterizzata da una frattura obliqua o corta obliqua del corpo vertebrale di L7 con dislocazione cranio-ventrale de...

  14. Matéria orgânica e propriedades físicas de um Argissolo Amarelo Coeso sob sistemas de manejo com cana-de-açúcar Organic matter and physical properties of a Cohesive Yellow Argisol under different management systems with sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apolino J. N. da Silva

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo contínuo da cana-de-açúcar por longo tempo sob diferentes manejos em solos de tabuleiros costeiros pode causar alterações na matéria orgânica e nas propriedades físicas do solo. Estudaram-se os efeitos de diferentes sistemas de manejo com cana-de-açúcar nas propriedades de um Argissolo Amarelo Coeso, na usina Triunfo, Estado de Alagoas. Os sistemas de manejo consistiram de uma área não irrigada, uma área irrigada, uma com aplicação de vinhaça e outra sob floresta nativa, sob condição original. Amostras foram retiradas de cada área a 0-0,2, 0,2-0,4 e 0,4-0,8 m de profundidade para determinar as alterações nos limites de consistência, parâmetros de compactação, estabilidade de agregados e frações físicas da matéria orgânica do solo. O cultivo da cana-de-açúcar sob os sistemas sequeiro e irrigado promoveu redução mais expressiva no limite de plasticidade, umidade ótima de compactação e diâmetro médio ponderado dos agregados, em relação ao solo sob mata nativa, devido à maior redução nos teores de carbono orgânico total e matéria orgânica particulada do solo. O sistema de manejo com aplicação de vinhaça promoveu menor degradação nas propriedades físicas e químicas do solo, em relação ao solo sob mata nativa.The continuous cultivation of the sugar cane for long-term under different management systems in soils of Coastal Tablelands can cause alterations in the organic matter and in the physical properties of the soil. The effects of different management systems with sugar cane on the properties of a Cohesive Yellow Argisol, in the Triunfo Sugar Cane Mill, in the State of Alagoas, Brazil, were studied. The management systems consisted of an irrigated area, an area not irrigated, an area with vinasse application and an area under native forest in original condition. Samples were collected from each area at 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4 and 0.4-0.8 m depths to determine the modification in the

  15. Preparation of the soil for the energy policy turnaround. With bio-energy for more climate protection and sustainability. Collection of essays with contributions from science, practice and policy; Den Boden bereiten fuer die Energiewende. Mit Bioenergie fuer mehr Klimaschutz und Nachhaltigkeit. Aufsatzsammlung mit Beitraegen aus Wissenschaft, Praxis und Politik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    In order to create acceptance by understanding and in order to support the energy policy turnaround, the Agency for Renewable Energies (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) supplies several contributions to the following topics: (1) Bio-energy and the energy policy turnaround; (2) Sustainability by means of bio-energy, but how?; (3) How can energy crops modify the region?; (4) Bio-Energy and the landscape of the future; (5) Isles with green energy: Bio-Energy for decentralized solutions; (6) Bio-energy and organic agriculture; (7) Forest and field in the climate protection.

  16. Efeito prolongado de sistemas de preparo do solo com e sem cultivo de soqueira de cana crua em algumas propriedades físicas do solo Long-term effect of soil tillage systems with and without tillage of green-cane stump in soil physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilotti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico, sob cultivo de cana crua, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito prolongado de sistemas de preparo do solo, com e sem cultivo da soqueira, e épocas de amostragem sobre algumas propriedades físicas do solo. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, sendo os tratamentos principais quatro sistemas de preparo do solo: (i controle da soqueira com duas gradagens, subsolagem e mais uma gradagem de nivelamento; (ii controle da soqueira com herbicida e uma subsolagem; (iii controle da soqueira com herbicida; (iv controle da soqueira com herbicida, aração com arado de aivecas e uma gradagem de nivelamento. Os tratamentos secundários foram: com cultivo e sem cultivo da soqueira. Os tratamentos ternários foram as épocas de avaliação: dois dias antes e após a quarta colheita da cultura. A porosidade total, macroporosidade, microporosidade e densidade do solo foram avaliadas, além do perfilhamento e da produtividade da cultura. Após quatro sucessivas colheitas de cana crua, houve redução da macroporosidade com aumento da microporosidade nas camadas abaixo de 10 cm e aumento da densidade do solo entre 20 e 50 cm. A densidade do solo não foi alterada de modo consistente em função de todos os tratamentos testados. O cultivo da soqueira favoreceu o aumento da macroporosidade com decréscimo na microporosidade, e o efeito inverso foi observado após a colheita. Os sistemas de preparo do solo e de cultivo da soqueira não afetaram o perfilhamento e a produtividade da cultura.This work was carried out at the field conditions in a Typic Haplustox soil with green-cane crop with the objective to evaluate long-term effect of soil tillage systems with and without tillage of stump in soil physical properties. A complete randomized blocks in split-split-plots arrangement of treatments were used. The principal treatments were four soil

  17. Design, development, and clinical evaluation of the electronic mobility cane for vision rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatlawande, Shripad; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Mukherjee, Jayanta; Biswas, Mukul; Das, Debabrata; Gupta, Somedeb

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a new electronic mobility cane (EMC) for providing obstacle detection and way-finding assistance to the visually impaired people. The main feature of this cane is that it constructs the logical map of the surrounding environment to deduce the priority information. It provides a simplified representation of the surrounding environment without causing any information overload. It conveys this priority information to the subject by using intuitive vibration, audio or voice feedback. The other novel features of the EMC are staircase detection and nonformal distance scaling scheme. It also provides information about the floor status. It consists of a low power embedded system with ultrasonic sensors and safety indicators. The EMC was subjected to series of clinical evaluations in order to verify its design and to assess its ability to assist the subjects in their daily-life mobility. Clinical evaluations were performed with 16 totally blind and four low vision subjects. All subjects walked controlled and the real-world test environments with the EMC and the traditional white cane. The evaluation results and significant scores of subjective measurements have shown the usefulness of the EMC in vision rehabilitation services.

  18. The Measurement of Sucrose Content of Sugar Cane Using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoranto Trisnobudi, Tjia Liong Hoei, Enung Rosihan Nugraha

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of sucrose content of sugar cane is usually carried out by using polarimeter and Brix Wager scale. These two apparatus are operated manually so that the accuracy of the measurement results is depended on the operator skill. To overcome this problem we have developed an alternative method that can measure the sucrose content more quickly and accurately than the conventional methods. This new method was carried out by using ultrasonic waves whose velocity depends on the sucrose content. Firstly, the electronic apparatus used was calibrated with 37 samples of sugar cane with various sucrose content from 4.46 % to 7.29 %. The result of this calibration was an empirical equation between the ultrasonic wave velocity V and the sucrose content R, i.e. R = 2.65 V2 - 11,95 V + 17,65 where R in % and V in km/s. Then this equation was stored as database in a computer program that will be used to calculate the sucrose content. Finally, this sucrose content measurement system was tested by using 30 samples of sugar cane. The maximum error of the measurement result was 6.4 %.

  19. Wearable Virtual White Cane Network for navigating people with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yabiao; Chandrawanshi, Rahul; Nau, Amy C; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-09-01

    Navigating the world with visual impairments presents inconveniences and safety concerns. Although a traditional white cane is the most commonly used mobility aid due to its low cost and acceptable functionality, electronic traveling aids can provide more functionality as well as additional benefits. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is an electronic traveling aid that utilizes ultrasound sonar technology to scan the surrounding environment for spatial information. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network is composed of four sensing nodes: one on each of the user's wrists, one on the waist, and one on the ankle. The Wearable Virtual Cane Network employs vibration and sound to communicate object proximity to the user. While conventional navigation devices are typically hand-held and bulky, the hands-free design of our prototype allows the user to perform other tasks while using the Wearable Virtual Cane Network. When the Wearable Virtual Cane Network prototype was tested for distance resolution and range detection limits at various displacements and compared with a traditional white cane, all participants performed significantly above the control bar (p Virtual Cane Network rather than the white cane. The obstacle course experiment also shows that the use of the white cane in combination with the Wearable Virtual Cane Network can significantly improve navigation over using either the white cane or the Wearable Virtual Cane Network alone (p < 0.05, paired t-test).

  20. Root system distribution of sugar cane as related to nitrogen fertilization, evaluated by two methods: monolith and probes Distribuição do sistema radicular da cana-de-açúcar, em função da adubação nitrogenada, avaliados por dois métodos: monólito e sonda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Otto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies on sugar cane have evaluated the root system of the crop, in spite of its importance. This is mainly due to the difficulty of evaluation and high variability of results. The objective of this study was to develop an evaluation method of the cane root system by means of probes so as to evaluate the mass, distribution and metabolically active roots related to N fertilization at planting. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted in an Arenic Kandiustults with medium texture in Jaboticabal/SP, in a randomized block design with four replications and four treatments: control (without N and 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 of N applied in the form of urea in the planting furrow of the cane variety SP81 3250. One week before harvest, a urea-15N solution was applied at the cane stalk base to detect active metabolism in the root system. Trenches of 1.5 m length and 0.6 m depth were opened between two sugar cane rows for root sampling by two methods: monoliths (0.3, 0.2 and 0.15 m wide, deep and long respectively taken from the trench wall and by probe (internal diameter 0.055 m. For each method, 15 samples per plot were collected. The roots were separated from the soil in a sieve (2 mm mesh, oven-dried (at 65 ºC and the dry matter was measured. Root sampling by probes resulted in root mass that did not differ from the evaluation in monoliths, indicating that this evaluation method may be used for sugar cane root mass, although neither the root distribution in the soil profile nor the rhizome mass were efficiently evaluated, due to the small sample volume. Nitrogen fertilization at planting did not result in a greater root accumulation in the sugar cane plant, but caused changes in the distribution of the root system in the soil. The absence of N fertilization led to a better root distribution in the soil profile, with 50, 34 and 16 % in the 0-0.2, 0.2-0.4 and 0.4-0.6 m layers, respectively; in the fertilized treatments the roots were concentrated

  1. Distances to Dwarf Galaxies of the Canes Venatici I Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, D I; Uklein, R I

    2013-01-01

    We determined the spatial structure of the scattered concentration of galaxies in the Canes Venatici constellation. We redefined the distances for 30 galaxies of this region using the deep images from the Hubble Space Telescope archive with the WFPC2 and ACS cameras. We carried out a high-precision stellar photometry of the resolved stars in these galaxies, and determined the photometric distances by the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) using an advanced technique and modern calibrations. High accuracy of the results allows us to distinguish the zone of chaotic motions around the center of the system. A group of galaxies around M94 is characterized by the median velocity VLG=287 km/s, distance D=4.28 Mpc, internal velocity dispersion sigma=51 km/s and total luminosity LB=1.61x10^10 Lo. The projection mass of the system amounts to Mp=2.56x10^12 Mo, which corresponds to the mass-luminosity ratio of (M/L)p=159 (M/L)o. The estimate of the mass-luminosity ratio is significantly higher than the typical ratio M/LB...

  2. Performance of dairy females fed dried yeast from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Oliveira Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal in dairy heifers’ diets. Twenty-four heifers, with an initial body weight (BW of 178 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were four levels of inclusion of dried yeast from sugar cane replacing to soybean meal (0, 33, 67 and 100% on a dry matter (DM basis. While there was no difference in DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy or roughage intakes, the intakes of non-fiber carbohydrates and concentrate were increased. The crude protein intake decreased according to the dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal. The digestibility coefficients of DM and NDF showed no difference. Replacement of soybean meal with dried yeast from sugar cane had no effect on performance, because average daily gain and body measurements studied were similar for all animals and inclusion levels. Soybean meal can be completely replaced with dried yeast from sugar cane in diets for growing dairy heifers without restrictions; this will not affect the intake, digestibility, physical development of animals or metabolization of protein compounds.

  3. Advanced Augmented White Cane with obstacle height and distance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Rosali; Kim, Yeongmi; Wespe, Pascal; Gassert, Roger; Schneller, Stefan

    2013-06-01

    The white cane is a widely used mobility aid that helps visually impaired people navigate the surroundings. While it reliably and intuitively extends the detection range of ground-level obstacles and drop-offs to about 1.2 m, it lacks the ability to detect trunk and head-level obstacles. Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been proposed to overcome these limitations, but have found minimal adoption due to limitations such as low information content and low reliability thereof. Although existing ETAs extend the sensing range beyond that of the conventional white cane, most of them do not detect head-level obstacles and drop-offs, nor can they identify the vertical extent of obstacles. Furthermore, some ETAs work independent of the white cane, and thus reliable detection of surface textures and drop-offs is not provided. This paper introduces a novel ETA, the Advanced Augmented White Cane, which detects obstacles at four vertical levels and provides multi-sensory feedback. We evaluated the device in five blindfolded subjects through reaction time measurements following the detection of an obstacle, as well as through the reliability of dropoff detection. The results showed that our aid could help the user successfully detect an obstacle and identify its height, with an average reaction time of 410 msec. Drop-offs were reliably detected with an intraclass correlation > 0.95. This work is a first step towards a low-cost ETA to complement the functionality of the conventional white cane.

  4. Geothermal resource utilization: paper and cane sugar industries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornburg, C.D.; Morin, O.J.

    1975-03-01

    This study was made as a specific contribution to an overall report by the United States in the area of industrial utilization of geothermal resources. This is part of an overall study in non-electrical uses of geothermal resources for a sub-committee of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. This study was restricted to the geopressured zone along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast. Also, it was limited to utilizing the thermal energy of this ''geoenergy'' resource for process use in the Pulp and Paper Industry and Cane Sugar Industry. For the selected industries and resource area, this report sets forth energy requirements; identifies specific plant and sites; includes diagrams of main processes used; describes process and equipment modifications required; describes energy recovery systems; sets forth waste disposal schemes and problems; and establishes the economics involved. The scope of work included considerable data collection, analysis and documentation. Detailed technical work was done concerning existing processes and modifications to effectively utilize geothermal energy. A brief survey was made of other industries to determine which of these has a high potential for utilizing geothermal energy.

  5. Residual of fosforo in ratoon-cane for forage yield in the noth of Mato Grosso

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago de Lisboa Parente; Sheila Caioni; Anderson Lange; Charles Caioni; Antônio Carlos Silveiro da Silva; Oscar Mitsuo Yamashita; Alexandre Lavezo Neto

    2016-01-01

    The sugar cane can be used as bovine supplementation option in the Centro Oeste region during dry periods. However, the low phosphorus availability in the soil becomes a limiting factor in the development of culture, mainly for ratoon cane. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ratoon cane under different levels of phosphorus, applied in corrective phosphate and of the maintenance in the plant cane. The experiment was conducted in Alta Floresta (MT), end the ex...

  6. Climate Superiority of Sugar Cane Planting in Longzhou County of Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aizhen; CHENG; Xingji; ZENG; Zhongxiong; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    According to meteorological conditions for sugar cane growth and development,surface meteorological observation data of Longzhou County in 1981-2010 were taken as basis,to analyze influence of local temperature,precipitation and sunshine conditions on sugar cane planting.Results show that unique climate of Longzhou County is extremely suitable for sugar cane planting and growth.

  7. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  8. The Impact of Cane Supply on Rattan Trade in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Rattan-related products from China are popular and well known in international market, but China is facing shortage of rattan cane supply, and extinction of some rattan species. The big gap between demand and supply of rattan canes in China market is urgent to be bridged. This paper makes a brief introduction on rattan in the world and analyzes the rattan trade in China. The loss of habitats, overexploitation and inadequate replenishment of rattan result in a depleting resource and there are many challe...

  9. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  10. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%. The pozzolanic activity of the SCSA was evaluated by the Fratini test and the pozzolanic activity index. In order to interpretate the pozzolan activity, the Feret method was used. It is conclude that the SCSA presents pozzolanic characteristics for blending Portland cement.

    En el siguiente artículo se presenta una evaluación de la hoja de caña de azúcar calcinada bajo condiciones controladas en aras a obtener ceniza reactiva (con propiedades puzolánicas. La ceniza fue analizada mediante las técnicas de difracción de rayos X, fluorescencia de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que la ceniza de hoja de caña de azúcar sí contiene una significante presencia de material amorfo y un alto porcentaje de sílice (81,0%. Se valoró la aptitud de las cenizas obtenidas como puzolana mediante métodos químicos, como el ensayo de Frattini y métodos mecánicos, como el índice de actividad puzolánica. Como modelo a seguir para la interpretación de la puzolanicidad de la ceniza de hoja de caña se utilizó el método de Feret. Se concluye que la ceniza de hoja de caña sí es apta para ser utilizada como adición puzolánica.

  11. Quantification of long cane usage characteristics with the constant contact technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongmi; Moncada-Torres, Arturo; Furrer, Jonas; Riesch, Markus; Gassert, Roger

    2016-07-01

    While a number of Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) have been developed over the past decades, the conventional long cane remains the most widely utilized navigation tool for people with visual impairments. Understanding the characteristics of long cane usage is crucial for the development and acceptance of ETAs. Using optical tracking, cameras and inertial measurement units, we investigated grasp type, cane orientation and sweeping characteristics of the long cane with the constant contact technique. The mean cane tilt angle, sweeping angle, and grip rotation deviation were measured. Grasp type varied among subjects, but was maintained throughout the experiments, with thumb and index finger in contact with the cane handle over 90% of the time. We found large inter-subject differences in sweeping range and frequency, while the sweeping frequency showed low intra-subject variability. These findings give insights into long cane usage characteristics and provide critical information for the development of effective ETAs.

  12. Fermentation and epiphytic microflora dynamics in sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedroso André de Faria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane silages are characterized by extensive yeast activity, alcohol production and great dry matter - DM - losses. Better knowledge of the fermentation process is fundamental to the development of efficient ensilage techniques for this forage. This study evaluates temporal changes in chemical composition, DM losses and epiphytic microflora in sugar cane silage. Mature sugar cane, variety RB835486 (12 months of vegetative growth, was hand harvested, processed in a stationary chopper and ensiled in 20-L plastic buckets provided with valves for gas release and a device for effluent collection. Laboratory silos were kept at ambient temperature and sampled after fraction one-half, 1, 2, 3, 7, 15, 45, 90, 120 and 180 days. Ethanol concentration reached 6.4% in DM after 15 days of ensilage, followed by 71% water soluble carbohydrates - WSCs - disappearance. Gas and total DM losses reached a plateau on day 45 (16% and 29% of DM, respectively. Yeast count was higher on the second day (5.05 log cfu g-1. Silage pH declined to below 4.0 on the third day. Effluent yield was negligible (20 kg t-1. DM content in the forage decreased (35% to 26% from day 0 to day 45. The increase in ethanol concentration showed an opposite trend to WSCs and true in vitro dry matter digestibility reductions in the silage. Developing methods to control yeasts, most probably through the use of additives, will enable more efficient production of sugar cane silage by farmers.

  13. Corrosion of Modified Concrete with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Núñez-Jaquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a porous material and the ingress of water, oxygen, and aggressive ions, such as chlorides, can cause the passive layer on reinforced steel to break down. Additives, such as fly ash, microsilica, rice husk ash, and cane sugar bagasse ash, have a size breakdown that allows the reduction of concrete pore size and, consequently, may reduce the corrosion process. The objective of this work is to determine the corrosion rate of steel in reinforced concrete by the addition of 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement. Six prismatic specimens (7×7×10 cm with an embedded steel rod were prepared. Three contained 20% sugar cane bagasse ash by weight of cement and the other three did not. All specimens were placed in a 3.5% NaCl solution and the corrosion rate was determined using polarization resistance. The results showed that reinforced concrete containing sugar cane bagasse ash has the lowest corrosion rates in comparison to reinforced concrete without the additive.

  14. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  15. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  16. Innovations and economic success in Finnish equine and bio-energy enterprises; Innovaatiotoiminta ja taloudellinen menestyminen hevosalan ja bioenergia-alan pienyrityksissae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiilikainen, S.

    2009-07-01

    Cluster of industries is the critical mass of industries, which are located into certain geographical areas. In cluster supporting and related industries are linked through vertical and a horizontal relationship. Rural clusters are based on local traditions, resources and knowledge. The key advantage of cluster of industries is the fact that innovations are often created in them. The purpose of this study is to find out how creation of innovations can be improved in rural cluster of industries. The subject of this study is the link between innovations and the financial success of enterprises. The research questions are formulated as: What kinds of innovations take place in equine and bio-energy enterprises? How different factors affect to innovations made in these enterprises? How does competitiveness, the economic success of enterprises relate these innovations? Theoretical background of the study lies on the Schumpeter's' theory of entrepreneurship and innovations are defined broadly as doing new things or doing things already done on a new way. Data were collected by postal survey in August 2008 (n =165), the respondents were equine entrepreneurs from Uusimaa region and bio-energy entrepreneurs in Pohjois-Pohjanmaa region. Data were analysed using multivariate analyses. The study results reveal that, most of the innovations related to services or pricing the services. It was fairly uncommon to develop new business models, which was worrying, because many of the enterprises had enlarged or invested heavily on the capacity. The economic success did relate to innovations; those enterprises who performed poorly had not introduced any innovations or improvements during past three years, whist enterprises with good or average performance had introduced innovations or improvements. (orig.)

  17. Immune response varies with rate of dispersal in invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P Brown

    Full Text Available What level of immunocompetence should an animal maintain while undertaking long-distance dispersal? Immune function (surveillance and response might be down-regulated during prolonged physical exertion due to energy depletion, and/or to avoid autoimmune reactions arising from damaged tissue. On the other hand, heightened immune vigilance might be favored if the organism encounters novel pathogens as it enters novel environments. We assessed the links between immune defense and long-distance movement in a population of invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina in Australia. Toads were radio-tracked for seven days to measure their activity levels and were then captured and subjected to a suite of immune assays. Toads that moved further showed decreased bacteria-killing ability in their plasma and decreased phagocytic activity in their whole blood, but a heightened skin-swelling response to phytohemagglutinin. Baseline and post-stress corticosterone levels were unrelated to distance moved. Thus, long-distance movement in cane toads is associated with a dampened response in some systems and enhanced response in another. This pattern suggests that sustained activity is accompanied by trade-offs among immune components rather than an overall down or up-regulation. The finding that high mobility is accompanied by modification of the immune system has important implications for animal invasions.

  18. Volatilisation of alkali and alkaline earth metallic species during the pyrolysis of biomass: differences between sugar cane bagasse and cane trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Daniel M; Favas, George; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2005-09-01

    Sugar cane bagasse and cane trash were pyrolysed in a novel quartz fluidised-bed/fixed-bed reactor. Quantification of the Na, K, Mg and Ca in chars revealed that pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, valence and biomass type were important factors influencing the volatilisation of these alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species. Pyrolysis at a slow heating rate (approximately 10 K min(-1)) led to minimal (often biomass samples. Fast heating rates (>1000 K s(-1)), encouraging volatile-char interactions with the current reactor configuration, resulted in the volatilisation of around 80% of Na, K, Mg and Ca from bagasse during pyrolysis at 900 degrees C. Similar behaviour was observed for monovalent Na and K with cane trash, but the volatilisation of Mg and Ca from cane trash was always restricted. The difference in Cl content between bagasse and cane trash was not sufficient to fully explain the difference in the volatilisation of Mg and Ca.

  19. Analysis energetics of the fuel alcohol production system: considerations on the plant capacity producer effect in the sugar cane transportation and in the energy efficiency system; Analise energetica do sistema de producao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Waldir

    1994-12-01

    This work analyses the sugarcane alcohol factory as a energy production system. It considers the energy balance models of the literature that counts the energy inputs in the two phases of the agricultural and industrial processing. This analysis shows the need of the construction of a new model that could consider the sugarcane transportation as a third subsystem that consists in the interface of the agricultural and industrial subsystems. The analysis of sensibility of the efficiency function for the ratio of agricultural, industrial and transportation return suggests production models of small capacity with some technic, as being the most reasonable from the energy point of view. Besides, the work indicates that a bigger impact over the energetic global efficiency of the alcohol industrial sector could be reached by investment in industrial technology applied to the small capacity alcohol factories. (author)

  20. PHOSPHORUS BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING IN A SUGAR CANE AGROECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The annual harvest of sugarcane plantations together with the burning of the crop before harvest, a common practice of management of sugarcane plantations in South America, leads to the loss of significant amounts of nutrients in those agroecosystems. Thus prescribed burning operations could progressively diminish the level of soil organic matter and increase nutrient deficiency in soils of sugar cane agrosystems. This study is an attempt to quantify the P distribution during the period of growth in a plantation of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum located near San Felipe, Yaracuy State, Central, Venezuela focusing on processes related to the cycling of the element as affected by burning operations. The work was performed in 4.5 ha experimental plots planted with the varieties Puerto Rico (PR 1028 and Venezuela (V 58-4. The principal flows of phosphorus, as well the quantities of this element in the soil-plant components were measured throughout the growing cycle of the crop (third ratoon. The inputs through precipitation (wet and dry were high, that was associated with the intense agricultural (prescribed burning and industrial activities occurring in the area. The annual balance for both varieties was negative (-17.31 and -23.63 kg ha–1 for V 58-4 and PR 1028, respectively. The negative budget is mainly due to the important amounts of P that are exported with the cane stems. The losses must be compensated through fertilization; nonetheless, preliminary results indicated no response to P dressing, suggesting that in the studied mollisols the internal processes e.g., Organic-P (Po mineralization and P solubilization efficiently operate generating important available P levels. It was also found that the burning of the sugar cane plantation plays an important role in the recycling of phosphorus, since 25-28 % of the P requirements of the varieties are reincorporated into the soil from the ashes coming as bulk deposition.

  1. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  2. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  3. The Analysis Of Simple Additive Weighting With Topsis Method To Selection Superior Seed Of Sugar Cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Gunawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of observations on the PTP (Persero Nusantara II Kwala Madu Gardens sugarcane production is increasing but the results are not optimal, so that the determination of superior seed cane is apt to be one of the factors supporting the development of sugar cane production.Determining the appropriate sugarcane seedlings to the conditions as criteria: climate, rainfall, soil acidity (pH, soil type, drainage (water systems based on the type of sugarcane cultivated is still a classic problem. In this study, using a 4 (four alternative seed is PS58, BM13579, BZ134 and Kidang Kencana. In this research, the analysis by applying TOPSIS and SAW method to determine sugarcane seeds. Whether the results of the analysis can give the decision to determine the seeds of sugarcane using SAW and TOPSIS. From the analysis of the decision obtained as follows: From the rank of distance closeness to the ideal solution TOPSIS process can be generated as follows. For V1 (alternative 1: PS58 = 0.1836, V2 (alternative 2: BM 13579 = 0.7309, V3 (alternative 3: BZ134 = 0.8082, and V4 (alternative 4: Kidang Kecana. Then it can be decided which is the third alternative seed is BZ134.

  4. Depithers for Efficient Preparation of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fibers in Pulp and Paper Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois-Correa J.A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the by-products originated in the agro-industrial process of sugar cane, bagasse is one of the most relevant (Paturau, 1989. The negative influence of significant amount of pith, or parenchymatous tissue, present in sugarcane bagasse is discussed. Since this non-fibrous material does not give any desired properties in the pulp and paper, agglomerated boards and polymer productions, it is remarked the importance of its maximum removal. A brief historical review in the development of bagasse depithers and depithing systems is presented in this paper. Further results in the development of depither, named S.M. Caribe by its author, are described. The mechanical performance of first prototypes was evaluated in a test installation where vibration control values and temperatures in the upper and lower rotor bearings were monitored. For comparison it was made a vibrational analysis of other depithers that were in operation. For the technological evaluation the input capacity, the bagasse fiber quality obtained and the influence on the produced paper quality were controlled during two sugar cane crop seasons, as well. The results obtained were superior of those reached by most of depithers currently available in the market.

  5. Ethanol/Water Pulps From Sugar Cane Straw and Their Biobleaching With Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Regina Y.; Gonçalves, Adilson R.; Duarte, Marta C. T.

    The influence of independent variables (temperature and time) on the cooking of sugar cane straw with ethanol/water mixtures was studied to determine operating conditions that obtain pulp with high cellulose contents and a low lignin content. An experimental 22 design was applied for temperatures of 185 and 215°C, and time of 1 and 2.5 h with the ethanol/water mixture concentration and constant straw-to-solvent ratio. The system was scaled-up at 200°C cooking temperature for 2 h with 50% ethanol-water concentration, and 1∶10 (w/v) straw-to-solvent ratio to obtain a pulp with 3.14 cP viscosity, 58.09 kappa-number, and the chemical composition of the pulps were 3.2% pentosan and 31.5% lignin. Xylanase from Bacillus pumilus was then applied at a loading of 5-150 IU/g dry pulp in the sugar cane straw ethanol/water pulp at 50°C for 2 and 20 h. To ethanol/water pulps, the best enzyme dosage was found to be 20 IU/g dry pulp at 20 h, and a high enzyme dosage of 150 IU/g dry pulp did not decrease the kappa-number of the pulp.

  6. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  7. Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.

  8. Bio energy production in birch and hybrid aspen after addition of residue based fertilizers - establishment of fertilization trials; Bioenergiproduktion hos bjoerk och hybridasp vid tillfoersel av restproduktbaserade goedselmedel - etablering av goedslingsfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar (EkoBalans Fenix AB, Malmoe (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    Sewage sludge and wood ashes could be used as fertilizers in order to increase forest tree production. In southern Sweden forest growth normally increases with approximately 10 % after ash recycling due to increased N and/or P availability. P is added with the ashes and the pH-increasing effect of the wood ash can lead to increased N net mineralization. Other positive effects of wood ash recycling are improved nutrient sustainability and less acid run-off water. Possible negative effects are heavy metal accumulation, if the content of one or more heavy metals of the recycled ash exceeds the heavy metal content of the harvested biomass, and nitrate leaching if the vegetation cannot take up nitrified N. It is important to evaluate the sustainability of fertilization systems based on residues such as sludge and wood ash. Wood ash does not contain N and the P concentration often is too low for the ashes to function as an NP fertilizer. Thus N and sometimes P must be added. Sludge is an interesting alternative. The main purpose of the project is to study sustainable production of forest bio energy in intensively cultivated birch and hybrid aspen stands. Another purpose is to establish experiments that can be used for long term studies and as demonstration objects. In the first few years the goal is to study the short term effects of residue based fertilization compared to conventional NPK fertilization on tree nutrient uptake, nutrient leaching, sustainability and economy. In the long term the goal is to design appropriate fertilization strategies in a residue based fertilization system for the intensive cultivation of birch and hybrid aspen without negative side effects such as large scale nutrient leaching. Four field experiments were established in 2008 and one additional experiment in hybrid aspen will be established in the spring of 2009. Elevated bud N and P concentrations after fertilization with both Ashes+N and NPK means good possibilities for future growth

  9. Tissue culture of Baiyu chewing cane%白玉蔗组织培养研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余坤兴; 杨柳; 刘俊仙; 李松; 方锋学; 杨丽涛; 李杨瑞

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Using the Baiyu chewing cane collected from Guigang City, Guangxi as testing material, the main factors impacting Baiyu chewing cane in vitro culture was explored in order to establish the rapid regeneration propagation system. [Method]After using the tissues from Baiyu chewing cane's slightly-tailing leaves as explant callus for bud differentiation culture of callus, adventitious bud proliferation, and plantlet browning prevention and rooting induction were conducted using different culture medium and hormone combinations. [ Result ]Baiyu chewing cane leaf slicing for callus induction was a convenient and effective method. After the whorl sections were connected with the culture medium (MS+2,4-D 3 mg/L, agar 5 g/L, sugar 30 g/L) for 30 d, explants rapidly expanded, the edges became granular, light yellow or yellow, and the embryogenic callus or paste callus displayed uniformed quality. The optimum culture medium for buds differentiation induction in Baiyu chewing cane was MS+6-BA 1.0 mg/L+ NAA0.2 mg/L. For the proliferation of adventitious buds, the optimum effect resulted from the MS+6-BA 3.0 mg/L+KT 0.5 mg/L+NAA 0.6 mg/L+ sugar 30.0 g/L treatment. To prevent browning effects, the PVP and activated carbon tissue culture seedlings had different effects; the 1% activated carbon could effectively inhibit the proliferation of adventitious shoots browning in Baiyu chewing cane culture medium. In the rooting culturing process, the optimal culturing medium was MS+ NAA 0.6 mg/L+ sugar 50.0 g/L + activated carbon 0.1%. [Conclusion]By the orthogonal design test, the regeneration system of Baiyu chewing cane breeding was established in order to speed up the breeding rate of Baiyu chewing cane, improve propagation coefficient, and provide an effective way for capital-saving.%[目的]以广西贵港市白玉蔗为材料,探讨影响白玉蔗离体培养的主要因素,建立其快速再生繁殖体系.[方法]以白玉蔗尾梢心叶为外植体,诱导愈伤组织

  10. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  11. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water.

  12. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    and hollow-core TOPAS canes were doped with a solution of dopants in acetone/methanol and hexane/methanol, respectively. Doping time, solvent mixture concentration and doping temperature were optimised. A long and stepwise drying process was applied to the doped canes to ensure complete solvent removal...

  13. How to manage cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season. ...

  14. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  15. Study of doping non-PMMA polymer fibre canes with UV photosensitive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Janting, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    We propose a solution doping method for polycarbonate (PC) and TOPAS polymer optical fibre (POF) canes using different UV photosensitive dopants aiming to reduce the fibre Bragg grating inscription time at the typical Bragg grating inscription wavelength (325nm). Three-ring solid-core PC mPOF canes...

  16. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  17. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  18. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... the United States (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined...

  19. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...

  20. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  1. Análise do sistema logístico de recepção de cana-de-açúcar: um estudo de caso utilizando simulação discreta Analysis of the logistics supply system of sugar cane: a case study using discrete simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Iannoni

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas logísticos são hoje fundamentais para melhorar a eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar, pois atuam na integração de operações agrícolas e industriais. O presente artigo apresenta um estudo do sistema de recepção de cana em uma das maiores usinas do Brasil, a Usina São Martinho, localizada na região de Ribeirão Preto, SP. O trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de analisar o desempenho desse sistema, compreendido da balança até as moendas, e investigar configurações e políticas alternativas para sua operação. Em razão das diversas fontes de incerteza e da complexidade operacional do sistema, o método utilizado teve por base técnicas de simulação discreta. As principais medidas de desempenho avaliadas são relacionadas ao tempo médio em que os veículos permanecem no sistema de recepção e à quantidade média de cana descarregada nas moendas por unidade de tempo.Logistic systems are fundamental to improve the operational efficiency of sugar cane plants integrating agricultural and industrial operations. This article presents a case study in the logistic supply system of one the largest Brazilian sugar case plants, the Usina São Martinho, located near Ribeirão Preto, SP. The aim of the study is to analyze the performance of the system in front of the mills, and to investigate alternative configurations and policies for system operation. Due to several uncertainty sources and the operational complexity of the system, the method is based on discrete simulation techniques. The mais performance measures are related to time averages spent in the supply system, and mean unloading rates in the mills.

  2. Transforming Canada's forestry sector - Bio-energy and bio-products: Good for the planet, job creation and bottom line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobden, C. (Forest Products Assosiation of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)), e-mail: catherine.cobden@FPAC.ca

    2010-07-01

    The Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC) and CIBC World Markets have recently completed a new study with the goal of overhauling Canada's dominant pulp and paper industry for a new millennium. The FPAC report identified a number of emerging bio-industries that use wood fibre. A wide array of bio-energy, bio-fuels and bio-chemicals can be made using wood to create more environmentally friendly and cost-effective alternatives to those produced using fossil fuels. The study highlighted viable opportunities for the forestry sector to return to profitability - with the right investments in the right areas. Although some paper segments face very challenging economics without transformation, many segments in this sector show significant financial potential under a bio-refinery scenario. In addition to pulp and paper, this sector can become a major player in energy production and the bio-chemical industry. The ability to produce energy, fuel and chemicals from green hydrocarbons, along with forests' capacity to sequester carbon from the atmosphere, will change the nature of the game for Canada's forest products sector. Presenters will review the opportunities available for the environment, forestry workers, communities and the economy at large. (orig.)

  3. Mineralization of sugar-cane straw in soil amended with vinasse (a sugar-cane alcohol industry byproduct) and nitrogen fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant vegetable organic compound, being derived mainly from plant residues. The decomposition of sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) straw was studied in a period up to 90 days, through variables related to the carbon cycle, such as respiratory activity and CM-cellulase (CM, cellulose microcrystalline) and CMC-cellulase (CMC, carboxymethylcellulose) activities. The treatments consisted of 0, 0.5 and 1.0% of straw, in the presence and absence of vinasse (a sugar-cane...

  4. Estimativas da produção de leite por vacas holandesas mestiças, segundo o sistema CNCPS, em dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar com diferentes valores nutritivos Estimates of the milk production by crossbred holstein cows, in accordance to CNCPS System, in diets containing sugar cane with different nutritive values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Fernandes

    2001-07-01

    cows using the CNCPS system. A concentrate supplement compose by corn silage, whole cottonseed and soybean meal and urea was used to attend the nutritional requirement of this animals to produce 10 kg of daily milk. The values used to predict the response in the milk production were: NDF (%DM - 40,50 and 60, lignin (%NDF 10,14 and 18, digestion rates (% /h of the non fiber carbohydrates (NFC - 10,20 and 30 and digestion rate (% /h of the fiber carbohydrates (FC - 1, 2,5 and 4. The sugar cane, when used as main forage in the diet, caused a reduction in the dry matter intake and energy, limiting the milk production of these animals. The prediction of the amount of milk that could be produced in function of the amount of energy metabolizable (ME, supplied by the diet, decreased 24% when the FDN content increased from 40 to 60%, for a 14% of lignin. There was also an increment of 14% in the milk production when the FC digestion rate increased from 1 to 2,5%/h. Although the changes in the of NDF and lignin contents and in the carbohydrate digestion rates of the sugar cane varieties, have promoted a great effect on the crossbred Holstein cows milk production, it is necessary to validate these results.

  5. Energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Jones

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the energy expenditure in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis while walking with canes of different lengths. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study (single-group was carried out on thirty patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis. An adjustable aluminum cane was used, and three different cane lengths were determined for each subject: C1 - length from the floor to the greater trochanter; C2 - length from the floor to the distal wrist crease; and C3 - length obtained by the formula: height x 0.45 + 0.87 m. Resting and walking heart rates were measured with a Polar hear rate meter. Walking speed was calculated by the time required for the patient to walk 10 m. Gait energy cost was estimated using the physiological cost index, and results were compared. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 25 women and five men (average age of 68 years. Statistically significant differences in physiological cost index measurements were observed between unassisted walking and assisted walking with a cane of any length (p<0.001, as well as between walking with a C2-length cane and unassisted walking, and walking with a C1-length cane and walking with a C3-length cane (p=0.001; p = 0.037; p=0.001; respectively. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that small alterations in the length of canes used for weight-bearing ambulation in patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis increase the energy expenditure measured by the physiological cost index during walking. Further studies are needed for a more precise quantification of the increase in energy expenditure during cane-assisted gait and an assessment of the effectiveness of cane use in relieving pain and improving function in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  6. Multiple time-space scale atmosphere-ocean interactions and improvement of Zebiak-Cane model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱维宏; 王绍武

    1997-01-01

    In a real climate system there are multiple time-space scale atmosphere-ocean interactions, ranging from the planetary scale and basin scale to local air-sea interactions. The Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model with one-level atmosphere described only local air-sea interaction process. Thus the planetary scale Hadley cell and Walker cell anomalies should be introduced in the model. Including the planetary scale Hadley cell anomaly in the model improved the prediction skill. It showed that the improved model provided satisfactory prediction of the equatorial eastern Pacific SST anomaly with lead time of 9-10 months not only for 1970-1991 but also for 1992-1995.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Bio-Energy Therapies on Cancer Growth——An overview of recent laboratory studies in the U.S. And its implications in cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevin W. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Bioenergy therapies (such as Qigong, Reiki, Yoga, Pranic healing, and Therapeutic touch) have reported benefits for cancer patients, but few randomized control trials were done to verify their efficacy. It is believed that laboratory study of inhibitory effects of bio-energy therapies on cancer growth may lead to an understanding of the true efficacy of bio-energy and create a foundation for future clinical trials. Methods: Typical in-vitro study involved randomly dividing lab-prepared cancer cells into different groups with one being treated by bio-energy therapy and one or more as control groups. Sometimes, controls were treated by a sham healer. Typical in vivo study involved injecting or implanting cancerous cells into mice, then randomly dividing them into various groups. The control could be either non-treatment or sham treatment; the outcomes include tumor size or survival time. Results: Most studies demonstrated some inhibitory effects of bioenergy therapies on the growth of cancer cells in comparison with control. The in vivo studies reported that the bio-energy treated group had significantly slower tumor growth or longer survival lives than those in the control. One study reported survival with a normal life cycle instead of dying in 3 weeks, and cancer-infected mice developed immune response to the same breast cancer. However, researchers are confronted with methodological challenges in choosing appropriate controis, minimizing contamination, and replicating study outcomes. Conclusion: Encouraging evidence suggests hioenergy may have inhibitory effects on cancer growth, or prolong the life of cancer-infected animals, although improvement is needed in research design and replication of the findings. Bioenergy for cancer treatment is an area that is often neglected by mainstream medicine and research,and it should be seriously examined and considered as an important supplement to conventional cancer treatment.

  8. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE AGGREGATE STABILITY AND O RGANIC MATTER IN A CAMBISOL UNDER SUGAR CANE CULTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    IVANILDO AMORIM DE OLIVIERA; MILTON CÉSAR COSTA CAMPOS; RENATO ELEOTÉRIO AQUINO; LUDMILA FREITAS; DOUGLAS MARCELO PINHEIRO DA SILVA

    2013-01-01

    The soil management system can modify the natural d istribution of the soil attributes and, con- sequently, the variability of the soil aggregation and organic matter content. Thus, the aim of this w ork was to evaluate the aggregate stability and organic matter content spatial distribution on a Haplic Cambisol under sugar cane cultivation in the Southern Amazonas Sta te, Brazil. A 70 x 70 m square mesh, with regular 1 0 me- ters intervals, was designed over the cultivation a rea, resulting i...

  9. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Sartório Raymundo; Romina Zanarotto; Marciela Belisário; Madson de Godoi Pereira; Joselito Nardy Ribeiro; Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment uni...

  10. Analysis of user characteristics related to drop-off detection with long cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Shik Kim, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how user characteristics affect drop-off detection with the long cane. A mixed-measures design with block randomization was used for the study, in which 32 visually impaired adults attempted to detect the drop-offs using different cane techniques. Younger cane users detected drop-offs significantly more reliably (mean +/- standard deviation = 74.2% +/- 11.2% of the time than older cane users (60.9% +/- 10.8%, p = 0.009. The drop-off detection threshold of the younger participants (5.2 +/- 2.1 cm was also statistically significantly smaller than that of the older participants (7.9 +/- 2.2 cm, p = 0.007. Those with early-onset visual impairment (78.0% +/- 9.0% also detected drop-offs significantly more reliably than those with later-onset visual impairment (67.3% +/- 12.4%, p = 0.01. No interaction occurred between examined user characteristics (age and age at onset of visual impairment and the type of cane technique used in drop-off detection. The findings of the study may help orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques in accordance with the cane user's age and onset of visual impairment.

  11. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage.

  12. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness.

  13. SETIS Magazine: BioEnergy

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2014-01-01

    The SETIS magazine aims at delivering timely information and analysis on the state of play of energy technologies, related research and innovation efforts in support of the implementation of the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan. The editorial for the Bioenergy issue is provided by European Biomass Association President Gustav Melin. This issue also hosts interviews by: Juan Carrasco - European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) Bioenergy Joint Programme Coordinator Christia...

  14. Patterns of Genetic Variability in Island Populations of the Cane Toad (Rhinella marina) from the Mouth of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa-Silva, Adam Rick; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Sodré, Davidson; da Cunha, Divino Bruno; Hadad, Dante; Asp, Nils Edvin; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; Sequeira, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Amazonian coast has several unique geological characteristics resulting from the interaction between drainage pattern of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the most extensive and sedimentologically dynamic regions of the world, with a large number of continental islands mostly formed less than 10,000 years ago. The natural distribution of the cane toad (Rhinella marina), one of the world’s most successful invasive species, in this complex Amazonian system provides an intriguing model for the investigation of the effects of isolation or the combined effects of isolation and habitat dynamic changes on patterns of genetic variability and population differentiation. We used nine fast-evolving microsatellite loci to contrast patterns of genetic variability in six coastal (three mainlands and three islands) populations of the cane toad near the mouth of the Amazon River. Results from Bayesian multilocus clustering approach and Discriminant Analyses of Principal Component were congruent in showing that each island population was genetically differentiated from the mainland populations. All FST values obtained from all pairwise comparisons were significant, ranging from 0.048 to 0.186. Estimates of both recent and historical gene flow were not significantly different from zero across all population pairs, except the two mainland populations inhabiting continuous habitats. Patterns of population differentiation, with a high level of population substructure and absence/restricted gene flow, suggested that island populations of R. marina are likely isolated since the Holocene sea-level rise. However, considering the similar levels of genetic variability found in both island and mainland populations, it is reliable to assume that they were also isolated for longer periods. Given the genetic uniqueness of each cane toad population, together with the high natural vulnerability of the coastal regions and intense human pressures, we suggest that these

  15. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  16. 3 CFR 8439 - Proclamation 8439 of October 15, 2009. White Cane Safety Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... full measure of happiness. For blind Americans, the white cane is a potent symbol of that freedom... productivity. In recent years, refreshable Braille displays and speech synthesis devices have given...

  17. Interaction of Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix in Sugar Cane Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellone, Carlos H; de Bellone Silvia, Carrizo

    2012-03-01

    Fifteen-day-old variety NA 56-79 sugar cane seedlings were inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense and Glomus intrarradix. This article aims at examining changes in sugar cane root seedlings inoculated with Glomus intrarradix and Azospirillum brasilense, the increase in microbial biomass and the acetylene reduction process as well. The internal root colonization was studied 20 days after inoculation using scanning and a transmission electron microscope. Both microorganisms entered the sugar cane root through the emergent lateral roots. The microorganisms were capable of coexisting both intra and intercellularly, producing changes in the cell wall, thus allowing colonization and interaction between the organisms. These changes increased the number of microorganisms inside the root as well as acetylene nitrogen reduction. Sugar cane plant biomass increased with joint-inoculation. The number of endophytic microorganisms and nitrogen fixing activity increased when they were colonized by Azospirillum and Glomus together.

  18. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  19. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. ...

  20. Diffusion of moisture in drying of sugar cane fibers and bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Ramirez, J.; Quintana-Hernandez, P.A.; Mendez-Lagunas, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, G.; Gonzalez-Alatorre, G.

    2000-05-01

    Sugar cane fibers and arrangements of fibers in cylindrical bundles were dried in a thermoanalyzer and their diffusive coefficients were calculated using the slope method. The effect of temperature, moisture content as well as structural changes were analyzed. Diffusion coefficients changed nonlinearly with moisture content and followed an Arrhenius-like functionality with temperature. The analysis of these effects suggested a liquid diffusion transport mechanism of moisture transfer inside sugar cane fibers and bundles.

  1. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Janneth Torres Agredo; Ruby Mejía de Gutiérrez; Escandón Giraldo, Camilo E.; Luis Octavio González Salcedo

    2014-01-01

    Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA) is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows h...

  2. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A; Durgawale, P. M.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  3. The Biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon; Central electrica de biogas de bioenergia de Nuevo Leon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Saldana M, Jaime L [Sistemas de Energia Internacional S.A. de C.V. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The biogas from bio-energy electrical power plant of Nuevo Leon represents, in all the national territory, the first experience on the advantage of biogas emitted by the sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy. Therefore, one of the specific objectives of this paper is the one of diffusion and reproduction of the same one in other cities of Mexico and Latin America. The project is framed within the world-wide policies on the control of emissions for the reduction of the greenhouse effect gases (GEG) and its impact in the global climatic change. The gas emitted by the trash sanitary landfills, commonly known as biogas, is a gas mixture derived from the decomposition of the organic matter of the municipal trash by microorganisms in anaerobic conditions. Biogas generated in the sanitary landfills has a methane content of 55% and a 35% of carbon dioxide. The balance 10% is made up of water steam, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen sulfur and other gases in minimum amounts. [Spanish] La Central Electrica de Biogas de Bioenergia de Nuevo Leon representa, en todo el territorio nacional, la primera experiencia sobre el aprovechamiento del biogas emitido por los rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica. Por esta razon, uno de los objetivos especificos de este trabajo es la de difusion y reproduccion del mismo en otras ciudades de Mexico y Latinoamerica. El proyecto esta enmarcado dentro de las politicas mundiales sobre el control de emisiones para la reduccion de los gases de efecto invernadero (GEI) y su impacto en el cambio climatico global. El gas emitido por la basura dispuesta en los rellenos sanitarios, comunmente conocido como biogas, es una mezcla de gases derivado de la descompensacion de la materia organica de la basura municipal por microorganismos en condiciones anaerobias. El biogas generado en los rellenos sanitarios tiene un contenido de metano del 55% y un 35% de bioxido de carbono. El 10% restante se compone de vapor

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Sugar Cane Bagasse Storage in Bales System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lois-Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental evaluation was carried out on three bagasse storage piles with the following characteristics: wetbaled raw bagasse, wet baled depithed bagasse and pre-dried baled depithed bagasse. In each of these formerlymentioned alternatives, the storage time influence was analyzed on temperature profile, humidity behavior,granulometry and morphology, with and without mechanical treatment, solubility in hot water, NaOH and alcoholbenzeneextractives. In the same way, the behavior of brightness in mechanical pulps produced from stored bagassewas studied. Storage losses were calculated for each alternative on the basis of obtained results and it wasdemonstrated that pre-dried bagasse as compared with wet bagasse storage, yields lower losses and betterconservation of its characteristics.

  5. Energy use from sugar cane industry to generated electric surplus for public supply in El Salvador; Aproveitamento energetico da agroindustria da cana de acucar para geracao de excedentes de eletricidade na rede publica de El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabanino, Ana Maria Gonzalez

    1990-08-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that the application of technological alternatives using high pressure (cogeneration or thermoelectric systems) and improving the efficiency of the whole energy cycle in sugar cane industry, it is possible to generate electric energy surplus for public electric network with technical and economical advantages. (author). 28 figs., 182 tabs., 53 refs

  6. Residual of fosforo in ratoon-cane for forage yield in the noth of Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Lisboa Parente

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar cane can be used as bovine supplementation option in the Centro Oeste region during dry periods. However, the low phosphorus availability in the soil becomes a limiting factor in the development of culture, mainly for ratoon cane. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of ratoon cane under different levels of phosphorus, applied in corrective phosphate and of the maintenance in the plant cane. The experiment was conducted in Alta Floresta (MT, end the experimental design was a randomized block with split plots, being four doses of corrective phosphate and five of maintenance. The corrective phosphating was carried out in the entire area with natural reactive phosphate Arad in the doses of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg ha-1 of P2O5, and the maintenance done in the furrow with triple superphosphate, at rates of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5. The fertilization in plant cane promoted residual effect for cane ratoon, however, only the Arad phosphate promoted significant differences in green mass productivity, occurring linear increase for the tested doses.

  7. New electronic white cane for stair case detection and recognition using ultrasonic sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonda Ammar Bouhamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Blinds people need some aid to interact with their environment with more security. A new device is then proposed to enable them to see the world with their ears. Considering not only system requirements but also technology cost, we used, for the conception of our tool, ultrasonic sensors and one monocular camera to enable user being aware of the presence and nature of potential encountered obstacles. In this paper, we are involved in using only one ultrasonic sensor to detect stair-cases in electronic cane. In this context, no previous work has considered such a challenge. Aware that the performance of an object recognition system depends on both object representation and classification algorithms, we have used in our system, one representation of ultrasonic signal in frequency domain: spectrogram representation explaining how the spectral density of signal varies with time, spectrum representation showing the amplitudes as a function of the frequency, periodogram representation estimating the spectral density of signal. Several features, thus extracted from each representation, contribute in the classification process. Our system was evaluated on a set of ultrasonic signal where stair-cases occur with different shapes. Using a multiclass SVM approach, recognition rates of 82.4% has been achieved.

  8. Material Cycle of Agriculture on Miyakojima Island: Material Flow Analysis for Sugar Cane, Pasturage and Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Tamura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture on Miyakojima Island is highly dependent on imported fertilizer and feed. To reduce this dependence, the present research examines the biomass resources on the island by conducting a material flow analysis of stockbreeding and other related systems. To accurately quantify the amount of available biomass resources, loss ratios of the storage and composting processes are established. Then, a material flow analysis of a composting facility is made. Finally, current material flows between beef cattle, sugar cane and pasturage are shown. Based on this research, two proposals are made: the first is to use urine as liquid fertilizer, which is currently being done in Saga prefecture. The precedent of using urine as fertilizer is now widely accepted in the Saga area; is considered to be readily adoptable in other areas and could be substituted for the imported fertilizers on Miyakojima Island. The second is to use more residues of sugar cane for the beef cattle feed when the pasturage growth is slow in the winter. The present research suggests that the silage feeds for beef cattle.

  9. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sartório Raymundo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment units could be operated with flexibility. From the results, it was possible to conclude that sugar cane bagasse could be an adequate bioadsorbent.Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de remoção do corante carcinogênico congo red de sistemas aquosos. Os resultados mostraram uma elevada eficiência de remoção sendo de 64 ± 6% para soluções sintéticas de vermelho congo, e 94 ± 5% para efluente industrial enriquecido com vermelho congo utilizando 10 g de bioadsorvente. A capacidade máxima adsotiva encontrada foi de 4,43 mg/g. Os testes de percolação revelaram independência das porcentagens adsortivas em relação às vazões das colunas. Estes resultados indicam viabilidade de uso do bagaço de cana-de-açucar no tratamento de efluentes contendo o congo red.

  10. Oil alternative strategies and mid-long term development goals of bio-energy%石油替代战略与生物质能源中长期发展目标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李十中

    2011-01-01

    The guarantee feedstock resources for developing bio-energy in China were introduced in this paper, including land resources, forest resources, straw resource, agricultural residual and organic waste. The significance and developing prospect of biomass energy were presented from a strategic perspective. Main bio-energy products and biomass conversion techniques were reviewed, such as fuel ethanol, biodiesel, biogas and bio-pelletes etc. The goals of developing bio-energy at different stages in our nation from now to 2050 were introduced, and some feasible advices were given from the views of policy, technology and environmental protection.%以我国发展生物质能源的资源保障为基础,包括土地资源、林地资源、秸秆资源、农林剩余物,以及有机废弃物资源等,分析了我国生物质资源的地位作用和发展前景,综述了燃料乙醇、生物柴油、沼气等主要生物能源产品及其转化技术,介绍了我国对各种生物质能源产品从目前到2050年分阶段的发展目标,并且从政策、技术、环保等多个角度,提出了一些发展生物质能源的建议.

  11. Development of ice cream based sugar cane juice and sensory evaluation with children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pedro da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a tasty and nutritious source of protein and calcium, but it is deficient in some minerals, as iron, but it is found in sugar cane juice, which is a source of minerals such as iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium among others. The objective of the present study are: to develop sugar cane juice ice cream, in order to increase the mineral content replacing refined sugar and water during the manufacturing process by sugar cane juice; to analyze its physical-chemical composition; to check your sensory acceptance with children. Three formulations were prepared from sugar cane juice ice cream: sugar cane juice ice cream (SC, sugar cane juice ice cream with molasses (SCM and sugar cane juice ice cream with brown sugar (SCR. Sensory evaluation was conducted with 120 children (62 boys and 58 girls from 8 to 10 years old, students from 3rd to 5th years of primary school. Sensory tests were ordering-preference, intention to use and acceptance with facial hedonic scale of 7 points. The results of physico-chemical and acceptance testing were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, the scores compared by Tukey test (p ? 0.05 and the result of the sensory test ordering-preference were assessed using the Friedman. The ice cream it presents has a reduced fat content because it was formulated with palm trans-fat free. The use of sugar cane juice in the formulation of the ice cream increased the amount of minerals when compared to ordinary ice cream. Therefore, sugar cane juice ice cream demonstrated to be more healthy and nutritious compared with traditional ice cream, besides being source of calcium, iron and phosphorus; serving the needs of the recommended daily intake (IDR for children from 7 to 10 years old. About the sensory evaluation, all formulations of sugar cane juice ice cream obtained great sensory acceptance among children in all sensory attributes evaluated, showing excellent percentages of acceptance and intention to use by

  12. Fungal Staining of Daemonorops margaritae Canes%黄藤材的真菌变色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文华; 刘杏娥; 刘君良

    2011-01-01

    The new felled fresh cane of Daemonorops margaritae is attractive yellowish white or creamy, but often change color during the course of transportation, storage, processing and utilization. Through the chemical composition analysis, the scanning electron microscope observation and the stain-fungi inoculation test of normal cane, the causes and types of the rattan cane are discussed, which is important for further research in preventing and removing the cane discoloration. Results showed that: 1 ) The cane' s yellow discoloration was mainly chemical discoloration or photodiscoloration. The cane' s blue, dark-brown and red stains were mainly caused by fungi, since there were always much fungus mycelia in the vessel and basic parenchyma tissue cells of the stained canes. 2) Compared with the normal cane, the extractive contents in all items of the fungal stained cane were decreased, and the pH value, the content of moisture, pentosan, holocellulose and ash were all increased. The chemical compositions of the core had greater change than the cortex, which indicated that the stain-fungi had greater influence on the core than on the cortex. 3 ) Fifteen fungi species were mainly isolated from the stained canes. After being inoculated with these fungi respectively, weight loss of all the normal canes was a little, but changed color greatly. The discoloration of the inoculated cane was consistent with the color of the stained cane from which the inoculating fungi were separated. Considering the stain-fungal cultivating characteristics, the blue, dark-brown and red discolorations of D. margaritae cane were mainly resulted from the colors of the stain-fungal mycelia or the pigments secreted by the stain-fungi such as melanin.%黄藤(Daemonorops margaritae),是我国热带和南亚热带森林中的主要伴生植物,是我国的优良商品棕榈藤种,为中国特有种(许煌灿等,1994a).天然分布以海南岛为中心,延伸至23°30′N以南的广东和广西南

  13. Effect of organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other nutrient from the soil; therefore continuous cropping of the plant at the same soil would bring consequences of more Si and organic matter depletion. Silicon (Si is considered as a beneficial nutrient for sugarcane production while organic matter is well known as soil amendment. Field study was carried out to know the effect of organic and Si liquid fertilizer on growth, Si and N uptake, and yield of cane variety of PSBM 901. The study field was located at Kempleng village, Purwoasri, East Java and the study was done from May 2013 up to September 2014. Split plot design with three replicates was employed to arrange treatments. Organic matter types (no organic matter, Crotalaria juncea and manure were set as main plots while Si liquid fertilizer concentration (0, 15% Si and 30% S were arranged as sub plots. C juncea was planted at 15 days before planting of sugar cane, and after 35 days the C juncea were chopped and mixed into the soil. Manure was added one week before sugar cane was planted. Si liquid fertilizer was sprayed to the whole part of sugar cane plant at 30 and 50 days after sugar cane was planted. All treatments received basal fertilizer of 800 kg ZA/ha, 200 kg SP 36/ha and 300 kg KCl/ha. Results showed that interaction between organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer significantly affected on Si and N absorption, length of stem, yield and rendement of sugar cane. Addition of manure and followed by spraying of 30% Si liquid fertilizer gave the highest value of S and N absorption (869 g SiO2/plant and 720 g N/plant, cane yield (155.74 tons/ha and rendement (8.15%.

  14. Effect of incorporating alum in cane juice clarification efficiency and sucrose losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benard M. Kimatu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of incorporating alum in the clarification stage of raw juice in sugarcane processing on the juice quality and sucrose loss was investigated. Alum was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes of cane juicing. One portion of the cane juice was used for With Pre-treatment Treatment (WPT while the other portion constituted No Pre-treatment (NPT juice. Alum at levels of 0 mg L-1, 50 mg L-1, 100 mg L-1 and 150 mg L-1 was incorporated in both intermediate and hot liming clarification processes in each of the two cane juice portions. Sugar concentration (sucrose, glucose and fructose, oBrix, pH, colour, settling performance (initial settling rates (ISR, final mud volume (MV∞, and turbidity and residual aluminium ion concentration were evaluated. Any significant variations (p < 0.05 in these parameters were assessed. The study found significantly lower (p < 0.05 sucrose losses in clarified juice from intermediate liming of WPT after alum treatment than in the rest of the clarified juices. Colour and turbidity in the pre-treated cane juice of intermediate liming was reduced by 36.9% and 98.1%, respectively at 150 mg L-1 alum level. An initial settling rate of 260 mL min-1 in WPT cane juice of intermediate liming at 150 mg L-1 alum level resulted in the most compact final mud volume of 10.3%. The residual aluminium concentration (0.025 to 0.048 mg L-1 in alum treated clarified juices was lower than the natural aluminium concentration (0.088 mg L-1 in untreated cane juice. This study showed the potential for the use of alum in cane juice clarification to improve on clarification efficiency and lower sucrose loss.

  15. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  16. Le processus de sublimation du cyclododécane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bruhin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available De par sa capacité à se volatiliser à température ambiante, le cyclododécane constitue une solution temporaire très utile pour les consolidations, les renforcements et les couches de protection. Afin de mieux comprendre le processus de sublimation qui est en jeu, nous avons réalisé une série de tests gravimétriques et thermoanalytiques qui nous ont permis de préciser comment la vitesse de sublimation peut être fortement ralentie ou accélérée selon les variations de température, de volume et de pression.Due to its capability of becoming volatile at room temperature, cyclododecane offers a temporary solution for consolidation, support and surface protection. For a better comprehension of the sublimation process, gravimetric and thermoanalytic investigations have been performed. Both investigations have lead to specific information on the way the sublimation process can be highly accelerated or slowed down using  the factors of temperature, volume and pressure.

  17. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  18. Body measurements and morphological evaluation of Italian Cane Corso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Polli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastiff-like breeds are getting more and more popular due to their appearance and behaviour; within Italian breeds Cane Corso (CC, light mastiff-like type, is the one with the most positive entry trend in the last decade. CC is the 14th Italian breed; his original area is southern Italy. His standard has been officially recognised in 1994. CC standard, as every Italian dog breed standard, is very precise and objective giving a mathematical description of the main body region dimensions. The aim of this work is, through breed standard analysis and CC population study, to verify the closeness of the actual population to the standard mean values. Biometric investigation was applied as statistic method for biological problem analysis (Balasini, 1988. Collected data consist in body measurements and linear scoring applied to those anatomic regions and aspects difficult to be measured. A biometric study of a canine population could represent a valuable method to describe the breed condition in a given moment and could create a data bank for subsequent continuous studying to verify the morphological evolution of the breed..........

  19. Fluoride bioaccumulation by hydroponic cultures of camellia (Camellia japonica spp.) and sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarena-Rangel, Nancy; Rojas Velázquez, Angel Natanael; Santos-Díaz, María del Socorro

    2015-10-01

    The ability of hydroponic cultures of camellia and sugar cane adult plants to remove fluoride was investigated. Plants were grown in a 50% Steiner nutrient solution. After an adaptation period to hydroponic conditions, plants were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg L(-1)). Fluoride concentration in the culture medium and in tissues was measured. In sugar cane, fluoride was mainly located in roots, with 86% of it absorbed and 14% adsorbed. Sugar cane plants removed 1000-1200 mg fluoride kg(-1) dry weight. In camellia plants the highest fluoride concentration was found in leaf. Roots accumulated fluoride mainly through absorption, which was 2-5 times higher than adsorption. At the end of the experiment, fluoride accumulation in camellia plants was 1000-1400 mgk g(-1) dry weight. Estimated concentration factors revealed that fluoride bioaccumulation is 74-221-fold in camellia plants and 100-500-fold in sugar cane plants. Thus, the latter appear as a suitable candidate for removing fluoride from water due to their bioaccumulation capacity and vigorous growth rate; therefore, sugar cane might be used for phytoremediation.

  20. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR MODEL 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, R; Jason Varble, J

    2008-05-27

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various Department of Energy (DOE) packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard was only manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new shipping packages requiring the material as a component. Current consolidation plans for the DOE Complex require the procurement of several thousand new Model 9975 shipping packages requiring cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard. Therefore, an alternative to cane-based Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is needed. Knight-Celotex currently manufactures Celotex{trademark} fiberboard from other cellulosic materials, such as hardwood and softwood. A review of the relevant literature has shown that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} meets all parameters important to the Model 9975 shipping package.

  2. Aerobic stability of sugar cane silages with a novel strain of Lactobacillus sp. isolated from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza da Silva Ávila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the addition of two Lactobacillus strains on the aerobic stability of the sugar cane (Saccharum spp. silages. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with three replicates in split-plot in time scheme, so that the treatments (silages without inoculant and with novel strain or commercial inoculants were randomized on plot and in times of aerobic evaluation of the silages (zero, two, four, and six days after the opening of the silos as subplots. The loss of stability of silages was continuous during the time of aerobic exposure. Inoculants influenced the changes in populations of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and in the ammoniacal nitrogen, acetic acid and ethanol concentrations. The dry matter, crude protein, soluble carbohydrates contents and pH values showed similar changes in all three silages studied. A linear increase in crude protein content and pH values and decrease in the soluble carbohydrates content were observed. The dry matter contents increased to a maximum of 335 g/kg on fresh matter at four days, followed by reduction after six days. The results showed that the use of inoculants is recommended because it promoted higher production of acetic and propionic acids, reducing the population of yeast and, therefore, improving the aerobic stability of silages.

  3. Wearable ultrasonic guiding device with white cane for the visually impaired: A preliminary verisimilitude experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    Several assistive technologies are available to help visually impaired individuals avoid obstructions while walking. Unfortunately, white canes and medical walkers are unable to detect obstacles on the road or react to encumbrances located above the waist. In this study, I adopted the cyber-physical system approach in the development of a cap-connected device to compensate for gaps in detection associated with conventional aids for the visually impaired. I developed a verisimilar, experimental route involving the participation of seven individuals with visual impairment, including straight sections, left turns, right turns, curves, and suspended objects. My aim was to facilitate the collection of information required for the practical use of the device. My findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed guiding device in alerting walkers to the presence of some kinds of obstacles from the small number of subjects. That is, it shows promise for future work and research with the proposed device. My findings provide a valuable reference for the further improvement of these devices as well as the establishment of experiments involving the visually impaired.

  4. The development of snail control methods on an irrigated sugar-cane estate in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, A

    1970-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni on an irrigated sugar-cane estate, molluscicide experiments were carried out to find the optimum methods for controlling the intermediate-host snails, Biomphalaria pfeifferi. The ease of application of N-tritylmorpholine led to its adoption as the molluscicide of choice for the two separate irrigation systems on the estate. Experiments on the frequency and duration of molluscicide treatments were carried out, and from these it was concluded that 5-day applications of N-tritylmorpholine at 0.025 ppm every 7 weeks might lead to a break in transmission by control of the snails.In another set of trials, drainage ditches were treated alternately with N-tritylmorpholine and niclosamide ethanolamine salt, and although the chemicals differed only slightly in their effect, the latter-being ovicidal-was chosen to be applied at approximately 4 ppm by knapsack sprayer every 8 weeks. Extra treatment of small pools with the same compound was carried out during the long rains when irrigation was unnecessary and most of the canals were dry.It is pointed out that the effect of the control methods on S. mansoni transmission will need to be evaluated by studying the incidence of the disease in the population.

  5. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products....

  6. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products....

  7. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They...

  8. 75 FR 39612 - Allocation of Second Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of... imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: July 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or... (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)...

  9. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ)...

  10. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective...

  11. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising...

  12. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195...

  13. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  14. Towards an integrated system for bio-energy: hydrogen production by Escherichia coli and use of palladium-coated waste cells for electricity generation in a fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, R L; Redwood, M D; Yong, P; Caldelari, I; Sargent, F; Macaskie, L E

    2010-12-01

    Escherichia coli strains MC4100 (parent) and a mutant strain derived from this (IC007) were evaluated for their ability to produce H(2) and organic acids (OAs) via fermentation. Following growth, each strain was coated with Pd(0) via bioreduction of Pd(II). Dried, sintered Pd-biomaterials ('Bio-Pd') were tested as anodes in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell for their ability to generate electricity from H(2). Both strains produced hydrogen and OAs but 'palladised' cells of strain IC007 (Bio-Pd(IC007)) produced ~threefold more power as compared to Bio-Pd(MC4100) (56 and 18 mW respectively). The power output used, for comparison, commercial Pd(0) powder and Bio-Pd made from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, was ~100 mW. The implications of these findings for an integrated energy generating process are discussed.

  15. Pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse for enhanced ruminal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, F C; Ramos, L P; Fontana, J D

    1996-01-01

    Crop residues, such as sugar cane bagasse (SCB), have been largely used for cattle feeding. However, the close association that exists among the three major plant cell-wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, limits the efficiency by which ruminants can degrade these materials. Previously, we have shown that pretreatment with 3% (w/w) phosphoric acid, under relatively mild conditions, increased considerably the nutritional value for SCB. However, in this preliminary study, pretreated residues were not washed prior to in situ degradability assays because we wanted to explore the high initial solvability of lowmol-wt substances that were produced during pretreatment. We have now studied the suitability of water-and/or alkali-washed residues to in situ ruminal digestion. Alkali washing increased substrate cellulose content by removing most of the lignin and other residual soluble substances. As a result the ruminal degradability of these cleaner materials had first-order rate constants five times higher than those substrates with higher lignin content (e.g., stem-exploded bagasse). However, alkali washing also increased the time of ruminal lag phase of the cellulosic residue, probably because of hemicellulose and/or lignin removal and to the development of substrates with higher degree of crystallinity. Therefore, longer lag phases appear to be related to low microbial adherence after extensive water and alkali extraction, as Novell as to the slower process of cellulase induction during ruminal growth. The kinetic data on ruminal digestion were shown to be very well adjusted by a nonlinear model. Although pretreatment enhances substrate accessibility, the occurrence of an exceedingly high amount of lignin byproducts within the pretreated material reduces considerably its potential degradability.

  16. Humidity data for 9975 shipping packages with cane fiberboard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 9975 surveillance program is developing a technical basis to support extending the storage period of 9975 packages in K-Area Complex beyond the currently approved 15 years. A key element of this effort is developing a better understanding of degradation of the fiberboard assembly under storage conditions. This degradation is influenced greatly by the moisture content of the fiberboard, which is not well characterized on an individual package basis. Direct measurements of humidity and fiberboard moisture content have been made on two test packages with cane fiberboard and varying internal heat levels from 0 up to 19W. With an internal heat load, a temperature gradient in the fiberboard assembly leads to varying relative humidity in the air around the fiberboard. However, the absolute humidity tends to remain approximately constant throughout the package. The moisture content of fiberboard varies under the influence of several phenomena. Changes in local fiberboard temperature (from an internal heat load) can cause fiberboard moisture changes through absorption or evaporation. Fiberboard degradation at elevated temperature will produce water as a byproduct. And the moisture level within the package is constantly seeking equilibrium with that of the surrounding room air, which varies on a daily and seasonal basis. One indicator of the moisture condition within a 9975 package might be obtained by measuring the relative humidity in the upper air space, by inserting a humidity probe through a caplug hole. However, the data indicate that for the higher internal heat loads (15 and 19 watts), a large variation in internal moisture conditions produces little or no variation in the air space relative humidity. Therefore, this approach does not appear to be sensitive to fiberboard moisture variations at the higher heat loads which are of most interest to maintaining fiberboard integrity.

  17. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  18. Características da marcha de um paciente com osteoartrose de quadril com e sem auxílio de bengala Characteristics of cane-assisted and non-assisted gait in a patient with hip osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susane Graup

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar características espaciais, temporais e espaço-temporais da marcha de um paciente com osteoartrose de quadril com e sem o auxílio de dispositivo (bengala. O caso é o de um sujeito com osteoartrose de quadril esquerdo de 63 anos, 97,8 kg e 1,76 m. Um sistema de reconstrução tridimensional de movimento foi utilizado para análise da marcha. Foram registrados três ciclos completos da marcha com e sem a utilização da bengala, sendo analisadas variáveis espaciais, temporais e espaço-temporais. Foi feita análise estatística, com nível de significância de 5%. Os principais resultados indicam que o comprimento de passo direito (CPD e esquerdo (CPE, bem como o comprimento total do ciclo, foram superiores com o uso da bengala durante a marcha; o CPE foi significativamente maior do que o CPD quando o sujeito utilizava a bengala; todas as variáveis temporais foram estatisticamente menores com o uso da bengala; a cadência da marcha e a velocidade foram estatisticamente superiores com a bengala. Pode-se concluir que o uso da bengala gerou diferenças significativas no comportamento das variáveis espaciais, temporais e espaço-temporais durante a marcha, melhorando de forma significativa a eficiência do movimento do paciente com osteoatrose de quadril.The purpose of this study was to compare cane-assisted and non-assisted gait temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal features in a patient with hip osteoarthrosis. The patient studied, with left hip osteoarthrosis, was 63 years old and had 97.8 kg and 1.76 m. A three-dimensional analysis system was used for the analysis of gait. Three complete gait cycles with and without cane assistance were recorded, where temporal, spatial and spatiotemporal variables were analysed. Descriptive statistics was used with the level of significance set at 5%. Main results show that left step length (LSL, right step length (RSL and stride length were greater during cane

  19. Properties of aerosols from sugar-cane burning emissions in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, L. L.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Victoria, R. L.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    The influences of biomass burning emissions in the composition of aerosol have been studied during 1 year around the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil). Inhalable particles, separated in PM 2.5 and coarse particulate mode (CPM, with size in the range (2.5cane burning is the main source of PM 2.5 representing 60% of PM 2.5, soil dust accounted for 14%, and industries and oil combustion contributed with 12% each one. Resuspended soil is the main source of CPM followed by industrial emissions and sugar-cane burning. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed that sugar-cane burning and agricultural practices are the main sources of inhalable particles, possibly altering the aerosol composition around the city of Piracicaba.

  20. Enzyme hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of dilute ammonia pretreated energy cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, G A; Salvi, D A; Walker, M S

    2011-03-01

    This study is the first one ever to report on the use of high fiber sugarcane (a.k.a. energy cane) bagasse as feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. Energy cane bagasse was pretreated with ammonium hydroxide (28% v/v solution), and water at a ratio of 1:0.5:8 at 160°C for 1h under 0.9-1.1 MPa. Approximately, 55% lignin, 30% hemicellulose, 9% cellulose, and 6% other (e.g., ash, proteins) were removed during the process. The maximum glucan conversion of dilute ammonia treated energy cane bagasse by cellulases was 87% with an ethanol yield (glucose only) of 23 g ethanol/100g dry biomass. The enzymatic digestibility was related to the removal of lignin and hemicellulose, perhaps due to increased surface area and porosity resulting in the deformation and swelling of exposed fibers as shown in the SEM pictures.

  1. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasanee Thitakamol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. Only the saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly decreased under non-application of fertilizer. Under the application of distillery slop, chemical fertilizer had no significant effect on the yield and the juice quality of sugar cane for both crop years. However, under non-application of distillery slop in the first crop year, application of 21-0-0 and 20-20-0 fertilizer had a significant effect on cane yield. With the application of chemical fertilizer, distillery slop had an influence on the yield of sugar cane in both crop years while different doses of slop did not make any significant difference on cane yield. The average yields of the first crop year were 126.7, 195.6, 203.0 and 187.2 ton/hectare and those of the second crop year were 85.0, 150.0, 150.8 and 142.4 ton/hectare after the application of 0, 187.5, 375 and 562.5 m3/hectare, respectively. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not have any significant effect on juice quality for both crop years. Investigation of slop trace under the ground surface indicated that application of distillery slop did not affect the quality of underground water as the deepest level of trace was only 50 centimeters.

  2. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  3. Wear and Grip Loss Evaluation of High Chromium Welding Deposits Applied on Sugar Cane Rolls1

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz Millan, Sebastian; Rugbeño S.A.S; Aguilar Castro, Yesid; Escuela de Ingeniería de Materiales, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia; Casanova García, Gonzalo Fernando; Escuela de Ingeniería Mecánica,Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia

    2015-01-01

    Wear on sugar cane rolls is an expensive maintenance problem for the sugar cane industry. Wear produces loss of sucrose extraction and loss of grip of the roll on the bagasse. This paper presents the evaluation of wear and loss of grip of hypoeutectic and hypereutectic high chromium welding deposits applied on ASTM A-36 steel and gray cast iron. A modified ASTM G-65 standard test was used. Wear was produced by the abrasive action of wet bagasse with three levels of mineral extraneous matter. ...

  4. Bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic insects of streams located in areas with sugar cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano José Corbi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams located in areas of sugar cane cultivation receive elevated concentrations of metal ions from soils of adjacent areas. The accumulation of metals in the sediments results in environmental problems and leads to bioaccumulation of metal ions by the aquatic organisms. In the present study, bioaccumulation of the metals ions Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn in aquatic insects in streams impacted by the sugar cane was evaluated. The results pointed out that the insects were contaminated by the sediment and that the collector organisms as Chironomus species accumulated higher concentration of metals than the predator organisms.

  5. Efeito da palha de cana-de-açúcar e do tamanho dos tubérculos na biomassa das estruturas subterrâneas de Cyperus rotundus Effect of sugar cane straw and tuber size on the subterranean system of Cyperus rotundus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S.S. Novo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de palha de cana-de-açúcar RB855156 nas quantidades correspondentes a 0,0, 5,0, 10,0 e 15,0 t ha-1 nas biomassas das estruturas subterrâneas de plantas de tiririca provenientes de tubérculos de tamanho pequeno (0,22 a 0,34 g e grande (1,01 a 1,14 g, plantados em maio, julho e setembro. Para cada época de plantio, a cada 28 até 84 dias, as partes subterrâneas da tiririca foram separadas nas diferentes estruturas, sendo determinadas suas biomassas fresca e seca. De modo geral, o tamanho maior dos tubérculos favoreceu o desenvolvimento da parte subterrânea, e plantas originadas de tubérculos de tamanho grande apresentaram maiores biomassas. A adição de palha de cana-de-açúcar causou redução no desenvolvimento das diferentes estruturas subterrâneas, seguindo uma equação de segundo grau. Verificou-se que as biomassas foram maiores no plantio de setembro, exceto para biomassa fresca de tubérculos, que foi maior em maio. Com relação ao efeito de época de amostragem, foram observados aumentos lineares em função do tempo para todas as variáveis analisadas.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different amounts of sugar cane straw on the biomass of the subterranean structures of purple nutsedge deriving from small (0.22 to 0.34 g and large (1.01 to 1.14 g sized tubers, planted at different times of the year. Dormant purple nutsedge tubers of small and large sizes were planted in plastic pots with clay soil in May, July and September, and RB855156 sugar cane straw was added in quantities corresponding to 0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 t ha-1. For each planting period, at every 28 day interval up to 84 days, the subterranean parts of the purple nutsedge were separated into their different structures and their fresh and dry biomasses were determined. In general, the larger size of the tubers favored the development of the subterranean parts. It

  6. Effect of variety and cane yield on sugarcane potential trash Efecto de las variedades y su rendimiento cultural en la biomasa residual potencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Romero

    Full Text Available Low environmental impact production systems are a major concern in agroindustry and society, with food and sugarcane production being one of the areas where sustainability is a high priority. Green cane harvesting emerges as an important alternative for a cleaner production system, since it excludes the burning of residues, conserves soil and insolves the possibility of energy generation. An estimation of potential sugarcane available trash is very important in order to define management strategies. A research was carried out to determine the amount of dry trash available in cane fields before (SPT and after green cane harvesting (SFT. Also, the relationship between SPT and SFT was studied in order to validate the precision of SPT as an SFT predictor using green cane combine harvesting for the main cultivated varieties in the sugarcane-growing area of Tucumán (LCP 85-384, TUCCP 77-42, CP 65-357 and RA 87-3. An increase in SPT was associated to cane yielding/ha, ranging from 6.9 to 16.0 t/ha of SPT for 32 to 104 t/ha of cane yielding. LCP 85-384 and CP 65-357 produced the highest amount of dry trash before harvest, while TUCCP 77-42 produced the least for similar cane yielding. Simultaneously the DT/CY ratio decreased with a mean value around 16% of cane yield and its use for estimating SPT was limited, as low coefficients of determination highlight. SPT appropriately predicted SFT under green cane combine harvesting conditions and the former one could be estimated using cane yielding/ha.La implementación de sistemas productivos con bajo impacto ambiental es una preocupación tanto para la agroindustria como para la sociedad, resultando la producción de azúcar una de las áreas donde la sustentabilidad es un objetivo prioritario y alcanzable. La cosecha en verde de la caña de azúcar aparece como una importante alternativa para conformar sistemas de producción más limpios, prescindiendo de la quema de material vegetal y residuos de cosecha

  7. Sexual selection in cane toads Rhinella marina: A male’s body size affects his success and his tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley BOWCOCK, Gregory P. BROWN, Richard SHINE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Male body size can play an important role in the mating systems of anuran amphibians. We conducted laboratory-based trials with cane toads Rhinella (Bufo marina from an invasive population in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia, to clarify the effects of a male's body size on his reproductive success and behavior (mate choice. Males were stimulated with a synthetic hormone to induce reproductive readiness. Larger body size enhanced a male toad's ability to displace a smaller rival from amplexus, apparently because of physical strength: more force was required to dislodge a larger than a smaller amplectant male. A male’s body size also affected his mate-choice criteria. Males of all body sizes were as likely to attempt amplexus with another male as with a female of the same size, and preferred larger rather than smaller sexual targets. However, this size preference was stronger in larger males and hence, amplexus was size-assortative. This pattern broke down when males were given access to already-amplectant male-female pairs: males of all body sizes readily attempted amplexus with the pair, with no size discrimination. An amplectant pair provides a larger visual stimulus, and prolonged amplexus provides a strong cue for sex identification (one of the individuals involved is almost certainly a female. Thus, a male cane toad’s body size affects both his ability to defeat rivals in physical struggles over females, and the criteria he uses when selecting potential mates, but the impacts of that selectivity depend upon the context in which mating occurs [Current Zoology 59 (6: 747–753, 2013].

  8. Fertilization practices and soil variations control nitrogen oxide emissions from tropical sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1996-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on several soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, United States. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less after fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm-2 h-1. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.03 to 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gas losses represented approximately 1.1-2.5% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  9. Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loarie, Scott R.; Lobell, David B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Mu, Qiaozhen; Field, Christopher B.

    2011-05-01

    The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and evapotranspiration, but these effects have been poorly documented. Here we quantify the direct climate effects of sugar-cane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, on the basis of maps of recent sugar-cane expansion and natural-vegetation clearance combined with remotely sensed temperature, albedo and evapotranspiration over a 1.9millionkm2 area. On a regional basis for clear-sky daytime conditions, conversion of natural vegetation to a crop/pasture mosaic warms the cerrado by an average of 1.55 (1.45-1.65)°C, but subsequent conversion of that mosaic to sugar cane cools the region by an average of 0.93 (0.78-1.07)°C, resulting in a mean net increase of 0.6°C. Our results indicate that expanding sugar cane into existing crop and pasture land has a direct local cooling effect that reinforces the indirect climate benefits of this land-use option.

  10. Putative pyrophosphate phosphofructose 1-kinase genes identified in sugar cane may be getting energy from pyrophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, J; Mutton, M A; Ferro, M I T; Lemos, M V F; Pizauro, J M; Mutton, M J R; Di Mauro, S M Z

    2003-12-30

    Pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) has been detected in several types of plant cells, but the gene has not been reported in sugar cane. Using Citrus paradisi PPi-PFK gene (AF095520 and AF095521) sequences to search the sugar cane EST database, we have identified both the alpha and beta subunits of this enzyme. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 76 and 80% similarity with the corresponding alpha and beta subunits of C. paradisi. A high degree of similarity was also observed among the PFK b subunits when the alignment of the sugar cane sequences was compared to those of Ricinus communis and Solanum tuberosum. It appears that alpha and beta are two distinct subunits; they were found at different concentrations in several sugar cane tissues. It remains to be determined if the different gene expression levels have some physiological importance and how they affect sucrose synthesis, export, and storage in vacuoles. A comparison between the amino acid sequences of b PFKs from a variety of organisms allowed us to identify the two critical Asp residues typical of this enzyme's activity site and the other binding sites; these residues are tightly conserved in all members of this protein family. Apparently, there are catalytic residues on the b subunit of the pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme.

  11. Nancay "blind" 21 cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, RC; van Driel, W; Briggs, F; Binggeli, B; Mostefaoui, TI

    1999-01-01

    A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21 cm line with the Nancay decimetric radio telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350

  12. Biomass Composition and Mineral Removal of Sugarcane and Energy Cane on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 20% of Sugarcane is grown on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are lower compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of increased biom...

  13. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  14. Nancay blind 21cm line survey of the Canes Venatici group region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.; Driel, W. van; Briggs, F.; Binggeli, B.; Mostefaoui, T. I.

    1998-01-01

    Submitted to: Astron. Astrophys. Abstract: A radio spectroscopic driftscan survey in the 21cm line with the Nancay Radio Telescope of 0.08 steradians of sky in the direction of the constellation Canes Venatici covering a heliocentric velocity range of -350 < V_hel < 2350 km/s produced 53 spectral fe

  15. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  16. Comparative analyses of stilbenoids in canes of major Vitis vinifera L. cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Carole; Richard, Tristan; Renouf, Elodie; Bisson, Jonathan; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Bordenave, Louis; Ollat, Nathalie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Cluzet, Stéphanie

    2013-11-27

    Grapevine canes are rich in resveratrol and its complex derivatives. These compounds have many biological activities and are needed mainly for health purposes. Canes, which are often wasted, can be used to produce these high-value compounds at low cost. We studied sixteen Vitis vinifera L. cultivars among the most widely cultivated ones worldwide. Polyphenols were extracted from their canes and identified by liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We accurately determined the content of E-ε-viniferin, E-resveratrol, E-piceatannol, and vitisin B and, for the first time, that of hopeaphenol and miyabenol C. The canes did not contain these major stilbene compounds in similar proportions, and their abundance and order of abundance varied according to the cultivar. For instance, Pinot noir has very high levels of E-resveratrol and E-ε-viniferin; Gewurztraminer has very high levels of vitisin B, and Carignan and Riesling have very high levels of hopeaphenol. These findings suggest that the right cultivar should be used to obtain the highest yield of a polyphenol of interest.

  17. Modification of the Two-Point Touch Cane Technique: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, William H.; Ehresman, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Four blind adults were observed to determine the extent of the natural movement of their centers of gravity in relation to arc height during the two-point touch technique for long cane travel. The Ss learned and practiced a modified technique using their center of gravity as much as possible. (Author)

  18. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of... in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of surplus sugar...

  19. Accidental fatal poisoning of a dog by Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretti, Alexandre Paulino; da Silva Ilha, Marcia Regina; Ribeiro, Rita Elaine Streda

    2003-10-01

    A single case of accidental fatal poisoning by Dieffenbachia picta, (dumb cane) (Araceae) in a 9-y-old female Poodle is described. Clinical signs included severe, locally extensive erosive/ulcerative glossitis accompanied by marked dyspnea of acute onset. The animal did not respond to emergency procedures to relieve severe respiratory distress; fatal asphyxiation ensued from edema of the glottis a few hours after the first clinical signs were observed. According to the owner, the dog had access to a tall, potted dumb cane plant and chewed the thick stem of the plant intensely. The owner did not authorize a necropsy of the animal. The diagnosis of Dieffenbachia picta poisoning was based on the history of accidental consumption of dumb cane and clinical signs. A comparison of this single case with other reports of dumb cane poisoning suggests that dogs poisoned by Dieffenbachia species usually recover uneventfully with conservative management and that death from asphyxiation is a rare but possible consequence of this intoxication. Severe edematous swelling of the glottis with occlusion of the larynx airway passage can occur in those cases in which large amounts of sap are quickly squeezed from the plant during intense chewing. Death would occur if owners do not seek veterinary care immediately and if emergency procedures are not instituted on time.

  20. WHITE PAPER: DEMONSTRATION OF EQUIVALENCY OF CANE AND SOFTWOOD BASED CELOTEX FOR 9975 PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varble, J

    2007-11-20

    Cane-based Celotex{trademark} has been used extensively in various DOE packages as a thermal insulator and impact absorber. Cane-based Celotex{trademark} for the 9975 was manufactured by Knight-Celotex Fiberboard at their Marrero Plant in Louisiana. However, Knight-Celotex Fiberboard shut down their Marrero Plant in early 2007 due to impacts from hurricane Katrina and other economic factors. Therefore, cane-based Celotex{trademark} is no longer available for use in the manufacture of new 9975 packages. Knight-Celotex Fiberboard has Celotex{trademark} manufacturing plants in Danville, VA and Sunbury, PA that use softwood and hardwood, respectively, as a raw material in the manufacturing of Celotex{trademark}. The purpose of this White Paper is to demonstrate that softwood-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Danville Plant has performance equivalent to cane-based Celotex{trademark} from the Knight-Celotex Marrero Plant for transportation in a 9975 package.

  1. Alkali-based AFEX pretreatment for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse and cane leaf residues to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandraraj; Sousa, Leonardo da Costa; Jin, Mingjie; Chang, Linpei; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2010-10-15

    Sugarcane is one of the major agricultural crops cultivated in tropical climate regions of the world. Each tonne of raw cane production is associated with the generation of 130 kg dry weight of bagasse after juice extraction and 250 kg dry weight of cane leaf residue postharvest. The annual world production of sugarcane is approximately 1.6 billion tones, generating 279 MMT tones of biomass residues (bagasse and cane leaf matter) that would be available for cellulosic ethanol production. Here, we investigated the production of cellulosic ethanol from sugar cane bagasse and sugar cane leaf residue using an alkaline pretreatment: ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX). The AFEX pretreatment improved the accessibility of cellulose and hemicelluloses to enzymes during hydrolysis by breaking down the ester linkages and other lignin carbohydrate complex (LCC) bonds and the sugar produced by this process is found to be highly fermentable. The maximum glucan conversion of AFEX pretreated bagasse and cane leaf residue by cellulases was approximately 85%. Supplementation with hemicellulases during enzymatic hydrolysis improved the xylan conversion up to 95-98%. Xylanase supplementation also contributed to a marginal improvement in the glucan conversion. AFEX-treated cane leaf residue was found to have a greater enzymatic digestibility compared to AFEX-treated bagasse. Co-fermentation of glucose and xylose, produced from high solid loading (6% glucan) hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and cane leaf residue, using the recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (424A LNH-ST) produced 34-36 g/L of ethanol with 92% theoretical yield. These results demonstrate that AFEX pretreatment is a viable process for conversion of bagasse and cane leaf residue into cellulosic ethanol.

  2. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A

    2011-12-01

    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively.

  3. Growth of Pediococcus acidilactici on sugar cane blackstrap molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani S. Sant’Anna

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 has grown in MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth modified by substitution of glucose by 2.0% (MRS-2, 3.0% (MRS-3, 4.0% (MRS-4 and 5.0% (MRS-5 sugar cane blackstrap molasses. The highest acid production was obtained in MRS-5 broth maintained at a constant pH of 5.0. The highest biomass production was obtained when P. acidilactici was grown in MRS-5 broth at initial pH 6.5, while productivity was higher in MRS-2 broth (28.16%. When the MRS-2 broth was utilized at initial pH 6.5 for a 20-hour fermentation period, the highest growth rate (dx/dt was found in a period of 8 to 16 hours (0.290 g cells/L.h, while the specific growth rate (µ was 0.175 (h-1 for that period, differently from the 0.441 (h-1 obtained for the period comprising the 4th to the 12th hour. The growth in MRS broth was 5.08% (2.95 g/l higher than in MRS-2 broth (2.80 g/l. The data obtained have shown that P. acidilactici has had a significant growth in molasses as the main carbon source, and that it is possible to substitute MRS glucose by this carbon source with the purpose of obtaining a more economical growth medium for the potential large scale productions.Pediococcus acidilactici (IL01 cresceu em caldo MRS (Man, Rogosa and Sharpe modificado por adição de 2,0% (MRS-2, 3,0% (MRS-3, 4,0% (MRS-4 and 5,0% (MRS-5 de melaço de cana de açúcar, em substituição à glicose. A maior produção de ácido ocorreu em caldo MRS-5 com pH constante 5,0. A produção de biomassa foi mais acentuada em caldo MRS-5 com pH inicial de 6,5, embora a produtividade tenha sido maior em caldo MRS-2 (28,16%. Em caldo MRS-2 e em pH inicial de 6,5 durante uma fermentação de 20 horas, a velocidade de crescimento (dx/dt foi maior entre a 8ª e 16ª hora (0,290 g celulas/L.h enquanto a velocidade específica de crescimento µ foi 0,175 (h-1 para este período, diferente de 0,441 (h-1 obtido no período compreendido entre a 4ª e 12ª hora. O crescimento em caldo MRS foi 5

  4. The effect of extended sensory range via the EyeCane sensory substitution device on the characteristics of visionless virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel Robert; Namer-Furstenberg, Rinat; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Mobility training programs for helping the blind navigate through unknown places with a White-Cane significantly improve their mobility. However, what is the effect of new assistive technologies, offering more information to the blind user, on the underlying premises of these programs such as navigation patterns? We developed the virtual-EyeCane, a minimalistic sensory substitution device translating single-point-distance into auditory cues identical to the EyeCane's in the real world. We compared performance in virtual environments when using the virtual-EyeCane, a virtual-White-Cane, no device and visual navigation. We show that the characteristics of virtual-EyeCane navigation differ from navigation with a virtual-White-Cane or no device, and that virtual-EyeCane users complete more levels successfully, taking shorter paths and with less collisions than these groups, and we demonstrate the relative similarity of virtual-EyeCane and visual navigation patterns. This suggests that additional distance information indeed changes navigation patterns from virtual-White-Cane use, and brings them closer to visual navigation.

  5. Optimizing peracetic acid pretreatment conditions for improved simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of sugar cane bagasse to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Lincoln C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Setor de Biotecnologia e Tecnologia Quimica, Minas Geraid (Brazil); Linden, James C.; Schroeder, Herbert A. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Bioresource Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The use of several lignocellulosic materials for ethanol fuel production has been studied exhaustively in the U.S.A. Strong environmental legislation has been driving efforts by enterprise, state agencies, and universities to make ethanol from biomass economically viable. Production costs for ethanol from biomass have been decreasing year by year as a consequence of this massive effort. Pretreatment, enzyme recovery, and development of efficient microorganisms are some promising areas of study for reducing process costs. Sugar cane bagasse constitutes the most important lignocellulosic material to be considered in Brazil as new technology such as the production of ethanol fuel. At present, most bagasse is burned, and because of its moisture content, has a low value fuel. Ethanol production would result in a value-added product. The bagasse is available at the sugar mill site at no additional cost because harvesting, transportation and storage costs are borne by the sugar production. The present paper presents an alternative pretreatment with low energy input where biomass is treated in a silo type system without need for expensive capitalisation. Experimentally, ground sugar cane bagasse is placed in plastic bags and a peracetic acid solution is added to the biomass at concetrations of 0, 6, 9, 15, 21, 30 and 60% w/w of peracetic acid based on over dried biomass. The ratio of solution to wood is 6:1; a seven day storage period had been used. Tests using hydrolysing enzymes as an indicator for SSCF have been performed to evaluated the pretreatment efficiency. As an auxiliary method, a series of pre-pretreatments using stoichiometric amounts of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide based on 4-methyl-glucuronic acid and acetate content in the sugar cane bagasse have been performed before addition of peracetic acid. The alkaline solutions are added to the raw bagasse in a ratio of 17:1 solution to biomass and mixed for 24 hours at room temperature. Biomass is filled

  6. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture. There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use.

  7. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico.

  8. Glycogen content and excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically skinned muscle fibres of the cane toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, D G; Nguyen, L T; Stephenson, G M

    1999-08-15

    1. Mechanically skinned skeletal muscle fibres from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of cane toads were used to investigate the relationship between fibre glycogen content and fibre capacity to respond to transverse tubular (T-) system depolarization. 2. A large proportion of total fibre glycogen remained in mechanically skinned muscle fibres exposed to aqueous solutions. This glycogen pool (about 80% of total fibre glycogen) was very stable when the preparation was incubated in a rigor solution (pH 7.0) but decreased gradually at a rate of 0.59+/-0.20% min-1 in a relaxing solution (200 nM [Ca2+]). The rate was considerably higher (2.66+/-0.38% min(-1)) when the preparations were exposed to 30 microM [Ca2+]. An even greater rate of glycogen loss was found after T-system depolarization-induced contractions. The Ca2+-dependent loss of fibre glycogen was caused by endogenous glycogenolytic processes. 3. Silver stained SDS gels of components eluted into relaxing solution from single skinned fibres revealed a rapid (2 min) loss of parvalbumin and at least 10 other proteins varying in molecular mass between 10 and 80 kDa but there was essentially no loss of myosin heavy and light chains and actin. Subsequent elution for a further 30 min in either relaxing or maximally Ca2+-activating solution did not result in additional, appreciable detectable loss of fibre protein. 4. Depletion of fibre glycogen was associated with loss of fibre ability to respond to T-system depolarization even though the bathing solutions contained high levels of ATP (8 mM) and creatine phosphate (10 mM). 5. The capacity of mechanically skinned fibres to respond to T-system depolarization was highly positively correlated (Pmuscle to respond to T-system depolarization is related directly or indirectly to the non-washable glycogen pool in fibres, (ii) this relationship holds for conditions where glycogen is not required as a source of energy and (iii) the mechanically skinned fibre

  9. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  10. Use of slag/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends in the production of alkali-activated materials

    OpenAIRE

    María V. Borrachero; Jordi Payá; José Monzó; Lourdes Soriano; Mauro M. Tashima; José L.P. Melges; Jorge L. Akasaki; Vinícius N. Castaldelli

    2013-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part...

  11. Nitrogen derived from fertilization and straw for plant cane nutrition; Nitrogenio proveniente da adubacao nitrogenada e de residuos culturais na nutricao da cana-planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro-Sul; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, E-mail: henrique.franco@bioetanol.org.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Bioetanol (CTBE), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Ferreira, Danilo Alves; Otto, Rafael; Fortes, Caio, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b, E-mail: danilo.alves.ferreira@usp.b, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: cfortes@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the recovery, by plant cane, of the nitrogen ({sup 15}N) from urea and from sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop residues - straw and root system - incorporated into the soil. The experiment was settled in 2005/2006 with the sugarcane cultivar SP81 3250. At planting, microplots of 2 m length and 1.5 m width were installed, and N applications were done with 80 kg ha-1 N (urea with 5.05% in {sup 15}N atoms) and 14 Mg ha{sup -1} crop residues - 9 Mg ha{sup -1} of sugarcane straw and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} of root system, labeled with {sup 15}N (1.07 and 0.81% in {sup 15}N atoms, respectively). The total N accumulation by plants was determined during the crop cycle. Although the N use by shoot from crop residue mineralization (PA and SR) increased significantly over time, this source hardly contributed to crop nutrition. The recovery of the {sup 15}N-urea, {sup 15}N-SS and {sup 15}N-RS by plant cane was 30.3 +- 3.7%, 13.9 +- 4.5% and 6.4 +- 0.9%, respectively, representing 15.9, 4.7 and 1.4% of total nitrogen uptake by shoot. (author)

  12. Influence of a Third Set of Knives on the Efficiency of the Sucrose Extraction from Sugar Cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales-Suárez Jorge Michel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The index of cane preparation is one of the variables that influence on efficiency the sucrose extraction process from sugar cane mills in tandem. This influence can be measured by the % sucrose (% Pol and % humidity in the final bagasse and power demand tandem, these three variables are the dependent variables on this research. The index of cane preparation was the independent variable. The objective of this research is to show the impact of an increased rate of cane preparation, achieved with addition of a third set of knives in tandem, on the efficiency of the extraction process and the tandem power demand. This research was carried out in two stages. A first stage where the tandem was operated with two sets of existing knives and a second stage where it was operated with the addition of a set of knives (that to say with three sets of knives, the third set of knives mounted to increase the rate of cane preparation. A statistical analysis concludes that with increasing the rate of cane preparation both in the final bagasse the % Pol and % Humidity decrease significantly and tandem power demand decreases by 2.87%.

  13. New energy crop giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops increasing biogas yield and reducing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Corno; Pilu, Roberto; Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Giant cane is a promising non-food crop for biogas production. Giant cane and corn silages coming from full-scale fields were tested, in mixtures with pig slurry, for biomethane production by a continuous stirred tank lab-scale-reactor (CSTR) approach. Results indicated that giant cane produced less biomethane than corn, i.e. 174±10 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1) and 245±26 N m(3) CH4 Mg(-1) TS(-1), respectively. On the other hand, because of its high field biomass production, the biogas obtainable per Ha was higher for giant cane than for corn, i.e. 12,292 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1) and 4549 N m(3) CH4 Ha(-1), respectively. Low energetic and agronomic inputs for giant cane cultivation led to a considerable reduction in the costs of producing both electricity and biomethane, i.e. 0.50 € N m(-3) CH4(-1) and 0.81 € N m(-3) CH4(-1), and 0.10 € kW hEE(-1) and 0.19 € kW hEE(-1) for biomethane and electricity production, and for giant cane and corn mixtures respectively.

  14. Evaluation of five sugar cane planters Ensaios de cinco plantadoras de cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco L. C. Rípoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world biggest producer of sugar cane with an area of 7x10(6 hectares. Mainly the system used for planting is the semi-mechanized one, which consists in opening the furrows with a machine, manually allocating the fractioned stalks and then covering the furrows done by the machines. The great amount of human labor used in the semi-mechanized system is becoming harder to find and also more expensive, indicating the need of a fully mechanized operation. Currently in Brazil these agriculture machines industries offers six different types of fully mechanized sugar cane planters (two types of whole stalks for planting and four using mechanized harvested stalks known as billets. All of them plant in two furrows simultaneously in 1.5 m row spacing. This study analyzed five different machines and the following variables: Working Speed (km h-1; Effective Capacity (ha h-1, Drawbar Force (kgf, Draw Bar Power (in HP, Fuel Consumption (L h-1 and Costs (US$ ha-1 comparing them with the semi-mechanized system. This research also characterized the stalks for planting as viable gems number (%, non viable gems number (% and billet length (m. And lastly the mechanized planting system is cheaper than the conventional one and none of the machines has an adequate mechanism for placing the right amount of sugar cane seed.O Brasil é o maior produtor de cana com área de 7 milhões de hectares. O sistema de plantio mais utilizado é o semimecanizado (sulcação mecânica, distribuição e picamento das mudas manual e cobertura de sulco com máquina. A carência e o custo de mão de obra têm aumentado, mostrando a necessidade de mecanização total da operação. Atualmente a indústria de máquinas oferece seis diferentes modelos de plantadoras (duas de mudas inteiras e quatro de mudas picadas. Todas plantam duas fileiras por vez, no espaçamento de 1,5 m. O estudo analisou as variáveis velocidade efetiva (km h-1, capacidade efetiva (ha h-1, força de tra

  15. Sugar cane bagasse as a feedstock for an industrial fast pyrolysis process under development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.; Magne, P.; Deglise, X.

    1987-11-01

    In order to determine if it is possible to use sugar cane bagasse in an industrial pyrolysis process (developed by the TNEE Company, a subsidiary of St. Gobain, France) to obtain a medium heating value gas, a comparative study of this material with pine bark, already used in the process, and with oak sawdust has been performed. The study showed only some minor differences between the three materials, essentially due to a difference of structure and a higher H/sub 2/ content for bagasse. In addition it is noticeable that the heating value of bagasse is higher than that of pine bark. Consequently sugar cane bagasse can be considered as a good feedstock for the TNEE industrial process. 20 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  16. [The sugar cane blight of the 1860s: science applied to agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, Begonha

    2012-12-01

    The Imperial Instituto Fluminense de Cultura (Fluminense Imperial Institute of Agriculture) encouraged debate with a view to eradicating the blight that devastated sugar cane plantations in the State of Bahia. Rural landowners, government officials and men of science participated in the discussions. The article presents the context of the sciences applied to agriculture, especially agricultural chemistry and the repercussions of the 'discoveries' of Justus Liebig in Brazil. The debate at the Imperial Instituto about the sugar cane blight was analyzed, together with the ideas espoused there and the characters involved in the issue. The procedures and solutions presented are studied, as well as the formation of knowledge networks around the agricultural sciences, which was in the process of institutionalization at the time.

  17. From Wheelchair to Cane: Elective Transtibial Amputations in a Patient with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Amanda; Berbrayer, David

    2015-11-01

    Spina bifida is associated with foot deformities, which may lead to foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, and limb amputation. Calcanectomy and Symes amputations have been reported successful in spina bifida. There is lack of evidence for transtibial amputations. This case describes a 27-yr-old woman with L4 level spina bifida who underwent bilateral transtibial amputations. She ambulated with bilateral ankle foot orthoses and canes until age 22. At age 22, she had bilateral foot reconstructive surgeries complicated by nonunion, ulcerations, and osteomyelitis. She was using a wheelchair by age 25. She had elective bilateral transtibial amputations at age 27 for progressive osteomyelitis. Four weeks after amputations, she was fit with bilateral prostheses. On completion of 2 mos of rehabilitation, she ambulated with a cane. This case demonstrates good functional outcomes after transtibial amputations in a young spina bifida patient. Prosthetic fitting should be considered for similar, previously high functioning spina bifida patients with transtibial amputation(s).

  18. Augmenting white cane reliability using smart glove for visually impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernieri, Giuseppe; Faramondi, Luca; Pascucci, Federica

    2015-08-01

    The independent mobility problem of visually impaired people has been an active research topic in biomedical engineering: although many smart tools have been proposed, traditional tools (e.g., the white cane) continue to play a prominent role. In this paper a low cost smart glove is presented: the key idea is to minimize the impact in using it by combining the traditional tools with a technological device able to improve the movement performance of the visually impaired people.

  19. Estimation of the sugar cane cultivated area from LANDSAT images using the two phase sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Cappelletti, C. A.; Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1982-01-01

    A two phase sampling method and the optimal sampling segment dimensions for the estimation of sugar cane cultivated area were developed. This technique employs visual interpretations of LANDSAT images and panchromatic aerial photographs considered as the ground truth. The estimates, as a mean value of 100 simulated samples, represent 99.3% of the true value with a CV of approximately 1%; the relative efficiency of the two phase design was 157% when compared with a one phase aerial photographs sample.

  20. Study on the propagation of some sugar cane clones derived from tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagvardieff, P.; Mauboussin, J.C.; Weil, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the propagation by cuttings of sugar-cane clones derived from tissue cultures showed that the emergence of one bud setts was variable. A definition of parameters for this germination is proposed: germination vigour, germination capacity, shooting vigour, shooting capacity. Variants optained, among them germination or shooting vigour, were always improved when compared with the control; this might result from a cell rejuvenation induced by the tissue culture. 11 references.

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of grape canes extracts from vineyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y.; Zhang, A.; Fang, Y.; Liu, M.; Zhao, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.

    2016-11-01

    Grape canes are the main agro-wastes from vineyards. This work studied the antioxidant activities of the defatted methanolic extracts (ME) of canes from 11 genotypes: 5 Vitis vinifera widely known cultivars and 6 Chinese wild varieties from three species (V. amurensis, V. davidii, and V. pentagona) and the antioxidant activities of the ME’s chloroform fractions (CF), ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) and water fractions (WF). Among ME and its three fractions, EAF’s total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were the highest, at 586 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent and 320 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant power of the fractions/extracts was in the order EAF > ME > WF > CF, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging power and ferric-reducing antioxidant activity, while the order was EAF > CF > WF >ME based on the β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching activity. Methanolic extracts demonstrated the strongest Fe2+-chelating activity. The antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions generally correlated with the TPC and TFC in all assays, except with the Fe2+-chelating test. Grape canes from V. davidii had the highest TPC, TFC and antioxidant activities compared with those from other grape species. Catechin, epicatechin and trans-resveratrol were the predominant phenolic components of fractions/extracts. In light of these valuable bioactivities, grape canes from annual pruning practice considered as waste material have good commercial potential for utilization as a promising natural antioxidant in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, given its low cost and availability in large amounts. (Author)

  2. Thermal properties of chipboard panels made of sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Sylvia Thaís Martins; Mendes, Lourival Marin; César,Antônia Amanda da Silva; Yanagi Junior,Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is the most abundant agricultural residue produced in Brazil. It can be used for the production of chipboard panels and as constructive components for several types of environments. The substitution of timber for the bagasse minimizes environmental impacts and contributes to the generation of a new product with lower density and lower thermal conductivity which can improve the thermal conditioning of buildings. This study aims at determining the heat flow through chipbo...

  3. Depithers for Efficient Preparation of Sugar Cane Bagasse Fibers in Pulp and Paper Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lois-Correa J.A

    2012-01-01

    Among the by-products originated in the agro-industrial process of sugar cane, bagasse is one of the most relevant (Paturau, 1989). The negative influence of signifi cant amount of pith, or parenchymatous tissue, present in sugarcane bagasse is discussed. Since this non-fi brous material does not give any desired properties in the pulp and paper, agglomerated boards and polymer productions, it is remarked the importance of its maximum removal. A brief historical review in the development of b...

  4. Muscle synergies with Walkaround® postural support vs. “cane/therapist” assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miljkovic, Nadica; Milovanovic, Ivana; Dragin, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The main clinical measures of walking recovery in stroke patients were compared for training assisted by Walkaround® postural support (WPS) and conventional (CON) support by a cane/therapist. OBJECTIVE: We attributed the differences between the trainings to modified muscular synergies that occurred...... be the superior training scheme. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that assistance by WPS changed the motor control output relative to CON assistance in most patients....

  5. Por que morrem os cortadores de cana? Why are the sugar cane harvesters dying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar que a morte dos trabalhadores assalariados rurais, cortadores de cana, advém do pagamento por produção. Os processos de produção e de trabalho vigentes no Complexo Agroindustrial Canavieiro foram concebidos objetivando a produtividade crescente do trabalho e, combinados ao pagamento por produção, provocam a necessidade de os trabalhadores aumentarem o esforço despendido no trabalho. O crescimento do dispêndio de energia e do esforço para cortar mais cana provoca ou a morte dos trabalhadores ou a perda precoce de capacidade de trabalho.The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that deaths of sugar-cane cutters in Brazil are caused by the payment rules in this sector. The productive and labor processes now instituted in the Brazilian sugar-cane sector had the aim of increasing productivity of labor and the main form of payment is per production. This results in the increase of the worker's efforts during the labor process. The increase of energy and effort spent by the workers to cut sugar-cane has become too depreciating for the workers, and, in the limit, is causing the death of such workers or their early loss of labor capacity.

  6. Influence of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in Vitis vinifera L. canes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorena, Tamara; Saez, Vania; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2014-07-15

    Increasing evidence for the health benefits of E-resveratrol has triggered interest in stilbenoids in grapes, wine and by-products. Less attention has been paid to stilbenoid levels in viticulture residues. However, grape canes are a promising source of stilbenoids and have economic potential because they are a source of high-value phytochemicals. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of post-pruning storage on stilbenoid levels in grape canes. In most samples, the predominant stilbenoid was (E)-resveratrol, followed by (E)-ε-viniferin. In Pinot Noir canes stored after pruning at room temperature, the stilbenoid levels increased significantly after 8 months. The concentration was increased by up to fivefold, reaching 4,777 mg kg(-1)dw (dry weight). This effect did not occur in frozen, lyophilised or milled material. Branches collected directly from the plants after grape vintage and those remaining on the plant after pruning showed only a small increase in stilbenoid levels.

  7. Square baler field test under different sugar cane crop residue conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Miola de; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano Cannavan; Gadanha Junior, Casimiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: ammello@esalq.usp.br; Ripoli, Marco Lorezzo Cunali [John Deere, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy demand increase of the country allows the sugar cane business sector to be a major player in production and commercialization areas of electric energy using cogeneration powered by bagasse and sugar cane residues. The objective of the study was to evaluate some of the performance parameters of an Express 5040 baler, brand Nogueira, used to collect residues. The tests were conducted in a sugar cane mechanized harvest area. The baler was submitted to three different conditions of residues windrowing: 'in natura', under single and double raking operations. For all treatments soil sampling analyzes were done to find out ground homogeneity conditions were the test took place. The simple raking operation offered better conditions for the machine: Effective Capacity of 8.21 t.{sup h}-{sup 1} and 0.88 ha.h{sup -1}; average bale weight of 22.33 kg (SD=3.58, CV=16.01 %); costs of 7.45 R$.t{sup -1} of baled residue; 0.17 R$.fardo{sup -1} and 69.47 R$.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  8. Cane molasses as a source of precursors in the bioproduction of tryptophan by Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Dehghan Shasaltaneh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential amino acid L-tryptophan can be produced by a condensation reaction between indole and L-serine, catalyzed by B. subtilis with tryptophan synthase activity. Application of the tryptophan is widespread in the biotechnology domain and is sometimes added to feed products as a food fortifier.The optimum concentration of the Iranian cane molasses was determined by measuring the amount of biomass after growth in 1 to 30 g/mL of molasses. The maximum amount of biomass was obtained in 10 g/mL molasses. Chromatographic methods, TLC and HPLC, were used to assay the amount of tryptophan produced in the presence of precursors of tryptophan production (indole and serine and/or molasses.Our results indicate the importance of the Iranian cane molasses not only as carbon source, but also as a source of precursors for tryptophan production.This report evaluates the potential of cane molasses as an economical source for tryptophan production by B. subtilis, hence eliminating the requirement for additional serine and indole as precursors.

  9. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1).

  10. Bagasse paper from squeezed sugar cane refuse; Satokibi no shiborikasu kara umareta bagasse shi ni suite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T.; Mochizuki, Y.; Hara, H. [Mishima Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes paper making from sugar cane bagasse. Sugar cane stem includes water content of 70-75% and sugar content of nearly 20%. Squeezed sugar cane bagasse is composed of water content of 45%, cell content of 50% and sugar content of 5%. Chemical composition of bagasse is composed of cellulose of 46.0-62.9%, lignin of 16.4-22.5%, pentosan of 25.5-33.4% and ash of 1.0-5.4%, including rich lignin and hemicellulose as compared with flax. Bagasse fiber is featured by length of 0.5-2.5mm and weight average fiber length of nearly 1.5mm, showing a property more close to wood pulp than flax or cotton fiber. Under the same beating condition, non-wood pulp such as flax and kenaf (ambary) pulp forms bulky low-density sheet, while bagasse pulp generally forms high-density sheet. Bagasse paper with basic characteristics as printing paper can be manufactured through appropriate beating treatment of bagasse pulp after appropriate de-pith, digestion and bleaching treatments. 14 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

  12. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.

  13. Various Extraction Methods for Obtaining Stilbenes from Grape Cane of Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Soural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape cane, leaves and grape marc are waste products from viticulture, which can be used to obtain secondary stilbene derivatives with high antioxidant value. The presented work compares several extraction methods: maceration at laboratory temperature, extraction at elevated temperature, fluidized-bed extraction, Soxhlet extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. To obtain trans-resveratrol, trans-ε-viniferin and r2-viniferin from grape cane of the V. vinifera variety Cabernet Moravia, various conditions were studied: different solvents, using powdered versus cut cane material, different extraction times, and one-step or multiple extractions. The largest concentrations found were 6030 ± 680 µg/g dry weight (d.w. for trans-resveratrol, 2260 ± 90 µg/g d.w. for trans-ε-viniferin, and 510 ± 40 µg/g d.w. for r2-viniferin. The highest amounts of stilbenes (8500 ± 1100 µg/g d.w. were obtained using accelerated solvent extraction in methanol.

  14. Analysis of electric power cogeneration using sugar cane bagasse; Uma analise da cogeracao de energia eletrica usando bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Anna Cristina Barbosa Dias de

    1997-07-01

    Brazil impels its economy again. A development expected in 80 and 90 years it is real. This growth demands new technologies, new researches and bases that bear that growth. Electric power is in these bases, but Brazil is not ready for that. Electric power cogeneration possibility appears, using sugar cane bagasse. Alcohol and sugar plants have already that practice working with a low generation volume. With some investment this volume can be increased, adding about 10% to national energetic matrix. The aim of this work is to present a short time alternative for national electric matrix. It shows the energetic situation of the country, some experiences already implanted in some countries around the world and some options for equipment improvement used in alcohol and sugar plants. It is shown alternatives sources of electric power generation studied on Brazil, as well as the planning of National Energetic Program of ELETROBRAS. It analyses, in details, sugar cane bagasse use, which is used in Sao Paulo plants to generate electric power. Possible systems and troubles for its implantation in sugar and alcohol plants are discussed. (author)

  15. Mathematical methods for the energy calculation of the production of sugar cane (Saccharum spp.); Metodos matematicos para o calculo energetico da producao de cana-de-acucar (Saccharum spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Maria Marcia P. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Basta, Cesar [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Bioestatistica

    1999-07-01

    Sugar-cane crop is very energy consumer and contains a large amount of biomass, which is reused as thermal energy in the production system, although most of it is lost by burning during the manual harvest. The objective of the present work is to calculate the energy consumption of the production of sugar-cane and show the viability of substituting manual harvest (burnt sugar-cane) by mechanical harvest (without burning), and thus utilizing all of the biomass. Two methods were used (using equations and matrices) for the calculation of the gross calorific value of this crop. It was found that the total consumption of manual harvest for production is 138.15 Gcal, distributed approximately as follows: seedlings, 61.85%, fuel 16.68%, fertilizers 13.95%, and agrochemicals 6.87%, being insignificant the consumption of labor and machinery (only 0.65%), and mechanical harvest for production is 151,76 Gcal. Furthermore, the viability of substituting manual harvesting by mechanical harvesting is demonstrated economically as well as energetically. (author)

  16. Impact of oil and gas field in sugar cane condition using landsat 8 in Indramayu area and its surrounding, West Java province, Republic of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji Susantoro, Tri; Wikantika, Ketut; Saskia Puspitasari, Alia; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-01-01

    This study tried to monitor sugar cane condition surrounding of oil and gas field area. The spectral approaches were conducted for mapping sugar cane stress. As an initial stage Landsat-8 was corrected radiometrically and geometrically. Radiometric correction is an important stages for spectral approaching. Then all pixel values were transformed to the surface reflectance. Several vegetation indices were calculated to monitor vegetation stress surrounding of oil and gas field. NDVI, EVI, DVI, GVI, GRVI, GDVI and GNDVI were applied for generating tentative sugar cane stress images. The results indicated that sugar cane surrounding of oil and gas field has been influenced by oil and gas field.

  17. Amostragem em cana-de-açúcar, para fins de analise foliar Sampling leaves for leaf analysis studies in sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romano Gallo

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Êste trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar, a partir da experimentação local, um sistema adequado de amostragem de fôlhas, como base para posteriores estudos que visem estabelecer os níveis de nutrição para a cana-de-açúcar, através da análise foliar. A amostragem foi efetuada na cana planta, variedade CB. 41/76, num experimento fatorial reduzido a NPK 2³ e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: foram colhidas fôlhas de quatro posições, definidas pelo sistema de Kuijper (fôlha +1, + 2, +3, e +4; para as fôlhas de uma mesma posição foram separadas três partes (lâmina com nervura, lâmina sem nervura, e bainha; as amostras foram retiradas em seis idades da planta (4, 5, 6, 7, 8 e 9 meses. A variação dos teores dos principais constituintes minerais nos tecidos colhidos, em cada época, foi examinada estatísticamente, em função da adubação química usada, considerados seus efeitos na produção de cana. Pelos resultados obtidos e levando em conta o trabalho analítico no laboratório e simplificação de amostragem, é indicada a seleção da fôlha de posição +3, aos 4 e 8-9 meses de idade da planta, para determinar nos 20 cm centrais da lâmina, excluída a nervura principal, os elementos nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, cálcio e magnésio.A group of 576 leaf samples of cane, variety CB.41/76. was collected form a 2³ NPK factorial experiment in order to determine the most raliable sampling technique as a basis for the local conditions of the State of São Paulo. The selection of tissues for analysis was carried out on the plantation with respect to the age at sampling time (4, 5. 6, 7, 8 and 9 months in age, leaf part (blades, blades with midribs removed, and sheaths, and leaf position (leaves +1, +2, +3 and +4. This included the four youngest visible-dewlap leaves on the cane top, numbered according to the system of Kuijper. After each tissue was analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, the data were examined

  18. Utilization of Boron (10B derived from fertilizer by sugar cane Aproveitamento do Boro (10B proveniente do fertilizante pela cana-de-açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The response to B in agricultural systems of sugar cane is still an unexplored issue; B application has however recently been widely publicized and used with a certain degree of frequency. The use of 10B-labeled fertilizers may further contribute to clarify this practice. With the objective of evaluating sugar cane use of B (10B derived from fertilizer (boric acid, an experiment was conducted under field conditions in the 2005/2006 growing season. The experiment consisted of the installation of microplots (2 x 1.5 m where 4 kg ha-1 B (boric acid with 85.95 % in 10B atoms dissolved in water was applied 90 days after planting (May 2005. The solution was applied to the soil on both sides of the plant row at a distance of 20 cm. After harvest (June 2006 the B content and 10B abundance in % atoms in all parts of the sugar cane plants (stalks, dry leaves, tips and roots were determined. Results showed that the total B accumulated was 471 g ha-1 in the entire plant (35 % in the stalks, 22 % in the dry leaves, 9 % in the tips and 34 % in the roots. The sugar cane plants used on average 14 % of the total accumulated B in the above-ground part (44 g ha-1 and 11 % in the roots (19 g ha-1, totaling 13 % in the entire plant (63 g ha-1. The recovery of 10B-fertilizer by sugar cane plants was low, around 2 % of the total applied amount.No agrossistema da cana-de-açúcar a resposta à aplicação de B é ainda uma questão não esclarecida, porém é um procedimento que vem sendo utilizado com certa frequência. O uso de fertilizantes marcados com 10B pode auxiliar no entendimento dessa prática. Com o objetivo de avaliar o aproveitamento do B (10B proveniente do fertilizante (ácido bórico pela cana-de-açúcar, realizou-se um experimento em campo, na safra de 2005/2006, que consistiu na instalação de microparcelas (2 m de comprimento por 1,5 de largura, que, após 90 dias do plantio (maio de 2005, receberam 4 kg ha-1 de B (ácido bórico com 85,95 % em

  19. CANE: A Controlled Application Environment for Privacy Protection in ITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzel, Stefan; Kost, Martin; Schaub, Florian; Kargl, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Many of the applications proposed for intelligent transportation systems (ITS) need to process and communicate detailed personal identifiable information. Examples are detailed location traces or unique identifiers for authentication towards paid services. Existing applications often run as monolith

  20. Effect of frequency and reaction time in focused ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methrath Liyakathali, Niyaz Ahamed; Muley, Pranjali D; Aita, Giovanna; Boldor, Dorin

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a critical steps in bioethanol production. Ultrasonic pretreatment significantly improves cellulose hydrolysis increasing sugar yields, but current system designs have limitations related to efficiency and scalability. This study evaluates the ultrasonic pretreatment of energy cane bagasse in a novel scalable configuration and by maximizing coupling of ultrasound energy to the material via active modulation of frequency. Pretreatment was conducted in 28% ammonia water mixture at a sample:ammonia:water ratio of 1:0.5:8. Process performance was investigated as a function of frequency (20, 20.5, 21kHz), reaction time (30, 45, 60min), temperature, and power levels for multiple combinations of ammonia, water and sample mixture. Results indicated an increased enzymatic digestibility, with maximum glucose yield of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Theoretical ethanol yields obtained ranged from 6.47 to a maximum of 24.29g/100g dry biomass. Maximum energy attainable was 886.34kJ/100g dry biomass.

  1. SPATIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE AGGREGATE STABILITY AND O RGANIC MATTER IN A CAMBISOL UNDER SUGAR CANE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVANILDO AMORIM DE OLIVIERA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil management system can modify the natural d istribution of the soil attributes and, con- sequently, the variability of the soil aggregation and organic matter content. Thus, the aim of this w ork was to evaluate the aggregate stability and organic matter content spatial distribution on a Haplic Cambisol under sugar cane cultivation in the Southern Amazonas Sta te, Brazil. A 70 x 70 m square mesh, with regular 1 0 me- ters intervals, was designed over the cultivation a rea, resulting in 64 sample points. Soil blocks wit h preserved structure were collected at 0.0-0.2 m depth in orde r to analyze the aggregate stability and organic ma tter con- tent. The data were submitted to the descriptive an d geostatistical analysis. The soil attributes pres ented a spa- tial dependence structure and the greater range was observed for the mean weighted diameter and aggreg ate class 2.00 and 2.00-1.00 mm.

  2. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  3. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups,...

  4. 40 CFR 409.60 - Applicability; description of the Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.60 Section 409.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hilo-Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawaii Raw Cane Sugar...

  5. Assessment of virally vectored autoimmunity as a biocontrol strategy for cane toads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie A Pallister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cane toad, Bufo (Chaunus marinus, is one of the most notorious vertebrate pests introduced into Australia over the last 200 years and, so far, efforts to identify a naturally occurring B. marinus-specific pathogen for use as a biological control agent have been unsuccessful. We explored an alternative approach that entailed genetically modifying a pathogen with broad host specificity so that it no longer caused disease, but carried a gene to disrupt the cane toad life cycle in a species specific manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The adult beta globin gene was selected as the model gene for proof of concept of autoimmunity as a biocontrol method for cane toads. A previous report showed injection of bullfrog tadpoles with adult beta globin resulted in an alteration in the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs as well as reduced survival. In B. marinus we established for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin exists. The effect of injecting B. marinus tadpoles with purified recombinant adult globin protein was then assessed using behavioural (swim speed in tadpoles and jump length in metamorphs, developmental (time to metamorphosis, weight and length at various developmental stages, protein profile of adult globin and genetic (adult globin mRNA levels measures. However, we were unable to detect any differences between treated and control animals. Further, globin delivery using Bohle iridovirus, an Australian ranavirus isolate belonging to the Iridovirus family, did not reduce the survival of metamorphs or alter the form of beta globin expressed in metamorphs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While we were able to show for the first time that the switch from tadpole to adult globin does occur in B. marinus, we were not able to induce autoimmunity and disrupt metamorphosis. The short development time of B. marinus tadpoles may preclude this approach.

  6. Soil, water and nutrient losses by interrill erosion from green cane cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilka Rocha Vasconcelos da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interrill erosion occurs by the particle breakdown caused by raindrop impact, by particle transport in surface runoff, by dragging and suspension of particles disaggregated from the soil surface, thus removing organic matter and nutrients that are essential for agricultural production. Crop residues on the soil surface modify the characteristics of the runoff generated by rainfall and the consequent particle breakdown and sediment transport resulting from erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum amount of mulch that must be maintained on the soil surface of a sugarcane plantation to reduce the soil, water and nutrient losses by decreasing interrill erosion. The study was conducted in Pradópolis, São Paulo State, in 0.5 x 1.0 m plots of an Oxisol, testing five treatments in four replications. The application rates were based on the crop residue production of the area of 1.4 kg m-2 (T1- no cane trash; T2-25 % of the cane trash; T3- 50 % trash; T4-75 % trash; T5-100 % sugarcane residues on the surface, and simulated rainfall was applied at an intensity of 65 mm h-1 for 60 min. Runoff samples were collected in plastic containers and soon after taken to the laboratory to quantify the losses of soil, water and nutrients. To minimize soil loss by interrill erosion, 75 % of the cane mulch must be maintained on the soil, to control water loss 50 % must be maintained and 25 % trash controls organic matter and nutrient losses. This information can contribute to optimize the use of this resource for soil conservation on the one hand and the production of clean energy in sugar and alcohol industries on the other.

  7. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  8. Kinetics of volatile metabolites during alcoholic fermentation of cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachot, T.; Mueller, M.; Pons, M.N. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique)

    1991-07-01

    The kinetics of ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and fusel alcohols during alcoholic fermentations on cane molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been obtained via an in-situ gas membrane sensor connected to a gas chromatograph. Various operation parameters have been investigated such as inoculum rate, molasses concentration, operation mode (batch, fed-batch). The modification of fusel alcohols kinetics in response to addition of amino acids has been studied as well as the assimilation of two intermediary aldehydes (isovaleraldehyde and isobutyraldehyde) in the fusel alcohol synthesis pathway. (orig.).

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM SUNN HEMP AND AMMONIUM SULFATE BY SUGAR CANE RATOON

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The utilization of nitrogen by sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) fertilized with sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) as green manure and ammonia sulfate and its residual effect during two cuts were evaluated using 15N tracer technique. The amounts of 195.8 kg and 70 kg of N by hectare were added respectively as sunn hemp (SH) and ammonium sulfate (AS), in the following treatments: Control; AS-15N; SH-15N + AS; SH-15N; AS-15N + SH. Five samples of +3 leaves were collected and two meters of th...

  10. Peningkatan kualitas nata de cane dari limbah nira tebu metode Budchips dengan penambahan ekstrak tauge sebagai sumber nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIARDA ARIFIANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arifiani N, Sani TA, Utami AS. 2015. Improving the quality of nata de cane juice from sugar cane waste Budchips method with the addition of bean sprouts extract as nitrogen source. Bioteknologi 12: 29-33. Budchips method is a method of sugarcane cultivation in minimalist land use buds with special treatment that can produce large quantities of sugar cane segments. This method leaves of sugarcane weevil does not germinate but it still contains a lot of sugar cane juice containing sucrose and potentially as a substrate for making nata de cane. Nata is a cellulose matrix resulted from Acetobacter activity that has a chewy texture and commonly used as a food ingredient. Nata could be formed in media containing adequate of C, H, and N. Bean sprouts contain lots of protein and nitrogen sources that can support the growth of Acetobacter xylinum. The aim of this study was to determine the effect on bean sprouts extract on the quality of produced nata. The best result was shown by bean extract concentration of 300 g/500 mL of distilled water with a thickness of 0.913 mm, weighs 244.56 grams, the yield of 61.14% and 89.13% water content. Based on organoleptic test of the 30 panelists, the most preferred nata is the treatment of bean sprouts extract with the highest concentration of 300 g/500 mL of distilled water. Based on analysis of variance that sprouts extract treatment given influence on thickness, moisture content, color, flavor and texture of nata de cane.

  11. BIO-ENERGY FROM PIG'S MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljanka Tomerlin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available After settling, in the sample of pig’s manure, before and after anaerobic fermentation different layers appear: foam, fine colloids, floating particle-colloids and sediment-rude particles. During the anaerobic treatment it being favourable for maintaining the anaerobic fermentation was examined. It was shown that the layer from the bottom, sediment-rude particles, achieved the best results. During the anaerobic fermentation pig’s manure was stabilized and its quality improved. Produced biogas contained more than 88 vol.% of methane. The degradation of organic matter was 50 % at pH value 6.5 and temperature 35 ºC during the anaerobic fermentation that lasted 7 days.

  12. Richland Community College BioEnergy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Douglas C. [Richland Community College, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2012-09-25

    The purpose of this project was to focus on education and community outreach. As such, it reflected anticipated growth in the renewable/alternative energy industry creating a vast need for trained industry professionals, engineers, operations managers, and technicians to operate state-of-the art production facilities. This project's scope leveraged Richland's initial entry in the renewable energy education, which included Associate of Applied Science degrees and certificates in biofuels and bioprocessing. This facilitated establishing a more comprehensive sustainability and renewable energy programs including experiential learning laboratory components needed to support new renewable energy education degree and certificate specialties, as well as community outreach. Renewable energy technologies addressed included: a) biodiesel, c) biomass, d) wind, e) geothermal, and f) solar. The objective is to provide increasingly innovative hands on experiential learning and knowledge transfer opportunities.

  13. Market survey Slovakia. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with making investments. The market with biofuels is currently on the move as new legislative changes have been introduced lately in Slovakia (obligatory blending of biofuels with mineral fuels) and other countries are importing a lot of biodiesel produced in Slovakia into their markets too. As a result, increase in demand can be expected and it is a question whether current domestic capacities are able to cover this increase in demand or if there is room for additional investments into biofuels sector. Current situation indicates that existing capacities should suffice for the purpose of domestic consumption, but in the event of increased foreign sales, domestic capacities may show deficient. From a shortterm point of view, Slovakian biofuels market could serve as a source of pure biofuels ready to be blended in the Dutch market. Better pricing could be gained thanks to overcapacities in biodiesel but it is necessary to begin talks directly with producers and evaluate their concrete offers.

  14. Market survey Slovak Republic. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    The study presents an overview of Slovakian bioenergy market, its current state and future prospects in terms of size and potentials. In the opening, the basic structure of Slovakian energy sources is presented from IEA energy statistics, then a list of programmes and valid legislation relating to RES follow. Figures from several sources show possible potential accomplishable in biomass utilisation in Slovakia. Some most promising areas containing interesting amounts of unutilised biomass are quoted. Chapter 4 contains overview of programmes supporting the use of RES, examples of already realised projects and some planned projects. In Chapter 5 there is a list of main stakeholders in the bioenergy sector, description of legal requirements and procedures necessary for starting a business in Slovakia and some ways how to promote bioenergy business in Slovakia. As the most promising opportunities identified in Slovakia we can consider projects of biomass utilisation in the form of installation of boilers and creation of distribution channels enabling steady supply of biomass for competitive prices. A lot of waste and other residues from woodworking industries or forestry is available for this purpose. Dutch companies should make maximum use of their technological know-how and try to offer equipment for biomass utilisation. Biogas is produced only on a very limited scale. The reason for that lies in relatively high initial costs that cannot be covered from farming companies and low rentability of realised projects. Still, projects solving disposal of agricultural waste on the one hand and energy production on the other are worth paying attention to. Success stories from the Netherlands could serve as a source of inspiration but doing of thoroughgoing analysis preceding investment itself is of necessity in order to cope with hidden risks and uncertainties. In any case, Dutch companies can offer technological equipment to Slovakian buyers without risks connected with making investments. The market with biofuels is currently on the move as new legislative changes have been introduced lately in Slovakia (obligatory blending of biofuels with mineral fuels) and other countries are importing a lot of biodiesel produced in Slovakia into their markets too. As a result, increase in demand can be expected and it is a question whether current domestic capacities are able to cover this increase in demand or if there is room for additional investments into biofuels sector. Current situation indicates that existing capacities should suffice for the purpose of domestic consumption, but in the event of increased foreign sales, domestic capacities may show deficient. From a short-term point of view, Slovakian biofuels market could serve as a source of pure biofuels ready to be blended in the Dutch market. Better pricing could be gained thanks to overcapacities in biodiesel but it is necessary to begin talks directly with producers and evaluate their concrete offers.

  15. Extraction of lignin from sugar cane bagasse and its modification into a high performance dispersant for pesticide formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhili; Ge, Yuanyuan

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively utilize a by-product of non-wood material, lignin was extracted from sugar cane bagasse via acidification of black liquor. The extracted sugar cane bagasse lignin (EBL) was modified by oxidation, hydroxymethylation, and sulfonation into a water-soluble lignosulfonate (EBL-M). It was characterized by IR, UV, GPC and elemental analysis. The results showed that the aromatic units of EBL-M were kept well and it was effectively sulfonated, that the percentage of S was high ...

  16. Produtividade da cana-de-açúcar relacionada à localização de adubos nitrogenados aplicados sobre os resíduos culturais em canavial sem queima Sugar cane yield as related to the location of nitrogen fertilizer applied on top of unburnt sugar cane residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cesar Vitti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento agronômico a respeito do manejo adequado de canaviais sem queima da palha, ainda é limitado, principalmente, no que se refere à adubação nitrogenada. O experimento foi desenvolvido em campo, com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e o balanço de 15N-fertilizantes no sistema solo-planta-palha e a perda de NH3 por volatilização, em soqueira colhida mecanicamente sem queima, comparando-se a localização de fontes nitrogenadas aplicadas em superfície. O cultivar de cana-de-açúcar foi o SP81-3250. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de quatro fontes de N: nitrato de amônio (NA, sulfato de amônio (SA, uréia (U e uran (UA, na dose de 70 kg ha-1 de N, com aplicação sobre a palha em área total ou em faixa, dos dois lados da linha da soqueira. Nas parcelas que receberam SA e U foram instaladas microparcelas, com os fertilizantes marcados em 15N. As fontes nitrogenadas U e UA, que contêm N na forma amídica, apresentaram as maiores perdas de amônia por volatilização, especialmente quando aplicadas em faixa. As perdas de N por volatilização causaram redução na produtividade da cana-de-açúcar, porém a localização dos fertilizantes nitrogenados não influenciou a produtividade de cana. Independentemente da localização das fontes nitrogenadas, a recuperação do 15N pela cana-de-açúcar da fonte SA foi o dobro em relação à da U. A recuperação no sistema solo-planta-palha para SA e U foi de 74 e 55 %, respectivamente.Knowledge about the proper management of not-burned sugar cane is still limited, particularly regarding nitrogen fertilization. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate sugar cane yield, the balance of 15N fertilizers in the soil-plant-residue system and ammonia loss by volatilization in sugarcane ratoon crop without straw burning prior to mechanical harvesting, comparing different locations of

  17. Crescimento da parte aérea de cana crua e queimada Shoot growth of green and burned canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan André Alvarez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivos: 1. comparar o crescimento de cana colhida crua, mecanizada e de cana após a queima, colhida manualmente; 2. avaliar a influência do clima sobre as duas condições de crescimento e 3. analisar o comportamento do crescimento de cana crua e cana queimada nos 1º e 2º anos de rebrota, através de curvas adaptadas. A pesquisa foi realizada no município de Morro Agudo, SP, de julho de 1995 a julho de 1997. A variedade cultivada foi a SP 70 -1143. Utilizaram-se como indicadores de crescimento os seguintes índices biométricos: número de perfilhos, número de folhas, matéria seca de colmos e de folhas, IAF e avaliou-se a influência das temperaturas e das umidades do ar, do solo e das folhas. Adotou-se regressão polinomial e regressão não-linear para se adaptar os dados às curvas de crescimento. O crescimento no primeiro ciclo foi semelhante para cana crua e cana queimada. No início do segundo ciclo ocorreu maior crescimento em cana crua, enquanto que no final, foi maior em cana queimada. O perfilhamento da cana crua não apresentou diferenças significativas que confirmem a influência negativa da palha na rebrota. Os fatores climatológicos, isoladamente, não provocaram mudanças nos ciclos de crescimento de maneira que se identificasse uma tendência geral. As diferenças expressas na curva de crescimento do 1º para o 2º ano são devidas aos fatores climatológicos, tanto para cana crua como para cana queimada.This work had as objectives: 1. to compare the shoot growth between green cane, mechanically harvested and burned cane, harvested manually; 2. to evaluate the influence of the weather on the two conditions of growth and 3. to analyze the growth of green cane and cane burned in the 1st and 2nd years of second ratoon cane crop, by means of adapted curves. The research was performed in Morro Agudo, SP, Brazil from July 1995 to July 1997. The cultivar was the SP 70 -1143. As growth indicators the

  18. Downstream processing for xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using aluminium polychloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S S; Ramos, R M; Rodrigues, D C; Mancilha, I M

    2000-01-01

    Xylitol, a sweetener comparable to sucrose, is anticariogenic and can be consumed by diabetics. This sugar has been employed successfully in many foods and pharmaceutical products. The discovery of microorganisms capable of converting xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol offers the opportunity of producing this poliol in a simple way. Xylitol production by biotechnological means using sugar cane bagasse is under study in our laboratories, and fermentation parameters have already been established. However, the downstream processing for xylitol recovery is still a bottleneck on which there is only a few data available in the literature. The present study deals with xylitol recovery from fermented sugar cane bagasse hydrolysate using 5.2 g/l of aluminium polychloride associated with activated charcoal. The experiments were performed at pH 9, 50 degrees C for 50 min. The results showed that aluminium polychloride and activated charcoal promoted a 93.5% reduction in phenolic compounds and a 9.7% loss of xylitol from the fermented medium, which became more discoloured, facilitating the xylitol separation.

  19. Cane molasses fermentation for continuous ethanol production in an immobilized cells reactor by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, Farshid; Younesi, Habibollah; Esmaeili Sari, Abbas [Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Noor, P.O. Box: 64414-356 (Iran); Najafpour, Ghasem [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran)

    2011-02-15

    Sodium-alginate immobilized yeast was employed to produce ethanol continuously using cane molasses as a carbon source in an immobilized cell reactor (ICR). The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was performed by entrapment of the cell cultured media harvested at exponential growth phase (16 h) with 3% sodium alginate. During the initial stage of operation, the ICR was loaded with fresh beads of mean diameter of 5.01 mm. The ethanol production was affected by the concentration of the cane molasses (50, 100 and 150 g/l), dilution rates (0.064, 0.096, 0.144 and 0.192 h{sup -1}) and hydraulic retention time (5.21, 6.94, 10.42 and 15.63 h) of the media. The pH of the feed medium was set at 4.5 and the fermentation was carried out at an ambient temperature. The maximum ethanol production, theoretical yield (Y{sub E/S}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub P}) and total sugar consumption was 19.15 g/l, 46.23%, 2.39 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 96%, respectively. (author)

  20. Hydrolysis of Ammonia-pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse with Cellulase, β-Glucosidase, and Hemicellulase Preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Bernard A.; Day, Donal F.

    Sugar cane bagasse consists of hemicellulose (24%) and cellulose (38%), and bioconversion of both fractions to ethanol should be considered for a viable process. We have evaluated the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse with combinations of cellulase, β-glucosidase, and hemicellulase. Ground bagasse was pretreated either by the AFEX process (2NH3: 1 biomass, 100 °C, 30 min) or with NH4OH (0.5 g NH4OH of a 28% [v/v] per gram dry biomass; 160 °C, 60 min), and composition analysis showed that the glucan and xylan fractions remained largely intact. The enzyme activities of four commercial xylanase preparations and supernatants of four laboratory-grown fungi were determined and evaluated for their ability to boost xylan hydrolysis when added to cellulase and β-glucosidase (10 filter paper units [FPU]: 20 cellobiase units [CBU]/g glucan). At 1% glucan loading, the commercial enzyme preparations (added at 10% or 50% levels of total protein in the enzyme preparations) boosted xylan and glucan hydrolysis in both pretreated bagasse samples. Xylanase addition at 10% protein level also improved hydrolysis of xylan and glucan fractions up to 10% glucan loading (28% solids loading). Significant xylanase activity in enzyme cocktails appears to be required for improving hydrolysis of both glucan and xylan fractions of ammonia pretreated sugar cane bagasse.

  1. Comparative respiratory toxicity of particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Malm, Olaf; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Zin, Walter Araujo; Faffe, Débora Souza

    2008-09-01

    The impact of particle emissions by biomass burning is increasing throughout the world. We explored the toxicity of particulate matter produced by sugar cane burning and compared these effects with equivalent mass of traffic-derived particles. For this purpose, BALB/c mice received a single intranasal instillation of either distilled water (C) or total suspended particles (15 microg) from an urban area (SP group) or biomass burning-derived particles (Bio group). Lung mechanical parameters (total, resistive and viscoelastic pressures, static elastance, and elastic component of viscoelasticity) and histology were analyzed 24h after instillation. Trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) metabolites of the two sources of particles were determined. All mechanical parameters increased similarly in both pollution groups compared with control, except airway resistive pressure, which increased only in Bio. Both exposed groups showed significantly higher fraction area of alveolar collapse, and influx of polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma than C. The composition analysis of total suspended particles showed higher concentrations of PAHs and lower concentration of metals in traffic than in biomass burning-derived particles. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single low dose of ambient particles, produced by traffic and sugar cane burning, induced significant alterations in pulmonary mechanics and lung histology in mice. Parenchymal changes were similar after exposure to both particle sources, whereas airway mechanics was more affected by biomass-derived particles. Our results indicate that biomass particles were at least as toxic as those produced by traffic.

  2. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Fluxes Following Ammonium Sulfate and Vinasse Application on Sugar Cane Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Debora da S; Alves, Bruno J R; dos Santos, Marco A; Bolonhezi, Denizart; Sant'Anna, Selenobaldo A C; Urquiaga, Segundo; Lima, Magda A; Boddey, Robert M

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to quantify nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emission/sink response from sugar cane soil treated with fertilizer nitrogen (N) and vinasse applied separately or in sequence, the latter being investigated with regard to the time interval between applications for a possible effect on emissions. The study was carried out in a traditional area of unburned sugar cane in São Paulo state, Brazil. Two levels of N fertilization (0 and 100 kg N ha(-1)) with no added vinasse and combined with vinasse additions at different times (100 m(-3) ha(-1) at 3 and 15 days after N fertilization) were evaluated. Methane and N2O fluxes were monitored for 211 days. On average, the soil was a sink for CH4, which was not affected by the treatments. Emissions of N2O were induced by N fertilizer and vinasse applications. For ammonium sulfate, 0.6% of the added N was emitted as N2O, while for vinasse, this ranged from 1.0 to 2.2%. Changes in N2O fluxes were detected the day after application of vinasse on the N fertilized areas, but although the emission factor (EF) was 34% greater, the EF was not significantly different from fertilizer N alone. Nevertheless, we recommend to not apply vinasse after N fertilization to avoid boosting N2O emissions.

  3. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  4. Larger body size at metamorphosis enhances survival, growth and performance of young cane toads (Rhinella marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors. To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran's body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water, and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual's long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species.

  5. Response of “Red Globe” (Vitis vinifera L. to cane girdling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soltekin Oğuzhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cane girdling on skin colour, harvest date, yield, and some quality characteristics of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Red Globe table grape variety, was measured over two growing seasons, 2013–2014, at the facility of Manisa Viticulture Research Station in Turkey. Cane girdling was performed on the spurs after first bud was left from the bottom and 4 mm-wide ring of bark was completely removed with a doubleded knife at veraison period. Statistical analyses showed that total soluble solid content, berry width, berry length, colour parameters, CIRG index and anthocyanin content of the Red Globe was significantly affected by the girdling treatment in both years, 2013 and 2014. In addition it was detected that any effect of girdling treatments cannot be determined statistically significant on total yield, marketable yield, total phenolics, titrable acidity, pH and 50 berry weight. Total and marketable yields of girdled vines had higher value although they weren’t statistically significant. Furthermore it was observed on girdled vines 7 and 11 days earliness compare to the control vines in 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  6. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  7. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part 1: physical characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte 1: caracteristicas fisicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (UO/CEEFE), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Fine materials or particles are often encountered in many industrial processes and in our daily life. Some examples are: salt or sugar; sand; cleaning products; fertilizer; cement; calcium hydroxide; some residues of energy biomass, for instance, sugar cane bagasse, straw of sugar cane, saw dust, straw of rice, and even, other types of particulates as aerosols, and residual ash from combustion processes of conventional solids. During the preparation and handling of these materials and also for design and optimization of some multiphase processes and equipment associated with them, as classifying, transport and pneumatic drying, and thermo chemical conversion systems, in general, it is indispensable knowing the principal physical and fluid dynamic characteristics or properties, which not always are available or well established. In this paper the Ergun Method is employed, which is based on theoretical equations established for a fixed bed of porous particles when it is crossed by a gas flow. From this expression and measurements of pressure loss for a given flow of gas crossing the bed at different heights, it is possible to determine some physical characteristics, as bulk density, real density, porosity, sphericity, and specific surface of the bed particles. The technique used for obtaining experimental data is simple but rigorous and it is possible to reproduce these data. Were tested several fractions of bagasse obtained by the conventional sieving process. Finally it was statistically processed all experimental results obtaining the corresponding mathematical models for the desired properties as a function of the mean diameter of the particles. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  8. Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on the chemical composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of energy cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zenghui; Aita, Giovanna M; Walker, Michelle S

    2012-08-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are promising solvents for the pretreatment of lignocellulose as they are thermally stable, environmentally friendly, recyclable, and have low volatility. This study evaluated the effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMIM][OAc]) for the pretreatment of energy cane bagasse in terms of biomass composition, structural changes and enzymatic digestibility. Energy cane bagasse was pretreated with [EMIM][OAc] (5% (w/w)) at 120 °C for 30 min followed by hydrolysis with commercially available enzymes, Spezyme CP and Novozyme 188. IL-treated energy cane bagasse resulted in significant lignin removal (32.0%) with slight glucan and xylan losses (8.8% and 14.0%, respectively), and exhibited a much higher enzymatic digestibility (87.0% and 64.3%) than untreated (5.5% and 2.8%) or water-treated (4.0% and 2.1%) energy cane bagasse in terms of both cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities, respectively. The enhanced digestibilities of IL-treated biomass can be attributed to delignification and reduction of cellulose crystallinity as confirmed by FTIR and XRD analyses.

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Grenada, West Indies, and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M; Amadi, V; Zieger, U; Johnson, R; Hariharan, H

    2013-09-01

    Cloacal swabs and caecal contents sampled from 58 cane toads (Bufo marinus) in St George's parish, Grenada, during a 7-month period in 2011 were examined by an enrichment and selective culture method for presence of Salmonella spp. Twenty-four (41%) toads were positive for Salmonella spp. of which eight were Salmonella enterica serovar Javiana, and eight were S. enterica serovar Rubislaw. The other serovars were as follows: Montevideo, 6; Arechavaleta, 1; and serovar: IV:43:-:-, 1. The high frequency of isolation of serovar Javiana, an emerging human pathogen associated with several outbreaks in the recent years in the eastern United States, suggests a possible role for cane toads in transmission of this serovar. Although S. Rubislaw has been isolated from lizards, bats and cases of some human infections, there is no report of its carriage by cane toads, and in such high frequency. The rate of carriage of S. Montevideo, a cause for human foodborne outbreaks around the world was also over 10% in the 58 toads sampled in this study. The antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole showed that drug resistance is minimal and is of little concern. Antimicrobial resistance was limited to ampicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in one isolate of S. Javiana and one isolate of S. Rubislaw. This is the first report of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibilities of various Salmonella serovars not identified previously in cane toads in Grenada, West Indies.

  10. A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penrod, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

  11. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is issuing this notice to publish the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to...

  12. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment Quantity Under the Sugar Marketing Allotment Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw...

  13. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  14. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all domestic sugar marketed for human consumption in the United States...

  15. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic...

  16. Comparative analysis of the Metarhizium anisopliae secretome in response to exposure to the greyback cane grub and grub cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalil, Nirupama Shoby; Junior Téo, V S; Braithwaite, K; Brumbley, S; Samson, P; Helena Nevalainen, K M

    2010-08-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a well-characterized biocontrol agent of a wide range of insects including cane grubs. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis was used to display secreted proteins of M. anisopliae strain FI-1045 growing on the whole greyback cane grubs and their isolated cuticles. Hydrolytic enzymes secreted by M. anisopliae play a key role in insect cuticle-degradation and initiation of the infection process. We have identified all the 101 protein spots displayed by cross-species identification (CSI) from the fungal kingdom. Among the identified proteins were 64-kDa serine carboxypeptidase, 1,3 beta-exoglucanase, Dynamin GTPase, THZ kinase, calcineurin like phosphoesterase, and phosphatidylinositol kinase secreted by M. ansiopliae (FI-1045) in response to exposure to the greyback cane grubs and their isolated cuticles. These proteins have not been previously identified from the culture supernatant of M. anisopliae during infection. To our knowledge, this the first proteomic map established to study the extracellular proteins secreted by M. ansiopliae (FI-1045) during infection of greyback cane grubs and its cuticles.

  17. The interacting effects of ungulate hoofprints and predatory native ants on metamorph cane toads in tropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cabrera-Guzmán

    Full Text Available Many invasive species exploit the disturbed habitats created by human activities. Understanding the effects of habitat disturbance on invasion success, and how disturbance interacts with other factors (such as biotic resistance to the invaders from the native fauna may suggest new ways to reduce invader viability. In tropical Australia, commercial livestock production can facilitate invasion by the cane toad (Rhinella marina, because hoofprints left by cattle and horses around waterbody margins provide distinctive (cool, moist microhabitats; nevertheless the same microhabitat can inhibit the success of cane toads by increasing the risks of predation or drowning. Metamorph cane toads actively select hoofprints as retreat-sites to escape dangerous thermal and hydric conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, hoofprint geometry is important: in hoofprints with steep sides the young toads are more likely to be attacked by predatory ants (Iridomyrmex reburrus and are more likely to drown following heavy rain. Thus, anthropogenic changes to the landscape interact with predation by native taxa to affect the ability of cane toads in this vulnerable life-history stage to thrive in the harsh abiotic conditions of tropical Australia.

  18. Design, modeling, and analysis of a feedstock logistics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Jason D; Sarin, Subhash C; Cundiff, John S

    2012-01-01

    Given the location of a bio-energy plant for the conversion of biomass to bio-energy, a feedstock logistics system that relies on the use of satellite storage locations (SSLs) for temporary storage and loading of round bales is proposed. Three equipment systems are considered for handling biomass at the SSLs, and they are either placed permanently or are mobile and thereby travel from one SSL to another. A mathematical programming-based approach is utilized to determine SSLs and equipment routes in order to minimize the total cost. The use of a Side-loading Rack System results in average savings of 21.3% over a Densification System while a Rear-loading Rack System is more expensive to operate than either of the other equipment systems. The utilization of mobile equipment results in average savings of 14.8% over the equipment placed permanently. Furthermore, the Densification System is not justifiable for transportation distances less than 81 km.

  19. Fitossociologia de comunidades de plantas daninhas em agroecossistema cana-crua Phytosociology of weed community in no-burn sugar cane agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kuva

    2007-09-01

    without control and used as weed sampling sites. The samplings were made using squares (0.5 x 0.5 m, randomly cast twice in each area. Weed density and biomass were evaluated per species 120 days after sugar cane harvesting. The phytosociological studies showed that Cyperus rotundus presented the highest values of relative density, dominance, frequency and relative importance index. The seed-propagated dycot plants also presented high values for phytosociological index, mainly the species belonging to the families Euphorbiaceae and Convolvulaceae. On the other hand, the grass weeds, traditionally found in burned sugar cane areas, had very little relevance under the no-burn system. The diversity index (Shannon - H varied from 0 to 1.61 and the similarity index(S was low, except when groups of weeds were compared. The majority of the weed populations showed geographic distribution in match pattern. Areas with high infestation of C. rotundus and/or Convolvulaceae species showed the highest aggregation index.

  20. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  1. Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.

    2010-12-01

    With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific

  2. Distribution of prokaryotic organisms in a tropical estuary influenced by sugar cane agriculture in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wolf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In a joint Brazilian-German case study, distribution patterns of microorganisms were compared with environmental variables in the tropical coastal Manguaba lagoon in northeast Brazil, which is situated downstream of several sugar cane processing plants . 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP gene fingerprinting were used to follow the composition and distribution of microorganisms throughout the salinity gradient of the lagoon. Potentially abundant microorganisms were identified by sequencing representative SSCP bands. It could be demonstrated that the distribution of microbes was in close relation to the physico-chemical environmental settings and followed a common scheme. In the in- and outlet areas of the lagoon rather transient microbial communities were found, whereas in the central part a stable, diverse community was encountered, that due to the long residence time of the water, had ample time for development and adaptation.

  3. Washoff of Residual Photosystem II Herbicides from Sugar Cane Trash under a Rainfall Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Aaditi; Silburn, Mark; Craig, Ian; Shaw, Melanie; Foley, Jenny

    2016-05-25

    Herbicides are often applied to crop residues, but their fate has not been well studied. We measured herbicide washoff from sugar cane trash during simulated rainfall, at 1, 8, and 40 days after spraying (DAS), to provide insight into herbicide fate and for use in modeling. Herbicides included are commonly used in the sugar industry, either in Australia or in Brazil. Concentrations of all herbicides and applied Br tracer in washoff declined exponentially over time. The rate of washoff during rainfall declined with increasing DAS. Cumulative washoff as a function of rainfall was similar for most herbicides, although the most soluble herbicides did have more rapid washoff. Some but not all herbicides became more resistant to washoff with increasing DAS. Of the total mass washed off, 80% washed off in the first 30 mm (∼40 min) of rainfall for most herbicides. Little herbicide remained on the trash after rainfall, implying nearly complete washoff.

  4. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification.

  5. Decomposition of lignin from sugar cane bagasse during ozonation process monitored by optical and mass spectrometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Ridenti, M A; Oliveira, C; Araújo, S R; Amorim, J

    2013-03-21

    Mass spectrometry was used to monitor neutral chemical species from sugar cane bagasse that could volatilize during the bagasse ozonation process. Lignin fragments and some radicals liberated by direct ozone reaction with the biomass structure were detected. Ozone density was monitored during the ozonation by optical absorption spectroscopy. The optical results indicated that the ozone interaction with the bagasse material was better for bagasse particle sizes less than or equal to 0.5 mm. Both techniques have shown that the best condition for the ozone diffusion in the bagasse was at 50% of its moisture content. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to analyze the lignin bond disruptions and morphology changes of the bagasse surface that occurred due to the ozonolysis reactions as well. Appropriate chemical characterization of the lignin content in bagasse before and after its ozonation was also carried out.

  6. Pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse in a wire-mesh reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, A.R.F.; Drummond, I.W. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom)

    1996-04-01

    Improved experimental techniques are described, using a wire mesh reactor; for determining the pyrolysis yields of lignocellulosic materials. In this apparatus pyrolysis tars are rapidly swept from the hot zone of the reactor and quenched, secondary reactions are thereby greatly diminished. Particular emphasis is placed upon the measurement of the pyrolysis yields for sugar cane bagasse, an abundant agricultural waste product. The role of the important pyrolysis parameters, peak temperature and heating rate, in defining the ultimate tar yield is investigated, with the value for bagasse being 54.6% at 500 C and 1,000 C/s. The pyrolysis yields, under similar conditions, of another biomass material, silver birch, are also reported and compared to those of bagasse.

  7. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Andrea P. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mirian C. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lemos, Sherlan G. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marcia M.C. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nogueira, Ana Rita A. [Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: djan@terra.com.br

    2005-06-30

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaca) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaca were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaca of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachacas, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  8. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar cane soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamperlini, G.C.M.; Silva, M.R.S. [Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara UNESP, Aararaquara (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Vilegas, W. [Instituto de Quimica de Araraquara UNESP, Aararaquara (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    1997-12-01

    Fly soot samples collected in the sugar cane fields after the process of burning were extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus (methylene chloride:methanol 4:1). The extracts were fractionated on silica gel Sep-Pak cartridges into three fractions. A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric study of the fly soot extracts allowed the identification of the PAH with mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Large amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons, fatty acid esters and some PAHs were identified by GC-MS in full scan mode. GC-MS in the selective ion monitoring mode (SIM) was suitable for the determination of many PAHs, which are often present in the burnt biomass. 31 PAHs and 7 thiophens derivatives were identified. The presence of these compounds should be regraded as a caution to workers and the general population to avoid exposure to the fly soot. (orig.)

  9. Calcium phosphate flocs and the clarification of sugar cane juice from whole of crop harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Caroline C D; Moghaddam, Lalehvash; Doherty, William O S

    2015-02-11

    Sugar cane biomass is one of the most viable feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. Therefore, processing the whole of crop (WC) (i.e., stalk and trash, instead of stalk only) will increase the amount of available biomass for this purpose. However, effective clarification of juice expressed from WC for raw sugar manufacture is a major challenge because of the amounts and types of non-sucrose impurities (e.g., polysaccharides, inorganics, proteins, etc.) present. Calcium phosphate flocs are important during sugar cane juice clarification because they are responsible for the removal of impurities. Therefore, to gain a better understanding of the role of calcium phosphate flocs during the juice clarification process, the effects of impurities on the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate flocs were examined using small-angle laser light scattering technique, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. Results on synthetic sugar juice solutions showed that the presence of SiO2 and Na(+) ions affected floc size and floc structure. Starch and phosphate ions did not affect the floc structure; however, the former reduced the floc size, whereas the latter increased the floc size. The study revealed that high levels of Na(+) ions would negatively affect the clarification process the most, as they would reduce the amount of suspended particles trapped by the flocs. A complementary study on prepared WC juice using cold and cold/intermediate liming techniques was conducted. The study demonstrated that, in comparison to the one-stage (i.e., conventional) clarification process, a two-stage clarification process using cold liming removed more polysaccharides (≤19%), proteins (≤82%), phosphorus (≤53%), and SiO2 (≤23%) in WC juice but increased Ca(2+) (≤136%) and sulfur (≤200%).

  10. Dissolved organic carbon in rainwater from areas heavily impacted by sugar cane burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, C. H.; Francisco, J. G.; Nogueira, R. F. P.; Campos, M. L. A. M.

    This work reports on rainwater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and Araraquara over a period of 3 years. The economies of these two cities, located in São Paulo state (Brazil), are based on agriculture and related industries, and the region is strongly impacted by the burning of sugar cane foliage before harvesting. Highest DOC concentrations were obtained when air masses traversed sugar cane fields burned on the same day as the rain event. Significant increases in the DOC volume weighted means (VWM) during the harvest period, for both sites, and a good linear correlation ( r = 0.83) between DOC and K (a biomass burning marker) suggest that regional scale organic carbon emissions prevail over long-range transport. The DOC VWMs and standard deviations were 272 ± 22 μmol L -1 ( n = 193) and 338 ± 40 μmol L -1 ( n = 80) for RP and Araraquara, respectively, values which are at least two times higher than those reported for other regions influenced by biomass burning, such as the Amazon. These high DOC levels are discussed in terms of agricultural activities, particularly the large usage of biogenic fuels in Brazil, as well as the analytical method used in this work, which includes volatile organic carbon when reporting DOC values. Taking into account rainfall volume, estimated annual rainwater DOC fluxes for RP (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1) and Araraquara (5.4 g C m -2 yr -1) were close to that previously found for the Amazon region (4.8 g C m -2 yr -1). This work also discusses whether previous calculations of the global rainwater carbon flux may have been underestimated, since they did not consider large inputs from biomass combustion sources, and suffered from a possible analytical bias.

  11. Los otros noruegos de Caneliñas: la campaña ballenera de 1929

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdés Hansen, Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A previously unknown document from the Compañía Ballenera Española (Spanish Whaling Company, ceded to the author of this article, reveals new facts about the Norwegian whalers´ activity in Galicia in the 20th. century. Therefore an updating of what we know about their activity at the Caneliñas factory becomes unavoidable. This activity was interrupted in the year 1927 due to the decreasing number of captures, especially in the Straits of Gibraltar, with a decrease in the Company´s benefits and an increase in production costs, and the interest shown by the Norwegian management to relocate their activity in the Antarctic area. The 1928 failure on the part of the International Whaling Company to keep the factory open sealed the short term destiny of the Caneliñas factory. However, in 1929 the factory was briefly reopened again for a short period, when the newly acquired fleet that same year by S. Foyn Bruun and A. von der Lippe anchored there before joining their new floating factory, the Pontos, in their course to the Antarctic Ocean. This new documental source –the salaries register of CBE for the year 1929– provides a most valuable and previously unavailable information such as the work organization, a list of the company´s payroll, specifying salaries and production and capture bonuses, and many other facts. These are «he other Norwegian whalers», of whom nothing was known up to this moment, as the present article is going to show.El préstamo al autor de un documento inédito de la Compañía Ballenera Española, el libro de salarios de 1929, ha revelado nuevos datos sobre la actividad de los balleneros noruegos en Galicia en el siglo XX. Ello exige actualizar lo que sabíamos sobre su presencia en la factoría de Caneliñas, donde interrumpieron la actividad en 1927 ante la disminución de capturas (sobre todo en el estrecho de Gibraltar, la consiguiente caída de los beneficios y el aumento de los costos de explotación; adem

  12. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  13. The potential of sugar cane juice as the liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry by in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermin Widjaja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the components of poultry feed (80% of grains and meal that contains phytic acid which has anti-nutritional factor because it can bind minerals and reduce its availability. Phytic acid can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme phytase. Phytase enzyme naturally found in sugar cane juice, but its use as poultry feed supplements have not been done. The study was conducted using sugar cane juice PS 851 from Jatiroto PTPN XI, Lumajang, East Java in order to get the information potential of sugar cane juice as a liquid supplement and phytase enzyme carrier for poultry viewed from the aspect of nutrient content of sugarcane juice and phytase activity in the release rate of phosphorus. Research conducted at the Faculty of Animal IPB for 10 months. The rate of hydrolysis of phytase on P was tested using rice bran as a substrate. Sugar cane juice is added to the 2.5% level, using 4-level incubation (1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, each level consisting of 37°C and 42°C; pH 2; pH 4.5 and pH 5 with three replications. Study using a Two Factors Experiments in Completely Randomized Design and it was continued by DMRT test. P release rate was measured by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the sugar cane juice has a phytase activity of 0.0766 U / ml, brix level of 22.15%, containing water 73.03%, protein 0.47%, crude fiber 6.43%, minerals Ca 0.03%, P 0,02%, Co 0.14 mg / l, Fe 1.8 mg/l, Mn 1.55 mg/l, Zn 1.37 mg/ l, Cu 0.19 mg/ l, Se 12.63 mcg/100 g, vitamins B3 5.26 mg/100 g, C 0.72 mg/100 g, E 0.08 mg/100 g, sucrose 32.42%, fructose 2.41%, galactose 2% and glucose 1.58%. Supplementation of 2.5% sugar cane juice can increase the P release rate of 112-235% at optimum conditions of pH 5, at 37°C with a long incubation period of 1-4 hours.

  14. Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Camassola; Dillon, Aldo J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.25...

  15. Distribution of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in soils and sugar cane crops at Corumbataí river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, Fabiano Tomazini; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Jiménez-Rueda, Jairo Roberto; Roveda, José Arnaldo Frutuoso

    2009-06-01

    The common use of phosphate fertilizers NPK and amendments in sugar cane crops in Brazilian agriculture may increase the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations in soils and their availability for plants and human food chain. Thus, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soils and sugar cane crops in the Corumbataí river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. The gamma spectrometry was utilized to measure the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentration in all samples. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer factors (TF) were quantified using the ratio between the radionuclide activity concentration in sugar cane and its activity concentration in soil. The results show that, although radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added in the sugar cane crops, if utilized in accordance with the recommended rates, their use does not lead to hazards levels in soils. The soil-to-sugar cane transfer of radionuclides occurred in the following order (40)K>(226)Ra>(232)Th. Therefore, under these conditions, radionuclides intake through consumption of sugar is not hazardous to human health.

  16. Description of Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov., a new species of acetic acid bacterium isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, I H; Fegan, M; Hayward, C; Leonard, G; Stackebrandt, E; Sly, L I

    1999-10-01

    A new species of the genus Gluconacetobacter, for which the name Gluconacetobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, was isolated from the leaf sheath of sugar cane and from the pink sugar-cane mealy bug, Saccharicoccus sacchari, found on sugar cane growing in Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia. The nearest phylogenetic relatives in the alpha-subclass of the Proteobacteria are Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, which have 98.8-99.3% and 97.9-98.5% 16S rDNA sequence similarity, respectively, to members of Gluconacetobacter sacchari. On the basis of the phylogenetic positioning of the strains, DNA reassociation studies, phenotypic tests and the presence of the Q10 ubiquinone, this new species was assigned to the genus Gluconacetobacter. No single phenotypic characteristic is unique to the species, but the species can be differentiated phenotypically from closely related members of the acetic acid bacteria by growth in the presence of 0.01% malachite green, growth on 30% glucose, an inability to fix nitrogen and an inability to grow with the L-amino acids asparagine, glycine, glutamine, threonine and tryptophan when D-mannitol was supplied as the sole carbon and energy source. The type strain of this species is strain SRI 1794T (= DSM 12717T).

  17. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to

  18. A preliminary report on the use of cane and bamboo as basic construction materials for orthotic and prosthetic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, B; Banerji, J B

    1984-08-01

    Cane and bamboo have been found to be viable and alternative basic construction materials for orthotic/prosthetic appliances and rehabilitation aids. Amongst the appliances made, the night splint and the upper limb splints have proved effective in field trials. The lower limb orthoses and prosthesis however are still at an experimental stage. Of the rehabilitation aids, walkers, crutches and wheelchairs have been found to be remarkably useful, cheap and light.

  19. Optimal Medium Composition to Enhance Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Production by Ralstonia eutropha Using Cane Molasses as Sole Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bozorg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the costs associated with Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production of Ralstonia eutropha were studied in batch culture on different carbon sources. Experiments were designed and conducted to not only lower the cost of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by using inexpensive substrates, but also to increase Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production by optimizing the culture medium composition. Low cost, abundant carbon sources, including cane molasses, beet molasses, soya bean, and corn steep liquor were used to investigate the possibility of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production in such renewable carbon sources. Based on the experimental results, cane molasses with production of 0.49 g/L Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was selected as the most efficient carbon source. To improve bacterial growth and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, different chemicals were then used to pretreat the cane molasses. Sulfuric acid, with 33% enhancement in Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate production, revealed the highest efficiency in removing heavy metals and suspended impurities and was used to pretreat cane molasses in the subsequent experiments. Additionally, to make the process even more efficient and ultimately more effective, urea and corn steep liquor were used as nitrogen/minerals and vitamin sources, respectively. Using the Response Surface Methodology and through a 2n factorial Central Composite Design, the medium composition was then optimized, and maximum biomass concentration of 5.03 g/L and Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate concentration of 1.63 g/L were obtained.

  20. The structure of the penis with the associated baculum in the male greater cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, A O; Akinloye, A K; Olurode, S A; Anise, E O; Oke, B O

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the structures of penises of eight sexually mature male greater cane rats were examined at both macroscopic and histological levels. Each animal was sacrificed after anaesthesia with ether and then dissected open with the penis exposed from its root. The penises were first grossly examined, measured, and then prepared for histological examination. From this study it was observed that the body size has no allometry with penile size, but the testicular weight correlated with Os penis length in the greater cane rat. Grossly, the penis which was whitish in colour, with a mean length of 5.46 ± 0.36 cm, has no obvious collum penis but a flexura that turns it caudo-ventral and separates the corpus and glans penis. There was the presence of cornified papillae covering parts of the corpus and glans penis as well as a blind sac sacculus urethralis under the urethra on the glans penis. Histologically, the corpora cavernosa penis were completely separated by a connective tissue septum which sent the trabeculae network into the cavernous tissues and replaced the caverns as it moves from corpus to glans penis. The Os penis formed through endochondral ossification after 42 months of age in this animal. Therefore, from a histological standpoint, the cane rat penis belongs to the intermediate type. In conclusion, these findings provide vital information on the penile anatomy of the greater cane rat, which will serve as a basis for comparing penile morphology among the suborder hystricomorpha and expand knowledge of the reproductive biology in this animal.

  1. Evaluation of partial clinker replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emission reductions and potential for carbon credits

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. R. Fairbairn; De Paula,T. P.; G. C. Cordeiro; Americano,B. B.; Toledo Filho,R. D.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a study about the viability of possible CO2 emissions reductions scenarios for the cement manufacturing through the implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) associated with the partial replacement of cement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). Studies on the thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior of concretes containing 5 to 20% of ash indicated that there is improvement on the performance of all analyzed properties and that the ash can be used as admixture on t...

  2. Genetic divergence among elite sugarcane clones (Saccharum officinarum L. based on cane yield and quality traits from Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar R, Tyagi V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence among the twenty four sugarcane genotypes collected from various sugarcane research institutions of northern India were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replicates during the cropping seasons 2013 - 14. The assessment of the genetic diversity was based on the eighteen cane yield and quality characters. The results of the study indicated that, the genotypes were grouped into five clusters based on the genetic distance using Mahalanobis's statistics. Higher inter-cluster distance was recorded between cluster II and V (89.668 indicating high genetic diversity among these two clusters. Thus, exploitation of genotypes within these two clusters as parents for crossing could produce good sugarcane segregants. The lowest intra cluster distance was reported in the cluster III (14.897 revealed that clones are identical and can not to be used as parents in crossing that results hybrid not desirable for the characters studied. A critical analysis of cluster means for different traits indicated that cluster I was desirable for cane yield, CCS (t/ha, single cane weight, stalk diameter, germination (%, cluster II was better for juice extraction percentage, cluster III for better juice purity percent, brix (%, sucrose (% and CCS (% for 12 months and cluster V was the best source for NMC (000/ha, stalk length with other good cane and sugar yield traits. The average D2 values among clones ranged from 29.998 (CoH 08262 to 69.791 (CoPb 09214. The maximum genetic distance was noted between clone CoPb 09214 and Co 10039 (97.842 which was followed by clone CoPb 09214 & Co 10036 (96.609, CoPb 09214 & CoS 8436 (92.964 and clone CoH 09264 & Co 10036 (90.091. It is suggested that genotypes with high index for specific characters that fall into different clusters could be intercrossed to generate good number

  3. [Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Verónica; Diaz, Jendry; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica. Unrefined cristalised cane sugar, obtained after the filtration and evaporation of sugar cane juice, is a nutritional product of traditional consumption in Costa Rica and other Neotropical countries. It has been used in the topic treatment of infected wounds, with satisfactory results even with some antibiotic-ressistant bacteria. We studied the microbiological quality of 50 commercial samples. The analyses included total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria plate count; aerobic and anaerobic spore count; mold and yeast count; total and fecal coliforms; and presence of Clostridium botulinum. The antimicrobial effect was tested for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), S. epidermidis (UCR 2902), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Aspergillus niger (Asni 06). Most of the samples (76%) presented counts lower than 100 CFU/g especially for sporulated forms (90% lower than 20 CFU/g), the mold and yeast count was higher (38% higher than 10(2) CFU/g), demonstrating the importance of these microorganisms in the spoilage of the product; 76% of the samples presented fecal contamination; C. botulinum was not isolated with the methodology employed. No inhibitory effect was observed for A. niger, but all samples han an inhibitory effect over the other species, especially for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

  4. Evaluation of a {sup 15} N plot design for estimating plant recovery of fertilizer nitrogen applied to sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Cabezas, W.A.R.L.; Victoria, R.L.; Reichardt, K. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1994-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted on commercial sugar cene fields cropped with the variety SP70-1143, with the objective of evaluating a single row microplot design to determine plant recovery of {sup 15} N fertilizer nitrogen. One of them used {sup 15} N-aqua ammonia and {sup 15} N-urea applied to two linear meter microplots of a ratoon crop (four replicates.) The second used one linear meter microplots (three replicates) which received {sup 15} N-aqua ammonia only. The fertilizers were applied on 15cm deep furrows, located 25 cm from both sides of the cane row. One linear meter of ratoon cane, inside and outside of the microplot, and on the same and adjacent rows were harvested twelve months after fertilization. The results indicate the feasibility of using single row regments of ratoon cane with {sup 15} N-fertilizer. The main advantages of this microplot design, when compared to the classical 3 contiguous row segments, is that only one third of the labeled fertilizer is needed. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs.

  5. [Determination of brix and POL in sugar cane juice by using near infrared spectroscopy coupled with BP-ANN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Ye, Hua-jun; Li, Qing-tao; Xie, Jin-chun; Lu, Jia-jiong; Xia, A-lin; Wang, Jian

    2010-07-01

    The models of quantitative analysis of brix and pol in sugar cane juice were established by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) coupled with the back propagation-artificial neural network method (BP-ANN). The spectra of cane juice samples were obtained by the way of 2 mm optical length transmission and using the NIR spectrometer of 1,000-1,800 nm wavelength. Firstly, the data of original spectra were pretreated by Savitzky-Golay derivative and mean-centering. Secondly, the wavelength range of model was optimized by using correlation coefficient method coupled with the characteristic absorbance of the spectrum. Finally, the principal components, obtained by PLS dimension-reducing, were inputed into BP-ANN. The calibration models were established by calibration set and validated by prediction set. The results showed that the related coefficients (R2) of prediction for brix and pol were 0.982 and 0.979, respectively; and the standard errors of prediction (SEP) for brix and pol were 0.159 and 0.137, respectively. BP-ANN was more accurate in the prediction of brix and pol compared with the partial least square method (PLS). The method can be applied to fast and accurate determination of brix and pol in sugar cane juice.

  6. Parameters-related uncertainty in modeling sugar cane yield with an agro-Land Surface Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, A.; Ciais, P.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ruget, F.; Gabrielle, B.

    2012-12-01

    Agro-Land Surface Models (agro-LSM) have been developed from the coupling of specific crop models and large-scale generic vegetation models. They aim at accounting for the spatial distribution and variability of energy, water and carbon fluxes within soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum with a particular emphasis on how crop phenology and agricultural management practice influence the turbulent fluxes exchanged with the atmosphere, and the underlying water and carbon pools. A part of the uncertainty in these models is related to the many parameters included in the models' equations. In this study, we quantify the parameter-based uncertainty in the simulation of sugar cane biomass production with the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS on a multi-regional approach with data from sites in Australia, La Reunion and Brazil. First, the main source of uncertainty for the output variables NPP, GPP, and sensible heat flux (SH) is determined through a screening of the main parameters of the model on a multi-site basis leading to the selection of a subset of most sensitive parameters causing most of the uncertainty. In a second step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out on the parameters selected from the screening analysis at a regional scale. For this, a Monte-Carlo sampling method associated with the calculation of Partial Ranked Correlation Coefficients is used. First, we quantify the sensitivity of the output variables to individual input parameters on a regional scale for two regions of intensive sugar cane cultivation in Australia and Brazil. Then, we quantify the overall uncertainty in the simulation's outputs propagated from the uncertainty in the input parameters. Seven parameters are identified by the screening procedure as driving most of the uncertainty in the agro-LSM ORCHIDEE-STICS model output at all sites. These parameters control photosynthesis (optimal temperature of photosynthesis, optimal carboxylation rate), radiation interception (extinction coefficient), root

  7. Book review, Principi di video-otoendoscopia nel cane e nel gatto, Giovanni Ghibaudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Per il veterinario libero professionista le malattie auricolari dei cani e dei gatti sono il pane quotidiano, ciò nonostante il loro studio è progredito lentamente anche perché molti veterinari trovavano difficoltà nell’effettuare l’otoscopia e nel riconoscere la patologia otologica. L’avvento del video-otoscopio ha permesso di rilevare le malattie e i cambiamenti dell’orecchio. L'autore ha pertanto sentito la necessità di sviluppare i principi di video-otoendoscopia nel cane e nel gatto e inserirli in un’opera, unica in Italia nel suo genere, basandosi sulla propria esperienza clinica e sul materiale iconografico presente in letteratura. Nell’agile libro ci sono 94 figure video-otoscopiche che fanno comprendere visivamente la normale anatomia e le malattie dell’orecchio. Sono presentati 68 casi in cui è visibile l’immagine dell’orecchio esterno, sempre accompagnata da visioni video-otoscopiche di ciò che sta succedendo nel canale uditivo più in profondità. Nella prima parte del volume viene descritta l’anatomia dell’orecchio esterno e medio, sono fornite le informazioni essenziali per un corretto approccio e per la gestione delle otiti, per la preparazione del paziente e, infine, vengono indicati strumenti e metodiche di video-otoendoscopia. La seconda parte, attraverso immagini endoscopiche, illustra l’aspetto dell’orecchio normale del cane e del gatto. Successivamente, immagini endoscopiche chiare ed esemplificative accompagnano la descrizione delle lesioni presenti in corso di otiti acute, croniche e neoplastiche. Lo stesso schema è stato seguito nell’illustrare l’aspetto normale e alterato della membrana timpanica e dell’orecchio medio. Per ogni causa di otite sono state affiancate, a un testo essenziale d’immediata comprensione, immagini endoscopiche per una collezione iconografica il più possibile completa. Inoltre, Giovanni Ghibaudo fornisce utili consigli per esempio sull’utilizzo di spugne

  8. Landscape structure and live fences in Andes Colombian agrosystems: upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Javier; Onaindia, Miren

    2009-12-01

    Changes in land use have generated a new landscape configuration in the Andino orobiome (mountain range) of the tropical Andes, resulting in a mosaic of cultivation and pastures interrupted by small fragments of forest and live fences. This has resulted in an ongoing decrease in the biodiversity of this biome. In the upper basin of the Cane-Iguaque River (Villa de Levya-Boyacá, Colombia), located 2,600-3,000 m above the Cordillera Oriental, over three time periods in 1960, 1984, and 2004, we characterized the structure, patterns, and evolution of the overall landscape and of the live fences (used as tools in biodiversity conservation and considered to be desirable alternatives to nonlive fences in farming production systems) within an agricultural landscape. To do this, we interpreted high-resolution satellite images using a landscape ecology approach and applied landscape map metrics. We found that the natural forests have been transformed by pastures and cultivation, and that although live fences cover only a small portion of the total landscape (4.6%), they have an important effect on landscape structure and biodiversity. There has been an increase in live fences, especially between 1960 and 1984, as well as an increase in their density. However, there has been a reduction in the average length of live fences over the periods that we studied. This could be due in part to changes in the types of agricultural products that have been cultivated in recent years, with an increase in potatoes and a decrease in other vegetables, and also by resource extraction of timber and fuel wood. In the studied area, agricultural production was sustained while biodiversity conservation was improved by the use of live fences. Therefore, live fences should be considered not only as part of an agriculturally productive area, but also as an important element of a multi-functional landscape that contributes to the maintenance of biodiversity and provides resources of economic and

  9. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  10. Characterization of an exoinulinase produced by Aspergillus terreus CCT 4083 grown on sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coitinho, Juliana B; Guimarães, Valéria M; de Almeida, Maíra N; Falkoski, Daniel L; de Queiróz, José H; de Rezende, Sebastião T

    2010-07-28

    Exoinulinase (beta-d-fructan fructohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.80) secreted by Aspergillus terreus CCT4083 was obtained using sugar cane bagasse, an agroindustrial residue, as a carbon source. It was further purified from the supernatant culture in a rapid procedure. The enzyme presented 57 kDa on SDS-PAGE and 56 kDa on gel filtration chromatography. Inulin was hydrolyzed by the purified enzyme, yielding d-fructose as the main product. This enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 degrees C and maintained more than 90 and 75% of its original activity at 40 and 50 degrees C, respectively, after 3.5 h of preincubation. The K(M) values for inulin, sucrose, and raffinose were 11, 4.20, and 27.89 mM, respectively, and d-fructose was a competitive inhibitor (K(i) = 47.55 mM). The activation energies for sucrose, raffinose, and inulin were 10.4, 5.61, and 4.44 kcal/mol, respectively. The characteristics of A. terreus exoinulinase were compared to those of inulinases isolated from other organisms. The exoinulinase traits presented especially good thermostability and the ability to produce pure d-fructose, suggesting its application to the production of high-fructose syrup.

  11. Bioconversion of sugar cane crop residues with white-rot fungiPleurotus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, G M; Martínez, E O; Betancourt, D; González, A E; Otero, M A

    1992-07-01

    Four mushroom strains ofPleurotus spp. were cultivated on sugar cane crop residues for 30 days at 26°C. Biochemical changes affected the substrate as a result of fungal growth, in terms of nitrogen, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose contents. All strains showed a strong ligninolytic activity together with variable cellulolytic and xylanolytic action.Pleurotus sajor-caju attacked lignin and cellulose at the same rate, showing a degradation of 47% and 55%, respectively. A better balance was shown by theP. ostreatus-P. pulmonarius hybrid, which exhibited the poorest cellulolytic action (39%) and the highest ligninolytic activity (67%). The average composition of mushroom fruit bodies, in terms of nitrogen, carbohydrates, fats and amino acid profiles, was determined. Crude protein and total carbohydrate varied from 23% to 33% and 36% to 68% of dry matter, respectively. Fat ranged from 3.3% to 4.7% and amino acid content from 12.2% to 22.2%. Slight evidence for a nitrogen fixing capability was encountered in the substrate to fruit body balance.

  12. On the newly discovered Canes Venatici II dSph galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, C; Clementini, G; Ripepi, V; Di Fabrizio, L; Kinemuchi, K; Marconi, M; Musella, I; Smith, H A; Rodgers, C T; Kuehn, C; Beers, T C; Catelan, M; Pritzl, B J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the detection of variable stars in the Canes Venatici II (CVn II) dwarf spheroidal galaxy, a new satellite of the Milky Way recently discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We also present a V, B-V color-magnitude diagram that reaches V = 25.5 mag, showing the galaxy's main sequence turn off at V = 24.5 mag and revealing several candidate blue straggler stars. Two RR Lyrae stars have been identified within the half-light radius of CVn II,a fundamental-mode variable (RRab) with period P_ab = 0.743 days, and a first-overtone (RRc) RR Lyrae star with P_c = 0.358 days. The rather long periods of these variables along with their position on the period-amplitude diagram support an Oosterhoff type II classification for CVn II. The average apparent magnitude of the RR Lyrae stars, = 21.48 +/- 0.02 mag, is used to obtain a precision distance modulus of mu_0 = 21.02 +/- 0.06 mag and a corresponding distance of 160(+4,-5} kpc, for an adopted reddening E(B-V) = 0.015 mag.

  13. [Preliminary results of an herpetology investigation in sugar cane plantation in Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malukisa, J; Collet, M; Bokata, S; Odio, W

    2005-11-01

    Out of the 3,000 species of snakes described in the world, 163 are currently known from D.R. of Congo. We performed a systematic survey in sugar-cane plantations of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo (Bas-Congo), located at 160 km South-West from Kinshasa and exploiting nearly 10,000 ha. The plantation is divided into 3 sectors in the middle of which we deposited barrels filled of formaldehyde. All the employees of the Sugar Company of Kwilu-Ngongo were requested to collect encountered snakes and put them in the nearest barrel. Between August 9th and September 21st, 2004, we collected 36 snakes in two different sites, revealing the presence of 3 families and 12 species. The most abundant species in Causus maculatus (47% in the first site--Point 8--and 29% in the second site--Point 13). The most poisonous and dangerous species were captured only in the first site--point 8, and were Dendroaspis jamesoni and Naja melanoleuca, both young.

  14. Respiratory toxicity of repeated exposure to particles produced by traffic and sugar cane burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Carvalho, Giovanna M C; Lanzetti, Manuella; Valença, Samuel S; Silva, Luiz F F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Zin, Walter A; Faffe, Débora S

    2014-01-15

    We compared the toxicity of subchronic exposure to equivalent masses of particles from sugar cane burning and traffic. BALB/c mice received 3 intranasal instillations/week during 1, 2 or 4 weeks of either distilled water (C1, C2, C4) or particles (15μg) from traffic (UP1, UP2, UP4) or biomass burning (BP1, BP2, BP4). Lung mechanics, histology and oxidative stress were analyzed 24h after the last instillation. In all instances UP and BP groups presented worse pulmonary elastance, airway and tissue resistance, alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction and macrophage influx into the lungs than controls. UP4, BP2 and BP4 presented more alveolar collapse than UP1 and BP1, respectively. UP and BP had worse bronchial and alveolar lesion scores than their controls; BP4 had greater bronchial lesion scores than UP4. Catalase was higher in UP4 and BP4 than in C4. In conclusion, biomass particles were more toxic than those from traffic after repeated exposures.

  15. The growth of Micrococcus varians by utilizing sugar cane blackstrap molasses as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Luís A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the growth of Micrococcus varians were carried out in BHI culture medium (control as well as in a culture medium with 2% diluted sugar cane blackstrap molasses, enriched with 0.1% yeast extract. The experiment was conducted with three samples of the experimental and control media in a 5 liter fermentor with working volume of 3.5 liters, continuous agitation (150 rpm, 35 ± 0.1°C temperature, 0.7 L air. l-1 medium. min -1, initial pH 7.0 ± 0.2, 24 hour fermentation period, and approximate inoculum of 6.0 log10 CFU/ml. Samples were collected at 2-hour intervals. Micrococcus varians grew in the two culture media studied, which confirms the experimental medium viability for the growth of this species. The final average concentration of biomass was higher in the control medium than in the experimental medium: 0.99 g.l-1 and 0.78 g.l-1, respectively. The final number of viable cells at the end of fermentation was 20.65 log10 CFU/ml for the control medium (BHI, while in the experimental medium the number of viable cells was 19.43 log10 CFU/ml. The consumption of total sugars was higher for the biomass in the control medium (79.78%, while only 50.53% was consumed for the experimental medium.

  16. A cost effective fermentative production of glutathione by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with cane molasses and glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Anschau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sugar cane molasses and glycerol on glutathione (GSH fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 7754 in flask culture using response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions (80 g/L of molasses and 60 g/L of glycerol, the highest GSH and biomass concentration achieved were 119.6 mg/L and 25.3 g/L, respectively. Further studies done in 5 L bioreactor resulted 241.3 mg/L GSH after 96 h in batch fermentation without amino acids addition and the concentration of biomass was 12.1 g/L. In batch fermentation with the addition of the three amino acids (4 mM cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid at 32 h, biomass reached to 25 g/L and GSH, 236.1 mg/L at 96 h of fermentation. The strategy of precursor amino acids addition is a key aspect in increasing the synthesis of GSH.

  17. Mathematical models for prediction of rheological parameters in vinasses derived from sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacua, Leidy M.; Ayala, Germán; Rojas, Hernán; Agudelo, Ana C.

    2016-04-01

    The rheological behaviour of vinasses derived from sugar cane was studied as a function of time (0 and 600 s), soluble solids content (44 and 60 °Brix), temperature (10 and 50°C), and shear rate (0.33 and 1.0 s-1). The results indicated that vinasses were time-independent at 25°C, where shear stress values ranged between 0.01 and 0.08 Pa. Flow curves showed a shear-thinning rheological behaviour in vinasses with a flow behaviour index between 0.69 and 0.89, for temperature between 10 and 20°C. With increasing temperature, the flow behaviour index was modified, reaching values close to 1.0. The Arrhenius model described well the thermal activation of shear stress and the consistency coefficient as a function of temperature. Activation energy from the Arrhenius model ranged between 31 and 45 kJ mol-1. Finally, the consistency coefficient as a function of the soluble solids content and temperature was well fitted using an exponential model (R2 = 0.951), showing that the soluble solids content and temperature have an opposite effect on consistency coefficient values.

  18. Histological alterations of intestinal villi and epithelial cells after feeding dietary sugar cane extract in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Kawai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of sugar cane extract (SCE on the piglet intestinal histology were observed. Twelve castrated male piglets weaned at the age of 26 days were allotted to three groups fed diets containing 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SCE. At the end of feeding experiment, each intestinal segment was taken for light or scanning electron microscopy. Feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency did not show a difference among groups. Most of the values for villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis numbers were not different among groups, except for that the villus area of the 0.10% SCE group and the cell area of both SCE groups increased significantly at the jejunum compared to the control (P<0.05. For cell mitosis numbers, the 0.10% SCE group was higher than the 0.05% SCE group at the jejunum. Compared with the majority of flat cells of each intestinal segment in the control, the SCE groups had protuberated cells. In the 0.05% SCE group, deeper cells at the sites of recently exfoliated cells in the duodenum, cell clusters aggregated by protuberated cells in the jejunum and much more protuberant cells in the ileum were observed. These histological intestinal alterations suggest that SCE could raise the functions of intestinal villi and epithelial cells, especially at the 0.05%.

  19. A deep Large Binocular Telescope view of the Canes Venatici I dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Nicolas F; De Jong, Jelte T A; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bell, Eric F; Sand, David J; Hill, John M; Kochanek, Christopher S; Thompson, David; Burwitz, Vadim; Giallongo, Emanuele; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Gasparo, Federico; Grazian, Andrea; Pedichini, Fernando; Bechtold, Jill

    2007-01-01

    We present the first deep color-magnitude diagram of the Canes Venatici I (CVnI) dwarf galaxy from observations with the wide field Large Binocular Camera of the Large Binocular Telescope. Reaching down to the main-sequence turnoff of the oldest stars, it reveals a dichotomy in the stellar populations of CVnI: it harbors an old (>~ 10 Gyr), metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -2.0) and spatially extended population along with a much younger (~1.4-2.0 Gyr), 0.5 dex more metal-rich, and spatially more concentrated population. These young stars are also offset by ~100 pc to the East of the center of the galaxy. The data suggest that this young population should be identified with the kinematically cold stellar component found by Ibata et al. (2006). CVnI therefore follows the behavior of the other remote MW dwarf spheroidals which all contain intermediate age and/or young populations: a complex star formation history is possible in extremely low-mass galaxies.

  20. PERTUMBUHAN, PRODUKTIVITAS, DAN RENDEMEN PERTANAMAN TEBU PERTAMA (PLANT CANE PADA BERBAGAI PAKET PEMUPUKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik Eka Diana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization is an effort improving soil fertility to obtain optimal results. fertilization with the right amount and type can increase growth, productivity, and yield. The study aims to understand the response of growth, productivity, and yield of sugarcane crop (plant cane against various packages fertilization. The activities carried out in KP. Asembagus, Situbondo began November 2012-October 2013. Seven package dose of fertilizer, namely: 1 600 kg of new inorganic compound fertilizer + 100 kg ZA; 2 900 kg of new inorganic compound fertilizer 900 kg + 150 kg ZA; 3 1.200 kg of new inorganic compound fertilizer + 150 kg ZA; 4 900 kg of new inorganic compound fertilizer + 3 tons of organic fertilizer A; 5 900 kg of new inorganic compound fertilizer + 3 tons of organic fertilizer B; 6 600 kg of old inorganic compound fertilizer type I + 300 kg ZA; 7 600 kg old inorganic compound fertilizer type II + 500 kg ZA arranged in a randomized block design was repeated three times. The results showed that the fertilizer package 2, 3, and 7 generates growth and productivity tends to be higher, while the fertilizer package (except packet 5 produces yields tend to be higher. The fertilizer package 1, 2, and 3 resulted in the production of crystal tends to be higher

  1. Estudio preliminar de leptospirosis en roedores y canes en salitral, Piura-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sacsaquispe C

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar serológica y bacteriológicamente la presencia de Leptospira en muestras de suero y riñón de carnes y roedores, del distrito de Salitral, departamento de Piura (norte del Perú.Materiales y métodos: Estudio realizado en octubre de 1999. Se capturaron roedoresutilizando trampas tomahawk en las localidades de Salitral y Malacasi. Se utilizó la prueba de aglutinación microscópica (MAT para la detección de anticuerpos y el cultivo de tejido de riñón para el estudio bacteriológico. Asimismo, se evaluaron muestras de suero de canes de la localidad del Salitral.Resultados: 2 de 12 roedores identificados como Rattus rattus (16,6% reaccionaron con Leptospira serovar grypotyphosa a un título de 1/200 y 1/400, en tanto que una de las 3 muestras de suero de can colectadas reaccionó con Leptospira serovar canicola. De los 12 cultivos de las muestras de riñón de roedores ninguno fue positivo a Leptospira. Conclusiones: La detección de anticuerpos contra Leptospira en el distrito de Salitral sugiere ampliar los estudios de Leptospira en la zona.

  2. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  3. Electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties of disordered carbon prepared from palygorskite and cane molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Edelio Danguillecourt; Laffita, Yodalgis Mosqueda; Montoro, Luciano Andrey; Della Santina Mohallem, Nelcy; Cabrera, Humberto; Pérez, Guillermo Mesa; Frutis, Miguel Aguilar; Cappe, Eduardo Pérez

    2017-02-01

    We have synthesized and electrochemically tested a carbon sample that was suitable as anode for lithium secondary battery. The synthesis was based on the use of the palygorskite clay as template and sugar cane molasses as carbon source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) analysis showed that the nanometric carbon material has a highly disordered graphene-like wrinkled structure and large specific surface area (467 m2 g-1). The compositional characterization revealed a 14% of heteroatoms-containing groups (O, H, N, S) doping the as-prepared carbon. Thermophysical measurements revealed the good thermal stability and an acceptable thermal diffusivity (9·10-7 m2 s-1) and conductivity (1.1 W m-1 K-1) of this carbon. The electrical properties showed an electronic conductivity of hole-like carriers of approximately one S/cm in a 173-293 K range. The testing of this material as anodes in a secondary lithium battery displayed a high specific capacity and excellent performance in terms of number of cycles. A high reversible capacity of 356 mA h g-1 was reached.

  4. Effect of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia do Rosario Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of different additives on chemical composition, pH, ethanol production, content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, nutritional losses during fermentation, and changes in fibrous fractions, in the levels of non-fibrous and total carbohydrates during the sugar cane silage fermentation process with different additives. The treatments consisted of control (no additive; corn meal, at 10% of natural matter; molasses, at 10% of natural matter; urea, at 2% of natural matter; and microbial inoculant for sugarcane silage (Lactobacillus plantarum, Kera-Sil® in a proportion of 2 g L-1 of water using a 2 liter solution per ton of ensilage. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The urea treatment provided the best preparation of silage, taking into account the pH and bromatological composition when compared to silages made with the other tested additives, and the control. The sugarcane silage showed a loss of 5.86% on average of dry matter, not differing from others additives used. There was an increase in crude protein content when urea was used. There was no difference between the treatment for fiber losses in neutral detergent and total digestible nutrients.

  5. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of peracetic acid pretreated sugar cane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Linden, J.C.; Schroeder, H.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that peracetic acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. From the same studies, use of dilute alkali solutions as a pre-pretreatment prior to peracetic acid lignin oxidation increases sugar conversion yields in a synergistic, not additive, manner. Deacetylation of xylan is conducted easily by use of dilute alkali solutions at mild conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of peracetic acid pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse combined with an alkaline pre-pretreatment, is evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) procedures. A practical 92% of theoretical ethanol yield using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5 is achieved using 6% NaOH/I5% peracetic acid pretreated substrate. No sugar accumulation is observed during SSCF; the recombinant microorganism exhibits greater glucose utilization rates than those of xylose. Acetate levels at the end of the co-fermentations are less than 0.2% (w/v). Based on demonstrated reduction of acetyl groups of the biomass, alkaline pre-pretreatments help to reduce peracetic acid requirements. The influence of deacetylation is more pronounced in combined pretreatments using lower peracetic acid loadings. Stereochemical impediments of the acetyl groups in hemicellulase on the activity of specific enzymes may be involved. (author)

  6. Purification and properties of endoglucanase from a sugar cane bagasse hydrolyzing strain, Aspergillus glaucus XC9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Xiang-Zhi; Huang, Jian-Zhong; Ma, Su-Juan; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-05-26

    An endoglucanase (EG) from Aspergillus glaucus XC9 grown on 0.3% sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source was purified from the culture filtrate using ammonium sulfate, an anion exchange DEAE Sepharose fast flow column, and a Sephadex G-100 column, with a purification fold of 21.5 and a recovery of 22.3%. The ideal time for EG production is on the fourth day at 30 degrees C using bagasse as a substrate. Results obtained indicate that the enzyme was a monomer protein, and the molecular weight was determined to be 31 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of EG for the hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) were pH 4.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. EG was stable over the pH range from 3.5 to 7.5 and at temperatures below 55 degrees C. Kinetic behavior of EG in the hydrolysis of CMC-Na followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics with constant K(m) of 5.0 mg/mL at pH 4.0 and 50 degrees C. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) but inhibited by Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Cu(2+). The EDC chemical modification suggested that at least one carboxyl group probably acted as a proton donor in the enzyme active site.

  7. Book review. Anestesia e analgesia locoregionale del cane e del gatto. Francesco Staffieri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il volume di anestesia e analgesia locoregionale del cane e del gatto è pensato per essere un testo "da sala operatoria" – come afferma l'autore – perché consente un rapido, ma allo stesso tempo dettagliato, consulto per il libero professionista che si trova a gestire un'anestesia. Si tratta di un piccolo libro, tascabile, che può essere considerato un punto di partenza per gli studenti e per tutti quei medici veterinari che intendono avvicinarsi in maniera specialistica all'arte dell'anestesiologia veterinaria. L'anestesia locoregionale costituisce, infatti, uno strumento insostituibile per la gestione del dolore perioperatorio in medicina veterinaria. Nel volume si forniscono le nozioni di base per praticare i principali blocchi nervosi centrali e periferici. Per ogni blocco sono riportate le tecniche alla cieca (mediante l'ausilio dei punti di repere anatomici e quelle con l'impiego dello stimolatore nervoso periferico. Il volume, corredato da immagini foto e grafici, per un totale di 65 figure, si apre con i capitoli relativi ai farmaci, agli strumenti e alle complicanze dell'anestesia locoregionale. Prosegue con i blocchi nervosi centrali (anestesia epidurale e spinale e si conclude con i blocchi periferici (testa, arto anteriore, torace, arto posteriore. L'autore, Francesco Staffieri, è un medico veterinario che svolge il dottorato di ricerca nel Dipartimento delle Emergenze e dei Trapianti di Organi, Sezioni di Cliniche Veterinarie e Produzioni Animali dell'Università degli Studi Aldo Moro di Bari.

  8. Residues of sugar cane crop and its effects on the epigeic invertebrate faunaResíduos da cultura da cana-de-açúcar e seus efeitos sobre a fauna invertebrada epigéica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Salton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the availability of sugar cane residues on the epigeic invertebrate fauna. The evaluations were made after cane sugar harvest f, considering three levels of residues: 0% (total removal of residues from the soil surface, 50% (removal of half of the waste in the plots, the dry mass of 7.6 Mg ha-1 and 100% (keeping track of residues produced, dry mass of 16.9 Mg ha-1. A fragment of native vegetation in the region, located close to the sugar cane crop, was evaluated for comparison. The experimental plots were arranged in a randomized block design with eight replications. Each plot consisted of five rows 20 m long, were installed two pitfalls to capture the invertebrate fauna, representing sixteen traps in each treatment, totaling forty-eight throughout the experiment. The organisms were extracted manually and identified at major taxonomic groups. The highest diversity and groups richness of epigeic invertebrate fauna were observed in the cane sugar crop with the maintenance of the surface residues (100 and 50%. Moreover, complete removal of residues from the soil surface promoted a significant reduction of the soil invertebrates organisms. Soil samples were collected for evaluation of chemical attributes. The organisms of epigeic invertebrate fauna showed sensitive in detecting changes in systems, depending on the maintenance of plant residues of sugar cane.O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da disponibilidade de resíduos de cana-de-açúcar sobre a fauna invertebrada epigéica. As avaliações foram realizadas após a colheita da cana-de-açúcar, considerando três níveis de resíduos: 0 % (retirada total de resíduos da superfície do solo, 50 % (retirada da metade dos resíduos nas parcelas, massa seca de 7,6 Mg ha-1 e 100 % (manutenção completa dos resíduos produzidos, massa seca de 16,9 Mg ha-1. As parcelas experimentais foram dispostas num delineamento em blocos casualizados

  9. Protonic transport through solitons in hydrogen-bonded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, L.; Jayanthi, S.; Muniyappan, A.; Gopi, D.

    2011-09-01

    We offer an alternative route for investigating soliton solutions in hydrogen-bonded (HB) chains. We invoke the modified extended tangent hyperbolic function method coupled with symbolic computation to solve the governing equation of motion for proton dynamics. We investigate the dynamics of proton transfer in HB chains through bell-shaped soliton excitations, which trigger the bio-energy transport in most biological systems. This solitonic mechanism of proton transfer could play functional roles in muscular contraction, enzymatic activity and oxidative phosphorylation.

  10. Assessing a sustainable sugar cane production system in Tucumán, Argentina: Part 2: Soil water and thermal regime, stalk population dynamics and sugarcane production Evaluación de un sistema sustentable de producción de caña de azúcar en Tucumán, R. Argentina: Parte II: Contenido de humedad y temperatura del suelo, dinámica de la población de tallos y producción de caña de azúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Digonzelli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to implement sustainable and productive systems compatible with populations leads to the elimination of burning as a practice associated with sugarcane harvesting. This work is part of a study where two sugarcane production systems were compared: a with trash blanket (mulching and b without trash blanket (burnt residue. Macroplots were established in a commercial field planted with LCP 85-384, in Albarracín (Cruz Alta, Tucumán, Argentina. A split-plot experimental design with three replicates was used. Each plot consisted of five 30-m furrows. Two crop cycles were considered: 2006/2007 and 2007/2008. From sugar cane harvest onwards, soil water content at 20-cm and 40-cm depth, soil temperature at 15-cm depth, stalk number and basic infiltration rate were periodically determined. Cane yielding (t/ha and t/100-m row was estimated at harvesting time using stalk number and weight data. There was a higher water content in the treatment under trash blanket management for the 2007/2008 cycle, but no differences were found between treatments in the 2006/2007 cycle. These results depended on rainfall amount and distribution. Soil temperature was higher in the treatment without trash blanket and this situation was registered until canopy closure. Stalk population dynamics showed a higher stalk number during tillering peak in the treatment with trash blanket. At harvesting time this trend was evident, but the difference was significant only in 2007/2008. Sugarcane production per hectare was 12% and 55% higher in the treatment with trash blanket in 2006/2007 and 2007/2008, respectively.La necesidad de implementar sistemas productivos sustentables y amigables con las poblaciones vecinas a los campos conduce a la eliminación de la quema como práctica asociada a la cosecha de la caña de azúcar. Este trabajo forma parte de un estudio donde se compararon dos sistemas de producción de caña de azúcar: a con cobertura de residuos de cosecha

  11. A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Franco, Alexandre; Magalhães, Dulce; de Castro, Francisco José Viana; Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia Maria; Rothschild Franco de Carvalho, Lilian; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2008-05-01

    During sugar cane harvesting season, which occurs from May to November of each year, the crops are burnt, cut, and transported to the mills. There are reports showing that mutagenic activity and PAH content increase during harvesting season in some areas of São Paulo State in comparison with nonharvesting periods. The objective of this work was to preliminarily characterize the mutagenic activity of the total organic extracts as well as corresponding organic fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected twice from two cities, Araraquara (ARQ) and Piracicaba (PRB), during sugar cane harvesting season using the Salmonella/microsome microssuspension assay. One sample collected in São Paulo metropolitan area was also included. The mutagenicity of the total extracts ranged from 55 to 320 revertants per cubic meter without the addition of S9 and from not detected to 57 revertants per cubic meter in the presence of S9 in areas with sugar cane plantations. Of the three fractions analyzed, the most polar ones (nitro and oxy) were the most potent. A comparison of the response of TA98 with YG1041 and the increased potencies without S9 indicated that nitro compounds are causing the observed effect. More studies are necessary to verify the sources of the mutagenic activity such as burning of vegetal biomass and combustion of heavy duty vehicles used to transport the sugar cane to the mills. The Salmonella/microsome assay can be an important tool to monitor the atmosphere for mutagenicity during sugar cane harvesting season.

  12. Systems Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  13. Fractional study of alkali-soluble hemicelluloses obtained by graded ethanol precipitation from sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Feng; Ren, Jun-Li; Xu, Feng; Bian, Jing; Peng, Pai; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-02-10

    The two hemicellulosic fractions were subsequentially extracted with 5% and 8% NaOH aqueous solution at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:25 (g mL(-1)) at 50 degrees C for 3 h from the water, 1 and 3% NaOH-treated sugar cane bagasse, and subfractionated into six preparations by a graded ethanol precipitation method at concentrations of 15%, 30% and 60% (v/v). Sugar composition and molecular weight analysis showed that, with an increasing concentration of ethanol, hemicellulosic subfractions with both higher Ara/Xyl ratios and higher molecular weights were obtained. In other words, with an increasing ethanol concentration from 15% to 60%, the Ara/Xyl ratios increased from 0.043 in H(1) to 0.088 in H(3) and from 0.040 in H(4) to 0.088 in H(6), and the weight-average molecular weights of hemicellulosic subfractions increased from 42 430 (H(1)) to 85 510 (H(3)) g mol(-1) and from 46 130 (H(4)) to 64 070 (H(6)) g mol(-1), respectively. The results obtained by the analysis of Fourier transform infrared, sugar composition, and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic spectroscopy showed that the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses had a backbone of xylose residues with a beta-(1-->4)-linkage and were branched mainly through arabinofuranosyl units at C-2 and/or C-3 of the main chain, whereas the differences may occur in the distribution of branches along the xylan backbone.

  14. Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium associated with sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bo; Zhou, Qing; Lin, Li; Hu, Chunjin; Shen, Ping; Yang, Litao; An, Qianli; Xie, Guanlin; Li, Yangrui

    2013-07-01

    Five nitrogen-fixing bacterial strains (SP1(T), NN143, NN144, NN208 and HX148) were isolated from stem, root or rhizosphere soil of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) plants. Cells were Gram-negative, motile, rods with peritrichous flagella. DNA G+C content was 55.0 ± 0.5 mol%. Sequence determinations and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene and rpoB indicated that the strains were affiliated with the genus Enterobacter and most closely related to E. radicincitans DSM 16656(T) and E. oryzae LMG 24251(T). Fluorimetric determination of thermal denaturation temperatures after DNA-DNA hybridization, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry differentiated the whole-genome, genotype and protein profiles from those of E. radicincitans and E. oryzae. The strains' cell fatty acid composition differentiated them from E. radicincitans and E. oryzae by containing a higher level of summed feature 2 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and a lower level of C17 : 0 cyclo. Their physiological and biochemical profiles differentiated them from E. radicincitans by being positive for methyl red test, ornithine decarboxylase and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol, L-fucose and methyl α-D-glucoside and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, and differentiated them from E. oryzae by being positive for aesculin hydrolysis and utilization of putrescine, D-arabitol and L-rhamnose and being negative for arginine dihydrolase, lysine decarboxylase and utilization of mucate. The five strains therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Enterobacter sacchari sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SP1(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)).

  15. Citric acid production by selected mutants of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram-Ul, Haq; Ali, Sikander; Qadeer, M A; Iqbal, Javed

    2004-06-01

    The present investigation deals with citric acid production by some selected mutant strains of Aspergillus niger from cane molasses in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. For this purpose, a conidial suspension of A. niger GCB-75, which produced 31.1 g/l citric acid from 15% (w/v) molasses sugar, was subjected to UV-induced mutagenesis. Among the 3 variants, GCM-45 was found to be a better producer of citric acid (50.0 +/- 2a) and it was further improved by chemical mutagenesis using N-methyl, N-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG). Out of 3,2-deoxy-D-glucose resistant variants, GCMC-7 was selected as the best mutant, which produced 96.1 +/- 1.5 g/l citric acid 168 h after fermentation of potassium ferrocyanide and H2SO4 pre-treated blackstrap molasses in Vogel's medium. On the basis of kinetic parameters such as volumetric substrate uptake rate (Qs), and specific substrate uptake rate (qs), the volumetric productivity, theoretical yield and specific product formation rate, it was observed that the mutants were faster growing organisms and produced more citric acid. The mutant GCMC-7 has greater commercial potential than the parental strain with regard to citrate synthase activity. The addition of 2.0 x 10(-5) M MgSO4 x 5H2O into the fermentation medium reduced the Fe2+ ion concentration by counter-acting its deleterious effect on mycelial growth. The magnesium ions also induced a loose-pelleted form of growth (0.6 mm, diameter), reduced the biomass concentration (12.5 g/l) and increased the volumetric productivity of citric acid monohydrate (113.6 +/- 5 g/l).

  16. Influence of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) injury on the quality of cane juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaleno, Leonardo L.; Ravaneli, Gisele C.; Presotti, Leandro E.; Mutton, Marcia J.R. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia; Mutton, Miguel A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Fernandes, Odair A. [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade

    2008-01-15

    Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stael) is an important pest in Latin America and causes significant reduction in sugarcane productivity. There is no information regarding the effect of this pest on the quality of cane juice used for sugar and alcohol production. This work aimed at evaluating the quality of sugarcane juice from plants attacked by spittlebugs. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with 15 replications, and comprised two treatments: control and chemical treatment with thiamethoxam. An average of 9.2 {+-} 4.44 spittlebug nymphs m-1 were found in the plots prior to insecticide application. Nymphs were counted 18, 35, 55, and 82 days after the initial sampling (december/2003). During the mid growing season (July 2004), the juice was extracted from stalks and analyzed for Brix, Pol, RS, pH, fiber, purity, TRS, dextran, starch, and total phenolic compounds. Stalk yield was also measured. Chemical treatment was efficient in reducing spittlebug population, and elevated both stalk yield and juice pH. The accumulated infestation expressed as insect-days was significantly and negatively correlated to yield, Pol, pH, and purity. The concentration of phenolic compounds increased with pest infestation, while dextran and starch levels were not affected. The infestation of 2.4 and 7.3 nymphs m-1 day-1 caused reductions of 8.3% and 29.8% in yield; 1.9% and 5.8% in Pol; 0.4% and 1.1% in pH and 0.4% and 1.2% in purity, respectively, in comparison to areas where the pest population was extremely low (< 0.1 nymphs m-1). (author)

  17. Book review, Patologie articolari nel cane e nel gatto, Filippo Maria Martini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Con il cambiare dei tempi, sono cambiate anche le priorità nell’ambito sempre più vasto degli animali da compagnia. Se, infatti, fino allo scorso decennio chi si occupava di ortopedia veterinaria aveva a che fare esclusivamente con pazienti traumatizzati, ora l’ortopedia e la traumatologia veterinaria devono fare i conti sempre più spesso con le patologie articolari. I motivi di questa inversione di tendenza sono molti e di diverso genere, certamente i più influenti riguardano la diffusione di soggetti atleti che sviluppano specifiche patologie, l’allungamento della vita media che espone i pazienti a malattie articolari degenerative un tempo prerogativa dell’uomo e la presenza di razze canine particolarmente predisposte a tali patologie. A ciò si aggiunga l’esigenza crescente dei proprietari degli animali, di comprendere a fondo quali siano le migliori cure per i propri compagni. Per questi motivi lo specialista in Ortopedia degli animali domestici, Filippo Maria Martini, ha redatto Patologie articolari nel cane e nel gatto: un volume che non vuole essere un manuale sulle tecniche chirurgiche (nonostante al suo interno vengano comunque descritte, piuttosto un manuale pratico in grado da una parte di fornire gli strumenti necessari per comprendere, interpretare e diagnosticare le patologie articolari; dall’altra di dare le basi teoriche per impostare un protocollo terapeutico in modo corretto ed emettere una prognosi adeguata. Tutto ciò nella convinzione che un buon clinico non possa limitarsi ad eseguire una visita e ad impostare una terapia, ma debba necessariamente stilare un elenco di esami utili ai fini della definizione della diagnosi, discuterne con il proprietario e consigliare il più adeguato protocollo diagnostico e terapeutico.

  18. Further observations on the interaction between sugar cane and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, E K; Olivares, F L; de Oliveira, A L; dos Reis, F B; da Silva, L G; Reis, V M

    2001-04-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) variety SP 70-1143 was inoculated with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 (ATCC 49037) in two experiments. In experiment 1 the bacteria were inoculated into a modified, low sucrose MS medium within which micropropagated plantlets were rooted. After 10 d there was extensive anatomical evidence of endophytic colonization by G. diazotrophicus, particularly in lower stems, where high numbers of bacteria were visible within some of the xylem vessels. The identity of the bacteria was confirmed by immunogold labelling with an antibody raised against G. diazotrophicus. On the lower stems there were breaks caused by the separation of the plantlets into individuals, and at these 'wounds' bacteria were seen colonizing the xylem and intercellular spaces. Bacteria were also occasionally seen entering leaves via damaged stomata, and subsequently colonizing sub-stomatal cavities and intercellular spaces. A localized host defence response in the form of fibrillar material surrounding the bacteria was associated with both the stem and leaf invasion. In experiment 2, stems of 5-week-old greenhouse-grown plants were inoculated by injection with a suspension of G. diazotrophicus containing 10(8) bacteria ml(-1). No hypersensitive response (HR) was observed, and no symptoms were visible on the leaves and stems for the duration of the experiment (7 d). Close to the point of inoculation, G. diazotrophicus cells were observed within the protoxylem and the xylem parenchyma, where they were surrounded by fibrillar material that stained light-green with toluidine blue. In leaf samples taken up to 4 cm from the inoculation points, G. diazotrophicus cells were mainly found within the metaxylem, where they were surrounded by a light green-staining material. The bacteria were growing in relatively low numbers adjacent to the xylem cell walls, and they were separated from the host-derived material by electron-transparent 'haloes' that contained material that

  19. Chemical composition and fermentative losses of sugar cane ensilage with different Brix degrees, with or without calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane ensilage with different Brix degrees, with or without the addition of 0.5% of calcium oxide (lime on the chemical composition and fermentation losses of silages. A complete random design in a 9 × 2 factorial arrangement was used. Experimental silos were used, ensilage was done every 15 days with Brix measuring, and they were opened after 30 days of fermentation. As the Brix degree of the ensiled material increased, the contents of dry matter (DM increased and contents of ash, crude protein (CP and fibers (neutral and acid detergent fiber corrected for proteins - NDFap and ADFap reduced. After fermentation, DM content of the silage presented a linear increase with the Brix degree content concentration, positively correlating with content of lime, but the contents of ash, CP, EE and NDFap were linearly reduced with the Brix increase. Content of ADFap suffered linear reduction for the treated silage whereas quadratic behavior was found in the untreated silage. Production of ethanol was presented in a quadratic manner for the silages without lime, and cubically in silages with lime, according to the Brix degree. The treated or untreated silages presented an average pH of 3.98 and 3.50, respectively. Contents of acetic acid and butyric acid were not affected by the lime content and Brix degree. Untreated silages presented reduction of contents of propionic acid as the Brix degree increased. The higher the Brix degree value, the higher the total losses of dry matter in the sugar cane silages with or without treatment. The treatment of the sugar cane with 0.5% calcium oxide on the natural matter basis is effective in reducing the undesired fermentation of the ensilage material.

  20. Vinasse application to sugar cane fields. Effect on the unsaturated zone and groundwater at Valle del Cauca (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegón, Gloria Páez; Arboleda, Fernando Muñoz; Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Valdes-Abellan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Extensive application of vinasse, a subproduct from sugar cane plantations for bioethanol production, is currently taking place as a source of nutrients that forms part of agricultural management in different agroclimatic regions. Liquid vinasse composition is characterised by high variability of organic compounds and major ions, acid pH (4.7), high TDS concentration (117,416-599,400mgL(-1)) and elevated EC (14,350-64,099μScm(-1)). A large-scale sugar cane field application is taking place in Valle del Cauca (Colombia), where monitoring of soil, unsaturated zone and the aquifer underneath has been made since 2006 to evaluate possible impacts on three experimental plots. For this assessment, monitoring wells and piezometers were installed to determine groundwater flow and water samples were collected for chemical analysis. In the unsaturated zone, tensiometers were installed at different depths to determine flow patterns, while suction lysimeters were used for water sample chemical determinations. The findings show that in the sandy loam plot (Hacienda Real), the unsaturated zone is characterised by low water retention, showing a high transport capacity, while the other two plots of silty composition presented temporal saturation due to La Niña event (2010-2011). The strong La Niña effect on aquifer recharge which would dilute the infiltrated water during the monitoring period and, on the other hand dissolution of possible precipitated salts bringing them back into solution may occur. A slight increase in the concentration of major ions was observed in groundwater (~5% of TDS), which can be attributed to a combination of factors: vinasse dilution produced by water input and hydrochemical processes along with nutrient removal produced by sugar cane uptake. This fact may make the aquifer vulnerable to contamination.

  1. Agrotecnólogical characteristics of cane sugar at different times of suppression of irrigation and fertilizer levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Meireles de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of Agrotechnological two varieties of cane sugar influenced by different times of deletions irrigation and fertilization levels. The characteristics evaluated were: plant height (m, stem diameter (mm, number of tillers m- 1, Brix broth, sugar cane Pol, Pol broth, Sugar reducer, and overall productivity. The experiment was conducted in the Experimental Farm area Unimontes in Janaúba in northern Minas Gerais. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with three replications in a split plot (2 x 3 x 6 , two varieties of cane sugar, RB85 and 5453 SP80 1816, three different times suppression of irrigation (DIAP and six different levels of NK fertilization. Data were subjected to analysis of variance, and when significant differences were the F test was performed to compare the means by Scott Knott (p<0.05 for all variables, using the software program SISVAR. The varieties showed different behavior at maturity, having variety RB85 5453 higher values in technological quality and productivity at lower rates. The varieties obtained overall average of 24.3 ° Brix, Pol 17.6 % of sugarcane, 21 % Pol broth, 0.6 % AR, 3:08 meters in height, 29.2 mm in diameter, 18.9 tillers m-1, 11.1 stems m-1, t ha-1 159.8 productivity. The varieties responded to different eras of suppression irrigation (DIAP. 6 The level of fertilization provided better performance in terms of this work. The RB85 - 5453 and SP80 -1816 varieties are promising for Nortemineira region.

  2. Air pollution from biomass burning and asthma hospital admissions in a sugar cane plantation area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex, Marcos Abdo; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; de Oliveira, Regiani Carvalho; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Cançado, José Eduardo Delfini; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between the total suspended particles (TSPs) generated from preharvest sugar cane burning and hospital admission due to asthma (asthma hospital admissions) in the city of Araraquara. Design An ecological time‐series study. Total daily records of asthma hospital admissions (ICD 10th J15) were obtained from one of the main hospitals in Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 23 March 2003 to 27 July 2004. The daily concentration of TSP (μg/m3) was obtained using Handi‐vol equipment (Energética, Brazil) placed in downtown Araraquara. The local airport provided the daily mean figures of temperature and humidity. The daily number of asthma hospital admissions was considered as the dependent variable in Poisson's regression models and the daily concentration of TSP was considered the independent variable. The generalised linear model with natural cubic spline was adopted to control for long‐time trend. Linear terms were used for weather variables. Results TSP had an acute effect on asthma admissions, starting 1 day after TSP concentrations increased and remaining almost unchanged for the next four days. A 10 μg/m3 increase in the 5‐day moving average (lag1–5) of TSP concentrations was associated with an increase of 11.6% (95% CI 5.4 to 17.7) in asthma hospital admissions. Conclusion Increases in TSP concentrations were definitely associated with asthma hospital admissions in Araraquara and, despite using sugar cane alcohol to reduce air pollution from automotive sources in large Brazilian urban centres, the cities where sugar cane is harvested pay a high toll in terms of public health. PMID:17435205

  3. Increasing accessibility to the blind of virtual environments, using a virtual mobility aid based on the "EyeCane": feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachar Maidenbaum

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds and environments are becoming an increasingly central part of our lives, yet they are still far from accessible to the blind. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for them for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for use with familiarizing the visually impaired user with a real environment virtually from the comfort and safety of his own home before visiting it in the real world. We have implemented a simple algorithm to improve this situation using single-point depth information, enabling the blind to use a virtual cane, modeled on the "EyeCane" electronic travel aid, within any virtual environment with minimal pre-processing. Use of the Virtual-EyeCane, enables this experience to potentially be later used in real world environments with identical stimuli to those from the virtual environment. We show the fast-learned practical use of this algorithm for navigation in simple environments.

  4. Increasing accessibility to the blind of virtual environments, using a virtual mobility aid based on the "EyeCane": feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Amedi, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Virtual worlds and environments are becoming an increasingly central part of our lives, yet they are still far from accessible to the blind. This is especially unfortunate as such environments hold great potential for them for uses such as social interaction, online education and especially for use with familiarizing the visually impaired user with a real environment virtually from the comfort and safety of his own home before visiting it in the real world. We have implemented a simple algorithm to improve this situation using single-point depth information, enabling the blind to use a virtual cane, modeled on the "EyeCane" electronic travel aid, within any virtual environment with minimal pre-processing. Use of the Virtual-EyeCane, enables this experience to potentially be later used in real world environments with identical stimuli to those from the virtual environment. We show the fast-learned practical use of this algorithm for navigation in simple environments.

  5. Status Report - Cane Fiberboard Properties And Degradation Rates For Storage Of The 9975 Shipping Package In KAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-22

    Thermal, mechanical and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard samples following accelerated aging for up to approximately 10 years. The aging environments have included elevated temperature < 250 ºF (the maximum allowed service temperature for fiberboard in 9975 packages) and elevated humidity. The results from this testing have been analyzed, and aging models fit to the data. Correlations relating several properties (thermal conductivity, energy absorption, weight, dimensions and density) to their rate of change in potential storage environments have been developed. Combined with an estimate of the actual conditions the fiberboard experiences in KAC, these models allow development of service life predictions.

  6. In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain byproducts used as a replacement for cane sugar feed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the in vitro degradability of dry matter and the total gas production of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Gossypium hirsutum L., Helianthus annuus L., Ricinus communis, Moringa oleífera L. and Pinhão manso curcas L.) at four different levels of replacement (0, 30, 50, and 70%) for cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum RB.) in ruminant feed. Inocula were prepared using the ruminal fluid of three Holstein cows, and data were collected after 48 hours of in...

  7. Evaluation of a 15N plot design for estimating plant recovery of fertilizer nitrogen applied to sugar cane

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted on commercial sugar cane fields cropped with the variety SP70-1143, with the objective of evaluating a single row microplot design to determine plant recovery of 15N fertilizer nitrogen. One of them used 15N-aqua ammonia and 15N-urea applied to two linear meter microplots of a ratoon crop (four replicates). The second used one linear meter microplots (three replicates) which received 15N-aqua ammonia only. The fertilizers were applied on 15cm deep furrows, locat...

  8. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  9. 用旋风分离器干燥甘蔗渣%Cyclone as a Sugar Cane Bagasse Dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jefferson Luiz Gomes Corr(e)a; Daniel Rezende Graminho; Maria Aparecida Silva; Silvia Azucena Nebra

    2004-01-01

    Drying of sugar cane bagasse was theoretically and experimentally studied in a cyclone. The experiments were carried out using hot air as drying agent. The influence of the cyclone conical part was studied. It was shown that the conical part has a great influence on the particle residence time and, consequently, on moisture reduction.Experimental results were alike industrial ones. CFX 4.4坰 from AEA Technology was used to simulate some experiments. Simulated and experimental results were close and showed that the presented model leads to a good prediction.

  10. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  11. The expansion of sugar cane cultivation in the Sao Paulo state, Brazil; A expansao da cultura canavieira no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lora, Beatriz Acquaro; Monteiro, Maria Beatriz C.A.

    2008-07-01

    The present work aimed at analyze the sugar cane culture expansion in substitution to the other cultures in the Sao Paulo state from available georeferred and statistical data. The results had evidenced clear expansion of the sugar cane culture in the state, having totalized a growth of 26.04% in the period from 2003 to 2006, with expressive increase in the regions of President Prudente, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Barretos and Marilia that had, each one, more than 40% of increase in the period. Concomitantly it had reduction of the maize areas in the studied region and pasture areas stability, followed of a small increase of the cattle heads number. (author)

  12. In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain byproducts used as a replacement for cane sugar feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenna Nunes Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the in vitro degradability of dry matter and the total gas production of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Gossypium hirsutum L., Helianthus annuus L., Ricinus communis, Moringa oleífera L. and Pinhão manso curcas L. at four different levels of replacement (0, 30, 50, and 70% for cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum RB. in ruminant feed. Inocula were prepared using the ruminal fluid of three Holstein cows, and data were collected after 48 hours of incubation. The byproducts of Moringa had the highest degradability, and castor presented the lowest values at all evaluated levels of replacement. Castor bean byproduct showed the highest total gas production, cotton showed the lowest production, and the byproduct of Moringa at the 70% level showed the best ruminal fermentation results. These results demonstrate that the use of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Helianthus annuus L. and Ricinus communis can replace cane sugar in ruminant feed.

  13. Characteristics and properties of sugar cane trash; Caracteristicas e propriedades do palhico de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocente, Andreia F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saglietti, Jose R. C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu], E-mail: jroberto@ibb.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane processing wastes (bagasse and trash) became an important energy source which may be used in the electrical energy co-generation. This work is aimed to determine the trash physical properties, define its energetic value and ideal combination of bagasse + trash to use in conventional boilers. The trash productivity (20 t/ha), green (14.9%) and dry (71.3%) leaves, and remaining material (8.3%) was found one day after the cane crop. The trash moisture content was measured for each component and the final average value was 28.7%. The bagasse showed a 49.81% moisture average content. The higher heating value (HHV) was found for the bagasse (19.27 MJ/kg), trash (17.90 MJ/kg) and bagasse + trash mixtures in different proportions. For the lower heating value (LHV), we observed that the released energy in the trash (12.11 MJ/kg) was higher than the one in the bagasse (8.55 MJ/kg). This result was expected due to the higher bagasse moisture content. From the analysed mixtures, the 50%-50% one had the highest LHV (10.08 MJ/kg), showing that the trash left in the field after the crop may be efficient for the energy production mixed to the bagasse in 50% proportion. (author)

  14. Particle geometry affects differentially substrate composition and enzyme profiles by Pleurotus ostreatus growing on sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membrillo, Isabel; Sánchez, Carmen; Meneses, Marcos; Favela, Ernesto; Loera, Octavio

    2011-01-01

    The growth of Pleurotus ostreatus was analyzed on three particle sizes of sugar cane bagasse: 0.92 mm and 1.68 mm in diameter, in addition to heterogeneous fibers (average 2.9 mm in diameter). Specific growth rate on heterogeneous particles was lower (μ=0.043 h(-1)), although soluble protein production was maximal (809 μg/g dry wt). Higher μ values were reached on the other two particles sizes (0.049-0.05 h(-1)) with less soluble protein (500 μg/g dry wt). Xylanases and laccases were favored in heterogeneous particles; while the highest selectivity for xylanases over cellulases was observed in 1.68 mm particles, corresponding with the maximal hemicellulose breakdown. Lignin and cellulose were preferentially degraded in smallest particles. This study shows that the geometrical ratio, shape and size of sugar cane bagasse fibers strongly influence packing density for SSF substrate, with an impact in the production of extracellular enzymes, growth rates and composition changes in substrate.

  15. Investigating the cooling rate of cane molasses as quenching medium for 0.61% C high carbon steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Dodo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooling rate of cane molasses as quenching medium for 0.61% C high carbon steels was investigated. Samples of high carbon steel were spheroidized annealed and then machined prior to the hardening process. Molasses solution of viscosity equals to that of engine oil was prepared by adding water. The samples were normalized and then austenitised at 800oC and soaked for 40 minutes and then quenched in water, engine oil, raw molasses and the prepared molasses solution. Cooling rate curves of all the quenching media used were developed. The highest cooling rate of 60oC/s was attained by the prepared molasses solution. Hardness of the test samples was evaluated. The test results obtained show that the highest hardness value (525 HVN was obtained from the sample quenched in the prepared molasses solution. Microstructures of the various samples were analyzed using OM and SEM. In all the tests samples martensite structure was observed. It was observed that the prepared molasses solution has higher severity of quenching than that of engine oil but lower than that of water. The research showed that cane molasses can harden high carbon steel without cracking the component in the same way as engine oil, hence, molasses could be a very good alternative to engine oil for use as quenching medium.

  16. Short term responses of nitrogen trace gas emissions to nitrogen fertilization in tropical sugar cane: Variations due to soils and management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, P. A.; Billow, C.; Hall, S.; Zachariassen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization of agricultural systems is thought to be a major source of the increase in atmospheric N2O; NO emissions from soils have also been shown to increase due to N fertilization. While N fertilizer use is increasing rapidly in the developing world and in the tropics, nearly all of our information on gas emissions is derived from studies of temperate zone agriculture. Using chambers, we measured fluxes of N2O and NO following urea fertilization in tropical sugar cane systems growing on a variety of soil types in the Hawaiian Islands, USA. On the island of Maui, where urea is applied in irrigation lines and soils are mollisols and inceptisols, N2O fluxes were elevated for a week or less following fertilization; maximum average fluxes were typically less than 30 ng cm(exp -2)/ h. NO fluxes were often an order of magnitude less than N2O. Together, N2O and NO represented from 0.01 - 0.5% of the applied N. In fields on the island of Hawaii, where urea is broadcast on the surface and soils are andisols, N2O fluxes were similar in magnitude to Maui but remained elevated for much longer periods after fertilization. NO emissions were 2-5 times higher than N2O through most of the sampling periods. Together the gases loss represented approximately 1. 1 - 3% of the applied N. Laboratory studies indicate that denitrification is a critical source of N2O in Maui, but that nitrification is more important in Hawaii. Experimental studies suggest that differences in the pattern of N2O/NO and the processes producing them are a result of both carbon availability and placement of fertilizer, and that the more information-intensive fertilizer management practice results in lower emissions.

  17. Effect of different pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse on cellulase and xylanases production by the mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 grown in submerged culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U · mL(-1)) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β -glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

  18. Effect of Different Pretreatment of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Cellulase and Xylanases Production by the Mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 Grown in Submerged Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Camassola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U·mL−1 was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β-glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

  19. The Application of Two-Point Touch Cane Technique to Theories of Motor Control and Learning Implications for Orientation and Mobility Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, Ronald V.; Jacobson, William H.

    1986-01-01

    Basic behavioral processes involved in motor control based on theories of motor control and learning are outlined using the teaching of two-point touch cane technique as an application of the theories. The authors assert the importance of repetition, practice, and sufficient learning time. (Author/CL)

  20. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  1. Comparative study of residue pellets from cane sugar and palm-oil industries with commercial wood pellets, applied in downdraft gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlich, Catharina

    2009-10-15

    While biomass utilization for energy conversion in the industrialized nations is being largely developed, highly efficient and environmentally friendly, many tropical countries still use biomass at low efficiencies and high emission levels. The main reasons for these gaps are both political and technological: the energy markets are different, the Gross National Product (GDP) differs widely, and the feedstock differs in form and conversion behaviour. By implementing newer technologies adapted for tropical biomass feedstock, there would be a large potential in these countries for increased energy services since access to modern energy still is an essential step for improving the GDP for a country. Two dominant and tropically placed industries available for energy improvements are the cane sugar and palm-oil industries, which both produce an abundant amount of biomass residues. One step towards enhanced utilization of the residues, which would not require large investment costs in the power plant section nor in the processes of these industries, would be to install a pelletizing unit in the industry area to make fuel out of the excess residues for sale to the nearby villages. The pellets could be used both for cooking/heating and for small-scale power generation in a gasification-IC engine plant. The overall objective of this study is to experimentally evaluate the biomass residues in pellet form from the cane sugar and palm oil industries during conversion to useful energy in small-scale systems. The thesis is built upon five publications which include experimental analysis on flaming pyrolysis and rapid heating of pellets (paper I), pyrolysis in oxygen-free atmosphere and slow heating with subsequent steam gasification (paper II), global pelletizing data such as relative energy consumption, temperature levels, particle size and moisture content for successful pelletizing process (paper III), downdraft gasification evaluation including reactor temperature

  2. Effects and feasibility of a standardised orientation and mobility training in using an identification cane for older adults with low vision: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Velde J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orientation and mobility training (O&M-training in using an identification cane, also called symbol cane, is provided to people with low vision to facilitate independent participation in the community. In The Netherlands this training is mainly practice-based because a standardised and validly evaluated O&M-training in using the identification cane is lacking. Recently a standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane was developed. This training consists of two face-to-face sessions and one telephone session during which, in addition to usual care, the client's needs regarding mobility are prioritised, and cognitive restructuring techniques, action planning and contracting are applied to facilitate the use of the cane. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled trial aimed to evaluate this standardised O&M-training in using the identification cane in older adults with low vision. Methods/design A parallel group randomised controlled trial was designed to compare the standardised O&M-training with usual care, i.e. the O&M-training commonly provided by the mobility trainer. Community-dwelling older people who ask for support at a rehabilitation centre for people with visual impairment and who are likely to receive an O&M-training in using the identification cane are included in the trial (N = 190. The primary outcomes of the effect evaluation are ADL self care and visual functioning with respect to distance activities and mobility. Secondary outcomes include quality of life, feelings of anxiety, symptoms of depression, fear of falling, and falls history. Data for the effect evaluation are collected by means of telephone interviews at baseline, and at 5 and 17 weeks after the start of the O&M-training. In addition to an effect evaluation, a process evaluation to study the feasibility of the O&M-training is carried out. Discussion The screening procedure for eligible participants started in November

  3. Energy balances in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation in the northeastern side of the São Paulo state, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Ronquim, Carlos C.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; de C. Victoria, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Under land and climate change scenarios, agriculture has experienced water competitions among other sectors in the São Paulo state, Brazil. On the one hand, in several occasions, in the northeastern side of this state, nowadays sugar-cane is expanding, while coffee plantations are losing space. On the other hand, both crops have replaced the natural vegetation composed by Savannah and Atlantic Coastal Forest species. Under this dynamic situation, geosciences are valuable tools for evaluating the large-scale energy and mass exchanges between these different agro-ecosystems and the lower atmosphere. For quantification of the energy balance components in these mixed agro-ecosystems, the bands 1 and 2 from the MODIS product MOD13Q1 were used throughout SAFER (Surface Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm, which was applied together with a net of 12 automatic weather stations, during the year 2015 in the main sugar cane and coffee growing regions, located at the northeastern side of the state. The fraction of the global solar radiation (RG) transformed into net radiation (Rn) was 52% for sugar cane and 53% for both, coffee and natural vegetation. The respective annual fractions of Rn used as λE were 0.68, 0.87 and 0.77, while for the sensible heat (H) fluxes they were 0.27, 0.07 and 0.16. From April to July, heat advection raised λE values above Rn promoting negative H, however these effects were much and less strong in coffee and sugar cane crops, respectively. The smallest daily Rn fraction for all agro-ecosystems was for the soil heat flux (G), with averages of 5%, 6% and 7% in sugar cane, coffee and natural vegetation. From the energy balance analyses, we could conclude that, sugar-cane crop presented lower annual water consumption than that for coffee crop, what can be seen as an advantage in situations of water scarcity. However, the replacement of natural vegetation by sugar cane can contribute for warming the environment, while when this

  4. Escarificação de um Latossolo Vermelho na pós-colheita de soqueira de cana-de-açúcar Chisel plowing in an Oxisol in post harvest of ratoon cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Paulino

    2004-10-01

    . The following parameters were evaluated: soil bulk density, total porosity, pore size distribution, root system distribution, yield, tiller number, and stalk diameter and length. Chisel plowing in-between the ratoon cane rows altered the soil bulk density and pore size distribution. Soil management down to 0.15 m depth gave rise to longer roots in a depth of 0.25-0.50 m but affected neither the total root area and length for the other studied conditions nor the sugar cane yield.

  5. Residues of sugar cane crop and its effects on the epigeic invertebrate fauna
    Resíduos da cultura da cana-de-açúcar e seus efeitos sobre a fauna invertebrada epigéica

    OpenAIRE

    Júlio César Salton; Alex Ramos Costa; Clovis Daniel Borges; Irzo Isaac Rosa Portilho; Fábio Martins Mercante

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the availability of sugar cane residues on the epigeic invertebrate fauna. The evaluations were made after cane sugar harvest f, considering three levels of residues: 0% (total removal of residues from the soil surface), 50% (removal of half of the waste in the plots, the dry mass of 7.6 Mg ha-1) and 100% (keeping track of residues produced, dry mass of 16.9 Mg ha-1). A fragment of native vegetation in the region, located close to the sugar cane crop...

  6. Phosphorus in chronosequence of burnt sugar cane in Brazilian cerrado: humic acid analysis by {sup 31}P NMR; Fosforo em cronossequencia de cana-de-acucar queimada no cerrado goiano: analise de acidos humicos por RMN de {sup 31}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Celeste Q.; Pereira, Marcos G.; Garcia, Andreas C., E-mail: mgervasiopereira@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Perin, Adriano; Gazolla, Paulo R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano, Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Gonzalez, Antonio P. [Universidade de Coruna, ES (Spain). Faculdad de Ciencias

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify, with the use of {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, organic P species in humic acids (HA) in samples from Oxisol cultivated in chronosequence with sugar cane, pasture and Cerrado. The main forms of P-type found were orthophosphate, monoester-P (phosphate sugars) and P-diester (orthophosphate). The {sup 31}P NMR technique proved capable of identifying changes in the areas studied as a function of sugar cane burning time. In areas with 1 and 5 years of burnt cane, a decrease in recalcitrant organic P in humic acids indicated the need for use of P-humic substances for plant nutrition (author)

  7. Nutritional status of sugar cane (planted cane) in {sup 15}N experiments;Estado nutricional da cultura de cana-de-acucar (cana-planta) em experimentos com {sup 15}N{sup (1)}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faroni, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: cfaroni@ctc.com.b [Centro de Tecnologia Canavieira (CTC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Franco, Henrique Coutinho Junqueira, E-mail: pcotrive@cena.usp.b, E-mail: hjfranco@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Vitti, Andre Cesar, E-mail: acvitti@apta.sp.gov.b [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Centro Sul; Otto, Rafael, E-mail: rotto@esalq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz; Cantarella, Heitor, E-mail: cantarella@iac.sp.gov.b [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (IAC), SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-15

    Studies with stable isotopes are becoming more common due to the increased safety of operation and quality and reliability of results. However, the use of microplots is required to decrease the costs of such studies. Since microplots are small compared to regular plot areas, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether nutritional data based on microplot samples can adequately represent the whole area, in a comparison of the nutritional status of microplot sugar cane plants at their maximum development stage with those of the regular plots in experiments with N rates. Three experiments were set up, with three N rates (40, 80, and 120 kg ha{sup -1} N) and a control, with four repetitions, in a randomized complete block design, in the state of Sao Paulo. Microplots of 3 m{sup 2} containing {sup 15}N-fertilizer (5.04% atom {sup 15}N) were included in the main plots formed by 48 lines of sugar cane spaced 1.5 m apart. At the time of maximum development stage, diagnostic leaves were collected in the main and microplots to evaluate the nutritional status of plants by analyzing the total concentration of macro nutrients. There were no differences in N, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations in the diagnostic leaves from the main and microplots, so that the latter can be considered representative of the experimental area. Higher nitrogen fertilizer rates induced increased concentrations of not only N, but also of P, Ca, Mg, and S in the diagnostic leaves. (author)

  8. Vacuolar targeting of r-proteins in sugarcane leads to higher levels of purifiable commercially equivalent recombinant proteins in cane juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Harunipriya; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Mohan, Chakravarthi; Philip, Anna; Petchiyappan, Anushya; Narayanan, Subramonian

    2016-02-01

    Sugarcane is an ideal candidate for biofarming applications because of its large biomass, rapid growth rate, efficient carbon fixation pathway and a well-developed storage tissue system. Vacuoles occupy a large proportion of the storage parenchyma cells in the sugarcane stem, and the stored products can be harvested as juice by crushing the cane. Hence, for the production of any high-value protein, it could be targeted to the lytic vacuoles so as to extract and purify the protein of interest from the juice. There is no consensus vacuolar-targeting sequence so far to target any heterologous proteins to sugarcane vacuole. Hence, in this study, we identified an N-terminal 78-bp-long putative vacuolar-targeting sequence from the N-terminal domain of unknown function (DUF) in Triticum aestivum 6-SFT (sucrose: fructan 6-fructosyl transferase). In this study, we have generated sugarcane transgenics with gene coding for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with the vacuolar-targeting determinants at the N-terminal driven by a strong constitutive promoter (Port ubi882) and demonstrated the targeting of GFP to the vacuoles. In addition, we have also generated transgenics with His-tagged β-glucuronidase (GUS) and aprotinin targeted to the lytic vacuole, and these two proteins were isolated and purified from the transgenic sugarcane and compared with commercially available protein samples. Our studies have demonstrated that the novel vacuolar-targeting determinant could localize recombinant proteins (r-proteins) to the vacuole in high concentrations and such targeted r-proteins can be purified from the juice with a few simple steps.

  9. Gamma-ray spectrometry sensor and geochemical prospecting in an area of sugar cane plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Antonio Becegato

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the K, U and Th radionuclide concentrations were determined in a sugar cane plantation that received large quantities of fertilizer and gypsum. Geochemical data were obtained for the clay, iron and organic matter in the soil samples, taken from depths of 0-20 and 20-40 cm. The average radionuclide concentrations were 71 Bq Kg-1 for K; 5.97 Bq Kg-1 for U, and 11.26 Bq Kg-1 for Th, and the uranium was variable (56%. The radionuclide average concentrations for the different fertilizer compositions varied in the range of 603.5 - 8855.0 Bq Kg-1 for K; 27.3 - 684.4 Bq Kg-1 for U, and 58 - 788.5 Bq Kg-1 for Th, and it was most variable for K (53%. Gypsum average concentrations were 82.6 Bq Kg-1 for K, 641.5 Bq Kg-1 for U, and 201.7 Bq Kg-1 for Th, and it was most variable for K (46%. Average organic matter, clay and iron concentrations for both the depths were 0.71 and 0.68 %; 16.2 and 16.9 %, and 29.0 and 26.8 mg/l respectively.Determinou-se as concentrações dos radionuclídeos K, U e Th em área cultivada com cana-de-açúcar que recebe quantidades expressivas de adubos e gesso. Os radionuclídeos apresentaram teores médios de 71 Bq Kg-1 de K, 5,97 Bq Kg-1 de U e 11,26 Bq Kg-1 de Th, sendo a maior variabilidade detectada para o urânio (56%. Os teores médios dos radionuclídeos para as diferentes formulações dos adubos encontram-se na faixa de 603,5 - 8855 Bq Kg-1 de K, 27,3 - 684,4 Bq Kg-1 de U e 58 - 788,5 Bq Kg-1 de Th, com maior variação para o K (53%. O gesso apresentou valores médios 82,6 Bq Kg-1 de K, 641,5 Bq Kg-1 de U e 201,7 Bq Kg-1 de Th, cuja maior variabilidade também foi para o K (46%. Os teores médios da matéria orgânica, argila e ferro para as duas profundidades foram respectivamente de: 0,71 e 0,68 %; 16,2 e 16,9 %; 29,0 e 26,8 mg/l.

  10. Fed-batch alcoholic fermentation of sugar cane blackstrap molasses: Influence of the feeding rate on yeast yield and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, J.C.M. de; Aquarone, E.; Sato, S.; Brazzach, M.L.; Moraes, D.A. (Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil)); Borzani, W. (Centro de Desenvolvimento Biotecnologico, Joinville, SC (Brazil))

    1993-02-01

    Fed-batch ethanol fermentation tests of sugar cane blackstrap molasses were carried out at 32deg C and pH 4.5-5.0, using pressed yeast as inoculum, and with no air supply. Two values of the fermentor filling-up time were adopted: 5 h and 7 h. The feeding rates obeyed equation F=F[sub 0].e[sup K.t], with K equal to 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 h[sup -1]. The average yeast yields and the average yeast productivities increased up to 33% and 45%, respectively, while the ethanol yield (average=76%; standard deviation=4%) was practically unaffected when K increased from 0 to 0.8 h[sup -1]. (orig.).

  11. Bioinspired Electronic White Cane Implementation Based on a LIDAR, a Tri-Axial Accelerometer and a Tactile Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the creation of a bioinspired electronic white cane for blind people using the whiskers principle for short-range navigation and exploration. Whiskers are coarse hairs of an animal's face that tells the animal that it has touched something using the nerves of the skin. In this work the raw data acquired from a low-size terrestrial LIDAR and a tri-axial accelerometer is converted into tactile information using several electromagnetic devices configured as a tactile belt. The LIDAR and the accelerometer are attached to the user’s forearm and connected with a wire to the control unit placed on the belt. Early validation experiments carried out in the laboratory are promising in terms of usability and description of the environment.

  12. Chemical torrefaction as an alternative to established thermal technology for stabilisation of sugar cane bagasse as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2016-10-11

    Dry and chemical torrefaction of sugar cane bagasse was examined in this study with the aim of stabilising and upgrading the fuel properties of bagasse. Dry torrefaction was conducted at temperatures from 160°C to 300°C under inert conditions, whilst chemical torrefaction incorporated a H2SO4 pre-treatment of bagasse. Chemical torrefaction imparted superior chemical and physical properties inducing morphological transformation and textural development with the potential to address issues in handling, feeding and processing bagasse. It increased the energy density of the chars with maximum HHVmass 21.5 MJ/kg and maximum HHVvolume of 7.4 GJ/m(3). Chemically torrefied bagasse demonstrated resistance against microbiological attack for 18 months. These features demonstrate the practical value of chemical torrefaction in advancing the utilisation of bagasse as fuel.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  14. Use of sugar cane molasses and vinasse for proteic and lipidic biomass production by yeast and bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Luciana Cazetta

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the lipid and protein growth and synthesis capacity by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotoruda mucilaginosa, Candida lipolytica, a yeast isolated from vinasse lakes and Corynebacterium glutamicum in 10% molasses and sugar cane crude vinasse. All microorganisms grew both in molasses and vinasse. The highest growth in crude vinasse was performed by R. mucilaginosa (7.05 g/L, and in 10% molasses, by C. lipolytica, yielding 6,09 g/L. In vinasse, the highest protein content in the biomass was produced by S. cerevisiae (50.35% and in 10% molasses, by C. glutamicum (46,16%. C. lipolytica and R. mucilaginosa showed the best lipid production, above 20% and 18%, respectively, both in vinasse and in molasses.

  15. Variation of the ethanol yield during very rapid batch fermentation of sugar-cane black strap molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzani, W.; Jurkiewicz, C.H. [Instituto Maua de Tecnologia, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)

    1998-09-01

    During rapid ethanol fermentation (2-3 h) of sugar-cane black strap molasses, a significant increase in the ethanol yield was frequently observed as fermentation proceeded, eventually leading to yields higher than the theoretical value when the end of the process was approached. In order to explain the above facts, three assumptions were examined: temporary ethanol accumulation within the yeast cells; variation of the dry matter content and/or of the microorganism density during the fermentation; transformation of sugars into undetectable extra-cellular fermentable compounds at the initial stages of the process. Based on on the experimental results presented here, the third of the above assumptions seems to explain the observed increase in the ethanol yield. (author) 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of 14 Phenolic Compounds in Grape Canes by HPLC-DAD-UV Using Wavelength Switching Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper described a novel chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds such as gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric and salicylic acid, (+-catechin, (‒-epicatechin, rutin, morin, quercetin, coumarin and trans-resveratrol at their maximum absorbance wavelengths (MAW employing reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography combined with DAD and UV detection via detection wavelength switching. The method was based on MAW acquisition by DAD and quantification by UV. The separation process was performed on a Shim-Pack VP-ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm held at 30 °C, utilizing 3.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min in the gradient elution mode. The method was fully validated in terms of linearity (r2 > 0.9990, 10‒350 mg/L, precision (both intra-day and inter-day RSD < 4.22%, accuracy (97.31%‒104.66%, specificity, robustness (0.59% < RSD < 2.86%, limit of detection and quantification. The switching method significantly improved the sensitivities of most phenolics studied in comparison with the standard constant wavelength detection (280 nm. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of 14 phenolic compounds in 89 varieties of one-year-old Chinese grape one-year-canes. Grape canes contain many phenolics, especially trans-resveratrol, (‒-epicatechin, and (+-catechin.

  17. Seasonal dynamics of the lungworm, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala, in recently colonised cane toad (Rhinella marina) populations in tropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Kelehear, Crystal; Shine, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The impact of parasites on host populations depend upon parasite prevalence and intensity. Understanding how infection dynamics change through time following a host population's initial exposure to the parasite is fundamental to host-parasite biology. We studied an invasive host (the cane toad, Rhinella marina) currently undergoing range expansion - a process through which this host's range is expanding faster than that of its lung parasites (the nematode, Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala), such that hosts at the expanding range edge remain parasite-free for several years. It was predicted that parasite intensity and prevalence would be affected by host characteristics (e.g., size, sex), environmental conditions (e.g., seasons, habitat type), and time since parasite arrival in the newly established invading host population. Over 2,400 cane toads were sampled at 10 sites in recently established toad populations in the highly seasonal monsoonal tropics of northern Australia. The sampling spanned 14 consecutive 3 month seasons commencing in the early stages of lungworm establishment in those toad populations. Both parasite prevalence and intensity increased with host body size but were unaffected by host sex. Prevalence and intensity were highest during drier times of year and in drier habitats (i.e., sites lacking permanent waterbodies). These changes in parasite prevalence may reflect a trend for saturated soil to reduce parasite survival during the free-living infective stage, and to allow anuran hosts to disperse widely (thus reducing the transfer of directly transmitted parasites between hosts). Conversely, dry conditions induce toads to aggregate in moist dry-season refugia where conditions may be more conducive to direct transmission of infective parasitic larvae between hosts.

  18. Structural evaluation of sugar cane bagasse steam pretreated in the presence of CO2 and SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales Roberta Cristina Novaes Reis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on the use of SO2 and CO2 as impregnating agent for sugar cane bagasse steam treatment showed comparative and promising results concerning the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis and the low formation of the inhibitors furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural for the use of CO2 at 205°C/15 min or SO2 at 190°C/5 min. In the present study sugar cane bagasse materials pretreated as aforementioned were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy aiming a better understanding of the structural and chemical changes undergone by the pretreated materials. Results SEM and TEM data showed that the structural modifications undergone by the pretreatment with CO2 were less pronounced in comparison to that using SO2, which can be directly related to the combined severity of each pretreatment. According to XRD data, untreated bagasse showed, as expected, a lower crystallinity index (CI = 48.0% when compared to pretreated samples with SO2 (CI = 65.5% or CO2 (CI = 56.4%, due to the hemicellulose removal of 68.3% and 40.5%, respectively. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results, revealing a more extensive action of SO2. Conclusions The SEM, TEM, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy techniques used in this work contributed to structural and chemical analysis of the untreated and pretreated bagasse. The images from SEM and TEM can be related to the severity of SO2 pretreatment, which is almost twice higher. The crystallinity index values obtained from XRD showed that pretreated materials have higher values when compared with untreated material, due to the partial removal of hemicellulose after pretreatment. FTIR spectroscopy supported SEM, TEM and XRD results. CO2 can actually be used as impregnating agent for steam pretreatment, although the present study confirmed a more extensive action of SO2.

  19. Study of potentials bio energy, aeolian, miniature hydraulic and solar in Mexico (Annexe 9 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Estudio de los potenciales bioenergetico, eolico, minihidraulico y solar en Mexico (Anexo 9 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana Flores, Ricardo; Miranda Miranda, Ubaldo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    In this report we can observe maps and studies made about the evaluation of the bio energy potential of co-generation of electricity in the sugar industry and the sweepings, of the wind power potential in Latin America, the Caribbean and the Mexican Republic, of the miniature hydraulic potential and the hydro energy resources whereupon it counts country and, of the solar potential in which the OLADE presents/displays for Mexico the monthly maps of solar radiation maximum direct total and in Wm{sup 2}. [Spanish] En este reporte podemos observar mapas y estudios realizados acerca de la evaluacion del potencial bioenergetico de cogeneracion de electricidad en la industria azucarera y la basura, del potencial eoloenergetico en America Latina, el Caribe y la Republica Mexicana, del potencial minihidraulico y los recursos hidroenergeticos con que cuenta el pais y, del potencial solar en el cual la OLADE presenta para Mexico los mapas mensuales de radiacion solar maxima total y directa en W/m{sup 2}.

  20. The role of sugar cane straw on soil reaction O papel da palha da cana de açúcar na reação do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Antunes Fioretto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of sugar cane straw on soil acidity. Sugar cane straw residues were added on the surface of a Typic Harplortox in a polyvinyl chlorid (PVC column at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 76 g kg-1, the soil was incubated to field capacity with distilled water and incubated for 0, 7, 14, 45, and 90 days. Soil samples were taken at 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, and 20-25 cm depth. With the increase of sugar cane straw rates one verified the increase of soil pH CaCl2, and decrease of KCl exchangeable Al in the top 15cm soil layer. The contribution of organic compounds to Al detoxification incresead with increasing sugar cane straw rates. Wheat root elongation used as acid indicator plant increased with increasing sugar cane straw rates. Maximum root growth was about 15cm long in the soil after eight days for the highest sugar cane straw rate.Conduziram-se dois experimentos em laboratório avaliar o efeito da palha da cana- de-açúcar na acidez do solo. A palha da cana foi adicionada nas doses de 0, 20, 40, e 76 g kg-1 na superfície de um latossolo roxo distrófico acondicionado em colunas de PVC. O solo foi incubado a capacidade de campo durante 0, 7, 14, 45, e 90 dias. Após cada incubação, o solo das colunas foram subdividido e amostrado nas seguintes frações 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, e 20-25 cm. Com o aumento da dose da palha da cana verificou-se aumento do pH CaCl2 do solo e decréscimo do alumínio trocável até a camada de 15 cm de solo da coluna de PVC. A contribuição de compostos orgânicos para a destoxificação do Al aumentou com o acréscimo das doses da palha da cana. O crescimento da raiz das plantas trigo usadas como planta indicadora aumentou com o acréscimo das doses da palha de cana. O máximo de crescimento da raiz foi até a camada de 15 cm de solo depois de oito dias para a maior dose de palha da cana-de-açúcar.

  1. Viability analysis of electric energy cogeneration in combined cycle with sugar-cane biomass gasification and natural gas; Analise de viabilidade da cogeracao de energia eletrica em ciclo combinado com gaseificacao de biomassa de cana-de-acucar e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Neto, Vicente

    2001-03-15

    The objective of this thesis is evaluate the technical and economic viability of electric energy generation projects using as fuel the biomass produced in the sugar cane Brazilian industry, specifically the cane trash, the straw and the leaves of the plant, as complemental option to the expansion of the Brazilian electric system, hour in phase of deep modification in the institutional scenery, through the sale of electric energy for direct consumers or utilities, characterizing the business possibilities for the ethanol distilleries already integrated into the energy reality of the country. The analyzed technology is thermoelectric generation with combined cycle, operating in cogeneration, integrated to biomass gasification systems for the production of combustible gas, with and without addition of natural gas. The considered technology is known by the acronym BIG/GTCC, originated in Biomass Integrate Gasification Combined Cycle Gas Turbine. The economic analysis is made herself through a modeling and construction of economy project curves based on the prices of the electric energy, of the natural gas and in the costs of the retired biomass in an mechanized way.(author)

  2. Chemical attributes, total organic carbon stock and humified fractions of organic matter soil submitted to different systems of sugarcane management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanized harvesting maintenance of trash from cane sugar and soil application of waste as vinasse and filter cake can improve the system of crop yield. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the changes in the chemical, the stock of total organic carbon and humified organic matter fractions in an Oxisol cultivated with cane sugar with the following management systems: with sugarcane vinasse application (CCV, without application of burnt cane waste (CQS, with burnt cane vinasse application (CQV, with application of burnt cane filter cake (CQTF and burnt cane with joint application of vinasse and filter cake (CQVTF. For reference we used an area of natural vegetation (NV, Cerrado sensu stricto. Treatment CQVTF showed improvement in soil chemical properties, increased inventory levels of total organic carbon – TOC (values ranging from 21.28 to 40.02 Mg ha-1 and humified fractions of soil organic matter in relation to other treatments. The CQS area at a depth of 0-0.05 m, showed the greatest losses of soil TOC stocks (56.3% compared to NV. The adoption of management presented CCV and chemical attributes of the soil TOC stocks equivalent to those observed in areas with CQV CQTF and despite the short period of adoption (3 years. The TOC correlated with the sum of bases (r = 0.76 **, cation exchange capacity (r = 0.59 ** and base saturation (r = 0.63 **, while the humic acids (r = 0.40 ** fulvic acids (r = 0.49 ** and humin (r = 0.59 ** correlated with the cation exchange capacity of the soil. These results indicate that the preservation of trash in the management of cane sugar added to the application of vinasse and filter cake increases the TOC stocks promoting improvement in soil chemical properties.

  3. Effect of modified cane molasses on the properties of portland cement%甘蔗糖蜜改性及对硅酸盐水泥性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟峰; 张胜标; 程云川; 马素花; 沈晓冬

    2013-01-01

    Modified cane molasses was prepared with waste cane molasses from sugar refinery, and the performance as grinding aids of modified cane molasses was studied. The influence of modified cane molasses on the physical properties of cement was also investigated. The research results show that modified cane molasses had good performance as grinding aids of cement, it can obviously reduce 45 μm sieve residue. The setting time of samples with modified of cane molasses was slightly prolonged, and the compressive strength at each age was increased significantly,especially the age of 28 d,can increase 5.3 MPa. The cement paste fluidity was also increased compared to the reference sample.%以糖厂副产物甘蔗糖蜜为原料制备改性糖蜜,研究了其助磨性能及对水泥物理性能的影响.研究结果表明:改性糖蜜对水泥具有较好的助磨性能,显著降低45μm筛筛余量;改性糖蜜使水泥的凝结时间略有延长,可显著提高各龄期的抗压强度,28 d抗压强度最多提高5.3 MPa;水泥净浆流动度也较空白样增大.

  4. Panorama estrutural, dinâmica de crescimento e estratégias tecnológicas da agroindústria canavieira paranaense Structural panorama, growth dynamics and technological strategies in Paraná's sugar cane agro-industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pery Francisco Assis Shikida

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to verify the structural panorama, the dynamics of growth and the technological strategies used in sugar cane agro-industry in the State of Parana. It was implemented the shift-share model, to quantify the sources of agricultural production growth from 1981 to 1998. Besides sugar cane, was also analyzed the following cultures: cotton, coffee, soy and corn. It was made a questionnaire to get information from Paraná's sugar cane factories and distilleries, about the harvest of 1997/1998. It can be inferred that this agro-industry left the condition of a small importance to assume a national prominence position. In Parana, the sugar cane was the one that had the greater growth of production, which was achieved by the increase of the cultivated area. It was motivated by its high productivity and the influence of PROÁLCOOL. The sample of the searched units showed the good use of the sugar cane by-products and the use of agricultural and mechanical advanced technologies. This has been reflected in high agricultural and industrial productivity, corroborating the technological development which has passed the sugar cane agro-industry of Paraná.

  5. Technical and economic performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, A.J.; Bridgwater, A.V. [Aston Univ. (United Kingdom). Energy Research Group; Mitchell, C.P.; Watters, M.P. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Wood Supply Research Group; Stevens, D.J. [Cascade Research, Inc. (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A comprehensive study of biomass production, conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bioenergy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Spreadsheet models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process and these have been compiled into an overall BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). The model has also been used to investigate both the performance of different technologies and the effect of different configurations of the same basic system by manipulating the interfaces between feed production, feed conversion and electricity generation. Some of the results of these analyses are presented here. (orig.)

  6. Study of the inhibitory phenomena during the anaerobic digestion of sugar cane mill mud waste; Estudio del fenomeno de inhibicion durante la digestion anaerobia de cachaza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, M.; Sanchez, E.; Montalvo, S.; Escobedo, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas . Ciudad de la Habana. Cuba (Cuba); Garcia-Morales, J. L. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Sugar cane mill mud waste is one of the effluents obtained during the process of sugar production, specifically, in the stage of clarification and filtration of the cane's juice. This effluent can be treated anaerobically in order to reduce its contamination and use the biogas like a resource. This work shows the study of the inhibition originated along the anaerobic digestion of sugar mill mud waste and evaluates the influence of waste pre-treatment on this process. Th inhibitory effect was verified and quantified. The quantification was carried out applying the Levenspiel model, using the evolution of the constant kinetic of the apparent rate (K{sub {omicron}}). Author 5 refs.

  7. Las sepulturas de la cueva de Los Canes (Asturias y la neolitización de la región cantábrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias Cabal, Pablo

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prehistoric burials (classified in an Early Neolithic narrowly related with local Late Mesolithic from Cueva de Los Canes (Asturias, Spain are described. Their relevance for the study of the processes of neolithization in the northern coastal region of Spain is also discussed.

    Se describen los enterramientos prehistóricos de la cueva de Los Canes (Asturias, correspondientes a una facies del Neolítico inicial de la región cantábrica estrechamente relacionada con el Epipaleolítico tardío local. Así mismo se valora su relevancia para el estudio de la neolitización de dicha zona de la Península Ibérica.

  8. Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reductions in additional costs for inventory management; 50% of the resources used for loading the containers; and an 11.4% increment in the efficiency of operations. In addition, the new planning strategy was also evaluated with either a positive or negative variation of the demand. It should be underscored that the improved scenarios (out of those simulated do not involve investments in facilities or in machinery purchasing.  

  9. Technical paradigm and power cogeneration with bagasse from sugar cane in Goias, Brazil; Paradigma tecnico e cogeracao de energia com bagaco de cana-de-acucar em Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Josias Manoel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Coord. de Saneamento Ambiental

    2006-07-01

    The article shows, through technical elements, the experience of producing electrical energy, generated in some sugar industrial plants of Goias state, by burning sugar cane husks in boilers. This production has supplied the state concessionaires, but the supply has declined in the past years, due to several issues, of economic, technical and political order. Despite of this, government has done some effort in reactivating the supply, by modifying the energy politics. (author)

  10. Wastewater use in agriculture: irrigation of sugar cane with effluents from the Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant in Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Silva, J; Mara, D D; Torres, P

    2009-09-01

    In Valle del Cauca, south-west Colombia, surface and ground waters are used for sugar cane irrigation at a rate of 100 m3 of water per tonne of sugar produced. In addition large quantities of artificial fertilizers and pesticides are used to grow the crop. Preliminary experiments were undertaken to determine the feasibility of using effluents from the Cañaveralejo primary wastewater treatment plant in Cali. Sugar cane variety CC 8592 was planted in 18 box plots, each 0.5 m2. Six were irrigated with conventional primary effluent, six with chemically enhanced primary effluent and six with groundwater. For each set of six box plots, three contained local soil and three a 50:50 mixture of sand and rice husks. The three irrigation waters were monitored for 12 months, and immediately after harvest the sugar content of the sugar cane juice determined. All physico-chemical quality parameters for the three irrigation waters were lower than the FAO guideline values for irrigation water quality; on the basis of their sodium absorption ratios and electrical conductivity values, both wastewater effluents were in the USDA low-to-medium risk category C2S1. There was no difference in the sugar content of the cane juice irrigated with the three waters. However, the microbiological quality (E. coli and helminth numbers) of the two effluents did not meet the WHO guidelines and therefore additional human exposure control measures are required in order to minimize any resulting adverse health risks to those working in the wastewater-irrigated fields.

  11. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  12. An approach to the utilisation of CO2 as impregnating agent in steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke Ana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conditions for steam pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse and leaves were studied using CO2 as an impregnating agent. The following conditions were investigated: time (5 to 15 min and temperature (190 to 220°C. The pretreatment was assessed in terms of glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis and inhibitor formation (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural in the pretreatment. Results from pretreatment using SO2 as impregnating agent was used as reference. Results For sugar cane bagasse, the highest glucose yield (86.6% of theoretical was obtained after pretreatment at 205°C for 15 min. For sugar cane leaves the highest glucose yield (97.2% of theoretical was obtained after pretreatment at 220°C for 5 min. The reference pretreatment, using impregnation with SO2 and performed at 190°C for 5 min, resulted in an overall glucose yield of 79.7% and 91.9% for bagasse and leaves, respectively. Conclusions Comparable pretreatment performance was obtained with CO2 as compared to when SO2 is used, although higher temperature and pressure were needed. The results are encouraging as some characteristics of CO2 are very attractive, such as high availability, low cost, low toxicity, low corrosivity and low occupational risk.

  13. Giant cane (Arundo donax L.) can substitute traditional energy crops in producing energy by anaerobic digestion, reducing surface area and costs: A full-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Luca; Lonati, Samuele; Riva, Carlo; Pilu, Roberto; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Arundo donax L. (Giant cane) was used in a full-scale anaerobic digester (AD) plant (power of 380kWhEE) in partial substitution for corn to produce biogas and electricity. Corn substitution was made on a biomethane potential (BMP) basis so that A. donax L. after substitution accounted for 15.6% of the total mix-BMP (BMPmix) and corn for 66.6% BMPmix. Results obtained indicated that Giant cane was able to substitute for corn, reducing both biomass and electricity production costs, because of both higher biomass productivity (Mg total solid Ha(-1)) and lower biomass cost (€Ha(-1)). Total electricity biogas costs were reduced by 5.5%. The total biomass cost, the total surface area needed to produce the energy crop and the total cost of producing electricity can be reduced by 75.5%, 36.6% and 22%, by substituting corn completely with Giant cane in the mix fed to the full-scale plant.

  14. Thermoelectric power plant selection using natural gas and sugar cane bagasse; Selecao de centrais termoeletricas utilizando gas natural e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Caio de Paula [UNIFei - Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cleite@edu.fei.br; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br

    2003-07-01

    The electric power consumption in Brazil is growing about 4.2% a year, according to ELETROBRAS Decenal Plan in 1999. The capacity of installed electrical power is approximately 50000 MW, of the which 75% are in the Southern, South eastern and Middle western regions of the country. The growth rate indicates the need of an increase of the installed capacity of 2100 MW a year to avoid the risk of the lack of energy. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential sources of the region are practically exhausted and the government budget is low for this kind of investment. Therefore the solution would be the construction of new thermoelectric plants, with the possibility using natural gas and cane bagasse. The present work consists of the evaluation of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced for the thermo electrical plants selection. Thermo economic analysis was made evaluating the production costs of steam and electricity in exergetic basis. The results show that the power cycles and cogeneration plants that use natural gas and cane bagasse are much more economical than the ones that just use natural gas, with 48% reduction of steam cost, 40% reduction of electricity cost generated b the steam turbine in the power cycle and 37% reduction of electricity cost generated by the steam turbine in the cogeneration plant, for cane bagasse price at 4 US$ /t and natural gas price at 140 US$/t. (author)

  15. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2{sup 3} experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio [Centro de Analisis de Procesos, Facultad de Quimica-Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Castro, Eulogio [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Felissia, Fernando [Programa de Celulosa y Papel, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Misiones (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2{sup 3} full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and {beta}-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work. (author)

  16. Cane Sugar Industrial Heritage in Pearl River Delta%珠江三角洲的甘蔗制糖工业遗产

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晖; 龙晓

    2016-01-01

    This article sorts out the modern development of cane sugar industry in Guangdong Province, and summarizes the location characteristics of modern cane sugar factory in the Pearl River Delta, compared the typical sugar factory layout and expansion process. This paper analyzes the existing composition and utilization of cane sugar factory industrial heritage in Pearl River Delta, and evaluates the value of heritage and conservation status.%文章梳理了近现代甘蔗制糖业在广东省的发展兴衰过程,总结了珠江三角洲近现代甘蔗机制糖厂的选址特点、比较了典型糖厂平面布局、扩建过程等,对珠江三角洲现存的机制糖厂工业遗产的组成、利用现状进行讨论,并对其遗产价值和保存状况进行评价。

  17. Efecto de la aplicación de la vacuna antirrábica en canes vacunados durante la campaña de vacunación antirrábica masiva en Lima, Perú en 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se determinó la respuesta inmune posterior a las campañas de vacunación antirrábica masiva realizadas en 19 distritos de la ciudad de Lima. El método utilizado fue la titulación de anticuerpos antirrábicos mediante la prueba de seroneutralización en ratón, técnica que fue aplicado a un muestreo significativo de sueros sanguíneos de la población de canes vacunados. Se tomaron al azar 54 muestras de canes mordedores que ingresaron al Centro Antirrábico de Lima para ser observados clínicamente por un periodo de 10 días. De las 54 muestras de suero que se sometieron a la prueba, 28 (52% fueron positivos (títulos de 0,5-8,39 UI/ml, mientras que las 26 (48% muestras restantes dieron títulos inferiores a 0,5 UI/ml y otros fueron negativos a la prueba. El grupo etáreo de mayor muestreo correspondió a la población de canes de más riesgo (1-3 años de edad. En este grupo etáreo, 14 canes (26% presentaron sueros con títulos de protección, mientras que en 18 canes (33% la prueba fue negativa. En lo referente al sexo, el grupo de canes machos (considerados de mayor riesgo presentaron mayor número de individuos (44 canes respecto al grupo de hembras (10 canes y solo en 24 canes machos (45% dieron títulos de protección antirrábica. En conclusión, podemos decir que el 52% de canes vacunados durante las anteriores campañas de vacunación antirrábica masiva en la ciudad de Lima, en 1993, tuvieron títulos de anticuerpos protectores contra el virus de la rabia.

  18. The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in protein molecules in living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism and properties of bio-photon emission and absorption in bio-tissues were studied using Pang's theory of bio-energy transport, in which the energy spectra of protein molecules are obtained from the discrete dynamic equation. From the energy spectra, it was determined that the protein molecules could both radiate and absorb bio-photons with wavelengths of collagen, bovine serum albumin, the protein-like molecule acetanilide, plasma, and a person's finger, and the laser-Raman spectra of acidity I-type collagen in the lungs of a mouse, and metabolically active Escherichia coli. We further elucidated the mechanism responsible for the non-thermal biological effects produced by the infrared light absorbed by the bio-tissues, using the above results. No temperature rise was observed; instead, the absorbed infrared light promoted the vibrations of amides as well the transport of the bio-energy from one place to other in the protein molecules, which changed their conformations. These experimental results, therefore, not only confirmed the validity of the mechanism of bio-photon emission, and the newly developed theory of bio-energy transport mentioned above, but also explained the mechanism and properties of the non-thermal biological effects produced by the absorption of infrared light by the living systems.

  19. A diagnosis of sub-surface water table dynamics in low hydraulic conductivity soils in the sugar cane fields of Pongola, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malota, Mphatso; Senzanje, Aidan

    2016-04-01

    Water and land are the two natural resources restraining crop production in South Africa. With the increasing demand for food, emphasis has shifted from the sole reliance on rain fed crop production, to irrigation. The deterioration in irrigation water quality from surface water sources is, however, posing a big challenge to the sustainability of irrigated crop production. This is because more water is required for leaching, resulting in shallow water tables in agricultural lands. The installation of well designed subsurface drainage systems alone is not enough; the provision of timely maintenance is also necessary. In this study, the extent and severity of problems as a consequence of shallow water tables and their possible causes were investigated at three sugarcane fields in Pongola, South Africa, having low hydraulic conductivity soils. Also investigated were soil salinity levels and the temporal variation in the salinity of the irrigation water. A water table map of a 32 ha sugarcane field was generated, using observed water table depth (WTD) data from 36 piezometers monitored from September 2011 to February 2012. Out of the total 32 ha under cultivation, 12% was found to be affected by shallow WTDs of less than the 1.0 m design WTD. The inability of natural drainage to cope with subsurface drainage needs and the poor maintenance of subsurface drainage systems contributed to the shallow water tables in the area. Furthermore, the currently adopted drainage design criteria also proved unsatisfactory with mean observed water table depth and drainage discharge (DD) of 20% and 50%, respectively, less than their respective design levels. The salinity of the irrigation water was, on average, 32% higher than threshold tolerance level of sugarcane. The root zone soil salinity levels at the three study sites were greater than the 1.7 dS m-1 threshold for sugar cane. The subsurface drainage design criteria adopted at the site needs to be revisited by ensuring that the

  20. Qualidade operacional do plantio de cana-de-açúcar Operational quality of sugar cane planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ferraz Barros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O bom preparo e a correção do solo associados à boa qualidade no plantio são necessários para proporcionar o desenvolvimento adequado da cultura da cana-de-açúcar e garantir a longevidade das soqueiras. A importância das operações para o desenvolvimento na cultura e os custos associados a essas operações foram os fatores que determinaram o desenvolvimento deste trabalho cujo objetivo é o de identificar os fatores críticos e analisar o processo de melhoria contínua no plantio da cana-de-açúcar. Para tanto, o trabalho foi dividido em três etapas: definição dos itens críticos; avaliação dos itens e propostas de melhorias; início e avaliação das melhorias. Para a definição dos itens críticos aplicou-se o método FMEA e a avaliação foi realizada por meio de histogramas e carta de controle. No início das melhorias, utilizaram-se os princípios do ciclo PDCA. Obtiveram-se dezesseis itens críticos (potenciais de falha e desses, dois foram avaliados. Com as melhorias, observou-se aumento dos valores dentro dos limites desejados, porém os itens analisados foram considerados como instáveis.The association of a good soil correction and tillage, to the good quality on planting provides the proper development for sugar cane crop and guarantees the ratoon longevity. Cost and importance of these operations for the crop development determined the execution of this work, which is to identify the critical factors and to analyze the process of successive improvement on sugar cane planting. For that the work was divided in three steps: the definition of critical items; the evaluation of these items and purposes of improvement; establishment and evaluation of these improvements. FMEA method was applied for the definition of critical items and the evaluation was conducted by histograms and a control chart. Principles of PDCA circle were used for the establishment of these improvements. There were sixteen items (potentials of failures

  1. 甘蔗品种与原料蔗生产系统优化技术%Systematic Technique of Sugar and Cane Yields Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈优强

    2015-01-01

    The potential of the varieties currently grew locally is maximally utilized through the systematic technique to unearth the capacities of the resources such as elite varieties, climate, soils, etc. The current concept of sugarcane variety improvement should be changed. The method of sugarcane variety and sugarcane production improvement should be optimized under strengthening sugarcane production management. The key issues of sugarcane variety improvement would be solved, and sugar yields for all of cane lands would be maximized on the sugar mill crushing season .It can maximally unearth the potential of the varieties currently grew locally, and maximize both cane and sugar yields. A systematic technique to improve cane and sugar yields was applied in sugar mills in Yunnan province and an increase of 8%~36% in sugar yield per ton cane was obtained. After 4~5 years of application, total cane yields doubled while growing the same varieties as the ones grew before.%采用系统科学方法充分消化利用甘蔗品种、气候、土壤、糖厂规模等资源;在品种与原料蔗生产改良过程中,更新甘蔗品种改良技术理念,通过优化甘蔗品种与原料蔗生产改良路径,强化原料蔗生产管理,解决传统品种改良方法无法解决的核心问题──“高糖高榨”,实现糖厂产糖率和总产蔗量不断提高。云南3间糖厂自实施之年起,每年吨蔗产糖量增幅达8%~36%,甘蔗品种改良4~5年后实现产蔗量翻番,蔗区甘蔗品种仍是原有的生产品种。

  2. Developments in international bio-energy markets and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable and sustainable supply of biomass is vital to any market activity aimed at bioenergy production. Given the high expectations for bioenergy on a global scale and of many nations, the pressure on available biomass resources is increasing rapidly. Due to high prices for fossil fuels (especia

  3. HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus interacts specifically with maize ferredoxin-5 in vitro and in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Qin; Liu, Zhong-Mei; Xu, Jian; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Meng; Chen, Yu-Ting; Li, Huai-Fang; Fan, Zai-Feng

    2008-08-01

    Symptom development of a plant viral disease is a result of molecular interactions between the virus and its host plant; thus, the elucidation of specific interactions is a prerequisite to reveal the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. Here, we show that the chloroplast precursor of ferredoxin-5 (Fd V) from maize (Zea mays) interacts with the multifunctional HC-Pro protein of sugar cane mosaic virus (SCMV) in yeast, Nicotiana benthamiana cells and maize protoplasts. Our results demonstrate that the transit peptide rather than the mature protein of Fd V precursor could interact with both N-terminal (residues 1-100) and C-terminal (residues 301-460) fragments, but not the middle part (residues 101-300), of HC-Pro. In addition, SCMV HC-Pro interacted only with Fd V, and not with the other two photosynthetic ferredoxin isoproteins (Fd I and Fd II) from maize plants. SCMV infection significantly downregulated the level of Fd V mRNA in maize plants; however, no obvious changes were observed in levels of Fd I and Fd II mRNA. These results suggest that SCMV HC-Pro interacts specifically with maize Fd V and that this interaction may disturb the post-translational import of Fd V into maize bundle-sheath cell chloroplasts, which could lead to the perturbation of chloroplast structure and function.

  4. Correlation between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows fed diets containing sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the correlations between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows. The cows had an average of 100 days of lactation and a production were arranged in two 4 x 4 Latin squares conpound of the four periods, four diets and four animals. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous with roughage: concentrate ratio of approximately 55:45. As forage, were evaluate four silages sugar cane: without additive (control, with 1% urea, with 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO and with 1% CaO. The experimental period lasted 60 days divided into four periods of 15 days. Feeding behavior was assessed on the 13 day of each experimental period, for 24 hours, every five minutes. From the data 24 behavioral variables were determined, which were correlated with the data of production and milk composition. The behavioral variable eating and ruminating, DM intake in grams/day, rumination efficiencies in grams of DM and neutral detergent fiber were positively correlated (P<0.05 with milk production in kg/day and the production corrected for 4% fat. However, there was a negative correlation between feeding time and the milk fat percentage. Despite the low values of the correlations can be inferred from the results, the data can be used to develop models to predictyield and composition of milk from the feeding behavior variables.

  5. Effect of Sugar Cane Extract, Commercial Probiotic and their Mixture on Growth Performance and Intestinal Histology in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oraya Khambualai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As the intestinal function is intimately affected by fed diets, many kinds of natural substances and probiotics have been supplemented to broilers to raise poultry productivity due to activating intestinal function. Besides, the intestinal histology is clearly altered by intestinal functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Sugar Cane Extract (SCE and commercial probiotic (SPB, either alone or in combination, could improve growth performance and how intestinal histological alterations would be observed in these birds. Approach: A total of 64, 7-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups, consisting of 4 replicates of 4 birds each. Commercial mash starter and finisher diets were supplemented with 0.05% SCE, 0.4% SPB, or a mixture of 0.05% SCE and 0.4% SPB (SCE + SPB. Results: Body weight gain was better in all the experimental groups than the control. The greatest improvement was observed in the SCE + SPB group. Most values of villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis in all intestinal segments were higher (pConclusion: The present results of enhanced light microscopic parameters and protuberant epithelial cells in SCE and SPB groups suggest that the intestinal villi and epithelial cells might be hypertrophied by SCE and SPB. The fact that a synergistic effect was observed with regard to growth performance and intestinal histology in the SCE + SPB group suggests that SCE is a good supplement to probiotics.

  6. Unidimensional heat transfer analysis of elephant grass and sugar cane bagasse slow pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa-Perez, J.M.; Cortez, L.A.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia Agricola-FEAGRI/UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo, CP 6011, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Rocha, J.D.; Olivares-Gomez, E. [Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico, NIPE/UNICAMP, Cidade Universitaria ' Zeferino Vaz' , Barao Geraldo, CP 6086, 13084-971, Campinas SP (Brazil); Brossard-Perez, L.E. [Faculdad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidade de Oriente Sede Mella, ave, Las Americas sn, Ampliacion de Terraza, Santiago de Cuba, CP 90 600 (Cuba)

    2005-02-25

    Elephant grass (Pennicetum purpureum) and sugar cane bagasse slow pyrolysis experiments was carried out in a fixed bed reactor. A 20-cm internal diameter and 12-cm-long reactor was used. Particulate biomass filled up the reactor volume. Biomass was loaded into the reactor and heated in the axial direction using an electrical resistance located at the reactor's bottom. In order to control the temperature variation during the biomass pyrolysis process, four thermocouples were installed inside of the reactor. The remain residual mass was constant approximately after 73 min of heating; the running was stopped and remain carbonised; material was manually removed from the reactor. The residue formed three layer of biomass visually different described in detail here. Proximate analysis and higher heating value (HHV) tests were carried out to the material in each layer. Mass loss against time was recorded during experiments. The results indicated that the carbonisation ratio decreases in time because the carbon layer has low thermal conductivity and it does not permit proper heat transfer to the upper layer of biomass. It means that technology that avoids high-temperature gradients during the pyrolysis of bulk-dispersed biomass could avoid the problems described before.

  7. What Kind of Initial Errors Cause the Severest Prediction Uncertainty of EI Nino in Zebiak-Cane Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hui; DUAN Wansuo

    2008-01-01

    With the Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model, the initial error that has the largest effect on ENSO prediction is explored by conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP). The results demonstrate that CNOP-type errors cause the largest prediction error of ENSO in the ZC model. By analyzing the behavior of CNOP- type errors, we find that for the normal states and the relatively weak EI Nino events in the ZC model, the predictions tend to yield false alarms due to the uncertainties caused by CNOP. For the relatively strong EI Nino events, the ZC model largely underestimates their intensities. Also, our results suggest that the error growth of EI Nino in the ZC model depends on the phases of both the annual cycle and ENSO. The condition during northern spring and summer is most favorable for the error growth. The ENSO prediction bestriding these two seasons may be the most difficult. A linear singular vector (LSV) approach is also used to estimate the error growth of ENSO, but it underestimates the prediction uncertainties of ENSO in the ZC model. This result indicates that the different initial errors cause different amplitudes of prediction errors though they have same magnitudes. CNOP yields the severest prediction uncertainty. That is to say, the prediction skill of ENSO is closely related to the types of initial error. This finding illustrates a theoretical basis of data assimilation. It is expected that a data assimilation method can filter the initial errors related to CNOP and improve the ENSO forecast skill.

  8. THE IMPACT OF INITIAL FORCED WIND ON THE PREDICTABILITY OF THE ZEBIAK-CANE COUPLED OCEAN-ATMOSPHERE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Cai-jun; LU Wei-song; LI Qing-quan

    2006-01-01

    With simultaneous observed sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA), the difference between NCEP/NCAR 925hPa reanalysis wind stress anomaly (NCEPWSA) and FSU wind stress anomaly (FSUWSA) is analyzed, and the prediction abilities of Zebiak-Cane coupled ocean-atmosphere model (ZC coupled model) with NCEPWSA and FSUWSA serving respectively as initialization wind are compared. The results are as follows.The distribution feature of NCEPWSA matches better with that of the observed SSTA than counterpart of FSUWSA both in 1980s and in 1990s; The ZC ocean model has a better skill under the forcing of NCEPWSA than that of FSUWSA, especially in 1990s. Meanwhile, the forecast abilities of the ZC coupled model in 1990s as well as in 1980s have been improved employing NCEPWSA as initialization wind instead of FSUWSA.Particularly, it succeeded in predicting 1997/1998 El Ni(n)o 6 to 8 months ahead; further analysis shows that on the antecedent and onset stages of the 1997/1998 El Ni(n)o event, the horizontal cold and warm distribution characteristics of the simulated SSTA from ZC ocean model, with NCEPWSA forcing compared to FSUWSA forcing, match better with counterparts of the corresponding observed SSTA, whereby providing better predication initialization conditions for ZC coupled model, which, in turn, is favorable to improve the forecast ability of the coupled model.

  9. Validación de la metodología ICUMSA "Draft Method Nº 3" para determinar la concentración de almidón en jugos de caña de azúcar Validation of ICUMSA Draft Method No. 3 to determine starch concentration in sugar cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Silvia Zossi

    2011-06-01

    quantification at different production stages is common in process industry, where α-amylase enzyme is used to diminish the negative effects arising from an excess in starch contents. The laboratory of Sección Química of Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, working under a certified quality management system, always strives to update and replace methodologies with those which produce better results. Thus the application of ICUMSA Draft Method No. 3 was validated for determining starch in sugar cane juice, on account of its simplicity, quick results and the low costs incurred in its use, as compared with other methods previously used in the lab. Parameters were determined to establish its repeatability, reproducibility and uncertainty degrees. Results showed that this technique is appropriate for determining starch in sugar cane juice at concentrations between 43.75 and 500 mg/l, with an uncertainty of ± 6.22% when a security factor of 2 was used.

  10. Estado nutricional da cultura de cana-de-açúcar (cana-planta em experimentos com 15N Nutritional status of sugar cane (planted cane in 15N experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Faroni

    2009-12-01

    such studies. Since microplots are small compared to regular plot areas, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether nutritional data based on microplot samples can adequately represent the whole area, in a comparison of the nutritional status of microplot sugar cane plants at their maximum development stage with those of the regular plots in experiments with N rates. Three experiments were set up, with three N rates (40, 80, and 120 kg ha-1 N and a control, with four repetitions, in a randomized complete block design, in the state of São Paulo. Microplots of 3 m² containing 15N-fertilizer (5.04% atom 15N were included in the main plots formed by 48 lines of sugar cane spaced 1.5 m apart. At the time of maximum development stage, diagnostic leaves were collected in the main and microplots to evaluate the nutritional status of plants by analyzing the total concentration of macronutrients. There were no differences in N, P, Ca, Mg, and S concentrations in the diagnostic leaves from the main and microplots, so that the latter can be considered representative of the experimental area. Higher nitrogen fertilizer rates induced increased concentrations of not only N, but also of P, Ca, Mg, and S in the diagnostic leaves.

  11. Aproveitamento pela cana-de-açúcar da adubação nitrogenada de plantio Utilization by sugar cane of nitrogen applied at planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Coutinho Junqueira Franco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O balanço de 15N de fontes nitrogenadas no sistema solo-planta tem sido de muita valia em estudos das transformações do N em diferentes agroecossistemas. No agrossistema da cana-de-açúcar, nas condições brasileiras, a resposta à adubação nitrogenada de cana-planta ainda é questão não totalmente esclarecida e a utilização de fertilizantes nitrogenados marcados com 15N pode auxiliar no entendimento dessa lacuna. Com o objetivo de avaliar o aproveitamento do N da uréia pela cana-de-açúcar no ciclo agrícola de cana-planta, realizaram-se dois experimentos em área comercial de cana-de-açúcar, com o cultivar SP81-3250. Esses experimentos foram feitos de fevereiro de 2005 a julho de 2006. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, sendo os tratamentos constituídos de três doses de N: 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1, na forma de uréia, e uma testemunha sem fertilização nitrogenada. No centro das parcelas com doses de N-uréia, foram instaladas microparcelas que receberam o fertilizante marcado com 15N. A recuperação de 15N-uréia pela cana-planta (planta toda foi na média dos experimentos de 30, 30 e 21 %, respectivamente, para as doses de 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1 de N. A menor recuperação do N-uréia nas maiores doses, especialmente na de 120 kg ha-1, deveu-se às perdas de N do sistema solo-planta. O aproveitamento do N da uréia (15N representou em média 11,7 % do N total acumulado na planta toda. A distribuição do N proveniente do fertilizante nas diversas partes da planta não variou com a dose de N, sendo em média de 50 % nos colmos, 22 % nas folhas secas, 20 % nos ponteiros e 8 % nas raízes.The 15N balance of N sources in the soil-plant system is of great value in studies of N transformation in different agroecosystems. In the sugarcane agroecosystem, the cane plant response to N fertilization for Brazilian conditions is not fully understood and the use of N fertilizer labeled with 15N can help clarify this issue

  12. Raising cane: linkages, organizations and negotiations in Malang's sugar industry, East Java.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartveld, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The linkages between the Javanese sugar industry and the village communities have drawn the attention of both historians and social scientists. The formal organization of these linkages has changed drastically since Indonesia's independence; from plantation into outgrowers production contract system

  13. Production of spores of Trichoderma harzianum on sugar cane molasses and bagasse pith in solid state fermentation for biocontrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Rodríguez-León

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out for the production of spores from Trichoderma harzianum No 53 using sugar cane bagasse pith as solid matrix and sugar cane molasses as carbon and energy source. Different nitrogen sources such as urea, (NH42SO4 , NH4H2PO4 and (NH42HPO4 were added in the media to test their effect on spores production. Among these, urea was found most useful that resulted high no of spores (1x10(9/gDM. The influence of temperature and initial moisture of the substrate was studied through a 2² experimental plan design. No statistical differences were found within the range of 30-35ºC and 60-70% for temperature and moisture respectively. The biotechnological parameters of the process were derived from the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR pattern, which corresponded to the order of 10(9spores/g moist material. The specific growth rate, maintenance coefficient and the yield based on O2 consumption were 0.108 h-1, 0.001 g.O2/g.biomass.h and 2.7 g biomass/g O2 consumed, respectively.Esporos de Tricoderma harzianum Nº 53 foram produzidos por fermentação no estado sólido (FES utilizando bagaço de cana como suporte e melaço de cana como fonte de carbono. Diferentes fontes de nitrogênio foram testadas (uréia, (NH42 SO4 , NH4H2PO4 e (NH42HPO4 na produção de esporos. As mais elevadas concentrações de esporos (10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido foram obtidas utilizando a uréia como fonte de nitrogênio. O efeito da temperatura e umidade inicial foram estudadas através da utilização da planificação experimental utilizando um modelo 2². Não foi encontrada diferença estatística na produção de esporos na faixa de temperatura compreendida entre 30-35 ° C e umidade inicial de 60-70%. Os parâmetros biotecnológicos foram determinados através da taxa de oxigênio consumido (OUR correspondente a uma produção de 10(9 esporos/g de suporte úmido. A taxa de crescimento especifico, coeficiente de manutenção e rendimento foram

  14. Response of estuarine meiofauna assemblage to effects of fertilizer enrichment used in the sugar cane monoculture. Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. P. Santos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ application of inorganic fertilizer was used to simulate environmental eutrophication associated with the sugar cane monoculture. Meiofauna community structure is herein used to assess this experimental impact. Nine quadrangular areas (4m² each were randomly defined in the midlittoral estuarine area. Three of these areas received a high dose of sugar cane fertilizer (375 g/m² Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium, three areas received a low dose of the fertilizer (187.5 g/m² and the other three areas represented the control. The fertilizer was applied every week. Environmental parameters and meiofauna were sampled using three-to-four week intervals. Six samplings were subsequently performed maintaining this interval. Meiofauna was counted and identified to major taxonomic groups. Meiofauna community structure varied throughout the experimental areas. Control areas maintained their abundance values during the study period, but within the enriched areas meiofauna abundance decreased greatly. MDS and ANOSIM analysis showed significant variation in the meiofauna community structure among experimental areas and also along the experimental period in the enriched areas.A aplicação in situ de fertilizantes inorgânicos foi utilizada para simular a eutrofização associada ao cultivo da cana-de-açúcar. A estrutura da associação de meiofauna foi analisada com o objetivo de avaliar este impacto. O experimento de enriquecimento do sedimento foi desenvolvido em nove áreas quadrangulares de 4m² distribuídas de forma aleatória no mediolitoral da área estuarina. Três áreas foram enriquecidas com alta concentração (375 g/m² de NPK (Nitrogênio-Fósforo-Potássio, três com baixa concentração (187,5 g/m² e as demais tratadas como controle. Os fertilizantes foram aplicados semanalmente. Os parâmetros físico-químicos do sedimento e a meiofauna bentônica foram coletados após três a quatro semanas da aplicação dos fertilizantes

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  16. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp. Using differente polyclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Gracinda da Silva-Froufe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The species Gluconacetobacterdiazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5 cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  17. TIDAL SIGNATURES IN THE FAINTEST MILKY WAY SATELLITES: THE DETAILED PROPERTIES OF LEO V, PISCES II, AND CANES VENATICI II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, David J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Strader, Jay; McLeod, Brian; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Willman, Beth [Department of Astronomy, Haverford College, 370 Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, PA 19041 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis; Olszewski, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Seth, Anil, E-mail: dsand@lcogt.net [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    We present deep wide-field photometry of three recently discovered faint Milky Way (MW) satellites: Leo V, Pisces II, and Canes Venatici II. Our main goals are to study the structure and star formation history of these dwarfs; we also search for signs of tidal disturbance. The three satellites have similar half-light radii ({approx}60-90 pc) but a wide range of ellipticities. Both Leo V and CVn II show hints of stream-like overdensities at large radii. An analysis of the satellite color-magnitude diagrams shows that all three objects are old (>10 Gyr) and metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx} -2), though neither the models nor the data have sufficient precision to assess when the satellites formed with respect to cosmic reionization. The lack of an observed younger stellar population ({approx}< 10 Gyr) possibly sets them apart from the other satellites at Galactocentric distances {approx}> 150 kpc. We present a new compilation of structural data for all MW satellite galaxies and use it to compare the properties of classical dwarfs to the ultra-faints. The ellipticity distribution of the two groups is consistent at the {approx}2{sigma} level. However, the faintest satellites tend to be more aligned toward the Galactic Center, and those satellites with the highest ellipticity ({approx}> 0.4) have orientations ({Delta}{theta}{sub GC}) in the range 20 Degree-Sign {approx}< {Delta}{theta}{sub GC} {approx}< 40 Degree-Sign . This latter observation is in rough agreement with predictions from simulations of dwarf galaxies that have lost a significant fraction of their dark matter halos and are being tidally stripped.

  18. Kinetic behaviour of waste tyre rubber as microorganism support in an anaerobic digester treating cane molasses distillery slops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja, R. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Departamento de Estudios sobre Contaminacion Ambiental (DECA-CNIC), La Habana (Cuba); Martin, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Cordoba (Portugal); Jimenez, A.M. [Instituto de la Grasa (C.S.I.C.), Sevilla (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The kinetics of anaerobic digestion of cane molasses distillery slops was investigated using a continuous-flow bioreactor which contained waste tyre rubber as support, to which the microorganisms became immobilized. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 1 to 10 days were investigated at an average influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of 47.7 g/l. The maximum substrate utilization rate, k, and half saturation coefficient, K{sub L}, were determined to be 1.82 kg COD{sub removed}/kg VSS day and 0.33 kg COD/kg VSS day. The yield coefficient, Y, and sludge decay rate coefficient, K{sub d}, were also determined to be 0.06 kg VSS/kg COD{sub removed} and 0.05 day{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production was maximum (6.75 l/l day) at a 2 day HRT corresponding to a biomass loading rate of 2.578 kg COD/kg VSS day. Biogas yield ranged between 0.51 l/g COD (HRT=2 days) and 0.25 l/g COD (HRT=1 day). In addition, the methane percentage in the biogas varied between 70.5% (HRT=10 days) and 47.5% (HRT=1 day). The close relationship between biomass loading rate and specific substrate utilization rate supported the use of Monod equations. Finally, the experimental values of effluent substrate concentration were reproduced with deviations equal to or less than 10% in every case. (orig.). With 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Quantification of natural populations of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. In sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) Using differente polyclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Froufe, Lúcia Gracinda; Boddey, Robert Michael; Reis, Veronica Massena

    2009-10-01

    The species Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and H. rubrisubalbicans are endophytic N2-fixing [diazotrophic] bacteria which colonise not only roots, but also the aerial tissue of sugar cane. However, the technique most commonly used to quantify the populations of these microbes in plants is by culturing serial dilutions of macerates of plant tissues in N free semi-solid media which are only semi-selective for the species/genera [the Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique] and each culture must be further subjected to several tests to identify the isolates at the species level. The use of species-specific polyclonal antibodies with the indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) can be an alternative which is rapid and specific to quantify these populations of bacteria. This study was performed to investigate the viability of adapting the indirect ELISA technique to quantify individually the populations of these three species of diazotroph within the root and shoot tissues of sugarcane. The results showed that species-specific polyclonal antibodies could be obtained by purifying sera in protein-A columns which removed non-specific immuno-globulins. It was possible to quantify the three bacterial species in the Brazilian sugarcane variety SP 70-1143 in numbers above 10(5) cells per g fresh weight in roots, rhizomes and leaves. The numbers of the different bacterial species evaluated using the ELISA technique were found to be higher than when the same populations were evaluated using the MPN technique, reaching 1400 times greater for G. diazotrophicus and 225 times greater for Herbaspirillum spp. These results constitute the first quantification of Herbaspirillum using immunological techniques.

  20. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements of PAH, nitro-PAH, and oxy-PAH compounds in atmospheric particulate matter of a sugar cane burning region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kely F.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.; Allen, Andrew G.; Cardoso, Arnaldo A.

    2014-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs were studied in the atmospheric particulate matter of a subtropical rural region (São Paulo State, Brazil) affected by emissions from sugar cane burning. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected from May to June of 2010. In general, average PAH concentrations were significantly higher at night, suggesting that the compounds were predominantly emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning (which was mainly performed at night). The maximum average PAH concentration was found for benzo[b]fluoranthene at night (2.9 ± 5.4 ng m-3). Among the nitro-PAH compounds, the highest average concentrations were obtained for 9-nitrophenanthrene in diurnal and nocturnal samples (1.5 ± 1.2 and 1.3 ± 2.1 ng m-3, respectively). In contrast to the PAH and nitro-PAH compounds, the oxy-PAHs could not be directly associated with sugar cane burning. The most abundant oxy-PAH compound was benzanthrone (1.6 ± 1.3 ng m-3) at night, followed by 9,10-anthraquinone (1.1 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and 9-fluorenone (0.4 ± 0.1 ng m-3) during the day. A correlation matrix was used to explore the origins of the different compounds. The data suggested that during the daytime, direct emissions (mainly in vehicle exhaust) contributed to the presence of PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs in air. Photochemical production also appeared to be a source of the majority of nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, while photolysis could have contributed to removal of the nitro-PAHs during the daytime. At night, sugar cane burning emissions were the primary source of the PAHs and nitro-PAHs, with additional sources also contributing to the levels of oxy-PAHs in the atmosphere.

  1. PRODUKSI ETANOL DARI TETES TEBU OLEH Saccharomyces cerevisiae PEMBENTUK FLOK (NRRL – Y 265 (Ethanol Production from Cane Molasses by Flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NRRL – Y 265

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Krisna Wardani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of sugar cane molasses by flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ethanol production was investigated. In order to minimize the negative effect of calcium on yeast growth, pretreated sugar cane molasses with dilute acid was performed. The influence of process parameters such as sugar concentration and inoculum concentration were evaluated for enhancing bioethanol production. Result showed that maximum ethanol concentration of 8,792% (b/v was obtained at the best condition of inoculum concentration 10% (v/v and sugar concentration 15% (b/v. Based on the experimental data, maximum yield of ethanol production of 65% was obtained. This result demonstrated the potential of molasses as promising biomass resources for ethanol production. Keywords: Ethanol, preteated cane molasses, flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fermentation   ABSTRAK Efisiensi produksi bioetanol diperoleh melalui ketepatan pemilihan jenis mikroorganisme, bahan baku, dan kontrol proses fermentasi. Alternatif proses untuk meminimalisasi biaya produksi etanol adalah dengan mengeliminasi tahap pemisahan sentrifugasi sel dari produk karena memerlukan biaya instalasi dan biaya perawatan yang tinggi. Proses sentrifugasi merupakan tahapan penting untuk memisahkan sel mikroba dari medium fermentasi pada produksi bioetanol. Untuk meminimalisir biaya produksi akibat proses tersebut digunakan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan tetes tebu sebagai sumber gula. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan konsentrasi penambahan inokulum Saccharomyces cerevisiae pembentuk flok dan konsentrasi sumber gula dalam tetes tebu yang tepat dalam produksi etanol yang maksimum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae sebanyak 5%, 10%, dan 15% (v/v diinokulasikan pada medium tetes tebu hasil pretreatment dengan kandungan gula 15%, 20%, dan 25% (b/v pada pH 5. Fermentasi dilakukan pada suhu 30°C dan agitasi 100 rpm selama 72 jam. Etanol tertinggi didapat pada kondisi konsentrasi inokulum

  2. Determinação de marcadores de envelhecimento em cachaças Determination of aging marks in sugar cane spirits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco W. B. Aquino

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento de bebidas em tonéis de madeira é responsável pela melhoria do sabor e do aroma do produto. Embora o carvalho seja a madeira tradicionalmente utilizada para envelhecimento de bebidas, no Brasil é comum o uso de outras madeiras, como o bálsamo, e madeiras regionais utilizadas por pequenos produtores, fazendo com que o tipo de tonel usado para o envelhecimento possa variar muito. Neste trabalho, é apresentado um estudo da concentração de furanos e fenólicos de baixo peso molecular (ácido gálico, 5-hidroximetilfurfural, furfural, ácido vanílico, ácido siríngico, vanilina, siringaldeído, coniferaldeído, sinapaldeído e cumarina, considerados marcadores de envelhecimento, em cachaças oriundas de pequenos produtores das cinco regiões fabricantes de cachaça do Estado do Ceará. Os resultados obtidos foram comparados com cachaças comerciais consideradas produtos de primeira linha, produzidas nos Estados de Pernambuco, Ceará e Minas Gerais, e apresentaram boa concordância.Alcoholic beverages are usually aged in wooden barrels. This technique improves the taste and the aroma of the product. Although oak is the main wood employed to age beverages, other woods as Balm and local woods are largely employed in Brazil, specially by sugar cane spirits small producers. In this work is presented a study of furans and low molecular weight phenolic compounds (gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurufural, furfural, vanillic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, sinapaldehyde and coumarin, considered as aging markers in aged sugar cane spirits from small producers of Ceará State (Brazil. The obtained results were compared to reference samples of for export sugar cane spirits and presented good agreement.

  3. Rentabilidad de la gestión del mantenimiento en los centrales azucareros cubanos. // Profitability of maintenance management in Cuban sugar cane factories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Batista Rodríguez

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar de forma acertada la eficiencia de la gestión de mantenimiento en un central azucarero y a su personaldirectivo es necesario disponer de indicadores cuantitativos que reflejen los resultados y la evolución integral del trabajotécnico-organizativo y económico de la actividad. Actualmente existen gran cantidad de indicadores, pero se adolece de lano existencia de un indicador generalizador de la eficiencia de la gestión del mantenimiento, por lo cual es difícil valorarcorrectamente los resultados y la evolución integral de la actividad.En este trabajo se muestra la posibilidad de evaluar de forma integral la eficiencia de la gestión del mantenimiento en loscentrales azucareros cubanos, con el calculo del indicador Rentabilidad de la gestión del mantenimiento (Rgm.Palabras claves: Rentabilidad, gestión de mantenimiento, centrales azucareros, indicador de rentabilid__________________________________________________________________AbstractIn order to evaluate in a proper manner the efficiency of maintenance management in sugar cane factories and its directivepersonnel, it is necessary to have quantitative indicators that reflect the results and integral evolution of the technicalorganizationaland economic work of the activity. At the present a great amount of indicators exists, but it is sympathizedfrom the non-existence of a generalizing indicator of the maintenance management efficiency, thus it is difficult tocorrectly validate the results and integral evolution of the activity. In this paper is expose the possibility of integralevaluation of the maintenance management efficiency in Cuban sugar cane factories, with the computation of the indicatorof maintenance management profitability (Rgm.Key words: Profitability, maintenance management, sugar cane factories, profitability indicator.

  4. Study on the Development of Cane Sugar Circular Economy Based on the View of Industrial Chain%基于产业链视角的蔗糖业循环经济发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万欢

    2013-01-01

    从产业链的视角出发,分析了蔗糖业传统发展模式的弊端,探讨了构建蔗糖业循环经济产业链的思路,并为进一步促进蔗糖业循环经济发展和产业链的形成提供参考建议.%We proceed from the perspective of industry chain,analysis the drawbacks of cane sugar industry in the traditional development mode,explore the idea of building a cane sugar industry circular economy industrial chain,and provide reference to further promote the cane sugar industry circular economy development and the formation of industrial chain.

  5. Recuperação do nitrogênio (15N da uréia e da palhada por soqueira de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp. Recovery of nitrogen (15N from urea and cane trash by sugar cane ratoon (Saccharum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. C. Gava

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se um experimento com vistas em avaliar a utilização do nitrogênio mineralizado da palhada (15N e do nitrogênio da uréia (15N aplicada em soqueira de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi desenvolvido em campo, num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Paleudalf, no município de Piracicaba (SP, de outubro de 1997 a agosto de 1998, e constou de quatro tratamentos: (T1 mistura de vinhaça e uréia aplicada em área total sobre o solo coberto com palhada-15N; (T2 mistura de vinhaça e uréia-15N aplicada em área total sobre o solo coberto com palhada; (T3 mistura de vinhaça e uréia-15N aplicada em área total sobre o solo sem a palhada; (T4 uréia-15N enterrada em sulcos nos dois lados das linhas da cana, com prévia aplicação de vinhaça sobre o solo sem cobertura de palhada. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Comparações de componentes de produtividade da cultura, da acumulação de nitrogênio pela parte aérea e da utilização do nitrogênio da uréia-15N e do mineralizado da palhada-15N, foram realizadas entre os tratamentos. O desenvolvimento vegetal deu-se em um ciclo de 315 dias e foi semelhante nas condições com ou sem palhada de cana-de-açúcar. Do nitrogênio total acumulado na parte aérea da soqueira de cana-de-açúcar, 10 a 16 % foi absorvido do fertilizante e, em média, 4 % do N mineralizado da palhada. A eficiência de utilização do nitrogênio da uréia pela soqueira de cana-de-açúcar foi em média de 17 %, não havendo diferenças entre os tratamentos, e o da palhada foi em média de 8 %. O nitrogênio da palhada foi disponibilizado para a planta no final do ciclo da cultura.An experiment was carried out to evaluate how mineralized nitrogen from cane trash and urea nitrogen applied to the soil is utilized by sugarcane ratoon. The field experiment was carried out from October 1997 to August 1998 on a Paleudalf soil in Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil

  6. Myxomycetes do Canavial I: levantamento florístico em Carpina - Pernambuco Myxomycetes of sugar-cane plantation I: foristic survey in Carpina - Pernambuco state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Jucene dos Santos

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Durante um ano investigou-se a ocorrência, freqüência e constância de Myxomycetes em um canavial da Estação Experimental do PLANALSUCAR, em Carpina-PE. As observações foram efetuadas nos meses de março, junho, setembro e dezembro, correspondentes a diferentes etapas do cultivo da cana-de-açúcar. Numa área de 1.134m2, observou-se um total de 40 touceiras, em cada mês de coletas, examinando-se folhas, colmos e raízes (vivos ou mortos, bem como a superfície do solo. Foram registradas oito espécies, todas pertencentes à subclasse Myxogastromycetidae: Cribraria splendens (Schr. Pers. (Liceales; Arcyria cinerea (Buli. Pers., A. deruidata (L. Wett. e Trichia favoginea (Batsch. Pers. (Trichiales; Craterirum leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar, Physarumnucleatum Ré x, P. nutans Pers. e P. cf. pezizoideum (Jung. Pav. & Lag. (Physarales. No levantamento efetuado, a espécie mais freqüente foi C. leucocephalum (70,4%, as demais sendo de ocorrência rara (7,4 - 3,7%. Nenhuma espécie foi classificada como constante no canavial; C. leucocephalum foi registrada como acessória e as outras espécies como acidentais.Myxomycetes from sugar-cane plantation I - Floristic Survey. Occurrence, frequence and constancy of Myxomycetes has been investigated on a sugar-cane plantation of the Experimental Station PLANALSUCAR, in Carpina, Pernambuco. The observations were carried out in March, June, September and December corresponding to differents stages of sugar-cane culture. Within an area of 1134m²/40 individuals were sampred at each month of collection. Their leaves, stems and roots (alive or dead as well as soil surface were all examined. Eight species were recorded, all belonging to the subclass Myxogastromycetidae: Cribraria splendens (Schr. Pers. (Liceales; Arcyriacinerea (Bull. Pers., A. denudata (L. Wett, and Tricchia favoginea (Batsch. Pers. (Trichiales; Craterium leucocephalum (Pers. Ditmar, Physarum nucleatum Rex, P. nutans Pers. and. P. cf

  7. In vitro degradability and total gas production of biodiesel chain byproducts used as a replacement for cane sugar feed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the in vitro degradability of dry matter and the total gas production of oil seed press cake from biodiesel production (Gossypium hirsutum L., Helianthus annuus L., Ricinus communis, Moringa oleífera L. and Pinhão manso curcas L.) at four different levels of replacement (0, 30, 50, and 70%) for cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum RB.) in ruminant feed. Inocula were prepared using the ruminal fluid of three Holstein cows, and data were collected after 48 hours of in...

  8. Potential areas for the expansion of the sugar cane production; Areas potenciais para a expansao da producao de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    The evaluation of the potential areas for the expansion of the sugar cane cultivation was based on the estimation of the agricultural productivity aptitude as function of the soil and climate characteristics using maps with geo referred in scales of 1/5,000,000. Areas had been discarded which integrate of three large biomass of the country: Amazonia, Pantanal and Mata Atlantica, and all the areas with some type of restriction, such as environmental reservations, national parks, indigenous, military and urban areas. Were not considered areas with crop mechanization essential for the environmental and social sustainability with declivity more than 12%.

  9. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  10. Application of natural and modified sugar cane bagasse for the removal of dye from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajira Tahir

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic parameters ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were also evaluated. The values of ΔG° show spontaneous behavior of the system. The modified bagasse C-SB shows about 89% removal, due to the formation of new modified surface and enhancement in its surface area. It could be employed as a low-cost alternative method for the removal of dyes and purification of textile effluents.

  11. Geostatistics And Soil Attributes In Area Cultivated With Sugar Cane [geoestatística E Atributos Do Solo Em áreas Cultivadas Com Cana-de-açúcar

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Z.M.; Marques Jr. J.; Pereira G.T.

    2010-01-01

    The intense traffic of agricultural machines in soils cultivated with sugar cane can cause soil compaction. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the spatial variability of soil physical attributes and content organic matter of a eutroferric Red Latosol gibbisitic (under Basalt) and dystroferric Red Latosol caulinitic (under Sandstone) in the depths of 0.0-0.2m and 0.2-0.4m in areas cultivated with sugar cane. Soils were sampled at the crossing points of a grid at regu...

  12. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes.

  13. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). School of Biochemical Engineering; Rathore, Ankita [Nizam College, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Biotechnology; Srivastava, Saurav [National Institute of Technology, Durgapur (India). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2011-04-15

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value. (orig.)

  14. Optimization of process parameters for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Bodhisatta; Rathore, Ankita; Srivastava, Saurav; Shekhawat, Mitali; Srivastava, Pradeep

    2011-04-01

    Ethanol is a potential energy source and its production from renewable biomass has gained lot of popularity. There has been worldwide research to produce ethanol from regional inexpensive substrates. The present study deals with the optimization of process parameters (viz. temperature, pH, initial total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration in sugar cane molasses and fermentation time) for ethanol production from sugar cane molasses by Zymomonas mobilis using Box-Behnken experimental design and genetic algorithm (GA). An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to analyze the effects of the process parameters on ethanol production. The data obtained after performing the experiments based on statistical design was utilized for regression analysis and analysis of variance studies. The regression equation obtained after regression analysis was used as a fitness function for the genetic algorithm. The GA optimization technique predicted a maximum ethanol yield of 59.59 g/L at temperature 31 °C, pH 5.13, initial TRS concentration 216 g/L and fermentation time 44 h. The maximum experimental ethanol yield obtained after applying GA was 58.4 g/L, which was in close agreement with the predicted value.

  15. Quantifying anuran microhabitat use to infer the potential for parasite transmission between invasive cane toads and two species of Australian native frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzatto, Lígia; Both, Camila; Shine, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Parasites that are carried by invasive species can infect native taxa, with devastating consequences. In Australia, invading cane toads (Rhinella marina) carry lungworm parasites (Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala) that (based on previous laboratory studies) can infect native treefrogs (Litoria caerulea and L. splendida). To assess the potential of parasite transmission from the invader to the native species (and from one infected native frog to another), we used surveys and radiotelemetry to quantify anuran microhabitat use, and proximity to other anurans, in two sites in tropical Australia. Unsurprisingly, treefrogs spent much of their time off the ground (especially by day, and in undisturbed forests) but terrestrial activity was common at night (especially in anthropogenically modified habitats). Microhabitat overlap between cane toads and frogs was generally low, except at night in disturbed areas, whereas overlap between the two frog species was high. The situations of highest overlap, and hence with the greatest danger of parasite transmission, involve aggregations of frogs within crevices by day, and use of open ground by all three anuran species at night. Overall, microhabitat divergence between toads and frogs should reduce, but not eliminate, the transmission of lungworms from invasive toads to vulnerable native frogs.

  16. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Shternshis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl. Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease.

  17. 南方甘蔗测土配方施肥试验研究%Research on the Formula Fertilization by Soil Testing of Sugar Cane in South

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大吉; 韦春满; 韦目阔

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem of high-cost and the low-utilization-rate of sugar cane in the mountain area of South,choosed the new Taiwan sugar cane No.22 as a subject to test the formula fertilization in Luocheng County of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in 200%针对南方山区糖料蔗生产成本高、肥料利用率低的实际,2008年在广西壮族自治区罗城县蔗区以新台糖22号作为参验品种,进行不同的施肥配方试验。结果表明:在同等产量情况下,配方区比当地常规施肥区(对照区)肥料成本降低22.13%。该配方在全市各蔗区具有较大的推广价值。

  18. Thermoset phenolic matrices reinforced with unmodified and surface-grafted furfuryl alcohol sugar cane bagasse and curaua fibers: properties of fibers and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, W G; Hoareau, W; Megiatto, J D; Razera, I A T; Castellan, A; Frollini, E

    2005-01-01

    Composites based on phenolic matrices and unmodified and chemically modified sugar cane bagasse and curaua fibers were prepared. The fibers were oxidized by chlorine dioxide, mainly phenolic syringyl and guaiacyl units of the lignin polymer, followed by grafting furfuryl alcohol (FA), which is a chemical obtained from a renewable source. The fibers were widely characterized by chemical composition analysis, crystallinity, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, SEM, DSC, TG, tensile strength, and 13C CP-MAS NMR. The composites were analyzed by SEM, impact strength, and DMA. The SEM images and DMA results showed that the oxidation of sugar cane bagasse fibers followed by reaction with FA favored the fiber/matrix interaction at the interface. The same chemical modification was less effective for curaua fibers, probably due to its lower lignin content, since the reaction considered touches mainly the lignin moiety. The tensile strength results obtained showed that the fibers were partially degraded by the chemical treatment, decreasing then the impact strength of the composites reinforced with them. In the continuity of the present project, efforts has been addressed to the optimization of fiber surface modification, looking for reagents preferably obtained from renewable resources and for chemical modifications that intensify the fiber/matrix interaction without loss of mechanical properties.

  19. Trash measurement in middle sugar cane cultivars after the harvest; Quantificacao de palhico em diferentes cultivares medios de cana-de-acucar, apos a colheita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Ivan; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], E-mail: santinivan@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    The introduction of mechanized harvesting of sugarcane made it possible to cut raw cane. Thus the amount of trash has produced a significant increase, which is important in that it can be used in the production of electricity through combustion. This study aimed to quantify the productivity of trash in the semi-mechanized harvesting of different middle sugarcane cultivars. The experiment was conducted at UNESP-Jaboticabal. The experimental design was a randomized block design with six treatments (cultivars) and three replications. At harvest, we counted the number of stems in the meter and the weight of stems was estimated agricultural productivity. After harvesting the cane, was used a rectangle of 4.5 m{sup 2}, which was placed randomly within each plot and all trash contained therein was weighed. Using these results to estimate the potential number of people who would benefit from the energy from this trash. Cultivar IAC94-4004 received the largest amount of trash (44.33 t ha- 1), IP (37.66%), Pd (38.00 x10-6) and TCH (118.00 t ha-1). Cultivar IAC95- 5000 obtained the less satisfactory results, generating a small amount of trash and therefore expressing lower potential energy. (author)

  20. Influence of thermal treatment of wood on the aroma of a sugar cane spirit (cachaça model-solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Fillet Spoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging process of alcoholic beverages is generally conducted in wood barrels made with species from Quercus sp. Due to the high cost and the lack of viability of commercial production of these trees in Brazil, there is demand for new alternatives to using other native species and the incorporation of new technologies that enable greater competitiveness of sugar cane spirit aged in Brazilian wood. The drying of wood, the thermal treatment applied to it, and manufacturing techniques are important tools in defining the sensory quality of alcoholic beverages after being placed in contact with the barrels. In the thermal treatment, several compounds are changed by the application of heat to the wood and various studies show the compounds are modified, different aromas are developed, there is change in color, and beverages achieve even more pleasant taste, when compared to non-treated woods. This study evaluated the existence of significant differences between hydro-alcoholic solutions of sugar cane spirits elaborated from different species of thermo-treated and non-treated wood in terms of aroma. An acceptance test was applied to evaluate the solutions preferred by tasters under specific test conditions.

  1. 糖厂锅炉的分析模型研究%Study on Exergy Analysis Model of Boiler in Cane Sugar Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝媛媛; 张艳军

    2014-01-01

    甘蔗制糖业是广西支柱产业,并且是高能耗行业。以某日榨7000吨的甘蔗糖厂为例,对其锅炉建立分析模型并进行了能量分析,结果效率比热效率低一半左右。分析模型揭示了糖厂锅炉的能耗来源,为糖厂锅炉的节能降耗优化改造提供了理论支持。%Cane sugar manufacturing industry was a main industry in Guangxi, and was a highly energy-consuming trade. Taking a sugar mill of daily output of 7 000 t and making an exergy analysis of its boiler, the results showed that the exergy efficiency was lower about a half than that of the thermal efficiency. The exergy analysis model showed the origin of the energy loss, and could provide theoretical support for energy saving and optimal modification of the boiler in cane sugar mills.

  2. In house validation from direct determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) in Brazilian corn and cane syrups samples by HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Jucimara K; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Torres, Yohandra R; da Rosa, Marcos R; Felsner, Maria L

    2016-01-01

    In this work the development and in house validation of the HMF direct determination in corn and cane syrups by HPLC-UV was carried out for the first time. The separation was done with isocratic elution of a mobile phase comprising water (with 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) on Phenomenex C18 column (5.0 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm), at 30 °C, flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) and detection at 285 nm. The validated method showed excellent performance with low limits (LOD and LOQ of 0.09 and 0.26 mg L(-1), respectively), good accuracy (recovery rates between 100% and 104%) and precision (RSD's for repeatability and intermediate precision between 0.57% and 6.43%). Good selectivity and linearity were also observed. HMF contents in both foods were very high (406.6-2121.3 mg kg(-1) for corn syrup and 109.2-893.1 mg kg(-1) for cane syrup), which arouses concern about food safety of these products.

  3. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2.

  4. 电渗析法脱盐精制甘蔗糖蜜研究%Desalination of Sugar Cane Molasses by Electrodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯红伟; 扶雄

    2009-01-01

    Plenty of mineral salts were contented in sugar cane molasses,which played an importance role in the taste of astringency,expecially the potassium salt.In present study,ion-exchange membrane (IEM) mediated electrodialysis (ED) was applied to desalinate the sugar cane molasses.The removal rate of inorganic salt and potassium salt were 77.35% and 86.37% respectively under the optimized conditions of voltage 30 V,flow rate 70 L/h,density 25°Brix.%甘蔗糖蜜中含有大量无机盐,其中的钾盐使糖蜜呈涩味.试验通过离子交换膜电渗析法对甘蔗糖蜜进行脱盐处理.结果表明:电渗析对糖蜜脱盐有良好的效果,在工作电压为30V,流量70 L/h,糖蜜浓度为25° Brix时,糖蜜的电渗析脱盐精制脱盐率达到77.35%,脱钾率达到86.37%.

  5. A comparative analysis of potential impact area of common sugar cane burning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, A. L.; Flecher, S.; Wang, J. J.; Viator, H. P.

    2015-04-01

    The negative effects of agricultural burning are well-known, although the actual impact area of different activities has not previously been quantified. An elastic backscatter lidar system was used to examine the impact-area size and dispersion of smoke generated from different types of sugarcane burning activities; pre-harvest (standing) burning and post-harvest (ground) burning. Experiments were conducted in the sugarcane harvest season of 2010 and 2011 at two locations in Louisiana, USA. Current dispersion theory would suggest that the primary difference between burn types would be primarily in the initial plume rise, but that the overall plume shape would remain the same. However, remotely sensed lidar data with the capability to measure plume dispersion and the short time dynamics of plume location showed pre-harvest (standing) burning produced a larger plume with greater rise and more spread within the 300 m of the plume, but a decrease in dispersion, but not concentration further downwind. Post-harvest (ground) burning produced a more traditional plume shape, but still exceeded impact area predictions near the source. Moreover, large changes in plume size can occur with small increases in wind speed. These are the first instrumented measurements of the meteorological effects of the different types of sugarcane burning. These results indicate that ground burning is preferable, but should be avoided in lower wind speed conditions.

  6. The adhesive effect on the properties of particleboards made from sugar cane bagasse generated in the distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Farinassi Mendes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the adhesive type and its different contents on sugar cane bagasse particleboards. The panels were produced using Urea-Formaldehyde (UF and Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF adhesives. Three adhesive contents were tested: 6, 9 and 12%. The boards were made by using an 8-minute press closing time, pressure of 40kgf/cm², and temperature of 160ºC for the UF adhesive and 180ºC for the PF adhesive. It was concluded that: The UF adhesive was statistically equal or better than PF adhesive considering all properties evaluated. The adhesive contents of 9 and 12% were statistically equal, but both were superior to 6% considering the physical properties. The mechanical properties did not present statistical differences, except for rupture modulus. The best panels were produced using UF at 9%, but they did not attend the norm CS 236-66 for mechanical properties, therefore it is necessary manipulations of the processing variables.O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do tipo de adesivo e de seus diferentes teores na produção de painéis aglomerados com bagaço de cana. Os painéis foram produzidos utilizando os adesivos Uréia-Formaldeido (UF e Fenol-Formaldeido (FF a 6, 9 e 12%. O ciclo de prensagem utilizado foi de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC para UF e 180ºC para FF, por 8 minutos. Concluiu-se que: O adesivo UF se mostrou estatisticamente igual ou superior a FF em todas as propriedades avaliadas. Para os teores de adesivo, nas propriedades físicas, os teores 9 e 12% se mostraram estatisticamente iguais, mas superiores a 6%; já nas propriedades mecânicas não houve diferença estatística, com exceção do módulo de ruptura. Os melhores painéis foram produzidos com UF e 9% de teor de adesivo, sendo que estes não atenderam a norma CS 236-66 para propriedades mecânicas, sendo necessárias manipulações nas variáveis de processamento.

  7. Adubação nitrogenada na cana-de-açúcar Nitrogen fertilizers for the sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Vaz de Arruda

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados de um experimento de adubação de cana-de-açúcar, instalado em terra roxa da Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o efeito da aplicação de três adubos nitrogenados - sulfato de amônio, calnitro e uréia - sôbre a produção da cana. O nitrogênio foi aplicado em cobertura, na dose de 120 kg de N por hectare, em três parcelas iguais de 40 kg/ha. O fósforo e o potássio foram aplicados no sulco de plantio nas doses de 120 e 180 kg de elemento por hectare, respectivamente. O uso dos adubos nitrogenados aumentou a produção de 19% em relação à testemunha, com PK apenas. Não foram significativas as diferenças entre as produções proporcionadas pelas diferentes formas de adubo nitrogenado usadas.This paper presents the results from a fertilizer trial comparing nitrogen sources for the sugar cane. It was carried out at the Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, on a "terra roxa" type of soil. This nitrogen was applied at the rate of 120 kg per hectare split three times as top-dressings. Phosphorus was applied in the furrow at planting time whereas half of the potassium was applied with the phosphorus and half with the nitrogen as a top-dressing. The PK fertilizers were applied at the rates of 120 and 180 kg of the element per hectare, respectively. The treatments and correspondig yields were the following in ton per hectare: a PK________________________________ 113_0 b PK + ammonium sulfata ______________ 134_8 c PK + calnitro _______________________ 136_3 d PK + uréa ___________________________ 133_6 The statistical analysis of the data permitted the following conclusions to be drawn: a The mean efiect of the nitrogen obtained comparing the mean oi nitrogen sources with the control (PK was of 19.4%. b The differences between the sources of nitrogen applied were not significant, indicating

  8. Plant growth-promoting traits of epiphytic and endophytic yeasts isolated from rice and sugar cane leaves in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Arunrattiyakorn, Panarat; Limtong, Savitree

    2014-08-01

    A total of 1035 yeast isolates, obtained from rice and sugar cane leaves, were screened primarily for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Thirteen isolates were selected, due to their IAA production ranging from 1.2 to 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW. These isolates were investigated for their capabilities of calcium phosphate and ZnO(3) solubilisation, and also for production of NH(3), polyamine, and siderophore. Their 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, catalase and fungal cell wall-degrading enzyme activities were assessed. Their antagonism against rice fungal pathogens was also evaluated. Strain identification, based on molecular taxonomy, of the thirteen yeast isolates revealed that four yeast species - i.e. Hannaella sinensis (DMKU-RP45), Cryptococcus flavus (DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, DMKU-RE67, and DMKU-RP128), Rhodosporidium paludigenum (DMKU-RP301) and Torulaspora globosa (DMKU-RP31) - were capable of high IAA production. Catalase activity was detected in all yeast strains tested. The yeast R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301 was the best IAA producer, yielding 29.3 mg g(-)(1) DCW, and showed the ability to produce NH3 and siderophore. Different levels of IAA production (7.2-9.7 mg g(-)(1) DCW) were found in four strains of C. flavus DMKU-RE12, DMKU-RE19, and DMKU-RE67, which are rice leaf endophytes, and strain DMKU-RP128, which is a rice leaf epiphyte. NH(3) production and carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) activity was also detected in these four strains. Antagonism to fungal plant pathogens and production of antifungal volatile compounds were exhibited in T. globosa DMKU-RP31, as well as a moderate level of IAA production (4.9 mg g(-)(1) DCW). The overall results indicated that T. globosa DMKU-RP31 might be used in two ways: enhancing plant growth and acting as a biocontrol agent. In addition, four C. flavus were also found to be strains of interest for optimal IAA production.

  9. Queima e aditivos químicos e bacterianos na ensilagem de cana-de-açúcar Burning and chemical and bacterial additives in sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rezende Siqueira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da queima e do uso de aditivos (ureia, benzoato de sódio, hidróxido de sódio (NaOH, Propionibacterium acidipropionici + Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus buchneri na ensilagem de cana-de-açúcar. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 (cana-de-açúcar crua e queimada × 6 (cinco aditivos mais o grupo controle com três repetições. Determinaram-se as perdas durante o processo fermentativo nas formas de gases e de efluentes e a recuperação de matéria seca (MS. Maior recuperação de MS foi observada nas silagens de cana-de-açúcar queimada (77,3% em relação às silagens de cana crua (73,1%. As recuperações de MS observadas nas silagens tratadas com NaOH ou L. buchneri foram de 84%, enquanto das silagens controle, 69%. No período após abertura, uma variável importante é a inibição da elevação do pH, nesse caso, medida pela variação do pH. Destacam-se como inibidores da variação do pH o benzoato de sódio e o L. buchneri, que promoveram variação do pH de 0,05 e 0,18 unidade de pH, respectivamente. A ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar sem aditivos, crua ou queimada, é uma estratégia que resulta em grandes perdas quantitativas, que podem ser evitadas pelo uso de aditivos. Entre os aditivos avaliados, o L. buchneri é o que atua de forma mais satisfatória nas fases de fermentação e pós-abertura de silagens de cana-de-açúcar crua ou queimada.This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of burning and additivess (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH, Propionibacterium acidipropionici + Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri on sugar cane silage. A randomized complete design was used, in a 2 × 6 factorial scheme with two sugar cane forages (natural or burned and six treatments (five additive sources plus a control with three replications. The gas and effluent losses during the fermentation process and dry matter recovery

  10. Manejo da adubação potássica na cultura da cana-de-açúcar Potassium fertilizer management for sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Otto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de cana-de-açúcar e, devido à crescente demanda por fontes renováveis de energia, a área cultivada encontra-se em expansão. Regularmente, a cultura é plantada em solos com baixos teores de nutrientes, o que pode limitar sua produtividade. A adubação potássica da cana-de-açúcar é feita basicamente no sulco de plantio, o que pode comprometer a eficiência de utilização desse nutriente devido a possíveis perdas por lixiviação ou salinidade às raízes das plantas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar produtividade de colmos e atributos tecnológicos da cana-de-açúcar em função de doses e modos de aplicação de K. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico durante o ciclo de cana-planta, com o cultivar SP90 3414, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, sendo dois modos de aplicação (100 % no plantio e 50 % no plantio + 50 % em cobertura e quatro doses de K (0, 100, 150 e 200 kg ha-1 de K2O, com quatro repetições. Aos nove meses após o plantio, foram avaliados a altura das plantas e o perfilhamento e, na colheita, a produtividade de colmos e os atributos tecnológicos da cana-de-açúcar. As doses de K aumentaram o crescimento em altura e o perfilhamento da cana-de-açúcar, para os dois modos de aplicação; a produtividade de colmos e de açúcar aumentou com as doses de K até um ponto de máximo de, aproximadamente, 160 kg ha-1 de K2O; e a produtividade máxima estimada de cerca de 160 t ha-1 foi obtida com 130 e 150 kg ha-1 de K2O, para a aplicação parcelada e única do fertilizante, respectivamente.Brazil is the largest sugar cane producer in the world and, due to the increasing interest in renewable energy sources, the cultivated area is expanding. Sugar cane is usually planted in soil with low nutrient levels, which can limit the yield. In sugar cane, potassium is basically applied in the furrow, which can decrease the K use efficiency due to leaching or salinizaton to

  11. Evaluation of semiautonomous navigation assistance system for power wheelchairs with blindfolded nondisabled individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Sharma, PhD

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Some individuals with disabilities are denied powered mobility because they lack the visual, motor, and/or cognitive skills required to safely operate a power wheelchair. The Drive-Safe System (DSS is an add-on, distributed, shared-control navigation assistance system for power wheelchairs intended to provide safe and independent mobility to such individuals. The DSS is a human-machine system in which the user is responsible for high-level control of the wheelchair, such as choosing the destination, path planning, and basic navigation actions, while the DSS overrides unsafe maneuvers through autonomous collision avoidance, wall following, and door crossing. In this project, the DSS was clinically evaluated in a controlled laboratory with blindfolded, nondisabled individuals. Further, these individuals' performance with the DSS was compared with standard cane use for navigation assistance by people with visual impairments. Results indicate that compared with a cane, the DSS significantly reduced the number of collisions. Users rated the DSS favorably even though they took longer to navigate the same obstacle course than they would have using a standard long cane. Participants experienced less physical demand, effort, and frustration when using the DSS as compared with a cane. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a viable powered mobility solution for wheelchair users with visual impairments.

  12. Manejo integrado da tiririca na produtividade de cana-de-açúcar Integrated management of purple nutsedge on sugar-cane yield

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    J.C. Durigan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, fez-se a integração do método mecânico, constituído de duas seqüências de aração + gradeação, na época "seca", com aplicações complementares dos herbicidas glyphosate (aplicado por duas vezes, trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryne e sulfentrazone, na época "das águas". Além disso, os dois últimos foram testados isoladamente, para se determinar a real necessidade da integração de métodos. A média geral do número de manifestações epígeas da tiririca na área foi de 1.433,4 m-2. Aos 90 dias após o plantio, as porcentagens de redução de manifestações epígeas da tiririca foram de 90,8, 92,3 e 95,4 onde houve integração do método mecânico com trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryne, sulfentrazone e duas aplicações de glyphosate, respectivamente. As reduções de tubérculos viáveis em 0,018 m³ foram de 68,5, 73,9 e 89,4%, nessa mesma época. A utilização de implementos mecânicos (arado + grade na época "seca" potencializou a ação dos herbicidas trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryne e sulfentrazone nas "águas", porém estes herbicidas já resolvem o problema do controle, evitando reduções de produção e diminuindo gradativamente o potencial de infestação, com aplicações individualizadas por época do plantio da cultura.This work evaluated the integration of the mechanical method, consisting of two sequences of plowing + disking operations during the dry season (winter, with complementary applications of glyphosate (2x applied, trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryne and sulfentrazone herbicides, during the wet season (summer on Cyperus rotundus management under sugarcane rotation system. Applications of trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryne and sulfentrazone alone were also tested. The total average of the number of Cyperus rotundus shoots was 1,433.4 m-2. At 90 days after sugar-cane planting, shoot reductions were 90.8; 92.3 and 95.4% with integration of mechanical method and the herbicides

  13. 蔗糖糖蜜发酵生产L-苹果酸的研究%Study on L-MalicAcid Production with the Technique of Cane Molasses Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永成; 蒙诗奎

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The effect of the pre-treatment, oxygen, temperature and N source in cane molasses on L-malic acid production was studied. [ Method] The cane molasses being taken as raw material and Aspergillus flavus AFO5, as original strain, the fermentation conditions for L-malic acid production through the shaking culture were evaluated. [ Result] The pre-treatment of cane molasses alleviated the inhibition of the harmful substance in cane molasses to the growth of Aspergillus flavus AFO5 and promoted L-malic acid formation. The yield of L-malic acid by pre-treated cane molasses was increased by one time as that by un-treated cane molasses. Under the condition of 70 - 100 ml medium dosage in a 500 ml flask and the rotation speed of 200 -250 r/min, an optimum oxygen level for L-malic acid production was got. In addition the optimum temperature of 35 ℃ and (NH4)2SO4 of 1.0 g/L were required for L-malic acid production. [ Conclusion] L-malic acid was steadily produced in pre-treated cane molasses medium.%[目的]研究蔗糖糖蜜预处理、供氧、温度与N源对生产L-苹果酸的影响.[方法]以黄曲霉AF05为出发菌株,蔗糖糖蜜为主要生产原料,通过摇床培养考察糖蜜生产L-苹果酸的发酵条件.[结果]糖蜜预处理能减少糖蜜中有害物质对黄曲霉AF05生长的抑制作用并能促进L-苹果酸的合成,预处理后L-苹果酸含量提高了1倍;当500 ml三角瓶装培养液70~100 ml及摇床转速200~250 r/min时,可获得L-苹果酸合成所需的适合溶氧水平;黄曲霉AF05合成L-苹果酸的最适温度为35 ℃,另外糖蜜培养基需添加1.0 g/L 硫酸铵为N源.[结论] 糖蜜经预处理后,能稳定合成L-苹果酸.

  14. Compostos Secundários em Cachaças Produzidas no Estado de Minas Gerais Secundary Compounds in Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirits (“Cachaça” Manufactured in Minas Gerais State

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    Norma Eliane Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes da cachaça classificados como secundários constituem um grupo de produtos minoritários oriundos do processo de fermentação. Esses, especialmente os ésteres e aldeídos, são responsáveis pelo aroma e sabor dos destilados em geral, porém, quando se encontram acima dos limites estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, podem comprometer a qualidade da cachaça e ser prejudicial à saúde. Com o intuito de avaliar os compostos secundários de aguardentes provenientes de várias localidades do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas 45 amostras aleatoriamente e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise Físico-Química de Aguardente (LAFQA da UFLA, no período de agosto de 2000 a julho de 2001. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que há diferenças altamente significativas entre as amostras analisadas para acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos e álcoois superiores. De todas as amostras analisadas, sete apresentaram excesso de álcoois superiores, duas de aldeídos e três de acidez volátil; portanto, 24,44% das aguardentes encontravam-se fora dos padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pelo MAPA (1997.The Brazilian sugar-cane spirit chemical compounds classified like secondary compounds are one group of Brazilian sugar-cane spirit minor compounds formed during the fermentation process. That compounds are important for the taste and flavor of spirits in general, mainly esters and aldehydes. However, that compounds are above the standard quality established by Agriculture Ministry (MAPA, they can affect the Brazilian sugar-cane spirit quality and be harmful to the health. Aiming to evaluate the sugar-cane spirit secondary compounds from diverse sites at Minas Gerais State, 45 samples were randomized sampled and taken to the Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirit Analysis Laboratory of UFLA during the period of August of 2000 to July of 2001. The results showed that there were high and significant statistical

  15. Clinical evaluation of semiautonomous smart wheelchair architecture (Drive-Safe System with visually impaired individuals

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    Vinod Sharma, PhD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.

  16. "Cane" and Its Discontents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Reginald

    2000-01-01

    Explores how the issue of race is enmeshed in a complex web of social relations that also include love, sex, gender, economics, and violence. Suggests how a consideration of modernist primitivism and Sigmund Freud's ideas on the individual's relationship to society can provide frameworks for further analysis of two of the stories in Jean Toomer's…

  17. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, James [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States); Comstock, Jack C. [USDA ARS Sugarcane Field Station, Canal Point, FL (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Phenotyping Methods: The accessions (which includes 21 taxa and 1,177 accessions) in the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses (WCSRG) was evaluated for the following traits: arenchyma, internode length and diameter, pubescence, pith, Brix, stalk number and fiber. A core of 300 accessions that included each species in the World Collection was selected by using the Maximization Strategy in MStrat software. Results: The core had a higher diversity rating than random selections of 300 accessions. The Shannon–Weaver Diversity Index scores of the core and whole collection were similar indicating that the majority of the diversity was captured by the core collection. The ranges and medians between the core and WCSRG were similar; only two of the trait medians were not significant at P = 0.05 using the non-parametric Wilcoxon method and the coincidence rate (CR % = 96.2) was high (>80) indicating that extreme values were retained. Thus, the phenotypic diversity of these traits in the WCSRG was well represented by the core collection. Associations Methods: Genotypic and phenotypic data were collected for 1002 accessions of the WCSRG including 209 SSR markers. Association analysis was performed using both General Linear (GLM) and Maximum Likelihood (MLM) models. Different core collections with 300 accessions each were selected based on genotypic, phenotypic and combined data