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Sample records for cane bagasse ash

  1. Paving Geopolimer Berbahan Dasar Bottom Ash dan Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Freddya Eka Prasandha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak— Penelitian ini berfokus pada pemanfaatan bottom ash sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan paving geopolimer. Diketahui bahwa bottom ash merupakan limbah hasil pembakaran batu bara yang jarang dimanfaatkan dibandingkan dengan fly ash. Selain itu digunakan SCBA (Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash sebagai sumber silika aktif untuk menambah kandungan silika pada bottom ash. Agregat atau filler pada paving geopolimer menggunakan abu batu, sedangkan untuk binder (pengikat menggunakan larutan alkali aktifator. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa semakin banyak penambahan berat SCBA pada paving geopolimer justru menurunkan kualitas dari paving tersebut. Dari pengujian kuat tekan paving diperoleh hasil kuat tekan maksimal pada umur 28 hari dengan penambahan berat SCBA 0%, yaitu sebesar 11.60 MPa. Nilai keausan paling besar terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 35%, yaitu yaitu sebesar 3.12 mm/menit, sedangkan keausan paling kecil terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 30% yaitu sebesar 0.72 mm/menit, terjadi ketimpangan nilai keausan paving dikarenakan benda uji terendam banjir sehingga menyebabkan perbedaan kualitas antar paving dalam pengujian keausan, sedangkan resapan air paving paling kecil terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 0% yaitu sebesar 10.58%. Sehingga diperoleh kesimpulan akhir bahwa paving geopolimer tidak memenuhi persyaratan standar paving berdasarkan SNI 03-0691-1996 namun memenuhi syarat untuk dijadikan bata sebagai pasangan dinding kelas I berdasarkan SNI 03-0349-1989.

  2. Mechanical behavior of cementitious composites with processed sugar cane bagasse ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Augusto C.S.; Saraiva, Sergio L.C.; Sena, Natalia O.; Pereira, Gabriela M.; Rodrigues, Conrado S.; Ferreira, Maria C.N.F.; Castro, Laurenn W.A.; Silva, Marcos V.M.S.; Gomes, Romero C.; Aguilar, Maria T.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is waste from the sugar and ethanol industry and is primarily intended for burning in boilers to generate energy. As waste from the cogeneration of energy, sugar cane bagasse ashes (SCBA) are produced with no honorable destination. This paper studies the use of SCBA to partially replace Portland cement in producing cementitious composites. The ashes were processed by reburning and grinding, and after processing were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, laser granulometry, and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. After characterization, cement compounds were fashioned, replacing 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the cement with SCBA. The composites were mechanically evaluated by means of compression strength tests, tensile strength tests by bending. The results proved significant, indicating the possible use of SCBA when added to the cement on manufacture. (author)

  3. Micro-analytical studies on sugar cane bagasse ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chennai 600 113, India. 3Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Road Transport and Technology,. Erode 638 316 ... burning bagasse is generally used as Supplementary Cementing Material (SCM) in concrete production without proper knowledge of pozzolanic material characteri- zation. This paper summarizes the ...

  4. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  5. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as supplementary material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneth Torres Agredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar Cane Bagasse is a by-product of the sugar agroindustry; it is partly used as fuel. However, bagasse ash (SCBA is considered waste, which creates a disposal problem. Furthermore, if sugar cane bagasse is burned under controlled conditions, the SCBA can be potentially reused. This paper considers the technical viability of using SCBA as a partial replacement for cement. Two samples of SCBA from a Colombian sugar industry were characterized. The chemical composition of the samples shows high percentages of silica, 76.3% and 63.2%. The mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the waste were determined by X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The pozzolanic activity of SCBA was evaluated using the Frattini test and the strength activity index test (SAI. The ASTM C618 defines an SAI of at least 75% as a requirement for classifying material as a pozzolan. This condition was achieved in the experiments performed. The results indicate that SCBA produced in the manufacture of commercial cements can be recycled for use as pozzolanic material. This supplementary material can partially replace cement and therefore reduce CO2 emissions.

  6. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. RESEARCH OF KINETIC AND DIFFUSIVE MECHANISMS IN THE ADSORPTION OF Cu (II IN SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Omar Prieto García

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a kinetic and diffusive study regarding adsorption of ions Cu (II on a sample of sugar cane bagasse ash is made. The results show that the second-order kinetic model better adjusts the experimental data than the Elovich and first-order kinetic model. The diffusive mechanism study shows that the diffusion in the liquid pellicle and in the micro-pores of the adsorbent prevail in the adsorption phenomenon.

  8. Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldelli, Vinícius N; Akasaki, Jorge L; Melges, José L P; Tashima, Mauro M; Soriano, Lourdes; Borrachero, María V; Monzó, José; Payá, Jordi

    2013-07-25

    Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter ( ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part of the BFS by SCBA from 0 to 40% by weight. The mechanical strength of mortar was measured, obtaining values about 60 MPa of compressive strength for BFS/SCBA systems after 270 days of curing at 20 °C. Also, microstructural properties were assessed by means of SEM, TGA, XRD, pH, electrical conductivity, FTIR spectroscopy and MIP. Results showed a good stability of matrices developed by means of alkali-activation. It was demonstrated that sugar cane bagasse ash is an interesting source for preparing alkali-activated binders.

  9. Compressive strength and interfacial transition zone of sugar cane bagasse ash concrete: A comparison to the established pozzolans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Asma Abd Elhameed; Shafiq, Nasir; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2015-05-01

    Agricultural and industrial by-products are commonly used in concrete production as cement replacement materials (CRMs) or as admixtures to enhance both fresh and hardened properties of concrete as well as to save the environment from the negative effects caused by their disposal. Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) is one of the promising CRMs, it is used as a partial replacement of cement for producing concrete; properties of such concrete depend on the chemical composition, fineness, and burning temperature of SCBA. Approximately 1500 Million tons of sugarcane are annually produced over all the world which leave about 40-45% bagasse after juice crushing for sugar industry giving an average annual production of about 600 Million tons of bagasse as a waste material. This paper presents some findings on the effect of SCBA on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of interfacial zone of concrete and its performance is compared to some of the established CRMs namely Densified Silica Fume, Fly Ash and Microwave Incinerated Rice Husk Ash.

  10. Penggunaan Limbah Hasil Pembakaran Batu Bara dan Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA pada Paving Geopolimer dengan Proses Steam Curing

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    Dimas Setiyo Nugroho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash merupakan limbah sisa pembakaran batu bara disamping fly ash yang saat ini tidak banyak dimanfaatkan. Di dalam penelitian ini bahan dasar yang digunakan adalah bottom ash dan larutan alkali sebagai pengikat untuk membuat bahan dasar paving geopolimer. Abu batu digunakan sebagai filler. Selain itu bahan lain yang digunakan adalah SCBA (Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash / abu ampas tebu untuk menambah sumber silika aktif pada bottom ash. Sebelum digunakan SCBA dikalsinasi pada suhu 850oC selama 7 jam. Dalam penelitian ini, benda uji yang digunakan adalah paving berukuran 20cm x 10cm x 8cm. Selain itu dibuat variasi pembakaran SCBA antara lain 450oC selama 6 jam; 600oC selama 3 jam; dan 850oC selama 3 jam sebagai pembanding. Paving yang terbuat dari fly ash dari PT. Petrokimia digunakan sebagai pembanding terhadap bottom ash. Seluruh paving dicetak dengan menggunakan alat pres manual di laboratorium. Didapat hasil bahwa semakin banyak berat SCBA dalam campuran, akan menurunkan kualitas paving. Kuat tekan maksimum terdapat pada variasi 0% SCBA pada umur 28 hari dengan kuat tekan rata-rata sebesar 9.65 MPa, resapan air sebesar 8.68%, dan ketahanan aus sebesar 0.61 mm/menit. Disimpulkan bahwa, perawatan steam tidak memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan paving geopolimer yang tidak di-steam.

  11. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash as raw material for the production of ceramics; Caracterizacao de cinzas de bagaco de cana como materia prima para producao de ceramica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredericci, C.; Indelicato, R.L.; Ferreira Neto, J.B.; Ribeiro, T.R.; Landgraf, F.J.G., E-mail: catiaf@ipt.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Metalurgia e Materiais Ceramicos; Silva, G.F.B. Lenz e [Universidade de Sao Paulo (Poli/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the sugar cane bagasse ash from three Sugar and Alcohol Plant of the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. We intend to show the discrepancies between them, so that this raw material could be used with greater quality control in ceramic industries. The bagasse were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and scanning electron microscopy. The ashes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and granulometric separation. The results indicated that the content of SiO{sub 2} ranging from 50-80% by weight depends on the granulometry of the bagasse and on the region where it was collected. The analyses of X-ray diffraction indicate SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Mg{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} as crystalline phases. (author)

  12. Characterization of a wollastonite glass-ceramic material prepared using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) as one of the raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Silvio R., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Souza, Agda E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia — FCT, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente — SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Claudio L.; Reynoso, Victor C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira — FEIS, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira – SP (Brazil); Romero, Maximina; Rincón, Jesús Ma. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja — IETCC, CSIC, 28033 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Glass-ceramic material prepared with sugar cane bagasse ash as one of the raw materials was characterized to determine some important properties for its application as a coating material. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that wollastonite-2M (CaSiO{sub 3}) was the major glass-ceramic phase. The Rietveld method was used to quantify the crystalline (60 wt.%) and vitreous (40 wt.%) phases in the glass-ceramic. The microstructure (determined by scanning electron microscopy) of this material had a marble appearance, showing a microporous network of elongated crystals with some areas with dendritic, feather-like ordering. Microhardness data gave a mean hardness value of 564.4 HV (Vickers-hardness), and light microscopy disclosed a greenish brown colored material with a vitreous luster. - Highlights: • We studied the properties of a glass-ceramic material obtained from sugarcane ash. • This material has the appearance and hardness of natural stones. • A refining method gave information about its amorphous and crystalline phases. • This material has potential to be used as coating plates for buildings.

  13. Influence of initial CaO/SiO2 ratio on the hydration of rice husk ash-Ca(OH2 and sugar cane bagasse ash-Ca(OH2 pastes

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    Lourdes Maria Silva de Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study on the hydration of pastes containing calcium hydroxide and either rice husk ash (RHA or sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA in various initial CaO/SiO2 molar ratios. The products of the reactions were characterized by thermal analyses X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of the RHA pastes, the product was composed of CaO-SiO2-H2O (type I C-S-H or CaO-SiO2-H2O (type II C-S-H according to the CaO/SiO2 ratio of the mixture. In contrast, in the case of the SBCA pastes, the product was composed primarily of CaO-SiO2-H2O that differed from both the previous types; the product also contained inclusions of calcium aluminate hydrates.

  14. Caracterização de cinza do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar para emprego como pozolana em materiais cimentícios Characterization of sugar cane bagasse ash for use as pozzolan in cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Chagas Cordeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of morphological and physical-chemical characteristics of a sugar cane bagasse ash material sample produced under controlled burning conditions. The investigation was carried out by analyzing chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, morphology, thermal analysis, particle size, specific surface, and density. Moreover, the pozzolanic activity of the ash was evaluated by pozzolanic activity index and Chapelle's method. The results suggest that the sugar cane bagasse ash has adequate properties to be used as pozzolan in construction materials.

  15. Feasibility analysis of the use of sugar cane bagasse ash as mineral addition to cementitious mortars; Analise da viabilidade de utilizacao da cinza do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como adicao mineral em argamassas cimenticias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Pereira, A.M.; Moraes, M.J.B. de; Akasaki, J.L.; Sanches, A.O.; Malmonge, J. A., E-mail: jvfazzan@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Departamento de Fisica e Quimica

    2014-07-01

    Currently, Brazil is experiencing an expansion of sugarcane plantations, which makes the country the world's largest producer of sugarcane. With the bagasse generated during the process, is generated the bagasse ash cane sugar (CBC) which consists mainly of silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) and presents as potential alternative raw material for the production of cement composites. In this context, the objective of this study is to evaluate the reactivity of the CBC through physical and chemical analysis, for the production of mortars. The study of the CBC was performed by means of XRF testing, XRD, SEM and ADL. Mortar specimens with different percentages of CBC in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength were also produced. Despite the mixtures with additions have lower resistance to conventional mortars, the results showed the potential of the CBC as reactive mineral addition. (author)

  16. Fiber degradability of sugar cane bagasse treated by alkaline solutions, through the “in situ” nylon bag technique

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    Sérgio Carlo Franco Morgulis

    1996-09-01

    treated bagasse (A was higher than in B or C treatments; degradability of B was higher than in C at 72h and 96h of incubation time. NDF degradability at 48 hour incubation time showed the following results: A = 74.0%; B = 41.6% and C = 35.7%. In conclusion, alkaline (NaOH and wood ash treated sugar cane bagasse improves ruminal degradability, and NaOH is better than wood ash.

  17. Influence of calcination temperature in pozolanicity of gray sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.A.; Argolo, R.A.; Andrade, H.M.C.; Ribeiro, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    BCA (Sugar Cane Bagasse) is burned in boilers in the process of electricity cogeneration causing the generation of CBCA (Gray Sugar Cane Bagasse), which is the final residue of sucroalcooeira industry. Currently, several studies seek alternative materials that can replace Portland cement, promoting discussions on the use of pozzolanic materials in cementitious matrices. Thus, this research seeks to analyze the pozzolanicity the CBCA, obtained by calcining the residue at different temperatures, to be determined by TG / DTG and DTA tests. For analysis of pozzolanicity these ashes were used electrical conductivity techniques, chemical titration NP EN 196-5, chapelle modified NBR 15895/2010 and the IAP method (Activity Index pozzolanic NBR:5752). The results obtained during the study demostraramm no difference between the ash calcined at temperatures of 500 ° C, 600 ° C and 700 ° C. (author)

  18. Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains | Diallo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains. ... These bacterial additives allowed greater biodegradation compared to control compost. The inoculated composts were more degraded than the control compost with compost3 which presented the highest OM loss with 91.37%, compost1 with 90.15% and compost2 ...

  19. Enhancing of sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis by Annulohypoxylon stygium glycohydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Diogo; Costa, Patrícia dos Santos; Büchli, Fernanda; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Squina, Fabio Marcio; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval; Padilla, Gabriel; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioprocess for the production of β-glucosidase and pectinase from the fungus Annulohypoxylon stygium DR47. Media optimization and bioreactor cultivation using citrus bagasse and soybean bran were explored and revealed a maximum production of 6.26 U/mL of pectinase at pH 4.0 and 10.13 U/mL of β-glucosidase at pH 5.0. In addition, the enzymes extracts were able to replace partially Celluclast 1.5L in sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis. Proteomic analysis from A. stygium cultures revealed accessory enzymes, mainly belong to the families GH3 and GH54, that would support enhancement of commercial cocktail saccharification yields. This is the first report describing bioreactor optimization for enzyme production from A. stygium with a view for more efficient degradation of sugar cane bagasse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING BAGASSE ASH & LIME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tekimerry

    Keywords: Expansive soil, bagasse ash, lime, plasticity, compaction and strength characteristics. INTRODUCTION. Expansive clays are known to exhibits dual .... Variations of plasticity index with the addition of 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 3% lime in combination with/plus 15% bagasse ash are presented in Fig. 1.

  1. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the potential use of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement replacement material. In this study, bagasse ash sample was collected from Wonji sugar factory and its chemical properties were investigated. The bagasse ash was then ground until the particles passing the 63μm sieve size reach about ...

  2. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo, E-mail: augustobezerra@des.cefetmg.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de, E-mail: laurenn@cemig.com [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Gomes, Romero Cesar, E-mail: romero@nugeo.ufop.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino, E-mail: teresa@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  3. Effect of partial replacement with thermally processed sugar cane bagasse on the properties of mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Augusto Cesar da Silva; Saraiva, Sergio Luis Costa; Lara, Luis Felipe dos Santos; Rodrigues, Conrado de Souza; Ferreira, Maria Cecilia Novaes Firmo; Castro, Laurenn Wolochate Aracema de; Gomes, Romero Cesar; Aguilar, Maria Teresa Paulino

    2017-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is a residue of the sugar-alcohol industry, and its main destination is represented by burning boilers for power generation. The bagasse cogeneration of power produces a sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) residue that does not have a useful destination. Ashes are commonly studied as pozzolan in Portland cement production. International Standards indicate the use of pozzolan with up to 50% substitution. In the present work, we investigate the use of SCBA as an addition in Portland cement. For this purpose, Portland cement was prepared by substituting cement with 0, 10, 20, and 30% processed SCBA in volume. The ashes were processed by re-burning and grinding and were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Xray diffraction, laser granulometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, the Chapelle method, and pozollanic activity. To evaluate the cement with substitution, we used the mortar recommended by NBR 7215. The mechanical properties of the cements with replacement were analysed through tests of the compressive strength and flexural strength of mortars. The results appear interesting and support the possible use of SCBA in the production of cement from the aspect of mechanical properties evaluated. (author)

  4. Combustion of thermochemically torrefied sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the upgrading of sugar bagasse by thermochemical and dry torrefaction methods and their corresponding combustion behavior relative to raw bagasse. The combustion reactivities were examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochemical torrefaction was carried out by chemical pre-treatment of bagasse with acid followed by heating at 160-300°C in nitrogen environment, while dry torrefaction followed the same heating treatment without the chemical pretreatment. The results showed thermochemical torrefaction generated chars with combustion properties that are closer to various ranks of coal, thus making it more suitable for co-firing applications. Thermochemical torrefaction also induced greater densification of bagasse with a 335% rise in bulk density to 340kg/m 3 , increased HHV mass and HHV volume , greater charring and aromatization and storage stability. These features demonstrate the potential of thermochemical torrefaction in addressing the practical challenges in using biomass such as bagasse as fuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of sugar-cane bagasse ash to produce glass-ceramic material in the system Ca O-SiO2-Na2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Santos, G.T.A.; Magalhaes, R.S.; Rincon, J.Ma.; Romero, M.; Carvalho, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bottom ash was used as raw material to obtain glass which was crystallized to form glass-ceramic material. The characterization of the ash shows that it consists mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with oxides of iron, potassium and aluminum as minor elements. The glass was obtained from the mixing of ash with calcium and sodium carbonates. The glass and the glass-ceramic were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD and DTA data show that Wollastonita is the only crystalline phase present in the material crystallized at 1050 deg C. Part of the glass was synthesized at this temperature for one hour, resulting in a green/brown hard material glass-ceramic. The images of SEM show morphology of spherilithic growth indicating volumetric crystallization mechanism. (author)

  6. Post-processing, energy production use of sugarcane bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is a multi-process by-product produced from the milling of sugarcane. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sugar, water, and other impurities from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Louisiana produces an estimated 2.7 mt of bagasse each year. In ...

  7. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascon, M.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Eduard, W.; van Wendel de Joode, B.N.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. METHODS: Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five

  8. Stabilization of expansive soil using bagasse ash & lime | Wubshet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7-5 soil on the AASHTO classification was stabilized using 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 15% bagasse ash in combination with 3% lime by dry weight of the soil. The effect of the additives on the soil was investigated with respect to plastcity, ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM SEEDLINGS IN SUBSTRATA WITH SUGAR CANE BAGASSE ASH DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Annona crassiflora Mart. (ARATICUM EM SUBSTRATOS COM CINZA DE BAGAÇO DE CANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Luiza Salgado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The effect of five growing media, in different proportions of subsoil, limestone, and sugar cane bagasse ash, in the height, stem diameter, and fresh and dry weight of the aerial part and roots of araticum seedlings (Annona crassiflora Mart. was analyzed. The five growing media were

  10. Decomposition of lignin from sugar cane bagasse during ozonation process monitored by optical and mass spectrometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Corrêa, J A; Ridenti, M A; Oliveira, C; Araújo, S R; Amorim, J

    2013-03-21

    Mass spectrometry was used to monitor neutral chemical species from sugar cane bagasse that could volatilize during the bagasse ozonation process. Lignin fragments and some radicals liberated by direct ozone reaction with the biomass structure were detected. Ozone density was monitored during the ozonation by optical absorption spectroscopy. The optical results indicated that the ozone interaction with the bagasse material was better for bagasse particle sizes less than or equal to 0.5 mm. Both techniques have shown that the best condition for the ozone diffusion in the bagasse was at 50% of its moisture content. In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to analyze the lignin bond disruptions and morphology changes of the bagasse surface that occurred due to the ozonolysis reactions as well. Appropriate chemical characterization of the lignin content in bagasse before and after its ozonation was also carried out.

  11. Enhancing the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Djarwanti, Noegroho; Umri Ukoi, Nafisah

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with stabilization of expansive soil on a laboratory experimental basis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the enhancement of the engineering properties of expansive soil using bagasse ash. The soil is treated with bagasse ash by weight (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) based on dry mass. The performance of bagasse ash stabilized soil was evaluated using physical and strength performance tests, namely the plasticity index, standard Proctor compaction, and percentage swelling. An X-ray diffraction (XRD) test was conducted to evaluate the clay mineral, whereas an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was to the chemical composition of bagasse ash. From the results, it was observed that the basic tests carried out proved some soil properties after the addition of bagasse ash. Furthermore, the plasticity index decreased from 53.18 to 47.70%. The maximum dry density of the specimen increased from 1.13 to 1.24 gr/cm3. The percentage swelling decreased from 5.48 to 3.29%. The outcomes of these tests demonstrate that stabilization of expansive soils using bagasse ash can improve the strength.

  12. Glass-Ceramic Material from the SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO System Using Sugar-Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhaes, R S; Souza, A E; Santos, G T A; Silva, R A [Universidade Estadual Paulista - Unesp/FCT - Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Romero, M; Ma Rincon, J, E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.br [Instituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion - IETCC/CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-29

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of alcohol and sugar from sugarcane. Currently, sugarcane bagasse is burned in boilers to produce steam and electrical energy, producing a huge volume of ash. The major component of the ash is SiO{sub 2}, and among the minor components there are some mineralizing agents or fluxing. Published works have shown the potential of transforming silicate-based residues into glass-ceramic products of great utility. This work reports the research results of SCBA use to produce glass-ceramics with wollastonite, rankinite and gehlenite as the major phases. These silicates have important applications as building industry materials, principally wollastonite, due to their special properties: high resistance to weathering, zero water absorption, and hardness among others. The glasses (frits) were prepared mixing ash, calcium carbonate and sodium or potassium carbonates as flux agents, in different concentrations. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization kinetics was evaluated using the Kissinger method, giving activation energies ranging from 200 to 600 kJ/mol.

  13. Influence of calcination temperature in pozolanicity of gray sugar cane bagasse; Influencia da temperatura de calcinacao na pozolanicidade da cinza de bagaco de cana-de-acucar (CBCA))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, T.A.; Argolo, R.A.; Andrade, H.M.C.; Ribeiro, D.V., E-mail: tiagoassuncao@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    BCA (Sugar Cane Bagasse) is burned in boilers in the process of electricity cogeneration causing the generation of CBCA (Gray Sugar Cane Bagasse), which is the final residue of sucroalcooeira industry. Currently, several studies seek alternative materials that can replace Portland cement, promoting discussions on the use of pozzolanic materials in cementitious matrices. Thus, this research seeks to analyze the pozzolanicity the CBCA, obtained by calcining the residue at different temperatures, to be determined by TG / DTG and DTA tests. For analysis of pozzolanicity these ashes were used electrical conductivity techniques, chemical titration NP EN 196-5, chapelle modified NBR 15895/2010 and the IAP method (Activity Index pozzolanic NBR:5752). The results obtained during the study demostraramm no difference between the ash calcined at temperatures of 500 ° C, 600 ° C and 700 ° C. (author)

  14. Adsorption of gold (III) from aqueous solutions on bagasse ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, G.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential of cheap biomass materials for the recovery of gold from industrial, and electroplating waste water effluents, adsorption of gold (III) from dilute solutions of hydrochloric acid on bagasse ash has been studied under various experimental conditions by using batch technique. Percentage extraction of gold (III) on bagasse ash was determined from its distribution coefficients as a function of contact time, pH, adsorbent, adsorbate concentrations, and temperature. The uptake of gold (III) by bagasse ash is time, pH, metal concentration, amount of adsorbate, and temperature dependent. Adsorption data have been interpreted in terms of Langmuir, and the Freundlich equations. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash have been determined at three different temperatures. The positive value of heat of adsorption; delta H 44.52 kJ/mol shows that the adsorption of gold (III) on bagasse ash is endothermic where as the negative value of delta G = -0.5303 kJ/mol at 318 K shows the spontaneity of the process. Delta G becomes more negative with increase in temperature which shows that the adsorption is more favorable at higher temperatures. Under the optimal adsorption conditions the adsorption capacity of gold is 0.70 mg /g of the adsorbent out of which 0.65 mg of gold gets desorbed with 0.1 % thiourea solution. (author)

  15. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Kromhout, Hans; Heederik, Dick; Eduard, Wijnand; van Wendel de Joode, Berna

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departments at one refinery before the harvesting season, and repeated for 77 of the workers at the end of the season. Information on the prevalence of respiratory and other symptoms was collected with a standardised questionnaire. During the harvesting season, inhalable dust, endotoxin and mould levels were measured among 74 randomly selected sugar cane workers across departments. During the harvesting season, dust levels were relatively high in some departments, while endotoxin and mould levels were around background levels. Workers' ventilatory lung function differed between departments before, but not during the harvesting season or between seasons. During the harvesting season, the prevalence of wheeze and eye problems almost doubled in workers exposed to bagasse and other types of dust, whereas shortness of breath and rhinitis increased only in bagasse-exposed workers. Reporting wheeze and shortness of breath was positively associated with the number of years working at the refinery, suggesting a long-term health effect. In this refinery, the differences in workers' ventilatory lung function before the harvesting season are unlikely to be explained by bagasse exposure. However, the increase in reported symptoms (wheeze, shortness of breath, eye problems and rhinitis) over the season is likely due to irritation by dust, in particular bagasse, rather than microbiological agents.

  16. Vegetable seedling production with sugarcane bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 380,000 ac and 12.8 million tons of harvested sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar (brown sugar), and an estimated 3 million tons of the fibrous plant residue called bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after remov...

  17. Pyrolysis of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse: non-isothermal thermogravimetric kinetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounas, A; Aboulkas, A; El Harfi, K; Bacaoui, A; Yaacoubi, A

    2011-12-01

    Thermal degradation and kinetics for olive residue and sugar cane bagasse have been evaluated under dynamic conditions in the presence of nitrogen atmosphere, using a non-isothermal thermogravimetric method (TGA). The effect of heating rate was evaluated in the range of 2-50 K min(-1) providing significant parameters for the fingerprinting of the biomass. The DTG plot for the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse clearly shows that the bagasse begins to degrade at 473 K and exhibits two major peaks. The initial mass-loss was associated with hemicellulose pyrolysis and responsible for the first peak (538-543 K) whereas cellulose pyrolysis was initiated at higher temperatures and responsible for the second peak (600-607 K). The two biomass mainly devolatilized around 473-673 K, with total volatile yield of about 70-75%. The char in final residue was about 19-26%. Mass loss and mass loss rates were strongly affected by heating rate. It was found that an increase in heating rate resulted in a shift of thermograms to higher temperatures. Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were applied to determine apparent activation energy to the olive residue and sugar cane bagasse. Two different steps were detected with apparent activation energies in the 10-40% conversion range have a value of 153-162 kJ mol(-1) and 168-180 kJ mol(-1) for the hemicellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. In the 50-80% conversion range, this value is 204-215 kJ mol(-1) and 231-240 kJ mol(-1) for the cellulose degradation of olive residue and sugar cane bagasse, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sodium and steam-treated sugar- cane bagasse in low and high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and steam-treated sugar- cane bagasse in low and high fibre fattening diets for lambs. G.A. Jacobs*. Tongaat Milling Limited, P.O. Box 13, Maidstone, 4380 Republic of. South Africa. B.D.H. van Niekerk. Epol, Box 3006, Johannesburg, 2000 Republic of South Africa. *To whom correspondence should be addressed.

  19. (Sugar Cane) Bagasse and Parkia Biglobosa (Locust Bean)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were formed from the saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) bagasse and parkia biglobosa (locust bean) pods and their effectiveness in the treatment of domestic wastewater were compared. The activated carbons were obtained from carbonised sugarcane bagasse and locust beanpod at a temperature of ...

  20. Effect NaOH Concentration on Bagasse Ash Based Geopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is a natural adhesive material which can be developed as a substitute for cement. The natural ingredients which want to use should contain silica and alumina. This paper uses bagasse ash as a basic material of mortar geopolymer. As an adhesive, the bagasse ash should be mixed with water and another activator alkali such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3. The NaOHs molarity variation are 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 M with Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1,0 sand/bagasse ash = 2,75 and activator/bagasse ash = 0,42. This research use 50 × 50 × 50 mm cube sized specimen and conduct a compressive strength test with 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The fresh mortar test result showed that the use of NaOHs molarity variation influences the slump value and time setting. The bigger NaOH molarity variation that been used, the smaller slump value. But, the time setting is increased. While the result for density and compressive strength shown that the bigger NaOH molarity variation, the bigger density and the compressive strength. Maximum compressive strength resulted from the mixture of mortar geopolymer with 16 M concentration.

  1. Modulation of sugar cane bagasse pneumatic drying in a vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombino Matos, Eugenio F.; Roca Alarcón, Guillermo A.; Marín Morán, Jorge E.

    2013-01-01

    Taking in account the studies carried out about the vortex movement of bagasse particles, the study of pneumatic drying of this important biomass was carried out considering the heat and mass transfer. The drying process was modeled through the fundamentals equations which describe the kinetic of it and the obtained results were compared with results reported in the specialized literature on drying measurements in others kinds of bagasse pneumatics dryers under the same conditions of operation. This modulation permitted to made simulations of this process which produced acceptable results about the decrease humidity values of bagasse and it will permit to continue in the development of next studies about this topic because it is evident that it is possible to reduce bagasse dryer dimensions. (author)

  2. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Cardoso, Vanessa M.; Mori, Manoel N.; Duarte, Celina L.

    2009-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  3. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  4. Sugar cane bagasse pretreatment: An attempt to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    +1.5%NaOH. The pretreatment of bagasse with 2.0% H2O2 along with 1.5% NaOH enhanced the biosynthesis of cellulases by H. insolens. Production rate was also optimized with different parameters like thickness of fermentation medium, ...

  5. Multiscale Alterations in Sugar Cane Bagasse and Straw Submitted to Alkaline Deacetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Cleilton S. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rabelo, Sarita C. [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Ciesielski, Peter N. [Biosciences Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Roberto, Inês C. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Rocha, George J. M. [Department of Biotechnology, Engineering College of Lorena, University of São Paulo, 12602-810 Lorena, São Paulo, Brazil; Driemeier, Carlos [Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials (CNPEM), 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    2018-01-31

    Alkaline deacetylation has emerged as a promising chemistry for pretreatments performed prior to enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. This process avoids complex pressurized reactors and opens new opportunities for lignin covalorization. In this work, we evaluate the chemical and morphological response of sugar cane bagasse and straw submitted to alkaline treatments. Alkaline solutions for deacetylation (0.4% w/w NaOH, 70 degrees C, 3 h) as well as proximal conditions (0.1-0.7% NaOH, 55-85 degrees C, 1-5 h) chosen by 23 experimental design were evaluated. The deacetylation treatment removes ~90% of the acetyl groups and 20-30% of the lignin from both bagasse and straw, while removal of ~20% of the xylan and glucan is observed in straw, but not in bagasse. Considering nanoscale structural alterations, neither cellulose cocrystallization (evaluated by X-ray diffraction) nor formation of lignin aggregates (evaluated by thermoporometric signature) are observed after the alkaline conditions, in contrast to observations after hydrothermal treatments. Furthermore, calorimetric thermoporometry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies show substantial introduction of nanoscale porosity and loosening of the tissue and cell wall structures, indicating desirable mechanical weakening and gains in enzyme accessibility. These results provide fundamental and practical knowledge for biorefineries based on alkaline deacetylation of sugar cane bagasse and straw.

  6. The influence of sugarcane bagasse ash as fly ash on cement quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, N.; Damayanti, M. C.; Pratama, S. W. I.

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash often is used as the third material for cement. The fly ash from sugarcane bagasse is usually considered as industrial waste material that can be added to the base material of cement (clinker, trash, gypsum and lime stone) for economic and environment reason. The amount of fly ash usually up to 30 % of cement material, but in this research the percentage of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is added to cement material is up to 15% total weight. Then the x-rays fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine its chemical composition of raw material and cement samples. The physical properties of cement such as fineness, setting time, expansion, and compressive strength were measured using Automatic Blaine, Vicat, Autoclave, respectively. The result show that the percentage of sugarcane bagasse ash influences the quality of cement and concrete, and this is confirmed with Indonesia National Standard (SNI). It is showed that the sugarcane bagasse ash could be use as material to improve the quality of cement and will solve the environment waste material

  7. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Wood Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Grau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomasses are organic materials that are derived from any living or recently-living structure. Plenty of biomasses are produced nationwide. Biomasses are mostly combusted and usually discarded or disposed of without treatment as biomass ashes, which include wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes. Thus, recycling or treatment of biomass ashes leads to utilizing the natural materials as an economical and environmental alternative. This study is intended to provide an environmental solution for uncontrolled disposal of biomass ashes by way of recycling the biomass ash and replacing the soils in geotechnical engineering projects. Therefore, in this study, characteristic tests of wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes that are considered the most common biomass ashes are conducted. The test of chemical compositions of biomass ashes is conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and heavy metal analysis is also conducted. Engineering behaviors including hydraulic conductivity, constrained modulus and shear modulus are examined. Also, coal fly ash Class C is used in this study for comparison with biomass ashes, and Ottawa 20/30 sands containing biomass ashes are examined to identify the soil replacement effect of biomass ashes. The results show that the particle sizes of biomass ashes are halfway between coal fly ash Class C and Ottawa 20/30 sand, and biomass ashes consist of a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and shapes. Also, all heavy metal concentrations were found to be below the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA maximum limit. Hydraulic conductivity values of Ottawa 20/30 sand decrease significantly when replacing them with only 1%–2% of biomass ashes. While both the constrained modulus and shear modulus of biomass ashes are lower than Ottawa 20/30 sand, those of mixtures containing up to 10% biomass ashes are little affected by replacing the soils with biomass ashes.

  8. Power generation using sugar cane bagasse: A heat recovery analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguro, Jean Vittorio

    The sugar industry is facing the need to improve its performance by increasing efficiency and developing profitable by-products. An important possibility is the production of electrical power for sale. Co-generation has been practiced in the sugar industry for a long time in a very inefficient way with the main purpose of getting rid of the bagasse. The goal of this research was to develop a software tool that could be used to improve the way that bagasse is used to generate power. Special focus was given to the heat recovery components of the co-generation plant (economizer, air pre-heater and bagasse dryer) to determine if one, or a combination, of them led to a more efficient co-generation cycle. An extensive review of the state of the art of power generation in the sugar industry was conducted and is summarized in this dissertation. Based on this models were developed. After testing the models and comparing the results with the data collected from the literature, a software application that integrated all these models was developed to simulate the complete co-generation plant. Seven different cycles, three different pressures, and sixty-eight distributions of the flue gas through the heat recovery components can be simulated. The software includes an economic analysis tool that can help the designer determine the economic feasibility of different options. Results from running the simulation are presented that demonstrate its effectiveness in evaluating and comparing the different heat recovery components and power generation cycles. These results indicate that the economizer is the most beneficial option for heat recovery and that the use of waste heat in a bagasse dryer is the least desirable option. Quantitative comparisons of several possible cycle options with the widely-used traditional back-pressure turbine cycle are given. These indicate that a double extraction condensing cycle is best for co-generation purposes. Power generation gains between 40 and

  9. Processing of Sugarcane Bagasse ash and Reactivity of Ash-blended Cement Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Goyal; Hattori, Kunio; Ogata, Hidehiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a sugar-mill waste, has the potential of a partial cement replacement material if processed and obtained under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the reactivity of SCBA obtained by control burning of sugarcane bagasse procured from Punjab province of India. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to ascertain the amorphousness and morphology of the minerals ash particles. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on SCBA-blended mortar specimens. Ash-blended cement paste specimens were analyzed by XRD, thermal analysis, and SEM methods to evaluate the hydration reaction of SCBA with cement. Results showed that the SCBA processed at 600°C for 5 hours was reactive as ash-blended mortar specimens with up to 15% substitution of cement gave better strength than control specimens.

  10. Chemical torrefaction as an alternative to established thermal technology for stabilisation of sugar cane bagasse as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valix, M; Katyal, S; Cheung, W H

    2017-07-01

    Dry and chemical torrefaction of sugar cane bagasse was examined in this study with the aim of stabilising and upgrading the fuel properties of bagasse. Dry torrefaction was conducted at temperatures from 160°C to 300°C under inert conditions, whilst chemical torrefaction incorporated a H 2 SO 4 pre-treatment of bagasse. Chemical torrefaction imparted superior chemical and physical properties inducing morphological transformation and textural development with the potential to address issues in handling, feeding and processing bagasse. It increased the energy density of the chars with maximum HHV mass 21.5 MJ/kg and maximum HHV volume of 7.4 GJ/m 3 . Chemically torrefied bagasse demonstrated resistance against microbiological attack for 18 months. These features demonstrate the practical value of chemical torrefaction in advancing the utilisation of bagasse as fuel.

  11. EVALUATION OF ENERGY COGENERATION FROM SUGAR CANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanserth Abreu Elizundia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were simulated and evaluated five alternatives of cogeneration scheme that promote a higher production of thermal and electrical energies as well as its right management. The first three alternatives are directed to increasing the boiler pressure and a change of steam turbines which are the extraction-condensation type, and then the fourth alternative proposed a boiler change to implement a bubbling fluidized bed and finally in the fifth alternative a scheme of biomass gasification is analyzed. All scheme were analyzed energetic and exergetically. The five cogeneration alternatives were simulated in ASPEN PLUS; they showed that the largest surplus bagasse and electricity are obtained with the scheme of a biomass gasification and the worst results in these parameters were obtained in the alternative that function in low pressure and temperature parameters

  12. Improvement on sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis using enzymatic mixture designed cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussamra, Bianca Consorti; Freitas, Sindelia; Costa, Aline Carvalho da

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study cocktail supplementation for sugar cane bagasse hydrolysis, where the enzymes were provided from both commercial source and microorganism cultivation (Trichoderma reesei and genetically modified Escherichia coli), followed by purification. Experimental simplex lattice mixture design was performed to optimize the enzymatic proportion. The response was evaluated through hydrolysis microassays validated here. The optimized enzyme mixture, comprised of T. reesei fraction (80%), endoglucanase (10%) and β-glucosidase (10%), converted, theoretically, 72% of cellulose present in hydrothermally pretreated bagasse, whereas commercial Celluclast 1.5L converts 49.11%±0.49. Thus, a rational enzyme mixture designed by using synergism concept and statistical analysis was capable of improving biomass saccharification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyclic AMP regulates the biosynthesis of cellobiohydrolase in Cellulomonas flavigena growing in sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Herrera, Jesús Antonio; Pérez-Avalos, Odilia; Salgado, Luis M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    Cellulomonas flavigena produces a battery of cellulase components that act concertedly to degrade cellulose. The addition of cAMP to repressed C. flavigena cultures released catabolic repression, while addition of cAMP to induced C. flavigena cultures led to a cellobiohydrolase hyperproduction. Exogenous cAMP showed positive regulation on cellobiohydrolase production in C. flavigena grown on sugar cane bagasse. A C. flavigena cellobiohydrolase gene was cloned (named celA), which coded for a 71- kDa enzyme. Upstream, a repressor celR1, identified as a 38 kDa protein, was monitored by use of polyclonal antibodies.

  14. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sugarcane bagasse ash as an amendment to a greenhouse growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, research was conducted to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as an amendment to soilless planting media for the production of vegetable seedlings. Typically, the eleven Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel, producing over 60,000 tons of S...

  16. Utilization of nitrogen by soybean (Glycine max) influenced by the addition of sugar cane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, R.; Saito, S.M.T.

    1982-01-01

    N 2 -fixation in soybean and soil-N and 15 N-urea utilization where studied in a glasshouse. Doses of fertilizer were 0, 40 and 80 kgN/ha added either to cultivated - or virgin soil, where sugar cane bagasse was also added (20 ton/ha). Non-nodulating soybean was used as a control to determine the absorption of the three N-sources: soil, fertilizer and N 2 -fixation. The N-immobilization effect caused by bagasse addition was observed even after a pre-incubation period of 40 days, being greater in the cultivated than in the soil without organic matter. Accumulations of N, P and S where also smaller in these plants. Additions of N were not sufficient to equal the values observed in soils without organic matter. Addition of 40 kgN/ha showed a sinergistic and positive effect on treatments that had N-immobilization, reinforcing the idea that starter doses of N are necessary for maximization of nodulation and N 2 -fixation in soybean, in soils with low N. N 2 -fixation contributed with mean values of 54% and 84% N, respectively, in the aerial part and pools in non-treated soil. When bagasse was added, the percentages of N 2 -fixed increased, however in smaller amounts, showing a necessity of different sources of N to increase the total N in plant. The greatest N 2 -fixation (48,6 kgN/ha) was found in the cultivated soil, where only bagasse had been added. (M.A.) [pt

  17. Activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse ash for melanoidins recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, A; Basu, S; Singh, K; Batra, V S; Balakrishnan, M

    2017-09-15

    This work investigates the value added utilization of two sugar-distillery wastes: (i) melanoidins, which are complex Maillard reaction products in molasses distillery wastewater, and (ii) unburnt carbon in sugarcane bagasse ash. Activated unburnt carbon (AUC), prepared by deashing and steam activation, had properties comparable to commercial activated carbon (CAC). Both carbons are suitable for melanoidins adsorption followed by desorption using 25% pyridine solution. For AUC, the equilibrium adsorption data is well described by Langmuir isotherm up to 35 °C while Freundlich model fits better at higher temperature. Adsorption using CAC followed Freundlich isotherm at all temperatures. Both carbons followed pseudo second order kinetics and displayed endothermic physisorption. Recovery of melanoidins from AUC (78%) was close to that observed with CAC (80%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization for Post-treatment Effect of Bagasse Ash for Silica Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Patcharin Worathanakul; Wisaroot Payubnop; Akhapon Muangpet

    2009-01-01

    Utilization of bagasse ash for silica sources is one of the most common application for agricultural wastes and valuable biomass byproducts in sugar milling. The high percentage silica content from bagasse ash was used as silica source for sodium silicate solution. Different heating temperature, time and acid treatment were studies for silica extraction. The silica was characterized using various techniques including X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Scanning electro...

  19. The effect of bagasse ash on the compressive strength of concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research work, the effect of bagasse ash in the production of concrete was investigated. A mix proportion of 1:1.8:3.7with water-cement ratio of 0.47 was used. The percentage replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with bagasse ash is 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40%. Concrete cubes of 150 x 15 x 150 mm of ...

  20. Environmental factors affecting sporulation of Fuligo septica (Myxomycetes on sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappeta Alda de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental factors on sporulation of Fuligo septica (L. Wigg. and the abundance of this species on sugar cane bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L., stored outdoors was studied.In Northeastern Brazil, between January/1997 and January/1998, a total of 29 specimens were collected through monthly collections of aethalia. The relationships between the abundance of aethalia and rainfall, temperature, relative humidity of the air and insolation were studied. Results indicated that on the substrate analyzed, F. septica was an abundant species. Sporulation occurred in all seasons of the year, with a well-defined peak at the end of winter and beginning of spring (August/September,which was strongly influenced by rainfall.

  1. Micro-analytical studies on sugar cane bagasse ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ment in the sample and for the same elements in calibration standards of known composition. EDAX is an analytical technique used for elemental analysis or determination of concentrations of the chemical elements present and the principal in which EDAX spectrometer working is that each voltage pulse is proportional to ...

  2. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  3. Effect of different pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse on cellulase and xylanases production by the mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 grown in submerged culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-01-01

    The main limitation to the industrial scale hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of cellulase production. This study evaluated cellulase and xylanase enzyme production by the cellulolytic mutant Penicillium echinulatum 9A02S1 using pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source. Most cultures grown with pretreated bagasse showed similar enzymatic activities to or higher enzymatic activities than cultures grown with cellulose or untreated sugar cane bagasse. Higher filter paper activity (1.253 ± 0.147 U · mL(-1)) was detected in the medium on the sixth day of cultivation when bagasse samples were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, hydrogen peroxide, and anthraquinone. Endoglucanase enzyme production was also enhanced by pretreatment of the bagasse. Nine cultures grown with bagasse possessed higher β -glucosidase activities on the sixth day than the culture grown with cellulose. The highest xylanase activity was observed in cultures with cellulose and with untreated sugar cane bagasse. These results indicate that pretreated sugar cane bagasse may be able to serve as a partial or total replacement for cellulose in submerged fermentation for cellulase production using P. echinulatum, which could potentially reduce future production costs of enzymatic complexes capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to form fermented syrups.

  4. Optimizing the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse using dilute phosphoric acid followed by fungal cellulases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, C C; Peterson, J J; Roslander, C; Zacchi, G; Mullinnix, M T; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2010-03-01

    A low level of phosphoric acid (1% w/w on dry bagasse basis, 160 degrees C and above, 10 min) was shown to effectively hydrolyze the hemicellulose in sugar cane bagasse into monomers with minimal side reactions and to serve as an effective pre-treatment for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Up to 45% of the remaining water-insoluble solids (WIS) was digested to sugar monomers by a low concentration of Biocellulase W (0.5 filter paper unit/gWIS) supplemented with beta-glucosidase, although much higher levels of cellulase (100-fold) were required for complete hydrolysis. After neutralization and nutrient addition, phosphoric acid syrups of hemicellulose sugars were fermented by ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY160 without further purification. Fermentation of these syrups was preceded by a lag that increased with increased pre-treatment temperature. Further improvements in organisms and optimization of steam treatments may allow the co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose, eliminating need for liquid-solid separation, sugar purification, and separate fermentations. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enzymatic saccharification of sugar cane bagasse by continuous xylanase and cellulase production from cellulomonas flavigena PR-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rejón, Óscar A; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo; Martínez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Mayra

    2016-03-01

    Cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase enzyme production and saccharification of sugar cane bagasse were coupled into two stages and named enzyme production and sugar cane bagasse saccharification. The performance of Cellulomonas flavigena (Cf) PR-22 cultured in a bubble column reactor (BCR) was compared to that in a stirred tank reactor (STR). Cells cultured in the BCR presented higher yields and productivity of both CMCase and xylanase activities than those grown in the STR configuration. A continuous culture with Cf PR-22 was run in the BCR using 1% alkali-pretreated sugar cane bagasse and mineral media, at dilution rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.22 1/h. The highest enzymatic productivity values were found at 0.08 1/h with 1846.4 ± 126.4 and 101.6 ± 5.6 U/L·h for xylanase and CMCase, respectively. Effluent from the BCR in steady state was transferred to an enzymatic reactor operated in fed-batch mode with an initial load of 75 g of pretreated sugar cane bagasse; saccharification was then performed in an STR at 55°C and 300 rpm for 90 h. The constant addition of fresh enzyme as well as the increase in time of contact with the substrate increased the total soluble sugar concentration 83% compared to the value obtained in a batch enzymatic reactor. This advantageous strategy may be used for industrial enzyme pretreatment and saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes to be used in bioethanol and chemicals production from lignocellulose. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:321-326, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Highly Organic Soil Stabilization by Using Sugarcane Bagasse Ash (SCBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Talib Mohd Khaidir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective is to develop alternative binders that are environment friendly by utilizing sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA in the organic soil stabilization. Together with SCBA, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, calcium chloride (CaCl2 and silica sand (K7 were used as additives to stabilize the peat. In obtaining the optimal mix design, specimens of stabilized peat were tested in unconfined compression. It was found that stabilized peat comprising 20% and 5% (PCB1-20 and PCB2-5 partial replacement of OPC with SCBA 1 and SCBA 2 attain the maximum unconfined compressive strength (UCS and discovered greater than UCS of peat-cement (PC specimen. At the optimal mix design, the UCS of the stabilized peat specimens increased with increasing of curing time, preloading rate, OPC and K7 dosage. For PCB1-20 mixture, inclusion of a minimum OPC of 300kg/m3 and K7 of 500kg/m3 along with curing under 20kPa pressure is recommendable for the peat stabilization to be effective. However for PCB2-5, it suggested to use more OPC and K7 dosage or alternatively increase the preloading during curing to 40kPa in order to achieve target UCS. It can be concluded that SCBA 1 has better quality than SCBA 2 in peat stabilization especially the contribution made by its fine particle size.

  7. Effect of pH on the Removal of Chromium (Cr (VI by Sugar Cane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Ahmed Khan

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial estates in India are dominated by small and medium scale industries, which are posing a serious threat to the environment by virtue of discharging effluents of a polluting nature. The problems become severe due to the presence of heavy metals in the effluents. Chromium is widely used in a number of industries such as electroplating, metal finishing, cooling towers, dyes, paints, anodising and leather tanning industries. The toxicity of chromium (VI is well known and is considered a hazard to the health of humans and animals. The presence of chromium (VI in aquatic environments at high concentrations is also lethal to marine species. The treatment of chromium bearing effluents have been reported through several methods, such as chemical reduction,  precipitation, ion exchange, electrochemical reduction, evaporation, reverse osmosis and adsorption. However among these, adsorption is found to be highly effective, inexpensive and an easy method to operate. India is an agricultural country and generates a considerable amount of agricultural wastes such as sugar cane bagassess, coconut jute, nut shell, rice straw, rice husk, waste tea leaves, ground nut husk, crop wastes, peanut hulls and fertilizer wastes. Successful studies on these materials could be beneficial to developing countries and could be easily applied as adsorbents for the removal of chromium from wastewater. Most of the previous work highlights the use of commercial activated carbon but these adsorbents are relatively expensive and less feasible to be used in developing countries. Keeping these in view batch experiments have been designed to study the feasibility of sugar cane bagasse to remove chromium (VI from the aqueous solutions. While evaluationg the impact of various parameters, such as adsorbent does, contact time, initial concentration and pH on chromium removal efficiency, the results indicate a prominent effect of pH on the chromium reduction by the adsorbent

  8. Sugarcane bagasse ash as a seedling growth media component

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, the eleven sugarcane mills in Louisiana processed 153,783 ha and 11.6 million mt of milable sugarcane, producing 1.3 million mt of raw sugar, and an estimated 2.7 million mt bagasse. Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel producing over 20,411 mt of sugarc...

  9. The behavior of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Whardani, Putri Nurul Kusuma

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) has the ability to flow and self-compacting. One of the benefit of SCC can reduced the construction time and labor cost. The materials to be used for see slightly different with the conventional concrete. Less coarse aggregate to be used up to 50%. The maximum size of coarse aggregate was also limited e.g. 10 mm. Other material was quartz sand with grain size of 50-650 µm. For reducing the around of cement, bagasse ash was used as partial replacement of cement. In this research, the variations of w/c to be used, e.g. 0.275, 0.300, 0.325 and the percentage of bagasse ash substitution were 10%, 15%, and 20%. EFNARC standard was conducted for slump flow test following the V-funnel test and L-box shape test. The maximum value of slump flow test was 75.75 cm, V-funnel test was 4.95 second, and L-box test was 1.000 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 0% of bagasse ash. The minimum value of slump flow test was 61.50 cm, V-funnel test is 21.05 second, and L-box test was 0.743 yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 20% of bagasse ash. The maximum value of compressive strength was 67.239 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.275 and 15% of bagasse ash. And the minimum value of compressive strength was 41.813 MPa yielded by mixture with w/c = 0.325 and 20% bagasse ash.

  10. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part 1: physical characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte 1: caracteristicas fisicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (UO/CEEFE), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Fine materials or particles are often encountered in many industrial processes and in our daily life. Some examples are: salt or sugar; sand; cleaning products; fertilizer; cement; calcium hydroxide; some residues of energy biomass, for instance, sugar cane bagasse, straw of sugar cane, saw dust, straw of rice, and even, other types of particulates as aerosols, and residual ash from combustion processes of conventional solids. During the preparation and handling of these materials and also for design and optimization of some multiphase processes and equipment associated with them, as classifying, transport and pneumatic drying, and thermo chemical conversion systems, in general, it is indispensable knowing the principal physical and fluid dynamic characteristics or properties, which not always are available or well established. In this paper the Ergun Method is employed, which is based on theoretical equations established for a fixed bed of porous particles when it is crossed by a gas flow. From this expression and measurements of pressure loss for a given flow of gas crossing the bed at different heights, it is possible to determine some physical characteristics, as bulk density, real density, porosity, sphericity, and specific surface of the bed particles. The technique used for obtaining experimental data is simple but rigorous and it is possible to reproduce these data. Were tested several fractions of bagasse obtained by the conventional sieving process. Finally it was statistically processed all experimental results obtaining the corresponding mathematical models for the desired properties as a function of the mean diameter of the particles. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  11. Recycling of bagasse ash in cement manufacturing and its impact on clinker potential and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, N.U.; Ali, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation bagasse ash from sugar mills of North West Frontier Province (NWFP) has been used in the raw mix designing for high strength Portland cement as a raw material and subjected to clinkerization and cement formation. Different parameters of the resulting clinker and cement were studied and compared with the British and Pakistan standard specification. 5% bagasse ash was found as the optimal limit to be blended and pulverized with other raw material prior to clinkerization which decreased the emission of carbon dioxide to the environment up to 1.73%. Moreover it replaced 5% clay from the raw meal. (author)

  12. Assessing the potential of coal ash and bagasse ash as inorganic amendments during composting of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Boojhawon, Anuksha; Sewhoo, Babita; Rungasamy, Selven; Somaroo, Geeta D; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2015-08-15

    This study investigates the potential of incorporating inorganic amendments such as coal and bagasse ashes in different composting mixes. 10 different composting mixes were assessed as follows: A-20% bagasse ash (BA) with unsorted municipal solid wastes (UMSW); B-40% BA with UMSW; C-UMSW; D-20% BA with sorted municipal solid wastes (SMSW); E-40% BA with SMSW; F-SMSW; G-20% coal ash (CA) with UMSW; H-40% CA with UMSW; I-20% CA with SMSW and J-40% CA with SMSW. The composting processes were carried out in rotary drum composters. Composting mixes D, F, G and I achieved a temperature above 55 °C for at least 3 days, with the following peak temperatures: D-62 °C, F-57 °C, G-62 °C and I-58 °C. D resulted in the highest average net Volatile solids (VS) degradation of 68.6% and yielded the highest average volume reduction of 66.0%. The final compost from D, G, I, C and F were within range for electrical conductivities (EC) (794-1770 μS/cm) and pH (6.69-7.12). The ashes also helped in maintaining high average water holding capacities within the range of 183-217%. The C/N ratio of sorted wastes was improved by the addition of 20% coal ash and bagasse ash. Higher germination indices, above 0.8 were obtained for the ash-amended compost (D, G, I), indicating the feasibility and enhancement of using bagasse and coal ash as inorganic amendment in the composting process. Regarding heavy metals content, the chromium concentration for the composting mix G was found to be the highest whereas mixes D and I showed compliance with the MS (Mauritian Standards) 164 standards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Induction of xylanases by sugar cane bagasse at different cell densities of Cellulomonas flavigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Vega-Estrada, J; Flores-Cotera, L B; Dendooven, L; Hidalgo-Lara, M E; Montes-Horcasitas, M C

    2006-04-01

    The effect of cell density on xylanolytic activity and productivity of Cellulomonas flavigena was evaluated under two different culturing conditions: fed-batch culture with discontinuous feed of sugar cane bagasse (SCB; condition 1) and glycerol fed-batch culture followed by addition of SBC as xylanases inducer (condition 2). The enzymatic profile of xylanases was similar in both systems, regardless of the initial cell density at time of induction. However, the xylanolytic activity changed with initial cell density at the time of induction (condition 2). The maximum volumetric xylanase activity increased with increased initial cell density from 4 to 34 g l(-1) but decreased above this value. The largest total volumetric xylanase productivity under condition 2 (1.3 IU ml(-1) h(-1)) was significantly greater compared to condition 1 (maximum 0.6 IU ml(-1) h(-1)). Consequently, induction of xylanase activity by SCB after growing of C. flavigena on glycerol at intermediate cell density can be a feasible alternative to improve activity and productivity of xylanolytic enzymes.

  14. Simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation of peracetic acid pretreated sugar cane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, L.C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Linden, J.C.; Schroeder, H.A. [Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that peracetic acid improves the enzymatic digestibility of lignocellulosic materials. From the same studies, use of dilute alkali solutions as a pre-pretreatment prior to peracetic acid lignin oxidation increases sugar conversion yields in a synergistic, not additive, manner. Deacetylation of xylan is conducted easily by use of dilute alkali solutions at mild conditions. In this paper, the effectiveness of peracetic acid pretreatment of sugar cane bagasse combined with an alkaline pre-pretreatment, is evaluated through simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) procedures. A practical 92% of theoretical ethanol yield using recombinant Zymomonas mobilis CP4/pZB5 is achieved using 6% NaOH/I5% peracetic acid pretreated substrate. No sugar accumulation is observed during SSCF; the recombinant microorganism exhibits greater glucose utilization rates than those of xylose. Acetate levels at the end of the co-fermentations are less than 0.2% (w/v). Based on demonstrated reduction of acetyl groups of the biomass, alkaline pre-pretreatments help to reduce peracetic acid requirements. The influence of deacetylation is more pronounced in combined pretreatments using lower peracetic acid loadings. Stereochemical impediments of the acetyl groups in hemicellulase on the activity of specific enzymes may be involved. (author)

  15. REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF OLEAGINUOS WATER BY MEANS OF A FIX BED COLUMN FILLED WITH SUGAR CANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastora de la C. Martínez Nodal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the environmental assessment conducted in the centrifugation process fuel that is used as raw material for generating electricity in Power Plants (CE operating with diesel and the physicochemical characterization of oleaginuos water (ARO that it generates, it was performed the environmental impact assessment of these waters if they are discharged without any treatment. A matrix of importance was made, which allowed us to identify the impact on the actions and factors by the activity and the generated waste. From the physico-chemical characterization of ARO, a sustainable treatment is proposed with the use of a fixed-bed column filled with sugar cane bagasse as biosorbent material to minimize the environmental impact caused by oleaginous water if spilled. A physicochemical characterization was made to the natural sugar cane bagasse in terms of moisture, density, porosity and high adsorption capacity. The results allowed to define the fraction of interest (+1 -2 mm, given by the performance in the screening (41%, the homogeneity of this fraction and sorption capacity (2g diesel/g BN. The breakthrough curve was obtained by a continuous flow system 2 l/h of ARO through a fixed bed of 59.997 g of BN and an initial concentration of hydrocarbon of 1444.9 mg/l. Studies showed that the sugarcane bagasse has potential as biosorbent oil, achieving a significant removal of the indicator total hydrocarbon, of 65%.

  16. Pyrolysis of energy cane bagasse and invasive Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera L.) biomass in an inductively heated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, Charles; Muley, Pranjali D.; Abdollahi, Kamran K.; Marculescu, Cosmin; Boldor, Dorin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy cane & Chinese tallow tree (CTT) biomass was pyrolyzed via induction heating. • Increasing temperature (500–700°C) increased gas yield & decreased liquid yield. • Highest liquid yield was achieved for energy cane at 500 °C. • Nitrogen and hydrogen content of CTT bio-oil increased as the temperature increased. • CTT bio-oil had higher % fatty alcohols; energy cane bio-oil was richer in phenols. - Abstract: The growing demand for energy and the increasing opposition to fossil fuels has given rise to the need for alternative fuels. The pyrolysis process is one viable option that converts lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuel. This study focuses, for the first time, on the use of an induction heating mechanism to pyrolyze biomass from energy cane (Saccharum complex) bagasse and invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.). Energy cane and tallow wood were pyrolyzed at 500, 550, 600, 650, and 700 °C at atmospheric pressure in a laboratory scale batch process with an initial loading of 15 g and 30 g for energy cane bagasse and CTT respectively. The results indicate that the highest liquid yield was obtained at 500 °C for both biomasses. The yields of char declined and the gas yields increased as the reaction temperature increased, as the biomass was more thoroughly decomposed at the higher reaction temperatures. GC–MS results show that the liquid product was rich in oxygenated compounds such as phenols, ketones and alcohols for biomasses at all temperatures. Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of Chinese tallow tree showed small concentration of fatty alcohols. Concentration of smaller compounds in the liquid product increased as the reaction temperature increased. Highest energy content and liquid yields (34 MJ/kg and 35.4%) amongst the tested temperatures was obtained at 500 °C for both energy cane and tallow wood pyrolysis. Higher heating values were obtained for bio-oil from energy cane compared to tallow tree biomass.

  17. Assessment of Bagasse Ash Effect on the California Bearing Ratio of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Bagasse Ash Effect on the California Bearing Ratio of Used Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soils. ... However, the highest CBR value of 62 % recoded at 8 % BA content failed to meet the 80 % CBR value recommended by the Nigerian general specification (1997) for cement stabilization. Oil contamination ...

  18. Effect of bagasse ash reinforcement on dry sliding wear behaviour of polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbodion, V.S.; Hassan, S.B.; Agunsoye, J.O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → The influence of wear parameters on the wear rate of RLDPE were investigated. → The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. → The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance. -- Abstract: The tribological behaviour of recycled low density polyethylene (RLDPE) polymer composites with bagasse ash particles as a reinforcement was studied using a pin-on-disc wear rig under dry sliding conditions. The influence of wear parameters like, applied load, sliding speed, sliding distance and percentage of bagasse ash fillers, on the wear rate were investigated. A plan of experiments was performed to acquire data in a controlled way. Scanning electron microscope was used to analyse the worn surface of the samples. Linear regression equation and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to investigate the influence of process parameters on the wear rate of the samples. The predicted wear rate of the RLDPE and it composites were found to lie close to that experimentally observed ones. The confirmation of the experiments conducted using ANOVA to verify the optimal testing parameters show that sliding speed and applied load had significant effect on the wear rate. The results showed that the addition of bagasse ash as filler materials in RLDPE composites increase the wear resistance of the composite greatly.

  19. The combination of plant-expressed cellobiohydrolase and low dosages of cellulases for the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark D; Zhang, Zhanying; Shand, Kylie; Chong, Barrie Fong; Nichols, Jason; Oeller, Paul; O'Hara, Ian M; Doherty, William Os; Dale, James L

    2014-01-01

    The expression of biomass-degrading enzymes (such as cellobiohydrolases) in transgenic plants has the potential to reduce the costs of biomass saccharification by providing a source of enzymes to supplement commercial cellulase mixtures. Cellobiohydrolases are the main enzymes in commercial cellulase mixtures. In the present study, a cellobiohydrolase was expressed in transgenic corn stover leaf and assessed as an additive for two commercial cellulase mixtures for the saccharification of pretreated sugar cane bagasse obtained by different processes. Recombinant cellobiohydrolase in the senescent leaves of transgenic corn was extracted using a simple buffer with no concentration step. The extract significantly enhanced the performance of Celluclast 1.5 L (a commercial cellulase mixture) by up to fourfold on sugar cane bagasse pretreated at the pilot scale using a dilute sulfuric acid steam explosion process compared to the commercial cellulase mixture on its own. Also, the extracts were able to enhance the performance of Cellic CTec2 (a commercial cellulase mixture) up to fourfold on a range of residues from sugar cane bagasse pretreated at the laboratory (using acidified ethylene carbonate/ethylene glycol, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and ball-milling) and pilot (dilute sodium hydroxide and glycerol/hydrochloric acid steam explosion) scales. We have demonstrated using tap water as a solvent (under conditions that mimic an industrial process) extraction of about 90% recombinant cellobiohydrolase from senescent, transgenic corn stover leaf that had minimal tissue disruption. The accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase in senescent, transgenic corn stover leaf is a viable strategy to reduce the saccharification cost associated with the production of fermentable sugars from pretreated biomass. We envisage an industrial-scale process in which transgenic plants provide both fibre and biomass-degrading enzymes for pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis

  20. The Influence of Sugar Cane Bagasse Type and Its Particle Size on Xylose Production and Xylose-to-Xylitol Bioconversion with the Yeast Debaryomyces hansenii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghcheh, Razieh Karimi; Bonakdarpour, Babak; Ashtiani, Farzin Zokaee

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of the type of sugar cane bagasse (non-depithed or depithed) and its particle size on the production of xylose and its subsequent fermentation to xylitol by Debaryomyces hansenii CBS767 was investigated using a full factorial experimental design. It was found that the particle size range and whether bagasse was depithed or not had a significant effect on the concentration and yield of xylose in the resulting hemicellulose hydrolysate. Depithed bagasse resulted in higher xylose concentrations compared to non-depithed bagasse. The corresponding detoxified hemicellulose hydrolysates were used as fermentation media for the production of xylitol. The hemicellulose hydrolysate prepared from depithed bagasse also yielded meaningfully higher xylitol fermentation rates compared to non-depithed bagasse. However, in the case of non-depithed bagasse, the hemicellulose hydrolysate prepared from larger particle size range resulted in higher xylitol fermentation rates, whereas the effect in the case of non-depithed bagasse was not pronounced. Therefore, depithing of bagasse is an advantageous pretreatment when it is to be employed in bioconversion processes.

  1. Effect of Storing of Sugar Cane Bagasse on Physical Properties from Cellulose for Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Rivera N.

    2011-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is now a major source of fibre for pulp and papermaking in Mexico, bagasse pulps are used for all grades of paper: writing, toilet tissue, towelling, glassine, and others. The storage and handling of fibres are critical factors in the resulting pulp yield and quality because bagasse is a fibrous residue that remains after crushing the stalks, and contains short fibres and is a seasonal raw material. The storage produced at harvest time becomes necessary when it is used for o...

  2. Sugar-cane bagasse derived cellulose enhances performance of polylactide and polydioxanone electrospun scaffold for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, Honita; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Jhurry, Dhanjay

    2017-12-15

    Bagasse is a waste product of sugar extraction from sugar-cane with approximately 30% cellulose content. Cellulose was successfully extracted from sugar-cane bagasse using a modified mercerization-bleaching approach with a 40% yield. Extracted cellulose was converted to cellulose acetate for enhanced electrospinnability and blended with poly-l-Lactide or polydioxanone before solution electrospinning. Physico-chemical evaluation of the electrospun mats showed variable miscibility of blends. In vitro cell studies with L929 mouse fibroblast cells was quite conclusive as regards the biocompatibility of the blended mats with proliferative behavior of cells, extracellular matrix deposition and characteristic features of healthy cellular response. MTT assay indicated that the cellulose blended mats induced higher cell densities than the controls. Cellulose content influenced parameters such as fiber diameter, porosity and cell-matrix interaction of mats impacting on cell growth and behavior. Preliminary assessment of biomineralization potential of the mats by SEM showed nano-hydroxyapatite deposits on the electrospun fibers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sartório Raymundo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment units could be operated with flexibility. From the results, it was possible to conclude that sugar cane bagasse could be an adequate bioadsorbent.Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de remoção do corante carcinogênico congo red de sistemas aquosos. Os resultados mostraram uma elevada eficiência de remoção sendo de 64 ± 6% para soluções sintéticas de vermelho congo, e 94 ± 5% para efluente industrial enriquecido com vermelho congo utilizando 10 g de bioadsorvente. A capacidade máxima adsotiva encontrada foi de 4,43 mg/g. Os testes de percolação revelaram independência das porcentagens adsortivas em relação às vazões das colunas. Estes resultados indicam viabilidade de uso do bagaço de cana-de-açucar no tratamento de efluentes contendo o congo red.

  4. Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Aigbodion

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermal ageing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al–Cu–Mg alloy/bagasse ash(BAp particulate composites was investigated. The composites were produced by a double stir-casting method by varying bagasse ash from 2 to 10 wt.%. After casting the samples were solution heat-treated at a temperature of 500 °C in an electrically heated furnace, soaked for 3 h at this temperature and then rapidly quenched in water and thermal aged at temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. The ageing characteristics of these grades of composites were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, hardness and tensile test samples obtained from solution heat-treated composites samples subjected to the temperature conditions mentioned above. The results show that the uniform distribution of the bagasse ash particles in the microstructure of both the as-cast and age-hardened Al–Cu–Mg/BAp composites is the major factor responsible for the improvement in mechanical properties. The presence of the bagasse ash particles in the matrix alloy results in a much smaller grain size in the cast composites compared to the matrix alloy. The addition of bagasse ash particles to Al–Cu–Mg (A2009 does not alter the thermal ageing sequence, but it alters certain aspects of the precipitation reaction. Although thermal ageing is accelerated in the composites the presence of bagasse ash particles in A2009 reduces the peak temperatures.

  5. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F.

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  6. Energy advantage of the cane bagasse in the sugar industry; Aprovechamiento energetico del bagazo de cana en la industria azucarera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Alarcon, Luis Alfredo

    1987-07-01

    The present study makes an analysis of the production and bagasse consumption in Mexico related to those indicators that orient and affect the energy advantage of the fiber within the energy structure and global sugar energy balance of the subsector. This global analysis is at the end concentrated on the evaluation of the steam generators of a sugar mill, that like Casasano, went from burning fuel oil only until 1984, to use bagasse and fuel oil simultaneously, in an attempt to reduce its specific consumption of energy, one of highest of the country. In 1985, 534 thousand hectares of sugar cane were cultivated, with field yields of 68.8 t/ha; of the 36.7 million tons of sugar cane produced, 35.7 million were ground to obtain, in the 69 sugar mills of the country 3.2 million tons of sugar, satisfying again the national consumption. In the respective grinding season 12 million tons of humid bagasse, were produced, representing the 34.5% of the total of the ground sugar cane; this bagasse was dedicated in 86.5% to the steam generation, with an average ratio of 1.87 kg of steam per kg of bagasse, contributing to the own energy balance the equivalent of 17.6 trillions of kilo-calories that correspond to the 66.2% of the total energy consumed by the sector, being left 33.8% contributed by the fuel oil. In order to generate steam in 1985 it had installed 543859 HP used with a weighed efficiency of 56.4%, of which the 91.5% used, in simultaneous form bagasse and fuel oil, the 6.38% only fuel oil and the 2.1% only bagasse. In the Casasano sugar mill a similar analysis is made, ending with the evaluation of the energy advantage of the bagasse in their boilers and of the factors that influence the specific energy consumption. In this form one settles down that the bagasse consumed in the last grinding season was burned generating 1.4 kg of steam per kg of bagasse in boilers working with an efficiency of 60% and consuming 1,090 kg of steam per ton of ground sugar cane

  7. Saline soil properties, quality and productivity of wheat grown with bagasse ash and thiourea in different climatic zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleiman, Mahmoud F; Kheir, Ahmed M S

    2018-02-01

    Soil salinity and atmosphere temperature change have negative impacts on crop productivity and its quality and can pose a significant risk to soil properties in semi-arid regions. We conducted two field experiments in North (first zone) and South (second zone) of Egypt to investigate the effects of soil bagasse ash (10 ton ha -1 ), foliar thiourea (240 g ha -1 ) and their combination in comparison to the control treatment on saline soil properties and productivity and quality traits of wheat. All studied treatments were received the recommended rate of N, P and K fertilizations. Combination of soil bagasse ash and foliar thiourea application resulted in a significant improvement of most studied soil properties (i.e. EC, compaction, hydraulic conductivity, OM and available P, K, N contents) after harvest in comparison to other treatments in both of zones. Also, it enhanced growth and grain yield of wheat in terms of photosynthesis related attributes and yield components. Moreover, combination of soil bagasse ash and foliar thiourea application resulted in superior grain quality traits in terms of carbohydrate, fibre, protein and ash contents than separated application of soil bagasse ash, foliar thiourea or even control treatment. In conclusion, combination of soil bagasse ash and foliar thiourea application can be used as suitable option to enhance plant nutrition, wheat productivity and improve wheat grain quality and soil traits in saline soil as well as can alleviate heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation and NRSP effect on protein, filtration efficiency and crude fiber degradation after sugar cane bagasse fermentation by mushroom fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Hwang, Eung-Ju [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Kusong-dong, Yusung-Gu, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Shon, Jong-Sik; Kim, Gue-Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-ku, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    The upgrading of sugar cane bagasse with natural rubber waste by irradiation and three mushroom fungi was studied in order to produce economical animal feed and mushrooms. The protein concentrations changed a little at 0, 1% of NRSP but greatly increased at 5% NRSP concentration with irradiation and nonirradiation in liquid fermentation. The filtration rate decreased at 5% NRSP concentration after liquid fermentation but it increased by 2.7, 10.2, 11.1 times with irradiation for P. sajor-caju, C. phlytidosprorus and P. flavellatus. The amounts of crude fiber were decreased due to the irradiation and the different concentration of NRSP after 42 days of solid fermentation by P. sajor-caju.

  9. Influence of the alkaline delignification on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mariana Lucena; Gouveia, Ester Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol production from steam explosion alkaline delignified bagasse was investigated by saccharification and simultaneous fermentation. Non delignified bagasse (ND) contained 25% lignin, and after alkaline delignification, materials with 6% (D1 - NaOH 1% w/v) and 12% (D05 - NaOH 0.5% w/v) lignin, respectively, were obtained. Ethanol production increased 450% and 733% in relation to ND, when D05 and D1 material, respectively, were used. Higher productivity and EtOH/bagasse were observed for D1. However, higher enzymatic convertibility of cellulose was obtained with 0.5% w/v NaOH. Alkaline delignification increased the ethanol production despite decreased cellulose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing the compressive strength of landfill soil using cement and bagasse ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, M. A. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Tarmizi, A. K. A.; Shahidan, S.; Nabila, A. T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The stabilisation of contaminated soil with cement and agricultural waste is a widely applied method which contributes to the sustainability of the environment. Soil may be stabilised to increase strength and durability or to prevent erosion and other geotechnical failure. This study was carried out to evaluate the compressive strength of ex-landfill soil when cement and bagasse ash (BA) are added to it. Different proportions of cement (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) was added to sample weights without BA. On the other hand, the cement in a different batch of sample weights was replaced by 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of BA. All samples were allowed to harden and were cured at room temperature for 7, 14 and 28 days respectively. The strength of the contaminated soil was assessed using an unconfined compressive strength test (UCS). The laboratory tests also included the index properties of soil, cement and bagasse ash in raw form. The results indicated that the samples with cement achieved the highest compressive strength measuring 4.39 MPa. However, this study revealed that the use of bagasse ash produced low quality products with a reduction in strength. For example, when 5% of cement was replaced with 5% ash, the compressive strength decreased by about 54% from 0.72 MPa to 0.33 MPa. Similarly, the compressive strength of each sample after a curing period of 28 days was higher compared to samples cured for 7 and 14 days respectively. This is proved that a longer curing period is needed to increase the compressive strength of the samples.

  11. Mechanical recycling of tags and labels residues using sugarcane bagasse ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, an alternative method for recycling residues of labels and stickers (parings containing biaxically oriented polypropylene (BOPP and polyurethane-based glue was discussed. The recycling of this type of material is complicated, once the separation and the milling processes are difficult to be accomplished, due to the presence of a large amount of glue. In this study, sugarcane bagasse ash was used to enable the milling process of stickers residues. Composites were prepared with post-consumer polypropylene extrusion with different polypropylene/parings ash ratio. These materials were analyzed by tensile, three point flexural, hardness, density, water absorption, Izod impact tests, thermogravimetric analysis, environmental exposure and scanning electron microscopy. Addition of sticker residues/ash to the polypropylene matrix makes the material more rigid and does not affect significantly thermal and degradation properties. Thus, the recycling process proposed in this paper is environmentally and economically viable.

  12. Optimizing peracetic acid pretreatment conditions for improved simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of sugar cane bagasse to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Lincoln C. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Setor de Biotecnologia e Tecnologia Quimica, Minas Geraid (Brazil); Linden, James C.; Schroeder, Herbert A. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Bioresource Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The use of several lignocellulosic materials for ethanol fuel production has been studied exhaustively in the U.S.A. Strong environmental legislation has been driving efforts by enterprise, state agencies, and universities to make ethanol from biomass economically viable. Production costs for ethanol from biomass have been decreasing year by year as a consequence of this massive effort. Pretreatment, enzyme recovery, and development of efficient microorganisms are some promising areas of study for reducing process costs. Sugar cane bagasse constitutes the most important lignocellulosic material to be considered in Brazil as new technology such as the production of ethanol fuel. At present, most bagasse is burned, and because of its moisture content, has a low value fuel. Ethanol production would result in a value-added product. The bagasse is available at the sugar mill site at no additional cost because harvesting, transportation and storage costs are borne by the sugar production. The present paper presents an alternative pretreatment with low energy input where biomass is treated in a silo type system without need for expensive capitalisation. Experimentally, ground sugar cane bagasse is placed in plastic bags and a peracetic acid solution is added to the biomass at concetrations of 0, 6, 9, 15, 21, 30 and 60% w/w of peracetic acid based on over dried biomass. The ratio of solution to wood is 6:1; a seven day storage period had been used. Tests using hydrolysing enzymes as an indicator for SSCF have been performed to evaluated the pretreatment efficiency. As an auxiliary method, a series of pre-pretreatments using stoichiometric amounts of sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide based on 4-methyl-glucuronic acid and acetate content in the sugar cane bagasse have been performed before addition of peracetic acid. The alkaline solutions are added to the raw bagasse in a ratio of 17:1 solution to biomass and mixed for 24 hours at room temperature. Biomass is filled

  13. Sugarcane bagasse and leaf residue biochars as soil amendment for increased sugar and cane yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are two potential untapped resources associated with the harvesting and processing of sugarcane, the trash (leaves and tops) left in the field and the sugarcane bagasse as surplus from the mills. Burning of sugarcane trash in the field has been under scrutiny in recent years due to urban encr...

  14. Biosorption of styrene from synthetic wastewater by sugar cane waste(Bagass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, styrene removal from wastewater by using sugarcane waste (bagasse as an adsorbent was studied. Equilibrium isotherms and kinetics were determined; the effects of bagasse particle size and concentration, solutions pH, and temperature on the biosorption of styrene were studied in batch experiments. Adsorption equilibrium data was successfully fitted to Langmuir isotherms (R2=0.986 and Freundlich isotherms (R2=0.96. Also, the kinetics of biosorption was fitted to pseudo-second order equations (K2=0.00146 g mg-1 min-1, qe=24.5 mg g-1 for particle size range of 88-105 μm. According to the obtained results, an empirical equation was presented that could be used to calculate the percentage of styrene adsorption. The results showed that an increase in temperature caused a decrease in styrene removal. Moreover, maximum uptake was observed with NaOH-treated bagasse. It was found that an increase in average particle size decreased the biosorption rate. According to the calculated heat of adsorption, this sorption can be classified as a chemical biosorption. The optimum uptake was determined to be 88% at a pH equal to 12.1, a temperature of 35 oC, a particle size of 420-500 μm, and a bagasse concentration of 1 g L-1.

  15. Cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum and its application in the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for second generation ethanol production by fed batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Roberto Nobuyuki; Barcelos, Carolina Araújo; Santa Anna, Lídia Maria Melo; Pereira, Nei

    2013-01-10

    This study aimed to produce a cellulase blend and to evaluate its application in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for second generation ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse. The sugar cane bagasse was subjected to pretreatments (diluted acid and alkaline), as for disorganizing the ligocellulosic complex, and making the cellulose component more amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. The residual solid fraction was named sugar cane bagasse partially delignified cellulignin (PDC), and was used for enzyme production and ethanol fermentation. The enzyme production was performed in a bioreactor with two inoculum concentrations (5 and 10% v/v). The fermentation inoculated with higher inoculum size reduced the time for maximum enzyme production (from 72 to 48). The enzyme extract was concentrated using tangential ultrafiltration in hollow fiber membranes, and the produced cellulase blend was evaluated for its stability at 37 °C, operation temperature of the simultaneous SSF process, and at 50 °C, optimum temperature of cellulase blend activity. The cellulolytic preparation was stable for at least 300 h at both 37 °C and 50 °C. The ethanol production was carried out by PDC fed-batch SSF process, using the onsite cellulase blend. The feeding strategy circumvented the classic problems of diffusion limitations by diminishing the presence of a high solid:liquid ratio at any time, resulting in high ethanol concentration at the end of the process (100 g/L), which corresponded to a fermentation efficiency of 78% of the maximum obtainable theoretically. The experimental results led to the ratio of 380 L of ethanol per ton of sugar cane bagasse PDC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron beam application as pre treatment of sugar cane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Due to increasing worldwide shortage of food and energy sources, sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, much of which is in a crystalline structure, 40% hemicelluloses, an amorphous polymer usually composed of xylose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and mannose and 20% lignin, which cannot be easily separated into readily usable components due to their recalcitrant nature. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation efficiency as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 10 0 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose in. (author)

  17. Preliminary evaluation of organosolv pre-treatment of sugar cane bagasse for glucose production: Application of 2{sup 3} experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, Leyanis; Gonzalez, Erenio [Centro de Analisis de Procesos, Facultad de Quimica-Farmacia, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ruiz, Encarnacion; Romero, Inmaculada; Cara, Cristobal; Castro, Eulogio [Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Felissia, Fernando [Programa de Celulosa y Papel, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, Misiones (Argentina)

    2010-01-15

    Sugar cane bagasse was submitted to ethanol organosolv pre-treatment using a 50 L pilot scale reactor. The influence of catalyst type (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or NaOH), catalyst concentration (1.25-1.50% w/w on dry fiber) and process time (60-90 min) on total solid recovery and solid composition (glucan, xylan and lignin contents) was evaluated by performing a 2{sup 3} full factorial experimental design. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse was further submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial enzyme complex formed by cellulases and {beta}-glucosidases. Glucose concentration in the hydrolysates and glucose yield referred to initial raw material (g glucose/100 g sugar cane bagasse) were used to select the best operational conditions. Concerning the enzymatic hydrolysis, the resulting glucose concentration was found to be dependent on xylan contents of the pretreated material. The modelling equations for glucose concentration and glucose yield as a function of the pre-treatment variables and the statistical analysis are also discussed in this work. (author)

  18. Thermoelectric power plant selection using natural gas and sugar cane bagasse; Selecao de centrais termoeletricas utilizando gas natural e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Caio de Paula [UNIFei - Faculdade de Engenharia Industrial, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: cleite@edu.fei.br; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br

    2003-07-01

    The electric power consumption in Brazil is growing about 4.2% a year, according to ELETROBRAS Decenal Plan in 1999. The capacity of installed electrical power is approximately 50000 MW, of the which 75% are in the Southern, South eastern and Middle western regions of the country. The growth rate indicates the need of an increase of the installed capacity of 2100 MW a year to avoid the risk of the lack of energy. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential sources of the region are practically exhausted and the government budget is low for this kind of investment. Therefore the solution would be the construction of new thermoelectric plants, with the possibility using natural gas and cane bagasse. The present work consists of the evaluation of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced for the thermo electrical plants selection. Thermo economic analysis was made evaluating the production costs of steam and electricity in exergetic basis. The results show that the power cycles and cogeneration plants that use natural gas and cane bagasse are much more economical than the ones that just use natural gas, with 48% reduction of steam cost, 40% reduction of electricity cost generated b the steam turbine in the power cycle and 37% reduction of electricity cost generated by the steam turbine in the cogeneration plant, for cane bagasse price at 4 US$ /t and natural gas price at 140 US$/t. (author)

  19. Enzymatic digestion of alkaline-sulfite pretreated sugar cane bagasse and its correlation with the chemical and structural changes occurring during the pretreatment step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernanda M; Laurito, Debora F; Bazzeggio, Mariana; Ferraz, André; Milagres, Adriane M F

    2013-01-01

    Sugar cane bagasse is recalcitrant to enzymatic digestion, which hinders the efficient conversion of its polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment was used to overcome the sugar cane bagasse recalcitrance. Chemical and structural changes that occurred during the pretreatment were correlated with the efficiency of the enzymatic digestion of the polysaccharides. The first 30 min of pretreatment, which removed approximately half of the initial lignin and 30% of hemicellulose seemed responsible for a significant enhancement of the cellulose conversion level, which reached 64%. After the first 30 min of pretreatment, delignification increased slightly, and hemicellulose removal was not enhanced; however, acid groups continued to be introduced into the residual lignin. Water retention values were 145% to the untreated bagasse and 210% to the bagasse pretreated for 120 min and fiber widths increased from 10.4 to 30 μm, respectively. These changes were responsible for an additional increase in the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose, which reached 92% with the 120 min pretreated sample. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Synthesis of Silica Aerogel from Bagasse Ash by Ambient Pressure Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Nazriati Heru; Winardi, Sugeng

    2011-12-01

    Silica aerogels having very high surface area and pore volume have been succesfully synthesized from bagasse ash by ambient pressure drying (APD) method. Silica in bagasse ash was extracted by alkali extraction to produce sodium silicate solution. This is done by boiling bagasse ash in 2 N NaOH solution under continuous stirring for 1 h. To avoid the collapse of gel structure during drying at ambient pressure condition, the silica surface was modified with alkyl functional groups by a single step sol-gel process. Silicic acid produced by exchanging Na+ ions in dilute sodium silicate solution with H+ ions from cation resin was added with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and let the reaction of TMCS with water pore proceeds for several minutes to produce hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and HCl. Then, HMDS was added to allow the modification of silica surface in which the silanol groups were exchanged with alkyl groups originating from HMDS. The solution pH was then adjusted to 8-9 by adding NH4OH solution to induce gel formation. The hydrogel was aged at 40 °C for 18 h and at 60 °C for 1 h. Then, it was dried at 80 °C at ambient pressure condition. The silica aerogels obtained have specific surface, as measured by BET method, ranging from 450.2 to 1360.4 m2/g depending on the synthesis condition. The pore volume was ranging from 0.7 to 1.9 cm3/g. It seems that silica aerogels with very high surface area and pore volume can be obtained if the silanols group in the silica surface was exchanged succesfully with alkyl groups from HMDS.

  1. Sugarcane bagasse ash reinforced HDPE composites: effects of electron-beam radiation crosslinking on tensile and morphological properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Sartori, Mariana M.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B., E-mail: jacielegteixeira@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Environmental issues have led to the development of polymeric materials reinforced with fibers originated from renewable agricultural sources such as pineapple leaf, sisal, jute, piassava, coir, and sugarcane bagasse. Although sugarcane bagasse fiber residues has been extensively studied and used as a source of reinforcement of polymers, the major portion of these residues is currently burnt for energy supply in the sugar and alcohol industries and as a result of its burning, tons of ashes are produced. Due to the inorganic composition, ashes can be used as reinforcement in polymeric materials. This study presents the preparation and characterization of a composite based on HDPE matrix and sugarcane bagasse ashes as reinforcement cross-linked by electron-beam radiation. The HDPE /Ash composite (95:5 wt %) was obtained by using a twin-screw extruder machine followed by injection molding. After extrusion and injection molding process, the composites were subjected to electron-beam radiation, at radiation doses of 150 kGy and 250 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated composite specimens were characterization by tensile and MFI tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis. In addition, ash from bagasse fiber was characterized by WDXRF. (author)

  2. Sugarcane bagasse ash reinforced HDPE composites: effects of electron-beam radiation crosslinking on tensile and morphological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Jaciele G.; Gomes, Michelle G.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Silva, Valquiria A.; Sartori, Mariana M.; Ortiz, Angel V.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues have led to the development of polymeric materials reinforced with fibers originated from renewable agricultural sources such as pineapple leaf, sisal, jute, piassava, coir, and sugarcane bagasse. Although sugarcane bagasse fiber residues has been extensively studied and used as a source of reinforcement of polymers, the major portion of these residues is currently burnt for energy supply in the sugar and alcohol industries and as a result of its burning, tons of ashes are produced. Due to the inorganic composition, ashes can be used as reinforcement in polymeric materials. This study presents the preparation and characterization of a composite based on HDPE matrix and sugarcane bagasse ashes as reinforcement cross-linked by electron-beam radiation. The HDPE /Ash composite (95:5 wt %) was obtained by using a twin-screw extruder machine followed by injection molding. After extrusion and injection molding process, the composites were subjected to electron-beam radiation, at radiation doses of 150 kGy and 250 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The irradiated and non-irradiated composite specimens were characterization by tensile and MFI tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sol-gel analysis. In addition, ash from bagasse fiber was characterized by WDXRF. (author)

  3. Utilization of sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as partial replacement of cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangi, Sajjad Ali; Jamaluddin, N.; Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Halid Abdullah, Abd; Awal, A. S. M. Abdul; Sohu, Samiullah; Ali, Nizakat

    2017-11-01

    This research addresses the suitability of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) in concrete used as partial cement replacement. Two grades of concrete M15 and M20 were used for the experimental analysis. The cement was partially replaced by SCBA at 0%, 5%, and 10%, by weight in normal strength concrete (NSC). The innovative part of this study is to consider two grades of concrete mixes to evaluate the performance of concrete while cement is replaced by sugarcane bagasse ash. The cylindrical specimens having size 150 mm × 300 mm were used and tested after curing period of 7, 14 and 28 days. It was observed through the experimental work that the compressive strength increases with incorporating SCBA in concrete. Results indicated that the use of SCBA in concrete (M20) at 5% increased the average amount of compressive strength by 12% as compared to the normal strength concrete. The outcome of this work indicates that maximum strength of concrete could be attained at 5% replacement of cement with SCBA. Furthermore, the SCBA also gives compatible slump values which increase the workability of concrete.

  4. The effect of w/c ratio on microstructure of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafiah, Saloma, Victor, Amalina, Khoirunnisa Nur

    2017-11-01

    Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a concrete that can flow and compact by itself without vibrator. The ability of SCC to flow by itself makes this concrete very suitable for construction that has very small reinforcement gaps. In this study, SCC was designed to get a compressive strength above 60 MPa at the age of 28 days. Sugarcane bagasse ash was used as substitution material for cement replacement. Percentages of sugarcane bagasse ash used were 10%, 15%, and 20%. There were three w/c values that vary from 0.275, 0.300, and 0.325. Testing standards referred to ASTM, EFNARC and ACI. The fresh concrete test was slump flow, L-box and V-funnel. The maximum compressive strength was in the mixture with the sugarcane bagasse ash composition of 15% and w/c=0.275 which was 67.24 MPa. The result of SEM test analysis found that the mixture composition with 15% sugarcane bagasse ash has solid CSH structure, small amount of pores, and smaller pore diameter than other mixtures.

  5. Use of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain isolated from the Amazon rainforest with pretreated sugar cane bagasse for on-site cellulase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; da Silva, Mateus Ribeiro; Azzoni, Sindelia Freitas; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2012-03-01

    The on-site production of cellulases is an important strategy for the development of sustainable second-generation ethanol production processes. This study concerns the use of a specific cellulolytic enzyme complex for hydrolysis of pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Glycosyl hydrolases (FPase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase) were produced using a new strain of Trichoderma harzianum, isolated from the Amazon rainforest and cultivated under different conditions. The influence of the carbon source was first investigated using shake-flask cultures. Selected carbon sources were then further studied under different pH conditions using a stirred tank bioreactor. Enzymatic activities up to 121 FPU/g, 8000 IU/g, and 1730 IU/g of delignified steam-exploded bagasse+sucrose were achieved for cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase, respectively. This enzymatic complex was used to hydrolyze pretreated sugar cane bagasse. A comparative evaluation, using an enzymatic extract from Trichoderma reesei RUTC30, indicated similar performance of the T. harzianum enzyme complex, being a potential candidate for on-site production of enzymes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of sugar-cane bagasse ash to produce glass-ceramic material in the system Ca O-SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O; Utilizacao de cinza de bagaco de cana para produzir material vitro-ceramico do sistema SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Na{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Santos, G.T.A.; Magalhaes, R.S., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia; Rincon, J.Ma.; Romero, M. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IETCC/CSIC), Madri (Spain). Inst. de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja; Carvalho, C.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2009-07-01

    A bottom ash was used as raw material to obtain glass which was crystallized to form glass-ceramic material. The characterization of the ash shows that it consists mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with oxides of iron, potassium and aluminum as minor elements. The glass was obtained from the mixing of ash with calcium and sodium carbonates. The glass and the glass-ceramic were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD and DTA data show that Wollastonita is the only crystalline phase present in the material crystallized at 1050 deg C. Part of the glass was synthesized at this temperature for one hour, resulting in a green/brown hard material glass-ceramic. The images of SEM show morphology of spherilithic growth indicating volumetric crystallization mechanism. (author)

  7. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm W; Despland, Laure M; Lake, Neal J; Yee, Lachlan H; Anstoetz, Manuela; Arif, Elisabeth; Parr, Jeffery F; Doumit, Philip

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia) where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α -quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product.

  8. High-efficiency cogeneration boiler bagasse-ash geochemistry and mineralogical change effects on the potential reuse in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, cements, mortars, and concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm W. Clark

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse ash re-utilisation has been advocated as a silica-rich feed for zeolites, pozzolans in cements and concretes, and geopolymers. However, many papers report variable success with the incorporation of such materials in these products as the ash can be inconsistent in nature. Therefore, understanding what variables affect the ash quality in real mills and understanding the processes to characterise ashes is critical in predicting successful ash waste utilisation. This paper investigated sugarcane bagasse ash from three sugar mills (Northern NSW, Australia where two are used for the co-generation of electricity. Data shows that the burn temperatures of the bagasse in the high-efficiency co-generation boilers are much higher than those reported at the temperature measuring points. Silica polymorph transitions indicate the high burn temperatures of ≈1550 °C, produces ash dominated α −quartz rather than expected α-cristobilite and amorphous silica; although α-cristobilite, and amorphous silica are present. Furthermore, burn temperatures must be ≤1700 °C, because of the absence of lechatelierite where silica fusing and globulisation dominates. Consequently, silica-mineralogy changes deactivate the bagasse ash by reducing silica solubility, thus making bagasse ash utilisation in synthetic zeolites, geopolymers, or a pozzolanic material in mortars and concretes more difficult. For the ashes investigated, use as a filler material in cements and concrete has the greatest potential. Reported mill boiler temperatures discrepancies and the physical characteristics of the ash, highlight the importance of accurate temperature monitoring at the combustion seat if bagasse ash quality is to be prioritised to ensure a usable final ash product. Keywords: Materials Science, Civil Engineering

  9. BECCS potential in Brazil: Achieving negative emissions in ethanol and electricity production based on sugar cane bagasse and other residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, José Roberto; Romeiro, Viviane; Fuss, Sabine; Kraxner, Florian; Pacca, Sérgio A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Demonstrates the cost competitiveness of sugarcane based bioenergy carbon capture and storage (BECCS). • Evaluates BECCS based on emissions from sugar fermentation, which is the low hanging fruit technology available. • Determines the BECCS cost premium of CO 2 , ethanol and electricity. • Determines the full mitigation potential of this BECCS technology in Brazil. • Discusses polices to enable BECCS deployment by society. - Abstract: Stabilization at concentrations consistent with keeping global warming below 2 °C above the pre-industrial level will require drastic cuts in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the century; net negative emissions approaching 2100 are required in the vast majority of current emission scenarios. For negative emissions, the focus has been on bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), where carbon-neutral bioenergy would be combined with additional carbon capture thus yielding emissions lower than zero. Different BECCS technologies are considered around the world and one option that deserves special attention applies CCS to ethanol production. It is currently possible to eliminate 27.7 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 emissions per year through capture and storage of CO 2 released during fermentation, which is part of sugar cane-based ethanol production in Brazil. Thus, BECCS could reduce the country’s emissions from energy production by roughly 5%. Such emissions are additional to those due to the substitution of biomass-based electricity for fossil-fueled power plants. This paper assesses the potential and cost effectiveness of negative emissions in the joint production system of ethanol and electricity based on sugar cane, bagasse, and other residues in Brazil. An important benefit is that CO 2 can be captured twice along the proposed BECCS supply chain (once during fermentation and once during electricity generation). This study only considers BECCS from fermentation because capturing

  10. Kinetic study and synergistic interactions on catalytic CO2 gasification of Sudanese lower sulphur petroleum coke and sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbager M.A. Edreis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of iron chloride (FeCl3 on the CO2 gasification kinetics of lower sulphur petroleum coke (PC and sugar cane bagasse (SCB via thermogravimetric analyser (TGA were investigated. The FeCl3 loading effects on the thermal behaviour and reactivity of CO2 gasification of PC were studied. The possible synergistic interaction between the PC and SCB was also examined. Then the homogeneous model or first order chemical reaction (O1 and shrinking core models (SCM or phase boundary controlled reactions (R2 and R3 were employed through Coats–Redfern method in order to detect the optimum mechanisms for the catalytic CO2 gasification, describe the best reaction behaviour and determine the kinetic parameters. The results showed that the thermal behaviour of PC is significantly affected by the FeCl3 loading. Among various catalyst loadings, the addition of 7 wt% FeCl3 to PC leads to improve the PC reactivity up to 39% and decrease the activation energy up to 22%. On the other hand, for char gasification stage of SCB and blend, the addition 5 wt% FeCl3 improved their reactivities to 18.7% and 29.8% and decreased the activation energies to 10% and 17%, respectively. The synergistic interaction between the fuel blend was observed in both reaction stages of the blend and became more significant in the pyrolysis stage. For all samples model R2 shows the lowest values of activation energy (E and the highest reaction rates constant (k. Finally, model R2 was the most suitable to describe the reactions of non-catalytic and catalytic CO2 gasification.

  11. Glass-ceramic material of the Si-Ca-K system sintered from sugarcane bagasse ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Silva, R.A.; Santos, G.C.; Santos, G.T.A.; Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma.; Reynoso, V.C.S.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the crystallization of glasses obtained from two samples of sugarcane bagasse ash - SCBA (named Cinza 07 and Cinza 08) mixed with carbonates (calcium and potassium). The glasses and their crystallization were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations of the ashes show that they consist mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with iron, potassium and aluminum oxides as minor elements. For the sample Cinza07 the DTA data presents broad and overlaid crystallization peaks, indicating crystallization of more than two different phases. The DTA results of samples with different grain-size distribution show that the crystallization peak intensities increase as the sample grain-size decreases, suggesting that surface crystallization actively participate on the mechanism of crystallization. For the sample Cinza 08 the DTA data presents two well defined peaks. In this case, the more intense peak was evaluated to obtain kinetic data (Eat= 355 kJ/mol) to the major phase (Wollastonita). (author)

  12. Analysis of electric power cogeneration using sugar cane bagasse; Uma analise da cogeracao de energia eletrica usando bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Anna Cristina Barbosa Dias de

    1997-07-01

    Brazil impels its economy again. A development expected in 80 and 90 years it is real. This growth demands new technologies, new researches and bases that bear that growth. Electric power is in these bases, but Brazil is not ready for that. Electric power cogeneration possibility appears, using sugar cane bagasse. Alcohol and sugar plants have already that practice working with a low generation volume. With some investment this volume can be increased, adding about 10% to national energetic matrix. The aim of this work is to present a short time alternative for national electric matrix. It shows the energetic situation of the country, some experiences already implanted in some countries around the world and some options for equipment improvement used in alcohol and sugar plants. It is shown alternatives sources of electric power generation studied on Brazil, as well as the planning of National Energetic Program of ELETROBRAS. It analyses, in details, sugar cane bagasse use, which is used in Sao Paulo plants to generate electric power. Possible systems and troubles for its implantation in sugar and alcohol plants are discussed. (author)

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrelli, Stefano; Mogensen, Johan; Zacchi, Guido

    2012-04-13

    Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves), i.e. second generation (2G) bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G), as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies) with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the opportunity cost from the sale of excess electricity and

  14. Techno-economic evaluation of 2nd generation bioethanol production from sugar cane bagasse and leaves integrated with the sugar-based ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macrelli Stefano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioethanol produced from the lignocellulosic fractions of sugar cane (bagasse and leaves, i.e. second generation (2G bioethanol, has a promising market potential as an automotive fuel; however, the process is still under investigation on pilot/demonstration scale. From a process perspective, improvements in plant design can lower the production cost, providing better profitability and competitiveness if the conversion of the whole sugar cane is considered. Simulations have been performed with AspenPlus to investigate how process integration can affect the minimum ethanol selling price of this 2G process (MESP-2G, as well as improve the plant energy efficiency. This is achieved by integrating the well-established sucrose-to-bioethanol process with the enzymatic process for lignocellulosic materials. Bagasse and leaves were steam pretreated using H3PO4 as catalyst and separately hydrolysed and fermented. Results The addition of a steam dryer, doubling of the enzyme dosage in enzymatic hydrolysis, including leaves as raw material in the 2G process, heat integration and the use of more energy-efficient equipment led to a 37 % reduction in MESP-2G compared to the Base case. Modelling showed that the MESP for 2G ethanol was 0.97 US$/L, while in the future it could be reduced to 0.78 US$/L. In this case the overall production cost of 1G + 2G ethanol would be about 0.40 US$/L with an output of 102 L/ton dry sugar cane including 50 % leaves. Sensitivity analysis of the future scenario showed that a 50 % decrease in the cost of enzymes, electricity or leaves would lower the MESP-2G by about 20%, 10% and 4.5%, respectively. Conclusions According to the simulations, the production of 2G bioethanol from sugar cane bagasse and leaves in Brazil is already competitive (without subsidies with 1G starch-based bioethanol production in Europe. Moreover 2G bioethanol could be produced at a lower cost if subsidies were used to compensate for the

  15. The adhesive effect on the properties of particleboards made from sugar cane bagasse generated in the distiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Farinassi Mendes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the adhesive type and its different contents on sugar cane bagasse particleboards. The panels were produced using Urea-Formaldehyde (UF and Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF adhesives. Three adhesive contents were tested: 6, 9 and 12%. The boards were made by using an 8-minute press closing time, pressure of 40kgf/cm², and temperature of 160ºC for the UF adhesive and 180ºC for the PF adhesive. It was concluded that: The UF adhesive was statistically equal or better than PF adhesive considering all properties evaluated. The adhesive contents of 9 and 12% were statistically equal, but both were superior to 6% considering the physical properties. The mechanical properties did not present statistical differences, except for rupture modulus. The best panels were produced using UF at 9%, but they did not attend the norm CS 236-66 for mechanical properties, therefore it is necessary manipulations of the processing variables.O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito do tipo de adesivo e de seus diferentes teores na produção de painéis aglomerados com bagaço de cana. Os painéis foram produzidos utilizando os adesivos Uréia-Formaldeido (UF e Fenol-Formaldeido (FF a 6, 9 e 12%. O ciclo de prensagem utilizado foi de 40kgf/cm², temperatura de 160ºC para UF e 180ºC para FF, por 8 minutos. Concluiu-se que: O adesivo UF se mostrou estatisticamente igual ou superior a FF em todas as propriedades avaliadas. Para os teores de adesivo, nas propriedades físicas, os teores 9 e 12% se mostraram estatisticamente iguais, mas superiores a 6%; já nas propriedades mecânicas não houve diferença estatística, com exceção do módulo de ruptura. Os melhores painéis foram produzidos com UF e 9% de teor de adesivo, sendo que estes não atenderam a norma CS 236-66 para propriedades mecânicas, sendo necessárias manipulações nas variáveis de processamento.

  16. Physical vapor deposited thin films of lignins extracted from sugar cane bagasse: morphology, electrical properties, and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpati, Diogo; Machado, Aislan D; Olivati, Clarissa A; Alves, Neri; Curvelo, Antonio A S; Pasquini, Daniel; Constantino, Carlos J L

    2011-09-12

    The concern related to the environmental degradation and to the exhaustion of natural resources has induced the research on biodegradable materials obtained from renewable sources, which involves fundamental properties and general application. In this context, we have fabricated thin films of lignins, which were extracted from sugar cane bagasse via modified organosolv process using ethanol as organic solvent. The films were made using the vacuum thermal evaporation technique (PVD, physical vapor deposition) grown up to 120 nm. The main objective was to explore basic properties such as electrical and surface morphology and the sensing performance of these lignins as transducers. The PVD film growth was monitored via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, revealing a linear relationship between absorbance and film thickness. The 120 nm lignin PVD film morphology presented small aggregates spread all over the film surface on the nanometer scale (atomic force microscopy, AFM) and homogeneous on the micrometer scale (optical microscopy). The PVD films were deposited onto Au interdigitated electrode (IDE) for both electrical characterization and sensing experiments. In the case of electrical characterization, current versus voltage (I vs V) dc measurements were carried out for the Au IDE coated with 120 nm lignin PVD film, leading to a conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-10) S/m. Using impedance spectroscopy, also for the Au IDE coated with the 120 nm lignin PVD film, dielectric constant of 8.0, tan δ of 3.9 × 10(-3), and conductivity of 1.75 × 10(-9) S/m were calculated at 1 kHz. As a proof-of-principle, the application of these lignins as transducers in sensing devices was monitored by both impedance spectroscopy (capacitance vs frequency) and I versus time dc measurements toward aniline vapor (saturated atmosphere). The electrical responses showed that the sensing units are sensible to aniline vapor with the process being

  17. The influence of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Maldonado-García

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of the addition of untreated sugarcane bagasse ash (UtSCBA on the microstructural and mechanical properties of mortars. The SCBA was sieved for only five minutes through a No. 200 ASTM mesh, and fully characterized by chemical composition analysis, laser ray diffraction, the physical absorption of gas, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. Mortar mixtures with 0, 10 and 20% UtSCBA as cement replacement and a constant 0.63 water/cementitious material ratio were prepared. Fresh properties of the mortars were obtained. The microstructural characteristics of the mortars at 1, 7, 28, 90 and 600 days were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The compressive strengths of the mortars at the same ages were then obtained. The results show that the addition of 10 and 20% UtSCBA caused a slight decrease in workability of the mortars but improved their microstructure, increasing the long-term compressive strength.

  18. Valorisation of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in the Manufacture of Lime-Stabilized Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jijo; Pandian, Pitchai Kasinatha

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the potential of lime in the manufacture of stabilized soil blocks and the valorisation of a solid waste, Bagasse Ash (BA), in its manufacture. A locally available soil was collected from a field and characterized in the soil laboratory as a clay of intermediate plasticity. This soil was stabilized using lime, the quantity of which was determined from the Eades and Grim pH test. The soil was stabilized using this lime content, amended with various BA contents during mixing, and moulded into blocks of 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm. The blocks were then moist cured for a period of 28 days, following which they were subjected to compressive strength, water absorption and efflorescence tests. The results of the tests revealed that the addition of BA resulted in enhanced compressive strength of the blocks, increased the water absorption marginally, and resulted in no efflorescence in any of the combinations, although the limited combinations in the study could not produce enough strength to meet the specifications of the Bureau of Indian Standards. The study revealed that BA can be effectively valorised in the manufacture of stabilized soil blocks.

  19. Utilization of Bagasse Fly Ash to Remove the Unpleasant Odor of Stevia Extract and Soy Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashadi; Masykuri, M.; Haryono

    2017-04-01

    Stevia is a safe natural sweetener that, but has a slightly unpleasant odor. Soy milk is undoubtedly high nutritional value, soy milk slightly unpleasant odor. Bagasse Fly Ash (BFA) is a sugar factory waste which is abundant, not widely used yet, and allowed to accumulate around the sugar factory. BFA can be activated with a solution of NaOH become adsorbent. Utilization of activated BFA to remove the odor of stevia extract and soy milk means the utilization of a waste to reduce other waste. Deodorizing done by batch system. Before being used as adsorbent, BFA characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR, and AAS. Odor and color analysis conducted by organoleptic. The results shown activation increases the cavity, BFA containing SiO2 and Al2O3, does not contain Pb, Cr, Cd. The results shown that the BFA can reduce odor of stevia from a scale of 4 to 2, the color becomes more clear, unpleasant odor of soy milk is also reduced.

  20. Adsorption of Antimony by Bagasse Fly Ash: Chemical Modification and Adsorption Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leechart, Piyawan; Inthorn, Duangrat; Thiravetyan, Paitip

      Modification of bagasse fly ash (BFA) and the adsorption mechanism of antimony (Sb) by modified BFA were studied. It was found that BFA grafted with acrylic acid (BFAG) and BFA treated with hydrochloric acid (BFA/HCl) led to a decrease in the pH of the zero point of charge (pH zpc ) of the adsorbents. The pH zpc of BFA, BFAG, BFA/HCl and activated carbon (AC) were 8.3, 6.4, 6.2 and 8.2, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q max ) of Sb by BFA, BFAG, BFA/HCl and AC were 0.14, 0.34, 0.38 and 0.29 mg Sb/g adsorbent, respectively. Modified BFA had Q max higher than AC although the BET surface area of AC was the highest. This was due to the system pH of BFAG and BFA/HCl was 5.20-6.00 and the pH zpc of BFAG and BFA/HCl accounted for 6.4 and 6.2, respectively. Therefore, the adsorbent surface had a positive charge, resulting in increasing adsorption of Sb.

  1. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  2. Heterogeneous Catalysts for VOC Oxidation from Red Mud and Bagasse Ash Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Gaurav

    A range of VOC oxidation catalysts have been prepared in this study from agricultural and industrial waste as the starting point. The aim is to prepare catalysts with non-noble metal oxides as the active catalytic component (iron in red mud). The same active component was also supported on activated carbon obtained from unburned carbon in bagasse ash. Red mud which is an aluminum industry waste and rich in different phases of iron as oxide and hydroxide is used as the source for the catalytically active species. It is our aim to enhance the catalytic performance of red mud which though high in iron concentration has a low surface area and may not have the properties of an ideal catalyst by itself. In one of the attempts to enhance the catalytic performance, we have tried to leach red mud for which we have explored a range of leaching acids for effecting the leaching most efficiently and then precipitated the iron from the leachate as its hydroxide by precipitating with alkali solution followed by drying and calcination to give high surface area metal oxide material. Extensive surface characterization and VOC oxidation catalytic testing were performed for these solids. In a step to further enhance the catalytic activity towards oxidation, copper was introduced by taking another industrial waste from the copper tubing industry viz. the pickling acid. Copper has a more favourable redox potential making it catalytically more effective than iron. To make the mixed metal oxide, red mud leachate was mixed with the pickling acid in a pre-decided ratio before precipitating with alkali solution followed by drying and calcination as was done with the red mud leachate. The results from these experiments are encouraging. The temperature programmed reduction (TPR) of the solids show that the precipitate of red mud leachates show hydrogen uptake peak at a lower temperature than for just the calcined red mud. This could be due to the greatly enhanced surface area of the prepared

  3. Leachability of Arsenic (As) Contaminated Landfill Soil Stabilised by Cement and Bagasse Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Azim, M. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Nabila, A. T. A.

    2016-11-01

    Contaminated soil with heavy metals, especially Arsenic (As) has become a major issue worldwide. As is reported to be a metal that affects human health and is related to have caused serious diseases that interrupts the nervous system, blood vessels and kidneys. However, proper treatment techniques such as Stabilization/Solidification (S/S) method can be employed and is capable of controlling these heavy metals from contaminating the soil strata and groundwater resources. This study is to investigate the leachability of Arsenic (As) in S/S method when bagasse ash (BA) is added to remedy contaminated Landfill soil. Cement is added at a proportion of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in sample weights without BA while in another sample; the cement replaces BA at a proportion of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%. and 10%. All samples were allowed to harden and cured at room temperature for 7, 14 and 28 days. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by conducting Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP). Results indicate that pH and leachability are found to have major influence on metal release. The final pH after leaching tests showed improvements especially samples containing BA. In addition, the concentration of As in the SPLP test after the curing period of 28 days were detected to be below the leachability limit as regulated by WHO's Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. As a whole, the results obtained from testing showed that sample containing 10% cement with 10% BA is the most effective and is the optimum mix since this proportion succeeded in minimising the leachability of As at total reduction by 100%, In conclusion, partial replacement of cement with BA in the binder system has been successful in reducing the leachability.

  4. Treatment of purified terephthalic acid wastewater using a bio-waste-adsorbent bagasse fly ash (BFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shilpi; Prasad, Basheshwar; Mishra, Indra Mani

    2017-01-01

    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) plant of a petrochemical unit generates wastewater having high pollution load. Acid treatment of this wastewater reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) load by more than 50%, still leaving substantial COD load (>1500 mg/L) which should be removed. The present study reports on the use of a bio-waste-adsorbent bagasse fly ash (BFA) for the reduction of COD and other recalcitrant acids from this wastewater. The BFA showed basic character and was mesoporous with a BET specific surface area of 82.4 m 2 /g. Optimum conditions for the adsorptive treatment of acid-pretreated PTA wastewater were found to be as follows: initial pH (pH i ) = 4, BFA dosage = 15 g/L, and contact time = 3 h. Adsorption treatment resulted in 58.2% removal of COD, 96.3% removal of terephthalic acid (TA), and 99.9% removal of benzoic acid (BA). TA and BA were removed from the pretreated PTA wastewater through precipitation and sedimentation of un-dissociated acid molecules inside the mesopores of the BFA. The results showed that the COD removed by the BFA followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Equilibrium sorption data were best correlated by the Freundlich isotherm. The process of adsorptive removal of COD was found to be exothermic. The change in the Gibbs free energy was found to be negative, suggesting that the adsorption process is spontaneous and feasible for the treatment of PTA wastewater.

  5. Microstructural analysis of the potential of sugarcane bagasse ash as a pozzolan material in cement composites; Analise microestrutural do potencial das cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar como material pozolanico em compositos cimenticios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A.M.; Assuncao, C.C.; Guimaraes, L. de M.; Malmonge, J.A.; Tashima, M.M; Akasaki, J.L., E-mail: jorge.akasaki@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2016-07-01

    For civil construction, the ash obtained by burning sugarcane bagasse (SCBA) in sugar-cane industry is being treated as a pozzolan material because, in addition to containing high amounts of silicon and aluminium oxides, can promote reduction of the environmental impact caused by cement production, since this alternative material may partially replace the Portland cement.The present study evaluated the pozzolanic potential of the SCBA, from different states of Brazil (Sao Paulo (SP), Goias (GO) and Mato Grosso (MT)). The reactivity of the material was analyzed by microstructural characterization, besides the pastes production (lime / SCBA and cement / SCBA) for the analysis of the hydration products formed, which are evaluated by TG and SEM. There was a decrease in the formation of ettringite in the matrixes, inversely proportional to the amount of ash, which favored the reduction of the cracking in cementitious matrices. It has also observed that the pastes produced with the ashes from State of SP showed greater fixation of lime and, consequently, a high reactivity. (author)

  6. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide; Preparacao e caracterizacao de fibras de bagaco de cana modificadas com nanoparticulas de oxido de zirconio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H., E-mail: kcccarvalho@hotmail.com.b [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia(FEG)

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  7. Recovery of used frying sunflower oil with sugar cane industry waste and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rehab F M; El Anany, A M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of the current investigation was to use sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) and to compare its adsorption efficiency with Magnesol XL as synthetic adsorbents to regenerate the quality of used frying sunflower oil. In addition, to evaluate the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying oil and the treated oil. The metal patterns of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL were determined. Some physical and chemical properties of unused, used frying and used-treated sunflower oil were determined. Sunflower oil sample was heated at 180 °C + 5 °C, then frozen French fries potato were fried every 30 min. during a continuous period of 20 h. Oil samples were taken every 4 h. The filter aids were added individually to the used frying oil at levels 1, 2 and 3 % (w / v), then mechanically stirred for 60 min at 105 °C. The results indicate that all the filter aids under study were characterized by high levels of Si and variable levels of other minerals. The highest level of Si was recorded for sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) was 76.79 wt. %. Frying process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increases in physico-chemical properties of sunflower oil. The treatments of used frying sunflower oil with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash and Magnesol XL caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in the quality of treated oil, however the soap content of treated oil was increased, therefore, the effect of water washing process on the quality of used frying and used-treated sunflower oil was evaluated. The values of soap and Total polar compounds after water treatment were about 4.62 and 7.27 times as low as that for sunflower oil treated with 3 % sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA). The results of the present study indicate that filtration treatment with different levels of sugar cane bagasse ash( SCBA) regenerated the quality of used sunflower oil and possess higher adsorbing effects than the synthetic filter aid ( Magnesol XL ) in

  8. A Short Review on the Valorisation of Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in the Manufacture of Stabilized/Sintered Earth Blocks and Tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijo James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Valorisation of solid wastes in the manufacture of soil based building materials is one of the several technically feasible and cost-effective solutions for waste management. Sugarcane bagasse ash is one such solid waste generated in huge quantities in India, a leading sugar producer. This paper aims at reviewing the valorisation of sugarcane bagasse ash in the manufacture of stabilized as well as sintered earth blocks. Sugarcane bagasse ash is a silica rich material that can play the role of an effective pozzolan leading to enhanced pozzolanic reactions resulting in better performing building materials. The reviewed literature reveals that it has been utilized in the manufacture of blocks as well as tiles in the form of an auxiliary additive as well as a primary stabilizer. However, its utilization in stabilized blocks has been more common compared to sintered blocks due to higher energy consumption in the latter. To summarize, sugarcane bagasse ash not only has improved performance in most of the cases but also has reduced the cost of the material, leading to the conclusion that its valorisation in manufacture of blocks and tiles is a genuine and highly productive solution for waste management as well as cost economy.

  9. Production and productivity of sugar cane bagasse during 2008/2009 crop season for electrical energy conservation; Producao e produtividade de bagaco de cana-de-acucar ao longo da safra 2008/2009, visando a cogeracao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz Carlos; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify sources of energy generation, Brazil has encouraged cogeneration of energy from biomass. Among the various biomasses sources, sugar cane bagasse is one that combines the best economic attributes to be due mainly to industrial production in large quantities. This study aimed to evaluate the bagasse productive potential of two varieties of sugarcane during the harvest period. The experiment was conducted at UNESP, Jaboticabal County. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot, having the two sugarcane cultivars as plots, and the split times of the 11 tests during the season and 3 replications. Were estimated production (kg tc{sup -1}) and productivity (t ha{sup -1}) residue for each cultivar in their own times. The cultivars showed differences from the average production of mulch. However, obtained similar behavior throughout the season, characterized by progressive cuts. For bagasse Productivity, the cultivars showed differences in average values and behavior throughout the season. The cultivar IACSP95-5000 had the best performance in relation to production and productivity of bagasse, can be used for cogeneration for most of the season. The cultivar RB855536 presented a lower performance, achieving low production and productivity of bagasse, indicating its lower potential in relation to energy generation. (author)

  10. Digestibilidade do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com reagentes químicos e pressão de vapor Digestibility of sugar cane bagasse treated with chemical reagents and steam pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Manzano

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de elevar a digestibilidade do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, este resíduo agro-industrial foi tratado com inúmeros reagentes químicos acompanhados ou não de tratamento físico. Após ensaios preliminares, nos quais diversos agentes deslignificantes foram avaliados, dez tratamentos foram selecionados para serem melhor estudados em ensaios de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e da matéria orgânica. Em seguida, para o ensaio de digestibilidade in vivo, foram feitas quatro dietas à base de: 1 - Bagaço auto-hidrolisado (BAH, pressão de 17 kgf/cm² por 5 min; 2 - Bagaço tratado com 4% Na2S + 6% NaOH, pressão de 12 kgf/cm² por 8 min; 3 - Bagaço tratado com 2% Na2S + 3% NaOH, pressão de 12 kgf/cm² por 8 min; e 4 - Bagaço tratado com 9% H2O2 + 7% NaOH, a 70ºC por 8 min. Bagaço tratado com 4% Na2S + 6% NaOH e submetido a 12 kgf/cm² de pressão apresentou os melhores coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido e o maior valor de nutrientes digestíveis totais. Em seguida, o bagaço tratado com 9% H2O2 + 7% NaOH a 70ºC por 8 min apresentou os melhores resultados. Piores resultados foram observados para o bagaço hidrolizado. A melhor digestibilidade de algumas das dietas, particularmente das frações fibrosas, sugere a exiqüibilidade do emprego de menores quantidades de alimento concentrado em dietas à base de bagaço de cana tratado química/fisicamente.In order to increase the sugar cane bagasse digestibility, this agricultural by-product was treated with several chemical reagents with or without physical treatment. After preliminary evaluation, where several delignificant agents were evaluated, ten treatments were selected for more detailed in vitro dry and organic matter disappearance trials. Then, for the in vivo digestibility trial, four sugar cane bagasse based diets were made: 1 - Hydrolyzed sugar cane bagasse, pressure of

  11. Use of sugarcane bagasse ashes as raw material in the replacement of fluxes for applications on porcelain tile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, R.J.S.; Silva, V.M. da; Acchar, W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), BA (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: This study evaluated the potential use of Sugarcane Bagasse Ashes (SBA) as a flux, replacing phyllite for the production of enamelled porcelain tile. The raw materials of the standard mass components and the SBA residue were characterized by testing by XRF, XRD, AG, DTA and TGA. Test samples were fabricated, assembled in lots of 3 units and sintered at temperatures of 1150 ° C to 1210 ° C. The results of the physical properties, mechanical properties and SEM of the sintered samples, showed that the formulation, G4 - in which applied 10% of SBA replacing phyllite, sintering temperature 1210 ° C showed better performance as the previously mentioned properties due to the formation of mullite crystals, meeting the prerequisites of standards for enamelled porcelain tile, while reducing the environmental impact and the cost of production. (author)

  12. DECO FRECASE (drywall eco-friendly from eggshell and cane bagasse) as an innovation of eco-friendly interior construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imron, M. A.; Ahkam, D. N. I.; Hidayat, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The number of factories and home industries, both upper and lower middle class certainly adds waste generated, resulting in environmental pollution. The development of buildings is one of the largest contributors to global warming. For that, it takes technological innovations that lead to the criteria of green building. The application of green material is important aspects of environmentally friendly development, the selection of materials on the green material criteria of both roles should be applied continuously in order to realize the environmental sustainability of the material. Utilization Waste eggshell and bagasse which is a community waste, has the potential to become innovative environmentally friendly building materials. The eggshell is composed of 94% calcium carbonate, 1% magnesium carbonate, 1% calcium phosphate, and 4% organic material, especially protein, while the bagasse has a high content of silica (SiO2). In this study, the compounds are used as raw material for making alternative drywall in the form of DECO FRECASE. DECO FRECASE is an innovation of environmentally friendly building materials as an interior wall construction. Through DECO FRECASE, it is expected that building material innovation in Indonesia can be improved and of course environmental problems can be minimized by utilizing it as raw material for building construction.

  13. Bagasse production potential from late sugar cane cultivars; Potencial produtivo de bagaco por cultivares tardios de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tulibio F. da; Silva Neto, Helio F. da; Tasso Junior, Luiz C.; Marques, Diogo; Marques, Marcos O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], E-mail: tulibio_fernandes@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    In order to diversify energy sources, the residue of sugarcane gathers attributes that qualify its use. Therefore, this study was to evaluate the potential of bagasse production in late cultivars of sugarcane. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 6 treatments (cultivars) and 3 replications. The experiment was carried out at FCAV/UNESP Jaboticabal. To calculate the productivity, it was counted the number of stems in a row linear meter, it was obtained the weight of stems. The percentage of fiber for each cultivar was determined by a calculation of estimated production and productivity of mulch. Using these values to estimate the number of people who would benefit from the energy generated from the combustion of bagasse in a process of cogeneration power. The results were submitted to analysis of variance by F test and averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Cultivars RB867515, RB72454 and CTC6 showed the best performance, indicating its greater potential for power cogeneration. Cultivars CTC IAC94-2 and 2101 were lower when considering the results obtained. (author)

  14. Removal of Cu (II) ion from water using sugar cane bagasse cellulose and gelatin based composite hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Jayabrata; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Several composite hydrogels were prepared by in situ incorporation of sugarcane bagasse cellulose (CB) and a natural polymer gelatin (GT) in to the polyacrylic copolymer network by free radical solution polymerization. The hydrogels were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, DMA, SEM, EDAX, pH at point zero charge and swelling reversibility at varied pH in water. The effects of the synthesis parameters on sorption of Cu (II) from water by the resulting hydrogels were studied and the results were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The hydrogel prepared with optimized parameters was further studied for sorption of Cu (II) at varied process conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica vermelha incorporada com residuo de cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpfaria@hotmail.co, E-mail: holanda@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados. Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  16. Laccase induction by synthetic dyes in Pycnoporus sanguineus and their possible use for sugar cane bagasse delignification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Christian; Farnet Da Silva, Anne-Marie; Ziarelli, Fabio; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Beatriz; García-Pérez, José Antonio; Alarcón, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    The use of synthetic dyes for laccase induction in vivo has been scarcely explored. We characterized the effect of adding different synthetic dyes to liquid cultures of Pycnoporus sanguineus on laccase production. We found that carminic acid (CA) can induce 722 % and alizarin yellow 317 % more laccase than control does, and they promoted better fungal biomass development in liquid cultures. Aniline blue and crystal violet did not show such positive effect. CA and alizarin yellow were degraded up to 95 % during P. sanguineus culturing (12 days). With this basis, CA was selected as the best inducer and used to evaluate the induction of laccase on solid-state fermentation (SSF), using sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as substrate, in an attempt to reach selective delignification. We found that laccase induction occurred in SSF, and a slight inhibition of cellulase production was observed when CA was added to the substrate; also, a transformation of SCB under SSF was followed by the 13 C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results showed that P. sanguineus can selectively delignify SCB, decreasing aromatic C compounds by 32.67 % in 16 days; O-alkyl C region (polysaccharides) was degraded less than 2 %; delignification values were not correlated with laccase activities. Cellulose-crystallinity index was increased by 27.24 % in absence of CA and 15.94 % when 0.01 mM of CA was added to SCB; this dye also inhibits the production of fungal biomass in SSF (measured as alkyl C gain). We conclude that CA is a good inducer of laccase in liquid media, and that P. sanguineus is a fungus with high potential for biomass delignification.

  17. Prospective evaluation of biorefinery routes in Brazil, from sugar cane bagasse as a basic feedstock; Avaliacao prospectiva das rotas de biorefinaria no Brasil, a partir do bagaco de cana-de-acucar como materia-prima basica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Romulo Neves

    2009-12-15

    Bio refineries have been identified either as an alternative to oil refineries or as a supplement. This work seeks to understand these plants applied to the Brazilian case, which has in the alcohol-sugar sector a large number of lignocellulose material (sugar-cane bagasse) produced in large scale as a residue of the process of sugar and alcohol production. In this case, technological routes that are able to use this product as a basic feedstock for the industrial process will be described. Therefore, a model based on a set of economical and technological variables is applied to the routes. In this model, different profiles of bio refinery plants are described and compared with different hypothetical regions, which are characterized by a combination of both access to different amounts of raw material and different types of consumers. Overall, this work describes a model of both location and competition of the main bio refinery technological routes in Brazil that have the sugar-cane bagasse as the basic raw material. (author)

  18. RESEARCH OF THE ADSORPTION OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Omar Prieto García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research a study of the adsorption of acetic, benzoic, butanoic, fumaric, maleic and succinic acids on sugarcane baggase ash is made. The adsorber material is characterized through physical criteria such as apparent and pictometric density, compressibility, porosity, superficial area and tortuosity. The sample has been examined by X-rays Diffraction, thermal analysis, IR-quality analysis. The isotherm for the sorption process is determined, where it is shown that the Freundlich model is adjusted to benzoic acid, the Langmuir and Toth model to acetic acid, Bunauer- Emmett- Teller (BET model to succinic acid and the butiric, maleic and fumaric acids are adjusted to Langmoir model. It is established that the first-order model is adjusted to the adsorption kinetics of the acetic and benzoic acids; while the rest of the acids are adjusted to a second-order model, in the case of the butanoic, succinic and maleic acids it is possible the occurrence of chemisorption processes.

  19. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion.

  20. Bagasse utilization in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Fluctuations in world sugar prices retard economic development in sugar-producing countries like Cuba, and so there is a pressing need to find alternative uses for sugar cane through the industrialization of its by-products, such as bagasse. In 1971 the United Nations Development Program began a cooperative venture with the Cuban Research Institute for Sugar Cane Derivatives to develop methods of making newsprint from bagasse. An experimental plant - Cuba 9, located 35 kilometers south of Havana, was inaugurated in May 1981. It is semi-commercial in character and has a daily capacity of 34 tonnes of newsprint and five tonnes of dissolving pulp. Pilot plants for the production of furfural and for the production of reconstituted panelboard are in operation.

  1. Evaluation of sugar cane bagasse subjected to haying and ensiling Avaliação do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar submetido à fenação e à ensilagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Cristina Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate sugar cane bagasse from cachaça production, subjected to hay-making and ensiling. The experiment was conduced at Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, using the completely random delineation (CRD, with seven treatment and three repetitions. The treatments were constituted of in natura sugar cane bagasse (INB, manually hayed and baled sugar cane bagasse, mechanically hayed and baled, manually baled INB and mechanically baled INB, whole ensiled INB and chopped ensiled INB. Bromatological composition, tampon capacity (TC, pH values and total sugar rate of the INB were evaluated. For the ensilage, there were used cistern silos and for the baling, manual and mechanical balers. The bagasse was baled in natura, or after reaching 89% rate of DM, according to the treatments. The evaluated characteristics were dry matter rate (DM, crude protein (CP, fiber in neutral detergent (FND, fiber in acid detergent (FAD. The results went through variance analyses and the averages were compared by the Scott - Knott test (PNeste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar proveniente da produção de cachaça, submetido à fenação e à ensilagem. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG, utilizando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC, com sete tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por bagaço de cana in natura (BIN, bagaço de cana fenado e enfardado manualmente, bagaço de cana fenado e enfardado mecanicamente, BIN enfardado manualmente, BIN enfardado mecanicamente, BIN ensilado inteiro e BIN ensilado picado. Foram avaliadas a composição bromatológica, capacidade tampão (CT, valores de pH e os teores de açúcares totais do BIN. Para a ensilagem foram utilizados silos cisternas e para o enfardamento, enfardadoras manual e mecânica. O bagaço foi enfardado in natura, ou após atingir teor de 89% de MS, conforme os tratamentos. As caracter

  2. Use of rum and sugar cane bagasse in the removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soil; Uso de cachaza y bagazo de cana de azucar en la remocion de hidrocarburos en suelo contaminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-02-15

    The objective of this work was to determine the removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from soil contaminated with hydrocarbons using two different types of agricultural residues, filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith, as amendment and bulking agents. To test these approaches, a microcosms test was applied to soil contaminated with 14 300 mg kg-1 of TPH and 23.14 mg kg-1 of PAH. The soil treatments consisted of the following ratios of soil to residue (%/%): 100:0, 98:2, 98:4 and 98:6, and macronutrient addition was based on a carbon/nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (C:N:P, %/ % / %) of 100:10:1. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the filter cake mud and the sugarcane bagasse pith treatments, in which the TPH removal efficiency was 60.1% using sugar cane bagasse pith and 51.4% with filter cake mud. A filter cake mud ratio of 96:4 produced the highest observed removal efficiency of PAH (43%), and a sugarcane bagasse pith ratio of 98:2 resulted in a PAH removal efficiency of 41%. Filter cake mud treatment could be an alternative for use in the bioremediation process of soils polluted with hydrocarbons. [Spanish] El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la eficiencia de remocion de hidrocarburos aromaticos policiclicos (HAP) y de hidrocarburos totales del petroleo (HTP) de un suelo contaminado con petroleo crudo, utilizando dos tipos de residuos agroindustriales, la cachaza y el bagazo de cana de azucar como enmiendas y texturizante. Para ello, se realizaron pruebas en microcosmos de cultivos solidos para la biorremediacion de un suelo contaminado con 14300 mg kg-1 de HTP y 23.14 mg kg-1 de HAP. Las relaciones suelo: residuo utilizadas en las pruebas fueron las siguientes (%): 100:0, 98:2, 96:4 y 94:6, y la adicion de macronutrimentos con base en la relacion carbono/nitrogeno/fosforo (%%%) de 100:10:1. El analisis estadistico indico que hay diferencias

  3. Utilization of molasses and sugar cane bagasse for production of fungal invertase in solid state fermentation using Aspergillus niger GH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veana, F; Martínez-Hernández, J L; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Michelena, G

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial wastes have been used as substrate-support in solid state fermentation for enzyme production. Molasses and sugarcane bagasse are by-products of sugar industry and can be employed as substrates for invertase production. Invertase is an important enzyme for sweeteners development. In this study, a xerophilic fungus Aspergillus niger GH1 isolated of the Mexican semi-desert, previously reported as an invertase over-producer strain was used. Molasses from Mexico and Cuba were chemically analyzed (total and reducer sugars, nitrogen and phosphorous contents); the last one was selected based on chemical composition. Fermentations were performed using virgin and hydrolyzate bagasse (treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid). Results indicated that, the enzymatic yield (5231 U/L) is higher than those reported by other A. niger strains under solid state fermentation, using hydrolyzate bagasse. The acid hydrolysis promotes availability of fermentable sugars. In addition, maximum invertase activity was detected at 24 h using low substrate concentration, which may reduce production costs. This study presents an alternative method for invertase production using a xerophilic fungus isolated from Mexican semi-desert and inexpensive substrates (molasses and sugarcane bagasse).

  4. Quality evaluation of compost produced from agro-industrialbyproducts of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bohórquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh by products of the sugar industry (sugarcane sludge, bagasse and vinasse incorporated into the soil generate a negative impact on plants. Therefore, compost is an alternative solution to the use of sugarcane byproducts, which must meet the requirements of the Colombian technical standard 5167 for use as biofertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of compost made from different combinations of products of the milling process of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.. Composting piles were established in the Ingenio Riopaila-Castilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, using a complete randomized block design with five treatments and four replications. 100% sugarcane sludge (T1, 75% sugarcane sludge and 25% bagasse (T2, 50% bagasse and 50% sugarcane sludge (T3, 25% sugarcane sludge and 75% bagasse (T4 and 100% bagasse (T5, all supplemented with 2 m3 of vinasse. The response variables: pH, electrical conductivity, moisture, ash, organic matter, moisture retention, the carbon-nitrogen ratio, the total oxidizable organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, manganese and zinc, were evaluated at the time when the initial compost piles were prepared, and the 42, 51, 59, 73 and 90 days after beginning the process. The results showed that the carbon-nitrogen mixtures initial ratio is critical for obtaining a good quality of compost. The T3 provided the best quality with the highest content of nutrients. The composting time ensuring adequate maturation levels for nutrients in the compost was 90 days.

  5. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  7. Sugarcane biomass for biorefineries: comparative composition of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components of bagasse and straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbowski, Danielle; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2014-12-19

    Two fractions of sugarcane, namely bagasse and straw (or trash), were characterized in relation to their chemical composition. Bagasse presented values of glucans, hemicelluloses, lignin and ash of 37.74, 27.23, 20.57 and 6.53%, respectively, while straw had 33.77, 27.38, 21.28 and 6.23% of these same components. Ash content was relatively high in both cane biomass fractions. Bagasse showed higher levels of contaminating oxides while straw had a higher content of alkaline and alkaline-earth oxides. A comparison between the polysaccharide chemical compositions of these lignocellulosic materials suggests that similar amounts of fermentable sugars are expected to arise from their optimal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Details about the chemical properties of cane biomass holocellulose, hemicelluloses A and B and α-cellulose are provided, and these may offer a good opportunity for designing more efficient enzyme cocktails for substrate saccharification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Technical paradigm and power cogeneration with bagasse from sugar cane in Goias, Brazil; Paradigma tecnico e cogeracao de energia com bagaco de cana-de-acucar em Goias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Josias Manoel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Coord. de Saneamento Ambiental

    2006-07-01

    The article shows, through technical elements, the experience of producing electrical energy, generated in some sugar industrial plants of Goias state, by burning sugar cane husks in boilers. This production has supplied the state concessionaires, but the supply has declined in the past years, due to several issues, of economic, technical and political order. Despite of this, government has done some effort in reactivating the supply, by modifying the energy politics. (author)

  9. The family II carbohydrate-binding module of xylanase CflXyn11A from Cellulomonas flavigena increases the synergy with cellulase TrCel7B from Trichoderma reesei during the hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-Orozco, Patricia; Santiago-Hernández, Alejandro; Rosengren, Anna; Hidalgo-Lara, María Eugenia; Stålbrand, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Synergy between Cellulomonas flavigena xylanase CflXyn11A and Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase TrCel7B was assessed during hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated sugar cane bagasse (SCB) after 12-48 h, applying the individual enzymes and mixtures of the enzymes. A high degree of synergy (6.3) between CflXyn11A and TrCel7B in hydrolysis of SCB was observed after 12h in the equimolar mixture. A threefold decrease in the degree of synergy was observed with TrCel7B and the catalytic module of CflXyn11A; suggesting an important role played by the carbohydrate-binding module of CflXyn11A (CflXyn11A-CBM) in the observed synergy. Affinity electrophoresis and binding assays showed that CflXyn11A-CBM binds to xylans and to a lesser extent to cellulose. Our results suggest that synergy is more pronounced at early stages of hydrolysis. Furthermore, for the first time it is described that a CBM carried by a xylanase significantly enhances the synergy with a cellulase (threefold increase in synergy). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient use of sugar cane bagasse by means of the separation of its component fractions in a new type of pneumatic classifier for polydisperse solid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Alarcon, Guillermo A.; Perez, Luis E. Brossard [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Olivares Gomez, Edgardo; Cortez, Luis A. Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    This paper highlights the importance of pneumatic classification to improve the performance of any process using solid polydisperse materials. It is presented a physical model, based on which, it is proposed an installation with new characteristics for the separation of solid materials into three fractions, whose main part is a classification column. The fractions classified will be designated as: coarse, medium and fine. The classification column of the pneumatic installation allows establishing the appropriate flow regimes during the classification process. To evaluate the process there were defined the following indicators: the purity index, the classification efficiency and the degree of separation. These magnitudes are experimentally determined and serve as a measure of the percentage of separation and homogeneity of any of the three fractions mentioned before. The bagasse fractions can be obtained with definite particles size ranges that can improve the practical applications of bagasse in processes such as acid or enzymatic hydrolysis for ethanol's obtaining, for combustion purposes and in general for classification of any solid polydisperse material of different size, shape and density. (author)

  11. Effect of feed source and pyrolysis conditions on sugarcane bagasse biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing of sugarcane in sugar mills yield ca. 30% bagasse, a fibrous waste material composed mostly of crushed cane stalks. While 80-90% of the bagasse used on site as fuel, the remaining portion can be converted into a value-added product. One such option is thermal conversion of bagasse into bi...

  12. Optimisation of power generation in the Local Cane Sugar Factories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) system by investing in high pressure boilers and generating on a firm basis throughout the year. However, it is shown that by using bagasse and cane tops and leaves and investing in high pressure boilers and condensing-extraction ...

  13. Enhancement of the nutritive value of bagasse using chicken manure.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of chicken manure droppings on the nutritive value of sugar cane bagasse upon fermentation. It was hypothesized that the use of the two low cost residues (bagasse and chicken manure) in an animal feed could present a great nutritional potential to livestock farmers. Five treatments were ...

  14. Cane Tops and Leaves as Boiler Fuel | Gukhool | University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper finds that it is possible to burn cane tops and leaves (CTL) as a fuel for boilers in sugar factories. Best results were however obtained when it is mixed with bagasse in the ratio 30% CTL and 70% bagasse with respect to energy content, exhaust particles and necessity for not modifying existing systems for burning ...

  15. Digestibilidade do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar tratado com hidróxido de sódio em dietas para coelhos em crescimento Digestibility of sugar cane bagasse after a NaOH treatment in growing rabbit diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Apocalypse Nogueira Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o bagaço de cana-de-açúcar não tratado (BN e tratado (BT com 2, 4 e 6% de hidróxido de sódio (NaOH na dieta para coelhos em crescimento. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CD dos nutrientes do BN e BT foram determinados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (ração básica e rações com 40% de bagaço com 0, 2, 4 e 6% de NaOH e quatro repetições. Para obtenção dos valores de CD apenas do bagaço, e não da dieta total, adotou-se o método de substituição isométrica da dieta basal proposto por Matterson et al. (1965. A adição de NaOH ao bagaço não melhorou significativamente (P>0,05 os CD da matéria seca, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra bruta e energia bruta e piorou significativamente (P=0,0023 o CD da fibra em detergente ácido (y = 20,042 - 2,7615x, r² = 0,984. Concluiu-se que o tratamento do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar com NaOH não trouxe vantagens práticas sobre os valores de CD que justificassem o seu uso, já que a adoção dessa técnica demanda aumento de mão-de-obra e do custo da alimentação.The NaOH treated sugar cane bagasse (BT (2, 4 e 6% and untreated cane bagasse (BN was evaluated as rabbit diet ingredients. The digestion coefficients (CD were determined in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (basic diet and 40% bagasse diets (0, 2, 4 e 6% NaOH and four replications, using substitution methodology (Matterson et al., 1965. The nutritive values of bagasse (DM, CP, NDF, CF and GE were not significantly (P>0,05 affected by NaOH treatment, whereas AFD was significantly (P = 0,0023 linearly decreased by the chemical treatment (y = 20,042 - 2,7615x , r² = 0,984. It was concluded that the treatment was not effective to improving the CD of sugar cane bagasse, being the practice not justifiable.

  16. Storage and conservation of bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusi, D.S.

    1980-08-01

    Storage of bagasse produced at harvest time becomes necessary when it is used for operations that are carried out continuously throughout the year, such as pulp and paper production. The sugar cane tissues suffer severe mechanical treatment in the sugar mills crushers, are further damaged in depithers and in many cases degraded while in storage. The processes of degradation are examined and handling and storage procedures are discussed which will minimize the quality and material losses.

  17. Efecto de la espiral normal en el movimiento vortiginoso con partículas de bagazo de caña//Effect of normal spiral in the vortex movement with small sugar cane bagasse particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Francisco Bombino-Matos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la importancia que adquiere cada vez más el bagazo de caña, se estudia el movimiento vortiginoso de sus partículas transportadas por un gas y se comparan los resultados obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados mediante un modelo matemático. La formación de la espiral se clasificó de tres formas, obteniéndose la velocidad y caída de presión en cada caso a través de un diseño de experimentos factorial multinivel con una réplica. Como variable dependiente cualitativa se tomó la formación de la espiral normal y como variables independientes cuantitativas la velocidad del gas, el tamaño de partículas y la concentración de la mezcla, obteniéndose una correlación que ajustó con84.64%. Se determinó el tamaño de muestra para comparar los valores de velocidades del gas y caídas de presión obtenidos experimentalmente con los simulados, los resultados experimentales cumplen una distribución normal y el modelo simula el proceso con error aceptable ingenierilmente.Palabras claves: movimiento de vórtice, secado neumático de bagazo, modelo matemático.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe vortex movement of sugar cane bagasse carry by a gas is study and the results obtained in the laboratory are compared with the ones simulated through a mathematical model. The formation of the hairspring was classified in three ways, being obtained the speed and fall of pressure in each case througha design of multilevel factorial experiments with a replica. The formation of the normal hairspring was taken as qualitative dependent variable, and as quantitative independent variables, the gas speed, particles sizeand the mixture concentration were taken, being obtained a correlation that adjusted with 84.64%. The sample size was determined to compare the values of gas speed and the falls of pressure experimentally obtained with those obtained by the simulation, the experimental results

  18. Impact of sugarcane bagasse ash as an amendment on the physical properties, nutrient content and seedling growth of a certified organic greenhouse growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the milable sugarcane. Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse to produce steam power to run equipment within the mill and/or as a boiler fuel for th...

  19. Níveis de bagaço de cana e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento Sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in the growing dairy cattle diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Brandão Torres

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes níveis de bagaço e uréia como substituto ao farelo de soja em dietas para bovinos leiteiros em crescimento, dois experimentos foram realizados. No primeiro, 20 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais receberam dietas à base de palma forrageira e bagaço de cana em níveis de 5,5; 14,4; 24,4 e 34% da matéria seca total. O ganho de peso diminuiu, enquanto a conversão alimentar, e os consumos de FDN e FDA aumentaram linearmente com a inclusão de bagaço. O consumo máximo de MS foi estimado em 2,73% do peso vivo com 30% de bagaço de cana. No segundo experimento foi avaliada a substituição do farelo de soja (FS por uréia mais milho moído (UM, em dietas à base de palma forrageira, sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu. Vinte animais foram alimentados de acordo com os níveis de substituição do FS por UM (0, 20, 40 e 60% distribuídos em blocos ao acaso. Não houve efeito da substituição parcial do farelo de soja por milho e uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhas mestiças.In order to evaluate different levels of sugar cane bagasse and urea as replacement of soybean meal in growing dairy cattle diets, two trials were conducted. In the first, twenty crossbreed bull calves (Holstein x Zebu were allotted in a completely randomized design with four treatments. The animals were fed forage cactus based diets, containing levels of 5.5, 14.4, 24.4 and 34% of sugar cane bagasse on the dry matter basis. The liveweight gain decreased while the feed: gain ratio, FDN and FDA intakes increased linearly in function of the increased level of sugar cane bagasse. The maximum daily dry matter intake of 2.73% of LW was estimated with 30% of sugar cane bagasse in the diet. In the second, was evaluated the partial replacement of soybean meal (SM by urea plus corn cracked (UC in forage cactus based diets on the

  20. Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

  1. Deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Ceccato-Antonini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main interest in the energy cane is the bioenergy production from the bagasse. The juice obtained after the cane milling may constitute a feedstock for the first-generation ethanol units; however, little attention has been dedicated to this issue. In order to verify the feasibility of the energy cane juice as substrate for ethanol production, the objectives of this research were first to determine the microbiological characteristics and deterioration along the time of the juices from two clones of energy cane (Type I and second, their fermentability as feedstock for utilization in ethanol distilleries. There was a clear differentiation in the bacterial and yeast development of the sugarcane juices assayed, being much faster in the energy canes than in sugarcane. The storage of juice for 8 hours at 30oC did not cause impact in alcoholic fermentation for any sample analyzed, although a significant bacterial growth was detected in this period. A decrease of approximately seven percentage points in the fermentative efficiency was observed for energy cane juice in relation to sugarcane in a 24-hour fermentation cycle with the baking yeast. Despite the faster deterioration, the present research demonstrated that the energy cane juice has potential to be used as feedstock in ethanol-producing industries. As far as we know, it is the first research to deal with the characteristics of deterioration and fermentability of energy cane juices.

  2. Determination of moisture in bagasse by neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Suarez, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    For the first time in Cuba organic samples were analyzed by neutron reflection method. The feasibility of this method to determinate the moisture grade in sugar cane bagasse is fixed. From 0 to 50w% moisture grade with 2-3% relative accuracy can be determinated using 10m. measuring time. 7 refs

  3. Potential for generation of public electricity in cane sugar factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torisson, T.

    1984-04-01

    Sugar cane is the most efficient crop for the conversion of solar energy into biomass. The possibility of conservation of energy in cane sugar producing countries by substituting bagasse for imported oil, was studied in Guyana, South America and financed by the World Bank. The concept of cogeneration was considered, where the heat energy generated by burning bagasse of high fiber content is converted into steam and used both for electricity generation and generation of internal power. Several methods of achieving energy efficiency in this process were discussed such as efficient generation and use of the steam by using high pressure boilers, drying and pelletization of bagasse, and using sugar cane trash as fuel. About 40% of the bagasse could be available for the generation of electric energy. A method for evaluation of the power potential showed that the quantity of public electricity produced, depended on certain important process parameters, fiber content, steam conditions and process steam. The cost effectiveness of the project increases with increasing fiber content in the sugar cane.

  4. Efeito da granulometria do bagaço de cana sobre as características digestivas e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos Effect particle size of sugar cane bagasse on the digestive traits and the cecotrophes nutritive contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia da Silva Vieira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com coelhos mestiços Nova Zelândia Branco x Califórnia, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da granulometria da fonte de fibra sobre as características digestivas de coelhos em crescimento e sobre a produção, composição química e a contribuição nutritiva dos cecotrofos, em termos de matéria seca (MS e proteína bruta (PB. Quatro dietas foram elaboradas com diferentes granulometrias do bagaço de cana com diâmetro geométrico médio (DGM de 0,231, 0,506, 0,616 e 0,833 mm. O desempenho e os pesos do sistema digestivo cheio, sistema digestivo vazio, conteúdo do sistema digestivo, ceco cheio, ceco vazio e conteúdo cecal não foram afetados significativamente, entretanto o nitrogênio amoniacal do conteúdo cecal aumentou significativamente com o aumento da granulometria do bagaço de cana. Na avaliação da cecotrofia, foi observado efeito linear significativo da granulometria sobre a produção de cecotrofos e o teor de MS e PB ingerido por cecotrofia, porém sua composição química não foi afetada.Two experiments using New Zealand White x Californian rabbits were carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of fiber source particle size on digestive traits of growing rabbit and the production, chemical composition and cecotrophes nutritive contribuition on dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP base. Four diets were prepared with different particle size of sugar cane bagasse with average geometric diameters of .231, .506, .616 and .833 mm. The productive performance and weight of the full and empty digestive tract, digestive tract content, full and empty cecum and cecum content were not affected, however the ammonia nitrogen percentage in the caecum content was significantly increased by increasing particle size of sugar cane bagasse. In cecotrophy evaluation, effects of particle size on cecotrophes production, DM and CP content ingested were observed, but the cecotrophes chemical

  5. Modelación del secado neumático vortiginoso del bagazo de la caña de azúcar//Modulation of sugar cane bagasse pneumatic drying in a vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio F. Bombino-Matos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomando en consideración los estudios realizados sobre la modelación del movimiento vortiginoso de partículas de bagazo, se realizó el estudio del secado neumático de esta importante biomasa teniendo en cuenta la transferencia de calor y de masa. Se modeló el proceso de secado a través de las ecuacionesfundamentales que describen la cinética del mismo y se compararon los resultados obtenidos con resultados reportados en la literatura especializada sobre mediciones de la variación del contenido de humedad en otros tipos de secadores neumáticos de bagazo para iguales condiciones de operación. Esta modelación permitió realizar simulaciones de este proceso las cuales arrojaron resultados aceptables en cuanto a los valores de disminución del contenido de humedad del bagazo lo que permitirá continuar profundizando en el desarrollo de próximos estudios sobre el tema ya que se evidencia que por esta vía es posible disminuir las dimensiones de los secadores de bagazo.Palabras claves: secado neumático vortiginoso, secado de bagazo, modelación matemática.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractTaking in account the studies carried out about the vortex movement of bagasse particles, the study of pneumatic drying of this important biomass was carried out considering the heat and mass transfer. The drying process was modeled through the fundamentals equations which describe the kinetic of it and theobtained results were compared with results reported in the specialized literature on drying measurements in others kinds of bagasse pneumatics dryers under the same conditions of operation. This modulation permitted to made simulations of this process which produced acceptable results about the decrease humidity values of bagasse and it will permit to continue in the development of next studies about this topic because it is evident that it is possible to reduce bagasse dryer dimensions.Key words

  6. Propriedades absorventes dos produtos da carbóxi-metilação de polpa etanol/água de medula de bagaço de cana-de-açucar Absorbent properties of carboxymethylated ethanol/water pulps of pith from sugar cane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele M. F. Martinez

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Polpas etanol/água de medula de bagaço de cana de açúcar foram empregadas para a obtenção de carbóxi-metil-celulose insolúvel, aplicável como material absorvente. Tipicamente, a reação de carbóxi-metilação da polpa branqueada foi realizada em suspensão de isopropanol/água (1:8 / m:m a 80 ºC por 4 horas, empregando-se relação molar 1 / 5,4 / 8,8 de celulose / NaOH / ClAcOH. O material com melhores características corresponde a um produto muito pouco solúvel (S W ABSTRACT: Ethanol/water pulp of pith from sugar cane bagasse was used for the obtention of insoluble carboxymethylcellulose applicable as absorbent material. Typically the carboxymethylation reaction of the bleached pulp was carried out at 80 °C for 4 hours in isopropanol/water suspension 1:8 (w/w employing a 1.0 / 5.4 / 8.8 cellulose / NaOH / ClAcOH molar ratio. The material with the best absorbent characteristics corresponds to a very insoluble product (S W < 2% possessing better absorbent properties than the pulp of pith used for its obtention.

  7. Study of Sugar Cane Management Systems in Brazil Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Jader; Villas-Boas, Paulino; Carvalho, Camila; Corá, José Eduardo; Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is the largest producer of cane sugar, consequently, is a leader in the production of bio-ethanol, a clean and renewable energy that fits the model of sustainable economy as discussed and pursued by our society. Our state of São Paulo concentrates 60% of national production, representing a sizeable share in the range of world production. All this economic potential is closely monitored by the scientific community, which develops numerous studies seeking an improvement in production efficiency and reduced environmental impacts caused by the planting. However, the study of soil samples, in plantation areas, demands results about the content and structural forms of organic matter (OM). Also, the soil carbon stocks depend on the type of management. Our goal is to study OM of soil samples from four sugar cane management systems: (i) unburned cane harvest, (ii) preharvest burned, (iii) addition of sugarcane bagasse ash and (iv) addition of residue from the extraction of sucrose, using Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of solid state. All the emission spectra were acquired using the system called LIFS-405, which consists of a diode laser Coherent, model cube with excitation at 405 nm, maximum output power of 50mJ and a mini-spectrometer, Ocean Optics USB2000-high sensitivity, with range of 194-894 nm and a fiber-optic bundle design (six excitation fibers in a circular path and one central fiber the collect the fluorescence). In this work, we will present the preliminary results evolving the humification index (HLIFS) of soil OM and total carbon amount (TC) for the different types of management. HLIFS shows a close correlation with the humification index of humic acid in solution obtained by means 2D conventional fluorescence spectroscopy.

  8. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, A.; Gutierrez, C.; Amigó Borrás, Vicente; Mejia De Gutierrez, Ruby; Delvasto, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA) were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%). T...

  9. Microbial and physicochemical properties of sugarcane bagasse for potential conversion to value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential source for commercially-viable products such as animal feed, mulch, or fuel. The applications will be determined by the levels of moisture, ash and beneficial chemicals in the bagasse. Manufacturing value-added products will be impacted by microbes, and may require m...

  10. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  11. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  12. USO DE HOJARASCA DE ROBLE y BAGAZO DE CAÑA EN LA PRODUCCIÓN DE Pleurotus ostreatus USO DA SERAPILHEIRA DE CARVALHO E BAGAÇO DA CANA NA PRODUÇÃO DO Pleurotus ostreatus USE OF THE OAK DEAD LEAVES AND SUGAR CANE BAGASSE IN THE Pleurotus ostreatus PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PILAR SUDIANY VARGAS

    2012-06-01

    carpóforos mostrou 5 a12 cm de diâmetro e contaminação causada por fungos competidores do gênero Trichoderma sp. Foram detectadas alterações na composição do substrato esgotado, principalmente aumento de minerais e proteínas e decresceu na fibra o bagaço de cana e folhas de carvalho, sendo apropriado para alimentar animais poligástricos, para à proteína micelial disponível, presença celulose e teor de lignina reduzido.In order to assess the use as growing substrate for the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, falling of the oak dead leaves in a forest relict in La Capilla rural area, Cajibio (Cauca was evaluated during 6 months, choosing mature trees with a chest height diameter (DAP between 35 and 37 cm were chosen, getting an average of 7,41 kg of dead leaves per tree. Fungus growing in oak dead leaves mixed with sugar cane bagasse and 5 substrates: T1: bagasse 100%, T2: oak 100%, T3: oak 75% and bagasse 25%, T4: oak 50% and bagasse 50% and T5: oak 25% and bagasse 75% reaching biological efficiencies of 221,1%, 44,35%, 52,78%, 90,30% and 109,12% respectively. Was an inverse association between the content of oak leaf and efficiencies due to the nature leathery and waxy leaf. Most of the carpophores showed 5 and 12 cm and contamination caused by competing fungi of the Trichoderma sp. genus. Changes were detected in the depleted substrate composition, mainly minerals and protein increase and decrease of fiber in the bagasse and oak litter, being suitable for animal feed polygastric for mycelial protein content, presence of cellulose and lower lignin content.

  13. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while...... proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts...

  14. Carboximetilação de polpas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e caracterização dos materiais absorventes obtidos Carboxymethylation of pulps from sugar cane bagasse and characterization of the produced absorbent materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís C. Morais

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Os processos soda/antraquinona e etanol/água foram aplicados à produção de polpas de fibras e de medulas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar. Tais polpas foram carboximetiladas em suspensão de isopropanol/água (8/1 m/m por 4 horas a 80(0C, empregando a relação molar 8,5/5,4/1 para ácido monocloroacético/hidróxido de sódio/celulose. Os graus médios de susbtituição dos produtos carboximetilados foram determinados por espectroscopia ¹H R.M.N. e variaram entre 0,44 e 1,27 em função da polpa empregada na derivatização. Os derivados mais substituídos foram os melhores absorventes, sugerindo que a capacidade de retenção de água desses produtos está diretamente associada a seus graus de substituição.Two pulping methods were used on fibers and pith of sugar cane bagasse: soda/anthraquinone and ethanol/water. These pulps were submitted to carboxymethylation in a slurry of isopropanol/water (8/1 m/m at 80ºC for 4 hours using a molar relation 8,8/5,4/1 of monochloroacetic acid/sodium hydroxyde/cellulose. The average degrees of substitution of the carboxymethylated products, determined by ¹H N.M.R. spectroscopy, were between 0.44 and 1.27, depending on the pulp employed for derivatization. The more substituted pulps were the more absorbent products, suggesting that the water retention capacity of these products is closely associated to their degrees of substitution.

  15. Características físicas e mecânicas de misturas de solo, cimento e cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Physical and mechanical characteristics of soil-cement-bagasse ash mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Del C. Mesa Valenciano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por finalidade analisar algumas características de misturas de solo, cimento e cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar para sua possível utilização na fabricação de materiais alternativos de construção. Para tal, amostras de cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar foram submetidas a um tratamento prévio que consistia de peneiramento e moagem, antes de serem incorporadas às misturas de solo e cimento. Diferentes combinações de cimento-cinzas foram estudadas, determinando-se, para cada uma delas, a consistência normal e a resistência à compressão simples, aos 7 e 28 dias. Posteriormente, corpos-de-prova moldados com tais misturas de solo-cimento-cinzas foram submetidos a ensaios de compactação, compressão simples e absorção de água. Os resultados indicaram a possibilidade de substituir até 20% do cimento Portland, na mistura, por cinzas de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, sem prejuízo da resistência à compressão simples.This work was done with the objective of studying some physical and mechanical characteristics of the sugarcane bagasse ash added to a soil-cement mixture, in order to obtain an alternative construction material. The sugarcane bagasse ash pre-treatment included both sieving and grinding, before mixing with soil and cement. Different proportions of cement-ash were tested by determining its standard consistence and its compressive resistance at 7 and 28 days age. The various treatments were subsequently applied to the specimens molded with different soil-cement-ash mixtures which in turns were submitted to compaction, unconfined compression and water absorption laboratory tests. The results showed that it is possible to replace up to 20% of Portland cement by sugarcane bagasse ash without any damage to the mixture's compressive strength.

  16. Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

    2011-07-01

    A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum.

  17. Potencial da cinza do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar como material de substituição parcial de cimento Portland Potential of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial replacement material for Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos O. de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, voltado para a avaliação do potencial da cinza do bagaço da cana-de-açúcar (CBC como material de substituição parcial do cimento Portland em argamassa, objetivou apresentar opção viável para a destinação deste resíduo, cuja quantidade gerada aumentará significativamente nos próximos anos, em decorrência da ampliação do setor de produção de álcool combustível; além disso, o emprego da CBC como adição mineral, substituindo parte do cimento em argamassas e concretos, contribui para a redução do impacto ambiental desses materiais, em boa parte decorrente da produção do cimento. O procedimento experimental abordou não só caracterização da CBC mas também a avaliação, através de ensaios físicos e mecânicos, em que os resultados mostraram que o bagaço apresenta rendimento de CBC de 10%, com a cinza sendo composta de 84% de SiO2 e 5% de Carbono. A sílica na CBC apresenta-se na fase amorfa e nas fases cristalinas de cristobalita e quartzo. Os índices de atividade pozolânica comprovam a reatividade da CBC. Do ponto de vista da resistência à compressão, argamassas com teores de CBC entre 0 e 30% indicaram a possibilidade de substituição de até 20% do cimento pela CBC.This study is focused on the evaluation of the effects of the partial replacement of Portland cement by sugarcane bagasse ash (CBC in mortars. The main objective was to find a suitable destination for an agricultural residue generated in an increasing amount in Brazil, as a result of the boom of the use of ethanol as an alternative fuel to gasoline. Also, the use of CBC as a mineral admixture in mortars and concretes contributes to a decrease in the environmental impact of these materials related to cement production. Experimental techniques were applied both for the CBC characterization and for the evaluation of its use as a mineral admixture in mortars, based on mechanical and physical tests. The yield of CBC from sugarcane

  18. Pelletizing bagasse for fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvet, P.E.; Suzor, N.L.C.

    1980-08-01

    Prior to 1979, the Davies Hawakua Sugar Co. of Hawaii, burned its bagasse in bulk in large furnaces. Because of storage difficulties, however, the company decided to erect a bagasse - pelletizing plant adjacent to its Hawaii sugar factory. The plant, based on the Woodex process, has been very successful and the net energy gain has been calculated in the order of 41%.

  19. Characteristics and properties of sugar cane trash; Caracteristicas e propriedades do palhico de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocente, Andreia F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saglietti, Jose R. C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (IBB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu], E-mail: jroberto@ibb.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    The sugar cane processing wastes (bagasse and trash) became an important energy source which may be used in the electrical energy co-generation. This work is aimed to determine the trash physical properties, define its energetic value and ideal combination of bagasse + trash to use in conventional boilers. The trash productivity (20 t/ha), green (14.9%) and dry (71.3%) leaves, and remaining material (8.3%) was found one day after the cane crop. The trash moisture content was measured for each component and the final average value was 28.7%. The bagasse showed a 49.81% moisture average content. The higher heating value (HHV) was found for the bagasse (19.27 MJ/kg), trash (17.90 MJ/kg) and bagasse + trash mixtures in different proportions. For the lower heating value (LHV), we observed that the released energy in the trash (12.11 MJ/kg) was higher than the one in the bagasse (8.55 MJ/kg). This result was expected due to the higher bagasse moisture content. From the analysed mixtures, the 50%-50% one had the highest LHV (10.08 MJ/kg), showing that the trash left in the field after the crop may be efficient for the energy production mixed to the bagasse in 50% proportion. (author)

  20. The sugar cane agro-industry - its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, I. de C.

    1992-01-01

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil is 222 million tonnes (harvested wet weight)/year and is processed to sugar (7.5 million tonnes) and ethanol (11.8 million m 3 ) in 1990. The use of fossil fuels in sugar cane production is 271 MJ/t of cane. Sugar cane bagasse and ethanol substitute for fuel oil in the food and chemical industry (including sugar production) and for gasoline (9.75 million m 3 /year), thus avoiding CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels. Considering the fast carbon cycling in sugar cane production and use, net emissions of 9.45 million tonnes of C/year are avoided; this corresponds roughly to 18% of the total CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels in Brazil. (author)

  1. Sugarcane boiler ash as an amendment for soilless growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, research was conducted to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as an amendment to soilless planting media for the production of vegetable seedlings. Typically, the eleven Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel, producing over 60,000 tons of S...

  2. Balanço de compostos nitrogenados e produção de proteína microbiana em novilhas leiteiras alimentadas com palma forrageira, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e uréia associados a diferentes suplementos Nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein production in crossbred heifers fed forage cactus, sugar cane bagasse and urea associated to different supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Silva Pessoa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da associação de palma forrageira ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e à uréia sobre o balanço de compostos nitrogenados e a produção de proteína microbiana em novilhas leiteiras recebendo ou não suplemento. Foram utilizadas 25 novilhas da raça Girolando, com peso vivo médio inicial de 227 kg, confinadas, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, estabelecidos de acordo com o peso dos animais. A ração controle (sem suplemento foi composta de 64,0% de palma forrageira, 30,0% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, 4,0% de mistura uréia:sulfato de amônio (9:1 e 2,0% de mistura mineral, com base na matéria seca (MS, e as rações experimentais, de 57,0% de palma forrageira, 26,0% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, 3,5% de mistura uréia:sulfato de amônio, 1,8% de mistura mineral e 11,7% de suplemento (0,5% do PV dos animais. Os suplementos testados foram: farelo de trigo, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão ou caroço de algodão. O balanço de nitrogênio não foi influenciado pelas dietas e apresentou valor médio de 49,3 g/dia. A suplementação com farelo de algodão ou com farelo de soja aumentou a excreção de nitrogênio na urina, a concentração de uréia e nitrogênio uréico no plasma e a excreção urinária de uréia e nitrogênio uréico. A associação da palma forrageira ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e à uréia, sem o uso de suplementos, permite eficiência de síntese microbiana de 105 gPBmic/kg de NDT consumido. A suplementação com caroço de algodão proporciona maior excreção urinária de alantoína e derivados de purina e melhor eficiência de síntese microbiana, portanto, é a mais indicada nestas condições.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of association of forage cactus to sugar cane bagasse and urea on nitrogenous compounds balance and microbial protein synthesis in milk heifers supplemented or not. Twenty-five Holstein-Gir crossbred heifers

  3. Aglomerante puzolánico formado por cal y ceniza de paja de caña de azúcar: la influencia granulométrica de sus componentes en la actividad aglomerante Pozzolanic binder constituted by lime and cane sugar straw ash: the granulometric influence of its components in the agglomerate activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesday Martínez Fernández

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se realiza una caracterización de los componentes de una mezcla binaria formada por cal-ceniza de paja de caña de azúcar mediante las técnicas analíticas de difracción de rayos-x, de análisis químico y granulometric o, valorándose la evolución del proceso de fraguado de esta mezcla binaria, permitiendo dar respuesta a la búsqueda de alternativas como adiciones minerales activas al cemento. Los parámetros estadísticos de las curvas granulométricas de la cal, de la ceniza de la paja de caña y de la mezcla puzolánica (calxeniza = 3:7 brindan criterios del grado de mezclado de los componentes de la mezcla puzolánica y de la utilización de los granos pequeños (The present study carried out a characterization of the components of a binary blend comprised of lime-cane sugar straw ash by means of the analytic techniques ofray-x diffraction, chemical, and granulometric analysis. The evolution of the setting process of this binary blend was assessed, and it appears as an alternative mineral active addition to cement. The statistical parameters of granulometric curves of the lime, the cane straw ash and the pozzolanic blend (lime: ash = 3:7 provide criteria for mixing the blend components fitting the small grains (<9um in the voids formed by bigger grains (45 um. The right size combination can create a space of enhanced reactivity providing compressive strengths of 13 MPa at the age of 28 days

  4. Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mamita

    2017-01-18

    Jan 18, 2017 ... Chemical, biochemical and microbial parameters were ... In these last years, a decrease in humus soil has been observed in most ... over other bacteria. They can produce extracellular polysaccharide hydrolysing enzymes (Priest, 1977). The inoculation with specific microorganisms can be a useful method ...

  5. Method for processing whole cane and sweet sorghum into fuel alcohol and electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    le Grand, F.

    1983-10-01

    A process is described for fermenting whole cane in situ to ethanol, rather than extracting the sugar and fermenting it separately. An energy efficient way of obtaining dehydrated ethanol is the employment of a molecular sieve using bagasse as a desicant. The remaining bagasse is recovered and dried prior to gasification. The producer gas is used to fuel a spark ignition engine which may be geared either to a generating unit or a hydraulic pump. The economics of the process are discussed briefly. (Refs. 3).

  6. Ethanol from sugar cane with simultaneous production of electrical energy and biofertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filgueiras, G.

    1981-08-04

    A flexible nonpolluting industrial scheme is described for converting sugar cane into fuel-grade ethanol, fertilizer, and electric power. The cleaned cane is treated in a diffuser to separate the juice, which is enzymically hydrolyze d to ethanol, and bagasse containing 65-85% moisture, which is mechanically ground with the rest of the cane plant (leaves and buds) and biochemically digested to provide liquid and solid fertilizers as well as a methane-containing gas, which is burned in a gas turbine to generate electricity. The vinasse from the ethanol fermentation is also cycled to the digestion step. The process conditions can be varied depending upon the desired product ratio; if fuel is preferred, each ton of cane (dry weight) can produce 135 L ethanol, 50 kW electric power, and 150 kg fertilizer; if electric energy is preferred, each ton can give 75 L ethanol, 115 kW power, and 220 kg fertilizer.

  7. Glass-ceramic material of the Si-Ca-K system sintered from sugarcane bagasse ash; Material vitro-ceramico do distema SiO{sub 2}-CaO-K{sub 2}O sinterizado a partir de cinza de bagaco de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, S.R.; Silva, R.A.; Santos, G.C.; Santos, G.T.A., E-mail: rainho@fct.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DFQB/FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia; Romero, M.; Rincon, J.Ma. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (IETCC/CSIC), Madri (Spain). Inst. de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja; Reynoso, V.C.S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    2009-07-01

    This study analyses the crystallization of glasses obtained from two samples of sugarcane bagasse ash - SCBA (named Cinza 07 and Cinza 08) mixed with carbonates (calcium and potassium). The glasses and their crystallization were examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations of the ashes show that they consist mainly of crystalline materials, predominantly quartz, with iron, potassium and aluminum oxides as minor elements. For the sample Cinza07 the DTA data presents broad and overlaid crystallization peaks, indicating crystallization of more than two different phases. The DTA results of samples with different grain-size distribution show that the crystallization peak intensities increase as the sample grain-size decreases, suggesting that surface crystallization actively participate on the mechanism of crystallization. For the sample Cinza 08 the DTA data presents two well defined peaks. In this case, the more intense peak was evaluated to obtain kinetic data (Eat= 355 kJ/mol) to the major phase (Wollastonita). (author)

  8. Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

    2011-06-01

    Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Avoiding emissions of carbon dioxide through the use of fuels derived from sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinguelli-Rosa, L.; Kahn-Ribeiro, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows that the use of ethyl alcohol and sugar cane bagasse as fuel substitutions for gasoline, and natural gas, fuel oil or coal, can have an important role to avoid GHG emissions. The Brazilian Alcohol program and the use of sugar cane bagasse for generating electricity may prove to be an important alternative for the reduction of GHG emissions. Large-scale production and the use of renewable energy from biomass may qualify Brazil for recognition at an international level. It is shown that the cost of alcohol is higher than that of gasoline with the present low price of oil on the international market, but the costs could be reduced by feasible technological improvements 10 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Influence of a Third Set of Knives on the Efficiency of the Sucrose Extraction from Sugar Cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales-Suárez Jorge Michel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The index of cane preparation is one of the variables that influence on efficiency the sucrose extraction process from sugar cane mills in tandem. This influence can be measured by the % sucrose (% Pol and % humidity in the final bagasse and power demand tandem, these three variables are the dependent variables on this research. The index of cane preparation was the independent variable. The objective of this research is to show the impact of an increased rate of cane preparation, achieved with addition of a third set of knives in tandem, on the efficiency of the extraction process and the tandem power demand. This research was carried out in two stages. A first stage where the tandem was operated with two sets of existing knives and a second stage where it was operated with the addition of a set of knives (that to say with three sets of knives, the third set of knives mounted to increase the rate of cane preparation. A statistical analysis concludes that with increasing the rate of cane preparation both in the final bagasse the % Pol and % Humidity decrease significantly and tandem power demand decreases by 2.87%.

  11. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  12. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge

  13. Associação do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar, palma forrageira e uréia com diferentes suplementos em dietas para novilhas da raça holandesa - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1229 Association of sugar cane bagasse, forage cactus and urea with different supplements in diets of Holstein heifers - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1229

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Sherlanea Chaves Véras

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o efeito da suplementação com farelo de trigo, farelo de soja ou milho moído (1 kg/novilha/dia, sobre o desempenho de novilhas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com rações contendo palma forrageira (69,8%, bagaço de cana (27,6% e uréia (2,6%. Foram utilizadas 12 novilhas com peso inicial de 224 kg. Os consumos de matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro (kg/dia e % do peso vivo, matéria orgânica, carboidratos totais e carboidratos-não-fibrosos não foram alterados pelo suplemento (7,79 kg/dia; 3,30%; 3,34 kg/dia; 1,41%; 7,27 kg/dia; 6,15 kg/dia e 2,81 kg/dia, respectivamente. As novilhas que receberam farelo de soja apresentaram maiores consumos de proteína bruta e NDT além de maior ganho de peso (1,31, 4,56, e 1,17 kg/dia, respectivamente. O ganho de peso das novilhas suplementadas com farelo de trigo e milho moído foi de 0,71 e 0,24 kg/dia, respectivamenteThis work was carried out to study the effect of supplementation with wheat meal, soybean meal and cracked corn (1 kg/heifer/day, on the performance of Holstein heifers fed with forage cactus (69.8%, sugar cane bagasse (27.6% and urea (2.6% based diets. Twelve heifers, with an initial live weight of 224 kg were used. The supplements did not affect intakes of dry matter (kg/day and % of LW organic matter, neutral detergent fiber (kg/day and % of LW, total carbohydrates and non fiber carbohydrates (7.79 kg/d; 3.30%; 7.27 kg/d; 3.34 kg/d; 1,41%; 6.15 kg/d and 2.81 kg/d, respectively. The heifers that received soybean meal as supplement, showed larger intake of crude protein, total digestible nutrient and average daily weight gain (1.31, 4.56 and 1,17 kg/day, respectively. The average daily gain were 0,71 and 0,24 kg/day for heifers supplemented with wheat meal and cracked corn, respectively

  14. Impurities in sugar cane and their influence on industrial processing evaluated by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacchi, M.A.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    During the cutting and loading operations, impurities, mainly soil, are added to sugar cane in amounts that can impair industrial processing due to excessive wear of metallic members and contamination of juice and bagasse. Mechanization of loading operation has showed a considerable enhancement of the impurity content, leading to the improvement of cane washing technology. Nevertheless, for a correct understanding of the problem and the process optimization, it is necessary and exact and fast quantification of these impurities as well as of its consequences. Nuclear techniques, in special neutron activation analysis, have been proved to be appropriate for estimating soil level in sugar cane, washing process efficiency and wearing of cases and moving parts. (author)

  15. Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuzens, J.E.

    1997-11-19

    The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

  16. Accumulation of recombinant cellobiohydrolase and endoglucanase in the leaves of mature transgenic sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark D; Geijskes, Jason; Coleman, Heather D; Shand, Kylie; Kinkema, Mark; Palupe, Anthony; Hassall, Rachael; Sainz, Manuel; Lloyd, Robyn; Miles, Stacy; Dale, James L

    2011-10-01

    A major strategic goal in making ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass a cost-competitive liquid transport fuel is to reduce the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes that hydrolyse lignocellulosic substrates to fermentable sugars. Current production systems for these enzymes, namely microbes, are not economic. One way to substantially reduce production costs is to express cellulolytic enzymes in plants at levels that are high enough to hydrolyse lignocellulosic biomass. Sugar cane fibre (bagasse) is the most promising lignocellulosic feedstock for conversion to ethanol in the tropics and subtropics. Cellulolytic enzyme production in sugar cane will have a substantial impact on the economics of lignocellulosic ethanol production from bagasse. We therefore generated transgenic sugar cane accumulating three cellulolytic enzymes, fungal cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II and bacterial endoglucanase (EG), in leaves using the maize PepC promoter as an alternative to maize Ubi1 for controlling transgene expression. Different subcellular targeting signals were shown to have a substantial impact on the accumulation of these enzymes; the CBHs and EG accumulated to higher levels when fused to a vacuolar-sorting determinant than to an endoplasmic reticulum-retention signal, while EG was produced in the largest amounts when fused to a chloroplast-targeting signal. These results are the first demonstration of the expression and accumulation of recombinant CBH I, CBH II and EG in sugar cane and represent a significant first step towards the optimization of cellulolytic enzyme expression in sugar cane for the economic production of lignocellulosic ethanol. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Screening of Xylanolytic Aspergillus fumigatus for Prebiotic Xylooligosaccharide Production Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Oliva Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse is an important lignocellulosic material studied for the production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS. Some XOS are considered soluble dietary fibre, with low caloric value and prebiotic effect, but they are expensive and not easily available. In a screening of 138 fungi, only nine were shortlisted, and just Aspergillus fumigatus M51 (35.6 U/mL and A. fumigatus U2370 (28.5 U/mL were selected as the most significant producers of xylanases. These fungi had low β-xylosidase activity, which is desirable for the production of XOS. The xylanases from Trichoderma reesei CCT 2768, A. fumigatus M51 and A. fumigatus U2370 gave a significantly higher XOS yield, 11.9, 14.7 and 7.9 % respectively, in a 3-hour reaction with hemicellulose from sugarcane bagasse. These enzymes are relatively thermostable at 40–50 °C and can be used in a wide range of pH values. Furthermore, these xylanases produced more prebiotic XOS (xylobiose and xylotriose when compared with a commercial xylanase. The xylanases from A. fumigatus M51 reached a high level of XOS production (37.6 % in 48–72 h using hemicellulose extracted from sugarcane bagasse. This yield represents 68.8 kg of prebiotic XOS per metric tonne of cane bagasse. In addition, in a biorefinery, after hemicellulose extraction for XOS production, the residual cellulose could be used for the production of second-generation ethanol.

  18. Simultaneous production of α-cellulose and furfural from bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittaya Punsuvon

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane bagasse was pretreated by steam explosion for the simultaneous production of furfural and α-cellulose pulp. The components of bagasse were fractionated after steam explosion. The details of the process are as follows. Bagasse was soaked in water for one night and steamed at temperatures varying between 206 and 223 C for 4 minutes. The steam exploded pulp was strained and washed with hot water to yield a liquor rich in hemicellulose-derived mono- and oligosaccharides. The remaining pulp was delignified by alkali for 120 minutes at 170C using, separately, NaOH load of 15, 20 and 25% of weight of the pulp. The delignified pulp was further bleached twice with 4% H2O2 charge of weight of the pulp to produce high α-cellulose pulp. The water liquor was evaporated and further hydrolysed and dehydrated with diluted H2SO4 in a stainless steel reactor to produce furfural. The result shows that the optimal pretreatment of steam explosion for 4 min at 218C leads to the yield of α-cellulose pulp at 193-201 g∙kg-1 of the original bagasse, and that furfural can be produced from xylose present in the liquor with a maximum conversion factor of 0.16.

  19. Impacts agronomiques et environnementaux de l'épandage de vinasse et de cendre de charbon/bagasse sur les terres agricoles de l'Île Maurice

    OpenAIRE

    Soobadar, Aneeza,

    2009-01-01

    Of the 85 000 hectares of arable land in Mauritius, sugar cane occupies some 85% of that area, the remainder is made up mostly of vegetables and fruit trees. To ensure its economic viability and long term sustanainability, the sugar cane industry through a reform program is striving to add value to its by-products by producing ethanol from molasses and by optimizing energy production from bagasse during the harvest season. However these two avenues generate considerable wastes (400 000 T/yr o...

  20. Influence of gamma radiation in the mechanical properties of partially biodegradable foams of PP/HMSP blends with sugar cane bagasse; Influencia da irradiacao gama nas propriedades mecanicas de espumas parcialmente biodegradaveis de blendas de PP/HMSPP com bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Mascarenha, Yago; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: eclcardo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymers are used in various applications and in different market segments generating enormous amounts of wastes in environment. Among residues components in landfills are polymeric materials, as PP, contributing with 20 to 30% of total solids residues. As polymeric materials are immune to microbial degradation, remain in soil and in landfills as a semi-permanent residue. Environmental concerning toward residues reduction is nowadays directed to the development of renewable polymers for manufacturing of materials that degrade under environment, as biodegradable polymeric foams. High density structural foams are especially used in civil construction, replacing metals, woods and concrete, with a major purpose of materials cost reduction. This work aims to the study of biodegradability in PP/HMSPP blends with sugarcane bagasse at 10, 15, 30 and 50% further irradiated at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. The biodegradability was assessed via Soil Burial Test. Tensile strength and elongation at break results proved that natural fibers reinforcement characteristic was not affected by gamma radiation, responsible by degradation and consequent biodegradability acceleration in structural foams. (author)

  1. Influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical properties of foams partially biodegradable of of PP/HMSPP blends with bagasse of sugar cane; Influencia da irradiacao gama nas propriedades mecanicas de espumas parcialmente biodegradaveis de blendas de PP/HMSPP com bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Mascarenha, Yago; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: eclcardo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Polymers are used in various applications and in different market segments generating enormous amounts of wastes in environment. Among residues components in landfills are polymeric materials, as PP, contributing with 20 to 30% of total solids residues. As polymeric materials are immune to microbial degradation, remain in soil and in landfills as a semi-permanent residue. Environmental concerning toward residues reduction is nowadays directed to the development of renewable polymers for manufacturing of materials that degrade under environment, as biodegradable polymeric foams. High density structural foams are especially used in civil construction, replacing metals, woods and concrete, with a major purpose of materials cost reduction. This work aims to the study of biodegradability in PP/HMSPP blends with sugarcane bagasse at 10, 15, 30 and 50% further irradiated at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy doses. The biodegradability was assessed via Soil Burial Test. Tensile strength and elongation at break results proved that natural fibers reinforcement characteristic was not affected by gamma radiation, responsible by degradation and consequent biodegradability acceleration in structural foams. (author)

  2. Combattimenti col cane nero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La depressione è stata definita in svariati modi: una volta si chiamava esaurimento nervoso, oggi è “il male oscuro”, “il male di vivere”, “umor nero” o, come l’aveva soprannominata Winston Churchill, “black dog”, un “cane nero” che ci divora. Sia come sia, oggi la depressione è riconosciuta come vera e propria malattia, una patologia subdola che colpisce a tradimento. Arriva silenziosa e devastante, preceduta o meno dai micidiali attacchi di panico, e taglia le gambe, chiude la persona sofferente in un limbo di silenzio e apatia; fa vedere tutto grigio, opaco, annienta interessi, desideri e, non di rado, la voglia di vivere. Tanti sono stati vittime della depressione. Anche fra le persone più note e di successo.

  3. Properties Evaluation of High Density Polyethylene Composite Filled with Bagasse after Accelerated Weathered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Darabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites (WPCs are produced from a mixture of wood (in different sizes and resin (thermoset or thermoplastic. This product has many applications as structural and non-structural materials and since its emerge in market its use received an increasing trend. Adding wood flour to polymer not only improves its mechanical properties compared to net polymer, but also leads to products with moldability characteristics. With increasing demand of WPCs and reduction in forest harvest according to new protecting law of forestry, and lack of raw materials for producers, other lignocelluloses materials replace wood flour. Agricultural by-products such as hemp, coir, rice husk and bagasse (residual from sugar cane extraction are the examples that can be used in WPCs. As the outdoor application of Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs becomes more widespread, the resistance of its products against weathering, particularly ultraviolet (UV light becomes more concerned. When WPCs are exposed to outdoor, ultraviolet (UV light, rain, snow and atmospheric pollution, they will be degraded which is marked by color fade and loss in mechanical properties. Nowadays many manufactures of WPCs use bagasse as a raw material. Their production in different color and shapes are used as arbors and pergolas and also as decorative applications for outdoor uses. However, so far there has been no research done on the effects of weathering on composites made from bagasse. In present study, composites from bagasse and high density polyethylene, with and without pigments in master batch, have been made through extrusion. Then samples were exposed to accelerated weathering for 1440h. After this period of time samples were removed and their chemical, mechanical and surface qualities were studied. The results have shown that using bagasse as filler can relatively reduce the discoloration of weathered samples. Moreover, adding pigments to WPCs can increase colorstability, while it

  4. Molasses as A New Additive in Papermaking: for Bagasse and Kaolin Filled Bagasse pulps

    OpenAIRE

    Fahmy, Tamer Y A

    2017-01-01

    This work introduces, for the first time, molasses as a new additive for bagasse and kaolin filled bagasse pulps. It makes use of two most important byproducts of sugar industry (molasses and bagasse). Bagasse is also an important agricultural residue. Produced paper composites exhibited greater strength (breaking length) and remarkably higher water uptake (WRV) relative to molasses-free paper. Molasses succeeded to counteract deterioration in paper strength which occurs due to addition of in...

  5. Experiment and simulation study on alkalis transfer characteristic during direct combustion utilization of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanfen; Cao, Yawen; Chen, Tuo; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2015-10-01

    Bagasse is utilized as fuel in the biggest biomass power plant of China, however, alkalis in the fuel created severe agglomeration and slagging problems. Alkalis transfer characteristic, agglomeration causes in engineering practice, additive improvement effects and mechanism during bagasse combustion were investigated via experiments and simulations. Only slight agglomeration occurs in ash higher than 800°C. Serious agglomeration in practical operation should be attributed to the gaseous alkalis evaporating at high temperature and condensing on the cooler grain surfaces in CFB. It can be speculated that ash caking can be avoided with temperature lower than 750°C and heating surface corrosion caused by alkali metal vapor can be alleviated with temperature lower than 850°C. Kaolin added into the bagasse has an apparent advantage over CaO additive both in enhancing ash fusion point and relieving alkali-chloride corrosion by locking alkalis in dystectic solid compounds over the whole temperature range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the bio-energy potential of groundnut shell and sugarcane bagasse waste composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Ajani Oyelaran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment has been carried out on bio-coal briquettes from coal with sugarcane bagasse and coal with groundnut shell. Proximate analyses and elemental compositions of the coal and biomasses were determined. Different samples of briquettes were produced by blending varying composition of the coal with the biomasses in the ratio of 100:0; 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 0: 100, using calcium carbonate as a desulfurizing agent and cassava starch as a binder. A manual hydraulically operated briquetting machine was used with the pressure kept at 5MPa. The results of the properties evaluated shows that biomass increases the burning efficiency of briquettes with increase in the biomass material, increasing combustion rate, faster ignition, producing lesser ash and fewer pollutants. Results obtained shows that the calorific value of briquettes produced from coal-groundnut shells and coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 16.94 - 20.81 and 17.31 – 21.03 MJ/kg respectively. The ignition time ranges from 6.9 – 12.5 minutes for coal-groundnut shells briquettes while that of coal-sugarcane bagasse ranges from 6.5 – 11.1 minutes. The bio-coal blends with sugarcane bagasse were better than that of groundnut shells. However, both sugarcane bagasse and groundnut shells produce bio-coal briquettes that are very efficient, providing sufficient heat as at the time necessary, generating less smoke and gases (e.g sulphur that are harmful to environment, and generating less ash, as these have adverse effect during cooking.

  7. "Harvesting, processing and utilisation of rattan canes in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rattan canes were mainly from wild stocks and cane furniture/handicraft weavers form the bulk of cane users. Other uses of cane within the study area include: as cane for flogging, ropes for tying hides to drum frames, fish traps and loop for climbing palm trees. The wastage from harvesting operation of the rattan canes ...

  8. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  9. Sugar and energy cane date of planting effects on cane, sucrose, and fiber yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy cane is believed to have more vigor than sugar cane because energy cane contains a higher percentage of alleles from Saccharum spontaneum relative to Saccharum officinarum. This research was conducted to determine if planting date affects yields of both sugar and energy canes. Three sugar can...

  10. Semi-solid state fermentation of bagasse for hydrogen production; the cost-effective approach in Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Semi-solid state fermentation route of hydrogen production from agro-waste sugar cane bagasse was tried using the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas (BHU strain-1) and the non-photosynthetic Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC2822. The process seems an alternative to submerged fermentation that requires high volumes of nutrient broth. Bagasse (10 g) pre-hydrolyzed with NaOH (2%, w/v) was coated with Ca-alginate (1.5%, v/v) containing Rhodopseudomonas and E. aerogenes in the co-immobilized state (300 μg bacterial biomass ml -1 ). The fermenting medium was just 150 ml to sustain the moistened bagasse in a 0.5 L fermenter kept in light. A parallel set of free bacterial cells served as control. Hydrogen production by the immobilized sets reached 30 L within 60 h with the average rate of 0.177 L H 2 h -1 . For free cells, the values for hydrogen output (20 L) or the rate 0.1125 L H 2 h -1 were approximately 1.5-fold low. It is proposed that semi-solid fermentation route of hydrogen production from bagasse will be a cost-effective technology in countries generating this agro-waste. (authors)

  11. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  12. SINTESIS SILIKA AEROGEL DENGAN BAHAN DASAR ABU BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazriati Nazriati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SYNTHESIS OF SILICA AEROGEL FROM BAGASSE ASH. Synthesis of silica aerogel from bagasse ash was done by alkaline extraction followed by sol-gel. Bagasse ash was extracted with NaOH at its boiling temperature for one hour with continue stirring, to produce sodium silicate. Subsequently, sodium silicate was pass through ionic exchanger resin, to produces silicic acid (SA. Silicic acid solution was then added with TMCS and HMDS as surface modifier agent. In order to form gel pH must be adjusted to final pH of 8-9 by addition of NH4OH solution. The resulting gel then was aged and dried at ambient pressure and at a certain time and temperature. Characterization of products was done by measuring its pore volume, surface area, and hydrophobisity (contact angle. TMCS serves as water expeller from the pores and subsequently surface was modified by HMDS and TMCS. HMDS content will linearly increase surface area, pore volume, and the contact angle of the resulting silica aerogel. Characteristics of silica aerogel was generated by varying the composition of the SA:TMCS:HMDS resulting has a surface area of 50-488 m2/g, pore volume from 0.2 to 0.9 m3 /g, the contact angle of 48-119 and pore diameter ranging from 5.7-22.56 nm. Based on the resulting pore diameter, the synthesized of silica aerogel categorized as mesoporous.      Abstrak   Sintesis silika aerogel dari bahan dasar abu bagasse dilakukan dengan ekstraksi basa dan diikuti dengan sol-gel. Abu bagasse diekstrak dengan NaOH pada suhu didihnya sambil diaduk selama satu jam, menghasilkan sodium silikat. Selanjutnya, sodium silikat dilewatkan resin penukar ion, menghasilkan asam silicic (SA. Larutan asam silicic kemudian ditambahkan trimethy­l­chlorosilane (TMCS dan hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS sebagai agen pemodifikasi permukaan. Untuk terjadinya gel pH diatur hingga mencapai 8-9 dengan penambahan larutan NH4OH. Gel yang dihasilkan kemudian di-aging dan dikeringkan pada tekanan ambien pada suhu dan

  13. Stability and use of sweet sorghum bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    With sweet sorghum production and subsequent accumulation of bagasse on the rise, it is important to look for novel uses for its by-products. Bagasse, the solid fibrous product left after sweet sorghum stalks are crushed to remove juice, is partially reapplied to the field to enhance subsequent cro...

  14. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  15. Technical Efficiency of Sugar Cane ( Saccharum officinarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) is grown by thousands of local farmers in Nigeria, yet the level of production has not kept pace with the level of consumption. This study was therefore carried out to examine the efficiency of sugar cane production in Niger State, Nigeria. The study sample comprised of 105 sugar cane ...

  16. CANE WEAVING IN ONITSHA: PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    printserver

    production and marketing of cane products. Scholarly texts were also consulted. The study reveals that the local craft industry of cane weaving possesses latent potentialities in terms of skill and market possibilities if creativity and funding accompany its production processes. What is Cane? The word „cane‟ brings to mind ...

  17. Study of bagasse/tapioca starch film preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyang; Wei, Xiaoyi; Chang, Gang; Fu, Tiaokun; Cui, Lihong; Li, Jihua

    2017-06-01

    Bagasse/tapioca starch films (BT) were prepared with various contents of bagasse (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% based on tapioca starch), and the effect of bagasse concentration was studied by the performance of the BT films. Then, the BT films characteristics were analyzed using the instruments about ultraviolet spectrophotometer (US), SEM, TGA and XRD. The dispersion of the bagasse became better with bagasse concentration increasing, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding became stronger while the transparency values of the films decreased.

  18. Evaluation of Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse Characterization: An Interlaboratory Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluiter, Justin B.; Chum, Helena; Gomes, Absai C.; Tavares, Renata P. A.; Azevedo, Vinicius; Pimenta, Maria T. B.; Rabelo, Sarita C.; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio A. S.; Alves, Aparecido R.; Garcia, Wokimar T.; Carvalho, Walter; Esteves, Paula J.; Mendonça, Simone; Oliveira, Patricia A.; Ribeiro, José A. A.; Mendes, Thais D.; Vicentin, Marcos P.; Duarte, Celina L.; Mori, Manoel N.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the variability of measured composition for a single bulk sugarcane bagasse conducted across eight laboratories using similar analytical methods, with the purpose of determining the expected variation for compositional analysis performed by different laboratories. The results show good agreement of measured composition within a single laboratory, but greater variability when results are compared among laboratories. These interlaboratory variabilities do not seem to be associated with a specific method or technique or any single piece of instrumentation. The summary censored statistics provide mean values and pooled standard deviations as follows: total extractives 6.7% (0.6%), whole ash 1.5% (0.2%), glucan 42.3% (1.2%), xylan 22.3% (0.5%), total lignin 21.3% (0.4%), and total mass closure 99.4% (2.9%).

  19. Utilization of bagasse and coconut fibers waste as fillers of sandwich composite for bridge railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardjo, K. A.; Basuki, A.

    2017-07-01

    The bridge railway sleepers is an essential component in the construction of railways, as the foundation of the rail support in order to withstand the load a train that runs above it. Sleepers used in bridge construction are expected to have a longer service life, lighter weight and durable so that can be used more efficient. This research was carried out to create a model of bridges railway sleepers made of sandwich structured composite from fiber glass, epoxy resin with fillers waste of bagasse (sugar cane pulp mill) or coconut fiberboard (copra industry) that using polyurethane as an adhesive. The process of making was conditioned for small and medium industrial applications. Railway sleepers’ specifications adapted to meet the requirements of end user. The process steps in this research include; lay-up fiberglass combined with bagasse/coconut fiberboard (as fillers), gluing with epoxy resin, molded it with pressure to be solid, curing after solidification process. The specimens of composite, bagasse and coconut fiber board were tested for tensile and compressive strength. The prototype were tested of mechanical test: flexural moment test to the stand rail, flexural moment test to the middle of the sleepers and tensile strength test on one side of the sleepers, in accordance to SNI 11-3388-1994 Method testing of single block concrete sleepers and bearing single rail fastening systems. The results of mechanical testing all variations meet the technical specifications of end user such as test results for flexural moment on all prototypes, after load test, there is no visible crack. While in the tensile strength test, it seem the prototype with coconut fiberboard filler, shows better performance than bagasse fiberboard filler, the decisions is just depended on techno economic and lifetime.

  20. Utilization of Bagasse Cellulose for Ethanol Production through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Samsuri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bagasse is a solid residue from sugar cane process, which is not many use it for some product which have more added value. Bagasse, which is a lignosellulosic material, be able to be use for alternative energy resources like bioethanol or biogas. With renewable energy resources a crisis of energy in Republic of Indonesia could be solved, especially in oil and gas. This research has done the conversion of bagasse to bioethanol with xylanase enzyme. The result show that bagasse contains of 52,7% cellulose, 20% hemicelluloses, and 24,2% lignin. Xylanase enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to hydrolyse and fermentation in SSF process. Variation in this research use pH (4, 4,5, and 5, for increasing ethanol quantity, SSF process was done by added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and also pre-treatment with white rot fungi such as Lentinus edodes (L.edodes as long 4 weeks. The SSF process was done with 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour's incubation time for fermentation. Variation of pH 4, 4,5, and 5 can produce ethanol with concentrations 2,357 g/L, 2,451 g/L, 2,709 g/L. The added chloride acid (HCl with concentration 0.5% and 1% (v/v and L. edodes can increase ethanol yield, The highest ethanol concentration with added chloride acid (HCl concentration 0.5% and 1% consecutively is 2,967 g/L, 3,249 g/L. The highest ethanol concentration with pre-treatment by L. edodes is 3,202 g/L.

  1. classical optimization of bagasse ash content in cement-stabilized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of construction materials with laboratory data is a very possible way of minimizing waste of resources (materials and cost). There had been several successful attempts of optimization of construction materials. However, optimization in soil stabilization for road-work has been very rare because of its complexities ...

  2. CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Pallav; Michaelowa, Axel

    2007-01-01

    So far, the cumulative capacity of renewable energy systems such as bagasse cogeneration in India is far below their theoretical potential despite government subsidy programmes. One of the major barriers is the high investment cost of these systems. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) provides industrialized countries with an incentive to invest in emission reduction projects in developing countries to achieve a reduction in CO 2 emissions at lowest cost that also promotes sustainable development in the host country. Bagasse cogeneration projects could be of interest under the CDM because they directly displace greenhouse gas emissions while contributing to sustainable rural development. This study assesses the maximum theoretical as well as the realistically achievable CDM potential of bagasse cogeneration in India. Our estimates indicate that there is a vast theoretical potential of CO 2 mitigation by the use of bagasse for power generation through cogeneration process in India. The preliminary results indicate that the annual gross potential availability of bagasse in India is more than 67 million tonnes (MT). The potential of electricity generation through bagasse cogeneration in India is estimated to be around 34 TWh i.e. about 5575 MW in terms of the plant capacity. The annual CER potential of bagasse cogeneration in India could theoretically reach 28 MT. Under more realistic assumptions about diffusion of bagasse cogeneration based on past experiences with the government-run programmes, annual CER volumes by 2012 could reach 20-26 million. The projections based on the past diffusion trend indicate that in India, even with highly favorable assumptions, the dissemination of bagasse cogeneration for power generation is not likely to reach its maximum estimated potential in another 20 years. CDM could help to achieve the maximum utilization potential more rapidly as compared to the current diffusion trend if supportive policies are introduced

  3. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of sugar cane renewable jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marcelo; Gurgel, Angelo C; Seabra, Joaquim E A

    2014-12-16

    This study evaluated the life cycle GHG emissions of a renewable jet fuel produced from sugar cane in Brazil under a consequential approach. The analysis included the direct and indirect emissions associated with sugar cane production and fuel processing, distribution, and use for a projected 2020 scenario. The CA-GREET model was used as the basic analytical tool, while Land Use Change (LUC) emissions were estimated employing the GTAP-BIO-ADV and AEZ-EF models. Feedstock production and LUC impacts were evaluated as the main sources of emissions, respectively estimated as 14.6 and 12 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case. However, the renewable jet fuel would strongly benefit from bagasse and trash-based cogeneration, which would enable a net life cycle emission of 8.5 g CO2eq/MJ of biofuel in the base case, whereas Monte Carlo results indicate 21 ± 11 g CO2eq/MJ. Besides the major influence of the electricity surplus, the sensitivity analysis showed that the cropland-pasture yield elasticity and the choice of the land use factor employed to sugar cane are relevant parameters for the biofuel life cycle performance. Uncertainties about these estimations exist, especially because the study relies on projected performances, and further studies about LUC are also needed to improve the knowledge about their contribution to the renewable jet fuel life cycle.

  4. Lignocellulose nanofibers prepared by ionic liquid pretreatment and subsequent mechanical nanofibrillation of bagasse powder: Application to esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Abe, Megumi; Tsukegi, Takayuki; Kuroda, Kosuke; Tsuge, Yota; Ogino, Chiaki; Taki, Kentaro; Taima, Tetsuya; Saito, Joji; Kimizu, Mitsugu; Uzawa, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2018-02-15

    In the present study, we examined the efficacy of choline acetate (ChOAc, a cholinium ionic liquid))-assisted pretreatment of bagasse powder for subsequent mechanical nanofibrillation to produce lignocellulose nanofibers. Bagasse sample with ChOAc pretreatment and subsequent nanofibrillation (ChOAc/NF-bagasse) was prepared and compared to untreated control bagasse sample (control bagasse), bagasse sample with nanofibrillation only (NF-bagasse) and with ChOAc pretreatment only (ChOAc-bagasse). The specific surface area was 0.83m 2 /g, 3.1m 2 /g, 6.3m 2 /g, and 32m 2 /g for the control bagasse, ChOAc-bagasse, NF-bagasse, and the ChOAc/NF-bagasse, respectively. Esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites were prepared using the bagasse samples. ChOAc/NF-bagasse exhibited the best dispersion in the composites. The tensile toughness of the composites was 0.52J/cm 3 , 0.73J/cm 3 , 0.92J/cm 3 , and 1.29J/cm 3 for the composites prepared using control bagasse, ChOAc-bagasse, NF-bagasse, and ChOAc/NF-bagasse, respectively. Therefore, ChOAc pretreatment and subsequent nanofibrillation of bagasse powder resulted in enhanced tensile toughness of esterified bagasse/polypropylene composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, F M; Kreke, T; Badino, A C; Farinas, C S; Ximenes, E; Ladisch, M R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to report liquefaction of pretreated and sterilized sugarcane bagasse for enhancing endoglucanase production through submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger. After initial solid state fermentation of steam pretreated bagasse solids by A. niger, fed-batch addition of the substrate to cellulase in buffer over a 12h period, followed by 36h reaction, resulted in a liquid slurry with a viscosity of 0.30±0.07Pas at 30% (w/v) solids. Addition of A. niger for submerged fermentation of sterile liquefied bagasse at 23% w/v solids resulted in an enzyme titer of 2.5IUmL(-1) or about 15× higher productivity than solid-state fermentation of non-liquefied bagasse (final activity of 0.17IUmL(-1)). Bagasse not treated by initial solid-state fermentation but liquefied with enzyme gave 2IUmL(-1). These results show the utility of liquefied bagasse as a culture medium for enzyme production in submerged fermentations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Partially Acetylated Sugarcane Bagasse For Wicking Oil From Contaminated Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane bagasse was partially acetylated to enhance its oil-wicking ability in saturated environments while holding moisture for hydrocarbon biodegradation. The water sorption capacity of raw bagasse was reduced fourfold after treatment, which indicated considerably increased ...

  7. Economical impact of the BIG/CC technology use on the sugar cane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, L.C. de; Nascimento, M.J.M. do [Brascep Engenharia Ltda., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The use of biomass as primary fuel for power and steam production using modern conversion technology such as the Biomass Integrated Gas Turbine/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) has both technical and commercial potential. Brazil is implementing a BIG/CC Demonstration Plant to burn wood from eucalyptus short rotation forest and to test sugar cane bagasse as feedstock. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of using biomass as a feedstock for power generation, its suitability for applications in developing countries, and the possibilities it offers for commercial activities in regions which currently have a low level of economic activities. The purpose of this paper is to show the potential applicability of this technology in the sugar cane industries of Developing Countries such as Brazil. The same quantity of sugar cane already processed in each sugar mill can produce sizable quantities of electric power at competitive costs, in addition to the traditional products -- sugar and/or ethanol, which will cause an economical impact, duplicating the revenue of these industries. The application of the BIG/CC technology in the Sugar Cane Industry may lead to the following scenario in developing countries: (1) power shall be produced at very competitive prices by specialized private firms associated with sugar mills; (2) plant sizes will be smaller -- 15 to 100 MW -- when based on biomass, a compared to large fossil fuel plants now prevailing; (3) ethanol and sugar production costs will be reduced due to more efficient and economical processes and due to the additional revenue from power production; (4) becoming more competitive with gasoline, ethanol production tends to increase, which will influence the automobile industry and improve the quality of life in big cities.

  8. PENGARUH PERLAKUAN AWAL BASA DAN HIDROLISIS ASAM TERHADAP KADAR GULA REDUKSI AMPAS TEBU [The effect of alkali pretreatment and acid hydrolysis on bagasse-reduced sugar].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bagasse, solid waste by product of  sugar cane industries, contains high lignocellulose consisting of 46.3% cellulose, 23.0% hemicellulose and 19.7% lignin.   The bagasse can be converted into bioethanol after pretreating with base and acid and then fermenting with microbes. The objective of this study was to find out the effects of sodium hydroxide pretreatment and sulfuric acid hydrolysis on bagasse reduced sugar content.  In this study, there were 2 treatments with  3 replications.  The first  treatment was submerssion bagasse into 1.0 NaOH solutions at a temperature of 121oC for 15 minutes.  The second treatment was concentrations of sulphuric acid  (H2SO4 that consisted of 5 levels, i.e.  0 M, 0.05 M, 0.10 M, 0.20 M, and 0.30 M.  One and an half grams of dried and ground bagasse was put into 100 mL Erlenmeyer flash and then added with 30 mL 1.0 M NaOH solution. The flash was heated at a temperature of 121oC for 15 minutes. After filtering, the residue was hydrolyzed with H2SO4 solution.  The residue as well as 1.5 g dried and ground bagasse without pretreating with NaOH was hydrolyzed with 15 mL H2SO4 at concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 M at a temperature of 121oC for 15 minutes. Filtrates of the solutions were taken to analyze their reduced sugar content. Reduced sugar content of the bagasse samples ranged from 0.05 to 4.20 mg/100 mL.  The highest reduced sugar content (4.20 ml/mL was yielded when bagasse was directly, hydrolyzed with 0.05 M H2SO4 at a temperature of 121oC for 15 minutes. Keywords : Bagasse, bioethanol, lignocellulose, sulphuric acid, reducing sugar

  9. Effect of addition of sugar cane biomass ash in properties of fresh state in cement slurries for oil wells; Efeito da adicao de cinza de biomassa de cana-de-acucar nas propriedades no estado fresco de pastas de cimento para pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Lornna L.A.; Santos, Herculana T.; Souza, Pablo Diego Pinheiro; Freitas, Julio Cezar Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Nascimento, Julio Cesar S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil); Amorim, Natalia M.M. [Universidade Potiguar (UNP), RN (Brazil); Martinell, Antonio E. [Mcgill University (MCGILL) (Canada); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that ashes from biomass, in particular those generated by the alcohol industry have pozzolanic activity and can replace cement in many applications, reducing the consumption of cement and, consequently, the environmental impact caused by the production of this material. The present work evaluated the behavior of ash sugarcane biomass partially replacing Portland cement in concentrations of 10, 20 and 40% BWOC in oil well slurries. The results of rheology, thickening time and stability showed that the addition of 40% of biomass ash in oil well slurries significantly improves their properties, enabling the replacement of cement by ash. (author)

  10. Pozzolanic evaluation of the sugar cane leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán, A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the sugarcane leaf, burnt under controlled conditions in order to obtain a reactive ash with pozzolanic properties. Chemical analysis, amorphousity and surface structure of the sugar cane straw ash (SCSA were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results of this research showed that SCSA has significant presence of amorphous material and a high content of silica (81.0%. The pozzolanic activity of the SCSA was evaluated by the Fratini test and the pozzolanic activity index. In order to interpretate the pozzolan activity, the Feret method was used. It is conclude that the SCSA presents pozzolanic characteristics for blending Portland cement.

    En el siguiente artículo se presenta una evaluación de la hoja de caña de azúcar calcinada bajo condiciones controladas en aras a obtener ceniza reactiva (con propiedades puzolánicas. La ceniza fue analizada mediante las técnicas de difracción de rayos X, fluorescencia de rayos X y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados del estudio mostraron que la ceniza de hoja de caña de azúcar sí contiene una significante presencia de material amorfo y un alto porcentaje de sílice (81,0%. Se valoró la aptitud de las cenizas obtenidas como puzolana mediante métodos químicos, como el ensayo de Frattini y métodos mecánicos, como el índice de actividad puzolánica. Como modelo a seguir para la interpretación de la puzolanicidad de la ceniza de hoja de caña se utilizó el método de Feret. Se concluye que la ceniza de hoja de caña sí es apta para ser utilizada como adición puzolánica.

  11. Etude des possibilités de valorisation agricole des écumes et de la bagasse de canne à sucre de SOSUHO (Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makita-Ngadi, J.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Study on the possibilities of agricultural valorisation of sugarcane scums and bagasse of SOSUHO (Gabon. As a first step towards the general use of organic fertilizers in improving poor agricultural yields of soils in the province of Haut-Ogooue, in Gabon, we studied germination and growth of seven different types of plants (maize, Zea mays L. var. 60 ; rice Oryza sativa Var. 1345 ; cacao-tree, Theobroma cacao Var. Forastero ; gombo, Hibiscus esculantus Clenson Spineless var ; culin, Cucurbita pepo Basma var ; aubergine, Solanum melongena, Asgrow var ; soya-bean, Glycine max tropical var. on two six months old sugar cane residues. These residues, froth and bagasse were used by hemselves or mixed with earth or sand. By comparison with commercial compost, we found that froth and bagasse do not inhibit the germination of the seeds studied. However, we found that the growth of all species studied was better in froth than in bagasse. The results of chemical analysis carried out on these residues can explain partially the good growth observed in froth themselves or mixed with earth.

  12. Spring reflections on Louisiana sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Louisiana sugar industry continues to produce high cane and sugar yields despite a short growing season. Spring fallow land management is essential for the upcoming crop. In the past few years, wide row spacing, billet cane planting, and cover-cropping have received significant attention. The ei...

  13. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse using high total solids and low enzyme loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; da Silva, Larissa; Ballem, Annielly Comelli; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Chiarello, Luana Marcele; Silveira, Marcos Henrique Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphoric acid-impregnated steam-treated sugarcane bagasse was pre-optimized using a face-centered central composite design in which the process variables were the substrate total solids (TS, %), agitation intensity (AI, rpm) and enzyme loading (EL, gg(-1)). Pretreatment was carried out at 180°C for 10min using cane bagasse with 50wt% moisture content containing 9.5mg of H3PO4 per gram of dry biomass. Hydrolyses were performed for 96h at 50°C using Cellic CTec2® and water-washed steam-treated substrates. The highest amount of fermentable sugars was obtained with 20wt% TS, producing 76.8gL(-1) of glucose equivalents, which corresponded to a total glucan conversion of 69.2wt% and to a theoretical net increase of 39% in ethanol production from the same sugarcane tonnage without considering the use of leaves, tops and the additional yields from C5 sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protein production by Arthrospira (Spirulina platensis in solid state cultivation using sugarcane bagasse as support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pelizer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arthrospira comprises a group of filamentous multicellular cyanobacteria and can be used for animal feed and human food. Solid state fermentation or cultivation (SSF involves the use of a culture medium composed of solid material with given moisture content. No studies have been published about the cultivation of microalgae or cyanobacteria on solid medium. Furthermore, although sugar-cane bagasse is used as source of energy in alcohol distilleries in Brazil, the excess could be a support to photosynthetic microorganism growth. The experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the protein production by Arthrospira platensis under SSF using sugarcane bagasse as support, taking into account the moisture content of the medium, light intensity and inoculum concentration. Moisture was found to have a strong influence on the performance of the process. The best conditions were: moisture of 98.8%; inoculum concentration of 0.15 g biomass·kg wet culture medium−1 and light intensity of 6.0 klx.

  15. The Activity of Cellulase from Thermophilic Fungi Isolated from CaneBagasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aris-Toharisman; Akyunul-Jannah

    2000-01-01

    The activity of cellulase from thermophilic fungi isolated from canebagasses has been measured. This wild strain, named fungal strain PJ-2,secreted a large amount of cellulolytic enzyme components consisting of 0.46units of avicelase, 0.8 units of carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolizing enzyme(CMCase) and 0.5 units of β-glucosidase per ml of culture broth oncultivation in Mandels Reese medium for 7 days at 500 o C. These cellulasesproduction was lower than that of Trichoderma reesei NRRL 3653 producing 0.5units/ml avicelase, 1.6 units/ml CMCase and 0.4 units/ml ofβ-glucosidase cultivated in the same medium at 30 o C. However,thermophilic fungi may be potential to be exploited in lignocellulosedegradation at the tropical areas as the process usually needs temperature ofabove 50 o C. (author)

  16. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Bagasse Biomass into Hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the main objective of developing new hydrogel systems has been to convert biomass into environmentally-friendly hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels are usually prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylic monomers onto natural polymers or biomass. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used to prepare semi-synthetic hybrid hydrogels without delignification, which is a costly and timeconsuming process. Sugarcane bagasse as a source of polysaccharide was modified using polymer microgels based on acrylic monomers such as acrylic acid, acrylamide and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid which were prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization. By this process, biomass as a low-value by-product was converted into a valuable semi-synthetic hydrogel. In the following, the effect of latex type¸ the aqueous-to-organic phase ratio in the polymer latex, time and temperature of modification reaction on the swelling capacity of the hybrid hydrogel were evaluated. The chemical reaction between sugarcane bagasse and acrylic latex was carried out during heating of the modified bagasse which led to obtain a semisynthetic hydrogel with 60% natural components and 40% synthetic components. Among the latexes with different structures, poly(AA-NaAA-AM-AMPS was the most suitable polymer latex for the conversion of biomass into hydrogel. The bagasse modified with this latex had a water absorption capacity up to 112 g/g, while the water absorption capacity of primary sugarcane bagasse was only equal to 3.6 g/g. The prepared polymer hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and determination of the amount of swelling capacity.

  17. Review: Potential Strength of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Paste with Substitution of Local Waste Materials with High-Temperature Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subekti, S.; Bayuaji, R.; Darmawan, M. S.; Husin, N. A.; Wibowo, B.; Anugraha, B.; Irawan, S.; Dibiantara, D.

    2017-11-01

    This research provided an overview of the potential fly ash based geopolymer paste for application in building construction. Geopolymer paste with various variations of fly ash substitution with local waste material and high-temperature influence exploited with the fresh and hardened condition. The local waste material which utilized for this study were sandblasting waste, carbide waste, shell powder, bagasse ash, rice husk and bottom ash. The findings of this study indicated that fly-based geopolymer paste with local waste material substitution which had high-temperature influence ash showed a similar nature of OPC binders potentially used in civil engineering applications.

  18. Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

    2014-03-01

    Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology.

  19. Flame spread behavior over combustible thick solid of paper, bagasse and mixed paper/bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahari Razali, Mohd; Mohd, Sofian; Sapit, Azwan; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Husaini Ismail, Ahmad; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Khalid, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Flame spread behavior on combustible solid is one of important research related to Fire Safety Engineering. Now, there are a lot of combustible solid composed from mixed materials. In this study, experiments have been conducted to investigate flame spread behavior over combustible solid composed by paper, bagasse and mixed paper/bagasse. Experimental data is captured by using video recording and examined flame spread shape and rate. From the results obtained, shows that the different materials produce different flame spread shape and rate. Different flame shape is seen between all types of samples. Flame spread rate of 100% paper is faster than the one of 100% bagasse. Based on the result, it is also inferred that the material composition can be influenced on the flame spread shape and flame spread rate of mixed paper/bagasse.

  20. Extraction and characterization of wax from sugarcane bagasse and the enzymatic hydrolysis of dewaxed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Peng, Fen; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-16

    Extraction of high-value products from agricultural wastes is an important component for sustainable bioeconomy development. In this study, wax extraction from sugarcane bagasse was performed and the beneficial effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. About 1.2% (w/w) of crude sugarcane wax was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse using the mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol (mass ratio of 1:1) as the extraction agent. Results of Fourier-transform infrared characterization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry qualitative analysis showed that the crude sugarcane wax consisted of fatty fractions (fatty acids, fatty aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and esters) and small amount of lignin derivatives. In addition, the effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was also investigated. The digestibilities of cellulose and xylan in dewaxed sugarcane bagasse were 18.7 and 10.3%, respectively, compared with those of 13.1 and 8.9% obtained from native sugarcane bagasse. The dewaxed sugarcane bagasse became more accessible to enzyme due to the disruption of the outermost layer of the waxy materials.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the preservation of industrial juices of energy cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    José Martí Pérez, Avenida de los Mártires No. 360 entre Bartolomé Masó y Brigadier Reeve, Sancti Spíritus (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Centro de Estudios de Energéticos y Procesos Industriales. Universidad de Sancti Spíritus José Martí Pérez, Avenida de los Mártires No. 360 entre Bartolomé Masó y Brigadier Reeve, Sancti Spíritus (Cuba))" >Obregón-Luna, Joaquín de J.; Faildes López, Amilkar; Hernández-León, Rolando A.

    2017-01-01

    The installation of 19 biopower plants for the electricity cogeneration during the whole year has begun in Cuban sugar mills. As biomass fuel they will use the bagasse produced during the sugar harvest, and to complete the rest of the year they will use marabou and energy cane. The latter will originate juices not suitable for sugar production, but good as source of carbon for alcoholic fermentation. Nevertheless, not all these mills have an annexed alcohol distillery, what encouraged looking for solutions to their preservation. To this aim, face to face interviews were carried out, the available experimental data on preservation of industrial juices of energy cane were used and processed with the DataFit 9.0.59 software to obtain mathematical prediction models for the behavior in time of the preserved juices, with the restriction variables Brix > 70%, Acidity < 1,5% and UfcT/g < 160 000. It was determined that the simple technology uses the existent industrial equipment, the preservation during 180 days is feasible and contribute with $ 9,57 CUP/t in a preliminary way to the economic feasibility. It is suggested to use this new raw material for alcohol production as soon as possible, to reduce storage costs. (author)

  2. Engineering and economic analysis for the utilization of geothermal fluids in a cane sugar processing plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humme, J.T.; Tanaka, M.T.; Yokota, M.H.; Furumoto, A.S.

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of geothermal resource utilization at the Puna Sugar Company cane sugar processing plant, located in Keaau, Hawaii. A proposed well site area was selected based on data from surface exploratory surveys. The liquid dominated well flow enters a binary thermal arrangement, which results in an acceptable quality steam for process use. Hydrogen sulfide in the well gases is incinerated, leaving sulfur dioxide in the waste gases. The sulfur dioxide in turn is recovered and used in the cane juice processing at the sugar factory. The clean geothermal steam from the binary system can be used directly for process requirements. It replaces steam generated by the firing of the waste fibrous product from cane sugar processing. The waste product, called bagasse, has a number of alternative uses, but an evaluation clearly indicated it should continue to be employed for steam generation. This steam, no longer required for process demands, can be directed to increased electric power generation. Revenues gained by the sale of this power to the utility, in addition to other savings developed through the utilization of geothermal energy, can offset the costs associated with hydrothermal utilization.

  3. saccharum saccharum officinarum officinarum ) bagasse and parkia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    by the modification with phosphoric acid for 12-18 hours. The result revealed ... mealy, sweet tasting edible pulp. The leaf extract ... pod and saccharum officinarum bagasse in wastewater treatment based on the removal of organic pollutants. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS. 2.1 Materials.

  4. Biological utilization of bagasse, a lignocellulose waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paterson-Jones, JC

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology to produce ethanol and single cell protein from sugarcane bagasse has been developed. Hydrolysis of the hemicelluloses by dilute sulphuric acid produces a solution of xylose and other sugars and embrittles the cellulose/lignin residue...

  5. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    OpenAIRE

    maryam allahdadi; sahab Hedjazi; mahdi jonoobi; Ali abdolkhani; laya Jamalirad

    2017-01-01

    In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA) based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA) bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS) bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S) bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S) bagasse pulp (UN S) bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B) were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor) on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers duri...

  6. Development of Asbestos - Free Brake Pad Using Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Aigbodion

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of asbestos-free brake pad using bagasse was investigated with a view to replace the use of asbestos whose dust is carcinogenic. The bagasse were sieve into sieve grades of 100, 150, 250, 350 and 710µm. the sieve bagasse was used in production of brake pad in ratio of 70%bagasse-30%resin using compression moulding. The properties examined are microstructure analysis, hardness, compressive strength, density, flame resistance, water and oil absorption. The microstructure reveals uniform distribution of resin in the bagasse. The results obtained showed that the finer the sieve size the better the properties. The results obtained in this work were compared with that of commercial brake pad (asbestos based and optimum formulation laboratory brake pad Palm Kernel Shell based (PKS, the results are in close agreement. Hence bagasse can be used in production of asbestos-free brake pad.

  7. 40 CFR 409.30 - Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.30 Section 409.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.30 Applicability; description of the liquid cane sugar refining... cane sugar into liquid refined sugar. ...

  8. Effect of Bagasse Chemical Pulping and Coupling Agent on the Physical - Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Bagasse pulp/Low density polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    maryam allahdadi; sahab hejazi; mahdi jonoobi; ali abdolkhani; laya jamalirad

    2016-01-01

    In this research, effect of reinforcing bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers and applying coupling agent MAPE (Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene) on physical-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites were studided. Fresh bagasse were collected from an experimental field in Khuzestan and after investigating anatomy and chemical properties of Different pulp fibers including monoethanolamine (MEA) bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS) bagasse pulp, bleached soda ...

  9. Walking Distance Estimation Using Walking Canes with Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Cong Dang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A walking distance estimation algorithm for cane users is proposed using an inertial sensor unit attached to various positions on the cane. A standard inertial navigation algorithm using an indirect Kalman filter was applied to update the velocity and position of the cane during movement. For quadripod canes, a standard zero-velocity measurement-updating method is proposed. For standard canes, a velocity-updating method based on an inverted pendulum model is proposed. The proposed algorithms were verified by three walking experiments with two different types of canes and different positions of the sensor module.

  10. Walking Distance Estimation Using Walking Canes with Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Duc Cong; Suh, Young Soo

    2018-01-15

    A walking distance estimation algorithm for cane users is proposed using an inertial sensor unit attached to various positions on the cane. A standard inertial navigation algorithm using an indirect Kalman filter was applied to update the velocity and position of the cane during movement. For quadripod canes, a standard zero-velocity measurement-updating method is proposed. For standard canes, a velocity-updating method based on an inverted pendulum model is proposed. The proposed algorithms were verified by three walking experiments with two different types of canes and different positions of the sensor module.

  11. Influence of Proportion and Size of Sugarcane Bagasse Fiber on the Properties of Sweet Potato Starch Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Tirado, J. P.; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R.; Siche, Raúl

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was the proportion and size of cane bagasse fiber in the physical (density and thickness), mechanical (flexural strength and tensile at break) and thermal (TG and DTG) properties of trays made from sweet potato starch. A fiber size of 75-45 µm and a 2.5% ratio allowed to obtain trays with low thicknesses and densities, but with more compact structures that improved the mechanical properties of trays made from sweet potato starch alone. In addition, higher thermal stability and lower decomposition rate are shown for trays with fiber size 75-45 µm and ratios of 2.5% and 5%. These results show that the smaller fiber size improves the properties of the sweet potato starch trays and that these trays can be used to replace the expanded polymer (EPS) for use in dry foods.

  12. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  13. Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse using the advanced oxidation process by electron beam for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; Pre-tratamento do bagaco de cana utilizando o processo de oxidacao avancada por feixe de eletrons para hidrolise enzimatica da celulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marcia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The sugar cane bagasse is a renewable energy source and a raw material promise in the biofuel production, once represents about 30% of glucose contained in the plant with the potential to be hydrolyzed and then converted to ethanol. The bagasse is composed of cellulose, straight chain of glucose, of hemicellulose, an amorphous polymer consisting of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, and of lignin, a complex polymer consisting of fenilpropan units that acts as waterproof coating on the fibers, which is hard to remove due its recalcitrant nature. The aim of this work was to study the electron beam processing as a pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. The pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse is one of the most important steps to make this material economically viable and competitive on the energy production. As a pretreatment the electron beam processing can weak the hemicellulose and lignin structures by the action highly reactive radicals that breaks the links, reducing the degree of polymerization fibers. It was evaluated the chemical and structural modifications on fibers caused by the irradiation, the enzymatic hydrolysis of electron beam as the only pretreatment and combined to steam explosion. For enzymatic hydrolysis it was used the commercial enzymes from Novozymes. The radiation processing promotes changes in structure and composition of sugarcane bagasse, increasing the solubility, that is related to hemicellulose and cellulose cleavage, and also increasing the enzymatic conversion yield. In the case of exploded bagasse there is no changes in the enzymatic hydrolysis yield, however the electron beam processing promoted a 67% reduction of furfural, that is formed in the steam explosion process. (author)

  14. Fermentation strategy for second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate by Spathaspora passalidarum and Scheffersomyces stipitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Simone C; Soares, Lauren B; Biazi, Luiz Eduardo; Nascimento, Viviane M; Costa, Aline C; Rocha, George Jackson M; Ienczak, Jaciane L

    2017-10-01

    Alcoholic fermentation of released sugars in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass is a central feature for second generation ethanol (E2G) production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used industrially in the production of first generation ethanol (E1G) convert sucrose, fructose, and glucose into ethanol. However, these yeasts have no ability to ferment pentose (xylose). Therefore, the present work has focused on E2G production by Scheffersomyces stipitis and Spathaspora passalidarum. The fermentation strategy with high pitch, cell recycle, fed-batch mode, and temperature decrease for each batch were performed in a hydrolyzate obtained from a pretreatment at 130°C with NaOH solution (1.5% w/v) added with 0.15% (w/w) of anthraquinone (AQ) and followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The process strategy has increased volumetric productivity from 0.35 to 0.38 g · L -1  · h -1 (first to third batch) for S. stipitis and from 0.38 to 0.81 g · L -1  · h -1 for S. passalidarum (first to fourth batch). Mass balance for the process proposed in this work showed the production of 177.33 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. passalidarum compared to 124.13 kg ethanol/ton of sugar cane bagasse for S. stipitis fermentation. The strategy proposed in this work can be considered as a promising strategy in the production of second generation ethanol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2211-2221. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The sustainability of small scale cane growers through youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cane farming makes an important contribution to the socio-economic development of the rural areas where it takes place. These cane growing areas are characterised by high levels of poverty and youth unemployment. The current crop of cane growers is ageing and there is a need to prepare to handover the baton to the ...

  16. PENURUNAN KADAR PROTEIN LIMBAH CAIR TAHU DENGAN PEMANFAATAN KARBON BAGASSE TERAKTIVASI (Protein Reduction of Tofu Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candra Purnawan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penurunan kadar protein limbah tahu telah dilakukan dengan pemanfaatan karbon Bagasse teraktivasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum dari karbon teraktivasi NaOH dan H2SO4 dalam menurunkan kadar protein limbah cair tahu dan mengetahui jenis isoterm adsorpsi dari karbon aktif yang digunakan untuk menyerap protein limbah cair tahu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan konsentrasi NaOH yang optimum untuk aktivasi karbon aktif 15%, massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH adalah 2 g dan penurunan kadar proteinnya 71,95%, sedangkan massa optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 adalah 1 g dengan penurunan kadar protein sebesar 38,19%. Waktu kontak optimum karbon bagasse teraktivasi  NaOH dan H2SO4 adalah 12 jam. Adsorpsi protein oleh karbon bagasse teraktivasi NaOH mengikuti isoterm adsorpsi Langmuir dan Freundlich sedangkan karbon bagasse teraktivasi H2SO4 dominan mengikuti isoterm Freundlich.   ABSTRACT The protein reduction of tofu wastewater using activated carbon from bagasse  had been conducted. The purposes of this research were to analysis optimum condition of activated carbon bagsse using NaOH and H2SO4 for reduction protein in tofu wastewater, and analysis adsorption isotherm of activated carbon with protein. The result showed that optimum mass of carbon bagasse activated NaOH was  2 g with 71.95% protein reduction, while carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 has 1 g with 38.19% protein reduction. The optimum contact time between protein and activated carbon (with NaOH and H2SO4 was happened in 12 hours. Adsorption protein with carbon bagasse activated NaOH had followed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm, while adsorption with carbon bagasse activated H2SO4 dominantlyhad followed Freundlich adsorption isotherm

  17. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16 g L(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58 g L(-1) h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Some functional characteristics of extruded blends of fiber from sugarcane bagasse, whey protein concentrate, and corn starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Martínez-Bustos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Blends of fiber from sugar cane bagasse, corn starch, and whey protein concentrate were extruded. A single screw extruder, equipped with a screw at a constant compression ratio of 1:1 and a die diameter of 3 mm, was used. The best processing conditions were determined according to a central composite rotatable design (α = 1.41 with 5 central points, which gives a total of 13 tests. During the extrusion process the content of insoluble fiber decreased and that of soluble fiber increased. An increase in the contents of fiber and in the barrel temperature resulted in a decrease in the expansion index values and an increase in the water absorption index values; whereas in blends with intermediate fiber contents the effects in these parameters were found to be the opposite. High fiber contents increased penetration force but decreased luminosity, water solubility index values and the adhesive force in gels. The extrusion process improved the functional properties of sugarcane fiber bagasse enabling its addition to diverse alimentary systems.

  19. Co-cultivation of Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains produces an enzymatic cocktail as alternative to alkaline sugarcane bagasse pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Sanita Lima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. A clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60 % - 80 % of fermentable sugars in its composition. However, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. Replacing these methods with co-cultivated enzymatic cocktails is an alternative. Here we propose a pretreatment for sugarcane bagasse using a multi-enzymatic cocktail from the co-cultivation of four Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains. The co-cultivation resulted in the simultaneous production of GH51 arabinofuranosidase (AbfA, GH11 endo-1,4-xylanase (XlnA, GH43 endo-1,5-arabinanase (AbnA and GH12 xyloglucan specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (XegA. This core set of recombinant enzymes was more efficient than the alternative alkaline method in maintaining the cellulose integrity and exposing this cellulose to the following saccharification process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis revealed residual byproducts on the alkali pretreated biomass, which were not found in the enzymatic pretreatment. Therefore, the enzymatic pretreatment was residue-free and seemed to be more efficient than the applied alkaline method, which makes it suitable for bioethanol production.

  20. Effects of bagasse microfibrillated cellulose and cationic polyacrylamide on key properties of bagasse paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman; Syverud, Kristin; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary; Ghasemain, Ali; Resalati, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the benefits of using bagasse microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) in bagasse paper. Two different types of MFC were produced from DED bleached soda bagasse pulp. The MFC was added to soda bagasse pulp furnishes in different amounts. Cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) was selected as retention aid. The results show that addition of MFC increased the strength of paper as expected. Interestingly, 1% MFC in combination with 0.1% C-PAM yielded similar drainage time as the reference pulp, which did not contain MFC. In addition, the samples containing 1% MFC and 0.1% C-PAM yielded (i) a significant increment of the tensile index, (ii) a minor decrease of opacity and (iii) preserved Gurley porosity. Hence, this study proves that small fractions of MFC in combination with adequate retention aids can have positive effects with respect to paper properties, which is most interesting from an industrial point of view. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Residual effect of sugar cane ratoon of urea nitrogen foliar application to plant cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelin, P.C.O.; Lara Cabezas, W.A.R.; Coleti, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    The residual effect of urea - N, foliar applied to plant cane, on sugar cane ratoon is studied. Setts grown in drums containing washed sand are used. 180 days from planting, foliar fertilizer (43.5% urea solution) labelled with 3.95 atom % 15 N is applied. The first harvest is made 7 days after application and final harvest of resprouting at 123 days. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Evaluation and characterisation of sugar cane germplasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty local sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) accessions were evaluated and characterised for smut (Ustilago scitammeaSyd.) resistance during four years under field conditions. The results showed that nine accessions, BD-07, KN-08, LS-01, OG-07, 0Y10, 0Y11, OY-16, OY-22 and OY-26, were resistant and had high brix ...

  3. A Cognitive Basis for Teaching Cane Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, R.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for emphasizing discovery instruction over guided instruction in teaching cane travel skills to people with severe visual impairments. Discovery instruction is seen to facilitate the use of intrinsic feedback in developing perceptual-cognitive skills as well as promoting problem solving, retention, and transfer of…

  4. CANE WEAVING IN ONITSHA: PROCESSES, TECHNIQUES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    printserver

    reveals that the local craft industry of cane weaving possesses latent potentialities in terms of skill and market ... Great care and efforts are usually taken to collect them from the jungle. A very sharp knife is needed to be able to cut the tough flexible stems covered with spikes, which can easily tear one‟s skin. The stems are ...

  5. Possible toxicity of boron on sugar cane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo C., M.

    Analyses of necrotic and green leaf tissues from sugar cane grown in the Tambo Valley (Arequipa, Peru) have shown that the boron concentration in necrotic tissue (average 657.7 ppm) is several times higher than that in the green tissue (average 55.7 ppm). This suggests that the necrosis may be due to boron toxicity.

  6. Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Executive DoD - Department of Defense DoDAF - DoD Architecture Framework FD - Full Deployment FDD - Full Deployment Decision FY - Fiscal Year IA...Information Assurance IATO - Interim Authority to Operate ICD - Initial Capability Document IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture IOC - Initial...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services (CANES) Defense Acquisition Management

  7. Technical evaluation of biomass gasification technology integrated with combined cycle using bagasse as fuel; Avaliacao tecnica da tecnologia de gaseificacao de biomassa integrada a ciclos combinados utilizando bagaco como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Pablo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Lora, Electo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida], email: pablo.silvaortiz@gmail.com; Campo, Andres Perez [Universidade Automona de Bucaramanga (UNAB) (Colombia). Fac. de Engenharia Fisico- Mecanica, Engenharia em Energia

    2010-07-01

    Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) was identified as an advanced technology with potential to be competitive for electricity generation. The BIGCC technology uses biomass and the sub products of some industrial sectors processing, like sugar cane, as feedstock. The current Brazilian energy matrix is mainly based on renewable generation sources, making it important to assess these gasification technologies in the production of sugar, ethanol and electricity. In this work, a technical evaluation of the technologies incorporated in BIGCC power plants is done: the gasification process and the combined cycle power plant. On the other hand, the generated costs of these systems are analyzed, and the potential for implementation in Brazil plants from sugar cane bagasse is studied, in which a 10% increase in efficiency is obtained. (author)

  8. optimisation of power generation in the local cane sugar factories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    island electricity requirements for 1996 totalled 1150.94 GWh, showing that the appropriate use of bagasse and CTL would have satisfied nearly half of the island electricity needs. Assuming electricity production at a specific generation cost of. Rs1.05/kWh from fossil fuels, then the proper use of bagasse would save some.

  9. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse.

  10. Life cycle assessment of bagasse waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiatkittipong, Worapon; Wongsuchoto, Porntip; Pavasant, Prasert

    2009-01-01

    Bagasse is mostly utilized for steam and power production for domestic sugar mills. There have been a number of alternatives that could well be applied to manage bagasse, such as pulp production, conversion to biogas and electricity production. The selection of proper alternatives depends significantly on the appropriateness of the technology both from the technical and the environmental points of view. This work proposes a simple model based on the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental impacts of various alternatives for dealing with bagasse waste. The environmental aspects of concern included global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and photochemical oxidant creation. Four waste management scenarios for bagasse were evaluated: landfilling with utilization of landfill gas, anaerobic digestion with biogas production, incineration for power generation, and pulp production. In landfills, environmental impacts depended significantly on the biogas collection efficiency, whereas incineration of bagasse to electricity in the power plant showed better environmental performance than that of conventional low biogas collection efficiency landfills. Anaerobic digestion of bagasse in a control biogas reactor was superior to the other two energy generation options in all environmental aspects. Although the use of bagasse in pulp mills created relatively high environmental burdens, the results from the LCA revealed that other stages of the life cycle produced relatively small impacts and that this option might be the most environmentally benign alternative

  11. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  12. Evaluation of feeding steam treated bagasse pith on milk production and blood parameters of dairy buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Kasiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding steam treated baggase pith of sugar cane (STP in feeding of buffalos. Eight milking buffaloes with the average live weight 541 ±47.5 kg were used in a complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications during 84 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio 45:55. Concentrates were included amounts of 0,10,20 and 30 percent of steam treated pith bagasse (STP witch replaced with beet pulp sugar. Results indicted that, there were significant differences (P<0.05 affected by the diets. Diets included 20 and 30% STP had greater milk production with no differences in milk composition. Buffaloes fed 0 % STP had low milk fat and protein where as buffaloes had 30% had higher milk yield. The mean rumination times between treatment diets were significantly different (P<0.05. However, significant differences (P<0.05 were observed in plasma glucose and cholesterol concentrations in the experimental buffaloes cow. Buffaloes fed 30% STP had higher plasma insulin concentrates in response to a glucose challenge.

  13. The influence of presaccharification, fermentation temperature and yeast strain on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carlos J A; Costa, Daniela A; Rodrigues, Marina Q R B; dos Santos, Ancély F; Lopes, Mariana R; Abrantes, Aline B P; dos Santos Costa, Patrícia; Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia M L; Fietto, Luciano G

    2012-04-01

    Ethanol can be produced from cellulosic biomass in a process known as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The presence of yeast together with the cellulolytic enzyme complex reduces the accumulation of sugars within the reactor, increasing the ethanol yield and saccharification rate. This paper reports the isolation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae LBM-1, a strain capable of growth at 42 °C. In addition, S. cerevisiae LBM-1 and Kluyveromyces marxianus UFV-3 were able to ferment sugar cane bagasse in SSF processes at 37 and 42 °C. Higher ethanol yields were observed when fermentation was initiated after presaccharification at 50°C than at 37 or 42° C. Furthermore, the volumetric productivity of fermentation increased with presaccharification time, from 0.43 g/L/h at 0 h to 1.79 g/L/h after 72 h of presaccharification. The results suggest that the use of thermotolerant yeasts and a presaccharification stage are key to increasing yields in this process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi; Demiral, Ilknur; Ferdi Gerçel, Hasan

    2006-02-01

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 degrees C with heating rates of 10 and 50 degrees C min(-1). The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8mm and 50-200 cm3 min(-1), respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 degrees C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg(-1) was established as CH(1.65)O(0.25)N(0.03). The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock.

  15. Olive bagasse (Olea europa L.) pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensoz, S.; Demiral, I. [Osmangazi Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Gercel, H.F. [Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Olive bagasse (Olea europea L.) was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate, particle size and sweep gas flow rates on the yields of the products were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed using pyrolysis temperatures between 350 and 550 {sup o}C with heating rates of 10 and 50 {sup o}C min{sup -} {sup 1}. The particle size and sweep gas flow rate varied in the ranges 0.224-1.8 mm and 50-200 cm{sup 3} min {sup -1}, respectively. The bio-oil obtained at 500 {sup o}C was analysed and at this temperature the liquid product yield was the maximum. The various characteristics of bio-oil obtained under these conditions were identified on the basis of standard test methods. The empirical formula of the bio-oil with heating value of 31.8 MJ kg{sup -1} was established as CH{sub 1.65}O{sub 0.25}N{sub 0.03}. The chemical characterization showed that the bio-oil obtained from olive bagasse may be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemical feedstock. (author)

  16. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...... on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  17. Merits of excess bagasse as fuel for generating electricity. [Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, P.

    1981-05-01

    The rising cost of fuel oil improves the economics for sugar factories of using excess bagasse to produce more electricity than they require for sale to the public utility companies. Recently, the United States Sugar Corporation, in Florida, initiated the operation of a 20 MW plant fueled with excess bagasse only, and the electricity it generates is sold to a local utility. This constitutes a saving of 10 million liters of oil per year. The operating cycle is described of a system of high-pressure boilers and automatically controlled turbogenerator for the production of energy from bagasse. This system is a pre-engineered design which is very simple to install and operate and can be fitted in with the electric-generating installations which are normally found in practically any sugar factory without making significant modifications to the factory. An economic analysis is presented of power generation using excess bagasse for a 3MW unit and a 4MW unit.

  18. The biological utilization of bagasse, a lignocellulose waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paterson-Jones, JC

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the results of the biological utilization of Bagasse programme, a programme of the CSIR's foundation for research development, aimed at developing and evaluating the expertise and technology for hydrolyzing the hemicelluloses...

  19. SUGAR CANE ENSILED WITH SALT OR UREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Henrique Vilela

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane silage is widely used in livestock production. Nevertheless, it presents a drawback which is alcoholic fermentation caused by yeasts and which can reduce its nutritional value. In this sense, the aim of this work was to evaluate the use of either doses of salt or urea in the ensiling of sugar cane with the objective of producing silages of better quality. For this purpose, an experiment consisted of completely randomized design with seven treatments and three replications was performed. The treatments consisted of the ensiling of sugar cane without the use of additives (control and ensiling utilizing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of either salt or urea. Sugar cane was ensiled with 31.8% of DM in experimental PVC silos, which remained closed for 202 days. After this period, the silos were opened and a part of the central silage of each silo was utilized for evaluation of potential of hydrogen (pH and of the percentages of dry matter (DM, for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin and hemicellulose. By utilizing the weights of the silos, the production of effluents was also computed. The data were submitted to the analysis of variance and the means compared by the Skott-Knott test at 5% de significance. The percentage of DM (29.5% and lignin (9.9% as well as the effluent production (43.8 kg/t of natural matter were not influenced (P>0.05 by the treatments. Increased pH values (P

  20. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez; Yoslén Fernández Gálvez; Mayra Martínez Pírez; Camilo Bonet Pérez; Manuel A Hernández Victoria; Arlandy Noy Perera

    2016-01-01

    This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the...

  1. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  2. Effect of Bagasse Chemical Pulping and Coupling Agent on the Physical - Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Bagasse pulp/Low density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of reinforcing bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers and applying coupling agent MAPE (Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene on physical-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE composites were studided. Fresh bagasse were collected from an experimental field in Khuzestan and after investigating anatomy and chemical properties of Different pulp fibers including monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (BS bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UNS bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were prepared. Then, composites with 30wt.% fiber content were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding processing. The mechanical and physical properties of these composites were analyzed and compared. Results revealed that the chemical pulping dissolved a fraction of lignin and hemicelluloses so that the linkage potential and aspect ratio of bagasse fibers was improved and consequently, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability. The best overall properties were achieved with MEA and AS/AQ fibers. Addition of 5% (wt/wt of coupling agent MAPE resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile strength, tensile modulus and impact strength in line with the improvement of the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion making more effective the transfer of stress from the matrix to the rigid reinforcement.

  3. Ergonomic factors related to drop-off detection with the long cane: effects of cane tips and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Shik; Emerson, Robert S Wall; Curtis, Amy B

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effect of cane tips and cane techniques on drop-off detection with the long cane. Blind pedestrians depend on a long cane to detect drop-offs. Missing a drop-off may result in falls or collision with moving vehicles in the street. Although cane tips appear to affect a cane user's ability to detect drop-offs, few experimental studies have examined such effect. A repeated-measures design with block randomization was used for the study. Participants were 17 adults who were legally blind and had no other disabilities. Participants attempted to detect the drop-offs of varied depths using different cane tips and cane techniques. Drop-off detection rates were similar between the marshmallow tip (77.0%) and the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) when both tips were used with the constant contact technique, p = .294. However, participants detected drop-offs at a significantly higher percentage when they used the constant contact technique with the marshmallow roller tip (79.4%) than when they used the two-point touch technique with the marshmallow tip (63.2%), p marshmallow roller tip (perceived as a less advantageous tip) was more effective than the two-point touch technique used with a marshmallow tip (perceived as a more advantageous tip) in detecting drop-offs. The findings of the study may help cane users and orientation and mobility specialists select appropriate cane techniques and cane tips in accordance with the cane user's characteristics and the nature of the travel environment.

  4. ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PESSOA JR.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

  5. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  6. Homogeneous Modification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Graft Copolymerization in Ionic Liquid for Oil Absorption Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Shi, Qing-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse, lignocellulosic residue from the sugar industry, is an abundant and renewable bioresource on the earth. The application of ionic liquids in sugarcane bagasse biorefinery is gaining increasing interest. The homogeneous modification of sugarcane bagasse by free radical initiated graft copolymerization of acrylate monomers using 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as solvent was performed. A variety of sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers with different weight percent gain were...

  7. Mineralogy of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seung [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on mineralogical and chemical characteristics of coal fly ash collected from Boreong, Honam, Samcheonpo, Gunsan, Seocheon power plants. Mineralogical and chemical characters of fly ashes are clarified by experimental studies, using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, differential thermal analyzer, grain size analyzer and chemical analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The coal fly ashes from the all power plants are mainly consisted with mullite and quartz, and minor quantity of hematite. In particular, fly ash from the Honam power plant is converted into the anorthite under the 1200 degree. According to the result grain size analysis, most of the fly ashes are under the 200 mesh except 66% of fly ashes from the Boreong and Honam, 54% from Seocheon, 83% from Gunsan and 31% from Samcheonpo power plants. The unburned carbon contents are decreased in the small grain size of fly ashes. Under the 200 mesh grain size of Honam fly ashes shows particularly less than 1% content of unburned carbon. Chemical components of fly ashes are found to be 49-80% of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents in the bituminous and anthracite coal ash are 49-69% and 75-80%, respectively. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO concentrations in the bituminous coal ash are higher than anthracite coal ash. The trace elements such as Pb and Zn are higher anthracite coal ash than bituminous coal ash, which is mainly due to the grain size characteristic. The fly ash from Honam power plant with high CaO content can be used potassium silicate fertilizer and raw materials for cements after separation of 200 mesh. Anorthite are formed after 1200 degree heating of bituminous coal ash, which can be utilized as aggregate and bricks. (author). 21 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    , it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  9. Using high pressure processing (HPP) to pretreat sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, J F; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Montero-Lagunes, M; Portilla-Arias, J; Ramírez de León, J A; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2013-10-15

    High pressure processing (HPP) technology was used to modify the structural composition of sugarcane bagasse. The effect of pressure (0, 150 and 250 MPa), time (5 and 10 min) and temperature (25 and 50 °C) as well as the addition of phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and NaOH during the HPP treatment were assessed in terms of compositional analysis of the lignocellulosic fraction, structural changes and crystallinity of the bagasse. The effect of HPP pretreatment on the bagasse structure was also evaluated on the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of bagasse. Results showed that 68.62 and 45.84% of the hemicellulose fraction was degraded by pretreating at 250 MPa with sulfuric and phosphoric acids, respectively. The removal of lignin (54.10%) was higher with the HPP-NaOH treatment. The compacted lignocellulosic structure of the raw bagasse was modified by the HPP treatments and showed few cracks, tiny holes and some fragments flaked off from the surface. Structural changes were higher at 250 MPa and 50 °C. The X ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the raw bagasse showed a major diffraction peak of the cellulose crystallographic 2θ planes ranging between 22 and 23°. The distribution of the crystalline structure of cellulose was affected by increasing the pressure level. The HPP treatment combined with NaOH 2% led to the higher glucose yield (25 g/L) compared to the combination of HPP with water and acids (>5 g/L). Results from this work suggest that HPP technology may be used to pretreat sugarcane bagasse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Insights to the clarification of sugar cane juice expressed from sugar cane stalk and trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, C C D; Bakir, H; Doherty, W O S

    2012-03-21

    Processing of juice expressed from green sugar cane containing all the trash (i.e., tops and leaves, the nonstalk component) of the sugar cane plant during sugar manufacture has been reported to lead to poor clarified juice (CJ) quality. Studies of different liming techniques have been conducted to identify which liming technique gives the best clarification performance from juice expressed from green cane containing half of all trash extracted (GE). Results have shown that lime saccharate addition to juice at 76 °C either continuous or batchwise gives satisfactory settling rates of calcium phosphate flocs (50-70 cm/min) and CJ with low turbidity and minimal amounts of mineral constituents. Surprisingly, the addition of phosphoric acid (≤ 300 mg/kg as P₂O₅), prior to liming to reduce juice turbidity (≤ 80%), increased the Mg (≤ 101%) and Si (≤ 148%) contents particularly for clarified GE juices. The increase was not proportional with increasing phosphoric acid dose. The nature of the flocs formed, including the zeta potential of the particles by the different liming techniques, has been used to account for the differences in clarification performance. Differences between the qualities of the CJ obtained with GE juice and that of burnt cane juices with all trash extracted (BE) have been discussed to provide further insights into GE processing.

  11. Use of post-harvest/processed sugarcane bagasse as a vegetable mulch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 2.7 million mt of bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaini...

  12. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  13. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  14. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may...

  15. Sugar Cane Genome Numbers Assumption by Ribosomal DNA FISH Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thumjamras, S.; Jong, de H.; Iamtham, S.; Prammanee, S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional cytological method is limited for polyploidy plant genome study, especially sugar cane chromosomes that show unstable numbers of each cultivar. Molecular cytogenetic as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques were used in this study. A basic chromosome number of sugar cane

  16. EFFECT OF SUGAR CANE JUICE ON SLUMP VALUES FFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the concrete mix. Water/Sugar Cane Juice/cement ... The study has been carried out at 0, 25, 50 and 100% replacement by weight of potable water with SCJ. .... compression machine in the laboratory. The tests were performed in a ...

  17. Sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane juice (SCJ) was investigated as a retarding agent in concrete production. Slump values and compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. The concrete cubes were prepared by replacing water with SCJ in the following proportions 0, 3, 5, 10 and ...

  18. 7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments... of 325,000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new entrant cane State will receive an allotment to accommodate a new processor's allocation under 1435.308. (c) Subject to paragraphs...

  19. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  20. Formation of Polyphenol-Denatured Protein Flocs in Alcohol Beverages Sweetened with Refined Cane Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Triplett, Alexa

    2017-11-08

    The sporadic appearance of floc from refined, white cane sugars in alcohol beverages remains a technical problem for both beverage manufacturers and sugar refiners. Cane invert sugars mixed with 60% pure alcohol and water increased light scattering by up to ∼1000-fold. Insoluble and soluble starch, fat, inorganic ash, oligosaccharides, Brix, and pH were not involved in the prevailing floc-formation mechanism. Strong polynomial correlations existed between the haze floc and indicator values (IVs) (color at 420 nm pH 9.0/color at pH 4.0-an indirect measure of polyphenolic and flavonoid colorants) (R 2 = 0.815) and protein (R 2 = 0.819) content of the invert sugars. Ethanol-induced denaturation of the protein exposed hydrophobic polyphenol-binding sites that were further exposed when heated to 80 °C. A tentative mechanism for floc formation was advanced by molecular probing with a haze (floc) active protein and polyphenol as well as polar, nonpolar, and ionic solvents.

  1. Applying functional metagenomics to search for novel lignocellulosic enzymes in a microbial consortium derived from a thermophilic composting phase of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lívia Tavares; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Carneiro, Deisy Guimarães; de Souza, Robson Assis; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Dos Santos, Josenilda Carlos; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; da Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia Maria Lopes

    2016-09-01

    Environments where lignocellulosic biomass is naturally decomposed are sources for discovery of new hydrolytic enzymes that can reduce the high cost of enzymatic cocktails for second-generation ethanol production. Metagenomic analysis was applied to discover genes coding carbohydrate-depleting enzymes from a microbial laboratory subculture using a mix of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure in the thermophilic composting phase. From a fosmid library, 182 clones had the ability to hydrolyse carbohydrate. Sequencing of 30 fosmids resulted in 12 contigs encoding 34 putative carbohydrate-active enzymes belonging to 17 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families. One third of the putative proteins belong to the GH3 family, which includes β-glucosidase enzymes known to be important in the cellulose-deconstruction process but present with low activity in commercial enzyme preparations. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of seven selected proteins, including three β-glucosidases, showed low relatedness with protein sequences deposited in databases. These findings highlight microbial consortia obtained from a mixture of decomposing biomass residues, such as sugar cane bagasse and cow manure, as a rich resource of novel enzymes potentially useful in biotechnology for saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate.

  2. Comparison of second-generation processes for the conversion of sugarcane bagasse to liquid biofuels in terms of energy efficiency, pinch point analysis and Life Cycle Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, A.M.; Melamu, Rethabi; Knoetze, J.H.; Görgens, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Process evaluation of thermochemical and biological routes for bagasse to fuels. • Pinch point analysis increases overall efficiencies by reducing utility consumption. • Advanced biological route increased efficiency and local environmental impacts. • Thermochemical routes have the highest efficiencies and low life cycle impacts. - Abstract: Three alternative processes for the production of liquid transportation biofuels from sugar cane bagasse were compared, on the perspective of energy efficiencies using process modelling, Process Environmental Assessments and Life Cycle Assessment. Bio-ethanol via two biological processes was considered, i.e. Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation (Process 1) and Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (Process 2), in comparison to Gasification and Fischer Tropsch synthesis for the production of synthetic fuels (Process 3). The energy efficiency of each process scenario was maximised by pinch point analysis for heat integration. The more advanced bio-ethanol process was Process 2 and it had a higher energy efficiency at 42.3%. Heat integration was critical for the Process 3, whereby the energy efficiency was increased from 51.6% to 55.7%. For both the Process Environmental and Life Cycle Assessment, Process 3 had the least potential for detrimental environmental impacts, due to its relatively high energy efficiency. Process 2 had the greatest Process Environmental Impact due to the intensive use of processing chemicals. Regarding the Life Cycle Assessments, Process 1 was the most severe due to its low energy efficiency

  3. Analysis of energy performance in two systems of cogeneration used in plants of sugar cane; Analise de desempenho energetico em dois sistemas de cogeracao empregados em usinas de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Felipe A.A.; Rosa, Rodrigo A. [Cogeracao Sistemas de Energia Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the options to overcome the current volatility in Brazil's power consumption outlook relates to the employment of other sources for power generation, namely solar energy, wind power or the use of biomass, namely the power generation through the cane bagasse. One should realize, however, that the economic accomplishment for launching a generation system should depend on the level of effectiveness of all processes and/or equipment comprising the system thereof. As far as the sugar-alcohol industry is concerned, the larger the system effectiveness is, the bigger the surplus of bagasse becomes and, hence, the better the chance of achieving financial earnings. Two generation systems shall be evaluated, aiming to thermo-dynamically identify the differences between the use of small equipment-driven turbines (like choppers, shredders and mills) and multi-stage turbo-generators, in order to replace the electric-powered drive units. Therefore, one shall follow thermodynamic-based criteria, namely the steam specific consumption, the equipment availability and effectiveness, thus allowing a comparison for each engine. Such survey shows that the effectiveness reaches nearly 68% for the turbo-generators and 43% for the small turbines. Under the economic perspective, one can find a saving of 89.500 tonnes per crop of bagasse, standing for an additional turnover of US$ 895.000,00 annually. (author)

  4. Improvement of bagasse become lignosulfonate surfactant for oil industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiati, R.; Prakoso, S.; Siregar, S.; Marhaendrajana, T.; Wahyuningrum, D.; Fajriah, S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to use bagasse as a raw material as an effort to enhance the petroleum acquisition. There are two steps of processing bagasse into surfactant lignosulfonate which are the separation process of lignin from bagasse and the sulfonation process of lignin into lignosulfonate. The formation of surfactant lignosulfonate is a result of reaction between ion lignin with bisulfit. The sulfonate group/cluster at lignosulfonate are hydrophilic group which causes lignosulfonate to have amphipathic structure (surfactant). The comparison uses infrared test result against the formed component in surfactant sodium lignosulfonate from bagasse. With the two crude oil samples used in phase test, it turned out that at some light petroleum sample which were mixed with surfactant lignosulfonate formed a middle phase emulsion, with middle phase emulsion stability happening after the second day with a comparison of 10 – 50%. Meanwhile the heavy crude oil did not form a middle phase emulsion at all. Therefore, it can be concluded that bagasse has enough potential to be processed into surfactant lignosulfonate and to be used as injection fluid in the EOR process in oil industries.

  5. Co-liquefaction Behaviour of Elbistan Lignite and Olive Bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karta, Mesut; Depci, Tolga; Karaca, Huseyin; Onal, Mehmet; Coskun, M. Ali

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, co-liquefaction potential of Elbistan lignite and Balikesir olive bagasse were investigated by direct coal liquefaction process. The olive bagasse is a cheap and abundant biomass, so it is used to decrease the cost of oil production from the lignite. The effect of blending ratio of the lignite and the olive bagasse on liquefaction conversion and oil yield were investigated. Characterization studies of the starting materials were done using XRD, FTIR, DTA/TG and elemental analysis. Elemental compositions of liquefaction products were also determined and the composition of the obtained oil was identified by GC/MS. DTA and TGA results indicated the synergistic effect of the lignite and the olive bagasse and maximum oil conversion (36 %) was obtained from 1:3 blending ratio of lignite: olive bagasse. The results showed that the obtained oil was paraffinic-low waxy oil with 22.5 MJ/kg of calorific value and 95 g/cm3 density.

  6. Water adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of cassava bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polachini, Tiago Carregari, E-mail: tiagopolachini@terra.com.br; Betiol, Lilian Fachin Leonardo; Lopes-Filho, José Francisco; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2016-05-20

    Highlights: • Adsorption isotherms and composition of cassava bagasse were determined. • GAB equation was the best-fitted model to sorption data of type II isotherm. • Isosteric heat of sorption was calculated in a range of equilibrium moisture content. • Differential enthalpy and entropy confirmed the isokinetic compensation theory. • Water adsorption by cassava bagasse is considered an enthalpy driven process. - Abstract: Losses of food industry are generally wet products that must be dried to posterior use and storage. In order to optimize drying processes, the study of isotherms and thermodynamic properties become essential to understand the water sorption mechanisms of cassava bagasse. For this, cassava bagasse was chemically analyzed and had its adsorption isotherms determined in the range of 293.15–353.15 K through the static gravimetric method. The models of GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin and Peleg were fitted, and best adjustments were found for GAB model with R{sup 2} > 0.998 and no pattern distribution of residual plots. Isosteric heat of adsorption and thermodynamic parameters could be determined as a function of moisture content. Compensation theory was confirmed, with linear relationship between enthalpy and entropy and higher values of isokinetic temperature (T{sub B} = 395.62 K) than harmonic temperature. Water adsorption was considered driven by enthalpy, clarifying the mechanisms of water vapor sorption in cassava bagasse.

  7. Kinetic modeling of formic acid pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiliang; Fu, Shiyu; Zhan, Huaiyu; Chai, Xinsheng; Lucia, Lucian A

    2008-05-14

    Organic solvent or organosolv pulping processes are alternatives to soda or kraft pulping to delignify lignocellulosic materials for the production of paper pulp. Formic acid, a typical organosolv system, has been presently examined under atmospheric pressure to pulp bagasse fibers. It was shown that efficient bagasse pulping was achieved when the formic acid concentration was limited to 90% (v/v). A statistical kinetic model based on the experimental results for the delignification of bagasse during formic acid pulping was developed that can be described as follows: D (delignification) = 0.747 x C(formicacid) (1.688) x (1 - e(-0.05171t)), an equation that can be used to predict the lignin content in formic acid during the pulping process. The delignification of bagasse by 90% formic acid was almost completed after approximately 80 min, while extended pulping did not improve the delignification but tended to degrade the carbohydrates in bagasse, especially the hemicelluloses, which were rapidly hydrolyzed at the onset of pulping.

  8. Effect of Na2SiO3/NaOH on mechanical properties and microstructure of geopolymer mortar using fly ash and rice husk ash as precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloma, Hanafiah, Elysandi, Debby Orjina; Meykan, Della Garnesia

    2017-11-01

    Geopolymer concrete is an eco-friendly concrete that can reduce carbon emissions on the earth surface because it used industrial waste material such as fly ash, rice husk ash, bagasse ash, and palm oil fuel. Geopolymer is semi-crystalline amorphous materials which has irregular chemical bonds structure. The material is produced by geosynthesis of aluminosilicates and alkali-silicates which produce the Si-O-Al polymer structure. This research used the ratio of fly ash and rice husk ash as precursors e.g. 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75. NaOH solutions of 14 M and Na2SiO3 solutions with the variation e.g. 2.5, 2.75, 3.00, and 3.25 were used as activators on mortar geopolymer mixture. The tests of fresh mortar were slump flow and setting time. The optimum compressive strength is 68.36 MPa for 28 days resulted from mixture using 100% fly ash and Na2SiO3 and NaOH with ratio 2.75. The largest value of slump flow test resulted from mixture using Na2SiO3 and NaOH with ratio 2.50 is 17.25 cm. Based on SEM test results, mortar geopolymer microstructure with mixture RHA 0% has less pores and denser CSH structure.

  9. "RecognizeCane" : The new concept of a cane which recognizes the most common objects and safety clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherlen, Anne-Catherine; Dumas, Jean Claude; Guedj, Benjamin; Vignot, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the new concept of an electronic cane for blind people. While some systems inform the subject only of the presence of the object and its relative distance, RecognizeCane is also able to recognize most common objects and environment clues to increase the safety and confidence of the navigation process. The originality of RecognizeCane is the use of simple sensors, such as infrared, brilliance or water sensors to inform the subject of the presence, for example, of a stairway, a water puddle, a zebra crossing or a trash can. This cane does not use an embedded vision system. RecognizeCane is equipped with several sensors and microprocessors to collect sensor data and extract the desired information about the close environment by means of a dynamic analysis of output signals.

  10. Acceleration of the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover and Sugar Cane Bagasse Celluloses by Low Intensity Uniform Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cost-competitive production of bio-ethanol and other biofuels is currently impeded, mostly by high cost and low efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of feedstock biomass and especially plant celluloses. Despite substantial reduction in the cost of production of cellulolytic enzymes in recent times...

  11. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of novel GH10 xylanase prospected from a sugar cane bagasse compost-derived microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Danilo Elton; Kadowaki, Marco Antonio Seiki; Mello, Bruno Luan; Polikarpov, Igor

    2018-04-01

    Environmental issues are promoting the development of innovative technologies for the production of renewable energy and "green products" from plant biomass residues. These technologies rely on the conversion of the plant cell wall (PCW) polysaccharides into simple sugars, which involve synergistic activities of different PCW degrading enzymes, including xylanases; these are widely applied in food and feed sectors, paper and textile industries, among others. We cloned, expressed and biochemically characterized a novel xylanase (Xyn10) from the GH10 identified in a metatranscriptome of compost-derived microbial consortia and determined its low-resolution SAXS molecular envelope in solution. Our results reveal that Xyn10 is a monomeric flexible globular enzyme, with high stability with a broad pH range from 4 to 10 and optimal activity conditions at pH 7 and 40 °C. Only 10% of activity loss was observed after the enzyme was incubated for 30 h at 40 °C with a pH ranging from 5 to 10. Moreover, Xyn10 maintained 100% of its initial activity after incubation for 120 h at 40 °C and 51% after incubation for 24 h at 50 °C (pH = 7.0). Xyn10 shows endocatalytic activity towards xylan and arabinoxylan, liberating xylose, xylobiose, 1,2-α-d-methylglucuronic acid decorated xylotriose, and 1,3-α-l-arabinofuranose decorated xylobiose and xylotriose oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and biochemical characterization of α-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger ITV-01 isolated from sugar cane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Moral, S; Barradas-Dermitz, D M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2018-01-01

    Aspergillus niger ITV-01 presents amylolytic activity, identified as α-glucosidase, an enzyme that only produces α-d-glucose from soluble starch and that presents transglucosylase activity on α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-α-d-glucopyranose (maltose) (200 gL -1 ). Biochemical characterization was performed on A. niger ITV-01 α-glucosidase; its optimum parameters were pH 4.3, temperature 80 °C but stable at 40 °C, with an energy of activation (Ea) 176.25 kJ mol -1 . Using soluble starch as the substrate, K m and V max were 5 mg mL -1 and 1000 U mg -1 , respectively. As α-glucosidase is not a metalloenzyme, calcium and EDTA did not have any effect on its activity. The molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be about 75 kDa. It was also active in methanol and ethanol. When ammonium sulfate (AS) and yeast extract (YE) nitrogen sources and calcium effect were evaluated, the greatest activity occurred using YE and calcium, as opposed to AS media where no activity was detected. The results obtained showed that this enzyme has industrial application potential in the processes to produce either ethanol or malto-oligosaccharides from α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-α-d-glucopyranose (maltose).

  13. BECCS potential in Brazil: Achieving negative emissions in ethanol and electricity production based on sugar cane bagasse and other residues

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, J. R.; Romeiro, V.; Fuß, S.; Kraxner, F.; Pacca, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Stabilization at concentrations consistent with keeping global warming below 2 °C above the pre-industrial level will require drastic cuts in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the century; net negative emissions approaching 2100 are required in the vast majority of current emission scenarios. For negative emissions, the focus has been on bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), where carbon-neutral bioenergy would be combined with additional carbon capture thus...

  14. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20 Section 409.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory § 409.20 Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar... processing of raw cane sugar into crystalline refined sugar. ...

  15. Organosolv liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse catalyzed by acidic ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhengjian; Long, Jinxing

    2016-08-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly process is proposed for sugarcane bagasse liquefaction under mild condition using IL catalyst and environmental friendly solvent of ethanol/H2O. The relationship between IL acidic strength and its catalytic performance is investigated. The effects of reaction condition parameters such as catalyst dosage, temperature, time and solvent are also intensively studied. The results show that ethanol/H2O has a significant promotion effect on the simultaneous liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse carbohydrate and lignin. 97.5% of the bagasse can be liquefied with 66.46% of volatile product yield at 200°C for 30min. Furthermore, the IL catalyst shows good recyclability where no significant loss of the catalytic activity is exhibited even after five runs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acid or alkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Cristina Pietrobon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of acid or alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse for the production of fermentable sugars. The first step consisted of selection of commercial enzymes presenting the highest cellulolytic activities. After selection of four enzymes: HPL, CL, P1 and P4, their performances were tested in the bagasse pretreated with acid and alkali. The sugar content of the hydrolysates was analyzed by anion exchange liquid chromatography. Data showed that the joint action of 0.5% acid pretreatment, 121ºC, 30 minutes and enzyme CL provides the best results, 67.25 g of hexose and 148.13g of pentose per kg of dry bagasse.

  17. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwien Andriyanti; Suyanti; Ngasifudin

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  18. Chemical composition and fermentative losses of sugar cane ensilage with different Brix degrees, with or without calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sugar cane ensilage with different Brix degrees, with or without the addition of 0.5% of calcium oxide (lime on the chemical composition and fermentation losses of silages. A complete random design in a 9 × 2 factorial arrangement was used. Experimental silos were used, ensilage was done every 15 days with Brix measuring, and they were opened after 30 days of fermentation. As the Brix degree of the ensiled material increased, the contents of dry matter (DM increased and contents of ash, crude protein (CP and fibers (neutral and acid detergent fiber corrected for proteins - NDFap and ADFap reduced. After fermentation, DM content of the silage presented a linear increase with the Brix degree content concentration, positively correlating with content of lime, but the contents of ash, CP, EE and NDFap were linearly reduced with the Brix increase. Content of ADFap suffered linear reduction for the treated silage whereas quadratic behavior was found in the untreated silage. Production of ethanol was presented in a quadratic manner for the silages without lime, and cubically in silages with lime, according to the Brix degree. The treated or untreated silages presented an average pH of 3.98 and 3.50, respectively. Contents of acetic acid and butyric acid were not affected by the lime content and Brix degree. Untreated silages presented reduction of contents of propionic acid as the Brix degree increased. The higher the Brix degree value, the higher the total losses of dry matter in the sugar cane silages with or without treatment. The treatment of the sugar cane with 0.5% calcium oxide on the natural matter basis is effective in reducing the undesired fermentation of the ensilage material.

  19. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  20. A METHOD FOR EXERGY ANALYSIS OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE BOILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORTEZ L.A.B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method to conduct a thermodynamic analysis of sugarcane bagasse boilers. The method is based on the standard and actual reactions which allows the calculation of the enthalpies of each process subequation and the exergies of each of the main flowrates participating in the combustion. The method is presented using an example with real data from a sugarcane bagasse boiler. A summary of the results obtained is also presented together based on the 1st Law of Thermodynamics analysis, the exergetic efficiencies, and the irreversibility rates. The method presented is very rigorous with respect to data consistency, particularly for the flue gas composition.

  1. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    , the biggest deviations being found for salt rich (i.e. straw derived) ashes.A simple model assuming proportionality between fly ash fusion and deposit formation was found to be capable of ranking deposition rates for the different straw derived fly ashes, whereas for the fly ashes from coal/straw co......-firing, the model only had a qualitative agreement with the measured ash deposit formation rates.Sintering measurements were carried out by means of compression strength testing of ash pellets. This method showed to not be applicable for the salt rich fly ash derived from straw combustion. For the fly ashes...... have been employed in a simple model for prediction of ash deposit formation, the results of which have been compared to ash deposition formation rates measured at the respective boilers.The ash fusion results were found to directly reflect the ash compositional data:a) Fly ashes and deposits from...

  2. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Saunders, M.; Herrerra, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Mendoza, A.; Meneses, N.; Griffith, J.; Mesa, S.; Zhuk, L.I.; Danilova, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  3. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  4. Clastogenicity of landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Souza, Tatiana; Hencklein, Fabiana Aparecida; de Franceschi de Angelis, Dejanira; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The addition of nutrients and/or soil bulking agents is used in bioremediation to increase microbial activity in contaminated soils. For this purpose, some studies have assessed the effectiveness of vinasse in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum waste. The present study was aimed at investigating the clastogenic/aneugenic potential of landfarming soil from a petroleum refinery before and after addition of sugar cane vinasse using the Allium cepa bioassay. Our results show that the addition of sugar cane vinasse to landfarming soil potentiates the clastogenic effects of the latter probably due the release of metals that were previously adsorbed into the organic matter. These metals may have interacted synergistically with petroleum hydrocarbons present in the landfarming soil treated with sugar cane vinasse. We recommend further tests to monitor the effects of sugar cane vinasse on soils contaminated with organic wastes.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Stilbenes from Grape Canes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulema Piñeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE method has been optimized and validated for the rapid extraction of stilbenes from grape canes. The influence of sample pre-treatment (oven or freeze-drying and several extraction variables (solvent, sample-solvent ratio and extraction time between others on the extraction process were analyzed. The new method allowed the main stilbenes in grape canes to be extracted in just 10 min, with an extraction temperature of 75 °C and 60% ethanol in water as the extraction solvent. Validation of the extraction method was based on analytical properties. The resulting RSDs (n = 5 for interday/intraday precision were less than 10%. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied in the analysis of 20 different grape cane samples. The result showed that grape cane byproducts are potentially sources of bioactive compounds of interest for pharmaceutical and food industries.

  6. Low tech use of post-harvest, processed sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research was conducted in 2015 to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for vegetable production. Louisiana processed 12.8 million tons (11.6 million mt) of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons (1.36 million mt) of raw sugar and an estimated 3 million tons (2.7 million...

  7. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was investigated in pilot-scale with the aim of obtaining the highest possible sugar yield after pretreatment. The temperatures used were 155, 170, 185 and 200 C with or without addition of oxygen (0.6 MPa pressure). Enzymatic hydrolysis of washed...

  8. Rheological study in fibrous suspension of chemical bagasse pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Rodgriguez, A.; Carrillo Alfonso, M.J.; Majonin, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Bagasse pulp in the concentration range 0.4-1.0% at 30-80 degrees acts as a pseudoplastic fluid. The viscosity decreases with increasing temperature and velocity. Addition of less than or equal to 0.6% salts of various types inhibits flocculation.

  9. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  10. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  11. partial replacement of partial replacement of cement with bagasse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    4. CONCLUSION. CONCLUSION. CONCLUSION. 1. BA as a partial replacement for cement will help to solve environmental problems encountered in urban settings where Bagasse is disposed; hence this can help in the actualization of the phrase. “waste to wealth”. 2. The desirable properties of aggregates used in this.

  12. Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy. A Study of the Disappearing African-American Worker on the Sugar Cane Plantations in Southern Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John A., Jr.; And Others

    This resource/study guide is designed to accompany the instructional video, "Sugar Cane: A Bitter-Sweet Legacy," which explores the significance of cultivating, harvesting, and refining sugar cane. It is also a brief study of the disappearing African-American workers on the sugar cane plantations in southern Louisiana. Seven main ideas…

  13. Energy and GHG balances of ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, Dilip; Venkata, Bharadwaj K.; Silveira, Semida; Johnson, Francis X.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This study performs LCA analysis of sugarcane-based bioethanol production. • Energy and GHG balances are evaluated in the entire production chain. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to identify key influencing parameters. • Efficient cogeneration and biogas recovery enhances energy and climate gains. • Results of LCA studies and issues related to land use change impact are discussed. - Abstract: This study analyses the sustainability of fuel ethanol production from cane molasses in Indonesia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed to evaluate the net emissions (climate change impact) and energy inputs (resource consumption) in the production chain. The lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production and use of ethanol are estimated at 29 gCO 2eq per MJ of ethanol produced which is a 67% reduction in comparison to gasoline emissions. Net Energy Value (NEV) and Net Renewable Energy Value (NREV) are −7 MJ/l and 17.7 MJ/l, while the energy yield ratio (ER) is 6.1. Economic allocation is chosen for dividing environmental burdens and resource consumption between sugar (i.e. main product) and molasses (i.e. co-product used for fuel production). Sensitivity analysis of various parameters is performed. The emissions and energy values are highly sensitive to sugarcane yield, ethanol yield, and the price of molasses. The use of sugarcane biomass residues (bagasse/trash) for efficient cogeneration, and different waste management options for the treatment of spent wash (effluent of distilleries) are also explored. Surplus bioelectricity generation in the efficient cogeneration plant, biogas recovery from wastewater treatment plant, and their use for fossil fuel substitution can help improve energy and environmental gains. The study also compares important results with other relevant international studies and discusses issues related to land use change (LUC) impact.

  14. Inhibition of osteoporosis in rats fed with sugar cane wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Hajime; Man, Sun Li; Ohta, Yutaka; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Chinen, Isao

    2003-02-01

    Rats fed on a restricted, semi-purified diet containing a 50%-reduced level of carbohydrate and oil, but normal levels of protein, minerals and vitamins, exhibited osteoporosis. However, rats fed on this restricted diet, but containing sugar cane wax, did not exhibit this bone disease. Sugar cane wax, containing a long-chain carbohydrate with an OH radical, prevented the development of osteoporosis via a non-estrogenic mechanism.

  15. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  16. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  17. Analysis of Calorific Value of Tibarau Cane Briquette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdin, H.; Hasanuddin, H.; Darmawi, D.; Prasetya, F.

    2018-04-01

    The development of product diversification through tibarau cane briquettes as an effort in obtaining alternative fuels. Tibarau cane is one of the potential materials of renewable energy sources that can be processed into briquette. So as to reduce dependence on energy fuel oil, which for the middle to lower class is the main requirement. Efforts and innovations tibarau cane briquettes in producing fuel that has quality and performance can be measured with calorific value. Prior to development of this potential required the existence of test and evaluation stages according to the order of the flow of new material product development. Through process technology of briquette product making with compaction and optimization of composition content on tapioca adhesive and mesh particles suitable to get optimum calorific value. The results obtained in this research are the development of tibarau cane briquette model which is recommended as replacement fuel. Where the calorific value of tibarau cane briquette is 11.221,72 kJ / kg at composition percentage 80: 20 and its density is 0,565 gr/cm3. The comparison of mass tibarau with tapioca, particle size, pressure force (compaction), can affect the calorific value and density of tibarau cane briquette.

  18. Partial Replacement of Cement with Bagasse Ash in Hot Mix Asphalt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is in this light that a laboratory based investigation for the replacement of cement with BA in Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) was conducted. Tests on the suitability of materials used and their performance in terms of known engineering properties was carried out. Bitumen content of 4.5%, 5.5%, 6.5% and 7.5% was adopted.

  19. SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH AS A PARTIAL-PORTLAND-CEMENT-REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS OLIVEIRA DE PAULA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se centra en la evaluación de los efectos de la sustitución parcial del cemento Portland por cenizas de bagazo de caña de azúcar (CBC en morteros. El objetivo principal fue encontrar un uso adecuado para este residuo agrícola que es generado en una cantidad cada vez mayor en Brasil, ya que el uso de CBC como un mineral mezclado en morteros y concretos, contribuye a disminuir el impacto ambiental de estos materiales relacionados con la producción de cemento. Técnicas experimentales fueron aplicadas tanto para la caracterización del CBC, como para la evaluación de su uso como una mezcla de minerales en los morteros, basados en pruebas físicas y mecánicas. Los resultados de las pruebas con morteros indicaron la viabilidad de la sustitución parcial del cemento por CBC, hasta en un 20%.

  20. SUGARCANE BAGASSE ASH AS A PARTIAL-PORTLAND-CEMENT-REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    MARCOS OLIVEIRA DE PAULA; ILDA DE FÁTIMA FERREIRA TINÔCO; CONRADO DE SOUZA RODRIGUES; JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación se centra en la evaluación de los efectos de la sustitución parcial del cemento Portland por cenizas de bagazo de caña de azúcar (CBC) en morteros. El objetivo principal fue encontrar un uso adecuado para este residuo agrícola que es generado en una cantidad cada vez mayor en Brasil, ya que el uso de CBC como un mineral mezclado en morteros y concretos, contribuye a disminuir el impacto ambiental de estos materiales relacionados con la producción de cemento. Técnicas experi...

  1. Characterisation of Cassava Bagasse and Composites Prepared by Blending with Low-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Oliveira Farias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to characterise the cassava bagasse and to evaluate its addition in composites. Two cassava bagasse samples were characterised using physicochemical, thermal and microscopic techniques, and by obtaining their spectra in the mid-infrared region and analysing them by using x-ray diffraction. Utilising sorption isotherms, it was possible to establish the acceptable conditions of temperature and relative humidity for the storage of the cassava bagasse. The incorporation of cassava bagasse in a low-density polyethylene (LDP matrix was positive, increasing the elasticity modulus values from 131.90 for LDP to 186.2 for 70% LDP with 30% SP bagasse. These results were encouraging because cassava bagasse could serve as a structural reinforcement, as well as having environmental advantages for its application in packaging, construction and automotive parts.

  2. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  3. Influence of Torrefaction on the Conversion Efficiency of the Gasification Process of Sugarcane Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anukam, Anthony; Mamphweli, Sampson; Okoh, Omobola; Reddy, Prashant

    2017-03-10

    Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N₂ at 10 °C·min -1 heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid reaction of the material during torrefaction. Torrefied and untorrefied bagasse were characterized to compare their suitability as feedstocks for gasification. The results showed that torrefied bagasse had lower O-C and H-C atomic ratios of about 0.5 and 0.84 as compared to that of untorrefied bagasse with 0.82 and 1.55, respectively. A calorific value of about 20.29 MJ·kg -1 was also measured for torrefied bagasse, which is around 13% higher than that for untorrefied bagasse with a value of ca. 17.9 MJ·kg -1 . This confirms the former as a much more suitable feedstock for gasification than the latter since efficiency of gasification is a function of feedstock calorific value. SEM results also revealed a fibrous structure and pith in the micrographs of both torrefied and untorrefied bagasse, indicating the carbonaceous nature of both materials, with torrefied bagasse exhibiting a more permeable structure with larger surface area, which are among the features that favour gasification. The gasification process of torrefied bagasse relied on computer simulation to establish the impact of torrefaction on gasification efficiency. Optimum efficiency was achieved with torrefied bagasse because of its slightly modified properties. Conversion efficiency of the gasification process of torrefied bagasse increased from 50% to approximately 60% after computer simulation, whereas that of untorrefied bagasse remained constant at 50%, even as the gasification time increased.

  4. Influence of sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar application on nitrate leaching in calcaric dark red soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K; Miyamoto, T; Shiono, T; Shinogi, Y

    2012-01-01

    Application of biochar has been suggested to improve water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity of agricultural soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of bagasse charcoal (sugarcane [ L.] bagasse-derived biochar) on nitrate (NO) leaching from Shimajiri Maji soil, which has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity. The nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse charcoal formed at five pyrolysis temperatures (400-800° C) were investigated to select the most suitable bagasse charcoal for NO adsorption. Nitrate was able to adsorb onto the bagasse charcoal formed at pyrolysis temperatures of 700 to 800° C. Nitrate adsorption by bagasse charcoal (formed at 800° C) that passed through a 2-mm sieve was in a state of nonequilibrium even at 20 h after the addition of 20 mg N L KNO solution. Measurements suggested that the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of bagasse charcoal (800° C)-amended soils are affected by changes in soil tortuosity and porosity and the presence of meso- and micropores in the bagasse charcoal, which did not contribute to soil water transfer. In NO leaching studies using bagasse charcoal (800° C)-amended soils with different charcoal contents (0-10% [w/w]), the maximum concentration of NO in effluents from bagasse charcoal-amended soil columns was approximately 5% less than that from a nonamended soil column because of NO adsorption by bagasse charcoal (800° C). We conclude that application of bagasse charcoal (800°C) to the soil will increase the residence time of NO in the root zone of crops and provide greater opportunity for crops to absorb NO. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Gleidiana Amélia Pontes; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Lima Silva, Janaina; Chagas, Juana Catarina Cariri; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; de Barros, Leonardo José Assis; de Almeida, Gledson Luiz Pontes

    2018-03-01

    The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period). The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60%) and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse), formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. The dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg/d of milk.

  6. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy cows in smallholder livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidiana Amélia Pontes de Almeida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study aimed to evaluate sugarcane bagasse as roughage in lactating cow on feed intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, milk production and composition, and microbial protein synthesis. Methods Ten Girolando cows at initial body weight of 450±25.6 kg and at 143.7±30.7 days in milk were assigned in two 5×5 Latin square designs. Five 21-day experimental periods were adopted (1° to 14-day: diets adaptation period; 15° to 21-day: data collection and sampling period. The diets consisted of four different levels of sugarcane bagasse (45%, 50%, 55%, and 60% and a control diet, commonly adopted in the region, based on spineless cactus (25% sugarcane bagasse, formulated to meet 12 kg/d milk yield. Results The dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and total digestible nutrients intakes and DM and OM digestibilities observed for 45% and 50% bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet, while that 55% and 60% bagasse inclusion were lower. Cows fed control diet, and bagasse diets of 45%, and 50% levels had the nutritional requirements attended, that guaranteed 12 kg/d of milk yield. The crude protein intake and digestibility of cows fed 45%, 50%, and 55% of bagasse inclusion were similar to control diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake and digestibility differ for all bagasse diets related to control diet, while the non-fiber carbohydrates intake and digestibility for cows fed 45% of bagasse were similar for control diet. The intakes and digestibilities of nutrients decreased linearly in function of bagasse inclusion; NDF and indigestible NDF intakes did not vary. The ruminating time, feeding and rumination efficiency, microbial protein synthesis and milk yield decreased linearly with sugarcane bagasse inclusion. Conclusion Sugarcane bagasse decreases milk production; however, its inclusion level in between 45% to 50% associated to concentrate could replace diets based on spineless cactus for crossbred dairy cow's producing 12 kg

  7. Influence of Torrefaction on the Conversion Efficiency of the Gasification Process of Sugarcane Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Anukam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse was torrefied to improve its quality in terms of properties prior to gasification. Torrefaction was undertaken at 300 °C in an inert atmosphere of N2 at 10 °C·min−1 heating rate. A residence time of 5 min allowed for rapid reaction of the material during torrefaction. Torrefied and untorrefied bagasse were characterized to compare their suitability as feedstocks for gasification. The results showed that torrefied bagasse had lower O–C and H–C atomic ratios of about 0.5 and 0.84 as compared to that of untorrefied bagasse with 0.82 and 1.55, respectively. A calorific value of about 20.29 MJ·kg−1 was also measured for torrefied bagasse, which is around 13% higher than that for untorrefied bagasse with a value of ca. 17.9 MJ·kg−1. This confirms the former as a much more suitable feedstock for gasification than the latter since efficiency of gasification is a function of feedstock calorific value. SEM results also revealed a fibrous structure and pith in the micrographs of both torrefied and untorrefied bagasse, indicating the carbonaceous nature of both materials, with torrefied bagasse exhibiting a more permeable structure with larger surface area, which are among the features that favour gasification. The gasification process of torrefied bagasse relied on computer simulation to establish the impact of torrefaction on gasification efficiency. Optimum efficiency was achieved with torrefied bagasse because of its slightly modified properties. Conversion efficiency of the gasification process of torrefied bagasse increased from 50% to approximately 60% after computer simulation, whereas that of untorrefied bagasse remained constant at 50%, even as the gasification time increased.

  8. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  10. Glycerol carbonate as green solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is a prerequisite for effective saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. In this study, “green” solvent systems based on acidified mixtures of glycerol carbonate (GC) and glycerol were used to treat sugarcane bagasse and the roles of each solvent in deconstructing biomass were determined. Results Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse at 90°C for only 30 min with acidified GC produced a solid residue having a glucan digestibility of 90% and a glucose yield of 80%, which were significantly higher than a glucan digestibility of 16% and a glucose yield of 15% obtained for bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene carbonate (EC). Biomass compositional analyses showed that GC pretreatment removed more lignin than EC pretreatment (84% vs 54%). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that fluffy and size-reduced fibres were produced from GC pretreatment whereas EC pretreatment produced compact particles of reduced size. The maximal glucan digestibility and glucose yield of GC/glycerol systems were about 7% lower than those of EC/ethylene glycol (EG) systems. Replacing up to 50 wt% of GC with glycerol did not negatively affect glucan digestibility and glucose yield. The results from pretreatment of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) showed that (1) pretreatment with acidified alkylene glycol (AG) alone increased enzymatic digestibility compared to pretreatments with acidified alkylene carbonate (AC) alone and acidified mixtures of AC and AG, (2) pretreatment with acidified GC alone slightly increased, but with acidified EC alone significantly decreased, enzymatic digestibility compared to untreated MCC, and (3) there was a good positive linear correlation of enzymatic digestibility of treated and untreated MCC samples with congo red (CR) adsorption capacity. Conclusions Acidified GC alone was a more effective solvent for pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse than acidified EC alone. The higher glucose yield obtained

  11. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas

  12. Properties of a compost obtained starting from residuals of the production of cane sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis López Bravo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to determine the main properties of a compost made from bagasse, slowness and ash, obtained from the sugar factory process. To elaborate the mixture a characterization of the raw material was carried out in function of the properties related to the composting process. During the process of anaerobic biodigestion, the control of the main monitoring parameters was carried out, until reaching the maturation state. In the raw material used a bulk density of 0.12 to 0.48 g cm-3 was found, the pH oscillated between 5.2 and 8.7, while the electrical conductivity was in the range of 0,4 to 0,9 µ m-1. On the other hand, the contents of P, K, Ca and Mg showed values between 0.3 and 2.8 %. Finally, a bulk density of 0.5 g cm-3 was obtained in the compost. The carbon-nitrogen (C/N ratio, showed a linear relation with respect to the time of composting, showing a suitable maturation of the mixture. The presence of N, P, K, Ca and Mg with values of 1; 1.3; 1.1; 2 and 1.1 % were also verified. After evaluating the results it is concluded that compost shows a suitable composition to be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.

  13. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . Deposit shedding can be defined as the process of deposit removal from the heat transfer surfaces. Mechanical and thermal shock devices for deposit removal can be implemented within into the boiler, which can be then referred to as artificial shedding. Sootblowing is one such process, where a pressurized...... on the ash characteristics and the boiler operation. Different deposit characteristics will govern the ash deposit behaviour, and thus the mechanism of deposit shedding. The deposit strength will influence the erosion and gravity shedding mechanisms. The ash viscosity and the melting behaviour will govern...

  14. Sugar cane fiber geotextiles : production, evaluation, and field study : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The sugar cane fiber geotexiles performed as well as the commercial products and exhibited grass propagation and slope protection equivalent to other products. Sugar cane fiber mats were superior in conformation to the slope even after heavy rains. B...

  15. First international ash marketing and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A total of 42 papers were presented in sessions with the following headings: production and disposal of ash - an international review; environmental, health, safety, and legal aspects of ash handling; marketing of ash; development of new uses for ash; cementitious use of ash; ash in manufactured products; and geotechnical uses of ash.

  16. Sugar cane stillage: a potential source of natural antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caderby, Emma; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Hoareau, William; Fargues, Claire; Decloux, Martine; Maillard, Marie-Noëlle

    2013-11-27

    Biorefinery of sugar cane is the first economic activity of Reunion Island. Some sugar cane manufactured products (juice, syrup, molasses) have antioxidant activities and are sources of both phenolic compounds and Maillard Reaction Products (MRP). The study aimed to highlight the global antioxidant activity of sugar cane stillage and understand its identity. Chromatographic fractionation on Sephadex LH-20 resin allowed the recovery of a MRP-rich fraction, responsible for 58 to 66% of the global antioxidant activity according to the nature of the sugar cane stillage (DPPH test), and a phenolic compounds-rich fraction for 37 to 59% of the activity. A good correlation was recorded between the antioxidant activity of the sugar cane stillage and its content in total reducing compounds amount (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), among them 2.8 to 3.9 g/L of phenolic compounds (in 5-caffeoylquinic acid equivalent). Preliminary experiments by HPLC-DAD-MS allowed to identify several free phenolic acids and gave clues to identify esters of quinic acids.

  17. Performance of dairy females fed dried yeast from sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia de Oliveira Franco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal in dairy heifers’ diets. Twenty-four heifers, with an initial body weight (BW of 178 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design. The treatments were four levels of inclusion of dried yeast from sugar cane replacing to soybean meal (0, 33, 67 and 100% on a dry matter (DM basis. While there was no difference in DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy or roughage intakes, the intakes of non-fiber carbohydrates and concentrate were increased. The crude protein intake decreased according to the dried yeast from sugar cane when replacing soybean meal. The digestibility coefficients of DM and NDF showed no difference. Replacement of soybean meal with dried yeast from sugar cane had no effect on performance, because average daily gain and body measurements studied were similar for all animals and inclusion levels. Soybean meal can be completely replaced with dried yeast from sugar cane in diets for growing dairy heifers without restrictions; this will not affect the intake, digestibility, physical development of animals or metabolization of protein compounds.

  18. Green synthesis of silica nanoparticles using sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Nur Kamilah; Wee, Nik Nur Atiqah Nik; Azmi, Alyza A.

    2017-09-01

    Silica nanoparticles have been great attention as it being evaluated for used in abundant fields and applications. Due to this significance, this research was conducted to synthesis silica nanoparticles using local agricultural waste, sugarcane bagasse. We executed extraction and precipitation process as it involved low cost, less toxic and low energy process compared to other methods. The Infrared (IR) spectra showed the vibration peak of Si-O-Si, which clearly be the evidence for the silica characteristics in the sample. In this research, amorphous silica nanoparticles with spherical morphology with an average size of 30 nm, and specific surface area of 111 m2/g-1 have been successfully synthesized. The XRD patterns showed the amorphous nature of silica nanoparticles. As a comparison, the produced silica nanoparticles from sugarcane bagasse are compared with the respective nanoparticles synthesized using Stöber method.

  19. Soil-plant relation in Cuban sugar cane by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Riso, O.; Griffith Martinez, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows the result of soil-plant relation in samples from Cuban sugar canes of different soil types and cane varieties, using the INAA from thermal reactor. The behaviour of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves is uniform and independent of sugar cane variety or type of soil. The soil-plant relation shows four principal groups of micro elements, according to their absorption by the plant

  20. Sugarcane bagasse gasification: Global reaction mechanism of syngas evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.I.; Gupta, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated using a semi batch reactor. ► Global reaction mechanism combining pyrolysis and gasification reactions is presented. ► High flow rates of syngas supported fragmentation and secondary reactions. ► CO flow rate increased at higher heating rates at the expense of CO 2 production. ► At high temperatures merger between pyrolysis and char gasification occurs. -- Abstract: Steam gasification of sugarcane bagasse has been investigated. A semi batch reactor with a fixed amount of sugarcane bagasse sample placed in steady flow of high temperature steam at atmospheric pressure has been used. The gasification of bagasse was examined at reactor and steam temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The evolution of syngas flow rate and chemical composition has been monitored. The evolution of chemical composition and total flow rate of the syngas has been used to formulate a global reaction mechanism. The mechanism combines pyrolysis reaction mechanisms from the literature and steam gasification/reforming reactions. Steam gasification steps include steam–hydrocarbons reforming, char gasification and water gas shift reactions. Evidence of fragmentation, secondary ring opening reactions and tertiary reactions resulting in formation of gaseous hydrocarbons is supported by higher flow rates of syngas and hydrogen at high heating rates and high reactor temperatures. Increase in carbon monoxide flow rate at the expense of carbon dioxide flow rate with the increase in reactor temperature has been observed. This increase in the ratio of CO/CO 2 flow rate confirms the production of CO and CO 2 from the competing reaction routes. At 1000 °C gasification a total merging between the pyrolysis step and the char gasification step has been observed. This is attributed to acceleration of char gasification reactions and acceleration of steam–hydrocarbons reforming reactions. These hydrocarbons are the precursors to

  1. 7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319.15a Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related...

  2. Degradation mechanism of polysaccharides on irradiated sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M. A.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M. N.; Napolitano, C. M.; Duarte, C. L.

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, and a minor amount of protein and inorganic materials. Cellulose consists of linear macromolecular chains of glucose, linked by β-1,4-glucosidic bonds between the number one and the number four carbon atoms of the adjacent glucose units. Hemicelluloses are heterogeneous polymers, unlike cellulose, and are usually composed of 50-200 monomer units of pentose such as xylose and arabinose. Lignin is a complex polymer of p-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units connected by CC and COC links. Radiation-induced reactions in the macromolecules of the cellulose materials are known to be initiated through fast distribution of the absorbed energy within the molecules to produce long- and short-lived radicals. The present study was carried out using sugarcane bagasse samples irradiated by a Radiation Dynamics electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV and 37 kW, with the objective to evaluate the cleavage of the polysaccharides and the by-products formed as a result of the absorbed dose. The electron beam processing in 30 kGy of absorbed dose changed the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, causing some cellulose and hemicelluloses cleavage. These cleavages were partial, forming oligosaccharides and liberating the sugars glucose and arabinose. The main by-product was acetic acid, originated from the de-acetylating of hemicelluloses.

  3. Sintesis Membran Silika Kitosan Dari Abu Ampas Tebu (Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjamsiah Sjamsiah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane is a polymer layer that can be used in the process adsorbsi metal ions. Membrane can be synthesized from silica dust bagasse that termodifikasi kitosan. The purpose of this research is to know the impact of the addition of a variety of silicate on the characteristics of the membrane silika-kitosan the bagasse to the adsorpsi metal ions Pb. The content of silica in the bagasse to 73, 80 %. Membrane kitosan-silika be made with different variations of the composition of which is 1 : 1 ; 1 : 1, 5 ; 1 : 2 ; 1 : 2, 5 and 1 : 3 and the ability of the adsorpsi the metal Pb in a row of 41 %, 43, 76 %, 54, 88 %, 38, 36 % and 39, 6 %.. The application of membrane to the process adsorpsi metal ions Pb by membrane said with a ratio of 1 : 2 to concentrate Pb the beginning of the 50 parts per million. The use of membrane to the process readsorpsi to do with how to choose a membrane that has the adsorpsi of the membrane with a ratio of 1:2 be able to absorb metal Pb of 1 ppm. Membrane that has been used can be used with traffic readsorpsi, 2 % in the membrane of every 1 : 2.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  5. 40 CFR 409.80 - Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.80 Section 409.80 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Puerto Rican Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.80 Applicability; description of the Puerto Rican raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  6. Climate Superiority of Sugar Cane Planting in Longzhou County of Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Aizhen; Zeng, Xingji; Huang, Zhongxiong

    2013-01-01

    According to meteorological conditions for sugar cane growth and development, surface meteorological observation data of Longzhou County in 1981-2010 were taken as basis, to analyze influence of local temperature, precipitation and sunshine conditions on sugar cane planting. Results show that unique climate of Longzhou County is extremely suitable for sugar cane planting and growth.

  7. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.40 Section 409.40 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.40 Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  8. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  9. High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, M; Keera, Abeer A; Mouafi, Foukia E; Kahil, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m(3), and 12 m(3) fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m(3) working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 10(8)/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m(3) working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved.

  10. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from sugar cane fibre (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.U. Ikhuoria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of metal ion concentrations. The sorption data was observed to have an adequate fit for the Langmuir isotherm equation. The level of metal ion uptake was found to be of the order: Ni2+ > Zn2+. The difference in the removal efficiency could be explained in terms of the hydration energy of the metal ions. The distribution coefficient for a range of concentration of the metal ions at the sorbent water interface is found to be higher than the concentration in the continuous phase.

  11. EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS IRRIGATED BY THE WATERS OF THE HYDROLIC BASIN OF SEBOU RIVER AND THEIR INFLUENCES ON THE TRANSFER OF TRACE ELEMENTS INTO SUGAR CROPS (THE CASE OF SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Benlkhoubi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in Kenitra (northwestern Morocco to determine the physicochemical parameters and metallic concentrations at three levels: surface water of Sebou and Beht intended for irrigation, agricultural soils and sugarcane. The spectrometric analysis of source plasma emission (ICP has identified eight trace elements contained in the materials taken from zone 1 (As, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cr.The obtained results showed that the interaction between the different physicochemical parameters of agricultural soils decides the transfer of the metal elements to the plants. Indeed, for the soil which is used in this agriculture (for sugar cane, its irrigation water, and the contents of Cr, Cd and As exceeds the accepted standards.The principal component analysis of the levels of trace metal supports in area 1, allowed to distinguish between the items with a high tolerance for bagasse (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, compared to Cr, Co, and As.

  12. Externalities associated with distributed generation of electric energy from biomass in the sugar cane industry; Externalidades associadas a geracao distribuida de energia eletrica a partir de biomassa na industria sucroalcooleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Almeida, Marcelo Costa; Pecora, Vanessa; Prado, Thiago Guilherme Ferreira [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The externalities related with projects of power generation, the cogeneration in the sugarcane industry including, traditionally are not present in the economic and technical evaluations that support decision making. Such fact implies in a distortion in the evaluation between traditional technologies and the ones based on renewable sources. The Brazilian sugarcane industry presents increasing potential for the participation in the segment of power generation. This study presents partial results from a work group project concerned on research of the externalities associated to the cogeneration using bagasse from sugar cane processing. Externalities are identified from the distributed generation consequences. The possibility of minimizing negative externalities from the sugarcane industry, caused by the production of sugar and alcohol, with positive externalities from the social benefits of distributed generation is the most important conclusion reached as so far. (author)

  13. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  14. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  15. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  16. Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse for hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse, an energy crop residue, with NaOH for the production of fermentable substrates, was investigated. Optimal conditions for the alkaline pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse were realized at 10% NaOH (w/w dry matter). A delignification of 46% was then observed,

  17. Genotoxicity reduction in bagasse waste of sugar industry by earthworm technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity reduction in post vermicompost feed mixtures of bagasse (B) waste using earthworm Eisenia fetida. The genotoxicity of bagasse waste was determined by using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay. Bagasse was amended with cattle dung in different proportions [0:100 (B0) 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100)] on dry weight basis. Genotoxic effects of initial and post vermicompost bagasse extracts were analysed on the root tips cells of Allium cepa. Root length and mitotic index (MI) was found to be increased in post vermicompost extracts when compared to initial bagasse waste. The maximum percent increase of root length was observed in the B50 bagasse extract (96.60 %) and the maximum MI was observed in B100 mixture (14.20 ± 0.60) 6 h treatment which was similar to the control. Genotoxicity analysis of post vermicompost extracts of bagasse revealed a 21-44 % decline in the aberration frequencies and the maximum reduction was found in B75 extract (44.50 %). The increase in root length and mitotic index, as well as decrease in chromosomal aberrations indicates that E. fetida has the ability to reduce the genotoxicity of the bagasse waste.

  18. Louisiana sugarcane bagasse as a natural mulch for yellow squash production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 12.8 million tons of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.5 million tons of raw sugar and an estimated 3 million tons of bagasse. Bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the juice from the sugarcane delivered to the mill. Typically, Louisiana sugarcane mills burn a por...

  19. Utilization of Chinese tallow tree and bagasse for medium density fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate various adhesive systems and determine the best composite formulation for selected mechanical and physical properties of medium density fiberboard (MDF) made from wood and bagasse fibers. This study investigated opportunities ofbiomass utilization for natural fiber-based composites from agricultural (bagasse) and...

  20. Comparative performance of sugarcane bagasse and black polyethylene as mulch for squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana processed 11.6 million mt of sugarcane in 2014, producing 1.36 million mt of raw sugar and an estimated 3.5 million mt of bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse is the fibrous material remaining after removing the sucrose, water, and other impurities (filter mud) from the millable sugarcane. Typically...

  1. Evaluating Bagasse-Based Ration as a Sole Feed for Goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    Sugarcane bagasse was used with other locally available ingredients to constitute a complete ration, bagasse-based feed (BBF) for ruminants. The effect of the feed on rumen pH and ammonia was studied. The effect of the feed on intake and live weight gain in goats was also determined in a growth trial. At the end of the.

  2. Bioconversion of industrial solid waste--cassava bagasse for pullulan production in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, K R; Jothi, P; Ponnusami, V

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to produce commercially important pullulan using industrial solid waste namely cassava bagasse in solid state fermentation and minimize the solid waste disposal problem. First, influence of initial pH on cell morphology and pullulan yield was studied. Effect of various factors like fermentation time, moisture ratio, nitrogen sources and particle size on pullulan yield was investigated. Various supplementary carbon sources (3%, w/w) namely glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose, mannose and xylose with cassava bagasse was also studied to improve the pullulan yield. After screening the suitable supplement, effect of supplement concentration on pullulan production was investigated. The pullulan from cassava bagasse was characterized by FTIR, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. Molecular weight of pullulan from cassava bagasse was determined by gel permeation chromatography. Thus, cassava bagasse emerged to be a cheap and novel substrate for pullulan production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Microwave and Ozonolysis Effect as Pretreatment on Sugarcane Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Eqra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from agricultural residues is one of the promising methods. Pretreatment is the most important step in this type of bioethanol production. In this study, the saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse was investigated after two types of pretreatments including ozone steaming and microwave. Microwave pretreatment was studied with two factors of microwave radiation (170, 450, and 850 w and microwave duration (2, 6, and 10 min. The ozonolysis (ozone steaming pretreatment was surveyed with two factors of moisture content of bagasse (30, 40, and 50% and ozonolysis time (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 hr. After hydrolysis, the Saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse increased to 57.2% and 67.06% with microwave and ozonolysis pretreatments, respectively; compare to 20.85% in non-ozonated bagasse. It can be concluded that the ozonolysis is the most effective pretreatment regarding to saccharification percentage of sugarcane bagasse.

  4. Hierarchical structured carbon derived from bagasse wastes: A simple and efficient synthesis route and its improved electrochemical properties for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haobin; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Xiao, Yong; Cai, Yijin; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao

    2016-01-01

    Bagasse-derived hierarchical structured carbon (BDHSC) with tunable porosity and improved electrochemical performance is prepared via simple and efficient hydrothermal carbonization combined with KOH activation. Experimental results show that sewage sludge acts as a cheap and efficient structure-directing agent to regulate the morphology, adjust the porosity, and thus improve the supercapacitive performance of BDHSC. The as-resulted BDHSC exhibits an interconnected framework with high specific surface area (2296 m2 g-1), high pore volume (1.34 cm3 g-1), and hierarchical porosity, which offer a more favorable pathway for electrolyte penetration and transportation. Compared to the product obtained from bagasse without sewage sludge, the unique interconnected BDHSC exhibits enhanced supercapacitive performances such as higher specific capacitance (320 F g-1), and better rate capability (capacitance retention over 70.8% at a high current density of 50 A g-1). Moreover, the BDHSC-based symmetric supercapacitor delivers a maximum energy density of over 20 Wh kg-1 at 182 W kg-1 and presents an excellent long-term cycling stability. The developed approach in the present work can be useful not only in production of a variety of novel hierarchical structured carbon with promising applications in high-performance energy storage devices, but also in high-value utilization of biomass wastes and high-ash-content sewage sludge.

  5. Emerald ash borer aftermath forests: the future of ash ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Catharine P. Herms

    2011-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program between the U.S. Forest Service and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring ash demographics, understory light availability, EAB population dynamics, native and non-native plants, and effects of ash...

  6. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4 mg/g dry bagasse, with 470 mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    protect the patients against morning stiffness. [8]. Thus, the development of a controlled release formulation of IM ... initial peak plasma concentrations, protection against morning stiffness, prolonged duration of action, improved ..... sugar cane wax and fatty alcohols on serum and liver lipids in the rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.

  8. sugar cane juice as a retarding admixture in concrete production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of water by sugar cane juice was also investigated. ... (Bazid et al, 2002) investigated the effect ... a protective skin. (Erdogan, 1997) reported that retarding admixtures are mainly based on materials having ligsulfonic acids and their salts, hydroxyl- carboxylic acids ...

  9. Biomass Yield and Carbohydrate Composition in Sugarcane and Energy Cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane and energy cane are important crops for sugar and bio-ethanol production. A better understanding their carbohydrate composition and concentrations in addition to biomass yields can improve knowledge in biomass processing and utilization. There were two objectives for this study. The first ...

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  11. Estimation of fruit weight by cane traits for various raspberries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 2003; Gercekcioglu et al., 2003; Kaplan et al., 2003; Kurt et al., 2003; Eyduran and Agaoglu, 2006; Eyduran et al.,. 2006; Atila et al., 2006; Eyduran et al., 2007;. Gercekcioglu, 2008). However, there was no published information on estimation of fruit weight (g/berry) by cane traits of raspberry cultivars.

  12. Effect of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) wastes on the quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of S. officinarum (sugar cane) rinds–contaminated water sample and its effect on the quality of Nworie River (West-end) Owerri, Nigeria, was investigated. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological parameters were compared to those of two other samples: the free flowing point of the same river three ...

  13. Sugar cane juice for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clarified juice of sugar cane, without the addition of nutritional supplements can be used for the production of biomass of A. latus, first step in the production of PHB. Keywords: Alternative substrate, Alcaligenes latus, polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate (PBH), fermentation. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(40) 4019- ...

  14. 75 FR 64619 - White Cane Safety Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... independence for individuals who are blind or visually impaired. On White Cane Safety Day, our Nation... assistance to help colleges and universities fully comply with the legal requirements to use emerging... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...

  15. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  16. Payback time for soil carbon and sugar-cane ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Francisco F. C.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Davies, Christian A.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Paustian, Keith; Maia, Stoécio M. F.; Galdos, Marcelo V.; Bernoux, Martial; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2014-07-01

    The effects of land-use change (LUC) on soil carbon (C) balance has to be taken into account in calculating the CO2 savings attributed to bioenergy crops. There have been few direct field measurements that quantify the effects of LUC on soil C for the most common land-use transitions into sugar cane in Brazil, the world's largest producer . We quantified the C balance for LUC as a net loss (carbon debt) or net gain (carbon credit) in soil C for sugar-cane expansion in Brazil. We sampled 135 field sites to 1 m depth, representing three major LUC scenarios. Our results demonstrate that soil C stocks decrease following LUC from native vegetation and pastures, and increase where cropland is converted to sugar cane. The payback time for the soil C debt was eight years for native vegetation and two to three years for pastures. With an increasing need for biofuels and the potential for Brazil to help meet global demand, our results will be invaluable for guiding expansion policies of sugar-cane production towards greater sustainability.

  17. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  18. Clarification properties of trash and stalk tissues from sugar cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Grisham, Michael; Antoine, April

    2010-01-13

    The effect of the U.S. and worldwide change from burnt to unburnt (green) sugar cane harvesting on processing and the use of sugar cane leaves and tops as a biomass source has not been fully characterized. Sugar cane whole-stalks were harvested from the first ratoon (repeat) crop of five commercial, Louisiana sugar cane varieties (LCP 85-384, HoCP 96-540, L 97-128, L 99-226, and L 99-233). Replicated sample tissues of brown, dry leaves (BL), green leaves (GL), growing point region (GPR), and stalk (S) were separated. Composite juice from each tissue type was clarified following a hot lime clarification process operated by most U.S. factories. Only GPR and GL juices foamed on heating and followed the normal settling behavior of factory sugar cane juice, although GL was markedly slower than GPR. GPR juice aided settling. S juice tended to thin out rather than follow normal settling and exhibited the most unwanted upward motion of flocs. Most varietal variation in settling, mud, and clarified juice (CJ) characteristics occurred for GL. The quality rather than the quantity of impurities in the different tissues mostly affected the volume of mud produced: After 30 min of settling, mud volume per unit tissue juice degrees Brix (% dissolved solids) varied markedly among the tissues (S 1.09, BL 11.3, GPR 3.0, and GL 3.1 mL/degrees Brix). Heat transfer properties of tissue juices and CJs are described. Clarification was unable to remove all BL cellulosic particles. GL and BL increased color, turbidity, and suspended particles in CJs with BL worse than GL. This will make the future attainment of very high pol (VHP) raw sugar in the U.S. more difficult. Although optimization of factory unit processes will alleviate extra trash problems, economical strategies to reduce the amount of green and brown leaves processed need to be identified and implemented.

  19. Assessment of Cane Yields on Well-drained Ferralsols in the Sugar-cane Estate of Central Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Ranst, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential yields of irrigated and of rainfed sugar-cane on three ferrallitic soil series, well represented in the Nkoteng sugar-cane estate of Central Cameroon, are estimated following different methods. The potential yield of irrigated sugar-cane is estimated from the total maximum evapotranspiration during the crop cycle. The potential yield of rainfed sugar-cane is estimated following two methods for the establishment of a water balance and for the determination of a yield reduction as a result of a water deficit. The calculated potential yields are higher than the observed ones. The yield reduction due to rain fed cropping can mainly be attributed to water shortage during the late yield formation and the ripening periods. A supplementary yield decline is due to a combined action of an acid soil reaction, a possible Al-toxicity a low base saturation, an inadequate CEC, organic matter content and P-availability which may adequately explain the actual yield level.

  20. Fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse using microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Sanette; Ndaba, Busiswa; Chiyanzu, Idan; Schabort, Corneels

    2014-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a hardy crop that can be grown on marginal land and can provide both food and energy in an integrated food and energy system. Lignocellulose rich sweet sorghum bagasse (solid left over after starch and juice extraction) can be converted to bioethanol using a variety of technologies. The largest barrier to commercial production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic material remains the high processing costs associated with enzymatic hydrolysis and the use of acids and bases in the pretreatment step. In this paper, sweet sorghum bagasse was pretreated and hydrolysed in a single step using microwave irradiation. A total sugar yield of 820 g kg −1 was obtained in a 50 g kg −1 sulphuric acid solution in water, with a power input of 43.2 kJ g −1 of dry biomass (i.e. 20 min at 180 W power setting). An ethanol yield based on total sugar of 480 g kg −1 was obtained after 24 h of fermentation using a mixed culture of organisms. These results show the potential for producing as much as 0.252 m 3  tonne −1 or 33 m 3  ha −1 ethanol using only the lignocellulose part of the stalks, which is high enough to make the process economically attractive. - Highlights: • Different sweet sorghum cultivars were harvested at 3 and 6 months. • Sweet sorghum bagasse was converted to ethanol. • Microwave pretreatment and hydrolysis was done in a single step. • Sugar rich hydrolysates were converted to ethanol using co-fermentation

  1. IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER AND FIBROUS FRACTION SUGARCANE BAGASSE TREATED WITH UREA DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DO BAGAÇO DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR TRATADO COM URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in situ degradability of dry matter (iDMD, neutral detergent fiber (iNDFD, acid detergent fiber (iADFD and hemicel-lulosis of sugar cane bagasse submitted to ammoniation with urea. The treatments consisted of four urea levels (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% on dry matter – DM basis added to the sugar cane bagasse and addition of 1.2% (DM basis of ground soybean as urease source. Samples of 3 g of the bagasses were incubated in the rumen of three steers during periods of 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The urea addiction to sugar cane bagasse provided increase not only on the iDMD, but also in degradability of cell wall con-tents. The degradability increased of 73.6, 61.3, 45.6 and 65.7% for DM, NDF, ADF and hemicellulosis, respective-ly, at the longer incubation time (96 hours. The iDMD, iNDFD, iADFD and in situ hemicellusosis degradability of sugar cane bagasse were improved by urea treatment.

    KEY-WORDS: Ammoniation, by product, dry matter, cellular wall.

    O experimento foi desenvolvido para avaliar a de-gradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (DiMS, da fibra em detergente neutro (DiFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DiFDA e da hemicelulose do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar submetido à amonização com uréia. Os tratamentos cons-taram de quatro níveis de uréia (0%, 2,5%, 5,0% e 7,5% na base da matéria seca – MS adicionados ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e adição de 1,2% (base da MS de soja grão moída como fonte de urease. Amostras de 3 g dos bagaços foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. A adição de uréia ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar promoveu aumento tanto na DiMS como também na degradabilidade dos constituintes da parede celular. Houve incrementos nas degradabilidades de 73,6%, 61,3%, 45,6% e 65,7% para a MS, FDN, FDA e hemice-lulose, respectivamente, no maior tempo de incubação (96 horas. A DiMS, DiFDN, DiFDA e a

  2. Silica from Ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and may change the product characteristics (colour, etc.). This method of quality assessment is more suitable to workers at the processing site as it does not involve lab-scale analysis. Process. The initial step is extraction of silica from ash as sodium silicate using caustic soda. This reaction is carried out at a temperature.

  3. Preparation of membranes from cellulose obtained of sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Paulo Henrique Fernandes; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilario; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Pinho, Maria Noberta de; Silva, Maria Lucia Caetano Pinto da

    2010-01-01

    In this work, cellulose obtained from sugarcane bagasse to produce both cellulose and acetylated cellulose to prepare asymmetric membranes. Membranes was procedure used a mixture of materials of DMAc/ LiCl systemic in different conditions. Cellulose and acetylated cellulose were characterized by thermogravimetric (TG), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Observed less stability thermal of acetylated cellulose when compared of cellulose. All membranes procedure were asymmetric, characterized by presence of a dense skin and porous support can be observed. SEM showed that the morphology of the superficial of membranes depends on the method preparation. (author)

  4. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  5. MODIFIED BAGASSE, ITS POTENTIAL AS DECOLORANT IN THE SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian León Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the conditions for obtaining an anionic exchanger based on the chemical modification of the fibrous fraction of bagasse by etherification in basic medium are studied. It evaluates the influence parameters concentration of sodium hydroxide, the molar ratio cellulose/diethylaminoethylamine hydrochloride and the reaction time in the substitution. In each case a degree of substitution estimated by determining the nitrogen content was obtained. It has been demostrated that the product removed 40-60 % of color in sugar solutions, therefore can be used in the sugar industry for the removal of ionic compounds.

  6. Milk production and economic assessment of cassava bagasse in the feed of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Pereira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 0; 5; 10 and 15% cassava bagasse, based on the dry matter of the total diet of crossbred Holstein v. Zebu cows, was evaluated on milk production and composition and on the impacts of diet costs. The animals, weighing an average of 478.5 kg, were in the middle third lactation period. Diet with 15% cassava bagasse provided a 13.2% increase in production when compared to control. Feed conversion had a quadratic effect with minimum point at 4.2% of cassava bagasse inclusion. Crude protein, the only milk component that changed, increased linearly with the inclusion of cassava bagasse levels. Treatment with 15% cassava bagasse caused a more effective operational cost (42.8% higher when compared to control and the highest leveling point for milk production and price. The lowest leveling points were treatments with 5 and 10% inclusion of cassava bagasse, which had the best economic results. Concentrates caused cost increase, particularly when roughage : concentrate ratio decreased due to higher cassava bagasse inclusion levels.

  7. A Comparison between Lime and Alkaline Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatments of Sugarcane Bagasse for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Costa, Aline C.

    Pretreatment procedures of sugarcane bagasse with lime (calcium hydroxide) or alkaline hydrogen peroxide were evaluated and compared. Analyses were performed using 2 × 2 × 2 factorial designs, with pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading and hydrogen peroxide concentration as factors. The responses evaluated were the yield of total reducing sugars (TRS) and glucose released from pretreated bagasse after enzymatic hydrolysis. Experiments were performed using the bagasse as it comes from an alcohol/ sugar factory and bagasse in the size range of 0.248 to 1.397 mm (12-60 mesh). The results show that when hexoses and pentoses are of interest, lime should be the pretreatment agent chosen, as high TRS yields are obtained for nonscreened bagasse using 0.40 g lime/g dry biomass at 70 °C for 36 h. When the product of interest is glucose, the best results were obtained with lime pretreatment of screened bagasse. However, the results for alkaline peroxide and lime pretreatments of nonscreened bagasse are not very different.

  8. Effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yichao; Liu, Shijie; Li, Jiang; Sun, Runcang

    2010-01-01

    The effect of hot-water extraction on alkaline pulping was investigated. The properties of black liquor and pulp strength of bagasse were analyzed. The extraction was conducted at 160 degrees C for 30min where 13.2% of the mass was dissolved in the extraction liquor. Untreated bagasse and extracted bagasse were digested by soda and soda-AQ processes at 17% and 15.5% (with 0.1% AQ) alkali charge (NaOH). Cooking temperatures were 160 degrees C and 155 degrees C respectively. The pulp from extracted bagasse had a lower Kappa number and a higher viscosity compared to the pulp from the untreated bagasse. The black liquor from pulping extracted bagasse had a lower solid content, a lower viscosity and a lower silica content, but a higher heating value than that from pulping of untreated bagasse. Hot-water extraction resulted in a significant decrease in bleaching chemical consumption and the formation of chlorinated organics. Pulp strength properties such as the tensile index and the burst index were found to be lower, but the tear index, bulk, opacity and pulp freeness were found to be higher when hot-water extraction was applied. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential utilization of ash phloem by emerald ash borer larvae: Ash species and larval stage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Michael D. Ulyshen; Therese M. Poland

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the extent to which ash species (black, green and white) and larval developmental stage (second, third and fourth instar) affect the efficiency of phloem amino acid utilization by emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larvae. EAB larvae generally utilized green ash...

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis at high-solids loadings for the conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspeta, Luis; Caro-Bermúdez, Mario A.; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Martinez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Conversion of agave bagasse to fuel ethanol. • Ethanosolv-pretreatment variables were statistically adjusted. • 91% of total sugars found in agave bagasse were recovered. • 225 g/L glucose from 30%-consistency hydrolysis using mini-reactors with peg-mixers. • 0.25 g of ethanol per g of dry agave bagasse was obtained. - Abstract: Agave bagasse is the lignocellulosic residue accumulated during the production of alcoholic beverages in Mexico and is a potential feedstock for the production of biofuels. A factorial design was used to investigate the effect of temperature, residence time and concentrations of acid and ethanol on ethanosolv pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of agave bagasse. This method and the use of a stirred in-house-made mini-reactor increased the digestibility of agave bagasse from 30% observed with the dilute-acid method to 98%; also allowed reducing the quantity of enzymes used to hydrolyze samples with solid loadings of 30% w/w and glucose concentrations up to 225 g/L were obtained in the enzymatic hydrolysates. Overall this process allows the recovery of 91% of the total fermentable sugars contained in the agave bagasse (0.51 g/g) and 69% of total lignin as co-product (0.11 g/g). The maximum ethanol yield under optimal conditions using an industrial yeast strain for the fermentation was 0.25 g/g of dry agave bagasse, which is 86% of the maximum theoretical (0.29 g/g). The effect of the glucose concentration and solid loading on the conversion of cellulose to glucose is discussed, in addition to prospective production of about 50 million liters of fuel ethanol using agave bagasse residues from the tequila industry as a potential solution to the disposal problems

  11. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg -1 and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg -1 . It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  12. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  13. Highly improved chromium (III uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves Dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbonyl groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III maximum adsorption capacity (MAC value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1 giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1 than for raw sugarcane bagasse.

  14. Sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage for dairy heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Gomes Inácio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrate levels (40, 50, 60, and 70% on dry matter basis on intake, digestibility of nutrients, and performance of heifers fed sugarcane bagasse as exclusive roughage. Twenty Girolando heifers, with an average body weight of 198±25.6 kg were assigned to a completely randomized design, established according to body weight. The intake of dry matter (5.12 to 7.73 kg d-1, organic matter (4.72 to 7.32 kg d-1, crude protein (0.71 to 1.05 kg d-1, and digestible organic matter (3.09 to 4.77 kg d-1 linearly increased with the inclusion of concentrate in the diets. The final weight (238 to 299 kg d-1, body weight gain (0.50 to 1.20 kg d-1, and total weight gain (35.2 to 83.6 kg d-1 linearly increased with the concentrate levels. Considering the occurrence of the first calving at 24 months, a 50:50 ratio of sugarcane bagasse to concentrate seems to be the most appropriate for crossbred heifers.

  15. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arushdeep Sidana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fusarium sp., and four unidentified species F1, F2, F3, and F5, were grown on the sugarcane bagasse medium which produced remarkable results and competed with standard media like potato dextrose agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar, and cornmeal agar. The designed medium was able to provide nourishment to the fungi as well as prevent the growth of any bacterial or fungal contaminant. The production of spores was more in the sugarcane medium as compared with standard media. Hence, this study led to the discovery of a new and efficient medium for fungal cultures as well as decrease in the waste disposal expenses and efforts.

  16. Contralateral cane use and knee joint load in people with medial knee osteoarthritis: the effect of varying body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, M; Bennell, K L; Hunt, M A; Wrigley, T V; Hinman, R S

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of varying body weight support (BWS) with contralateral cane use on medial knee load, measured by external knee adduction moment (KAM), in medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) participants. Influences of cane use technique, pain and malalignment on the cane's load-reducing effects were investigated. Participants (n=23) underwent three-dimensional gait analysis to measure KAM peaks (early and late stance) and impulse. Unaided walking was firstly analyzed. Following cane use training, participants placed pre-determined magnitudes of BWS through the cane (10%, 15% and 20% in random order), with visual feedback provided via a force-instrumented cane and projection screen. Contributions of cane use technique (peak BWS magnitude and timing, cane impulse (BWS∗time) anterior and lateral cane distance from limb) and Western Ontario McMaster Universities OA Index (WOMAC) pain and malalignment to KAM outcomes were evaluated using linear mixed models. Cane use reduced all KAM variables, with a dose-response effect apparent. Cane BWS impulse was important in reducing the early stance peak KAM (Panterior cane distances. Greater pain and varus alignment improved load-reduction for some outcomes. Contralateral cane use significantly reduced medial knee load, with a dose-response effect. Medial knee OA patients should be encouraged to maintain greater BWS across stance, with cane placement more lateral for optimum benefit. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Work and health conditions of sugar cane workers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Hong, Oi-Saeng

    2010-12-01

    This is an exploratory research, with a quantitative approach, developed with the objective of analyzing the work and of life situations that can offer risks to the workers' health involved in the manual and automated cut of the sugar cane. The sample was composed by 39 sugar cane cutters and 16 operators of harvesters. The data collection occurred during the months of July and August of 2006, by the technique of direct observation of work situations and workers' homes and through interviews semi-structured. The interviews were recorded and later transcribed. Data were analyzed according to Social Ecological Theory. It was observed that the workers deal with multiple health risk situations, predominantly to the risks of occurrence of respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychological problems and work-related accidents due to the work activities. The interaction of individual, social and environmental factors can determine the workers' tendency to falling ill.

  18. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M.; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  19. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  20. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  1. Study of structural modification of sugarcane bagasse employing hydrothermal treatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jayr; Pimenta, Maria Teresa; Gurgel, Leandro; Squina, Fabio; Souza-Correa, Jorge; Curvelo, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays, the cellulosic ethanol is an important alternative way to many liquid biofuels using renewable biomass rich in polysaccharides. To be used as feedstock for ethanol production, the bagasse needs to be pretreated in order to expose its main constitutive. The present work proposes the use of different pretreatment processes to better expose the cellulose for hydrolysis and fermentation. In the present paper the sugarcane bagasse was submitted to a hydrothermal pretreatment followed by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). An RF microplasma torch was employed as APPs in Ar and Ar/O2 mixing. The bagasse was treated in discharge and post-discharge regions. The position and time of treatment was varied as well as the gas mixture. The quantity of polysaccharides was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. It was observed the release of a fraction of the hemicelluloses in the sugarcane bagasse. Modifications in the surface of the sugarcane fibers were monitored by employing scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Toughness of polyester matrix composites reinforced with sugarcane bagasse fibers evaluated by Charpy impact tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Scarpini Candido

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fibers extracted from the sugarcane bagasse have been investigated as possible reinforcement for polymer matrix composites. The use of these composites in engineering applications, associated with conditions such as ballistic armor, requires information on the impact toughness. In the present work, Charpy tests were performed in ASTM standard specimens of polyester matrix composites, reinforced with 10, 20 and 30 vol% of continuous and aligned sugarcane bagasse fibers, in order to evaluate the impact energy. Within the standard deviation, the composite absorbed impact energy increased with the volume fraction of sugarcane bagasse fiber. This toughness performance was found by scanning electron microscopy to be associated with the fiber/matrix delamination. Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse fiber, Polyester composites, Charpy test, Impact toughness

  3. Economical and green synthesis of bagasse-derived fluorescent carbon dots for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Fengyi; Zhang, Miaomiao; Li, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Xinyi; Li, Zhang; Hua, Ye; Shao, Genbao; Jin, Jie; Shao, Qixiang; Gong, Aihua; Li, Jianan; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Carbon quantum dots (CDs) are promising nanomaterials in biomedical, photocatalytical and photoelectronic applications. However, determining how to explore an ideal precursor for a renewable carbon resource is still an interesting challenge. Here, for the first time, we report that renewable wastes of bagasse as a new precursor were prepared for fluorescent CDs by a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The characterization results show that such bagasse-derived CDs are monodispersed, contain quasi spherical particles with a diameter of about 1.8 nm and exhibit favorable photoluminescence properties, super-high photostability and good dispersibility in water. Most importantly, bagasse-derived CDs have good biocompatibility and can be easily and quickly internalized by living cancer cells; they can also be used for multicolour biolabeling and bioimaging in cancer cells. It is suggested that bagasse-derived CDs might have potential applications in biomedical and photoelectronic fields. (paper)

  4. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  5. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  6. MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, M; Katsumi, T; Sano, Y

    2000-09-15

    The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength tests, leachate tests, and soaking tests. The behavior of soluble salts contained in the MSW fly ash significantly affects strength development, soaking durability, and the hardening reaction of the stabilized MSW fly ash mixtures. The cement stabilization of the MSW fly ash does not have enough effect on strength development and soaking durability. The addition of cement only contributes to the containment of heavy metals due to the high level of alkalinity. When using FCA as a stabilizing agent for MSW fly ash, the mixture exhibits high strength and durability. However, the Cd leachate cannot be prevented in the early stages of curing. Using a combination of cement and FCA as a MSW fly ash stabilizer can attain high strength, high soaking durability, and the containment of heavy metals. The stabilized MSW fly ash with cement and FCA can be practically applied to embankments.

  7. Evaluation of lime and hydrothermal pretreatments for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Maira Prearo; Marques, Marina Paganini; Laluce, Cecília; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Sponchiado, Sandra Regina Pombeiro

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse requires a pretreatment step to disrupt the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin complex and to increase biomass digestibility, thus allowing the obtaining of high yields of fermentable sugars for the subsequent fermentation. Hydrothermal and lime pretreatments have emerged as effective methods in preparing the lignocellulosic biomass for bioconversion. These pretreatments are advantageous because they can be performed under mild temperature and pressure conditions, resulting in less sugar degradation compared with other pretreatments, and also are cost-effective and environmentally sustainable. In this study, we evaluated the effect of these pretreatments on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of raw sugarcane bagasse obtained directly from mill without prior screening. In addition, we evaluated the structure and composition modifications of this bagasse after lime and hydrothermal pretreatments. The highest cellulose hydrolysis rate (70 % digestion) was obtained for raw sugarcane bagasse pretreated with lime [0.1 g Ca(OH)2/g raw] for 60 min at 120 °C compared with hydrothermally pretreated bagasse (21 % digestion) under the same time and temperature conditions. Chemical composition analyses showed that the lime pretreatment of bagasse promoted high solubilization of lignin (30 %) and hemicellulose (5 %) accompanied by a cellulose accumulation (11 %). Analysis of pretreated bagasse structure revealed that lime pretreatment caused considerable damage to the bagasse fibers, including rupture of the cell wall, exposing the cellulose-rich areas to enzymatic action. We showed that lime pretreatment is effective in improving enzymatic digestibility of raw sugarcane bagasse, even at low lime loading and over a short pretreatment period. It was also demonstrated that this pretreatment caused alterations in the structure and composition of raw bagasse, which had a pronounced effect on the enzymes accessibility to the

  8. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei

    1992-01-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches

  9. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Kumar Saw; Chandan Datta

    2009-01-01

    Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA) to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy comp...

  10. Contamination of commercial cane sugars by some organic acids and some inorganic anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, Maciej; Antczak, Aneta; Lisik, Krystyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was the identification and the quantitative evaluation of the following inorganic anions: chloride, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate and the following organic acids: lactic, acetic, formic, malic and citric in commercial "unrefined" brown cane sugars and in cane raw sugars. The determination was carried out by high performance anion exchange chromatography with conductivity detector HPAEC-CD. The conducted analyses have shown that the content of some inorganic anions and organic acids in cane sugars may be an important criterion of the quality of commercial "unrefined" brown cane sugars. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ash in the Soil System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  12. Loss of cane and sugar yield resulting from Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner damage in cane-growing regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W F; Zhang, R Y; Huang, Y K; Pu, C H; Yin, J; Cang, X Y; Shan, H L; Wang, X Y; Luo, Z M

    2018-02-01

    Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner is a major leaf pest of sugarcane. Widely distributed, it affects both the yield and quality of sugarcane in China. This study aimed to assess real yield and sugar yield losses, and the effect of C. lanigera damage on emergence of newly planted and ratoon cane under current production levels. Field experiments were carried out from 2014 to 2016 in Yunnan Province China. At maturity, plants were harvested and weighed to determine yield, and the effect on sugarcane quality and sucrose content analyzed. Real yield decreased by average of 46,185 kg hm-2 (range: 37,545-61,845 kg hm-2) in damaged versus undamaged areas, with an average yield loss rate of 35.9% (28.5-45.7%). Juice yield decreased by an average of 3.01% (2.4-4.13%) and sucrose content by 6.38% (5.48-8.16%). Juice brix decreased by an average of 7.66°BX (6.95-9.05°BX) and juice gravity purity by 12.35% (8.43-19.97%). In contrast, the reducing sugar content increased by an average of 1.21% (1.01-1.3%). Emergence rates of newly planted cane decreased by an average of 26.0% (24.7-27.3%). The emergence number of ratoon cane decreased by 66,834 hm2 (57,429-76,238 hm-2) and relative emergence loss rates of ratoon cane decreased by an average of 57.8% (57.6-58.0%). These findings confirm that C. lanigera damage severely affects sugarcane yield and quality in Yunnan Province. The results will help the implementation of effective control measures, thereby supporting sustainable development of the Chinese sugar industry.

  13. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...... of the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  14. Utilization of Coal Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    T1 Thallium Br Bromine U Uranium C Carbon V Vanadium Ca Calcium W Tungsten Cd Cadmium Zn Zinc Ce Cerium Cl Chlorine Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cu Copper...2933 (1987). £ 46 I A 3 Christensen, J., L. Kryger, and N. Pind, "The Determination of Traces of Cadmium, Lead, and Thallium in Fly Ash by...Elements and Radioactivity in Fly Ashes, Adsorption of Elements by Cabbage Grown in Fly Ash-Soil Mixtures," Environmental Science and Technology, v.11

  15. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H 2 SO 4 was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by AFM and SEM

  16. Improvement of hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by soaking in aqueous ammonia and methanolic ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatkhah, Abolghasem; Motamedi, Hossein; Najafzadeh Varzi, Hossein; Ghezelbash, Gholamreza; Amopour Bahnamiry, Mostafa; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by soaking it in aqueous ammonia (SAA) and methanolic aqueous ammonia (SMAA) at 70 °C for 12 h. Then the pretreated as well as untreated bagasse was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C for 72 h by 15 FPU cellulase and 30 CBU cellobiase per g of substrate. The hydrolysis of SAA-pretreated bagasse with a solid to liquid (S:L) ratio of 1:10 resulted in 95.9% of the maximum theoretical yield. The production yield for SMAA at an S:L ratio of 1:6 with 15% methanol was 88.6%, while it was only 21.3% for the untreated bagasse. Ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was conducted at 37 °C for 72 h. The results revealed that the ethanol production yield was improved from 12.7% for the untreated bagasse to 92.45% and 90.8% for the SAA and the SMAA pretreated bagasse, respectively. The compositional and chemical structural analysis suggested that lignin removal and crystallinity reduction were responsible for the hydrolysis and SSF improvements.

  17. Esterification Mechanism of Bagasse Modified with Glutaric Anhydride in 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xueqin; Liu, Chuanfu; Sun, Runcang

    2017-08-18

    The esterification of bagasse with glutaric anhydride could increase surface adhesion compatibility and the surface of derived polymers has the potential of immobilizing peptides or proteins for biomedical application. Due to its complicated components, the esterification mechanism of bagasse esterified with glutaric anhydride in ionic liquids has not been studied. In this paper, the homogenous esterification of bagasse with glutaric anhydride was comparatively investigated with the isolated cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) to reveal the reaction mechanism. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) indicated that the three components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) were all involved in the esterification. The percentage of substitution (PS) of bagasse was gradually improved with the increased dosage of glutaric anhydride (10-40 mmol/g), which was primarily attributed to the increased esterification of cellulose and hemicelluloses. However, the PS fluctuation of lignin led to a decrease in the PS of bagasse at high glutaric anhydride dosage (50 mmol/g). The esterification reactivity of bagasse components followed the order of lignin > hemicelluloses > cellulose. The esterification mechanism was proposed as a nucleophilic substitution reaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that lignin aliphatic hydroxyls were prior to be esterified, and primary hydroxyls were more reactive than secondary hydroxyls in cellulose and hemicelluloses.

  18. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  19. Application of cellulosic nanofibers to replace with imported long- fiber pulps in paper made from bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, different additives of cellulose nanofibers, cationic starch and polyacrylamide to bagasse pulp and their impact on the handsheet strengths were investigated aiming to replace with imported long-fiber softwood pulp in Pars paper factory. For this purpose, first 3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers, 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers, 0.5, 0.7 and 1% cationic starch, and 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1% cationic polyacrylamide were added separately to bagasse pulp. In the next stage,3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers and 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers along with 0.5% cationic starch or 0.05% cationic polyacrylamide were used. The results showed, adding nano-cellulose fibers along with cationic polyacrylamide or starch have increased handsheet strengths significantly. Yet, the best treatment was the addition of 3% nano-lignocellulose along with 0.5% cationic starch which resulted in the higher tensile and burst strengths and lower tear and fold strengths than that of adding 12.5% long fibers to bagasse pulp. So that, comparing with paper made from pure bagasse pulp it showed the increase of 16.57% in tensile index, 8.47% in burst index, 9.77% in tear index, and 168.85% in folding strength.

  20. Use of agave bagasse for production of an organic fertilizer by pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta and vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Salazar, Rene G; Marino-Marmolejo, Erika N; Rodriguez-Campos, Jacobo; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Contreras-Ramos, Silvia M

    2016-01-01

    Agave tequilana Weber is used in tequila and fructans production, with agave bagasse generated as a solid waste. The main use of bagasse is to produce compost in tequila factories with a long traditional composting that lasts 6-8 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of agave bagasse by combining a pretreatment with fungi and vermicomposting. Experiments were carried out with fractionated or whole bagasse, sterilized or not, subjecting it to a pretreatment with Bjerkandera adusta alone or combined with native fungi, or only with native bagasse fungi (non-sterilized), for 45 days. This was followed by a vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida and sewage sludge, for another 45 days. Physicochemical parameters, lignocellulose degradation, stability and maturity changes were measured. The results indicated that up to 90% of the residual sugars in bagasse were eliminated after 30 days in all treatments. The highest degradation rate in pretreatment was observed in non-sterilized, fractionated bagasse with native fungi plus B. adusta (BNFns) (71% hemicellulose, 43% cellulose and 71% lignin) at 45 days. The highest total degradation rates after vermicomposting were in fractionated bagasse pre-treated with native fungi (94% hemicellulose, 86% cellulose and 91% lignin). However, the treatment BNFns showed better maturity and stability parameters compared to that reported for traditional composts. Thus, it seems that a process involving vermicomposting and pretreatment with B. adusta could reduce the degradation time of bagasse to 3 months, compared to the traditional composting process, which requires from 6 to 8 months.

  1. Study the effect of gamma radiation pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse on its physcio-chemical morphological and structural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Khushboo; Garg, Neelima; Diwan, R. K.; Varshney, Lalit; Tyagi, Ajay K.

    2017-12-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was exposed to gamma radiation at different doses i.e. 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 kGy at a dose rate of 2.5 kGy/h and characterized for physical, chemical, morphological and structural properties. Results showed that on exposure of sugarcane bagasse, hemicellulose content reduced from 31% to 12.4% at 2000 kGy dose. The cellulose content of bagasse did not get affected much upto 1000 kGy exposure; however at 2000 kGy dose it decreased considerably. XRD study shows an initial increase in crystallinity index of bagasse at a dose level of 100 kGy while on further increase in radiation dose from 100 kGy to 2000 kGy the crystallinity index of bagasse decreases. Pores in the SEM photograph were observed on the surface of irradiated bagasse. UV-Vis spectra of bagasse showed a red shift indicating internal changes caused by radiation exposure. Study shows that the irradiation of bagasse results in disrupton of the lignocellulosic structure of Bagasse which opens up for easy accessibility of acids and hydrolytic enzymes for cellulosic hydrolysis resulting into fermentable sugars.

  2. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  3. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  4. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fly ash (FA) is a coal product generated from coal fired thermal power stations. ... million tons during 2001–2010 AD (Muraka et al 1987;. Satyanarayan and Pushpalata 1991). Disposal of FA and bottom ash are today's burning problems as they have .... Muraka I P, Boyd R H and Harbert H P 1987 Solid waste disposal and ...

  5. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  6. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  7. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  8. How to manage sugar cane in the field and factory following damaging freezes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exposure of sugar cane to damaging frosts occurs in approximately 25% of the sugar cane producing countries world-wide. A series of damaging freezes, -2.6, -3.3 and -2.1°C, occurred in Morocco on 4, 5 and 13 February 2012, respectively, only 2 weeks after the commencement of the harvest season....

  9. Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water.

  10. Bond strenght in concrete of canes from three rattan species | Lucas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bond strenght in concrete of canes from three rattan species. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Bond strenght in concrete of canes from three rattan species. EB Lucas, BIO Dahunsi. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 4(2) 2004: 1-5 ...

  11. Regional-based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water use of rain-fed sugar-cane has come under the spotlight in South Africa, largely as a result of changes in legislation and a focus on streamflow reduction activities. In this study a robust relationship between sugar-cane yield and evapotranspiration derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with ...

  12. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  13. Regional based estimates of water use for commercial sugar-cane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water use of rain-fed sugar-cane has come under the spotlight in South Africa, largely as a result of changes in legislation and a focus on streamflow reduction activities. In this study a robust relationship between sugar-cane yield and evapotranspiration derived by Thompson in 1976 is applied in conjunction with ...

  14. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  15. Effect of Sugar Cane Juice on Slump Values, Setting Times and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sugar cane juice, (SCJ) on slump values, setting time and compressive strength of concrete cubes was investigated. A total of 32 concrete cubes of size 150x150x150mm with a mix ratio of 1:2:4 were cast with different percentages of unfermented sugar cane juice replacing some proportion of water in the ...

  16. Reproductive history of cane rat: a review of the reproduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most farmers rely on the shapes and size of the head to differentiate sexes but ano-genital distance is the most popular method of sex determination. Gestation period in cane rat is 132-172 days. At birth, offspring birth weight is between 70 – 130 grammes. The litter size is 4 – 9. Cane rat is an hystricomorphic rodent.

  17. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to Additional...

  18. 40 CFR 409.50 - Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.50 Section 409.50 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Florida and Texas Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.50 Applicability; description of the Florida and Texas raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  19. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets who...

  20. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  1. 75 FR 26316 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  2. 76 FR 42160 - Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Allocation of Additional Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 In-Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... additional fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar... the United States (HTS), the United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar...

  3. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  4. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  5. Value-added of used cooking oil using noni (Morinda citrofilia) extract and bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri; Supriyatin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of noni extract and bagasse to the number of free fatty acids and peroxide on used cooking oil. This study used a completely randomized design with factorial experiment consisting of two factors: noni extract and administration bagasse. The oil used was cooking oil that has been used 3 times to fry catfish. The study was conducted in the laboratory of Biochemistry, Department ofBiology Science UNJ. Data was analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (α <0.05). Oil fortification analysis result in negative value of vit A, D and E on cooking oil used. Preliminary test results showed that the used cooking oil on catfish 3 times frying has a peroxide value of 20.2 MeK O2/kg and the number of free fatty acids of 2.2%, which is already quite high and out of SNI limit. This basis the reason of usingthe oil as a sample. Combination of noni and bagasse applied on cooking oil has shown the lowest peroxide value (0.533 mg-equivalen peroxide per kg sample (MeK O2/kg)) compared with administration of bagasse (0.8 MeK O2/kg) and noni alone (0.67 MeK O2/kg). Giving noni and bagasse also figured lower fatty acids (1,878%) compared to administration of noni (1.94%) and bagasse (2,191%) only on used cooking oil. Statistical analysis shows p <0.005 on both the peroxide and free fatty acids in cooking oil. It can be concluded that the administration of noni extract and bagasse gave effect on free fatty acids and peroxide on used oil.

  6. Effects of hot water pre-extraction on surface properties of bagasse soda pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Nereida; Ashori, Alireza; Hamzeh, Yahya; Faria, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    In this work, the effects of hot water pre-extraction of depithed bagasse on the soda pulping and surface properties were studied. The conditions of hot water pre-extraction were: maximum temperature 170 °C, heat-up time 90 min, time at maximum temperature 10 min, and solid to liquor ratio (S:L) 1:8. Consequently, the pre-extracted and un-extracted bagasse chips were subjected to soda pulping at 160 °C for 1h with 11, 14 and 17% active alkali charge and an S:L of 1:5. The results showed that the hot water pre-extraction increased bagasse surface texture porosity by hemicellulose degradation. Therefore, the delignification was faster for pulping of pre-extracted samples. At a certain charge of alkali, pre-extracted samples showed higher screened yield and lower Kappa number. For instance, at 17% alkali charge, pre-extracted bagasse gave 11.3% higher pulp yield compared with the un-extracted ones. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) results showed that the hot water pre-extraction changed the active sites on the bagasse surface, decreasing the dispersive energy and the basicity character, and affected the particle morphology. The pulping process decreased the hydrophobicity and the basicity of the bagasse surface. The surfaces of un-extracted and pre-extracted bagasse pulps had similar properties but different morphology. The pulps present higher surface area and permeability with more reactive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels of dehydrated cashew bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danillo Glaydson Farias Guerra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition of elephant grass silages supplemented with different levels dried cashew bagasse (DCB. Our experiment used a randomized design replicated four times, each replicate consisting of the following five treatments: 100% elephant grass; 95% elephant grass + 5% DCB; 90% elephant grass + 10% DCB; 85% elephant grass + 15% DCB; and 80% elephant grass + 20% DCB. The elephant grass was cut manually to a residual height of 5 cm at 80 days of age, and cashew bagasse was obtained from the processing of cashew stalks used in fruit pulp manufacturing in Mossoró/RN. Plastic buckets were used as experimental silos, and 90 days after ensiling the experimental silos were opened and the contents analyzed. The addition of dried cashew bagasse to silage linearly increased the levels of dried matter and crude protein by 0.59% and 0.13%, respectively, for each 1% addition (P < 0.05. The neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent content of the silages was reduced by 0.22% and 0.09%, respectively, for each 1% addition of the bagasse. The total carbohydrate content was not influenced by the bagasse addition (P > 0.05, and averaged 82.29%. The levels of non-fiber carbohydrate showed linear growth (P < 0.05 as the dehydrated cashew bagasse was added, and pH and ammoniacal nitrogen levels were reduced. The addition of the dehydrated bagasse to elephant grass silage improves its chemical composition, and it can be effectively added up to the level of 20%.

  8. Bioconversion of phytosterols to androstanes by mycobacteria growing on sugar cane mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C; Falero, A; Hung, B R; Tirado, S; Balcinde, Y

    2005-03-01

    Direct sterol conversion of sugar cane mud (residue) by Mycobacterium sp. was demonstrated to be possible technologically, thus avoiding sugar cane oil extraction and further processes of extraction and purification of phytosterols from this oil. Indeed, mycobacterial cells were able to convert phytosterols from sugar cane mud into 4-androstene-dione (AD) and 1,4 androsta-diene-3,17-dione (ADD). For the various concentrations assayed, concomitant higher yields for both androstanes were achieved at 20% (w/w) sugar cane mud in media. Furthermore, conversions were similar to those from other substrates, such as a mixture of phytosterols. The results suggest that the mycobacterial cell is able to easily access and bioconvert sugar cane mud phytosterols.

  9. Sugar cane as an energy resource for the Caribbean area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.E.

    1982-09-01

    Sugar cane presents tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil-producing, developing countries of the Caribbean basin. The analysis presented here, finds the overall energy balance to be extremely favorable. The economics are also favorable, even though capital investment requirements are high. Potential for improvement, in both the energy balance and the economic aspects, is very great. Such improvement is attainable by the development of new technology, which could be available in the short term and at moderate cost. (Refs. 8).

  10. Produksi Biogas dari Campuran Feses Sapi dan Ampas Tebu (Bagasse dengan Rasio C/N yang Berbeda (Biogas Production from Mixture of Dairy Manure and Bagasse with Different C/N Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisno Saputra

    2012-02-01

    COD value decrease, pH value, biogas temperature, and total biogas volume was different among treatment. The optimal mixture was C/N ratio 30 treatment. The results indicated that bagasse could be used as material mixture in biogas production. (Key words : Biogas, Dairy manure, Bagasse, C/N ratio, Methane

  11. Effect of Adding Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Cake and Wetting and Drying Cycles on Pre-Compaction Stress of Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nemati

    2018-03-01

    replications. A composite disturbed sample of topsoil (0–200 mm deep of a silty clay loam soil was collected from Isfahan province (32 31.530 N; 51 49.40E in center of Iran. The mean annual precipitation and temperature of the region are about 160 mm and 16 C, respectively. Sugarcane residues (bagasse and filter cake were obtained from the sugarcane fields in Ahvaz, Khuzestan province (Iran. The samples were air-dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve. Soil treated by bagasse and filter cake in different rates was poured and knocked lightly into cylinders with diameter and height of 25 and 8 cm, respectively. Large air-dry disturbed soil samples were prepared and some of them were exposed to five wetting and drying cycles. Finally, the soil surface was covered by a plastic sheet and was left overnight in the laboratory (for 24 hours to enable the moisture to equilibrate. The loading tests were performed the next day. The pre-compaction stress was determined by plate sinkage test (PST. The loading test for PST was performed using CBR apparatus. The compression for PST was continuous at the same constant displacement rate of the CBR (i.e. 1 mm min-1. Determination of the σpc was done using Casagrande’s graphical estimation procedure (Casagrande, 1936 in a program written in MatLab software. Results and Discussion The results showed that σpc was significantly decreased by adding residues to the soil at both water contents, and with/without wetting and drying process. For untreated treatments (control, the σpc decreased with increasing water content. Although σpc decreased with adding the residues to the soil, however, the effect of residue types and percentages and soil water content on σpc was not significant for the soil samples treated with residues. Conclusions In order to prevent re-compaction of the soil and improve its structure, it is suggested that traffic control system with permanent routes for the movement of machinery to be used in sugar cane plantations and

  12. Dispersal of Volcanic Ash on Mars: Ash Grain Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdalen, Z.; Fagents, S. A.; Fitch, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Many ash dispersal models use spheres as ash-grain analogs in drag calculations. These simplifications introduce inaccuracies in the treatment of drag coefficients, leading to inaccurate settling velocities and dispersal predictions. Therefore, we are investigating the use of a range of shape parameters, calculated using grain dimensions, to derive a better representation of grain shape and effective grain cross-sectional area. Specifically, our goal is to apply our results to the modeling of ash deposition to investigate the proposed volcanic origin of certain fine-grained deposits on Mars. Therefore, we are documenting the dimensions and shapes of ash grains from terrestrial subplinian to plinian deposits, in eight size divisions from 2 mm to 16 μm, employing a high resolution optical microscope. The optical image capture protocol provides an accurate ash grain outline by taking multiple images at different focus heights prior to combining them into a composite image. Image composite mosaics are then processed through ImageJ, a robust scientific measurement software package, to calculate a range of dimensionless shape parameters. Since ash grains rotate as they fall, drag forces act on a changing cross-sectional area. Therefore, we capture images and calculate shape parameters of each grain positioned in three orthogonal orientations. We find that the difference between maximum and minimum aspect ratios of the three orientations of a given grain best quantifies the degree of elongation of that grain. However, the average aspect ratio calculated for each grain provides a good representation of relative differences among grains. We also find that convexity provides the best representation of surface irregularity. For both shape parameters, natural ash grains display notably different shape parameter values than sphere analogs. Therefore, Mars ash dispersal modeling that incorporates shape parameters will provide more realistic predictions of deposit extents

  13. Light touch cue through a cane improves pelvic stability during walking in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsinsukh, Rumpa; Panichareon, Lawan; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri

    2009-06-01

    To examine the effect of a light touch cue provided through a cane on mediolateral (ML) pelvic stability during walking in subjects poststroke. Crossover trial examining ML pelvic stability during walking using a cane with the force contact and touch contact methods. Physical therapy clinic, tertiary care center. Subacute patients (N=40) with stroke with a mean age of 59.6 years and mean stroke duration of 46.8 days. The average gait speed with a cane was .13 m/s (.05-.29 m/s). Using a cane with the force contact and touch contact methods during walking. ML pelvic stability as measured by averaged peak-to-peak pelvic acceleration, muscle activation of bilateral tensor fascia latae (TFL), semitendinosus (ST), and vastus medialis (VM) using an electromyography system, and vertical cane force. The average amount of cane force during touch contact and force contact cane use conditions was 2.3N and 49.3N, respectively. A light touch cue through a cane was required only when the paretic leg accepted the body weight, and this cue can provide ML pelvic stability (.16 g of average pelvic acceleration) during walking to the same degree as the force contact method of cane use. However, significant increases in single-limb support duration with higher activations of TFL, VM, and ST muscles on the paretic leg were found during the paretic stance phase when using a cane in the touch contact fashion (Pstability during walking for subjects with stroke by facilitating the activations of weight-bearing muscles on the paretic leg during the stance phase.

  14. The use of sugar cane on traditional ceremony in Tabanan, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUMANTERA

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane or tebu (Saccharum officinarum L. is useful in Hinduism ceremonies in Bali, so that the people plant it in the home yard. Its population is not big but it spreads all over Bali. The farmers use it to be the merchandise at the markets, especially for the ritual ceremonies uses. The use of sugar cane in ritual ceremonies is very popular as symbolize of wedding ceremony. The sugar cane is put in front part of the cars when they go to the bride’s house for the permission. The sugar cane stem cut into two parts used as the parts of the offering, as the tegen-tegenan as the offering as the earth product, raka-raka fruit for canang/offering, pedangal for tooth ceremony etc. The research was conducted in Tabanan Bali to know the varieties of sugar cane and the function in ritual ceremony in Bali. The result showed that people used 8 kinds of sugar cane for the ceremonies such as: tebu ratu/raja, tebu tiying, tebu kuning, tebu selem/cemeng/hitam/ireng, tebu malem, tebu tawar, tebu salah, and tebu suwat. They had function as identities, offering, worship, protection, and food of white cows. This showed that Balinese people had a little knowledge of sugar cane as the offering and the plantation is not maximal. The belief of the sugar cane function in ritual ceremony in Bali supports its reservation. For that it needs to build reservation and introduce new varieties, the clearness of the sugar cane meaning as the facilities of the ceremony and the availability of young sugar cane.

  15. Properties of thermoplastic starch from cassave bagasse and cassava starch and their blends with poly (lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassava bagasse is an inexpensive and broadly available waste byproduct from cassava starch production. It contains roughly 50% cassava starch along with mostly fiber and could be a valuable feedstock for various bioproducts. Cassava bagasse and cassava starch were used in this study to make fiber-r...

  16. Alkaline pretreatment and the synergic effect of water and tetralin enhances the liquefaction efficiency of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixia; Cao, Jiangfei; Huang, Kai; Hong, Yaming; Li, Cunlong; Zhou, Xinxin; Xie, Ning; Lai, Fang; Shen, Fang; Chen, Congjin

    2015-02-01

    Bagasse liquefaction (BL) in water, tetralin, and water/tetralin mixed solvents (WTMS) was investigated, and effects of tetralin content in WTMS, temperature, and alkaline pretreatment of bagasse on liquefaction efficiency were studied. At 300°C, bagasse conversion in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50 wt% was 86-87 wt%, whereas bagasse conversion in water or tetralin was 67 wt% or 84 wt%, respectively. Because the solid conversion from liquefaction in WTMS with tetralin content higher than 50 wt% was always higher than that in water or tetralin at temperatures between 250 and 300°C, a synergic effect between water and tetralin is suggested. Alkaline pretreatment of bagasse resulted in significantly higher conversion and heavy oil yield from BL in water or WTMS. The effect of deoxygenation by the present liquefaction method is demonstrated by lower oxygen contents (16.01-19.59 wt%) and higher heating values (31.9-34.8 MJ/kg) in the produced oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  19. Alkaline Pretreatment of Sugarcane Bagasse and Filter Mud Codigested to Improve Biomethane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talha, Zahir; Ding, Weimin; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Hassan, Muhammad; Bi, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the codigestion of degradation and improve biomethane production potential, sugarcane bagasse and filter mud were pretreated by sodium hydroxide NaOH 1 N at 100°C for 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. Biomethane generation from 1-liter batch reactor was studied at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1)°C, solid concentrations of 6%, and five levels of mixing proportion with and without pretreatment. The results demonstrate that codigestion of filter mud with bagasse produces more biomethane than fermentation of filter mud as single substrate; even codigested substrate composition presented a better balance of nutrients (C/N ratio of 24.70) when codigestion ratio between filter mud and bagasse was 25 : 75 in comparison to filter mud as single substrate (C/N ratio 9.68). All the pretreatments tested led to solubilization of the organic matter, with a maximum lignin reduction of 86.27% and cumulative yield of biomethane (195.8 mL·gVS -1 , digestion of pretreated bagasse as single substrate) obtained after 45 minutes of cooking by NaOH 1 N at 100°C. Under this pretreatment condition, significant increase in cumulative methane yield was observed (126.2 mL·gVS -1 ) at codigestion ratio of 25 : 75 between filter mud and bagasse by increase of 81.20% from untreated composition.

  20. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane bagasse using steam-explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Chizuru; Okumura, Ryosuke; Asakawa, Ai; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the production of D-lactic acid from unutilized sugarcane bagasse using steam explosion pretreatment. The optimal steam pressure for a steaming time of 5 min was determined. By enzymatic saccharification using Meicellase, the highest recovery of glucose from raw bagasse, 73.7%, was obtained at a steam pressure of 20 atm. For residue washed with water after steam explosion, the glucose recovery increased up to 94.9% at a steam pressure of 20 atm. These results showed that washing with water is effective in removing enzymatic reaction inhibitors. After steam pretreatment (steam pressure of 20 atm), D-lactic acid was produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii NBRC 3534 from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse and washed residue. The conversion rate of D-lactic acid obtained from the initial glucose concentration was 66.6% for the hydrolyzate derived from steam-exploded bagasse and 90.0% for that derived from the washed residue after steam explosion. These results also demonstrated that the hydrolyzate of steam-exploded bagasse (without washing with water) contains fermentation inhibitors and washing with water can remove them.

  2. Study of Structural and Electrical Conductivity of Sugarcane Bagasse-Carbon with Hydrothermal Carbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, M.; Nurhayati, D.; Maddu, A.

    2017-03-01

    The important part of fuel cell is the gas diffusion layer who made from carbon based material porous and conductive. The main goal of this research is to obtain carbon material from sugarcane bagasse with hydrothermal carbonization and chemical-physics activation. There were two step methods in this research. The first step was sample preparation which consisted of prepare the materials, hydrothermal carbonization and chemical-physics activation. The second one was analyze character of carbon using EDS, SEM, XRD, and LCR meter. The amount of carbon in sugarcane bagasse-carbon was about 85%-91.47% with pore morphology that already form. The degree of crystallinity of sugarcane bagasse carbon was about 13.06%-20.89%, leaving the remain as the amorphous phase. Electrical conductivity was about 5.36 x 10-2 Sm-1 - 1.11 Sm-1. Sugarcane bagasse-carbon has porous characteristic with electrical conductivity property as semiconductor. Sugarcane bagasse-carbon with hydrothermal carbonization potentially can be used as based material for fuel cell if only time of hydrothermal carbonization hold is increased.

  3. Characterization of concrete hardness by using sugarcane bagasse waste mixture by carbon oven curing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rino, Agus; Farida, Elvaswer, Dahlan, Dahyunir

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is one of the solid waste that can be processed as a mixture of structure materials. In the previous research, sugarcane bagasse has been processed and used as a mixture of portland cement, the manufacture of asbestos and also mixtures for manufacturing of brake pads that are frequently used in motor vehicle. Based on the previous research results, it is strongly necessary to develop a research about sugarcane bagasse for structure materials. The method used to determine the mechanical properties is tensile test and compression test. To obtain the intensity of material variations, it is needed to make various sizes of filtration carbon in the form of aggregate that is mixed into the tiles material. The size of the aggregate used in concrete material can be on 200 µm, 400 µm and 600 µm. This measure is taken in accordance with the size of the filtration apparatus. Furthermore, in obtaining sugarcane bagasse carbon, the researcher must do the oven curing process on 200 °C temperature and 3 hours in curing oven. In this research the best result is used bagasse powder mixtured 200 µm is 7. 2 MPa.

  4. Ionizing Radiation Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass from Sugarcane Bagasse to Production Ethanol Biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Oikawa, H.; Finguerut, J.; Galvão, A.; Nagatomi, H.R.; Célia, M.

    2010-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 75 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  5. Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bagasse/Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roohani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of bagasse/glass fiber/polypropylene hybrid composites. Composites were prepared by the melt compounding method and their properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. DSC results found that with incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber the melting temperature (Tm and the crystallisation temperature (Tc shift to higher temperatures and the degree of crystallinity (Xc increase. These findings suggest that the fibers played the role of a nucleating agent in composites. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that by the incorporation of bagasse and glass fiber into polypropylene, the storage modulus ( and the loss modulus ( increase whereas the mechanical loss factor (tanδ decrease. To assess the effect of reinforcement with increasing temperature, the effectiveness coefficient C was calculated at different temperature ranges and revealed that, at the elevated temperatures, improvement of mechanical properties due to the presence of fibers was more noticeable. The fiber-matrix adhesion efficiency determined by calculating of adhesion factor A in terms of the relative damping of the composite (tan δc and the polymer (tan δpand volume fraction of the fibers (Фf. Calculated adhesion factor A values indicated that by adding glass fiber to bagasse/polypropylene system, the fiber-matrix adhesion improve. Hybrid composite containing 25% bagasse and 15% glass fiber showed better fiber-matrix adhesion.

  6. Modification of natural matrix lac-bagasse for matrix composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, Nanik Dwi; Widjaya, Karna; Triyono

    2016-02-01

    Material technology continues to be developed in order to a material that is more efficient with composite technology is a combination of two or more materials to obtain the desired material properties. The objective of this research was to modification and characterize the natural matrix lac-bagasse as composite films. The first step, natural matrix lac was changed from solid to liquid using an ethanol as a solvent so the matrix homogenly. Natural matrix lac was modified by adding citric acid with concentration variation. Secondly, the bagasse delignification using acid hydrolysis method. The composite films natural matrix lac-bagasse were prepared with optimum modified the addition citric acid 5% (v/v) and delignification bagasse optimum at 1,5% (v/v) in hot press at 80°C 6 Kg/cm-1. Thirdly, composite films without and with modification were characterized functional group analysis using FTIR spectrophotometer and mechanical properties using Universal Testing Machine. The result of research showed natural matrix lac can be modified by reaction with citric acid. FTIR spectra showed without and with modification had functional groups wide absorption 3448 cm-1 group -OH, C=O ester strong on 1712 cm-1 and the methylene group -CH2 on absorption 1465 cm-1. The mechanical properties showed tensile strength 0,55 MPa and elongation at break of 0,95 %. So that composite films natural matrix lac can be made with reinforcement bagasse for material application.

  7. Mathematical modeling of thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Zabot, Giovani; Boni, Gabriela; Skovronski, Aline; de Oliveira, Debora; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Treichel, Helen [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, P.O. Box 743, CEP 99700-000, Erechim - RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Maugeri, Francisco [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, CEP 13083-862, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    This work reports hot-air convective drying of thin-layer fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale dryer assessing the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on the drying kinetics of the processing material. The fermented sugarcane bagasse in SSF was obtained with the use of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Drying experiments were carried out at 30, 35, 40 and 45 C, at volumetric air flow rates of 2 and 3 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}. The ability of ten different thin-layer mathematical models was evaluated towards representing the experimental drying profiles obtained. Results showed that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presents a distinct, faster drying, behavior from that verified for the non-fermented material at the same conditions of temperature and volumetric air flow rate. It is shown that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presented effective diffusion coefficient values of about 1.3 times higher than the non-fermented material. A satisfactory agreement between experimental data and model results of the thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse was achieved at the evaluated experimental conditions. (author)

  8. Protective gloves on manual sugar cane cutting are really effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Gonzaga, M C; Braunbeck, O A

    2012-01-01

    Problems related to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), specially the use of protective gloves for the manual sugar cane cutting, motivated this research, made possible by a tripartite negotiation involving the Ministry of Labor, the Union of Rural Workers and the Employer's Association of sugarcane agribusiness. The main objective was to evaluate, from an ergonomics perspective, the impact of use of the gloves during the manual cane sugar cutting, raising questions on safety, effectiveness and comfort. The research was carried in a sugarcane industry of São Paulo for two seasons involving 47 workers who made a qualitative analysis of acceptance of four models of protective gloves. The methodology included the use of semi-structured interviews, questionnaires and field observations and the experimental determination of the coefficient of static friction developed between the gloves and the surfaces of the machete handle. The main results indicate the general inadequacy of the gloves currently used forcing the employees to improvise. Workers found the glove of leather and nylon scraping the best reported for comfort in use. The overall results highlight the problem of detachment of test standards for the manufacture of PPE, ignoring users and the activity to be performed.

  9. Antiatherosclerotic function of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Takafumi; Toda, Takayoshi; Inafuku, Masashi; Wada, Koji; Iwasaki, Hironori; Oku, Hirosuke

    2009-01-14

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of phenolic compounds (PCs) and policosanol of Kokuto, Okinawan noncentrifugal cane sugar, on the development of atherosclerosis. A total of 67 male Japanese quail were divided into eight dietary groups in trial 1. The dietary groups were fed the atherosclerotic diet (AD) containing 5% corn oil, 2% cholesterol, and 30% sucrose or seven different types of Kokuto. Dietary intakes of Kokuto notably prevented the development of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between the serum radical scavenging activity and the degree of atherosclerosis in the dietary groups. In trial 2, a total of 63 Japanese quail were fed AD with sucrose, Kokuto, PC extracts from Kokuto, wax extracts from sugar cane, octacosanol, vitamin C, and vitamin E. As a result, the supplementation of the diet with Kokuto and PCs significantly reduced the development of atherosclerosis as compared with the ingestion of AD with sucrose. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, among various components of Kokuto, PCs play a central role for the prevention of experimental atherosclerosis in Japanese quail.

  10. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  11. Electric energy consumption characteristics in cane distillery; Caracteristicas do consumo de energia eletrica numa destilaria de aguardente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assumpcao, Carlos Roberto

    1986-03-01

    This work were carried out for comparison between electric consumption against processed sugar cane (sugar cane wastes and cane brandy). The actual and calculated demands were studied. Some considerations were made, where a turbogenerator installation was simulated in order to verify an electric energy to be provided though self generation, by using sugar cane waste as fuel, and the possibility of self sufficiency of the industry in relation to this energy. The electric energy self-sufficiency of the distillery through turbogenerator installation was verified on the two harvests, since the sugar cane waste was used as a fuel in offer to produce high pressure steam. (author) 11 figs., 9 tabs., 24 refs

  12. Catalytic conversion of sugarcane bagasse to cellulosic ethanol: TiO2 coupled nanocellulose as an effective hydrolysis enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabasingh, S Anuradha; Lalith, D; Prabhu, M Arun; Yimam, Abubekker; Zewdu, Taye

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the production of cellulosic ethanol from bagasse using the synthesized TiO2 coupled nanocellulose (NC-TiO2) as catalyst. Aspergillus nidulans AJSU04 cellulase was used for the hydrolysis of bagasse. NC-TiO2 at various concentrations was added to bagasse in order to enhance the yield of reducing sugars. Complex interaction between cellulase, bagasse, NC-TiO2 and the reaction environment is thoroughly studied. A mathematical model was developed to describe the hydrolysis reaction. Ethanol production from enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse catalyzed with NC-TiO2 was carried out using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 20602. The glucose release rates and ethanol concentrations were determined. Ethanol produced was found to be strongly dependent on pretreatment given, hydrolysis and fermentation conditions. The study confirmed the promising accessibility of NC-TiO2, for enhanced glucose production rates and improved ethanol yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bagasse generation and power cogeneration in sugar cane industry; Geracao de bagaco e co-geracao de energia na industria sucroalcooleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomazako, M.S. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, C.J. [Faculdade Municipal Professor Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work show, through technical elements, the experience of the electric power production generated at some sugar plants of the state of Sao Paulo, starting from it burns of the pulp in kettles. This production has been supplied to the state dealerships but, the supply is retreating in the last years, due to several problems of economical order, technique and politics. However, there are efforts on the part of the government from Sao Paulo in reactivating this supply, through changes in the energy politics. (author)

  14. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The "EyeCane", a new electronic travel aid for the blind: Technology, behavior & swift learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidenbaum, Shachar; Hanassy, Shlomi; Abboud, Sami; Buchs, Galit; Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Levy-Tzedek, Shelly; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Independent mobility is one of the most pressing problems facing people who are blind. We present the EyeCane, a new mobility aid aimed at increasing perception of environment beyond what is provided by the traditional White Cane for tasks such as distance estimation, navigation and obstacle detection. The "EyeCane" enhances the traditional White Cane by using tactile and auditory output to increase detectable distance and angles. It circumvents the technical pitfalls of other devices, such as weight, short battery life, complex interface schemes, and slow learning curve. It implements multiple beams to enables detection of obstacles at different heights, and narrow beams to provide active sensing that can potentially increase the user's spatial perception of the environment. Participants were tasked with using the EyeCane for several basic tasks with minimal training. Blind and blindfolded-sighted participants were able to use the EyeCane successfully for distance estimation, simple navigation and simple obstacle detection after only several minutes of training. These results demonstrate the EyeCane's potential for mobility rehabilitation. The short training time is especially important since available mobility training resources are limited, not always available, and can be quite expensive and/or entail long waiting periods.

  16. Effect of acid additives on sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis: Production of high yields of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Geraldo Ferreira; Perez, Victor Haber; Rodriguez Justo, Oselys; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve sugarcane bagasse thermochemical conversion to pyrolytic sugars production, particularly to levoglucosan. The experiments were carried out evaluating the effect of acid washing with HNO 3 (0.1wt.%) followed by H 2 SO 4 addition (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt.%) at pyrolysis temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C was studied by Py-GC/MS. The experimental results showed that HNO 3 washing, followed by H 2 SO 4 concentration of 0.2wt.% at 350°C resulted in an increase in levoglucosan yield between 5 and 7 times the yield obtained when the raw bagasse was processed. Thus, these results are very attractive to improve pyrolytic sugars production in sugarcane bagasse by previously acid treatment to pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MOISTURE ISOTHERMS OF CASSAVA BAGASSE COMPOSITES IMPREGNATED WITH CASSAVA STARCH ACETATE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia N. MATSUI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The industrial processing of cassava to obtain starch generates a great variety of residues, with bagasse being the main solid residue produced. The improper disposal of this material represents an environmental problem and could be avoided by using this residue as a raw material to obtain biodegradable products. The bagasse produced during the process to obtain starch from cassava was used to prepare composites for disposable trays. Samples of the composites were impregnated with cassava starch acetate at atmospheric pressure and under vacuum condition. Moisture isotherms were determined and adjusted by GAB model. It was observed that the impregnation promoted an important decrease in sample higroscopicity, mainly at high relative humidities. These results suggest that starch acetate impregnation can be an alternative to water proofing biological materials like the composites obtained in this work. KEYWORDS: Cassava; bagasse; starch acetate; impregnation; isotherms.

  18. Enhanced enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis by subcritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongdan; Wu, Shubin

    2014-04-01

    Most biomass pretreatment processes for sugar production are run at low-solid concentration (carbon dioxide (CO2) could provide a more sustainable pretreatment medium while using relative high-solid contents (15 wt.%). The effects of subcritical CO2 pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse to the solid and glucan recoveries at different pretreatment conditions were investigated. Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis at different hydrolysis time was applied to obtain maximal glucose yield, which can be used for ethanol fermentation. The maximum glucose yield in enzyme hydrolyzate reached 38.5 g based on 100g raw material after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, representing 93.0% glucose in sugarcane bagasse. The enhanced digestibilities of subcritical CO2 pretreated sugarcane bagasse were due to the removal of hemicellulose, which were confirmed by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of starting up anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrate: fique's bagasse as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Mabel; Castro, Liliana; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Carolina; Escalante, Humberto

    2012-03-01

    In Colombia there are 20,000 ha of fique fields (Furcraea sp., family Agavaceae), that produce around 93,400 tons of fique's bagasse per year. These residuals are disposed into rivers and soil causing pollution. According to physicochemical characteristics, the lignocellulosic residues from fique crops (fique's bagasse) are appropriate carbon source to biogas production. Anaerobic digestion from fique's Bagasse (FB) requires a specialized microbial consortium capable of degrading its high lignocellulosic concentration. In this study, the capacities of seven microbial consortia for biomethane potential (BMP) from FB were evaluated. Inoculum of ruminal liquid achieved high hydrolytic activity (0.068 g COD/g VSS day), whereas pig waste sludge inoculum showed high methanogenic activity (0.146 g COD/g VSS day). Mixtures of these two inoculums (RL+PWS) showed the best yields for biomethane potential (0.3 m(3) CH4/Kg VS ad). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...