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Sample records for candy

  1. ARCA DWARAPALA PADA CANDI-CANDI BUDDHA DI JAWA TENGAH

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    Sri Wahyu Sarjanawati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Temple as a product of the culture of Hindu-Buddhist period is the building that describes the concept of cosmogony and a replica of Mount Mahameru the place of the gods. Dwarapala statue is one of the guards in almost Javanese temple. The existence of this statue in the temple (depiction microcosm has a meaning. Problems which will be solved, namely: (1 where the statue Dwarapala placed in the temple Plaosan and the temple Sewu (2 how is the depiction of Dwarapala statues in the temple Palosan and the temple Sewu? Gana figure that became the object of the study were analyzed with hermeneutical analysis. Hermeneutical analysis of the statue Dwarapala can only be done if the information about these statues is known. From the results of research and discussion can be seen that the meaning of the statue at Buddhist temple Dwarapala not be separated from the concept of cosmogony. Portrayal system was adapted to the function of these statues at the temple. So it can be said that the statues have meaning that Dwarapala is a portrayal of religious situation in the Hindu-Buddhist and the symbol of the world above (heaven. The placement of temple statues Dwarapala complement cosmogony concept representations, thus building meaning of worship into a whole. Keywords:  Dwarapala, temple, hermeneutic   Candi sebagai produk dari budaya masa Hindu-Buddha adalah bangunan yang menggambarkan konsep kosmogoni dan replika Gunung Mahameru tempat para dewa. Patung Dwarapala adalah salah satu penjaga di kuil hampir Jawa. Keberadaan patung ini di candi (mikrokosmos penggambaran memiliki arti. Masalah yang akan dipecahkan, yaitu: (1 bagaimana patung Dwarapala ditempatkan di candi Plaosan dan candi Sewu (2 bagaimana penggambaran patung Dwarapala di candi Palosan dan candi Sewu? Gana sosok yang menjadi objek penelitian dianalisis dengan analisis hermeneutis. Analisis hermeneutis patung Dwarapala hanya dapat dilakukan jika informasi tentang patung-patung ini dikenal

  2. The Last of the Candy Men——Masters of Blown Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanYe

    2004-01-01

    THEY boil sugar and water until it thickens,take a dollop and knead it into a hollow ellipsoid.One end has a long tail with a pinhole into which they blow,turning it around so as to fashion it into the required shape.Within one minute the raw candy is transformed into an animal.This is the carft of candy-blowing;its masters are called candy men.

  3. Erosive Potential of Commercially Available Candies

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    Maghata Lazzaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure the acidity of commercially available candies. Material and Methods: Tic Tac® candies with the following flavors were selected: mint, orange, extra-strong, cinnamon, strawberry, cherry/passion fruit, acquired in supermarkets. Candies were triturated and from the resulting powder, 3 samples of 5 grams were separated and dissolved in 10ml of doubly deionized water. This process has allowed reading pH in triplicate, measured with the aid of an in vitro combined potentiometer and electrode, previously gauged with pH 4 and 7 with standard solutions before reading. In candies with pH values under 5.5.pH, tritatable acidity was verified. Three 15-gram candy powder samples were separately dissolved in 30 ml of doubly deionized water. In this solution, aliquots of 100 μl 1N NaOH were added to reach pH 5.5. Mineral water was used as control. The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The comparisons of means were carried out by the Tukey test at 5% significance level (p<0.05. Results: Only orange (pH 2.17, cherry/passion fruit (pH 2,26 and strawberry flavors (pH 2.46 have shown pH values under the critical point for enamel dissolution, significantly diverging from control and the other flavors. The volume of 1N NaOH used to raise the pH to 5.5 ranged from 2,000 to 2,800 μl, and the strawberry flavor has presented the highest tritatable acidity, significantly differing from the others. Conclusion: Candies of orange, cherry/passion fruit and strawberry flavors presented erosive potential and their frequent consumption can contribute to the development of dental erosion.

  4. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteer

  5. Dental fracture and chocolate candies: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle; Ramos, Dalton Luiz de Paula; Bombana, Antônio Carlos; Dias, Paulo Eduardo Miamoto

    2013-05-01

    A complaint by a customer to a food company claimed that the consumption of a chocolate candy fractured his anterior teeth, due to its hard consistency. Fragments of the fractured teeth and the chocolate candy that supposedly caused it were collected, examined and photographed. Fragments presented caries, large restorations, and suggested previous endodontic treatment. To evaluate causation, the food company requested a laboratory analysis, which simulated the human bite on chocolate candies of the same brand. Human teeth were assembled in a simulating device of masticatory functions of apprehension and incision. Teeth used were either sound or with non-restored endodontic accesses, to simulate previous conditions of the collected fragments. Twenty chocolate candies, cooled in a freezer to 0 °C for 2 h were used as test foods, and were positioned between the teeth of the device at the moment of the test. The set was put in a dynamometer, programmed to apply increasing forces (rate of advance of 5 mm/min), until rupture (either of the specimen or of the teeth). The applied force, in N, at the time of fracture was recorded and analyzed. The average force to fracture the test food was 233.23 N. No tooth was fractured in the experiment. Forces ranging from 191.3 to 275.2 N, applied to chocolate candies were not sufficient to neither fracture human teeth nor cause any structural damage. It was concluded that the dental fracture occurred because of previous oral health conditions of the customer.

  6. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

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    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  7. The Candy Project: the re-enchantment of candy in a liquid world

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    Iñaki MARTINEZ DE ALBENIZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption has become an extremely serious problem, especially since its incorporation into every type of food not only those considered to be sweet culturally. This is not exclusively a health problem but also a gastronomic one, since this “invisible sugar” is perceptible by the stomach but not by the senses. Sugar’s ubiquity has led to its demonization. The consumption of candy has been one of the victims of this process. A social image of “empty calories”, or food without nutrients, has been built up around it. In this article I want to emphasize what this “medicalized” image of candy leaves out: the social, imaginary, nutritional and gastronomic potentialities of this form of alimentation. It is true that since sugar became invisible we have no understanding of its power. But by focusing solely on negative aspects we overlook the potentiality of candy as, amongst other things, vehicles for nutritional socialization and education in taste. Redeeming candy thus involves changing the social imaginaries associated with it. This new imaginary is largely emerging in the field of internet and the new technologies.

  8. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  9. Polio Comes Home: Pleasure and Paralysis in Candy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawash, Samira

    2010-01-01

    The Candy Land board game has been in production since 1949 and remains one of the best-known and biggest-selling children's board games of all time. Beginning with the fiftieth-anniversary edition in 1998, Hasbro Inc. has promoted the story of how a retired schoolteacher named Eleanor Abbott came to invent Candy Land while recuperating in a polio…

  10. The erosive potential of jawbreakers, a type of hard candy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Gambon, D.L.; van Dop, L.F.; van Liere, L.E.; Veerman, E.C.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:  To explore the consumption pattern of a specific type of acidic solid candy, the so-called jawbreakers, by primary school children and determine the erosive potential of this type of candy in vivo. Methods:  A questionnaire about jawbreaker consumption was distributed among 10-12 year-o

  11. Sticky physics of joy: On the dissolution of spherical candies

    CERN Document Server

    Windisch, Andreas; Popescu, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Assuming a constant mass-decrease per unit-surface and -time we provide a very simplistic model for the dissolution process of spherical candies. The aim is to investigate the quantitative behavior of the dissolution process throughout the act of eating the candy. In our model we do not take any microscopic mechanism of the dissolution process into account, but rather provide an estimate which is based on easy-to-follow calculations. Having obtained a description based on this calculation, we confirm the assumed behavior by providing experimental data of the dissolution process. Besides a deviation from our prediction caused by the production process of the candies below a diameter of 2 mm, we find good agreement with our model-based expectations. Serious questions on the optimal strategy of enjoying a candy will be addressed, like whether it is wise to split the candy by breaking it with the teeth or not.

  12. Candy and the brain: neural response to candy gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luking, Katherine R; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-09-01

    Incentive processing is a critical component of a host of cognitive processes, including attention, motivation, and learning. Neuroimaging studies have clarified the neural systems underlying processing of primary and secondary rewards in adults. However, current reward paradigms have hindered comparisons across these reward types as well as between age groups. To address methodological issues regarding the timing of incentive delivery (during scan vs. postscan) and the age-appropriateness of the incentive type, we utilized fMRI and a modified version of a card-guessing game (CGG), in which candy pieces delivered postscan served as the reinforcer, to investigate neural responses to incentives. Healthy young adults 22-26 years of age won and lost large and small amounts of candy on the basis of their ability to guess the number on a mystery card. BOLD activity was compared following candy gain (large/small), loss (large/small), and neutral feedback. During candy gains, adults recruited regions typically involved in response to monetary and other rewards, such as the caudate, putamen, and orbitofrontal cortex. During losses, they displayed greater deactivation in the hippocampus than in response to neutral and gain feedback. Additionally, individual-difference analyses suggested a negative relationship between reward sensitivity (assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales) and the difference between high- and low-magnitude losses in the caudate and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Also within the striatum, greater punishment sensitivity was positively related to the difference in activity following high as compared to low gains. Overall, these results show strong overlap with those from previous monetary versions of the CGG and provide a baseline for future work with developmental populations.

  13. EXERGY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCTION LINE CANDIED FRUIT

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    V. D. Dem'шanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The task of exergy analysis - evaluation based on the second law of thermodynamics, thermodynamic degree of technical perfection of the whole system, as well as to identify those stages of a technical process, which contains the bulk of the loss of exergy in order to improve its efficiency. Using exergy analysis allows to solve a wide range of technical problems on the basis of a unified thermodynamic methods. Exergy analysis was performed by the method whereby thermotechnological system candied fruit production, conventionally separated from the environment of the closed control surface. Exchange scheme under consideration thermotechnological candied fruit production material, thermal and energy flows to the environment, as well as between the control surfaces. Exergy in external input material streams: air and water and citric acid, as well as output streams without having increment Shih-exergy in the process of passing through the reference surface - of running air-water and after washing, are in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surroundings is zero. In the total number of internal exergy losses include losses from the final result of the temperature difference in the heat exchange between the raw material to be dried and heated air electromechanical arising from irreversible alteration of structural and mechanical properties of the product, and the hydraulic loss due to the sudden increase of the specific volume of air as it enters the working chamber dryer. The resulting exergy efficiency is 8.87 %, which is 3.7 % higher than when using the technology of the prototype based on solar air-dried product. This indicates an increase in the degree of perfection of the thermodynamic system by using microwave heating of the product in combination with the removal of moisture in the atmosphere low temperature coolant, which precludes significant outside exergy loss on drying step.

  14. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

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    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction.

  15. [Anti-Candida activity of aroma candy and its protective activity against murine oral candidiasis].

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    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Sato, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A daily eatable candy that has possible protective activity against oral candidiasis was experimentally produced. The candy was made from reduced-maltose as main constituent and from several natural products, such as oligonol (depolymerized polyphenols derived from lychee), cinnamon (cassia), citral, and capric acid, which are known to have anti-Candida activity in vitro and in vivo. The candy effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans, even when it was diluted 1,000 times with culture media. We assessed the protective activity of the candy against murine candidiasis. When 50μl of candy dissolved and diluted 4 times with water was administered 3 times into the oral cavity of Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the Candida-infected tongues improved on day 2. These findings suggest that this candy has potential as food that provides protective activity against oral candidiasis.

  16. Erosive potential of calcium-modified acidic candies in irradiated dry mouth patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    candies, while their whole saliva was collected into a closed system. The erosive potential of both candies was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and by dissolution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) directly in candy-stimulated saliva. The results were compared to normative......PURPOSE: Patients who have received irradiation therapy on the head and neck area are known to suffer from reduced saliva flow and may therefore use acidic candies to relieve symptoms of dry mouth. However, such acidic candies have erosive potential even among healthy individuals. Therefore......, the aim of the present study was to determine if calcium-modified acidic candies have reduced erosive potential in irradiated cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen cancer patients (26 to 70 years) ipsilaterally irradiated on the head and neck area sucked control and calcium-modified acidic...

  17. Sensory and textural characterization of citrus and pineapple fruits candied with healthy components

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Alice; Sobreira, Carla; S. Abraão, Ana; M. Lemos, André; M Nunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Production of low-calorie candied fruits was investigated by substituting sucrose with fructose, maltitol, sorbitol and actilight. Quality of candied fruits was evaluated with respect to yields obtained for the fruit candied process, chemical composition, microbial growth, rheological characteristics, color, and sensory attributes. The sensory attributes investigated were influenced by the osmotic agent used. Each of the different OD agents significantly influenced the taste and/or texture...

  18. APLIKASI METODE GEOMAGNETIK UNTUK MEMETAKAN SITUS ARKEOLOGI CANDI BADUT MALANG JAWA TIMUR

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    Dina Wulan Kencana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arkeologi mengarahkan kajian pada benda-benda peninggalan manusia yang bersifat material dan berhubungan dengan periode paling kuno dalam sejarah umat manusia. Candi badut merupakan peralihan gaya bangunan klasik dari Jawa tengah ke Jawa timur. Awal mulanya hanya berupa gundukan batu, reruntuhan dan tanah. Sehingga diperlukan metode geomagnetic untuk mengetahui struktur dan posisi arkeologi Candi Badut. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat magnetometer jenis proton procession magnetometer (PPM selama satu hari dengan luasan daerah 3025 m2, serta titik pengukuran dibuat dengan jarak 2.5 m sehingga menghasilkan 418 titik pengukuran. Interpretasi dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan menggunakan software surfer 10, magpick dan mag2dc. Hasil penelitian untuk interpretasi kualitatif diperoleh peta kontur anomali residual magnetik memiliki variasi nilai anomali antara -1000 nT - 800 nT. Kemungkinan nilai anomali tinggi diduga adalah candi induk dan pondasi pagar candi yang berada disebelah barat candi induk. Candi induk dan pagar candi terbuat dari batuan andesit. Untuk hasil interpretasi kuantitatif pada irisan AB didapatkan nilai suseptibilitas 0,613 pada batuan candi induk dengan kedalaman 3 m dan nilai suseptibilitas 0,23 pada pondasi pagar sebelah barat candi induk pada kedalaman 2 m.

  19. 75 FR 32802 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES... Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel ROSS CANDIES as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c... Title 33, Code of Federal Regulation, part 81, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel...

  20. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

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    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  1. Sweet promises: Candy advertising to children and implications for industry self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; LoDolce, Megan; Dembek, Cathryn; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2015-12-01

    Candy advertising illustrates limitations of the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) self-regulatory program to improve food marketing to children. Participating companies pledge to not advertise candy in child-directed media. Yet independent analyses show that children viewed 65% more candy ads on U.S. television in 2011 than in 2007, before CFBAI implementation. The present research corroborates these findings, characterizes the increase, and examines how CFBAI-participating and non-participating companies use child-targeted techniques and media placement to advertise candy on U.S. television. Content analysis identified child-targeted messages and techniques in 2011 television candy ads, and Nielsen data (2008-2011) quantified candy advertising viewed on children's and other types of television programming. Differences between brands according to CFBAI status and use of child-targeted techniques in ads are evaluated. Data were obtained and analyzed in 2013. CFBAI-company non-approved brands represented 65% of candy ads viewed by children in 2011, up from 45% in 2008, and 77% of these ads contained child-targeted techniques. Although CFBAI companies only placed ads for approved brands on children's networks, 31% of ads viewed by children for CFBAI non-approved brands appeared on networks with higher-than-average youth audiences. CFBAI non-participating companies placed child-targeted candy ads primarily on children's networks. Despite CFBAI pledges, companies continue to advertise candy during programming with large youth audiences utilizing techniques that appeal to children. Both increased CFBAI participation and a more effective definition of "child-directed advertising" are required to reduce children's exposure to targeted advertising for foods that can harm their health.

  2. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE CANDIED FRUITS FROM NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Belenkaya; Ya. A. Golinskaya

    2016-01-01

    The article analyses the candied fruit market in Ukraine and describes the main technological operations pertainingto processing of non-traditional candied products – celery and parsnip roots. Darkening of the roots surface caused bythe enzyme oxidation is one of the problems arising when processing white roots, which leads to worse marketable conditionof the product. To prevent darkening, the developed technology provides for soaking raw material in 1% citric acid solutionimmediately after p...

  3. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  4. The effect of Breezy candy on halitosis: a double-blind, controlled, and randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Shlomo; Katz, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Halitosis (bad breath) is a common condition that is socially crippling for vast parts of the population and results from malodorous volatile sulfur compounds, which are by-products of oral bacteria. In this doubled-blind, randomized study, 75 subjects with halitosis were evaluated. The participants were treated with or without abrasive microcapsules (candy) containing zinc gluconate 0.5%, propolis 2%, and a combination of both (zinc 0.25% and propolis 1%). The halitosis was assessed by a Halimeter, a portable instrument that measures the emission of volatile sulfur compounds at different time exposures to the treatments. Breezy candy (which is sugar-free) was found effective in the treatment of halitosis for up to 4 hours. While treatment with regular candy (group 1, traditional candy without abrasive particles) showed reduction in malodor of 10%, Breezy candy showed reduction of up to 60% in malodor (P halitosis. The combined effect of abrasion by microcapsules with zinc supplement represents a novel and successful approach for the treatment of halitosis.

  5. Determination of Toxic Metals in Different Brand of Chocolates and Candies, Marketed in Pakistan

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    Nusrat Jalbani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni and lead (Pb were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration, for comparative purpose to obtain results within the 95% confidence level. No significant differences were observed for TMs obtained from both methods (P = 0.05. The concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were observed in chocolates and candy samples is ranged as of 0.099 - 0.353, 1.45 - 4.33 and 1.11 - 2.48 µg/g, respectively. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of TMs than milk- based chocolates and candies.

  6. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

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    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 2009. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 55-61. The aims of the research were to study the effects of sugar syrup concentration on dried candy tomato characteristics and to determine the proper sugar solution concentration that gives the best characteristics of dry candy tomatoes. The research used Randomized Block Design Method with four treatments and six times repetitions. The treatment that be used was immersing the tomato in sugar solution, with concentration of A (40%, B (50%, C (60%, and D (70% group in 18 hours. The variables measured were water content, ash, vitamin C and organoleptic tests include flavor, color, flavor and texture test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that sugar solution concentration had different effect on water content, ash content, vitamin C content, texture, and organoleptic test for colour, taste, and flavor of the dry candy tomato. The best characteristics of dry tomato candy was obtained on A (40% group, with water content of 24.20%, ash content of 0.62%, and vitamin C content of 31.15 mg/100 g. Standar quality of water content for dry fruit candy was maximal 25% (SII No.0718-2003 and maximal allowed ash content for food materials was 1.0% (SII 0272.90. Vitamin C content was not much decreased compared with ripe tomato i.e. 30-40 mg/100. Organoleptic tets result indicated that A (40% group get the highest score, i.e. 3,98 for taste, 3,89 for flavor, and 3,98 for colour.

  7. Composition Analysis of Ancient Bricks, Candi Bukit Kechil, Bujang Valley, Kedah

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    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candi Bukit Kechil or Bukit Kechil Temple is one of the temples in Bujang Valley that was built on a hill apart from Candi Bukit Pendiat (Site 17, Candi Bukit Meriam (Site 26, Candi Bukit Penjara (Site 25 and Candi Bukit Gajah Mati (Site 7. On the whole, this temple was made from bricks and based on the north-south orientation and the construction of the lotus-like structure, it is believed that this temple is of Buddhist religion and was built between 9th to 10th century AD. Based on GPS reading, the temple’s location is N5 37.129 E100 27.324. Analysis on the bricks of the temple was performed to determine whether the bricks used local raw material or otherwise, as well as to find out the physical condition of the bricks, particularly their burning method. As such, two analysis techniques were conducted, namely the X-Ray Diffraction and the X-Ray Fluorescence method that respectively determined the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major and trace element content of the bricks. Analysis shows that the minerals contained in the brick samples of Candi Bukit Kechil comprise of quartz, muscovite, albite and kaolinite. The presence of the kaolinite mineral shows that there are bricks that were baked at temperatures less than 550°C and this shows that open burning was used. The analyses of major and trace element content show that the raw material used are local raw material and the sources of the raw material were obtained from the area of the Bujang River basin and the areas around Mukim Merbok and Mukim Bujang.

  8. 成熟的意大利糖果市场%The mature Italian candy market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵声群

    2005-01-01

    According to the investigation of DATAMONITOR, the Italian candy production market has been developed to the very mature phase, though the whole economic scale is still considerable, the consuming level of the candy production is still on the comparatively low status。

  9. A New Glow on the Chromatography of M&M Candies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwhistell, Kurt R.; Spence, Thomas G.

    2002-07-01

    This lab experiment for undergraduate or high school students presents the separation and analysis of dyes in the candy shell of M&M chocolate candies. The dyes in the shells of M&Ms are separated using paper chromatography and are identified by comparison of the Rf values, color, and fluorescence properties with those of standard FD&C ([U.S. Federal] Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act) dyes. The experiment introduces students to chromatography of mixtures, compound identification by using Rf values, and fluorescence. They learn about fluorescence and how it appears in everyday substances and can be used to help identify compounds.

  10. Evaluating the cooking process for obtaining hard candy from araza (Eugenia stipitata) pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rodríguez Sandoval; Patricia Bastidas Garzón

    2010-01-01

    This work was aimed at preparing hard candy from arazá (a fruit tree from the Amazon rainforest) using a sugar solution consis- ting of glucose syrup and invert sugar; this was cooked with fruit pulp to concentrate it. Temperature, time, soluble solids and vis- cosity were measured when cooking the mixture. Heat transfer was studied in an agitated steam jacketed kettle using the expe- rimental data. The best arazá hard candy formulation consisted of 15% fruit pulp, 2% pectin regarding the ...

  11. PENGHAMBATAN CAJUPUTS CANDY TERHADAP VIABILITAS KHAMIR Candida albicans SECARA IN VITRO [Inhibition of Cajuputs Candy Toward the Viability of Candida albicans by using In Vitro Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hanny Wijaya1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of cajuput essential oil as a flavor in candy may produce a physiological active added value. Some compounds of cajuput plant (Melaleuca cajuputi L have been reported for their anti-microbial activities. Candida albicans is a normal commensal organism in human mouth. However, it may become virulent and responsible for oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of cajuput and peppermint oil in cajuputs candy in inhibiting the C. albicans biofilms formation by using in vitro biofilm assay and viability assay. Furthermore, the influence of concentration of cajuput oil on the anti-microbial activities had been analyzed. All the tested concentration of cajuput oil in cajuputs candy was effective to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The provision of flavor components of cajuput and peppermint oil could produce synergistic effects compared to a single flavor component. The addition of cajuput oil at 0.6% was able to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The activities of the cajuput oil showed positive correlation to the concentration. The variable of plus and minus 0.1% addition of the cajuput oil concentration, however, produced no significant difference to inhibit the growth of C. albicans in biofilm. Sensory test, hedonic test, was conducted to evaluate the flavor, aroma, and overall attributes, resulting in no significant difference between 0.6 to 0.8% additions of cajuput oil upon the sensory acceptance.

  12. The effects of processing on the nutritional composition and quality evaluation of candied celeriac

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Greta Krešić; Vesna Lelas; Borislav Šimundić

    2004-02-01

    In this work, a new candying procedure with partial re-use of sugar syrup is proposed. Physicochemical analysis, together with sensory evaluation, of candied celeriac samples was done. Candying was performed in a pilot unit at 65° C, through three cycles of 5 hours duration each. Sugar syrups of 75° Brix were used. Effects of 1% (m/v) citric and 1% (m/v) ascorbic acid addition, as well as the drying of candied celeriac (60° C for 8 h) were studied. Sugar syrup deterioration was estimated by the concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural. The results obtained showed that there were no significant $(P \\le 0.01)$ differences in total dry matter and total sugar content between samples, while the increases after drying were significant $(P \\ge 0.01)$. Differences were observed in sugar compositions between samples. After three cycles, samples turned lighter, with decreased $L^\\ast$ values after drying. The celeriac from the first cycle of the ascorbic acid addition procedure was adjudged best with respect to all quality parameters. The decreased concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural confirmed that re-use of sugar syrup is possible.

  13. [Development of a gummy candy reduced in calories by sugar substitution with Stevia rebaudiana B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Tamayo-Dzul, Óscar; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Segura-Campos, Maira; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-09-12

    The consumption of gummy candy is widespread among people of different ages but mainly by children. The formulation of this product requires sugar that contributes to their flavor and consistency, but with the undesirable effect of increase its glycemic index and its calories from simple sugars; it is known that consumption of products with these last two characteristics are related to childhood obesity, which is a worldwide growing disease. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with high sweetening power and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this work was to develop a gummy candy reduced in calories by replacing sugar with Stevia rebaudiana B., and analyzes its texture and acceptability. Gummy candy were prepared with different percentage of sugar reduction (-20, -40, -60, -80 and -100%) and a product control (100% sugar); gummy elasticity was assess by displacement and maximum deformation, whereas resistance was evaluated by breaking strength; those gummies with better elasticity and resistance parameters underwent proximate analysis and sensory evaluations with a unstructured scale applied to 90 school children aged between 6 and 10 years old. A gummy candy reduced in calories with 60% sugar substitution with S. rebaudiana was developed; the level of satisfaction in school children was statistically the same respect to the gummy made of 100% sugar (p <0.05).

  14. Investigation of aluminum content of imported candies and snack foods in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Candies, chewing gums, dried fruits, jellies, chocolate, and shredded squid pieces imported from 17 countries were surveyed for their aluminum content. The samples were bought from candy shops, supermarkets, and convenience stores, and through online shopping. Sample selection focused on imported candies and snacks. A total of 67 samples, including five chewing gums, seven dried fruits, 13 chocolates, two jellies, two dried squid pieces, and 38 candies, were analyzed. The content of aluminum was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES. The limit of quantitation for aluminum was 1.53 mg/kg. The content of aluminum ranged from not detected (ND to 828.9 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of aluminum in chewing gums, dried fruits, chocolate, jellies, dried squid pieces, and candies were 36.62 mg/kg, 300.06 mg/kg, 9.1 mg/kg, 2.3 mg/kg, 7.8 mg/kg, and 24.26 mg/kg, respectively. Some samples had relatively high aluminum content. The highest aluminum content of 828.9 mg/kg was found in dried papaya threads imported from Thailand. Candies imported from Thailand and Vietnam had aluminum contents of 265.7 mg/kg and 333.1 mg/kg, respectively. Exposure risk assessment based on data from the Taiwan National Food Consumption Database was employed to calculate the percent provisional tolerable weekly intake (%PTWI. The percent provisional tolerable weekly intake of aluminum for adults (19–50 years and children (3–6 years based on the consumption rate of the total population showed that candies and snacks did not contribute greatly to aluminum exposure. By contrast, in the exposure assessment based on the consumers-only consumption rate, the estimated values of weekly exposure to aluminum from dried papaya threads in adults (19–50 years and children (3–6 years were 4.18 mg/kg body weight (bw/wk and 7.93 mg/kg bw/wk, respectively, for 50th percentile consumers, and 6.26 mg/kg bw/wk and 12.88 mg/kg bw

  15. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy <1 per month, those who ate this amount 1 per month to <1 per week, 1 per week to < 3 per week and ≥3 per week showed greater three-year prospective weight gains (kg) of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.85), 0.95 (0.84, 1.06) and 1.40 (1.27, 1.53), respectively, (p for linear trend<0.0001). Each additional 1 oz/day was associated with a greater three-year weight gain (kg) of 0.92 (0.80, 1.05). The weight gain in each chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  16. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace-elements in candies marketed in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T., E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.m [Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Nuclear. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Lartigue, J. [Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Nuclear. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P. [National Institute of Nuclear Research. Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 05045 (Mexico); Navarrete, M. [Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Nuclear. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tejeda, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Research. Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 05045 (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    Trace metals concentrations in food are significant for nutrition, due either to their nature or toxicity. Sweets, including chewing gum and candies, are not exactly a food, but they usually are unwearied consumed by children, the most vulnerable age-group to any kind of metal contamination in the food chain. The presence of relatively high concentrations of heavy metals such as Lead elicits concern since children are highly susceptible to heavy metals poisoning. Trace-metals concentrations were determined for six different flavors of a Mexican candy by means of Total X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Triplicate samples of the various candy's flavours (strawberry, pineapple, lemon, blackberry, orange and chilli) were digested in 8 mL of a mix of supra-pure HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (6 mL: 2 mL) in a microwave oven MARS-X. Results show the presence of essential and toxic elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. All metal concentrations were higher and significantly different ({alpha} = 0.05) in chilli candy, compared to other candy flavours. Lead concentration fluctuated in the range of 0.102 to 0.342 {mu}g g{sup -1}. A discussion about risk consumption and concentration allowed by Mexican and International Norms is made. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a NIST standard of 'Citrus Leaves' and a blank were treated in the same way.

  17. Vene tuntumaid rokkbände Bi-2 tuleb Õllesummerile. Candy Dulfer annab Eestis kaks kontserti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Vene ansamblist Bi-2 (kontsert Õllesummeri festivali pealaval 5. juulil Tallinna Lauluväljakul). Kontserdist "Candy Dulfer & Friends" 8. juulil Pärnu Vallikäärus ja 9. juulil Estonia kontserdisaalis

  18. Candy Crush : hábitos de consumo de una App de éxito

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amb l'aparició dels smartphones han nascut fenòmens com Candy Crush Saga, que en poc temps va aconseguir milions de descarregues i molts seguidors fidels. ¿Com pot ser que un joc gratuït hagi generat tants diners? ¿Per què un joc tan senzill, amb una mecànica tan explotada anteriorment ha enganxat, de cop a milions de persones d’arreu del mon? Amb una investigació dels hàbits de consum de Candy Crush s'han intentat resoldre qüestions com quan i on prefereixen jugar, quin es el seu vincle amb ...

  19. Determination of Toxic Metals in Different Brand of Chocolates and Candies, Marketed in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat Jalbani; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Hassan I. Afridi; Mohammad Bilal Arain

    2009-01-01

    In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs) were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration,...

  20. Some theoretical and practical approaches to the production of candied fruit based on raw plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepochatykh Tetyana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with studying the impact of external physical factors on the acceleration of the process of candied fruit production. It is proved, that the diffusion of sugar syrup into raw plant carried in by capillary forces or the forces of wetting. The porosity of materials affects this process the most. To reduce cooking time is possible by artificial increasing the porosity of plant material or by the destruction of the cell membrane of the plant material.

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRODUCTION OF THE CANDIED FRUITS FROM NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Belenkaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the candied fruit market in Ukraine and describes the main technological operations pertainingto processing of non-traditional candied products – celery and parsnip roots. Darkening of the roots surface caused bythe enzyme oxidation is one of the problems arising when processing white roots, which leads to worse marketable conditionof the product. To prevent darkening, the developed technology provides for soaking raw material in 1% citric acid solutionimmediately after peeling. To improve the diffusion and osmotic processes and to soften roots before boiling in sugar syrup,the steam blanching has been applied. The constructed Gantt diagram proves that the developed technology can shorten thecandied fruit cooking period. The biochemical indicators of the obtained new products have been studied. It was establishedthat the candied fruit possess the appropriate physical and chemical indicators and original organoleptic properties resulting ina demand by consumers. The results of the taste evaluation of the experimental specimen confirmed a high quality of the products.

  2. Presence of Candy and Snack Food at Checkout in Chain Stores: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Kernan, William D; Menafro, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Community health professionals must use multiple strategies to address the rising rates of childhood obesity in the United States. One such strategy is to address the underlying causes of childhood obesity, including lack of exercise and the consumption of calorically-dense snack foods. This study examines the presence of candy and snack food in the checkout lines of all retail chain stores in a selected community to determine the presence of these products, the ways in which these products are promoted, and the type of physical environment through which customers navigate during the checkout process. The findings confirm that candy, soft drinks, snacks, and ice cream were present in a large majority of these retail stores. Further, this pilot study found that many of these stores "corral" customers through the check-out line in such a way that it is necessary to pass these snack foods directly. Three themes for discussion emerged from the review of the data collected, including product marketing, product packaging, and product placement. Implications for childhood health are presented in the context of these marketing strategies. The results and subsequent discussion provide important insight into the ways in which the presence of candy and snack food at checkout lines might contribute to childhood obesity rates.

  3. ANALISIS IMPLEMENTASI KURIKULUM TINGKAT SATUAN PENDIDIKAN (KTSP DI SEKOLAH DASAR NEGERI PISANG CANDI 1 MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Ani Setyo Dewi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a qualitative descriptive method. Data collection used in the research is observation, interviewing, and documentation. The focus of the research in collecting and analysing the data about the implementation of KTSP in The State Elementary School Pisang Candi 1 Malang .The data analysis states that the implementation of the curriculum is divided to two stages which are the implementation of school and class levels. Some supporting factors in the implementation of KTSP in The State Elementary School Pisang Candi 1 are the infrastructure of permanent buildings and good condition of the classrooms, the teachers who teach professionally with alot of teaching experiences and also the principal always gives moral support to the teachers which is motivation to increase the human resource. The preventing factors in the implementation in KTSP in The State Elementary School Pisang Candi 1 Malang are that the teachers are still lacking of understanding about KTSP and the minimum facility of the teaching media. And also the school committee which is lack of understanding in the development of KTSP.

  4. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  5. The Indication of Origin as a mechanism of differentiation: the case of Pelotas’ Candy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Pereira Peralta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industrial activities present their competitiveness of products based on cost reduction and the need for differentiation. One of the mechanisms of product differentiation is a Geographical Indication, which allows the applicant of its register, from a geographical designation, due to the reputation and fame of a particular product manufactured in this region. Producers of candies in the region of Pelotas have organized and obtained the register of Geographical Indication at the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI, but these producers are improving the process of use this mechanism as a competitive advantage.

  6. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Jelly Candy Made from Carrots and Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumers today want healthful foods that provide phytonutrients to promote good health and well-being without sacrificing taste, texture, or convenience. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is part of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, in order to diversification of jellies and promote healthy eating, it was intended to valorification a raw material such as carrots and strawberry. The aim of the study was to investigate potential use of some fruits or vegetables in jelly candies, by physicochemical analyses and general consumer’s acceptance. To achieve the proposed goal, two kinds of jellies (with carrots and strawberry was obtained.

  7. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC.

  8. Candy consumption in childhood is not predictive of weight, adiposity measures or cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are limited data available on the longitudinal relationship between candy consumption by children on weight and other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in young adults. The present study investigated whether candy consumption in children was predictive of weight and CVRF in young adults. A lo...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS OF CANDIED FRUITS ENRICHED WITH VITAMIN C BY DIFFERENT METHODS ON ITS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypchoł

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of storage conditions of candied fruits enriched with vitamin C on its concentration in that product. The materials were candied fruits (black chokeberry and black currant enriched with vitamin C by two methods during their production. The final products were stored within 3 months at 8 and 20°C. On the basis of the results it was stated that enrichment method affected the concentration of the vitamin C in fruits measured during storage period at the above conditions. doi:10.5219/55

  10. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049 and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132 participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods : Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results : In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001 and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001 than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p = 0.0337. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers. Conclusion

  11. 苦瓜凝胶糖果的研制%The Development of Momordica Charantia Gel Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向东; 刘迎宾; 李斌; 王锡彬

    2015-01-01

    Momordica charantia was processed as principal raw material to develope gel candy in the experiments.Through the L9(34) orthogonal test, the contents of momordica charantia juice, fructose-glucose syrup and colloid in candy product were determinated. The results showed that the optimal formula was 40 %momordica charantia juice,40%fructose-glucose syrup,13%Maltodextrin and 3.5%colloid and the optimal drying process was at 70 ℃ temperature for 6 h-8 h,by which the best taste, flavor and presentation of gel candy products could be provided.%以苦瓜为主要原料研制凝胶糖果,对苦瓜汁、果葡糖浆、凝胶剂的用量及最佳烘干条件等主要因素进行了研究,通过L9(34)正交试验确定了苦瓜凝胶糖果的配方。结果表明:苦瓜凝胶糖果的最佳配方为苦瓜汁40%、果葡糖浆40%、麦芽糊精13%、凝胶剂3.5%,最佳烘干条件为70℃下烘烤6 h~8 h,所得产品能达到最佳的口感、风味与外观。

  12. Effect of slice thickness and blanching time on different quality attributes of instant ginger candy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A; Deka, Bidyut C; Jha, A K; Paul, D; Misra, L K

    2013-02-01

    Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) suffers from weight loss, shrinkage, sprouting and rotting during storage after 3-4 weeks. This spoilage may be overcome by processing fresh produce to some value added products. An attempt was made to optimize the protocol for production of instant ginger candy. The experimental parameters considered were slice thickness (5.0-25.0 mm) and blanching duration (10-30 min) followed by dipping in 40°B and 75°B sugar solutions containing 2.0% citric acid respectively, for 1 and 2 h at 95 °C and dried at 60 °C for 1 h. RSM design was considered for this experiment and final products were evaluated for their textural properties, TSS, acidity, TSS: acid ratio, taste score and overall acceptability. The optimum product qualities in terms of hardness (2.08 kg), TSS (73.4%), acidity (1.31%), TSS: acid ratio (56.3), taste score (7.98) and overall acceptability (8.07) were obtained for slice thickness of 10.9 mm and blanching time of 24.9 min.

  13. Development of Fig Gel Candy%无花果凝胶软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶超; 刘毅

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of the best fudge recipe fig gel. Single factor experiment, with different proportions of agar, gelatin, preferably the best gel matrix;the basis of the above experiment, the gel matrix, white sugar, glucose and fig syrup addition level factors, three levels of design , the orthogonal test and the composite score. According to the Composite score, the optimum formula was gel matrix ∶White sugar ∶glucose ∶fig syrup =3 ∶ 35 ∶ 20 ∶ 10. Obtained based on the best recipe fig gel candy was soft, delicate tissue, smooth taste, retaining the unique flavor of the fig and the nutritional value, lay a foundation for the production.%  优选无花果凝胶软糖的最佳配方.采用单因素试验,用不同比例的琼脂、明胶,优选最佳凝胶基质;在上述试验基础上,以凝胶基质、白砂糖、葡萄糖和无花果浆的添加量为因素,设计三个水平,进行正交试验并综合评分.根据综合评分,得出最佳配方,即凝胶基质:白砂糖:葡萄糖:无花果浆=3∶35∶20∶10.根据最佳配方制得的无花果凝胶软糖质地柔软、组织细腻、口感滑润,保留了无花果特有的风味及营养价值,为进一步开发提供实验基础.

  14. Process of Low-sugar Candied Shaddock Peel%柚皮低糖果脯的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚壮和; 张立彦; 芮汉明

    2013-01-01

      The key processing technologies of low -sugar candied shaddock peel were studied by determining the changes in sensory and physicochemical indexes .The results showed that: after cooking for 5 min, the shaddock peel was candied by vacuum osmosis in concentration of 50% ~55% sugar solution containing equal amount of glu -cose and starch syrup and 0.5% of sodium alginate, and dried for 5 h at 50 ℃ or heated for 10min at 800W of mi-crowave power and then dried for 2 h at 50 ℃.The high quality candied shaddock peel with a transparent , plump appearance and dry, smooth surface could be obtained by aforementioned technologies .%  通过测定果脯的感官及理化指标的变化,研究了低糖柚皮果脯的关键制备工艺,包括预煮、糖液配方及浓度、渗糖方式及干燥条件。结果表明:柚皮经预煮5 min 后,采用由葡萄糖和淀粉糖浆等量配成的、含有0.5%海藻酸钠的浓度为50%~55%的糖液进行真空渗糖,然后在50℃下烘干5 h,或者微波功率800 W 下加热10 min,而后在50℃下烘干2 h 即得到透明饱满、表面干爽平整、品质佳的低糖柚皮果脯。

  15. PENERAPAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT SUATU EVALUASI MELALUI KARAKTERISTIK KERJA (Studi Kasus Pada Perusahaan Gula Candi Baru Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatane Semuel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present, management has transformed radically from traditional change into Total Quality Management (TQM which stresses on organizational excellences such as reliability, responsiveness, assurance, competency and human resources. This research is an evaluation of TQM application held by a sugar factory, Candi Baru Sidoarjo through its program namely Gugus Kendali Mutu (GKM It is program of TQM at which it serves as an approach to endeavor its workers to have perception at different stages about different qualities. In addition, this is based on an analysis of job satisfaction of the workers, which is focused on woek charecteristics such as skill variation, job description, autonomy and feedback. From the results, it is concluded that human recources (workers, equipments or instruments being used as well as available period of time has positive relationship, especially between job satisfaction and skill variation. Other indicators, such as work flow and work result which are evaluated by the workers themselves as well as by their co-workers, have positive relationship between job satisfaction and job description. Furthermore, cooperation among workers within the same division having different levels of position has positive relationship between job satisfaction and job significance. In general, GKM implication in endeavoring the workers has positive impact towards worker satisfaction in sugar factory like Candi Baru Sidoarjo. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Manajemen mengalami transformasi yang cukup radikal, yaitu perubahan dari model tradisional bergeser kepada Total Quality Management (TQM yang menuntut keunggulan organisasi seperti kecepatan, daya tanggap, kelincahan, pembelajaran, dan kompetensi karyawan. Penilitian ini merupakan suatu evaluasi penerapan program TQM yang dijalankan oleh Pabrik Gula (PG Candi Baru Sidoarjo melalui Gugus Kendali Mutu (GKM, yang merupa-kan suatu pendekatan dalam mewujudkan pemberdayaan karyawan, yang pada

  16. HACCP质量控制体系在工艺糖果生产中的应用%Application of HACCP quality control system in the candy production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林春滢

    2012-01-01

    探讨运用HACCP质量控制体系对工艺糖果的生产过程进行危害分析,确定关键控制点,对工艺硬糖、果胶糖的生产全过程进行有效监控,以有效确保产品的卫生质量安全,从根本上减少食品安全问题的发生。%The application of HACCP(hazard analysis critical control point)quality control system in the candy production covers the analysis of production hazard and determination of key control points.The production process of hard candy and pectine sugar was recorded and evaluated by the application of HACCP in order to secure the candy quality safety and lessen the problem of food insecurity.

  17. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine rec

  18. 金黄蜜枣包装改良设计探析%Analysis of the Improved Packaging Design of Golden Candied Dates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵全宜; 彭超

    2012-01-01

    Taking the improved packaging design of golden candied dates for instance, it analyzed the disadvantages of original packaging of the golden candied dates in the market competition, discussed the goods packaging was the interoperability bridge of goods and life. The packaging is no longer content merely to protect the commodity function, more importantly, that the landscaping products, promotional merchandise and promotional packaging design only to grasp the minds of consumers, to meet consumer demand, stimulate consumer desire to be able to stand out in afierce combat the goods. It summarized the improved elements of golden candied dates packaging, by virtue of the visual elements symbol to enhance the overall image of the golden candied dates packaging, and to analyze the main trends of the golden candied dates packaging.%以金黄蜜枣包装改良设计为例,分析了金黄蜜枣原包装在市场竞争中的劣势。论述了商品包装是商品与生活的互通桥梁,包装不再仅仅满足于保护商品的功能,更重要是在于美化商品、宣传商品和促销商品,提出了包装设计只有把握消费者的心理,满足消费者的需求,激发消费者的购买欲望,才能够在激烈的商品实战中脱颖而出。归纳出了金黄蜜枣包装的改良要素,论述了如何凭借视觉元素符号来提升金黄蜜枣包装整体形象,并分析了金黄蜜枣包装的主要发展方向。

  19. Economics of non-oil value chains in peanut: A case of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj Gurrappanaidu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the extent of value-addition, employment generating potential and economics of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India. In the low-capacity peanut-candy units, the value-addition at the end of Stage-I (pod to kernel was $ 2.4/q, whereas, it was $ 2.2/q in the high-capacity units. In salted-peanut units, the value-addition in the low- and high-capacity was $2.2/q and $2.3/q, respectively. In Stage-II (kernel to final product, the value-addition was high across sizes and type of the processing units. Around 525 and 635 man-days of employment/month/unit were generated by low and high-capacity peanut-candy units, respectively. The employment generation was less in salted-peanut vis-à-vis peanut-candy units due to different processing methods. The kernel alone constituted 50 to 52 per cent of the total cost in peanut-candy, and 89 per cent in salted-peanut units. The sensitivity analysis revealed that change in the kernel price directly affected the magnitude of profits. The important policy implications emerged were: if the units process the pods to obtain kernel (Stage-I instead of procuring kernels from the market, considerable value-addition can be made, kernel price directly affects the profits and hence an appropriate mechanism like ‘contract farming’ would stabilise the kernel prices, majority of the units retrench labour during off-peak period due to less demand and hence diversification in processing will generate sufficient employment to retain the existing skilled employees, and appropriate policy intervention is necessary to address the capital, technology and marketing constraints of the peanut processing units.

  20. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Curcuma longa L. Candy%姜黄硬糖的研制及其抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马诗经; 何燕; 黎永良; 黄博鑫; 招敏聪; 程书朋; 杜志云; 张焜

    2016-01-01

    以姜黄提取物为主要原料,用总姜黄素含量为质控指标.研究姜黄硬糖的工艺配方条件对硬糖品质的影响,通过单因素试验及正交试验方法确定硬糖的最佳配方为:姜黄提取物为1.5 g、晶体麦芽糖醇为50 g、异麦芽酮糖为35 g、木糖醇为15 g、柠檬酸为0.15 g,同时研究姜黄硬糖清除DPPH自由基的抗氧化能力,研制出低热量、具有保健功能的、香味适中、口感良好、风味独特的姜黄硬糖.%The extract of Curcuma longa L. was used as the major raw materials to develop Curcuma longa L. candy, and the formula and process study of Curcuma longa L. candy was carried out by single factor and or-thogonal experiment with the content of curcuminoids as main quality control index. The optimized proportion of Curcuma longa L. candy was the extract of Curcuma longa L. 1.5 g, maltose alcohol 50 g, isomaltulose 35 g, xylitol 15 g, citric acid 0.15g. The inhibitory rate of the candy on DPPH·was determined to further evaluate its antioxidant activity.Curcuma longa L. candy possess low calorie, with health care function and good taste.

  1. NGS tools for traceability in candies as high processed food products: Ion Torrent PGM versus conventional PCR-cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing methodologies are considered the next step within DNA-based methods and their applicability in different fields is being evaluated. Here, we tested the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in food traceability analyzing candies as a model of high processed foods, and compared the results with those obtained by PCR-cloning-sequencing (PCR-CS). The majority of samples exhibited consistency between methodologies, yielding more information and species per product from the PGM platform than PCR-CS. Significantly higher AT-content in sequences of the same species was also obtained from PGM. This together with some taxonomical discrepancies between methodologies suggest that the PGM platform is still pre-mature for its use in food traceability of complex highly processed products. It could be a good option for analysis of less complex food, saving time and cost per sample.

  2. PREPARATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE AS A CANDY BASED ANTHELMINTIC MEDICATED LOLLIPOPS FOR PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi Kamath

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminthiasis is prevalent globally, but is more common in developing countries with poorer personal and environmental hygiene, which is the major cause of undernourishment, anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia. The development of taste masking for bitter-tasting drugs administered orally for children has always been a formidable challenge for formulation scientists and this study reflects one of the contemporary advancements in the pediatric dosage forms. This study involves the preparation of candy based medicated lollipops of drug Levamisole, a synthetic imidathiazole derivative which acts by targeting the nematode nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor for pediatrics, by heating and congealing technique, using polymers like Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, Methyl cellulose, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and comparing with lollipops with no hydrocolloids. It was found that the formulation containing methyl cellulose showed better drug release and was more stable, unlike the other formulations.

  3. Usage of Local Raw Material in the Construction of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18, Bujang Valley, Kedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

  4. Analysis on Problems in Chinese Candy Industry Development%蜜饯产业发展中存在的问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳发; 胡菊英; 彭志兵; 肖霖; 叶辉; 彭志雄

    2012-01-01

    蜜饯是我国经典、特色且深受百姓喜爱的传统食品.然而,随着产业结构的调整、人们生活水平的提高以及饮食观念的改变,蜜饯产业的发展遭遇了瓶颈.针对近年来蜜饯产业发展中所遇到的问题,尤其是原料供应、生产过程中的质量控制、生产设备、人才力量以及产业升级等方面的问题,进行了详细的阐释,以期为今后蜜饯产业的发展方向以及相关法规政策的制定提供一定的参考.%Chinese Candy is a classical, characteristic and traditional food, which was very popular in Chinese folk. However, with the adjustment of the industrial structure, the rapid improvement of people s living standards, and the change of diet concept, now candy industry is suffering a bottleneck. The problems that appeared in the development of Chinese Candy industry were elaborated, such as problems in material supply, quality control, production equipment, personnel strength, industry upgrade, so as to provide a reference for the evolution and policy making of this industry.

  5. Efficacy of a supplemental candy coproduct as an alternative carbohydrate source to lactose on growth performance of newly weaned pigs in a commercial farm condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J Y; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-11-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of a supplemental candy coproduct (Chocolate Candy Feed [CCF]; International Ingredient Corp., St. Louis, MO), an alternative carbohydrate source to dietary lactose, on growth performance and on health status of nursery pigs. Crossbred pigs ( = 1,408; 21 d of age and 7.1 ± 0.3 kg BW; Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (16 pens/treatment and 22 pigs/pen) in a randomized complete block design: 0, 15, 30, and 45% of lactose replaced by CCF based on equal amounts of total sugars. The experimental period was divided into 3 phases: phase I (1.8 kg diet/pig for 11 ± 1 d), phase II (6.8 kg diet/pig for 17 ± 2 d), and phase III (until 49 d after weaning). Pigs received a common phase III diet. The levels of lactose, supplied by whey permeate (79.3 ± 0.8% lactose), were 20, 8, and 0% in phase I, II, and III, respectively. All experimental diets contained the same levels of essential AA and energy (ME) for each phase. Fecal scores were observed on d 5, 7, and 9 after weaning. Blood samples were taken at the end of phase I and II to measure blood urea N. The duration of phase I tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.063) with increasing CCF. In phase I, the ADFI increased ( lactose on growth performance of nursery pigs. Blood urea N did not change in phase I but tended to linearly increase ( = 0.088) in phase II as CCF increased. There were no differences in fecal scores and mortality as CCF increased. However, increasing CCF tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.083) morbidity, which implies no adverse effects of a candy coproduct replacement on health status of nursery pigs. In conclusion, a candy coproduct can be used to replace up to 45% of dietary lactose for nursery pigs without negative effects on growth performance or health status. A candy coproduct could be an economical alternative to partly replace the use of lactose in swine production.

  6. 紫淮山凝胶软糖的研制%Development of Purple Yam Gel Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 梁远毅; 许晓婷

    2014-01-01

    以新鲜紫淮山,白砂糖,葡萄糖为主要原料,通过对凝胶剂的复配及紫淮山软糖生产工艺的研究,得出制取紫淮山软糖的最佳配方为:紫淮山浆10%,凝胶剂5%(琼脂∶明胶=2∶1,质量比)白砂糖25%,葡萄糖10%;确定在50℃条件下干燥2 h后继续在45℃条件下干燥22 h,得到的紫淮山软糖质地柔软、组织细腻、口感滑润,保留了紫淮山特有的风味及营养价值。%Panocha was developed using fresh purple yam,white sugar and glucose as maimaterials,and gelata mix and the processing technology were studied in this paper.The best formula was purple yam slurry 10%,gel 5%(agar and gelatin than 2∶1),White sugar 25%glucose 10%;Determinating to dry for 2 h in 50℃conditions and dry for 22 h at the conditions of 45 ℃. The gel candy was soft,delicate tissue,smooth taste,retaining the unique flavor of the purple yam and the nutritional value.

  7. Identifying the Distribution of Alteration Zone Using Very Low Frequency Method in Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Semarang, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfianto, A. D.; Sari, D. P.; Almas, S. A.; Kurniawan, W. S.; Ambariani, S. G.; Suyanto, I.

    2016-09-01

    The alteration zone could be a key link and a proof to know where the paleo heat source was previously located. An electromagnetic survey to identify and to map the lateral and vertical distribution of alteration zone had been done at geothermal area Candi Gedong Songo, Ungaran, Central Java, from 9th - 19th of June 2014, using VLF method. The survey consisted of 6 profiles, with NW - SE direction, which were located nearby the fumaroles spots and then went down to the observed alteration zone. Each profile was 600 m long and the distance between each profile was 20 m. The space between each measurement point of a profile was 20 m. In this study, tilt and ellipticity data with frequency of 19.8 kHz (Japan) and 24 kHz (Panama) were used. First, the data was processed to get the cross features anomaly between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart. Then, the derivative fraser and the relative current density pseudosection were also made to support the cross features anomaly. The interpretation of this data was done qualitatively using fraser and relative current density pseudosection. The result shows that the alteration zone gives high response of conductivity compared to its surrounding area. This is supported by the anomaly cross features between tilt and ellipticity data on the chart, also by high value of fraser and relative current density. Thus, the alteration zone are located in meter 150 - 250 in V1 and V2 profiles, also in meter 180 - 250 in V5 and V6 profiles. This result indicates that the ancient heat source was previously located nearby the fumaroles area and it is physically shown by the presence of sulphuric clay mineral content at the alteration surface area.

  8. Scientific Studies of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19 Ancient Bricks: Knowledge of Old Kedah Community’s in Usage of Local Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19 are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19 is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material in addition to the usage of pillar bases made from granite stones and roof that are believed to have been made from wood and palm leafs. Relative dating proposed that this site was built between the 12th and 13 century AD. The architecture of the temple also indicates there was evolution toward the use of bricks that were smaller and of the same size as well as temple construction that revealed the lotus (padma and upaphita structures. This study focuses on the material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to produce this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce these bricks utilized local raw materials. Two analysis techniques were used, namely the X-Ray Fluorescence technique (XRF and the X-Ray Diffraction technique (XRD in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings of this study show that the major minerals found in the ancient bricks of the Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 19 are quartz, muscovite and microcline while other minerals that exist are leucite, mullite and geothite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open firing technique was used in producing these bricks. The major and trace element content also indicates that these bricks were produced from the same source and it is proposed that local raw materials were used in the production of the bricks. The involvement of the local community in producing the bricks should not be refuted, proving the Knowledge Transformation of the local community in Bujang Valley which had already started since the 4th century.

  9. PERHITUNGAN BIAYA RAWAT JALAN BERBASIS KINERJA DI PUSKESMAS GEDANGAN DAN PUSKESMAS CANDI KABUPATEN SIDOARJO (Kajian Isu Publik dalam Formulasi Kebijakan Kesehatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Budianto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: De-centralization urges was every area task force, including health sector was managed the monetary with  effective, efficient, transparante, accountable, and auditable. This fenomena was made primary health care unit (puskesmas need to fulfill consumers need. By ABC (Activity Based Costing method will more countable to accurate the cost from very activities. The research aims to identify the resource that need to count the primary health care program activity cost based on their activities and based on ABC. Method: The research design was descriptive with data compiled bycross-section and retorspective approach within taken from outpatient data. The data taken porpusif sampled with primary health care staf population that directed with care unit. The time for research undergo for 5 months on Gedangan and Candi Health Care Unit. Results: The result shows that the tariff cost after activity-based counted only Rp 7.782,00 for Gedangan Primary Health Care and Rp 8.071,00 for Candi, better than tariff with decision Sidoarjo district. The element cost or operational cost counted based on service activity improvement or patient visited at 1 years, historical methode to average vessel to crossing with tariff. The average riding animal in Gedangan Primary health care amount 14% and Candi Health care amount 11%. About annually without ABC methode was accounting realisted operational cousted. Recomendation: The research recommendation was need to a counting to treatment primary health care. Key words: ABC (Activity Based Costing, primary health care

  10. 低糖佛手瓜蜜饯加工技术研究%Study on Processing Technology of Low-Sugar-Content Candied Chayote

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽; 高月明; 杨君; 袁利鹏; 刘后伟; 李东梅

    2012-01-01

    In order to gratify various reqmrement ot market, utilize cnayotes nutritional vame, me processing technology and the optimum material formula of low-sugar-content candied chayote was studied. The final product was analyzed by sensory, chemical and microbiological inspection. Results showed that the candied chayote with golden color, special chayote flavor, and high safety was obtained by blanching for 30 s, hardening for 2 h with 0.2% CaC12, second candying for 25 min with 40% sugar solution, hot-air drying for 18 h at 50℃-60℃ with the material formula of chayote 73.6%, sugar 26.2%, citric acid 0.08%, vanillin 0.2 %.%为满足市场多样性需求,充分利用佛手瓜营养价值,研究了低糖佛手瓜蜜饯的加工工艺及原料配方,并进行产品感官、理化及微生物分析。结果表明,在烫漂30s,0.2%CaCl2硬化2h,40%糖液二次糖煮25rain,50℃-60℃热风干燥18h条件下,以73.6%佛手瓜,26.2%白砂糖,0.08%柠檬酸,0.2%香兰素为配方组成,可制得色泽金黄、质地柔软、甜而不腻、风味独特、卫生安全的低糖佛手瓜蜜饯。

  11. 酸解木薯淀粉及其软糖性能研究%Study on properties of acid hydrolysis cassava starch and its jelly candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范浩然; 熊柳; 孙庆杰

    2013-01-01

    The acid hydrolysis of cassava starches were prepared using cassava starch as material, treating starch with 6%HCl at 50℃for different durations(0 min,30 min,60 min,90 min). At the same time the acid hydrolysis of cassava starches were used to produce cassava starch jelly candy. The properties of the acid hydrolysis of cassava starch were investigated by determining the gelatinization and texture properties and assay the tensile properties and texture properties of the acid hydrolysis cassava starch jelly candy. The results showed that a significant decrease in starch viscosity and set back and an increase in hardness with increase in acid hydrolysis. The tensile properties of jelly candy with three different hydrolysis time all accord with industrial production index. The jelly candy with 60 min acid hydrolysis of cassava starch was better on hardness,adhesiveness,chewiness and resilience.%  以木薯淀粉为原料,在50℃下,用6%HCl对木薯淀粉进行不同时间(0 min、30 min、60 min、90 min)酸解改性,制备酸解木薯淀粉,并对酸解淀粉糊化特性和质构特性进行研究与分析;同时采用酸解木薯淀粉制备软糖,对制得酸解木薯淀粉软糖进行拉伸与质构分析.实验结果表明,随酸解时间增加;酸解木薯淀粉最低粘度、峰值粘度、回生值显著降低,淀粉凝胶硬度显著增加.3个不同水解时间木薯软糖拉伸率均符合工业生产指标,60 min酸解木薯淀粉制备软糖硬度适中,胶粘性、咀嚼性、回复性良好.

  12. A comparative research on determination of Vc content in gel candy%凝胶糖果中Vc含量检测方法比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克禄; 张金鹏; 郝景雯; 刘然

    2012-01-01

    采用2,4-二硝基苯肼比色法与高效液相色谱法检测凝胶糖果中Vc的含量,结果发现液相色谱法测定值略小于比色法测定值。%The contents of Vc in gelatinized candy were measured by 2.4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine(DNP) colorimetry and HPLC.Compared result showed the content of vitamin C achieved by HPLC method was a little lower than that of 2.4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine colorimetry.

  13. PEMBELAJARAN MELALUI BERNYANYI UNTUK MENSTIMULASI SIKAP DAN PERILAKU MUSIKAL ANAK PADA PUSAT UNGGULAN PAUD TAMAN BELIA CANDI SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwadi Purwadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bernyanyi adalah salah satu pendekatan yang digunakan dalam pembelajaran di PAUD. Hal itu juga yang diterapkan di Pusat Unggulan PAUD Taman Belia Candi Semarang. Penelitian ini mengungkap (1 proses pembelajaran melalui bernyanyi, (2 proses pembelajaran bernyanyi dalam menstimulasi sikap dan perilaku musikal anak, (3 proses pembelajaran bernyanyi dalam menstimulasi sikap dan perilaku sosial anak. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian Kualitatif, dengan hasil penelitian (1 proses pembelajaran melalui bernyanyi menggunakan dua konsep, yaitu belajar bernyanyi dan bernyanyi untuk pembelajaran, dengan cara sederhana yaitu menyanyikan lagu yang akan diajarkan, (2 musikalitas anak menjadi terstimulasi, dengan bernyanyi kemampuan dan kepekaan anak mengenal lagu menjadi lebih baik, (3 lirik lagu bisa digunakan untuk menstimulasi sikap dan perilaku sosial anak, dengan mengenalkan lagu bertema sosial, anak mengenal kalimat yang berupa nasihat yang ada pada lirik lagu. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa bernyanyi bisa digunakan sebagai salah satu metode pembelajaran yang efektif di PAUD, selain caranya sederhana dan menyenangkan, dengan bernyanyi anak bisa belajar banyak hal.Singing is one of the approaches  used in teaching learning process in Early Age Education for Children. This approach is also used  at PAUD Taman Belia. This research finds out: 1 Teaching learning process through singing, 2  the process of teaching learning of singing to stimulate musicality and social attitude & behavior of the students. This research is a qualitative research  with the outcomes as follows (1 the process of teaching learning through singing using two concepts; learning to sing and singing for  learning, using a simple way of singing the song to be taught, (2  musicality of  the children are being stimulated; by singing the ability and sensitivity of the students to get to know a song increase, (3 Lyrics of the songs can be used to stimulate social attitude & behavior of the

  14. Determination of 40 synthetic food colors in drinks and candies by high-performance liquid chromatography using a short column with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, N; Ichihashi, K

    2008-02-15

    Forty synthetic food colors were determined in drinks and candies by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The following food colors were analyzed within 19 min using a short analytical column (50 mm x 4.6 mm i.d., 1.8 microm) at 50 degrees C with gradient elution: Ponceau 6R, Tartrazine, Fast yellow AB, Amaranth, Indigotine, Naphthol yellow S, Chrysoine, Ponceau 4R, Sunset yellow FCF, Red 10B, Orange G, Acid violet 7, Brilliant black PN, Allura red AC, Yellow 2G, Red 2G, Uranine, Fast red E, Green S, Ponceau 2R, Azorubine, Orange I, Quinoline yellow, Martius yellow, Ponceau SX, Ponceau 3R, Fast green FCF, Eosine, Brilliant blue FCF, Orange II, Orange RN, Acid blue 1, Erythrosine, Amido black 10B, Acid red 52, Patent blue V, Acid green 9, Phloxine B, Benzyl violet 4B, and Rose bengal. The recoveries of these compounds added to soft drinks and candies at 5 microg/g ranged from 76.6 to 115.0%, and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) were within 6.0%. The limits of detection and the limits of quantitation were 0.03 and 0.1 microg/g, respectively.

  15. Study on Processing of Pectin Soft Candy being Made of Loquat Pomace%枇杷果渣制取果胶软糖的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方榕辉

    2013-01-01

      Loquat fruit pomace and Pectin were used as the main raw material to develop loquat pectin soft can⁃dy. The best combination of antioxidants was confirmed by comparison experiments. The optimal preparation pro⁃cessing of loquat pectin soft candy was explored by orthogonal experiments. The results showed that:0.1% Sodi⁃um metabisulphite and 0.15% sodium D-isoascorbate as pectin soft candy antioxidant;the gelling agent in 1.5%pectin;attached flavor formula were 35% Loquat pomace,65% sugar,0.3% Citric acid%  以枇杷果渣、高酯果胶为主要原料,研究枇杷果胶软糖的制取工艺条件。通过试验确定枇杷果胶软糖最佳抗氧化剂组合,采用正交试验设计枇杷果胶软糖产品配方。结果表明:0.1%焦亚硫酸钠和0.15%D-异抗坏血酸钠作为枇杷果胶软糖抗氧化剂;1.5%高酯果胶作为胶凝剂;最佳配方比例:35%枇杷渣、65%白砂糖、0.3%柠檬酸。

  16. Comparative Study of Candy Packaging Colors of China and Japan%中日糖果包装色彩比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开庆; 姚予婧

    2009-01-01

    日本的糖果包装色彩设计能将日本传统的灰色调运用其中,同时也能将鲜艳亮丽的色彩搭配得恰到好处.中国糖果包装在色彩运用和搭配上也受到民族传统的影响,与日本相比略有不足.通过对两国糖果包装色彩进行比较研究,找出两国文化的差异和消费者对包装色彩的不同喜好.%Japan's candy packaging color design can use traditional Japanese gray, also bright color matches can be made properly. The application of colors in candy packaging and colors matches in China were influenced by the national tradition and there was certain deficiency compared with that in Japan. The purpose was to find cultural differences and color preference of consumers between the two countries.

  17. X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Flourescence of Ancient Bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17, Bujang Valley, Kedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17 is one of the temple sites that used bricks as the main construction material and based on Global Positioning System, Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17 located at N5 41 43.4 E100 25 21.3. Apart from bricks, laterite stones were also used as the basis of the construction’s structure which is octagonal in shape that is a stupa. Based on relative dating of this site, it is proposed that it was built between the 7 to 9th centuries AD. At this site, bricks containing rice husks were also found. These rice husks were used as strengthening material or one of the rituals when building temples. This combine evidence shows that the Old Kedah Malay community had already practised the paddy cultivation system since the 7th century AD or earlier. This study will focus on material composition analysis of ancient bricks that were used to construct this temple of which the main purpose is to see whether the raw materials used to produce those bricks utilised local raw materials or not. This is because the usage of local raw materials was associated with brick making technology that was already mastered by the local community. Two analysis techniques will be used namely the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and the X-Ray Diffraction Technique (XRD in determining the content of the major and trace elements as well as the mineral content in the ancient bricks. The findings show that the major minerals contained in the ancient bricks of Candi bukit pendiat (Site 17 are quartz, muscovite and microline while the other minerals that exist are kaolinite. The mineral content and physical observation of the bricks indicate that the open burning technique was used to produce these bricks because of the presence of kaolinite in one of the samples (BP17 (xv. The kaolinite content shows that the samples were baked at a temperature less than 550˚C. The content of the major and trace elements also shows that these bricks were produced from the same source and

  18. Determination of Sudan I-IV in candy using ionic liquid/anionic surfactant aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Liu, Zhongling; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Yong

    2015-04-15

    Ionic liquid/anionic surfactant aqueous two-phase system was developed and applied for the extraction of Sudan I-IV. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of the analytes. The aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was formed in the present of C4[MIM]BF4, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate and (NH4)2SO4. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as volume of ionic liquid, amount of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, ionic strength, pH value of system, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection for Sudan I, II, III and IV were 5.45, 4.66, 3.68, 4.20 μg kg(-1), respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of candy samples, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 82.3% to 112.1% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.41%.

  19. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue.

  20. OPTIMASI DENGAN ALGORITMA RSM-CCD PADA EVAPORATOR VAKUM WATERJET DENGAN PENGENDALI SUHU FUZZY PADA PEMBUATAN PERMEN SUSU (RSM-CCD Algorithm for Optimizing Waterjet Vacuum Evaporator Using Fuzzy Temperature Control in The Milk Candy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hendrawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk candy is a product which has to be produced under a high temperature to achieve the caramelization process. The use of vacuum system during a food processing is one of the alternatives to engineer the value of a material’s boiling point. The temperature control system and the mixing speed in machine that produce the milk candy were expected to be able to prevent the formation of off-flavour in the final product. A smart control system based on fuzzy logic was applied in the temperature control within the double jacket vacuum evaporator machine that needs stable temperature in the cooking process. The objective of this research is developing vacuum evaporator for milk candy production using fuzzy temperature control. The result in machine and system planning showed that the process of milk candy production was going on well. The parameter optimization of water content and ash content purposed to acquire the temperature point parameter and mixing speed in milk candy production. The optimization method was response surface methodology (RSM, by using the model of central composite design (CCD. The optimization resulted 90.18oC for the temperature parameter and 512 RPM for the mixing speed, with the prediction about 4.69% of water content and 1.57% of ash content. Keywords: Optimization, vacuum evaporator, fuzzy, milk candy, response surface methodology ABSTRAK Permen susu merupakan salah satu produk yang diolah dengan suhu tinggi untuk mencapai proses karamelisasi. Pengolahan pangan dengan sistem vakum merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk merekayasa nilai titik didih suatu bahan. Sistem pengendalian suhu serta kecepatan pengadukan pada mesin produksi permen susu diharapkan dapat mencegah terbentuknya partikel hitam (off-flavour pada produk akhir. Sistem kontrol cerdas logika fuzzy diaplikasikan dalam pengendalian suhu pada mesin evaporator vakum double jacket yang membutuhkan tingkat stabilitas suhu pemasakan permen susu. Tujuan dari

  1. 糖果和饮料包装设计创新途径探析%Analysis of the Candy and Beverage Innovation Way of Packaging Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强

    2012-01-01

    以国内外的糖果和饮料品牌包装为例,分析了用感官设计、趣味设计的具体表现方法。论述了感官设计主要是通过色彩的表现力,刺激消费者的视觉、听觉、味觉的互动;趣味设计主要是包装形态在对事物的具象和抽象的仿生,又结合色彩和图形的巧妙设计达到生动有趣的效果。进一步强调了感官设计和趣味设计是包装设计创新的有效途径。%Taking the packaging of candy and beverage brand at home and abroad as example, it analyzed the specific expression method of sensory design and interesting design, discussed the sensory design was mainly through the color expressive force, to stimulate consumer visual, auditory, gustatory interaction; and interesting design was the main form of packaging for the concrete and abstract things in the bionic, and combination of color and graphic ingenious design achieve vivid interesting effect. It further emphasized the sensory design and interesting design were the effective way of packaging design innovation.

  2. THE PARTITION OF INDIA AND ITS REFLECTIONS IN KHUSHWANT SINGH’S TRAIN TO PAKISTAN AND BAPSI SIDHWA’S ICE CANDY MAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldipsinh D. Jadeja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Partition of Indian Sub-continent is one of the most terrible events in the history of the sub continent. The Sub-continent got freedom in 1947 along with its vivisection on the communal basis which leaves us puzzled weather the year 1947 is worthy to be remembered for the independence or for the massacre and atrocities during involuntary migration of a huge mass of people for their existence. Various writers have attempted to deal with the theme of Partition of Indian Sub-continent in their works. However, a kind of variations in the depiction of the historical events, differences in the   approaches to the truth and differences in the focus and attitude of the authors are quite natural. Even the treatment of the same event or incident may differ from author to author. The present paper aims at the comparative study of Khushwant Singh’s Train to Pakistan and Bapsi Sidhwa’s Ice Candy Man. Both the writers have witnessed the event themselves and tried to depict the terror of the conflict and the suffering of people during those days in their novels. Both the writers have got worldwide recognition for their treatment of the theme of partition in their novels. The present paper discusses the similarities and dissimilarities in the treatment of the same theme.

  3. Perfil da contaminação com aflatoxina entre embalagens de produtos de amendoim Afloxin contamination profile among packages of peanut candies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Micotti da Gloria

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o perfil da distribuição da contaminação com aflatoxinas entre embalagens constituintes de lotes de confeitos de amendoim, expostos à venda no comércio. Os dados da distribuição da ocorrência e dos níveis de contaminação, aqui obtidos, sugerem que os procedimentos de amostragem, visando à detecção de aflatoxinas em produtos processados, sempre estarão associando um grau de incerteza muito elevado quanto à presença ou não e quanto ao nível médio de contaminação de um lote de produto processado. Entretanto, para melhorá-los, devem-se considerar as diferenças existentes entre os produtos com relação ao processamento ou não dos grãos que constituem sua matéria-prima, pois, em lotes de produtos em que a matéria-prima foi triturada ou moída, como por exemplo, o doce de amendoim do tipo paçoca, a distribuição da ocorrência e dos níveis mostrou um grau bem mais elevado de homogeneidade, quando comparado ao amendoim japonês que mantém a integridade da matéria-prima durante o seu processo de fabricação.This study was carried out to evaluate the profile of aflatoxin contamination distribution among packages of peanut candies trading. Aflatoxin occurrence and distribution date from this study suggest that sampling plans to aflatoxin detection in processed products are always associated with high degree of uncertain of presence or not and of the true average level of contamination. To improve sampling plans it is necessary to consider the differences among product types. There are processed products whose the raw material is grounded, like "paçoca" and other that it is not, like "amendoim japonês". Occurrence and distribution of aflatoxin contamination among packages in lots of "paçoca" was more homogeneus than in lots of "amendoim japonês".

  4. STUDY OF CHANGES OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF JELLY CANDIES IN STORAGE PROCESS Исследование изменения качественных характеристик желейных конфет в процессе хранения

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonov D. V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental studies of changes in humidity and plastic hardness of jelly candies in storage process are reviewed. Nature of the influence of various forms of water-retaining additives, coatings and types of packaging on the physical and chemical characteristics of candies is identified

  5. Study on stability of poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy (human diploid cell), live%口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗(人二倍体细胞)的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 王红燕; 张亮; 梁晶; 徐冉; 金歌; 柯伟华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stability of poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy (human diploid cell), live, which is produced consecutively by using cell factory units .Methods The vaccine was stored at -20℃for 24 months, the vac-cine titer ( CCID50 ) , appearance , residual antibiotics , sterility and identification of serotypes for virus seeds were tested . The evaluation of vaccine stability stored at 2-8℃for 12 months., the accelerated thermal stability assay at room tempera-ture for 7 weeks and at 37 ℃ for 7 days were performed , resprctively .Results The duration of vaccine is at least 24 months stored at -20 ℃, the shelf life of vaccine can extend to 12 months stored at 2-8 ℃, and freezing-thawing cycles have little effect on vaccine ’ s stability.Conclusion The quality of the vaccine is stable , the test results are complied with requirements of poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy (human diploid cell), live in 《Pharmacopeia of People’s Republic of China》( Volume Ⅲ) ( Edition:2010 ) and TiantanBio licensed standard for poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy ( hu-man diploid cell ) , live.%目的:评价细胞工厂工艺连续生产的口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗(人二倍体细胞)的稳定性。方法疫苗在-20℃放置24个月,检测病毒滴度、外观、抗生素残留量、无菌性,及对病毒血清型进行鉴别;2~8℃放置12个月检测疫苗稳定性;室温放置7周、37℃放置7 d检测加速热稳定性并冻融的稳定性。结果该疫苗-20℃可贮存24个月以上,2~8℃有效期可延长至12个月,且冻融不会影响疫苗的稳定性。结论疫苗质量稳定,各项检测结果均符合《中华人民共和国药典》三部(2010版)及企业《口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗(人二倍体细胞)注册标准》。

  6. 凝胶软糖质构特性的感官评定与仪器分析研究%Study on Sensory Evaluation and Instrumental Measurement of Texture Characteristics of Gel Candies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 李汴生; 阮征

    2011-01-01

    The correlations of sensory evaluation and instrumental measurement for the different commercially available gel candies in current Guangzhou market were studied in this paper.Nine common commercial gel candies were collected.Texture profile analysis with%针对目前广州市场上不同品牌的凝胶软糖的质地特性进行感官评定与仪器分析的相关性研究。选用9种市售凝胶软糖,采用质地剖面检验法进行感官评定,质构仪(TPA模式)进行仪器分析,对感官评定与质构仪测定结果进行相关性分析。研究表明,凝胶软糖的仪器分析能很好地反映感官质构,其中质构仪测定出的硬度、弹性、咀嚼性与对应的感官指标有显著的相关性。选取主要仪器分析指标为自变量,感官评定指标为因变量,进行逐步回归分析,得到具有统计意义的感官硬度和感官弹性的预测方程。表明TPA质构分析和感官质构评价均能较准确地测定和反映目前市售

  7. Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joseph G.; Flanigan, Skye S.; LeBlanc, Mallory; Vallarino, Jose; MacNaughton, Piers; Stewart, James H.; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are > 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “popcorn lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: We aimed to determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl and two other high-priority flavoring chemicals, 2,3-pentanedione and acetoin, are present in a convenience sample of flavored e-cigarettes. Methods: We selected 51 types of flavored e-cigarettes sold by leading e-cigarette brands and flavors we deemed were appealing to youth. E-cigarette contents were fully discharged and the air stream was captured and analyzed for total mass of diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin, according to OSHA method 1012. Results: At least one flavoring chemical was detected in 47 of 51 unique flavors tested. Diacetyl was detected above the laboratory limit of detection in 39 of the 51 flavors tested, ranging from below the limit of quantification to 239 μg/e-cigarette. 2,3-Pentanedione and acetoin were detected in 23 and 46 of the 51 flavors tested at concentrations up to 64 and 529 μg/e-cigarette, respectively. Conclusion: Because of the associations between diacetyl and bronchiolitis obliterans and other severe respiratory diseases observed in workers, urgent action is recommended to further evaluate this potentially widespread exposure via flavored e-cigarettes. Citation: Allen JG, Flanigan SS, LeBlanc M, Vallarino J, MacNaughton P, Stewart JH, Christiani DC. 2016. Flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes: diacetyl, 2,3-pentanedione, and acetoin in a sample of 51 products, including fruit-, candy-, and cocktail-flavored e-cigarettes. Environ Health Perspect 124:733–739; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510185 PMID:26642857

  8. 富含低聚异麦芽糖的酥心糖研制及其对肠道菌群增殖研究%Preparation of Crisp Candy Rich in Oligo-ismaltose and its Effect on ProliferationIntestinal Flora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立梅; 白卫东; 冯卫华; 汪薇

    2012-01-01

    Based on process of sesame satinettes, a bifidus candy with adjusting the intestinal flora balance was developed by adding functional materials to sesame satinettes to reduce the calorific value and improve candy nutritional value. The proliferation of Intestine Probiotic and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. The results showed that process conditions of crunchy candy were: boiling sugar temperature 140 °C, oil sauce temperature 55 °C, sugar billet temperature 75 °C, water content 35%. and oligo-ismaltose dosage 60%. Under these process conditions, the product showed improved nutrition and health functions. Compared with the control, their proliferation effect on Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were increased by 55.2% and 33.6%, respectively. Adding oligo-ismaltose showed little effect on endogenous antioxidant system of sesame crisp candy.%本文在酥心糖工艺基础上,在配方中添加低聚异麦芽糖来降低酥心糖的热值,并以肠道益生菌的增殖和抗氧化活性为评价指标,开发具有调节肠道菌群平衡的“双歧”功能酥心糖.结果表明酥心糖的工艺条件为:熬糖温度140℃,油籽酱温度55℃.糖坯温度为75℃.加水量为白砂糖的35%,添加砂糖60%的低聚异麦芽糖不仅满足生产工艺条件,且从营养和功能方面有了改善,对双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌的增殖比对照分别增加了55.2%,33.6%.内源抗氧化稳态表明:添加的低聚异麦芽糖不会影响芝麻酥心糖内源抗氧化体系.

  9. Metformin : Taking away the candy for cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalving, Mathilde; Gietema, Jourik A.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; de Jong, Steven; Reyners, Anna K. L.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.

    2010-01-01

    Metformin is widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 where it reduces insulin resistance and diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Population-based studies show that metformin treatment is associated with a dose-dependent reduction in cancer risk. The metformin treatment also in

  10. Food label guide for candy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fats are found in animal products such as butter, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty ... palm, and palm kernel oils. Eating too much saturated fat is one of the major risk factors for ...

  11. Practice and Construction of Courses about "Candy and Chocolate Production Technology" in Higher Vocational Colleges under the Background of National Backbone Co-nstruction:A Case Study of Jiangsu Food and Pharmaceu-tical Science College%国家骨干高职院校建设背景下“糖果与巧克力生产技术”课程建设实践研究--以江苏食品药品职业技术学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田其英

    2014-01-01

    Construction background of course about "Candy and Chocolate Production Technology" was analyzed in this paper, combined with construction requirements of domestic backbone higher vocational college construction and major construction tasks, construction requirements, thought, positioning settings, construction content and construction goals of the course were introduced, respectively, and practice and experience of course construction were shared. These improved the course construc-tion of "Candy and Chocolate Production Technology", deeply re-formed the teaching, improved the quality of education.%本文分析了“糖果与巧克力生产技术”课程建设背景,结合国家骨干高职院校建设要求和该课程所在专业建设目标任务,分别介绍了课程建设要求、课程建设思路、课程定位设置、课程建设内容和课程建设目标,并从中述说了课程建设的做法和体会。这为进一步做好“糖果与巧克力生产技术”课程建设,深化教学改革,提高教学质量奠定了基础。

  12. Is candy eating a way to control body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has called for actions already in place for years. Unfortunately, the results so far have been mostly disappointing. The role of science in combating obesity is to provide evidence for decision-making at political (national and local) level, in ...

  13. Planeamento de uma estrada utilizando CCS Candy - Caso de estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sara Maria de

    2013-01-01

    O tema desta dissertação foi escolhido tendo em consideração a crescente necessidade de planeamento de empreitadas de construção de estradas, sendo um dos objetivos desta dissertação o de oferecer uma visão global do processo de planeamento da construção de uma estrada, focado apenas no fator tempo, recorrendo a ferramentas informáticas e utilizando um caso de estudo de uma estrada real e já construída. Inicialmente, faz-se uma breve descrição dos métodos de planeamento mais aplicados em p...

  14. Process Variability and Capability in Candy Production and Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Ronald S.

    2016-01-01

    In this short, in-class activity, students use fun size packages of M&Ms to study process variability, including a real-world application of C[subscript pk]. How process variability and legal requirements force the company to put "Not Labeled for Individual Retail Sale" on each fun size package is discussed, as is the economics of…

  15. Protecting the Goodies in the Digital Candy Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasch, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the protection of intellectual property on the Internet suggests strong regulation of content. Topics addressed include economic losses; access control; encryption; educating the public on copyright law; illegal bulletin board systems; software piracy; copyright infringement; downloading copyrighted material; fair use; and copyright…

  16. Candy Bar Chants, Mozart Maps: Creativity in Your Choral Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on how music teachers can make choral rehearsals more interesting for students by incorporating creative lessons and activities. Explores what it means to be creative and includes examples of creative lessons that can be used in the choral rehearsal. (CMK)

  17. Apples or candy? Internal and external influences on children's food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Lim, Seung-Lark; Smith, Timothy Ryan; Cherry, J Bradley C; Black, William R; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Jared M

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this concise narrative review is to examine the current literature regarding endogenous and exogenous influences on youth food choices. Specifically, we discuss internal factors such as interoception (self-awareness) of pain and hunger, and neural mechanisms (neurofunctional aspects) of food motivation. We also explore external factors such as early life feeding experiences (including parenting), social influences (peers), and food marketing (advertising). We conclude with a discussion of the overlap of these realms and future directions for the field of pediatric food decision science.

  18. KERAWANAN LONGSOR LERENG JALAN STUDI KASUS RUAS JALAN SUKASADA – CANDI KUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Hartini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Slope stability analysis along roads Denpasar – Singaraja have been calculated using Felenius Method and Software Plaxis 8.2. This calculation was conducted using  material model Mohr - Columb, soil cohesion (c and tan f soil parameters. Calculations safety factor using phi – c reduction value, condition until structural failure occurs. The results of computation Felenius Method give stability value Fs < 1.5 which mean landslide would be accurred in this slope. Calculation using Plaxis 8.2 produce Fs > 1,5. This study has been on optimization of soil parameters, so that plaxis gives better result. This study may conclude that plaxis should be used with caution and with proper soil parameters

  19. From Candy Crush to Catan: One Student's Perspective on the Benefits of Gaming in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    In the spring semester of 2015, Morgan Ebbs made the bold decision to take a class called "The Rhetoric of Gaming." Having only really played games during childhood, Ebbs now thinks that choice was a bit naive. He is not ashamed to admit that he was the definition of what some like to refer to as "casual," "plebe," or…

  20. EVALUASI ATRIBUT WISATA TERHADAP KEPUASAN, KEPERCAYAAN DAN DESTINATION LOYALTY (Studi pada Candi Prambanan)

    OpenAIRE

    PUTRI MUNGGAR, PINKAN NIDYA

    2014-01-01

    This research is purposed to understanding the significance of three tourism attributes influence consist of perceived differences culture, perceived safety, perceived convenient transportation toward the tourist’s satisfaction and confidence, and the influence of tourist’s satisfaction and confidence toward destination loyalty. Prambanan temple is being a tourism destination that researched with the number of respondents as much as 200 persons from domestic tourists who has...

  1. Teaching Principles of One-Way Analysis of Variance Using M&M's Candy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    I present an active learning classroom exercise illustrating essential principles of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The exercise is easily conducted by the instructor and is instructive (as well as enjoyable) for the students. This is conducive for demonstrating many theoretical and practical issues related to ANOVA and lends itself…

  2. Using Candy to Teach Counselors to Teach Clients about Medication Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia and other serious mental illness hinder medication compliance. Clinicians are often challenged to increase clients' medication compliance, but lack the tools to enhance consistent treatment compliance. Counselor educators enhance their course instruction by offering a specific counseling tool to students. Those working directly with…

  3. A Reassessment of Certain Archeological Sites in the Candy Lake Area, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Differences 108 10. LITHIC ANALYSIS OF Os-155 - Ill Functional Analysis 112 Typological Tool Classes 112 Edge Damage 112 Flake Type — 119...138 Summary of Lithic Analysis 139 n Chapter Page 11. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS by Charles D. Cheek 140 Os-149 and Os-153 140 Os-155 140...source of raw material and not to the form of flake detachment. I I Summary of Lithic Analysis The analysis of the lithics from Os-155 has explored

  4. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieborg, D.B.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical politi

  5. Design and implementation of safety traceability system for candied fruits based on two-dimension code technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Kun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the basic principle of food safety.A food safety traceability system based on QR code and cloud computing technology was introduced in this paper.First of all we introduced the QR code technology and the concept of traceability.And then through the field investigation,we analyzed the traceability process.At the same time,we designed the system and database were found,and the consumer experiencing technology is studied.Finally we expounded the traceability information collection,transmission and final presentation style and expected the future development of traceability system.

  6. The Property of Gelation and Gelatinous Candy%凝胶剂性能与凝胶软糖(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵发基

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1.3 生产工艺 根据配方中水的用量,预先将部分水与淀粉调成淀粉乳,其余的水与淀粉乳一起加入砂糖和淀粉糖浆中,加热溶化,不断搅拌,煮沸熬至所需的浓度时,加入着色剂和香味料,然后以粉模成型法(Mogul Type Process)将熬好的糖浆浇注到粉模中,送入烘房干燥达到所需的产品水分含量要求,再进行脱模包装.干燥过程长达(36~70)h,生产周期很长.

  7. Candi, space and landscape : a study on the distribution, orientation and spatial organization of Central Javanese temple remains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degroot, Véronique Myriam Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    Central Javanese temples were not built anywhere and anyhow, quite the contrary: their position within the landscape and their architectural design was determined by a series of socio-cultural, religious and economical factors. Correlations between temple distribution, natural surroundings and archi

  8. 全球糖果及巧克力市场分析%Analysis of global candy and chocolate market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东

    2004-01-01

    Euromonitor预计,全球巧克力市场销售额在2003年增长近4%达到560亿美元。这并不是一个令人满意的增长形势,低速增长是由于美元疲软,但也是因为消费者将钱转向购买更高档的产品。2003年巧克力销量的增长是自1998年以来增长最低的一年。但据分析,传统意义上的全球糖果和巧克力市场中产

  9. 糖果市场营销的第5P%The 5th "P" in Candy Products Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂旺松

    2007-01-01

    市场营销经典的4P理论认为企业营销的成功必须要在产品(product)、价格(price)、渠道(place)、促销(promotion)四个层面上做足文章。在糖果产品丰富并且同质化的今天,什么更能吸引消费者?什么更能打动消费者?什么更能改变消费者?著名的市场心理专家路易斯·切斯金通过一系列的实验证明:

  10. 金佛手凝胶软糖的研制%Study on the Jelly Candy with Jinhua Bergamot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓路; 麻佳蕾; 李群力; 俞婷

    2012-01-01

    为研制金华佛手软糖产品,以金华佛手、凝胶剂、白砂糖为主要原料,通过软糖制备工艺考察.对比多种凝胶剂对产品的影响,以单因素实验考查产品配方及加工工艺.实验最终确定的研制工艺为,新鲜佛手切片后搅碎、匀浆,加入糖浆及加凝胶剂,加热溶化,搅拌均匀,冷却切粒.在温度40℃下干燥20 min,切块包装即得到成品.确定配方为食用明胶:果胶:白砂糖为2∶1∶1,果浆与糖浆比重为1∶1.所得金佛手凝胶软糖产品外观、风味及口感最佳.

  11. Stes Wood Frog's Fallonlan Tube with Rock Candy and Papaya%美容养颜一瞬间冰糖木瓜炖雪蛤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡元骏

    2010-01-01

    @@ 雪蛤可以说是很多女性朋友都很青睐的美食食材之一.最近有很多人问我雪蛤到底是什么?说去餐馆吃到的木瓜炖雪蛤等甜品很美味,不知道能不能在家做?

  12. From Candy Girls to Cyber Sista-Cipher: Narrating Black Females' Color-Consciousness and Counterstories in "and" out "of School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Carmen Kynard provides a window into a present-day "hush harbor," a site where a group of black women build generative virtual spaces for counterstories that fight institutional racism. Hidden in plain view, these intentional communities have historically allowed African American participants to share and create knowledge and find…

  13. 自动化模块设计在糖果包装机上的应用%Automatic Modular Design Application in the Candy Packing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江涛

    2012-01-01

    通过对奶糖包装机的工艺难点分析,整合台达自动化产品,为客户提供整套奶糖包装机系统控制架构.整个控制系统的核心为包装纸的输送,为了实现高速的控制要求,采用A2伺服特有的色标对位修正功能和电子凸轮功能实现核心控制功能.经实际测试,该套控制系统方案可以使包装速度达到350包/min,速度提升30%.%This article analyzes the milk sugar packaging machine technology and difficulties analysis, the integration of sets of automation product advantage and characteristics, and put forward a complete set for the customer to milk sugar packaging machine system control architecture. The core of the whole control system for conveying wrapping paper, in order to realize high speed control requirements, the unique color standard A2 servo contrapuntal fixed function and electronic CAM function to realize the core control function. The actual one, the control system solution greatly improved the system packing speed and efficiency.

  14. Em busca das escolas na escola: por uma epistemologia das "balas sem papel" In search of schools within School: for an epistemology of "unwrapped candy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Garcia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute a produção de conhecimento no paradigma científico moderno a fim de ponderar sobre seus limites para acessar as nuances do cotidiano. Entende que, no rastro do cientificismo moderno seguido pelas ciências sociais, resignamo-nos e naturalizamos a prática de conhecer satisfazendo-nos e crendo em rótulos, embalagens que pretendem acessar e explicar o viver humano ordinário. Procura evidenciar a pertinência das opções que levam à proposição da pesquisa nos/dos/com os cotidianos como caminho, não como paradigma, para se compreender e valorizar os saberesfazeres das práticas cotidianas, não decifráveis por ângulos ou enquadramentos discursivos formais. Narrar experiências não é superestimar o que, pelo improvável aspecto "positivo", pareça-nos uma "ode ao desvio-padrão". Assumir os riscos de trazê-las implica acreditar que o ato de desestabilizar as concepções dominantes sobre a escola contribui para a pensarmos sem "pré-conceitos", longe das impossibilidades e da beira do abismo.This paper discusses the knowledge production in the modern scientific paradigm to ponder over its limits and to access nuances of the quotidian. It assumes that, in the wake of the modern scientific approach followed by the social sciences, we resign and understand as natural the practice of experience satisfying ourselves and believe in labels and packages that intent to access and explain the ordinary human living. It tries to evidence the importance of options leading to propose research in/of/with the quotidian, like a way, rather than a paradigm, to understand and value the knowledgedoings of the everyday practices, that cannot be deciphered by some angles and framing of the formal discourse. Telling experiences is not overestimating the things that, by the improbable positivist aspect, would look as an "ode to standard deviation". Assuming the risks of bringing them implies believing that the act of destabilizing the dominant conceptions on school will contribute to thinking without prejudice, far from the impossibilities and the edge of the abyss.

  15. No time for candy: passionfruit (Passiflora edulis) plants down-regulate damage-induced extra floral nectar production in response to light signals of competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaguirre, Miriam M; Mazza, Carlos A; Astigueta, María S; Ciarla, Ana M; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2013-09-01

    Plant fitness is often defined by the combined effects of herbivory and competition, and plants must strike a delicate balance between their ability to capture limiting resources and defend against herbivore attack. Many plants use indirect defenses, such as volatile compounds and extra floral nectaries (EFN), to attract canopy arthropods that are natural enemies of herbivorous organisms. While recent evidence suggests that upon perception of low red to far-red (R:FR) ratios, which signal the proximity of competitors, plants down-regulate resource allocation to direct chemical defenses, it is unknown if a similar phytochrome-mediated response occurs for indirect defenses. We evaluated the interactive effects of R:FR ratio and simulated herbivory on nectar production by EFNs of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa). The activity of petiolar EFNs dramatically increased in response to simulated herbivory and hormonal treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Low R:FR ratios, which induced a classic "shade-avoidance" repertoire of increased stem elongation in P. edulis, strongly suppressed the EFN response triggered by simulated herbivory or MeJA application. Strikingly, the EFN response to wounding and light quality was localized to the branches that received the treatments. In vines like P. edulis, a local response would allow the plants to precisely adjust their light harvesting and defense phenotypes to the local conditions encountered by individual branches when foraging for resources in patchy canopies. Consistent with the emerging paradigm that phytochrome regulation of jasmonate signaling is a central modulator of adaptive phenotypic plasticity, our results demonstrate that light quality is a strong regulator of indirect defenses.

  16. Modernismi nauding vaatamiseks : elamu Pärnus Seedri tänaval = Modernism as Eye Candy : Residence in Seedri St, Pärnu / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2007-01-01

    Külaliskortermaja Seedri 4 Pärnus. Arhitektuur: AB JVR. Autor Kalle Vellevoog, kaasautor Margus Tamm. Konstruktor Ahti Lääne (OÜ EstKONSULT). Sisekujundaja Tiiu Truus. Maastikuarhitekt Vaike Parker. Projekt: 2005, valmis: 2007. Ill.: IV korruse plaan, 5 värv. vaadet

  17. Sex or candy? Neuroendocrine regulation of the seasonal transition from courtship to feeding behavior in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Maine, Ashley R

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Seasonal modulation of glucocorticoids plays an important role in supporting critical life-history events, and probably facilitates transitions between different life-history stages. In a well-studied population of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), glucocorticoids are elevated during the mating season, but males dispersing to summer feeding grounds have significantly lower baseline glucocorticoids than courting males at the den. We tested the hypothesis that decreased plasma glucocorticoids mediate the behavioral switch between reproduction and foraging in this species. Using a two-choice Y-maze paradigm, we demonstrate that males treated with the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (1 and 3mg implants) prefer feeding cues (worm trail) over reproductive cues (female pheromone trail) significantly earlier than control-treated snakes. The metyrapone-induced changes in appetitive feeding behavior were independent of changes in plasma androgens and body mass loss. Metyrapone-treated males continued to court females at levels similar to those of control-treated snakes, suggesting that appetitive reproductive and ingestive behaviors are not mutually exclusive during this life-history transition. Consistent with this hypothesis, metyrapone treatment did not alter the number of arginine vasotocin-immunoreactive cells in any brain region, while it significantly increased neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive cell number in both the cortex and nucleus sphericus (homologues of the mammalian hippocampus and amygdala, respectively). Our results suggest that male red-sided garter snakes have the potential to maximize reproductive opportunities by continuing to court females they encounter even as they disperse from the den in search of food. Taken together, these data have important implications for understanding the neuroecology of seasonal life-history transitions.

  18. Commercial Caffeinated Products for Military Use: Customer Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    November 2010). The MCMWTC participants primarily performed day and night rock climbing tasks, while those in STTS were performing dismounted movements ...and candy bars (25%); the remaining top ten included gum; beverage, powdered; sunflower 9 seeds; chocolate covered espresso beans; and chewy candies...caffeinated forms of beef jerky, chewy candies, energy concentrates, sunflower seeds or candy bars, respectively. However, 59% and 48% of the respondents

  19. Evidence-Based Recommendations for Short- and Long-Term Management of Uninvestigated Dyspepsia in Primary Care: An Update of the Canadian Dyspepsia Working Group (CanDys) Clinical Management Tool

    OpenAIRE

    van Zanten, Sander JO Veldhuyzen; Bradette, Marc; Chiba, Naoki; Armstrong, David; Barkun, Alan; Flook, Nigel; Thomson, Alan; Bursey, Ford

    2005-01-01

    The present paper is an update to and extension of the previous systematic review on the primary care management of patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia (UD). The original publication of the clinical management tool focused on the initial four- to eight-week assessment of UD. This update is based on new data from systematic reviews and clinical trials relevant to UD. There is now direct clinical evidence supporting a test-and-treat approach in patients with nondominant heartburn dyspepsia s...

  20. Evidence-Based Recommendations for Short- and Long-Term Management of Uninvestigated Dyspepsia in Primary Care: An Update of the Canadian Dyspepsia Working Group (CanDys Clinical Management Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander JO Veldhuyzen van Zanten

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an update to and extension of the previous systematic review on the primary care management of patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia (UD. The original publication of the clinical management tool focused on the initial four- to eight-week assessment of UD. This update is based on new data from systematic reviews and clinical trials relevant to UD. There is now direct clinical evidence supporting a test-and-treat approach in patients with nondominant heartburn dyspepsia symptoms, and head-to-head comparisons show that use of a proton pump inhibitor is superior to the use of H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs in the initial treatment of Helicobacter pylori-negative dyspepsia patients. Cisapride is no longer available as a treatment option and evidence for other prokinetic agents is lacking. In patients with long-standing heartburn-dominant (ie, gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonheartburn-dominant dyspepsia, a once-in-a-lifetime endoscopy is recommended. Endoscopy should also be considered in patients with new-onset dyspepsia that develops after the age of 50 years. Conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylic acid and cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors can all cause dyspepsia. If their use cannot be discontinued, cotherapy with either a proton pump inhibitor, misoprostol or high-dose H2RAs is recommended, although the evidence is based on ulcer data and not dyspepsia data. In patients with nonheartburn-dominant dyspepsia, noninvasive testing for H pylori should be performed and treatment given if positive. When starting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for a prolonged course, testing and treatment with H2RAs are advised if patients have a history of previous ulcers or ulcer bleeding.

  1. Dynamics of the contact salty water candy-water in water-bearing slabs submissive intensive salt water operation; Dinamica del contacto agua dulce-agua salada en acuiferos costeros sometidos a explotacion intensiva de agua salada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joreto, S.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Sanchez-Martos, F.; Frances, I.; Gisbert, J.

    2008-07-01

    The behaviour of coastal aquifers that are subject to abstraction is well-studied. what is not yet assessed is the behaviour of coastal aquifers subject to seawater abstractions. The proliferation in recent years of desalination plants along the southeastern Spanish coast, in addition to the plants yet to be planned and/or constructed, has led us to focus on the processes associated with this unusual disturbance of the coastal systems. the pseudo-natural equilibrium in the aquifer between the fresh and the saltwater was established by means of periodic measurements of water temperature and conductivity in observation wells that are slotted over the whole water column, and continuous monitoring of water level, temperature and conductivity over a network of boreholes that are slotted over the lengths corresponding to each of the water levels (fresh, interface and slat). The recent partial-commissioning of the desalination plant serving the city of Almeria has also enabled assessment of the immediate response of the aquifer to intensive abstraction of seawater, as well as observation of the response of the fresh water-salt water contact, which is becoming deeper and very well-defined. The spatio-temporal evolution of these parameters will be crucial in formulating a hypothesis to understand the behaviour of the interface under these unprecedented conditions. (Author)

  2. 9000年的"古酒"复活与1300年的梨膏糖文化%The revival of 9000 years old"Ancient Wine"and Businessmen 1300 years old Pear Paste Candy culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王自强

    2009-01-01

    @@ 我国的酒文化共经历了五个发展阶段,有史记载第一阶段为公元前4000-2000年,即由新石器时代的仰韶文化早期到夏朝初年,是我国传统酒的启蒙期,而河南贾湖遗址出土的陶器内发现"古酒"之事,又将我国的酒文化推前了几千年,不管考古的真实性与结论如何,据说,中国9000年前的"古酒"配方,竟然被大洋彼岸的美国人破解,成为特拉华洲一家酿酒厂的酒类饮料,开发成新款啤酒,使"古酒"复活,其配方来源干中国河南贾湖遗址出土的陶器内,该酒厂还特意注册了"贾湖城"(Chateaujiahu)商标,并于公元2006年批量上市,老祖宗的休闲饮品,我们自己开发不了,倒是让山姆大叔抢占了先机,把配方牢牢地掌握在自己手里.

  3. Clinical Observation of Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablet in the Treatment of Pregnancy with Vulvovaginal Candi-diasis%克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖金英; 冯燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎的疗效和安全性。方法:106例妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎患者随机分为观察组(56例)和对照组(50例)。观察组患者于用药前清洗外阴部,保持洁净,用送药器将克霉唑阴道片1片放入阴道内5~6 cm处,每2日1次;对照组患者于用药前清洁外阴部,用送药器将乳酸菌素阴道胶囊1粒放入阴道内5~6 cm处,每日1次。两组疗程均为8d。治疗期间停止性生活,避免使用其他药物。观察两组患者的临床疗效、念珠菌清除率、妊娠情况及不良反应发生情况。结果:观察组患者总有效率、念珠菌清除率均显著高于对照组,带菌率显著低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患者妊娠情况、不良反应发生率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎疗效显著,可清除念珠菌,安全性较好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of Clotrimazole vaginal tablet in the treatment of pregnancy with vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS:106 pregnant patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly divided into observation group (56 cases) and control group (50 cases). Observation group was given one tablet Clotrimazole vaginal tablet,washed the genital area before treatment to keep clean and one Clotrimazole vaginal tablet was sent to intravaginal 5-6 cm,once every 2 day. Control group was given Lactobacillus vaginal capsule,once a day,washed the genital area before treatment and one Lactobacillus vaginal capsule was sent to intravaginal 5-6 cm. The treatment course for both groups was 8 d. No sexual activities during treatment and no other drugs. Clinical efficacy,clearance rate of candidiasis,pregnancy and incidence of adverse reactions in 2 groups were observed. RESULTS:The total effective rate and clearance rate of candidiasis in observation group were significantly higher than control group,carrier rate was significantly lower than control group,the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). CONCLU-SIONS:Clotrimazole vaginal tablet shows significant efficacy in the treatment of pregnancy with vulvovaginal candidiasis and can clear candidiasis,with good safety.

  4. The Development of Hard Sugar-free Candy Produced with Isomalt, Xylitol and Herb Extract%益寿糖,木糖醇和草药提取物制取无糖硬糖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂梅

    2006-01-01

    本文以益寿糖,木糖醇为无糖原料,添加春黄菊提取物,夏至草提取物和海胆亚目提取物,并辅以少量AK糖和阿斯巴甜等强力甜味剂,苹果酸,柠檬酸,乳酸钙,斯德宝食用香料和食用色素,制成了品质风味优良的无糖硬糖.

  5. 微波技术提取冰糖脐橙皮中的总黄酮%Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Rock Candy Navel Orange Peels by Microwave Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小芹; 曾柏全

    2009-01-01

    采用微波技术,用碱性乙醇水溶液浸提、盐酸酸析,从冰糖脐橙皮中提取总黄酮.以总黄酮得率为评价指标,用紫外可见分光光度法检测,L16(45)正交实验筛选出的最佳工艺条件为:料液比1:10,乙醇体积分数为60%,微波时间5 min,微波功率350 W,NaOH质量分数为1%.按优选的最佳工艺实验3次,总黄酮得率为6.11%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.43%(n=3).

  6. 分光光度法测定硬质糖果中诱惑红、柠檬黄、亮蓝的含量%Spectrophotometry Determination of Allura Red,Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Hard Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖萍坚; 翁小红; 吴文君; 杜建中

    2013-01-01

    利用单波长法测定蓝莓味硬糖中诱惑红、亮蓝含量,双波长等吸收法测定香橙味硬糖中诱惑红、柠檬黄的含量.结果显示,诱惑红在0.3~40 mg·L-1、柠檬黄在0.6~40 mg·L-1、亮蓝在0.08~20 mg·L-1浓度范围内具有良好的性线关系,相关系数大于0.999.该方法具有计算简单、操作方便、准确性较高等特点.

  7. Analisa Pengawet Natrium Benzoat Pada Manisan Buah Di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan Tahun 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Kurnia Sari P

    2011-01-01

    Preservative sodium benzoate chemical with formula of C7H5O2 This research was a descriptive survey researched that analyzed the content of sodium benzoate on the candied fruit. Fruit with total sampling 12 sample candied fruit consisting of three kinds of fruit, salak, mango and kedondong. Primary data from this research were obtained from laboratory test on sodium benzoate preservative substences contained in the candied fruit. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Na were Substance...

  8. 76 FR 12916 - Benzocaine; Weight Control Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... benzocaine be classified as nonmonograph at any concentration for use in OTC weight control drug products... daily) Group 4: Glucose hard candy containing benzocaine, caffeine, and vitamins (benzocaine...

  9. Development of greenhouse grown onion transplants and effect of plant density and fertilizer rate on marketable yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse grown onion (Allium cepa L.) transplants may have potential for use in production systems, but how they respond to cultural practices needs clarification. Seedlings of ‘Candy' and ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' were raised in a greenhouse. ‘Candy' seedlings were heavier than ‘Texas Grano 1015Y' se...

  10. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by…

  11. An Appetite for Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Trena L.; Bryan, Tommy; Curry, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how using candy bars as models gives sixth-grade students a taste for learning to represent fractions whose denominators are factors of twelve. Using paper models of the candy bars, students explored and compared fractions. They noticed fewer different representations for one-third than for one-half. The authors conclude…

  12. Study on Viscosity of κ-Carrageenan and Gelatin Solutions and Their Mixture using for Candy%软糖用κ-卡拉胶与明胶溶液及其复配液的表观粘度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 李丹丹; 李汴生; 阮征

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了剪切速率、胶液浓度、测定温度对k-卡拉胶及明胶溶液表现粘度的影响,并将两者进行复配,研究了复配比例、复配胶溶液浓度及测定温度对复合胶溶液表现粘度的影响.研究结果表明,单一胶体溶液的表观粘度随着浓度的增加而增加;随着测定温度的升高而下降,卡拉胶溶液表现出剪切变稀的假塑性,明胶溶液随着剪切速率的变化,表观粘度趋于稳定.复配胶的表观粘度随k-卡拉胶所占比例的增大而增大,随着复配胶浓度的增加而增加,随着测定温度的升高而降低;在总胶含量4%,卡拉胶比明胶为3:7的配比下,复配胶液流动性好,冷却后可形成富有弹性和咀嚼性的凝胶体.%The impact of shear rate, concentration and testing temperature on the viscosity of K-carrageenan and gelatin solution was studied in this paper. Gelatin and K-carrageenan were compounded and the influences of mixture ratio, concentration and temperature on the viscosity of complex solution were concerned The results showed that the viscosity of single K-carrageena and gelatin solution was increased with the increase of concentration; and decreased with the testing temperature. Carrageenan solution showed shear-thinning pseudoplastic; the apparent viscosity of gelatin solution trended to stabilize with the shear rate changes. The viscosity of mixture solution was improved with the increase of K-carrageenan content in the complex and the concentration of complex solution, and decreased with the testing temperature. With the total content 4% and the ratio of carrageenan and gelatin was 3:7, an easy flowing solution which can form the gel with elasticity and chewiness was gained.

  13. EVALUATION OF FOOD COLOR CONSUMPTION AND DETERMINING COLOR TYPE BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Farzianpour; Gholamreza Jahead Khaniki; Masoud Younesian; Bahman Banaei Ghahferkhi; Mehraban Sadeghi; Shayan Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the role of the social demographic parameters of the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak (a type of coin-shaped candy) and rock candy in the consumption of food colors and to determine color type by thin layer chromatography in Shahr-e-kord city in 2011. This research was an interventional-analytical study and its target population is the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak and rock candy in Shahr-e-ko...

  14. How to Identify Drug Paraphernalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... packages Electronic-cigarettes (also called E-cigarettes) Small glass vials Pill bottles Candy or gum wrappers Baseball ... to make a blunt Pipes (metal, wooden, acrylic, glass, stone, plastic, ceramic) Bongs (a filtration device to ...

  15. Is It Really True That Chocolate May Be Good for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161592.html Is It Really True That Chocolate May Be Good for ... re tempted to raid the candy aisle: While it seems to be beneficial, the impact of chocolate ...

  16. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street names: Candy, Drank, Robo Print What Are Cough and Cold Medicines? Also known as: robotripping, robo, ...

  17. Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_164157.html Pot-Laced Goodies Can Poison a Child These pastries and candies pose serious ... to kids -- but eating even one treat might poison them, a leading group of U.S. pediatricians warns. ...

  18. 77 FR 76006 - Star Networks USA, LLC; Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... sold to consumers in the United States. 19. Upon information and belief, approximately 17 mixed sets of... thought were chocolate candy because they looked like the decorations on his mother's wedding cake. 39....

  19. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... synthetic) Pudding and pie fillings, gelatin dessert mixes, cake mixes, salad dressings, candies, soft drinks, ice cream, BBQ ... fat foods Baked goods, dressings, frozen desserts, confections, cake and dessert mixes, dairy products Olestra, cellulose gel, carrageenan, polydextrose, modified ...

  20. Eldercare at Home: Problems of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or kitchen. A good example is a "power bar" that is nutritious and tastes like candy or cookies. In the grocery store these items are usually found near the cereal. Fruit is another good snack idea. Shopping Suggestions ...

  1. 77 FR 69866 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Dec 2010. Licensing Contact: Tara L. Kirby. Ph.D.; 301-435-4426; tarak@mail.nih.gov . Treatment for.... Inventors: Peter M Steinert, Nemes Zoltan, Lyuben N Marckov (NIAMS). Publications: 1. Candi E, et...

  2. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toothpick-sized sticks. Some of these also contain sweeteners or flavoring and look a lot like candy. ... Still, tobacco companies often market these products as alternatives to smoking in places where smoking isn’t ...

  3. Break the bonds of emotional eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you are under stress, are in a bad mood, or feel bad about yourself. Emotional eating often becomes a habit. ... crave candy or potato chips anytime you feel bad. The next time you are upset, it becomes ...

  4. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  5. Nut and Peanut Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or homemade candies) may contain nuts as a hidden ingredient. The safest plan is to eat only ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  6. Rapid, non-destructive and non-contact inspection of solid foods by means of photothermal radiometry; thermal effusivity and initial heating coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbertsen, A.; Bicanic, D.D.; Gielen, J.L.W.; Chirtoc, M.

    2004-01-01

    CO2-laser photothermal radiometry (PTR) was demonstrated to be suitable for the nondestructive and non-contact characterization (both optical and thermal) of solid phase agricultural commodities (fres vegetables, fruits) and confectionery products (candy).

  7. Home Parenteral Nutrition (HPN) Complication Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth, place hard candy or cake decorating gel under tongue or let a teaspoon or two ... if taking any over-the-counter medications or herbal supplements. Special thanks to the editors of this ...

  8. Libraries in Arizona: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in Arizona URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/arizona.html Libraries in Arizona ... Candy Lane Cottonwood, AZ 86326 928-639-6444 http://nahealth.com Flagstaff Flagstaff Medical Center John B. ...

  9. Commonly Abused Drugs Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Forms Common Ways Taken DEA Schedule Juice, Gym Candy, Pumpers, Roids Nandrolone (Oxandrin ® ), oxandrolone (Anadrol ® ), oxymetholone ( ... swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression, sometimes leading to suicide attempts. Treatment ...

  10. Choking: What to Do for an Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some foods that can cause choking include hot dogs, nuts, chunks of meat, grapes, hard candy, peanuts, ... Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children Childhood Seizures Resources Home Safety Checklist ACEP Coloring Book Download ...

  11. How to Handle Withdrawal Symptoms and Triggers When You Decide to Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gum, and hard candy). Turn on your favorite music and sing along. Take an alternate route to ... Shraim M, Inglis J, Aveyard P, Hajek P. Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation. Cochrane ...

  12. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as cakes, cookies, candy, and other desserts juices, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks that ... of added sugars for Americans are sugar-sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks grain- ...

  13. College Health for Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium . Cut down on junk food (candy, chips, soft drinks, etc.). Snack on healthy foods such as popcorn, ... in a while to rejuvenate. Tags: college , immunizations , safety tips Related Content College Health: Health Services and Common Health Problems College Health: ...

  14. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  15. Pop / Mart Kuldkepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuldkepp, Mart

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Me, Myself and I "Aastaajad", Madonna "Hard Candy", Kathryn Williams and Neill MacColl "Two", Tindersticks "The Hungry Saw", Joy Division "The Best of Joy Divison", Quiet Village "Silent Movie"

  16. Compliance of 2012/13 Combat Ration Packs to the Recommended Nutritional Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    chocolate candy, chocolate spread) and processed cheese . Most of the main meals provided more than 10% of the LL for total fat, except 3 items: chicken...eat and processed foods, including biscuits, soups, processed cheese , ration chocolate and chocolate candy (Dietitians Association of Australia, 2014...of the vitamin A in CR1M, PR1M and CR5M. Other sources included processed cheese (90 µg), sweetened condensed milk (57 µg), FD tuna mornay (102 µg

  17. Child Adjustment to Parental Combat Deployment: Risk and Resilience Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    6. candy 7. cereal 8. cheese 9~ coffee 10. cookie 11. crackers 12. drink 13. egg food 15. grapes 16. gum 17. hamburger 18. hotdog 19...graphs - for example, 1 making tally marks to represent the number of children who want to play jl,lmp rope a~ fecess, or making a picture, bar ...DK 2 3 DK 11. Understands, reads, writes, and compares fractions- for 1 2 3 OK example,_ shows that Y2 of a candy bar is ~ + ~. or shows that

  18. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  19. Is less always more? The effects of low-fat labeling and caloric information on food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D; Nigg, Claudio R

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined whether low-fat labeling and caloric information affect food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health perceptions. Participants included 175 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A 2×2 between subjects factorial design was used in which the fat content label and caloric information of chocolate candy was manipulated. The differences in food intake across conditions did not reach statistical significance. However, participants significantly underestimated the calorie content of low-fat-labeled candy. Participants also rated low-fat-labeled candy as significantly better tasting when they had caloric information available. Participants endorsed more positive health attributions for low-fat-labeled candy than for regular-labeled candy, independent of caloric information. The inclusion of eating attitudes and behaviors as covariates did not alter the results. The study findings may be related to the "health halo" associated with low-fat foods and add to the research base by examining the interaction between low-fat and calorie labeling.

  20. No influence of sugar, snacks and fast food intake on the degree of obesity or treatment effect in childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Fonvig, C. E.; Bojsoe, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity....... There were no associations between the baseline intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks, and/or fast food and BMI SDS at baseline or the change in BMI SDS during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food when entering a childhood obesity treatment program...... treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University...

  1. The role of explicit and implicit self-esteem in peer modeling of palatable food intake: a study on social media interaction among youngsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This experimental study investigated the impact of peers on palatable food intake of youngsters within a social media setting. To determine whether this effect was moderated by self-esteem, the present study examined the roles of global explicit self-esteem (ESE, body esteem (BE and implicit self-esteem (ISE. METHODS: Participants (N = 118; 38.1% boys; M age 11.14±.79 were asked to play a computer game while they believed to interact online with a same-sex normal-weight remote confederate (i.e., instructed peer who ate either nothing, a small or large amount of candy. RESULTS: Participants modeled the candy intake of peers via a social media interaction, but this was qualified by their self-esteem. Participants with higher ISE adjusted their candy intake to that of a peer more closely than those with lower ISE when the confederate ate nothing compared to when eating a modest (β = .26, p = .05 or considerable amount of candy (kcal (β = .32, p = .001. In contrast, participants with lower BE modeled peer intake more than those with higher BE when eating nothing compared to a considerable amount of candy (kcal (β = .21, p = .02; ESE did not moderate social modeling behavior. In addition, participants with higher discrepant or "damaged" self-esteem (i.e., high ISE and low ESE modeled peer intake more when the peer ate nothing or a modest amount compared to a substantial amount of candy (kcal (β = -.24, p = .004; β = -.26, p<.0001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Youngsters conform to the amount of palatable food eaten by peers through social media interaction. Those with lower body esteem or damaged self-esteem may be more at risk to peer influences on food intake.

  2. Bibliography of Technical Publications and Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    WESTCOrT. Substitution of domestic fat for coconut (lauric) fat. in coating of military chocolate candies. 74-33-fL (FL-186), February 1974 (AD 777 535...tenderness. J. Agric. Food Chem., 21(5): 880-883 (1973). 117, HARRIS, N. E., I. BLOCH, and A. S. HENICK. Method for deter- mining almonds in chocolate candy...1973). 121. KING, F. J., F. HEILIGMAN, and E, WIERBICKI. Solubilized fish muscle as a food binding material. Marine Fisheries Rev., 36(1): 18-20

  3. The mathematics of games an introduction to probability

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, David G

    2014-01-01

    Dice, Coins, and Candy Introduction ProbabilityCandy (Yum)! Wheels and More Dice RouletteCrapsCounting the Pokers Cards and CountingSeven Card Pokers Texas Hold'Em BluffingWindmills and Black Jacks? Blackjack Blackjack VariantsMore Fun Dice!Liar's Dice Yahtzee Zombie Dice Board Games, Not ""Bored"" Games Board Game Movement Pay Day (The Board Game) MonopolySpread, RevisitedCan You Bet and Win? Betting SystemsGambler's RuinThere Are More Games! The LotteryBingo Baccarat Farkle BackgammonMemoryAppendices A Probabilities with Infinity B St. Petersburg Paradox C Prisoner's Dilemma and More Game Th

  4. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  5. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream.

  6. 新奶味主义%New toffeeism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    With the adjustment of the confectionery industry in 1990s, the traditional toffee market shrinking gradually. Since 21 st century, the quick emergenc of the candy with functional benefit and snacking concept has brought about the rapid development of the whole confectionary industry. The snacking appeal of toffee also provides the enterprises with broader growth.

  7. A Lesson In Lavender%难忘的一课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph B.Walker; 约瑟夫·沃克; 秋暮寒

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 For as long as I can remember,Easter Sunday has been my favorite day to go to church. 2 I was almost always able to smuggle a few pieces of Easter candy into the meeting,and the way I saw it,anything is tolerable if you're munching on malted milk eggs and chocolate bunnies.Even church.

  8. Valentine’s Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓玲

    2009-01-01

    Valentine’s Day, which falls on February 14, is one of the most popular festivals of western society and even the whole world. It is a day for lovers, a day when people present chocolates, cards and candies to their beloved (心爱的人).

  9. Valentine's Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓玲

    2009-01-01

    Valentine’s Day,which falls on February14,is one of the most popular festivals of western society and even the whole world.It is a day for lovers,a day when people present chocolates,cards and can-dies to their beloved(心爱的人).

  10. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with ten 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw...

  11. Stand Together or Apart: A Thematic Unit for "The Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Lisa

    This thematic unit is all about what a classic novel about race relations in the 1930s American South, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and a frequently banned contemporary teen story about a candy sale, "The Chocolate War," have in common. The unit considers what people have in common, what it means to stand apart, and what…

  12. U. S. Naval Forces, Vietnam Monthly Historical Summary for February 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-04-09

    side of the boat and doubt- lessly contributed to the fire and shrapnel damare . Another B-40 round exploded on the forward compartment hatch which...for inspection. The following items were discovered: 160 pair green sacks, 72 packs of gum , 40 safety razors, 120 packs of candy, cough pills, ballpoint

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLA423 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLA423. 470 0.0 3 ( ES615204 ) NGPAP47TR NGPA Nasonia giraulti cDNA, mRNA sequ.... 50 2e-05 2 ( EV418706 ) 210774888 NGP Nasonia giraulti cDNA clone 128A21 ... 40 3e-05 3 ( AP006852 ) Candi

  14. Direct Labeling, Tester Expectancy and Delay Maintenance Behavior in Scottish Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Fiona K.; Toner, Ignatius J.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the influence on Scottish preschool children's self-control of labels regarding patience given directly to the children themselves, and of the expectations regarding the children's patience provided to adult testers. Childrens self-control was assessed in a task in which each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made…

  15. Signed Statements and Delay of Gratification in Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Ritchie, Fiona K.

    Twenty-four deaf children (6 to 10 years old) were individually administered a task in which possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child stopping further accumulation. Ss, who under instruction periodically signed statements about the goodness of the reward, waited significantly longer before terminating the waiting…

  16. Age and Overt Verbalization in Delay-Maintenance Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Ignatius J.; Smith, Romayne A.

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of overt self-verbalization of various contents on the delay maintenance behavior of preschool, second grade and third grade children in a task in which the child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child's stopping further accumulation. (BD)

  17. The Effect of Being Labelled as "Patient" on Subsequent Self-Control in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Ignatius J.; And Others

    This study investigated the effect of labeling a girl as "patient" on the girl's subsequent self-imposed delay of gratification. Subjects were 78 girls from 5 1/2 to 9 years of age. In a delay task, each child's possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon her stopping further accumulation. Labeled girls waited longer than did…

  18. The Name Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Sharon J.

    Described is a game which provides a method for teaching students to locate cities and towns on a map. Students are provided with a list of descriptive phrases which stand for the name of a city, e.g., hot weather town (Summerville, Georgia); a chocolate candy bar (Hershey, Pennsylvania). Using a map, students must then try to find the name of a…

  19. Providing a Meaningful Social Studies Experience: Champions' Chocolate Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Laurie L.; Shaw, Donna Gail

    1988-01-01

    Describes a student teacher's experiences using a classroom simulation to teach fifth graders about the world of work. Summarizes the economic concepts and principles that were illustrated through the simulation of a candy factory. Discusses student activities and reporting in the five-six day lesson and includes a list of resources for teaching…

  20. Making the Economic Concept of Scarcity Oh-so-Sweet: An Activity for the K-12 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melanie; Davis, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The authors outline an innovative activity that helps teachers make the abstract concepts of scarcity and allocation concrete in the K-12 classroom. Students evaluate the scarcity of chocolate and often determine, incorrectly, that the candy is not scarce because there is enough for each student to have one piece. After students reveal their…

  1. Polymeric, Metallic, and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-ceramic glasses are not adequately discussed in introductory chemistry. Such glasses include polycarbonate, which many corrective lenses are made of, amber, enamel, gelatin, hard candy, coal, refrigerated glycerol, and metallic glasses that have been marketed in recent decades. What is usually discussed in elementary texts is siliceous glass,…

  2. Kuula. Kuu artist Scarlett Johansson. Kuu plaat / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Näitlejast ja lauljast Scarlett Johanssonist. Heliplaatidest: Madonna "Hard Candy", Vaiko Eplik ja Eliit "3: Kosmoseodüsseia", Pia Fraus "After Summer", HU? "Film", Enrique Iglesias "95/08 Exitos", Pendulum "In Silico", Mariah Carey "E=MC2"

  3. EVALUATION OF FOOD COLOR CONSUMPTION AND DETERMINING COLOR TYPE BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Farzianpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the role of the social demographic parameters of the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak (a type of coin-shaped candy and rock candy in the consumption of food colors and to determine color type by thin layer chromatography in Shahr-e-kord city in 2011. This research was an interventional-analytical study and its target population is the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak and rock candy in Shahr-e-kord city. Social demographic data of the participants were collected using checklists and 720 samples of pastry, poolak and rock candy weighing at least 250 gr were randomly taken over a period of 10 months. With respect to color additives, the samples were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC in four groups: natural colors permitted artificial colors, forbidden artificial colors and without colors. 48.47% contained food color and 6.52% contained forbidden artificial food color. Sunset Yellow was the color the most consumed among the colors used. Regarding the results obtained, there is a high rate of consumption of artificial colors (41.22%, sunset Yellow being the most consumed. Therefore, it is of great importance to raise the awareness and change the attitude of the people in charge in these jobs as well as the consumers with regard to the side effects of artificial colors, which can be done through the mass media and NGOs.

  4. After the Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Selling domestic companies to foreign multinationals does not always yield desired expansions for Chinese brands Nestle Group, the world’s largest food manufacturer,announced on July 11 it had entered a partnership agreement with Chinese candy and pastry producer Hsu Fu Chi International Ltd.

  5. Molecular markers discriminate closely related Encarsia spp. (E. diaspidicola and E. berlesei): candidate biocontrol agents for white peach scale in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white peach scale (WPS), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozetti (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya in Hawaii. In 2006, Encarsia diaspidicola Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was imported from Samoa to perform host-range studies. Another potential future candi...

  6. Using the Internet to Collaborate with Consumers in Redefining a Psychosocial Agenda for Families with Hereditary Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    DH. Tessa. . .I bet you are gorgeous bald ! Have you thought about keeping it shaved? I kept my head shaved a half year after chemo and loved it. Candi...good that I’d catch it and cure it if it happened. Also heard that the ooph lowers risk of bc. Deidre Sharing a dilemma; making a choice The search

  7. Why Finish Your Antibiotics? A Novel, Hands-On, Classroom Approach for Teaching the Dynamics of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmer, Gary T.; Kipe-Nolt, Judith A.; Chayko, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an effective, engaging, and fun method for teaching how the use or misuse of antibiotics can select for resistant strains of bacteria. This method uses candy as a substitute for strains of bacteria varying in resistance to a given antibiotic. Results and discussion are presented in the context of this emerging healthcare crisis.

  8. Quiescent water-in-oil Pickering emulsions as a route toward healthier fruit juice infused chocolate confectionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skelhon, T.S.; Grossiord, N.; Morgan, A.R.; Bon, S.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a route toward the preparation of healthier fruit juice infused chocolate candy. Up to 50 wt% of the fat content in chocolate, that is cocoa butter and milk fats, is replaced with fruit juice in the form of emulsion droplets using a quiescent Pickering emulsion fabrication strategy. F

  9. Can short-term oral fine motor training affect precision of task performance and induce cortical plasticity of the jaw muscles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Zhang; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold...

  10. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  11. SPRING STEPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    At the tail of the Chinese Lunar New Year,the whole country is still immersed in gaiety.The joyous atmosphere lingers in the red lanterns along the streets,in the colorful candy wrappers,and in the brilliant folk art performances.

  12. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  13. Quality Assurance of Current Combat Ration Pack Components: 12 Months Progress Report on 2010/11 Ration Packing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Components that have either failed or are likely to fail to achieve warranty are: Braised Beef & Gravy, Chicken Curry, Curried Sausages & Vegetables...Sweet Corn, Carrots, Savoury Soup, Tomato Soup and Chocolate Candy. The report makes recommendations to improve initial acceptability and to reduce the...9 3.2.5 Curried Sausages and Vegetables ......................................................... 9 3.3 Vegetables

  14. Linguistic and Pragmatic Constraints on Utterance Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Rochester, New York on February 21st, 1963. She enjoyed geometrical toys in a Montessori -method kindergarten, and books thereafter. She learned Latin between...explain communication failures and lying. Here is a misunderstanding from real life : A student who was thinking about buying some candy from a vending

  15. 21 CFR 1.328 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; vegetables; fish; dairy products; eggs; raw agricultural commodities for use as food or as components of food...; live food animals; bakery goods; snack foods; candy; and canned foods. Full-time equivalent employee... directly to the consumer or otherwise provides food or meals for consumption by humans or animals in...

  16. 21 CFR 1.377 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption General..., fruits, vegetables, fish, dairy products, eggs, raw agricultural commodities for use as food or... water, live food animals, bakery goods, snack foods, candy, and canned foods. Perishable food means...

  17. Share the Love: Why Not Celebrate Valentine's Day by Encouraging Kids to Give Back to the Community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2011-01-01

    February is a natural time to teach students that love involves more than hearts and candy--it also means giving of oneself. According to Terri Kennamer, a third-grade teacher at West Elementary School in Vestavia Hills, Alabama, it is the responsibility of educators to help students recognize that they are citizens of the world. Children have…

  18. Discovery by the Epistasis Project of an epistatic interaction between the GSTM3 gene and the HHEX/IDE/KIF11 locus in the risk of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bullock (James); C. Medway (Christopher); M. Cortina-Borja (Mario); J.C. Turton (James); J.A. Prince (Jonathan); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); M. Schuur (Maaike); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P.G. Kehoe (Patrick); R. Barber (Rachel); E. Coto (Eliecer); V. Alvarez (Victoria); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N. Hammond (Naomi); O. Combarros (Onofre); I. Mateo (Ignacio); D.R. Warden (Donald); M.G. Lehmann (Michael); O. Belbin (Olivia); K. Brown (Kristelle); G.K. Wilcock (Gordon); R. Heun (Reinhard); H. Kölsch (Heike); A.D. Smith; D.J. Lehmann (Donald); K. Morgan (Kevin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDespite recent discoveries in the genetics of sporadic Alzheimer's disease, there remains substantial " hidden heritability." It is thought that some of this missing heritability may be because of gene-gene, i.e., epistatic, interactions. We examined potential epistasis between 110 candi

  19. Art Supply Inventors. Children's Art Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses types of art materials that children enjoy using in their artworks. Explores the art materials such as tasty art supplies, such as candy; peeled supplies, such as pencil shavings; sticky art supplies, such as Band-Aids; and fast-food supplies, such as forks and spoons. (CMK)

  20. 29 CFR 779.347 - Exemption limited to “recognized retail establishment”; factories not exempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under the exemption are custom tailor shops, candy shops, ice cream parlors, bakeries, drug stores, optometrist establishments, retail ice plants and other local retail establishments which make or process the... Retail or Service Establishments Engaging in Manufacturing and Processing Activities; Section...

  1. English is a Crazy Language英语是门古怪的语言

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RichardLederer

    2004-01-01

    Let's face it-English is a crazy language. There is no egg in eggplant, nor ham in hamburger; neither apple nor pine in pineapple. English muffins weren't invented in England nor French flies in France. Sweetmeals are candies while sweetbreads, which aren't sweet, are meat.

  2. Is the voter only a tweet away? Micro-blogging in the 2009 European Parliament elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Sams, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the use of Twitter by candidates, in particular their networking and micro–blogging activities in the election campaign for the European Parliament elections of 2009 in the Netherlands. The main focus is on identifying what political aspects (e.g., party characteristics and candi

  3. The Effectiveness of Health Disclosures Within Children's Television Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Ronald J.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on pronutrition messages in children's commercials and describes a study involving children ages 3 to 14 to test the effectiveness of incorporating health information disclosures into actual television commercials for highly sugared cereal and candy products. Results indicate most children were able to recall and make sense of…

  4. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  5. 16 CFR 240.3 - Definition of seller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING... person (manufacturer, wholesaler, distributor, etc.) who sells products for resale, with or without further processing. For example, selling candy to a retailer is a sale for resale without...

  6. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... added sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain a lot ... Drink water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less candy and ...

  7. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. "candle"), an onset competitor (e.g. "candy"), a rhyme competitor (e.g.…

  8. Football or Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handorf, William C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the United States commemorative stamps and what the stamp-buying public knows about higher education. United States commemorative stamps have illustrated individuals such as Marilyn Monroe (1995); characters such as Bugs Bunny (1997); American motorcycles (2006); and Valentine candy hearts (2004). Higher…

  9. Enjoy Your Food, but Eat Less: 10 Tips to Enjoying Your Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Department of Agriculture 10 tips Nutrition Education Series MyPlate MyWins Based on the Dietary Guidelines for ... Indulge in a naturally sweet dessert dish—fruit! Mix berries with fat-free yogurt or ... foods like pie, cake, brownies, cookies, and candy, choose the smallest size ...

  10. Biological Sciences Division 1991 Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    AWARD PERIOD: May 1, 1990 - April 30, 1992 OBJECTIVE: To train undergraduate/graduate level candi- dates in an intensive program designed to teach ...and Hopkins, P.B., " Thermochemistry of Metal Ion Stabilized Peptide Helices," in preparation for submission to J. Am. Chem. Soc. 291 ANNUAL PROGESS

  11. Having Fun with Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present a fun activity that can be used to introduce students to error analysis: the M&M game. Students are told to estimate the number of individual candies plus uncertainty in a bag of M&M's. The winner is the group whose estimate brackets the actual number with the smallest uncertainty. The exercise produces enthusiastic discussions and…

  12. Nutrient content and yield in relation to top breakover in onion developed from greenhouse-grown transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) generally are harvested based on percentage of tops broken over. Since plant metabolism changes over time, percentage of tops broken over may be used to determine a harvest time to deliver marketable bulbs with the best nutrient content. The cultivars Candy and Texas Grano ...

  13. Reactive transport in surface sediments. I. Model complexity and software quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of three recent diagenetic model codes (OMEXDIA, CANDI and STEADYSED) revealed that codes have a rigid, static and problem-specific character, leaving little autonomy for the application user. The resulting lack of flexibility and extensibility, and the associated need for ground-level repr

  14. Competitive Food Sales in Schools and Childhood Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Altman, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of American middle schools and high schools sell what are known as "competitive foods," such as soft drinks, candy bars, and chips, to children. The relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and snacks and childhood obesity is well established, but it remains unknown whether competitive food sales in…

  15. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  16. An Annotated Bibliography on Operator Mental Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-26

    mental stress fez e two hoar period. Using sour candies •J to stimulate parotid gland activity, pe-ohid £ltid sazplcs were collected at thirty minute...Darmos and Wickens, 1977a Damos and Wickens, 1977b Daniel, 1970 Defayolle, Dinand, and Gentil, 1973 Dough •.rty, Emery, and Curtis, 1964 Ephratb

  17. What's under Your Bed? A Fundraising Fiasco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Cynthia L.; Klein, C. Suzanne; Gistinger, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Student clubs and sports often struggle to raise funds. With limited revenue streams, coaches or advisors and parents routinely find themselves managing candy sales, car washes, raffles, and ticketed fundraisers to support programming. In this case of a swim team fundraiser, school leaders see the range of problems that can occur when a routine…

  18. Communication, Hip Hop Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2009-01-01

    When Candi Carter, a producer at "The Oprah Winfrey Show", learned that her son, Emerson, was born with chromosome 8p, which causes heart defects, mental retardation, severe speech delay, and other issues, she was immediately thrust into the world of special needs parenting. Like many in her position, she learned quickly that her child's…

  19. The influence of negative urgency, attentional bias, and emotional dimensions on palatable food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kendra Davis; Fischer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-05-01

    We tested a theoretical model concerning the role of attentional bias and negative affect in food consumption that offers important advances. We hypothesized that the effects of negative affect manipulations on food consumption vary as a function of trait levels of negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when distressed), and attentional bias and that the roles of emotional arousal and negative emotional valence differ and should be studied separately. 190 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an anger or neutral mood condition. Women in both conditions completed the Food Stroop, in which the presentation of food and neutral words were counterbalanced. After the task, participants were given the opportunity to eat mandarin oranges and/or chocolate candy while the experimenter was out of the room. The type and quantity of food consumed was counted after the participant departed. As hypothesized, the roles of emotional arousal and valence differed and the effect of the induced emotion was moderated by NU. Women high in NU who experienced emotional arousal were more likely to eat candy and consumed more candy than other women. Emotional valence had no effect on candy consumption. Neither increases in emotional arousal or emotional valence influenced attentional bias to food cues. Attentional bias was also unrelated to food consumption. The impact of negative mood inductions on palatable food consumption appears to operate through emotional arousal and not negative emotional valence, and it may operate primarily for women high in NU.

  20. Valentihe's Day!%追溯情人节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Micheal J

    2005-01-01

    @@ Not Like it Used to Be! February 14 is Valentine's Day. Although it iscelebrated as a lovers' holiday today,withthe giving of candy,flowers,or other giftsbetween couples in love, it originated in 5thCentury Rome as a tribute(贡品) to St. Valentine,aCatholic bishop(天主教主教的).

  1. Making Health Easier: Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-07

    Instead of candy bars and chips, see how one employee is making healthier snack choices with the help of new vending machines.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  2. Management Concerns for Optical Based Filing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    terminals, WORM Palo Alto, CA 94303 drives, optical jukeboxes, printers, scanners. Candi Technology Inc. Systems integrators providing 2354 Calle Del Mundo ...n.3, p. 68, 6 February 1989. Dortch, M., "A Storage Media Primer ", LAN Times, v.6, n.1, pp. 38-39, January 1989. Dukeman, John, "Optical Disk - A

  3. Advice for Advisors: Suggestions and Observations from Lawrence to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    promise was made to do/get something and give you those big dis- appointed puppy -dog eyes that you apparently are not going to keep your word or the word...appealed to several private sources in the United States and in response received funds from church groups, blankets from weaving mills , and candy

  4. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  5. 女友健康法则%GIRL'S GUIDE TO GIRLFRIENDS' GOOD HEALTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ For a long life, eat lots of candy.吃点儿糖! That's right. There's something about sweets. They mellow me out and give me a little zing at the same time. All you have to do is take one bite, and you instantly feel a little closer to nirvana.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VFJ685 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ida boidinii strain with lowered protease activity and utilization thereof as host for producing foreign...ctivity and utilization thereof as host for producing foreign protein. 38 1e-06 5 AB060540 |AB060540.1 Candi

  7. 77 FR 12004 - Stanislaus National Forest, CA; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ...: Candy Rock; 19777 Greenley Road; Sonora, CA 95370; (209) 532-3671. Comments may be submitted by Fax ; or... Sara Friberg, Stanislaus National Forest, 19777 Greenley Road; Sonora, CA 95370; phone: (209) 532-3671...'s Office, 19777 Greenley Road, Sonora, CA 95370. Nature of Decision To Be Made The...

  8. French Fries, Dialysis Tubing & Computer Models: Teaching Diffusion & Osmosis through Inquiry & Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia Meis; Pallant, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Can eating large amounts of sugarless candy and gum lead to diarrhea? How does Milk of Magnesia work? How does penicillin kill bacteria? These are some of the questions that students answer in this series of lessons on diffusion and osmosis. To begin the unit, students predict the results of a demonstration involving the relationship between…

  9. An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive classroom activity that includes two-step reaction of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies is described which brings not only the reaction intermediate, but also the reactants and products into macroscopic view. The qualitative activation barriers of both steps can be adjusted independently.

  10. Effects of Isomalt on enamel de- and remineralization, a combined in vitro pH-cycling model and in situ study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takatsuka, T.; Exterkate, R.A.M.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Isomalt is a non-cariogenic sweetener, which is widely used in sugar-free candy and chewing gum. Little is known about the effects of Isomalt on de- and remineralization. Binding between calcium and Isomalt has been reported, which could affect the mineral balance. The objective of this study was to

  11. Technology Helps Students Transcend Part-Whole Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Evans, Michael A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Balci, Osman; Chang, Mido

    2014-01-01

    The authors introduce an educational video game (application, or "app"), "CandyFactory Educational Game," designed to promote students' development of partitive understanding of fractions while demonstrating the critical need to promote that development. The app includes essential game features of immediate feedback,…

  12. AcEST: DK959154 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fadin OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Mllt4 PE=1 SV=1 33 0.57 sp|Q80ZC9|PS1C2_MOUSE Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candi...APPPPPQRNASYLKTQVLSPDSLF 1731 >sp|Q80ZC9|PS1C2_MOUSE Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate gene 2 protein hom

  13. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  14. 75 FR 29340 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...: breakfast cereals; snack foods; candy and frozen desserts; dairy products; baked goods; prepared foods and... RWJF Center commented that the FTC's proposed information collection is important to expanding..., and the FMC Workgroup suggested that gathering exposure data is important to accurately evaluate...

  15. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (CARISA PAPAYA L. MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Nada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya has high water content, so it makes papaya fruit easy to experience damage. With papaya processing, papaya which is originally assumed improper to be sold or to be consumed (mechanical damage, diseased, acid, physical damage and will only to be thrown, finally can be used. The making of papaya dry candy is one of effort to preserve and to vary form of papaya serving. It also improves the economic value of papaya. The making of papaya can be conducted in big or small scale. The activity objectives are to introduce and give additional knowledge to society about papaya processing technology, to increase economic added value of papaya and the using of papaya which is improper to be sold or to be consumed becoming valuable food product .Realization of the objectives above are by performing an information sharing and discussion with the society about process of the making dry candy from papaya, training of papaya dry candy making, introduce simple technology of dry candy papaya making. This activity was performed at the head of Desa Timuhun office, on Friday, September 14, 2007 and was attended by 26 persons, including association of woman farmer and the staff in that office. The result of this activity shows that there was positive response of people who attend this activity, because by processing papaya fruit into dry candy, have a lot of advantage compare to sale it freshly. Beside that, this dry candy is healthy snack, without synthetic preservation, enriched with vitamins which is useful for health, also this dry candy is still good up to 1 month and of course it could to improve economic

  16. 山药软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波

    2015-01-01

    A new type of soft candy is developed using such main ingredients as yam, glucose syrup, agar. Through experiments optimum process parameters are as follow: yam paste 400 g, agar 40 g, glucose syrup 480 g, citric acid 0.4 g. The soft candy has a good taste and rich tension, with the rich flavor of the yam.%以山药、葡萄糖浆、琼脂为主要原料,开发出新型软糖。通过试验确定山药软糖最佳工艺参数方为山药浆400 g,琼脂40 g,葡萄糖浆480 g,柠檬酸0.4 g,制得的软糖口感独特且富有弹力,具有浓郁的山药风味。

  17. American-sign-language statements and delay of gratification in hearing-impaired and nonhandicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, I J; Ritchie, F K

    1984-04-01

    Hearing-impaired children were individually administered a task in which possession of accumulating candy rewards was made contingent upon the child's decision to stop any further accumulation of the candy. Hearing-impaired children, who under instruction periodically made American Sign Language (ASL) statements about the goodness of the reward, waited significantly longer before terminating the waiting period than did hearing-impaired children instructed to sign statements about the act of waiting and somewhat longer than did hearing-impaired children instructed to sign a neutral statement. Since the pattern of delay was unlike that reported in earlier investigations when nonhandicapped children verbalized similar statements and since variation in mode of communication did not influence delay in nonhandicapped children in the present investigation, the results were interpreted in terms of differences in cognitive controlling mechanisms between nonhandicapped and hearing-impaired children.

  18. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  19. Pastillas De Leche from Cow’s and Carabao’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Rana-Parducho

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastillas de leche or milk candies were prepared by separately evaporating fresh cow’s and carabao's milk and adding sugar to each until the mixture formed a soft ball.Statistical analysis of the results of organoleptic tests did not reveal significant differences in sweetness, flavor, odor, and general acceptability of these finished products. However, differences in color, body, and texture were noted. Carabao's milk scored high in terms of all organoleptic parameters and was favored by the panel of testers.The candies made from carabao's milk were also shown to have a higher fat and protein content than those made from cow’s milk; thus, the higher yield obtained in the case of carabao's milk.

  20. Teores de corantes artificiais em alimentos determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Contents of synthetic dyes in foods determined by high performence liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Prado

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are much used in processed foods. HPLC was applied to different types of snacks, such as colored cereals, chocolate confetti, chewing gums and candies for the determination of those additives. In the case of artificially colored breakfast cereals, 71% of the samples exceeded the allowed limits. Regarding the portions recommended for consumption by the makers of two of the samples, the amounts exceeded those allowed by the Brazilian legislation. In the case of chocolate confetti and candies none of the samples showed higher amounts than those allowed. However 37% of the chewing gum samples presented larger contents than the authorized ones, and one sample contained five times more synthetic dyes than allowed.

  1. Crystallization inhibition of an amorphous sucrose system using raffinose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEINEN K.M.; LABUZA T.P.

    2006-01-01

    The shelf life of pure amorphous sucrose systems, such as cotton candy, can be very short. Previous studies have shown that amorphous sucrose systems held above the glass transition temperature will collapse and crystallize. One study,however, showed that adding a small percent of another type of sugar, such as trehalose, to sucrose can extend the shelf life of the amorphous system by slowing crystallization. This study explores the hypothesis that raffinose increases the stability of an amorphous sucrose system. Cotton candy at 5 wt% raffinose and 95 wt% sucrose was made and stored at room temperature and three different relative humidities (%RH) 11%RH, 33%RH, and 43%RH. XRD patterns, and glass transition temperatures were obtained to determine the stability as a function of %RH. The data collected showed that raffinose slows sucrose crystallization in a low moisture amorphous state above the glass transition temperature and therefore improves the stability of amorphous sucrose systems.

  2. 美味在口 健康逃走——十大垃圾食品你还在吃吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒开智

    2007-01-01

    <正>Do you enjoy eating hamburgers,hot dogs,French fries or chips?Are you fond of soft drinks,candy or ice cream?If your an- swers are"Yes",you’d better take care.Most of them are junk food! What is junk food? Junk food has lots of fat(脂肪),salt and sugar,but few nutrients(营养物质).Most sci- entists say junk food is unhealthy.

  3. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVSG Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. Objectives: To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate, filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate, and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Results: Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dark chocolate had a high fall in pH and milk chocolate had low salivary sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  4. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  5. JPRS Report, Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    20) extensively used -in cocoa and cotton plantation, may have been responsible for the death of many farmers in the villages. Adrin (Aldrex 40) and...radionuclides present in some foodstuffs, in particular milk , which can contain up to 95 percent radioactivity. Soviet researchers have invented sorbets...candies, and chocolates to block the effects on the organism. Above all, they have developed special fibers capable of filtering out all the

  6. Investigation of Vertical Spiral Resonators for Low Frequency Metamaterial Design

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jiwen; Stevens, Christopher J; Edwards, David J

    2008-01-01

    This paper thoroughly explores the characteristics of vertical spiral resonators (VSR). They exhibit rela-tively high Q factors and sizes around a few percent of the free space wavelength, which make them ideal candi-dates for assembling metamaterial devices. A quasistatic model of VSR is obtained from simple analytical ex-pressions, and the effects of certain geometrical parameters on the resonant frequency are investigated.

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China orders another increase in interest rates as the country gears up to calm inflationary jitters.The purchasing managers index tumbles to a 28-month low,a reflection of weaknesses in the manufacturing industry. Chinese steelmakers reel from severe costs inflation.The government adds a new category of "micro-enterprises" in a move to help small businesses.The Swiss food giant Nestle launches a bid to acquire Chinese candy maker Hsu Fu Chi.

  8. Ethics-Redirecting the Army’s Moral Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-24

    what is right." - Martin Luther King , Jr. What is the drill sergeant thinking when he sells cigarettes, alcohol and candy to soldiers in their initial... Luther King , Jr. Stage 6: Universal transcend the interests of individuals, societies, Moral Principle and even of the social contract. Concepts of...1 Defining Ethics Rationalization of Unethical Behavior The Army’s Operational Environment and Trends Chapter 2 Why the Status Quo Won’t

  9. Turn-Taking Model in the Chinese Recruitment Reality show-BelongtoYou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theories of conversational analysis proposed by Sacks et al,this paper chooses excerpts of candidates’inter-view from the Chinese recruitment reality TV show BelongtoYou in Tianjin TV. Through analyzing the excerpt, how the rules of turn-taking are applied in this program will be demonstrated. And the features of turn-taking strategies used by the host,candi-dates and bosses will be concluded.

  10. Le cas des beurres végétaux et des cires d’origine naturelle

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Natural waxes such as Beeswax, Carnauba wax and Candelilla wax are widely used in the Cosmetic and Food industries. Thanks to their composition, and besides a compulsory high safety, they provide desirable properties such as strength, gloss, emolliency, barrier effect, making them essential in numerous applications. For example, lots of candies are coated with either one or a mix of these 3 waxes, while for Cosmetics, the waxy part of lipsticks contains various combinations of such waxes. Wit...

  11. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi; Mehran Fadaeinasab; Sonia Nikzad; Gokula Mohan; Hapipah Mohd Ali; Habsah Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communiti...

  12. The Defense Commissary Agency: A Business Case for Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    169 Menco, Inc. City of Industry. CA 1,199 54.9 460 312 170 Dromedary Kinston, NC 1.198 55.1 368 342 171 Eveready Battery Dallas, TX 1,196 55.3 1,204...Atlanta, GA 870 65.7 640 247 234 Dairy Rich, Inc. San Antonio, TX 858 65.8 232 428 235 Mario Olive Omaha, NE 857 66.0 318 371 236 Powers Candy Spokane, WA

  13. Competitive Food Sales in Schools and Childhood Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hook, Jennifer; Altman, Claire E.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of American middle schools and high schools sell what is known as “competitive foods”, such as soft drinks, candy bars, and chips, to children. The relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and snacks and childhood obesity is well established but it remains unknown whether competitive food sales in schools are related to unhealthy weight gain among children. We examined this association using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Coho...

  14. High-Intensity Sweeteners in Alternative Tobacco Products

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Shida; Beach, Evan S.; Sommer, Toby J.; Zimmerman, Julie B.; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Sweeteners in tobacco products may influence use initiation and reinforcement, with special appeal to adolescents. Recent analytical studies of smokeless tobacco products (snuff, snus, dissolvables) detected flavorants identical to those added to confectionary products such as hard candy and chewing gum. However, these studies did not determine the levels of sweeteners. The objective of the present study was to quantify added sweeteners in smokeless tobacco products, a dissolvab...

  15. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  16. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus G. Grunert; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Poulsen, Jacob B.; Ueland, Oydis; Åström, Annika

    2000-01-01

    1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were investigated: modification of the raw material, use of genetic modification in enzyme production, and direct use of genetically modified microorganisms. In addition, three levels of presence of the ...

  17. GAL 系教主益若翼时尚point全开! SUPER GAL!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    miji

    2013-01-01

    GAL系教主益若翼亲临Easy本社啦!时髦的小翼这次不仅为Easy的读者们带来了关于服饰以及美容的最新热讯,更带来了她自创美妆品牌Candy Doll&Dolly Wink,爱美女孩火速check!

  18. Book review: Bats: A world of science and mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book has something for everyone, from casual seekers of fascinating eye candy to professional scientists interested in the latest discoveries. Without losing sight of how mysterious bats remain despite decades of research, the authors deftly introduce readers to bats and the people who study them. The book is nice to look at, easy to understand, and interesting in many ways. These stories stick in the reader's memory long after being read—a sign of great scientific communication.

  19. DVD-d / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2007-01-01

    Kolm mängufilmide DVD-d : ameerika sõltumatu mängufilm "Karm tüdruk" ("Hard Candy"; režissöör David Slade; 2005), ameerika mängufilm "Kaitseingel" ("The Guardian"; režissöör Andrew Davis; 2006) ja Venemaa õudusfilm "Surnud tütred" ("Mjortvõje dotsheri"; režissöör Pavel Ruminov)

  20. 校種別に応じた水溶液の指導法(小学校生活科を含む) : 「粒子」概念の発達を柱として

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 康明; 横井, 一之; 林, 渉; 庄司, 裕志; Yasuaki, ITO; Kazuyuki, YOKOI; Wataru, HAYASI; Hirosi, SHOUJI; 鈴鹿短期大学; 鈴鹿短期大学非常勤; 東海学園大学; Suzuka Junior College; Tokai gakuen University

    2010-01-01

    Though the word `solution' is a concept expressing familiar phenomena around us, very few people use it correctly. For example, when I ask one of upper-grade children from a primary school a question: `What is a melting or dissolving thing?', the answer is `sugar,' `salt,' `boric acid,' `aluminum,' `iron,' `oxygen,' `ice cream,' `candy,' `toilet paper,' `glass' and so on. We can't distinguish between `melting' and `dissolving' so easily. That's why we use the word "dissolving" when something ...

  1. Estudo técnico-econômico de projetos para cozimento de frutas cristalizadas com a utilização de vapor dágua

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Carvalho Gomes de; Lin Chau Jen

    2004-01-01

    This technical economic study shows the results of three constructive projects, and which one is more economically viable concerning the water steam consumption for heating pans of candied fruits in a food industry. The thermal analysis was emphasized on to determine the ideal constructive form of the necessary equipment for the process. Three forms of water steam use were compared for the heating of the pan: the use of the steam in a direct form, injecting the steam directly inside the pa...

  2. Health Protection Products Are Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    FooDS and beverages that are made from natural ingredients and advertised as therapies are sweeping the consumer market. The health protection products I’ve seen can be divided into five categories. They include: 1. Beverages: tea, haw juice, mineral water; 2. Medicinal liquids: royal jelly, black-boned chicken essence, softshelled turtle essence; 3. Health protection foods: brown rice powder, rice vinegar, asparagus juice, egg-white candy;

  3. 圣诞老人的传说%The Legend of Santa Clavs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭菲

    2011-01-01

    Christmas is the most important festival of a year in many western countries. Children believe that on Christmas Eve (圣诞节前夕) Santa Claus will slide (滑) down their chimneys (烟囱) to bring them gifts. So they hang stockings (长筒袜) by the fireplace, hoping that Santa Claus will fill them with candy and toys.

  4. Plasma cell gingivitis - A rare case related to Colocasia (arbi leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Bali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell gingivitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition of uncertain etiology often flavoured chewing gum, spices, foods, candies, or dentifrices. The diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis is based on comprehensive history taking, clinical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests. Here we are presenting a rare case of plasma cell gingivitis caused by consumption of colocasia (arbi leaves. Colocasia is a kind of vegetable, very commonly consumed in the regions of North India.

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    specialists in the realm of ideology, and they do not have enough purely method- ological skills. All right, they are not docents or candi- dates of...8217 letters. "It is gratifying," writes, for example, Col A. Vayner, candidate of military sciences, docent , "that on the threshold of the conference...scien- tists and pedagogues, candidates and doctors of science, docents and professors are being trained." Colonels G. Sirosh and V. Ivanov share

  6. Acceptability of the Current and Proposed Items in the Meal, Ready-to-Eat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    soldiers report bringing Protein Drinks to the field ( Carnation , GNC. Myoplex, Protein shake mix, Ripped Fuel, and Wazc Whey Protein). Table 9. Bring...34 like s lightly. >~ The Marshmallow Treat> Shortbread Cookie, Chocolate Sports Bar. Orange Pound Cake. and Graham Treat all have small n’s. (Any mean...Brittle Bar Pound Cake. Lemon fig bar Cheese & PB Crackers Candy [kef Jerky Pound Cake, Vanilla Pound Cake, Fudge l3rownic Pound Cake, Orange

  7. Search for the Missing L-mode Edge Transport and Possible Breakdown of Gyrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, R. E.

    2012-10-01

    While GYRO simulations of typical core (0 theory of 6D drift-cyclotron kinetics following the fast time scale of the gyrophase to test the breakdown of 5D gyrokinetics with reduced model simulations is presented. 6pt [1] C. Holland, A.E. White, et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009). [2] R.E. Waltz, J. Candy, C.C. Petty, Phys. Plasmas 13, 072304 (2006).

  8. Representasi Guru dalam Cerpen dan Novel Sastrawan Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper discusses two novels and two short storiesby examining modern teacher’s characters by Balinese fictional authors. These four literary works are a novelin Balinese language entitled Bukit Buung Bukit Mentik (Buung and Mentik Hills by Agung Wiyat S Ardhi, a novel in Indonesian language Senja di Candi Dasa (Twilight inCandi Dasa by Aryantha Soethama, and two short stories in Balinese language Sertifikat(si (A Certificate (ion” by I Made Lewis, and Ngabdi (Serving by I Nyoman Alit Suwarbawa. By reading them in parallel way, these four works offiction are analyzed using the theory of New Historicism. It is found that the images of teacher characters in the writers mind are identical with that in real life. The teacher characters in these four stories seem to have changed from that of the traditional images of the past. Then, teachers were described as wise, knowledgeable and idealistic men. These kind of quality only are found in the Bukit Buung Bukit Menti. Where as, in Senja di Candi Dasa, Sertifikat(si and Ngabdi, such moral fibers are changing because of the increasingly glamorous lifestyle. The analysis also concludes that these fictions andfacts appear together, complementing one another. If fictions are a story and facts are history, then both appear simultaneously.

  9. 香甜红小豆加工工艺的研究%Study on the processing technology of sweet adzuki beans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解蕊; 正山大

    2012-01-01

    试验确定了香甜红小豆的最佳工艺及操作条件,其浸泡煮制最佳工艺条件:原料红小豆以25℃的清水浸泡24h,预煮10min,煮制50rain;真空蜜渍最佳条件:在真空度为2.66kPa的条件下,蜜渍时间为40min,蜜渍温度为60℃,蜜渍液浓度为70%;干燥最佳条件:常压下,以60~63℃热风干燥180min。%The optimum technical and operating conditions for sweet adzuki beans were determined by the test. The optimum soaking and cooking process condition was that adzuki beans were soaked in water with 25 ℃ for 24 hours, pre - cooking for 10 minutes, cooking for 50 minutes. The optimum vacuum candied condition was that candied for 40 minutes with the vacuum degree 2.66 kPa at 60 ℃, the concentration of candied solution 70%. The optimum drying condition was under atmospheric pressure, drying with 60 - 63 ℃ hot air forl80 minutes.

  10. Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Robyn C; Schaffner, Donald W

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes on household surfaces was evaluated by using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (<1, 5, 30, and 300 s), and inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer). The surfaces used were stainless steel, tile, wood, and carpet. The food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm(2)) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10(7) CFU/surface. Foods (with a 16-cm(2) contact area) were dropped onto the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Posttransfer, surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted, and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log percent transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food, and surface type all had highly significant effects (P < 0.000001) on the log percent transfer of bacteria. The inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer) also had a significant effect on transfer (P = 0.013), and most interaction terms were significant. More bacteria transferred to watermelon (∼0.2 to 97%) than to any other food, while the least bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1 to 62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02 to 94%) was similar to transfer of bacteria to bread with butter (∼0.02 to 82%), and these transfer rates under a given set of conditions were more variable than with watermelon and gummy candy.

  11. Do patients with schizophrenia use prosody to encode contrastive discourse status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelas, Amandine; Faget, Catherine; Portes, Cristel; Lienhart, Anne-Sophie; Boyer, Laurent; Lançon, Christophe; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) often display social cognition disorders, including Theory of Mind (ToM) impairments and communication disruptions. Thought language disorders appear to be primarily a disruption of pragmatics, SZ can also experience difficulties at other linguistic levels including the prosodic one. Here, using an interactive paradigm, we showed that SZ individuals did not use prosodic phrasing to encode the contrastive status of discourse referents in French. We used a semi-spontaneous task to elicit noun-adjective pairs in which the noun in the second noun-adjective fragment was identical to the noun in the first fragment (e.g., BONBONS marron "brown candies" vs. BONBONS violets "purple candies") or could contrast with it (e.g., BOUGIES violettes "purple candles" vs. BONBONS violets "purple candies"). We found that healthy controls parsed the target noun in the second noun-adjective fragment separately from the color adjective, to warn their interlocutor that this noun constituted a contrastive entity (e.g., BOUGIES violettes followed by [BONBONS] [violets]) compared to when it referred to the same object as in the first fragment (e.g., BONBONS marron followed by [BONBONS violets]). On the contrary, SZ individuals did not use prosodic phrasing to encode contrastive status of target nouns. In addition, SZ's difficulties to use prosody of contrast were correlated to their score in a classical ToM task (i.e., the hinting task). Taken together, our data provide evidence that SZ patients exhibit difficulties to prosodically encode discourse statuses and sketch a potential relationship between ToM and the use of linguistic prosody.

  12. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  13. The study of populations of hazelnut c. Avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. Colurna L. and their selection

    OpenAIRE

    Miletić Rade; Mitrović Milisav; Rakićević Milan; Blagojević Miladin; Karaklajić-Stajić Žaklina

    2007-01-01

    Properties of populations of hazelnut C. avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. colurna L. in different regions of Serbia were studied over 1998 - 2005. Round-fruit selections suitable for candy industry were concurrently singled out. Populations of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut are characterized by small or medium large fruits with round shape index and kernel index ranging from 0.77 - 0.89 and 0.78 - 0.84 respectively. Singled out selections of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut have averagely mediu...

  14. An Annotated Bibliography of DoD-Funded Reports Concerning Psychological Stress: 1950-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    Certain demographic and social backgrotud factors (esp. age and education ), tend to have constant relationships to amount of symptomatology, regardless of...Metabolic hvperac tiv it ’ suggest inig nlon spoc iCic stress,5 On I ’v during (2) was there ain incWrea se in 1-OP ICS ex~cret ion, andi of fcc ts duinig... education group, were exposed to an unchanging mental stress for a two-hour period. Using sour candies to stimulate parotid gland activity, parotid fluid

  15. Estratégias midiáticas de contruçao de uma candidata à presidência do Brasil: uma proposta teórico-metodológica

    OpenAIRE

    Bastian, Mariana; Gomes, Pedro Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    [en] The major theoric-methodological challenge of a research that involves three complex dimensions as the f ield of com-munication, politics and the question of gender (female), is to f ind the link that makes the connection bet ween the dif ferent moments that represents the building of Roussef f as a candi-date. It is not about f it into categories of analyzed materials or in work plans pre-def ined. The purpose is to leave these mate...

  16. CREATING A PACKAGE DESING FOR OY HALVA AB

    OpenAIRE

    Syväoja, Tiia-Maria Sarita

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on creating a graphic design for one of Oy Halva Ab’s packages. Halva is a Finnish candy manufacturer. The former package was considered too racist for Swedish markets. The package will be graphically redesigned in this thesis process. The author will be focusing on the process of making a new design for a package harmonious. The design outcome ought to be visible, brand supportive and ethical. These aspects make harmony in this case. The basic knowledge of pac...

  17. Competitive Pressure and Job Interview Lying: A Game Theoretical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Midjord, Rune

    2012-01-01

    We consider a job contest in which candidates go through interviews (cheap talk) and are subject to reference checks. We show how competitive pressure - increasing the ratio of "good" to "bad" type candi- dates - can lead to a vast increase in lying and in some cases make bad hires more likely. As the number of candidates increases, it becomes harder to in- duce truth-telling. The interview stage becomes redundant if the candidates, a priori, know each others' type or the result of their own ...

  18. Investigation into the Feasibility of Highly Enriched Uranium Detection by External Neutron Stimulation (Expanded Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    jar 493.1 40 Ragu spaghetti sauce in glass jar 668.5 36 Sanka in glass jar 277.0 37 Amore Cocoa mix in 5 foil packs 189.7 20 crackers in cardboard 153.1...20 microwave popcorn (2 bags) 228.4 15 chocolate coated almonds 201.2 20 Squigglies gummi worms candy 107.2 8 Sunglory raisins 5 packs in Ziploc...Vegetables 4.3 - 0.9 Meat & Fish 4.3-2.1 Thus containers on trucks containing such items as milk , bananas, etc., would pose a problem if the system threshold

  19. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  20. Investigation of Multi-Antenna Mobile Terminals in Terms of Hearing Aids Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of the near fields (NF) of different configurations of two antennas mobile phones with a candy bar phone factor. The study has been carried out via Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations. Interesting paradigms not valid for the single antennas ...... have been identified. In order to obtain a hearing aids compatible (HAC) mobile phone having two antennas, special attention has to be focused on the NF at the high band as opposed to the single antenna case where the HAC is defined by the NF at the low band....

  1. Inconsistent Transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie Koldkjær; Riis, Morten S.

    2017-01-01

    argue that, to manifest the conditions hidden in knowledge and the unconscious transferences that accompany the need to be scientific, one must be critical of traditional understandings of knowledge production. Therefore, it is crucial to explore understandings of knowledge production that are directed...... of translations within and between objects. As a consequence, the aesthetic dimension and the knowledge derived from artistic research struggle to position themselves as more than candy on the surface of the scientific field unless considered within alternative knowledge paradigms that acknowledge...

  2. Pineapple holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Calixte, L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Padilla V, A.; Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Ruiz-Limón, B.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2006-02-01

    We show that juice pineapple can be considering as new unconventional holographic recorded medium, because it has good chemical and optical properties. Some structures of computers phase holograms are copied into this material by thermo-polymerization therefore in this research we present a preliminary analysis and experimental results. The major improvements from our material are: good diffraction efficiency, reduced cost, easily to apply on any substrate and the hologram is making with out develop process. the nature sweetener from pineapple can be applied for the food industry mainly in the candy industry.

  3. A Factor-Based Exploration of Player´s Continuation Desire in Free-to-Play Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankevicius, Deividas; Jady, Hawraa Amira; Drachen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    the perceived user experience factors relevant for Continuation Desire and then attempts to predict play-ers’ intention to continue playing. Structural Equation Mod-eling analysis was performed to validate the model and to predict the intention of continuation desire. At the same time, exploring why people...... continue playing, based on ex-periments using Candy Crush Saga, one of the most popular Free-to-Play mobile games worldwide. The findings indi-cate that motivation is an important factor of Continuation Desire in Free-to-Play mobile games, with engagement, en-joyment and flow being less important...

  4. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    production of marketable products. It seems more than certain that the South will not reach the North’s development level. "But is this by any chance...Altintas, SPO Reseach Group Chief Dogan Yorukhan and Deputy Chief Yasar Yakis of EEC Relations "make the candi- dates sweat." If no unanimity is...The concept of 24 January 79 has abandoned its initial purpose of "stability" and has moved to seek a free market economy and the leadership of the

  5. Learning Vaadin

    CERN Document Server

    Frankel, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This book begins with a tutorial on Vaadin 7, followed by a process of planning, analyzing, building, and deploying a fully functional RIA while covering troubleshooting details along the way, making it an invaluable resource for answers to all your Vaadin questions. If you are a Java developer with some experience in Java web development and want to enter the world of Rich Internet Applications this technology and book are ideal for you. Learning Vaadin will be perfect as your next step towards building eye-candy dynamic web applications on a Java-based platform.

  6. 硬派时尚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    G.cell GLove篮牙滑雪手套;Lamps吊灯;Planika暖炉;PAPPA*PHONE电话;Macbook Air Cover笔记本电脑保护套;007 Villain Collection腕表;Cinemizer视频眼镜;Elements Stardust收音机;Shuella防水鞋套;Power Purse太阳能手袋;Nebo移动式购物站;NS08概念手机;Eye Candy Can情感“棒棒糖”;

  7. Understanding middle school math cool problems to get students thinking and connecting

    CERN Document Server

    Hyde, Arthur; Heck, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    In Understanding Middle School Math, Arthur Hyde gathers 50 cool problems that lead to deep thinking. Problems such as Chocolate Algebra, where students discover linear relationships among the pocket money needed for differently priced chocolate candies. With the latest research and decades of classroom experience, he braids language, cognition, and math to create problems that connect math to the real world, to students' lives, and to prior knowledge. Extensively field-tested problems that scaffold content and processes, and give students multiple entry points into learning.

  8. How to Keep a Good Eating Habit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧敏

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary for us all to develop a healthy lifestyle. If you want to take care of your health, you should eat more fruit and vegetables and stay away from sugar and candy. You are not supposed to eat too much food that is fried like French fries, barbecues and unhealthy food. They can increase the risk of cancer. In order to have a healthy lifestyle, as teenagers, we should have a balanced diet and don't eat too much junk food. We must take more exercise a day.

  9. [Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels.

  10. Меморијален концерт за "Санда Бикова"

    OpenAIRE

    Micanov, Georgi; Micanova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Гоце Мицанов-клавир,А.Секуловски-тапани,К.Денов-бас,Катерина Мицанова- вокал 1.Fly me to the moon(B.Howard) 2.Candy(M.Davis) 3.5 до 12(Г.Мицанов) 4.Masquerade(G.Benson) 5.Angel eyes(M.Dennis)

  11. Pengaruh Perbandingan Sari Mengkudu dengan Sari Nenas dan Lama Pemanasan terhadap Mutu Permen Mengkudu Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Melina Farida

    2015-01-01

    The research was conducted to determine the effect of comparison of noni with pineapple juices and time of heating on the quality of mix noni candy. This research was performed in January 2013 – April 2013 at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e. : the comparison of noni with pineapple juices (S) (70% : 30%; 60% : 40%; 50% : 50%; 60% : 40%) and time of heating (L) (20 minutes, 2...

  12. Analysis of Mobile Phone Antenna Performance within the Head and Hand Phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Faruque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the effect of the hand-hold position on the electromagnetic (EM wave interaction of a candy bar type and clamshell type cellular handset and a human head and hand is investigated. The human hand influences the performance of terminal antennas, and it is the main cause for absorption and  detuning. In spite of its importance in mobile-phone design and validation processes, it is still complicated to take it into account because a lack of knowledge in the area. In this paper, a rigorous investigation methodology is described for the study of candy bar, and clam shell mobile phone CAD model is used to numerically investigate the effect of hand phantom of mobile phone antenna radiation performance. The simulation results show that mobile phone grip styles of the hand phantom material properties, wrist and length, and hand phantom sizes and different positions is the important parameter to antenna performance. The grip style has direct implications in  the definition of phantom head. The preference of the handset with respect to the side of the user’s head depends on the mobile phone form factor and size. The results established high reliability and suitability for providing decision rationale for the design of complex high-end multi-band mobile phones.

  13. Brief, pre-learning stress reduces false memory production and enhances true memory selectively in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Peters, David M; Kalchik, Andrea E; Hoffman, Mackenzie M; Aufdenkampe, Rachael L; Woelke, Sarah A; Wolters, Nicholas E; Talbot, Jeffery N

    2014-04-10

    Some of the previous research on stress-memory interactions has suggested that stress increases the production of false memories. However, as accumulating work has shown that the effects of stress on learning and memory depend critically on the timing of the stressor, we hypothesized that brief stress administered immediately before learning would reduce, rather than increase, false memory production. In the present study, participants submerged their dominant hand in a bath of ice cold water (stress) or sat quietly (no stress) for 3 min. Then, participants completed a short-term memory task, the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, in which they were presented with 10 different lists of semantically related words (e.g., candy, sour, sugar) and, after each list, were tested for their memory of presented words (e.g., candy), non-presented unrelated "distractor" words (e.g., hat), and non-presented semantically related "critical lure" words (e.g., sweet). Stress, overall, significantly reduced the number of critical lures recalled (i.e., false memory) by participants. In addition, stress enhanced memory for the presented words (i.e., true memory) in female, but not male, participants. These findings reveal that stress does not unequivocally enhance false memory production and that the timing of the stressor is an important variable that could mediate such effects. Such results could have important implications for understanding the dependability of eyewitness accounts of events that are observed following stress.

  14. Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joseph A; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The Indian herb Gymnema sylvestre has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for 2000 years, most recently for the treatment of diabetes. Loose leaf Gymnema sylvestre can be prepared as a tea and will impair the ability to taste sugar by blocking sweet receptors on the tongue. This report describes a laboratory exercise easily applied to an undergraduate neuroscience course that can be used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. Combined with a preceding lecture on the primary taste sensations, students experience and appreciate how the primary tastes are combined to produce overall taste. In addition, the exercises outlined here expand upon previously published demonstrations employing Gymnema sylvestre to include illustrations of the different sensory transduction mechanisms associated with each of the four or five primary taste modalities. Students compare their qualitative primary taste experiences to salt, sugar, aspartame, chocolate, and sweet-sour candy prior to and following exposure to Gymnema sylvestre. The herb's impairment of sweet sensation is profound and dramatically alters the perception of sweetness in sugar, chocolate, and candy without altering the perception of the other primary tastes. The exercise has an indelible effect on students because the herb's intense effect compels students to rely on their unique personal experiences to highlight the principles of gustatory sensation.

  15. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of carminic acid, alpha- and beta-bixin, and alpha- and beta-norbixin, and the determination of carminic acid in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F E; Lawrence, J F

    1996-05-03

    During a study of natural food colours, a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography system was developed for use with cochineal and annato. An isocratic mobile phase, consisting of methanol and 6% aqueous acetic acid, resolved bixin and norbixin, while a gradient system was used to separate carminic acid and the annato compounds. The carminic acid contents of cochineal extract, carmine and carmine hydrosoluble were determined using an isocratic mobile phase (40:60, v/v). The detection limit for carminic acid in the various products was approximately 100 ng/g. Carminic acid was determined quantitatively in fruit beverages, yogurt and candies. It was demonstrated that, because of decomposition, carminic acid was not suitable for use in candies when manufacturing temperatures above 100 degrees C were required. Most membrane filters are not suitable for use with cochineal solutions, but a cellulose membrane filter did not adsorb carminic acid and was used successfully to remove impurities from water-based cochineal products and food extracts containing carminic acid.

  16. SOUFFLE WITH REDUCED AMOUNT OF SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Was studied the technology of producing aerated candies "Souffle" with replacement of sugar to molasses with increased shelf life, molded by "jetting" with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry, into metallized film type "flow-pack ". Studied the process of foaming disperse systems. Studied the process of gelation and gelation affected by various factors. To establish a relationship between the effective viscosity and jelly mass of gelation ability of agar were achieved the dependence according to the effective viscosity of the jelly mass shear rate and a shear rate on the shear stress at temperature of 65 ˚C and a mass fraction of solids of 78%. Viscosity reduction has a positive effect on the process of molding molasses candies by the "extrusion". Were definede values of the plastic strength of jelly masses and found that replacing sugar to molasses reduces the plastic strength, but it does not affect a good form-stable ability. Cinnamon was added into the prescription whipped composition to improve the nutritional value of products. Were defined organoleptic, physical and chemical qualities, calculated energy value of the products. High hygroscopic souffle on molasses requires hermetic packaging. Proposed a new progressive method of forming a souffle with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry to form sausages. Curing and structure foarming implemented directly in the shell for 2 h, which is an important advantage of this method. Whipped products on molasses are functional.

  17. A novel method for the simultaneous determination of 14 sweeteners of regulatory interest using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Romina; Farris, Samantha; De Jager, Lowri S; Begley, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    An improved, efficient, sensitive method for the determination of 14 non-nutritive sweeteners in food products was developed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in the negative-ion mode. Fourteen sweeteners and three internal standards were separated on a reversed-phase UHPLC column using a simple gradient programme. Analyte quantitation and confirmation were performed with data collection in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Limits of detection (LODs) were determined in a representative drink, candy and yogurt sample and ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 ng ml(-1) (drinks) and from 0.1 to 2.5 ng g(-1) (candy and yogurt). Repeatability at the limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 1% to 13% relative standard deviation (RSD). Twenty-seven commercially available food products were tested using the optimised method showing that the majority of products contained sweetener concentrations below their assigned maximum usable dose. Recovery studies were performed and accuracy data are presented.

  18. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  19. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  20. Patterns of chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligson, F H; Krummel, D A; Apgar, J L

    1994-12-01

    Although consumed in some form since at least 460 AD, cacao (Theobroma cacao) was not used in confectionery until the 19th century when the cocoa press was invented. Per capita consumption of chocolate confectionery in the United States is moderate (approximately 4.6-4.8 kg/y) compared with that of many northern European countries (approximately 7-10 kg/y). Eleven percent of the US population reported consuming chocolate candy on > or = 1 of the 3 d of recorded food intake in the US Department of Agriculture Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1987-1988; chocolate every day. The Western region of the United States contained the highest proportion of chocolate consumers. More whites than other racial groups were consumers. Chocolate was consumed by more people in the winter than in other seasons and more was consumed at snacks than at meals. The mean amount of chocolate consumed was approximately 30-90 g/d, depending on sex and age group. Chocolate candy was only a minor contributor (0.7-3.4%) to the overall dietary intake of total energy, fat, saturated fatty acids, and stearic acid.

  1. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  2. [Factors associated with oral health habits and use of dental services by adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoglio, Rosane Silvia; Aerts, Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Abegg, Claídes; Freddo, Silvia Letícia; Monteiro, Lisiane

    2009-03-01

    This was a cross-sectional study of 1,170 seventh-grade adolescents from the municipal public school system in Gravataí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, investigating the association between socio-demographic, psychosocial, and lifestyle factors and oral health habits and use of dental services. Data were analyzed by Cox regression, modified for cross-sectional studies. Females showed higher frequency of brushing, as did adolescents that reported not feeling alone or discriminated. Daily flossing was associated with higher socioeconomic status (SES), use of private dental services, parental understanding, and lack of feeling of loneliness. Frequency of annual dental visits was higher among individuals with higher SES. Preventive dental checkups were more frequent among individuals with higher SES, those who felt understood by their parents, and those who did not habitually eat candy. Oral health habits were associated with family SES and psychosocial factors except for frequency of annual dental visits. As for lifestyle, low candy consumption had a positive impact on reasons for use of dental appointments.

  3. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  4. [Correlation and association of income and educational level with health and nutritional conditions among the morbidly obese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula Dos Santos; Da Silveira, Erika Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to investigate the relationship between income and educational level and health and nutritional conditions among the morbidly obese. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 79 patients at first appointment, with Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2 and age ≥ 20 years. The following data was collected: demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle, biochemical and food intake data. Average BMI was 48.3 ± 6.9 kg/m2. There was a significant negative correlation between education level and the variables of weight (r = -0.234) and BMI (r = -0.364) and per capita family income with daily consumption of leafy vegetables (r = -0.263). After multivariate analysis, higher per capita family income was associated with the absence of heart disease (PR: 0.51, CI95%: 0.32-0.81), higher daily consumption of leafy vegetables (PR: 1.79, CI95%: 1.16-2.75) and candy (PR: 3.12, CI95%: 1.21-8.04). In the morbidly obese, per capita household income was associated with absence of heart disease and higher consumption of leafy vegetables and candy. On the other hand, education level was not associated with health and nutrition conditions.

  5. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  6. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  7. Detection of 10 sweeteners in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Shiang Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for sweeteners in various food matrixes is very important for food quality control and regulation enforcement. A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners [acesulfame potassium (ACS-K, aspartame (ASP, cyclamate (CYC, dulcin (DUL, glycyrrhizic acid (GA, neotame (NEO, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC, saccharin (SAC, sucralose (SCL, and stevioside (STV] in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass chromatography (LC–MS/MS was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 150 mm column with gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water and 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. The recoveries of the 10 sweeteners were between 75% and 120%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 20%. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for NHDC and SCL. For the other sweeteners, the limits of quantification were 0.1 μg/kg. Compared to the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography method, the LC–MS/MS method could provide better sensitivity, higher throughput, enhanced specificity, and more sweeteners analyzed in a single run. The samples included 27 beverages (16 alcoholic and 11 nonalcoholic beverages and 15 pickled foods (1 pickled pepper, 3 candies, and 11 candied fruits. Two remanufactured wines were found to contain 7.2, 8.5 μg/g SAC and 126.5, 123 μg/g CYC, respectively. ACS-K, ASP, SCL, and NEO were detected in five beverages and drinks. The pickled peppers and candied fruits were found to contain SAC, GA, CYC, ASP, STV, NEO, and ACS-K. The wine with sweeteners detected was remanufactured wine, not naturally fermented wine. Therefore, the ingredient label for the sweeteners of remanufactured wine should be regulated by the proper authority for inspection of sweeteners.

  8. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  9. MASADA: A Modeling and Simulation Automated Data Analysis framework for continuous data-intensive validation of simulation models

    CERN Document Server

    Foguelman, Daniel Jacob; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Complex networked computer systems are usually subjected to upgrades and enhancements on a continuous basis. Modeling and simulation of such systems helps with guiding their engineering processes, in particular when testing candi- date design alternatives directly on the real system is not an option. Models are built and simulation exercises are run guided by specific research and/or design questions. A vast amount of operational conditions for the real system need to be assumed in order to focus on the relevant questions at hand. A typical boundary condition for computer systems is the exogenously imposed workload. Meanwhile, in typical projects huge amounts of monitoring information are logged and stored with the purpose of studying the system’s performance in search for improvements. Also research questions change as systems’ operational conditions vary throughout its lifetime. This context poses many challenges to determine the validity of simulation models. As the behavioral empirical base of the sys...

  10. MASADA: A MODELING AND SIMULATION AUTOMATED DATA ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR CONTINUOUS DATA-INTENSIVE VALIDATION OF SIMULATION MODELS

    CERN Document Server

    Foguelman, Daniel Jacob; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Complex networked computer systems are usually subjected to upgrades and enhancements on a continuous basis. Modeling and simulation of such systems helps with guiding their engineering processes, in particular when testing candi- date design alternatives directly on the real system is not an option. Models are built and simulation exercises are run guided by specific research and/or design questions. A vast amount of operational conditions for the real system need to be assumed in order to focus on the relevant questions at hand. A typical boundary condition for computer systems is the exogenously imposed workload. Meanwhile, in typical projects huge amounts of monitoring information are logged and stored with the purpose of studying the system’s performance in search for improvements. Also research questions change as systems’ operational conditions vary throughout its lifetime. This context poses many challenges to determine the validity of simulation models. As the behavioral empirical base of the sys...

  11. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NOVEL PYRAZOLES AND THEIR GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY ON SOME FLOWERING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hushare VJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of chlorosubstituted 4-aroylpyrazoles have been synthesized by refluxing of chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and 3-alkoylchromone with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride in dioxane medium with 0.5 ml of piperidine. Chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and chlorosubstituted-3-alkoylchromone were prepared by refluxing them separately with iodine crystal in ethanol. Initially chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavanones and 3-alkoylchromanone have been prepared separately by the interaction of different aldehydes with 1(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione. Constitutions of synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, UV-Visible, I.R. and 1H-NMR spectral data. The titled compounds were evaluated for their growth promoting activity on some flowering plants viz. Papaver rhoeas, Dianthus chinensis, Candy tuft, Calendula officinalise, Gladiola tristis, Gaillardia.

  12. Soledade. The first cemetery of the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rabelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of cemeteries occurred because of a change in funeral habits, when burials were transferred from the church to saint fields. In 1850, the first public cemetery was inaugurated in the city of Belem, Brazil. The Cemetery Nossa Senhora da Soledade (CNSS has a strong symbolic representation. Although its burials have ceased 30 years after its opening, the place is still visited for religious purpose, expressed in the practice souls and popular saints cults, held every Monday when the cemetery is open to the public. Hundreds of people come to the CNSS for pray near the graves. They deposit candies, soft drinks, flowers, and some sculptures adorned with shirts and ribbons, as a signal of gratitude for the graces received, attributed to the souls represented by the saints. Summed to the offerings, the tombs abandon, dirty plus graffiti, the cemetery is in a bad condition.

  13. Bioactive components of Prunus avium L. black gold (red cherry) and Prunus avium L. stark gold (white cherry) juices, wines and vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Nilgün H

    2017-01-01

    Cherries are one of the most popular fruits, characterized by attractive colour, firmness, appearance and delicious tastes. Cherries are consumed fresh as well as in jams, wine, dried, candy and other processed products. Cherries vary in antioxidant properties and phenolic substances. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of ethanol and acetic acid fermentation on total antioxidant activities and phenolic substances of cherry juice. Total investigation of solids, pH, soluble solids, phenolic substances, ORAC and TEAC of Prunus avium L. cherry juices, macerated cherries wine, and vinegars were analyzed. All samples had 300.1-854.79 mg GAE/L of total phenolic contents, and 6.62-17.97 µmol/mL of ORAC values, and 1.5-5.5 mmol/mL of TEAC. Chlorogenic acid was present in the highest amount P. avium L. black gold vinegar.

  14. 视觉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    新西兰海湾雕塑双年展 2015年1月23日至2月15日,新西兰举办了第七届海湾雕塑展,有31件定点雕塑作品在怀赫科岛(Waiheke)展出。艺术魔毯受到公共艺术协会(the Association for Public Art)委托,多媒体艺术家凯蒂·科迪(Candy Coated)创作了一个艺术魔毯(Magic Carpet)装置,于2014年7月16日至8月17日在费城美术馆展出。

  15. The Essentials of Indianness: Tolerance and Sacrifice in Indian Partition Fiction in English and in English Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudeb Chakraborti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Partition fiction, on the one hand, records man’s bestiality and savagery and on the other, attests to the fact that man is essentially sincere, committed to upholding humanity to survive and sustain itself. The paper contends to examine the fundamental goodness of some characters, which the Indian tradition underlines. By analyzing certain characters from Chaman Nahal’s Azadi, Khuswant Singh’s Train to Pakistan, Bapsi Sidhwa’s Ice-Candy-Man, Bhisham Sahni’s Tamas, Saadat Hasan Manto’s short stories and two Indian films, Mr. and Mrs. Iyar, directed by Aparna Sen and Meghe Dhaka Tara by Ritwik Ghatak, the writer tries to bring home the truth that frenzy of insanity is not final and amidst the pall of darkness and threats of insanity, there is a ray of hope.

  16. High Tech Hunks of Steel: Fixed-Site Amusement Rides and Safety Under State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kingsley

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  Tomorrow is the big day! Little Bobby Missoula is going to turn ten tomorrow and his parents have promised to take him to Outlandish Adventures, an amusement park that Bobby has seen advertised on television. As Bobby drifts off to sleep, he begins to dream about the fun that he will have on his birthday. He dreams about the smell of cotton candy and the yells of carnies soliciting people in to play their games, but most of all, he dreams about the Lightning Bolt - the tallest, fastest, and scariest roller coaster that little Bobby has ever seen. In his dream, the Lightning Bolt whips Bobby around sharp angles, through upside down loops so close to water that Bobby’s hair and face get wet, down vertical descents at speeds over 100 miles per hour, and finally to an abrupt stop where Bobby rushes to the end of the line to do it all over again.

  17. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts.

  18. [Malabsorption of fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a common cause of unclear abdominal discomfort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel-Stengel, M; Mönnikes, H

    2014-06-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent but underestimated cause of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms like meteorism, flatulence, pain and diarrhea. By means of hydrogen and/or methane breath test after ingestion of the respective carbohydrate it can be identified and diagnosed easily, fast and reliably by successful nutritional therapy. Besides the well known complaints caused by lactose and fructose malabsorption, other fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (akronym: FODMAP) can cause abdominal discomfort and IBS-like symptoms. In addition to lactose (dairy products) and fructose (apples, pears, mango, watermelon), FODMAPs comprise galactans (legumes), fructans (wheat, onions, garlic, artichoke) and the artificial sweeteners sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol (sugar free candy, light products). A general restriction of all FODMAP components can be beneficial in relieving symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints.

  19. Searching the Gamma-ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: Fermi GBM and LAT Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

    CERN Document Server

    Racusin, J L; Goldstein, A; Connaughton, V; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Jenke, P; Blackburn, L; Briggs, M S; Broida, J; Camp, J; Christensen, N; Hui, C M; Littenberg, T; Shawhan, P; Singer, L; Veitch, J; Bhat, P N; Cleveland, W; Fitzpatrick, G; Gibby, M H; von Kienlin, A; McBreen, S; Mailyan, B; Meegan, C A; Paciesas, W S; Preece, R D; Roberts, O J; Stanbro, M; Veres, P; Zhang, B -B; Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Costanza, F; Cuoco, A; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Lalla, N; Di Mauro, M; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Gill, R; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Granot, J; Green, D; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Jogler, T; Johannesson, G; Kamae, T; Kensei, S; Kocevski, D; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Magill, J D; Maldera, S; Malyshev, D; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Negro, M; Nuss, E; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Principe, G; Raino, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Parkinson, P M Saz; Scargle, J D; Sgro, C; Simone, D; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spada, F; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Thayer, J B; Torres, D F; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vianello, G; Wood, K S; Wood, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candi- date LVT151012. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for char- acterizing the upper limits across a large area of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, dif- ferences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  20. Characterisation of free and glycosidically bound odourant compounds of Aragonez clonal musts by GC-O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Goreti; Mendes-Faia, Arlete; Clímaco, Maria Cristina

    2010-01-11

    To evaluate the potential aroma of Aragonez clonal red musts, several free and glycosidically bound odourant compounds were extracted. Then, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) posterior intensity method was used to evaluate their odour intensity and the compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A group of eight sniffers evaluated free and bound fractions of Aragonez musts and perceived forty-three and twenty-two odourant peaks respectively. Furaneol (burnt sugar, candy-cotton) and vanillin (vanilla, sweet) were identified in both free and bound fractions of Aragonez musts, indicating their grape-derived origin. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the posterior intensity method data and a relationship between the different odourant compound variables and the free fractions was established. Two principal components (PCs) were found which together explained 100% of the total variance. A large number of potentially important but yet unknown odourants was detected by the GC-O analysis.

  1. Estudio por HPLC de la acción de dos elicitores bióticos sobre la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios en células de clavel (Dianthus canophyilus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ligia Higuera M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la investigación que busca contribuir al estudio de los mecanismos de defensa que operan en la interacción clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. - Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, se evaluó la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios asociados con resistencia del clavel. Para ello se usaron cultivos de células en suspensión de variedades de clavel resistente (var. Candy y susceptible (var. Rosana, elicitadas durante 3 y 15 días con dos elicitores bióticos, ácido fusárico y filtrado de medio de cultivo del hongo.

  2. 甜味剂 D-塔格糖的生产及其在食品中的应用%Production of Sweetener D-tagatose and Its Application in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2016-01-01

    The production methods of sweetener D-tagatose are reviewed.Its application in food such as healthy beverage,dairy products,cereal products,candy and low sugar preserved fruit is stated. Meanwhile,the direction on the research and development of D-tagatose is put forward.%综述了甜味剂 D-塔格糖的生产方法,阐述了 D-塔格糖在健康饮料、乳制品、谷物制品、糖果及低糖果脯等食品领域的应用研究进展,并提出了 D-塔格糖的研究开发方向。

  3. Emulsion and it’s Applications in Food Processing – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheeb Usaid A.S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An emulsion is a heterogeneous system consisting of atleast one immiscible liquid dispersed in another in the form of droplets. Emulsions are classified based on the nature of the emulsifier or the structure of the system. The range of droplets size for each type of emulsion is quite arbitrary. Macro emulsions are the most common form of emulsions used in food industries than nano and micro emulsions. There are several methods are possible and a wide range of equipments are available for emulsion formations. These methods include shaking, stirring and injection, and the use of colloid mills, homogenizers and ultrasonics. The unique nature of emulsions with a narrow size distribution of different sized droplets has number of applications in food industries including bakery products, dairy, candy products, meat products and beverages. Still most applications are waiting for commercial exploitation.

  4. Self-control, self-regulation, and doping in sport: a test of the strength-energy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin K; Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Dimmock, James A; Donovan, Robert J; Keatley, David A; Hardcastle, Sarah J; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-04-01

    We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes' behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or "doping." Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a "lollipop" decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the "lollipop" protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.

  5. Instructions, feedback, and reinforcement in reducing activity levels in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, J L; Suran, B G; Stevens, T M; Kupst, M J

    1979-01-01

    The biomotometer, an electronic device which simultaneously measures motor activity and provides auditory feedback, was used in combination with material reinforcers in an experiment to reduce children's activity level in a classroom setting. Subjects were nine boys and two girls, aged 9--13, from a day hospital program for emotionally disturbed children. After five baseline trials, each child had five contingent reinforcement trials in which he/she received feedback "beeps" from the biomotometer and was given toy or candy rewards after each trial in which activity fell at least 20% below mean baseline level. Then five noncontingent reinforcement trials were run in which children received rewards for wearing the apparatus without the feedback attachment. Results indicated that the intervention "package," including instructions, feedback, and contingent reinforcement, was successful in all five trials for 8 of 11 children. Activity levels increased during the final noncontingent phase.

  6. Can A Food Retailer-Based Healthier Foods Initiative Improve The Nutrient Profile Of US Packaged Food Purchases? A Case Study Of Walmart, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthier foods initiatives (HFIs) by national food retailers offer an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of packaged food purchases (PFPS). Using a longitudinal dataset of US household PFPs, with methods to account for selectivity of shopping at a specific retailer, we modeled the effect of Walmart’s HFI using counterfactual simulations to examine observed vs. expected changes in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs. From 2000 to 2013, Walmart PFPs showed major declines in energy, sodium, and sugar density, as well as declines in sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy, beyond trends at similar retailers. However, post-HFI declines were similar to what we expected based on pre-HFI trends, suggesting that these changes were not attributable to Walmart’s HFI. These results suggest that food retailer-based HFIs may not be sufficient to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. PMID:26526244

  7. Mineshafts on Treasure Island: A Relief Map of the eBay Fraud Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Calkins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As explorers once opened up new trade passages, thus attracting hordes of both honest traders and dishonest pirates, so too has the Internet opened new lanes of commerce and attracted the modern versions of the same. One of the widest of these lanes undoubtedly runs through eBay, located at http://www.ebay.com . From its humble beginnings as a little-known auction site hawking PEZ candy dispensers, broken laser pointers and other garage-sale pickings, eBay has transformed itself into a reputable public sales powerhouse where a Gulfstream II jet, million-dollar sports artifacts, and Madonna’s wedding tiara might easily change hands.4

  8. 麦芽糖及麦芽糖醇的生产与应用%The production and application of maltose and maltitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光辉; 修秀红; 李玉珍

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了不同规格的麦芽糖和麦芽糖醇的生产技术,和在功能性食品、糖果、巧克力、果汁饮料和冷冻食品中的应用情况,表明麦芽糖和麦芽糖醇作为一种重要的食品添加剂和甜味剂,在我国食品工业中具有广阔的应用前景.%This paper reports the production technology of different kinds of maltose and maltitol. The applications in producing functional foods, candy, chocolate, fruit juice beverage and frozen foods show that as an important food additive and sweeter, maltose and maltitol have a broad application prospects in food industry.

  9. 鳕鱼胶原蛋白在食品加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶晶

    2014-01-01

    Cod collagen is a functional protein, due to unique physico-chemical properties and biological functions, it has been widely application in the food processing industry. This paper discusses its application in dairy, fruit juices, candy, cakes, meat and packing material.%鳕鱼胶原蛋白是一种功能性蛋白质,其独特的理化性质与生物功能使其在食品加工行业中有着广泛的应用。论述其在乳制品、果汁、糖果、蛋糕、肉制品、包装材料中的应用。

  10. The Functional Properties and Product Development of Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯的功能性质及产品开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何胜生

    2013-01-01

    详细介绍了紫甘薯的营养成分及其生理功能的研究现状.同时,对紫色甘薯的营养及药用价值的深入研究也促进了紫甘薯加工的发展,简述了紫色甘薯脆片、紫色甘薯软糖、紫色地瓜干等紫甘薯系列产品的加工工艺.%The research status of nutritional components and physiological functions of purple sweet potato were introduced in details. The deeply research about nutrition and medicinal value of purple sweet potato could promote the development of purple sweet potato processing. The processing technique of purple sweet potato crisp, purple potato soft candy and dried purple sweet potato were briefly described.

  11. Inuit Health in Transition - the diet of young Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte

    intake of refined sugar from candy, cakes and beverages (pintake from fast food, like burger, pizza, and salted snacks, followed by the age group of 25-34 year old (p... in West Greenland among 2246 Inuit ≥ 18 years. Food intake was examined by an interviewer-administered food-frequency questionnaire: 23 of 70 items consisted of Greenlandic foods, e.g. seal, whale, reindeer, musk ox, local birds and fish. All analyses (Kruskal-Wallis) were split by sex and age (18-24, 25......-34, 35-59, 60+ years). RESULTS Intake of energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat from traditional foods increased significant with increasing age (pintake decreased with increasing age (p

  12. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  13. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  14. OPINION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Credit Cards Not Candy Nowadays, colleges and universities have become a big market for many banks and competition is fierce. At the start of every new semester, numerous banks will send their staff to promote credit cards among college students and some students even havetwo or three credit cards.As long as they are able to pay off theiroverdraft, it’s acceptable to give college stu-dents credit cards. However, students don’have stable incomes. By targeting this group banks have to lower the threshold for cardapplications. Sometimes, they even do nocheck student applicants’ repayment capa-bilities. An important reason for this practiceis that banks know behind the students aretheir parents. If students can’t pay back thecredit, banks will turn to the parents to make good the outstanding amounts.

  15. Focusing for Pronoun Resolution in English Discourse An Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ersan, E; Ersan, Ebru; Akman, Varol

    1994-01-01

    Anaphora resolution is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing. This study examines focusing as a tool for the resolution of pronouns which are a kind of anaphora. Focusing is a discourse phenomenon like anaphora. Candy Sidner formalized focusing in her 1979 MIT PhD thesis and devised several algorithms to resolve definite anaphora including pronouns. She presented her theory in a computational framework but did not generally implement the algorithms. Her algorithms related to focusing and pronoun resolution are implemented in this thesis. This implementation provides a better comprehension of the theory both from a conceptual and a computational point of view. The resulting program is tested on different discourse segments, and evaluation and analysis of the experiments are presented together with the statistical results.

  16. Goodness, gracious, great balls of fire: A case of transient lingual papillitis following consumption of an Atomic Fireball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raji, Kehinde; Ranario, Jennifer; Ogunmakin, Kehinde

    2016-05-15

    Transient lingual papillitis is a benign condition characterized by the inflammation of one or more fungiform papillae on the dorsolateral tongue. Although it is a common condition that affects more than half of the population, few cases have been reported in the dermatological literature. Therefore, it is a condition uncommonly recognized by dermatologists though it has a distinct clinical presentation that may be easily diagnosed by clinicians familiar with the entity. We report an interesting case of transient lingual papillitis in a 27 year-old healthy woman following the consumption of the hard candy, Atomic Fireball. We describe treatment and resolution of the condition, and its recurrence following re-exposure to the identified culprit. This report further reviews the literature to illustrate the clinical manifestations, etiology, differential diagnosis, course, and treatment of this condition.

  17. Communicating healthy eating to adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard; Grønhøj, Alice

    2009-01-01

    at a regular time were the most important attributes of healthy eating. In terms of situational influences on their consumption, respondents most likely ate unhealthy food at parties, when eating out or with friends. They most likely ate healthy food at home and when they were sick. Looking at socializing......Purpose - This study explores perceptions of healthy/unhealthy eating, and perceptions of various socializing agents encouraging healthy eating, amongst Chinese adolescents. Design/methodology/approach - A survey was conducted of 152 seven, eighth and ninth grade Hong Kong students. A structured...... questionnaire with closed-ended questions was distributed in three public secondary schools. Findings - Results showed that respondents frequently ate out with friends and frequently consumed a range of relatively unhealthy food (candies, chips, and soft drinks). They perceived that a balanced diet and eating...

  18. Suppressing electron turbulence and triggering internal transport barriers with reversed magnetic shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bell, R.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Smith, D. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. Y. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] can achieve high electron plasma confinement regimes that are super-critically unstable to the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) instability. These plasmas, dubbed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. Using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the first nonlinear ETG simulations of NSTX e-ITB plasmas reinforce this observation. Local simulations identify a strongly upshifted nonlinear critical gradient for thermal transport that depends on magnetic shear. Global simulations show e-ITB formation can occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. While the ETG-driven thermal flux at the outer edge of the barrier is large enough to be experimentally relevant, the turbulence cannot propagate past the barrier into the plasma interior.

  19. 厨神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.……

  20. 厨神%A GREAT COOK--Joseph Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.

  1. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  2. 灰姑娘大PK:王心凌vs.杨丞琳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    王心凌:小公主外形.圆灰姑娘梦想 王心凌,1982年出生在台湾.处女座.追求完美,永远相信“有志者事竞成”。《车正在追》饰牛奶,《西街少年》饰沈银荷。《天国的嫁衣》饰陶艾青。《微笑Pasta》饰成晓诗。2003年.《运转手之恋》(客串)饰槟榔西施,2008年《Candy Rain-花吃了那女孩/爱情糖果雨》饰小云.

  3. Studi Intervensi Klaster Kawasan Tanpa Rokok pada Tingkat Rumah Tangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmah Najmah

    2015-05-01

    sampling method. The intervention included integrated counseling, distribution of candy as substitute for cigarette, and healthy saving. Results of study showed that proportion of respondents who smoked every day in a recent month and had a commitment not to smoke in the future reached 71.6% and 62% in the intervention group, then 91% and 38% in the non-intervention group respectively. This intervension had opportunity worth 46% reducing the smoking behavior of the respondents (RP= 0.46 after controlled by the variable of education (RP = 0.152 and attitude (RP = 0.216 with p value < 0.0001. This integrated intervention was profoundly successful changing smoking behavior at household level. So that, public participation and health agency need to follow up the implementation of this intervention in a long term.

  4. ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudgal Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs are gaining prominence as new drug delivery systems and emerged as one of the popular and widely accepted dosage forms, especially for the pediatric and geriatric patients. To obviate the problem of dysphagia and to improve patient compliance, ODTs have gained considerable attention as preferred alternatives to conventional tablet and capsule formulations. Various scientific techniques including freeze drying, moulding, spray drying, sublimation, direct compression, cotton candy process, mass extrusion, melt granulation etc. have been employed for the development of ODTs. These techniques render the disintegration of tablet rapidly and dissolve in mouth without chewing or additional water intake. The current article is focused on ideal characteristics, significant features, patented technologies, formulation aspects including the use of superdisintegrants. Various marketed preparations along with numerous scientific advancements made so far in this avenue have also been discussed.

  5. Effect of heat treatments on the essential oils of kumquat (Fortunella margarita Swingle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Wen; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Lin, Li-Yun; Wu, Chun-Ta; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Lee, Meng-Chieh; Chen, Hsin-Chun

    2013-01-15

    Kumquats (Fortunella margarita Swingle) cultivated in Taiwan are eaten raw or made into candied fruit or fruit tea. For the experiments described in this paper, essential oils were obtained from kumquat peels or whole fruit by cold pressing, steam distillation or heating in water at 90°C for 15 min followed by steam distillation. The volatile components contained in the essential oils were identified by direct injection (DI) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC). A total of 43 compounds were identified, of which 37 were verified by DI/GC and 31 by HS-SPME/GC. Hot water heating increased the yields of essential oils from both peels and whole fruit. The principal constituents of the oils were similar except for the minor compounds, including linalool, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, the levels of which increased after steam distillation. The whole fruit also contained higher levels of terpene alcohols.

  6. A case of atrial tachycardia sensitive to increased caffeine intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugawa, Toru; Kurita, Takashi; Nohara, Ryuji; Smith, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    A 33-year-old Japanese man with atrial tachycardia visited our clinic. He regularly consumed daily alcohol with cola, one cup of regular coffee, and a candy containing 0.7 mg of caffeine per tablet. After stopping his caffeine intake, his arrhythmia ameliorated. Since caffeine might be associated with his arrhythmia, a caffeine load test (equivalent to his daily intake of caffeine) was performed for 4 days. Atrial tachycardia time from a Holter recording was 44.2 minute/day before the caffeine load, compared with 215.2 minute/day during the caffeine load. Plasma caffeine concentration before and during caffeine loading was 3.1 mg/dL and 5.4 mg/dL, respectively. Caffeine use seemed to be an important factor for his atrial tachycardia, since his arrhythmia became worse during caffeine load testing and was ameliorated after the cessation of caffeine.

  7. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2000-01-01

    1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were...... and living/able to function. 2. The results from consumer samples in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are remarkably similar, showing a strong stability in consumer reactions to the use of genetic modification in food production in these four countries. 3. Consumer perception is characterised by a basic...... dichotomy of GM and non-GM products. Being non-GM is regarded as a major benefit in itself. When a product involves genetic modification, this elicits numerous negative assocations, of which the strongest ones are 'unhealthy' and 'uncertainty.' 4. The level of presence of the genetically modified material...

  8. Psychological entitlement: interpersonal consequences and validation of a self-report measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W Keith; Bonacci, Angelica M; Shelton, Jeremy; Exline, Julie J; Bushman, Brad J

    2004-08-01

    Nine studies were conducted with the goal of developing a self-report measure of psychological entitlement and assessing its interpersonal consequences. The Psychological Entitlement Scale (PES) was found to be reliable and valid (Study 1, 2), not associated with social desirability (Study 2), stable across time (Study 3), and correlated negatively with two of the Big Five factors: agreeableness and emotional stability (Study 4). The validity of the PES was confirmed in studies that assessed willingness to take candy designated for children (Study 5) and reported deservingness of pay in a hypothetical employment setting (Study 6). Finally, the PES was linked to important interpersonal consequences including competitive choices in a commons dilemma (Study 7), selfish approaches to romantic relationships (Study 8), and aggression following ego threat (Study 9). Psychological entitlement has a pervasive and largely unconstructive impact on social behavior.

  9. State sales tax rates for soft drinks and snacks sold through grocery stores and vending machines, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Eidson, Shelby S; Bates, Hannalori; Kowalczyk, Shelly; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2008-07-01

    Junk food consumption is associated with rising obesity rates in the United States. While a "junk food" specific tax is a potential public health intervention, a majority of states already impose sales taxes on certain junk food and soft drinks. This study reviews the state sales tax variance for soft drinks and selected snack products sold through grocery stores and vending machines as of January 2007. Sales taxes vary by state, intended retail location (grocery store vs. vending machine), and product. Vended snacks and soft drinks are taxed at a higher rate than grocery items and other food products, generally, indicative of a "disfavored" tax status attributed to vended items. Soft drinks, candy, and gum are taxed at higher rates than are other items examined. Similar tax schemes in other countries and the potential implications of these findings relative to the relationship between price and consumption are discussed.

  10. Congenital cataract surgery during the early enlightenment period and the Stepkins oculists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd

    2014-07-01

    From antiquity through the Renaissance, congenital blindness was generally regarded as incurable, as noted in both medical and lay publications. The earliest reference to congenital cataract surgery that we identified, reported in 1663, referred to an 18-year-old female treated by English oculist John Stepkins (d. 1652). An examination of the literature related to the Stepkins family reveals the presence of male and female oculists during that period, including his daughter, Lady Theodosia Ivy. Eye waters attributed to Stepkins contained tutty (an oxide of zinc), roses, sugar candy, and other ingredients. Interestingly, John Thomas Woolhouse, the author of the next identified report of congenital cataract surgery in 1706, stated that he was related to Stepkins. Woolhouse reported by 1721 that he had performed 36 congenital cataract surgeries, with the youngest patient being 18 months of age.

  11. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects.

  12. A nanosilver-based spectrophotometry method for sensitive determination of tartrazine in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, R; Farmany, A; Mortazavi, S S

    2013-06-01

    A new method is reported for sensitive determination of tartrazine in the food samples. The method is based on the catalytic effect of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) on the oxidation reaction of tartrazine by potassium iodate in the acetate buffer medium. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the change in absorbance (ΔA) at 420 nm using a fixed time method (70 s). The reaction variables were optimised in order to achieve the highest sensitivity. The thirty six criterion detection limit was 0.3 ng/mL, and the relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of 30 ng/mL of tartrazine was 0.98% (n=10). The method was successfully applied to the determination of tartrazine in lemon, and papaya-flavoured gelatin, candy, and in fruit syrup.

  13. Determination of sunset yellow and tartrazine in food samples by combining ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ou; Zhu, Xiashi; Feng, Yanli; Ma, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01-50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  14. Determination of Sunset Yellow and Tartrazine in Food Samples by Combining Ionic Liquid-Based Aqueous Two-Phase System with High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ou Sha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a simple and effective method, by coupling ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase systems (IL-ATPSs with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, for the analysis of determining tartrazine and sunset yellow in food samples. Under the optimized conditions, IL-ATPSs generated an extraction efficiency of 99% for both analytes, which could then be directly analyzed by HPLC without further treatment. Calibration plots were linear in the range of 0.01–50.0 μg/mL for both Ta and SY. The limits of detection were 5.2 ng/mL for Ta and 6.9 ng/mL for SY. This method proves successful for the separation/analysis of tartrazine and sunset yellow in soft drink sample, candy sample, and instant powder drink and leads to consistent results as obtained from the Chinese national standard method.

  15. 修订版PEP四(上)Unit 6 Meet my family!Part A Period 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧琦

    2015-01-01

    教学过程 Step 1.Warming up and revision1.Greet and free talk:T:Hello,boys and girls.Christmas is coming.I brought some presents for you.After class,the winner group can get the presents.T:How many candies can you see?Ss:Seven....2.Play a guessing game:T:How many books/pigs/birds/bananas...can you see?How many...are there?S1:...S2:...T:How many fingers are there?Ss:There are five fingers.T:Who are they?Ss:Father,mother,sister,brother...3.Sing a song and do the actions:"Finger family".

  16. Development of Barrier Layers for the Protection of Candidate Alloys in the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Carlos G. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, J. Wayne [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pollock, Tresa M. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Was, Gary S. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project was to develop concepts for barrier layers that enable leading candi- date Ni alloys to meet the longer term operating temperature and durability requirements of the VHTR. The concepts were based on alpha alumina as a primary surface barrier, underlay by one or more chemically distinct alloy layers that would promote and sustain the formation of the pro- tective scale. The surface layers must possess stable microstructures that provide resistance to oxidation, de-carburization and/or carburization, as well as durability against relevant forms of thermo-mechanical cycling. The system must also have a self-healing ability to allow endurance for long exposure times at temperatures up to 1000°C.

  17. Astaxanthin hyperproduction by Phaffia rhodozyma (now Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) with raw coconut milk as sole source of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domíguez-Bocanegra, A R; Torres-Muñoz, J A

    2004-12-01

    Natural carbon sources, such as those present in cane sugar molasses and grape juice, promote the synthesis of astaxanthin in different Phaffia rhodozyma yeasts. One of these, coconut milk, has a very rich nutrient composition. The aim of this work was to investigate the utility of coconut milk as sole source of energy for astaxanthin pigment production by P. rhodozyma strains. Currently, coconut pulp is widely used in industrial processes in Mexico for the production of shampoos, candies, food, etc. However, coconut milk is a waste product. We show that coconut milk enhances astaxanthin production. The fermentation yielded 850 microg/g yeast with the NRRL-10921 wild-type strain and 1850 microg/g yeast with the mutated R1 strain. Production was better than reported results employing other natural carbon sources.

  18. The study of populations of hazelnut c. Avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. Colurna L. and their selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of populations of hazelnut C. avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. colurna L. in different regions of Serbia were studied over 1998 - 2005. Round-fruit selections suitable for candy industry were concurrently singled out. Populations of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut are characterized by small or medium large fruits with round shape index and kernel index ranging from 0.77 - 0.89 and 0.78 - 0.84 respectively. Singled out selections of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut have averagely medium large fruits and kernel. Round shape index of fruits and kernel of hazelnut amount to 0.98 (1.01 - 0.91 and 0.99 (1.00 - 0.96 respectively, whereas the same parameter in Turkish hazelnut amounts to 0.99 (0.99 - 0.97 and 0.98 (0.98 - 0.97. Average fruit weight of the singled out selections is 1.79 g (hazelnut and 1.74 g (Turkish hazelnut. Average kernel mass is 0.75 - 0.70 g. i.e. kernel ratio in hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut amounts to 41% and 40.2% respectively. The mineral matter content in the kernel of the selections amounted to 2.4% and 2.3% respectively. Raw proteins content ranged from 13.8% - 12.4% respectively, and oil content ranged from 47.7 - 50.2% respectively. The majority of indicators under in situ conditions suggest that all selections singled out from the population deserve attention with objective of more intensified propagation and wider introduction into commercial production. It particularly refers to the round shaped kernel which is the most suitable for the candy industry. .

  19. Relationship of medical status, medications, and salivary flow rates in adults of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Brightman, V J; Pogoda, J M

    1996-02-01

    Multiple systemic disorders and medications have been reported to cause xerostomia or salivary gland hypofunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship among systemic disorders, medications, and salivary flow rates. Sixty-three ambulatory dental patients aged 23 to 82 years were randomly selected. The nature, duration, and number of systemic disorders and medications were documented. Repeated measurements of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid salivary flow rates were obtained. Data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test. For persons with systemic disorders who were taking medication, all salivary flow rates were significantly (p = 0.03 - 0.001) lower than the flow rates in healthy persons. Among persons with at least one systemic disorder who were taking medication, those who had been taking medication for longer than 2 years had significantly lower unstimulated whole saliva (p = 0.002), chewing-stimulated whole saliva (p = 0.0004), and candy-stimulated parotid saliva (p = 0.02) flow rates than those who had been taking medication for 1 to 2 years. The number of systemic disorders significantly (p = 0.02) and negatively affected the acid-stimulated parotid salivary rates. The prevalence of salivary hypofunction determined on the basis of unstimulated whole saliva and acid-stimulated parotid saliva was significantly higher (p = < 0.001, p = 0.007) in the those persons with systemic disorders and taking medications. The results suggest that salivary secretion is affected by the number of systemic disorders and duration of the potentially xerogenic medications.

  20. Changes in a middle school food environment affect food behavior and food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson

    2012-01-01

    Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country.

  1. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

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    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  2. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children.

  3. Gamma oscillations as a neural signature of shifting times in narrative language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brederoo, Sanne Gøren; Bos, Laura Simone; Dragoy, Olga; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Baggio, Giosuè

    2015-01-01

    Verbs and other temporal expressions allow speakers to specify the location of events in time, as well as to move back and forth in time, shifting in a narrative between past, present and future. The referential flexibility of temporal expressions is well understood in linguistics but its neurocognitive bases remain unknown. We aimed at obtaining a neural signature of shifting times in narrative language. We recorded and analyzed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and oscillatory responses to the adverb 'now' and to the second main verb in Punctual ('An hour ago the boy stole a candy and now he peeled the fruit') and Iterative ('The entire afternoon the boy stole candy and now he peeled the fruit') contexts. 'An hour ago' introduces a time frame that lies entirely in the past, 'now' shifts the narrative to the present, and 'peeled' shifts it back to the past. These two referential shifts in Punctual contexts are expected to leave very similar traces on neural responses. In contrast, 'The entire afternoon' specifies a time frame that may encompass past, present and future, such that both 'now' and 'peeled' are consistent with it. Here, no time shift is required. We found no difference in ERPs between Punctual and Iterative contexts either at 'now' or at the second verb. However, reference shifts modulated oscillatory signals. 'Now' and the second verb in Punctual contexts resulted in similar responses: an increase in gamma power with a left-anterior distribution. Gamma bursts were absent in Iterative contexts. We propose that gamma oscillations here reflect the binding of temporal variables to the values allowed by constraints introduced by temporal expressions in discourse.

  4. Koreografi Lingkungan’ Masyarakat Plempoh, Prambanan, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

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    Hendro Martono

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Desa Plempoh, yang berada di wilayah Prambanan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta,diharapkan sebagai penyangga pariwisata situs purbakala candi Boko. Akan tetapi,kenyataannya desa yang terletak di lereng bukit Boko menjelang masuk area candi,tidak menampilkan wujud sebagaimana yang diharapkan. Untuk itu, penulisdan sekaligus koreografer menawarkan alternatif solusi yang dapat memenuhikepentingan masyarakat. Masyarakat diberdayakan dalam pelatihan seni tari,nyanyi, dan teater. Metode yang digunakan adalah ‘Koreografi Lingkungan’,yaitu sebuah proses kreatif bekerja bersama antara tim perancangan seni denganmasyarakat untuk mewujudkan sebuah tari rakyat yang mengangkat legendasetempat, yaitu Jonggrang. Koreografinya mengungkapkan kearifan lokal denganpendekatan masa kini dan menggunakan versi rakyat yang membedakannya dengansendratari Rara Jonggrang yang sudah seringkali ditampilkan selama ini. Environmental Choreography of Plempoh society, Prambanan, Yogyakarta.Plempoh village, located in the region of Prambanan Yogyakarta, is expected as a bufferof Boko temple archaeological tourism sites. However, the fact that the village is locatedon the hillside of the entrance of the temple area, does not display the form as it isexpected. Therefore, the writer, also a choreographer, offers an alternative solution to meetthe interests of the community. The people of this society were empowered by the trainingsof dancing, singing, and theater. The method used in the research was ‘EnvironmentalChoreography’ which was a creative process of group working between the design teamand the society to create a public art with a folk dance which raised the local legend,Jonggrang. The choreography revealed the local wisdom with the present approach, andused the version distinguishing people with Rara Jonggrang ballet that has often beenshown lately.

  5. Study on color keeping effect during low sugar loquat processing%低糖枇杷果脯护色条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦

    2012-01-01

    In order to look for safe and effective sulfur-free color-preserving reagent,the different concentrations of sodium hydrogensulfite and sulfur-free color-preserving reagent(citric acid,VC,phytic acid)were selected to investigate color-preserving effects on raw loquat and loquat candied.Results showed that 0.3% level of sodium hydrogensulfite could significantly improve the L value and H value of loquat;the color-preserving with critic acid was more effective than VC,but in the process of candying,they had the similar colour protecting effect;phytic acid had little effect on the colour of loquat.The colour protecting effect of the mixture of 0.4% citric acid and 0.2% VC was similar to 0.3% sodium hydrogensulfite.%采用不同浓度的亚硫酸氢钠、无硫护色剂(柠檬酸、VC、植酸)分别对枇杷护色处理和糖渍后分析色泽变化的情况,以便进一步寻找安全有效的无硫护色剂。研究表明:添加0.3%的亚硫酸氢钠对枇杷亮度L*值、彩度H值有显著提高作用;柠檬酸单独护色效果较VC好,但在糖渍过程中两者对枇杷的影响相当;植酸的护色效果较差。0.4%柠檬酸+0.2%VC复配使用可以达到0.3%亚硫酸氢钠护色的效果。

  6. [Food habits of rural school children from Chile's metropolitan area. A comparative study. 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbun Game, J; Ivanovic Marincovich, R; Durán Santana, M C; Ivanovic Marincovich, D

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the food habits of a representative sample of 651 rural school-age children from Chile's Metropolitan Region and to carry out a comparative study between 1986-1987 and 1989. Food habits were defined as the frequency of consumption of foods expressed as days per week and were determined through a questionnaire administered to school-age children by the investigators and were compared with Model Allowance, established by Chile's Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar's modified method. Statistical procedures included analysis of variance and student "t" test for comparison of the means. The frequency of consumption of most food decreased in 1989 compared with 1986-1987. Most consumed foods (above 90%) were bread and potatoes and between 70-75% of the school-age children consumed milk, meat, yoghurt, poultry, eggs, beans, onions, cabbage, squash, lettuce, bananas, oranges, apples, grapes, biscuits, spaghetti, rice, oil, butter, carbonated beverages and juices, candies, sugar and chocolate. Foods most disliked were fresh cheese (69.3%), radish (62.2%), shellfish (59.4%) and chickpeas (48.8%). Males presented a frequency of consumption of beans, chickpeas (p < 0.05), lentil and chard swiss (p < 0.01) significantly higher than females, but these last ones registered a frequency of consumption of apples, cookies, oil (p < 0.05), onions and candies (p < 0.01) significantly higher than males. The frequency of consumption of most foods, especially milk, fish and bread (p < 0.01) decreased with age. SES had no effect on food habits of the school-age children. These results could be useful in the School Feeding Program (PAE) and in nutrition education related to school population.

  7. Main odorants in Jura flor-sherry wines. Relative contributions of sotolon, abhexon, and theaspirane-derived compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Sonia; Nizet, Sabrina; Claeys Bouuaert, Thomas; Despatures, Pierre-Marie

    2012-01-11

    The aromatic profile of Jura flor-sherry wines (also called "yellow wines") has been little studied. Only acetaldehyde, diethoxy-1,1-ethane, and sotolon have been described as key odorants. In the present work, three wines (vintages 2002 and 2003) were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis. The goal was to assess the relative impact of varietal, fermentation, and oak-barrel compounds by using two complementary extraction procedures. No grape terpenoids were found after the long barrel aging (6 years and 3 months). On the other hand, two candy/fruity esters issued from yeast exhibited high flavor dilution factor (FD) values: ethyl isobutyrate (64-1024) and ethyl isovalerate (128-1024). As expected, many oak-related odorants were found in the XAD 2 flavor extracts, mainly homofuraneol [2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone] (cotton candy, FD = 16-256) and cis-β-methyloctalactone (butter, woody, FD = 256). Most probably issued from oxidation of the grape constituent theaspirane, an exceptional grenadine odor was perceived by GC-O up to dilution 64-1024. Chemical oxidation experiments and GC-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) allowed us to identify it as 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone (RI(CPsil5CB) = 1373), a hydrolysis-derived product of dihydrodehydro-β-ionone. With an extraction dedicated to hydrophilic compounds, the key role of sotolon was confirmed (112-387 μg/kg; FD = 256-1024). This procedure enabled us to also evidence its ethyl analogue, abhexon (31-74 μg/kg; FD = 64-256).

  8. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

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    Soma Pal Saha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material of different origin were tested for growth and polymer production. Stockdale medium supplemented with 1% (w/v waste materials failed to yield good growth and polymer accumulation. Two–step cultivation was adopted for better growth and enhanced polymer accumulation. The candy factory waste was most suitable for synthesis of P(3HB accounting 17.8 and 40.58% using single and two-step cultivation conditions respectively. Wastes of domestic and poultry origin produced P(3HB-co-3HV with 3HV content 28.8 and 21.5 mol% respectively in two-step cultivation. Increase concentration of these wastes resulted in further upliftment of 3HV content of polymer with reduced growth and polymer accumulation. However, at optimum incubation the strain MAL-201 cells accumulated P(3HB 48.5% of CDW (at 40h from candy factory waste and P(3HB-co-3HV 24.75 % of CDW with 3HV 34.65 mol % from domestic waste. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and thermal degradation of the polymers accumulated in the cells grown in glucose, glucose with valerate and glucose with waste were compared.

  9. Beyond Television: Children’s Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

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    Rena Mendelson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children’s dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context.Objective: This study explores children’s engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake.Methods: Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview.Results: A total of 83 children (age 7 to13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%.Conclusions: Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children’s peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children’s dietary intake merits further investigation.

  10. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  11. Quality of life and oral health in elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos-Gómez, Gema; González-Serrano, José; López-Pintor-Muñoz, Rosa-María; López-Bermejo, Miguel-Ángel; Hernández-Vallejo, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Background We want to assess quality of life in elderly patients in relation to the number of remaining teeth, the number of ingested drugs and xerostomía and to determine the correlation between an increased intake of drugs and a greater feeling of dry mouth and to know the most commonly used measures to control xerostomia. Material and Methods 30 subjects aged between 65 and 95 years (14 males, 16 females) completed the OHIP questionnaire to determine quality of life. For oral status, the number of remaining teeth according to WHO criteria and xerostomia using the xerostomia index (XI) were studied. In cases of dry mouth sensation, the measures to alleviate it were asked. Results The average quality of life according to the OHIP rate is 19.23 (Dt = 10.58), being 56 the worst quality of life. The Pearson correlation coefficient indicates that quality of life is not related to the number of remaining teeth (r = -0.046; p = 0.810) nor the number of ingested drugs (r = 0.226; p = 0.23) but a greater sensation of dry mouth is related to a poorer quality of life (r = 0.678; p = 0.230). There is no association between the number of ingested drugs and the xerostomia index (r = 0.144; p = 0.447). The most frequently measures used against dry mouth were drinking water (21 subjects) and sugarless candies (15 subjects). Conclusions Quality of life is not related to the number of remaining teeth nor the number of ingested drugs. However, a higher level of xerostomia was significantly associated with a poorer quality of life. There is no association between the number of drugs ingested and xerostomia index. Sugarless candies and drinking water are the more frequently used measures to alleviate dry mouth. Key words:Quality of life, oral health, elderly. PMID:27957276

  12. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  13. Composição química e valores energéticos de alimentos alternativos para leitões Chemical composition and energetic values of alternative feedstuffs for piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Wesendonck

    2013-02-01

    candy and chocolate bar waste (CCBW using nursery piglets as an experimental model. Ten castrated piglets weighing 7.4±0.97kg individually housed in a metabolic cage were used. The piglets were distributed in five treatments: 1 Reference diet (RD; 2 60% RD + 40% CW; 3 60% RD + 40% WW; 4 80% RD + 20% CCW; and, 5 80% RD + 20% CCBW. The experiment was repeated in three consecutive 12 day timeframes, being seven for adaptation and five for total collection of feces and urine. The ferric oxide was used as fecal marker. Randomized block design was used to compare the digestibility coefficients. Crude protein values were 7.96, 10.78, 6.33 and 4.01 for cookie flour, dry wafer, caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars, respectively. A high amount of ether extract was observed on cookie flour and dry wafer (11.7 and 9.4%, respectively, however the chocolate by-products presented higher values (24.7 and 34.3%, for caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars, respectively. There was no difference (P>0.05 among digestibility coefficients of nutrients and energy and metabolizability energy coefficients among the feedstuff studied. The digestible and metabolisable energy values were 3914 and 3745; 4040 and 3767; 4454 and 4200; and, 4937 and 4790 kcal/kg for cookie flour, dry wafer, caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars, respectively. It is concluded that cookie flour, dry wafer, caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars have potential to be used in the diets of nursery pigs.

  14. Conducere apothecam, in qua exercere artem nostram: Το εργαστήριο ενός βυζαντινού και ενός βενετού ζωγράφου στην Κρήτη

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    Μαρία ΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΟΥΔΑΚΗ-ΚΙΤΡΟΜΗΛΙΔΟΥ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marie Constantoudaki-KitromilidesConducere apothecam,  in  qua exercere artem nostram. L'atelier d'un peintre byzantin et d'un peintre vénitien à CandieIl y a plus de trente ans, le père Mario Cattapan publia une première série de documents, provenant des Archives d'État de Venise et concernant des peintres ayant exercé en Crète de 1300 à 1500. Ce travail constitua un tournant important pour l'étude de la peinture dans l'île sous domination vénitienne. Depuis, des témoignages nouveaux ont éclairé l'activité d'artistes connus de la même époque; d'autres ont révélé les noms et l'activité d'artistes inconnus jusqu'à maintenant.La recherche du père Cattapan, ainsi que des documents étudiés par nous-même, ont apporté de données nouvelles sur l'activité du peintre Nicolaos Philanthropenos, habitant de Candie et probablement descendant d'une famille originaire de Constantinople. De ce dossier, nous publions et commentons ici une pièce rare.Il s'agit d'un contrat, rédigé dans la ville de Candie et daté du 23 novembre 1400, qui concerne la collaboration, sous forme de coopération professionelle (societas, entre Nicolaos Philantrhopenos et le peintre vénitien Nicolaus (Nicolò Storlado. Les deux artistes décident de louer ensemble une boutique pour exercer leur métier pendant une période de trois ans.L'analyse du document et son commentaire nous permettent de mieux comprendre l'activité du peintre Nicolaos Philanthropenos dans l'île de Crète mais aussi à Constantinople et à Venise. En effet, la production artistique de Philanthropenos s'étendait depuis les icônes byzatntines aux retables (pale d'altare de type occidental et aux mosaïques de Saint Marc de Venise. D'autre part, notre document éclaire les chemins de contact entre les peintres crétois et l'art vénitien. Le fonctionnement d'un atelier commun, tenu par deux peintres de formation et expérience culturelle différentes peut être interp

  15. Risk Factors of Dental Cavities in Children Factores de riesgo de caries dental en niños

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    Nora Sexto Delgado

    Full Text Available

    Background: Dental cavities are a kind of disease that is increasing. The quantitative change has also produced qualitative changes concerning the type, extension and location of the lesions. Objective: To identify the selected risks of dental cavities among the students of a primary school. Methods: An analytic investigation of the controls and cases performed during academic course 2004 to 2005. The universe was constituted by 320 students where 204 were selected for this study. The cases were selected among the children who were affected by cavities (102 and the controls were selected by a simple randomized sample, i.e. a control one for each case (102. A consultation was carried out in the school to value the risks and the presence of the disease. Affectation due to cavities, malocclusion, and parodontopathies, age, sex, scholar degree, bad oral hygiene, previous experience of cavities in primary and permanent dentition, saliva viscosity, dental overlapping, orthodontic treatment, and sugar candies ingestions were the variables analyzed. Results: It was corroborated that the 49.5 % of the cases were affected by cavities, 23 % by malocclusion, and parodontopathies were observed in the 2, 0 %. The 80.3 % of the cases had a very bad oral hygiene, 50 % presented saliva viscosity and 95.1 % of the cases used to ingest sugar candies. Conclusions: The association between the classic risks of dental cavities appearance such as bad oral hygiene, previous experience of cavities, saliva viscosity and sugar candies ingestion were shown in this study.

    Fundamento: La caries dental es una enfermedad que ha ido aumentando. El cambio cuantitativo en ella también ha producido cambios cualitativos en cuanto al tipo, extensión y localización de las lesiones. Objetivo: Identificar los riesgos seleccionados de caries dental entre los

  16. Study on the relationship between oral hygiene habits and early childhood caries%口腔卫生习惯与儿童乳牙龋发病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢青侠

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析儿童乳牙龋与口腔卫生习惯方面的相关性,为临床乳牙龋的预防提供理论依据.方法 对北京原宣武区部分幼儿园的165位儿童并按照是否患有乳牙龋分为病例组87例和健康对照组88例,采用多因素条件Logistic回归分析口腔卫生习惯与乳牙龋发病的相关性.结果 儿童开始刷牙时间<2岁,每日刷牙次数<1次,喜欢吃糖果,睡前吃零食与乳牙龋病发病密切相关,而使用氟牙膏和有漱口习惯可以减少乳牙龋病发病.结论 刷牙年龄过大,刷牙频率过低,喜欢糖果及睡前吃零食与儿童乳牙龋发病密切相关.%OBJECTIVE To study on the relationship between oral hygiene habits and early childhood caries, and provide a theoretical basis. METHODS 165 children in Beijing Xuanwu District kindergarten and were divided into a group of 87 patients and healthy control group 88 cases by status of caries. By using the multivariate Logistic regression analysis, we analyzed the association between oral hygiene and early childhood caries in primary teeth of pathogenetic relevance. RESULTS Children who start brushing time < 2years of age, times of brushing teeth < ltimes, loves to eat candy, bedtime snacks and dental caries in early childhood caries are closely related, and the use of fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash can be used to reduce the incidence of caries in early childhood caries. CONCLUSION Stating brushing teeth is too old, and tooth brushing frequency is too low, like candy and bedtime snacks and closely related to the onset of early childhood caries.

  17. Astronomy for Extremely ill or Traumatically Injured Children and Their Families - IAU OAD Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    This grant funded a program for extremely ill or traumatically injured children, their siblings, and family members rlated to the children’s surgery and medical treatments at nearby hospitals. This grant provided an educational family-learning experience and out-of-this world diversion from the stress of being sick or of having a sick family member hospitalized. The families stayed at the four Ronald McDonald Houses (RMHs) of Chicago. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.The RMH staff and volunteers were trained to: use optical and solar telescopes; use the Stellarium program to show the night sky, identify objects, and plan observing sessions; use Sky and Telescope or Astronomy Magazine to selected the best nights for observing; conduct simple family oriented demonstrations; demonstrate citizen science/Zooniverse activities; and provide information about science museums and astronomy clubs near their home. The Chicago Astronomical Society (amateur astronomy club) provides ongoing support.I created an Activity Book with demonstrations and participatory hands-on activities including a toilet plunger sundial, making a sundial, creating a scale model of the Solar System (football field or toilet paper), phases and craters of the Moon (Oreo cookie phases, flour/ cocoa crater formation), eclipses, make constellations from chocolate chips in chocolate-chip cookies, crate your own constellation patterns, stellar temperature (images, demonstrations, candy), order images of the stages of

  18. Study on enzymatic browning and blanching methods of chestnut%板栗的酶促褐变特性及灭酶预处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦; 芮汉明

    2011-01-01

    The activity and thermal stability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in frozed chestnut were studied. The blanching methods and their effects on candying processing of chestnut were also investigated. Results showed that the thermal stability of PPO was higher than POD,the optimum temperature and pH of PPQ were 20℃,6.5 respectively, When the relative activity of PPO was decreased to less than 8%,the enzymes causing browning in chestnut were estimated to be inactivated enough, Compared with the way of hot water and steam blanching, enzymatic browning in chestnut was inhibited efficiently by microwave blanching ,and the sugar impregnation into chestnut was enhanced too in the processing of low-sugar candied chestnut, The optimal treatment of microwave blanching was that chestnut was heated at 4W/g power indensity for 6min.%对冻藏板栗中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活力及热稳定性进行了比较,研究低糖板栗果脯灭酶顸处理及其对后续渗糖过程的影响。结果表明:板栗中影响褐变的酶主要有PPO和POD,其中PPO较POD热稳定性略高。冻藏后的板栗中PPO最适温度及pH分别为20℃和6.5。板栗加工中应以板栗PPO活力降至8%以下作为是否灭酶充分的标准。通过与热水烫漂灭酶、蒸汽灭酶比较发现,微波热烫处理可抑制低糖板粟果脯加工过程中的褐变,并有助于提高渗糖效率。微波炎酶的最佳条件是:功率密度4W/g,处理6min。

  19. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  20. Gyrokinetic simulations of ETG Turbulence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, William

    2005-10-01

    Recent gyrokinetic simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence [1,2] produced different results despite similar plasma parameters. Ref.[1] differs from Ref.[2] in that [1] eliminates magnetically trapped particles ( r/R=0 ), while [2] retains magnetically trapped particles ( r/R 0.18 ). Differences between [1] and [2] have been attributed to insufficient phase-space resolution and novel physics associated with toroidicity and/or global simulations[2]. We have reproduced the results reported in [2] using a flux-tube, particle-in-cell (PIC) code, PG3EQ[3], thereby eliminating global effects as the cause of the discrepancy. We observe late-time decay of ETG turbulence and the steady-state heat transport in agreement with [2], and show this results from discrete particle noise. Discrete particle noise is a numerical artifact, so both the PG3EQ simulations reported here and those reported in Ref.[2] have little to say about steady-state ETG turbulence and the associated anomalous electron heat transport. Our attempts to benchmark PIC and continuum[4] codes at the plasma parameters used in Ref.[2] produced very large, intermittent transport. We will present an alternate benchmark point for ETG turbulence, where several codes reproduce the same transport levels. Parameter scans about this new benchmark point will be used to investigate the parameter dependence of ETG transport and to elucidate saturation mechanisms proposed in Refs.[1,2] and elsewhere[5-7].*In collaboration with A. Dimits (LLNL), J. Candy, C. Estrada-Mila (GA), W. Dorland (U of MD), F. Jenko, T. Dannert (Max-Planck Institut), and G. Hammett (PPPL). Work at LLNL performed for US DOE under Contract W7405-ENG-48.[1] F. Jenko and W. Dorland, PRL 89, 225001 (2002).[2] Z. Lin et al, 2004 Sherwood Mtg.; 2004 TTF Mtg.; Fusion Energy 2004 (IAEA, Vienna, 2005); Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (November, 2004); 2005 TTF Mtg.; 2005 Sherwood Mtg.; Z. Lin, et al, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056125 (2005). [3] A.M. Dimits

  1. Content of Food Advertising for Young Adolescents on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Setu; Kalra, Swati; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. Methodology: Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) view each of these channels for 2 hours per day for 6 days each, and observe the content of advertisements related to foods, beverages, and food outlets. Results: Four hundred and three food related advertisements were viewed over 36 hour on Discovery, MTV and Disney Channels. Among 235 food related advertisements 163 (69.3%) pertained to candies, chocolates and confectionary and 35 (14.8%) to salty snacks. Sugar sweetened soft drinks contributed 90 of 106 (85%) of beverage advertisements. Of 62 advertisements related to food outlets, 59 were of fast food joints. Conclusion: Majority of food advertising content on television most commonly watched by young adolescents is related to unhealthy foods and beverages, igh in energy and low in micronutrient content. PMID:28331253

  2. USE OF FUNCTION OF HARRINGTON FOR OPTIMIZATION OF PRESCRIPTION STRUCTURE BARS LIKE A PRALINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Production and consumption sugary confectionery products takes leading positions as in Russia, and worldwide as a whole. The high sugar content, prime cost, the low content of important biologically active agents - vitamins, micro- and macronutrients, food fibers, is an essential lack of these products. In the solution of this problem an important role is played by application of marriage of candy caramel (a caramel powdery semi-finished product and a product of vegetable raw materials of the raised nutrition value ˗ cake from an amaranth. Optimization of prescription structure of bars like a praline on the basis of a caramel powdery semi-finished product and cake from an amaranth with Harrington function use is performed. In the developed bars the amount of protein by 3,32 times increases; the sugar content by 1,33 times decreases; products are enriched with vitamins, mineral substances (calcium by 4,25 times; phosphorus by 3,7 times; iron by 9,60 times and food fibers by 3,77 times. Annual economic effect of introduction of technology of bars on the basis of a caramel powdery semi-finished product and amaranth cake at development of 1 t will make 9100 rub.

  3. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  4. Activation of rapid signaling pathways and the subsequent transcriptional regulation for the proliferation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells by the treatment with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sijun; Inoue, Akio; Zhu, Yun; Tanji, Masao; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2007-12-01

    Glycyrrhiza glabra root is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines and used as flavoring and sweetening agents for tobaccos, chewing gums, candies, toothpaste and beverages. While glycyrrhizin is one of the main components in the extract of G. glabra root and has been characterized, the other components have not been well characterized. The mechanism of growth activation of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, including the activation of Erk1/2 and Akt, and the transcriptional regulation of estrogen-responsive genes, was examined by means of sulforhodamine B, luciferase reporter gene, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays after the induction of the cells with the extract of G. glabra root. The extract has similar activity to that induced by 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), although glycyrrhizin did not show such an activity. Moreover, the estrogen receptor alpha-dependent neurite outgrowth induced by the extract was similar to that by E(2), whereas glycyrrhizin had no effect. Furthermore, the expression profile examined by cDNA microarray assay using a set of 120 estrogen-responsive genes, which were related to proliferation, transcription, transport, enzymes and signaling, showed a statistically significant correlation (R=0.47, Pglabra root. Furthermore, the extract had estrogenic activity and a distinguishable profile of gene expression, suggesting the presence of potentially useful components other than glycyrrhizin in G. glabra root for hormone and anti-cancer therapies.

  5. Exploring the possible metabolism mediated interaction of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract with CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Subrata; Ponnusankar, Sivasankaran; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Ota, Sarda; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2011-10-01

    The rhizome of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is used very widely in Indian and Chinese traditional medicine, and it is a popular flavor ingredient of drinks, sweets and candies. Its medicinal uses include treating bronchitis, dry cough, respiratory infections, liver disorders and diabetes. Glycyrrhizin is normally considered to be its biologically active marker, so a rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for the quantitative estimation of glycyrrhizin in the extract. The effect of the standardized extract and its marker on drug metabolizing enzymes was evaluated through CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 inhibition assays to evaluate the safety through its drug interaction potential. The inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 isozymes was analysed by the fluorescent product formation method. In the CYP450-CO assay, the interaction potential of the standardized extract and pooled microsomes (percentage inhibition 23.23 ± 1.84%), was found to be less than the standard inhibitor. In the fluorimetric assay, G. glabra extracts showed higher IC(50) values than their positive inhibitors, ketoconazole and quinidine for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. Furthermore, the interaction potential of the plant extract was greater than the pure compound. The results demonstrate that G. glabra and its principle bioactive compound, glycyrrhizin, when co-administered with conventional medicines showed only a weak interaction potential with drug metabolizing enzymes.

  6. Change of sensory characteristics and some quality parameters of mixed milk and cocoa spreads during storage up to 180 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role of milk and milk products in the technology of confectionery products (chocolates, caramele-candy products, dairy products, spreads, etc. is to increase the nutritional value of the final product and to influence some sensory characteristics of quality (appearance, consistence/texture, flavor. In this study, mixtures of milk and cocoa spreads of a new composition with increased content of milk components were produced, and then assessed for sensory quality traits, peroxide value, free fatty acid content and the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium and copper during storage from 0-30 to 180 days at room temperature (18 - 20ºC. The samples were evaluated using the analytical-descriptive sensory analysis (point system with description of the dominant properties (appearance-color, surface gloss, consistence-spreadability, dynamic property of melting, the consistence in the oral cavity-oiliness and flavor-odor and taste. The results of sensory analysis were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance MANOVA, LSD and Levene's test. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the composition of mixtures of milk and cocoa spreads significantly affects all characteristics, whereas the storage time significantly affects the appearance, consistence, i.e. spreadability and taste of the product.

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  8. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  9. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children′s Television Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertisements can influence children′s health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children′s television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children′s programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s and mode of presentation (s were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31% across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%. The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54% and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Conclusion: Although the total number of food advertisements during children′s television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  10. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCT OF CHEESEMAKING AGRIBUSINESS INDUSTRY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTS AND REDUCTION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Becker Rohlfes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The uses of by-products of cheese industry is still not significant in Brazil, since about 15% of liquid whey is used as raw material in food industry technology. The liquid whey has excellent technological properties, making it an alternative to minimize environmental impacts, besides it enables the use of the same nutritional properties in the production of new food products or adding value to the existing ones. The present study aimed to use liquid whey as an ingredient in the formulation of ice cream, hard candies, ham and breads, as well as to evaluate the influence of it in technological characteristics of the products and to quantify the volume of whey used. In order to evaluate the use of liquid whey, the products were developed with partial or total replacement of milk or water by whey, being the substitution accompanied by the determination of centesimal composition, as well as evaluating the visual characteristics of each product. The results show that the preparation of the products under study with substitution of raw milk or water is viable, proving that using liquid whey is a technological possibility of using a by-product considered to be an environmental pollutant. It was concluded that the use of liquid whey in the food industry reduces the environmental impact, since there is a reduction in the volume of whey discharged into the environment.

  11. Highly sensitive determination of sunset yellow FCF (E110) in food products based on Chitosan/Nanoparticles/MWCNTs with modified gold electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, K.; Siddiquee, S.; Shaarani, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Sunset Yellow belongs to the family of azo dyes, commonly used in food industry. High consumption of Sunset Yellow can cause health problem to human. Due to arising of the health issues, there are several analytical methods available for determination of Sunset Yellow. However, these methods are required skilled manpower, complicated procedures, time consuming and high cost. Herein, an electrochemical sensor was developed based on the combination of chitosan (CHIT), calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaONPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) sensing film for detection of Sunset Yellow in food products. Electrochemical behavior of the modified gold electrode in the presence of Sunset Yellow was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The morphological characteristics of CHIT/CaONPs/MWCNTs were observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Under optimal conditions, the DPV was detected with different concentrations of Sunset Yellow in the range of 0.9 to 10 ppm, with detection limit of 0.8 ppm. The developed method has successfully applied for monitoring the presence of Sunset Yellow with different food products including candy, royal jelly, ice cream and soft drink with satisfactory results.

  12. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  13. Evaluation of the response of Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 to sucrose-induced osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny-Roberts, E O; Knorr, D

    2008-02-01

    Environmental osmotic changes are one of the stresses live probiotics may encounter either in their natural habitats or as a result of usage in food formulations and processing. Response to osmotic stress, induced by sucrose, of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 (E800) was investigated. The fluorescence-based approach used, by combined staining with caboxyfluorescein (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) could give insights on the osmotic-induced changes of microbial esterase activity and membrane integrity; also the extrusion of intracellular accumulated carboxyfluorescein (cF) upon energizing with glucose. Comparison of the flowcytometric viability assessment with the conventional culture techniques revealed that sucrose-stressed cells had a slight loss of culturability (logN/N(0) approximately -0.3) at 1.2 and 1.5M sucrose concentration though they could perform an enzymatic conversion of cFDA into cF. The presence of such metabolically active bacteria in food might be critical as they may excrete toxic or food spoilage metabolites. Moreover, the perturbation of cF extrusion activities became a limiting factor for reproductive capacities. There was no change in the cell morphology. These results proved the ability of the strain of study to tolerate sucrose, even at extreme concentrations and these must be taken into consideration for its usage in the formulation/processing of sugar-based foods, e.g. jams, candies, etc.

  14. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions.

  15. 表面活性剂及其在食品工业中的应用%Surfactant applications in the food industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世仙; 刘焱; 王正武; 王修俊

    2012-01-01

    This review mainly highlights on the function of surfactants (extended solvent, ernulsification, wetting) , their applications in the food industry (beverage,condiment,cream candy,pastry,food detection, microcapsule technology) and fat substitute based on the definition and classifications of surfactants. The future prospects for the surfactants research are also included.%从表面活性剂的定义、分类出发,阐述表面活性剂的主要功能(增溶、乳化、润湿功能),及其在食品工业中的应用(在饮料、调味品、奶糖、糕点、食品检测、功能食品和微胶襄技术中的应用),以及作为脂肪替代品等方面的应用研究进展,同时也对表面活性剂的研究方向和发展趋势作了展望.

  16. The environment of the infrared dust bubble N65: a mutiwavelength study

    CERN Document Server

    Petriella, A; Giacani, E B

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: We investigate the environment of the infrared dust bubble N65 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in its surroundings. METHODS: We performed a multiwavelength study of the region around N65 with data taken from large-scale surveys: Two Micron All Sky Survey, GLIMPSE, MIPSGAL, SCUBA, and GRS. We analyzed the distribution of the molecular gas and dust in the environment of N65 and performed infrared photometry and spectral analysis of point sources to search for young stellar objects and identify the ionizing star candidates. RESULTS: We found a molecular cloud that appears to be fragmented into smaller clumps along the N65 PDR. This indicates that the so-called collect and collapse process may be occurring. Several young stellar objects are distributed among the molecular clumps. They may represent a second generation of stars whose formation was triggered by the bubble expanding into the molecular gas. We dentified O-type stars inside N65, which are the most reliable ionizing star candi...

  17. Oral health and feeding frequency of preschool children in a city in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Maia Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    Oral health and healthy eating habits are related to socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the population and imply the biopsychosocial health of the individual. This study investigated the oral health and feeding frequency of children attending a daycare in the municipality of Ananindeua, Pará State, northern Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study, quantitative and qualitative, descriptive, involving the examination of the oral cavity of children and questionnaires to parents, caregivers and those responsible for the daycare. Forty-seven children aged one to six years participated in this study; most were girls (57.5%. The daycare had no specific place for tooth brushing that was performed only once daily, without flossing. It was reported by parents that 48.94% of children have never visited a dentist. On examination of the oral cavity we observed carious lesion (51.10%, dental calculus (42.55%, fluorosis (10.64% and gingivitis (2.13%. It was found that the children had 3 or more meals and had the habit of consuming cariogenic foods such as soft drinks, candy and/or gum, even not being provided by the daycare. Most of the children had at least one decayed tooth, and the daycare offered a healthy diet, but the children had the habit of eating cariogenic foods.

  18. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  19. Recent Trends in Orodispersible Tablets – An Overview of Formulation Technology and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. PATIL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Orodispersible tablet is advanced and convenient drug delivery system, now days acquiring the most widely accepted dosage form. The recent advance in novel drug delivery system aimed for the development of dosage forms convenient to manufacturing and administration, offering immediate release and increased bioavailability. Difficulty in swallowing (Dysphasia is common among all age groups especially in aged patients and children’s. As our society is becoming increasingly aged, there is need to development of an appropriate dosage form for the elderly patients are mostly desirable. A novel orodispersible tablet was investigated in this study as a user-friendly dosage form for the elderly patients and also for children’s. Advance development in fast disintegrating technology mainly works to improve the disintegration quality of these delicate dosage forms without affecting their integrity. This article focuses on the patented technologies available and the advancements made so far in the field of fabrication of orodispersible tablets. Apart from the conventional methods of formulation, this review also provides the detailed concept of some unique technologies like freeze drying, direct compression, spray drying, tablet molding, sublimation, fast dissolving films cotton candy process, along with their advantages and limitations.

  20. Room-temperature Surface Modification of Cu nanowires and Their Applications in Transparent Electrodes, SERS-based Sensors and Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ranran; Zhai, Haitao; Shen, Xi; Wang, Tao; Shi, Liangjing; Yu, Richeng; Sun, Jing

    2016-10-05

    Cu nanowires (Copper nanowires) have attracted lots of attention recently due to their potential applications in transparent electrodes, SERS sensors and solar cells. However, as the surface composition and morphology of Cu nanowires severely influence the performance of the devices based on them, facial surface modification methods need to be developed. Herein, we propose a room-temperature, time-saving aqueous solution method, which can simultaneously clean the surface of copper nanowires and decorate them with Ag nanoparticles at room temperature without any atmospheric control. The unique "sesame-candy-bar" structure brought about significant enhancement on the electrical, optical and mechanical performances of Cu nanowire networks. Transparent electrodes with ideal opto-electrical performance (47  sq-1 @ 89.1 % T) and high anti-oxidation, anti-thermal and electrical stability were fabricated. Stretchable electrodes based on the modified Cu nanowire networks showed superior stretch ability and cycling stability. SERS sensors and organic solar cells constructed based on Cu nanowire networks exhibited higher performance due to the enhanced surface plasmonic coupling and light scattering effect. We believe that the method will shed light on the large-scale fabrication and application of Cu nanowire based devices.

  1. Role of density gradient driven trapped electron mode turbulence in the H-mode inner core with electron heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Guttenfelder, W.; Rhodes, T. L.; Dimits, A. M.; Bravenec, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Holland, C.; Lohr, J.; Marinoni, A.; McKee, G. R.; Petty, C. C.; Rost, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Zemedkun, S.; Zeng, L.

    2016-05-01

    A series of DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] low torque quiescent H-mode experiments show that density gradient driven trapped electron mode (DGTEM) turbulence dominates the inner core of H-mode plasmas during strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH). Adding 3.4 MW ECH doubles Te/Ti from 0.5 to 1.0, which halves the linear DGTEM critical density gradient, locally reducing density peaking, while transport in all channels displays extreme stiffness in the density gradient. This suggests that fusion α-heating may degrade inner core confinement in H-mode plasmas with moderate density peaking and low collisionality, with equal electron and ion temperatures, key conditions expected in burning plasmas. Gyrokinetic simulations using GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] (and GENE [Jenko et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000)]) closely match not only particle, energy, and momentum fluxes but also density fluctuation spectra from Doppler backscattering (DBS), with and without ECH. Inner core DBS density fluctuations display discrete frequencies with adjacent toroidal mode numbers, which we identify as DGTEMs. GS2 [Dorland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)] predictions show the DGTEM can be suppressed, to avoid degradation with electron heating, by broadening the current density profile to attain q0>qmin>1 .

  2. Structure-based view on [PSI(+)] prion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Stanislav A; Zhouravleva, Galina A; Belousov, Mikhail V; Kajava, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    Yeast [PSI(+)] prion is one of the most suitable and well characterized system for the investigation of the prion phenomenon. However, until recently, the lack of data on the 3D arrangement of Sup35p prion fibrils hindered progress in this area. The recent arrival in this field of new experimental techniques led to the parallel and in-register superpleated β-structure as a consensus model for Sup35p fibrils. Here, we analyzed the effect of amino acid substitutions of the Sup35 protein through the prism of this structural model. Application of a newly developed computational approach, called ArchCandy, gives us a better understanding of the effect caused by mutations on the fibril forming potential of Sup35 protein. This bioinformatics tool can be used for the design of new mutations with desired modification of prion properties. Thus, we provide examples of how today, having progress toward elucidation of the structural arrangement of Sup35p fibrils, researchers can advance more efficiently to a better understanding of prion [PSI(+)] stability and propagation.

  3. Microstructures and transformation characteristics of thin films of TiNiCu shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀兰; 徐东; 蔡炳初; 王莉; 陈鉴; 李刚; 徐实

    2002-01-01

    Both sputtering conditions and crystallizing temperatures have great influence on the microstructures and phase transformation characteristics for Ti51Ni44Cu5.By means of the resistance-temperature measurement,X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study,the results indicate that the transformation temperatures of the thin films increase and the "rock candy" martensitic relief is more easily obtained with promoting the sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature.However,when sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature are lower,a kind of "chrysanthemum" relief,which is related with Ti-rich GP zones,is much easier to be observed.The reason is that during crystallization process,both of the inherent compressive stresses introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure or higher crystallizing temperature are helpful to the transition from GP zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.The addition of copper to substitute for 5% nickel in mole fraction can reduce the transformation hysteresis width to about 10~15 ℃.

  4. A Study on Anthropometric Measurements, Blood Pressure, Blood Sugar and Food Intakes Among Different Social Status and Ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Metabolic syndrome is a disorder that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate some risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and food intakes among people who lived in Ahvaz City, Iran. Methods It was a filed study that was conducted on 211 subjects who participated in health exhibition. Socioeconomic status and ethnicity were asked by a general questionnaire. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference (WC and WC to hip circumference ratio (WHR were obtained. Blood sugar was measured by a glucometer. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were obtained and dietary intakes were assessed by a brief instrument. Results There was a significant difference in weight, height, WC, WHR and systolic blood pressure among different jobs. Workers had more intakes of cake and sweets. Arab subjects had more intakes of bread and fishes and Persians more intakes of vegetables. Soda, chocolate and candy were more consumed by Kurd ethnicity. Conclusions Job may be accounted as an important effective socioeconomic factor related to metabolic syndrome risk factors; also different cultures due to different ethnicities may have an influence on lifestyle and dietary intakes.

  5. Use of repellents for honeybees (Apis mellifera L. in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis Deg crop and in confined beef cattle feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nicodemo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Apis mellifera in places such as candy and soft drink factories, restaurants, and ice-cream shops has been a concern to many people. In the yellow passion-fruit crop, Apis mellifera is able to collect all anther pollen but has no active role in pollination. Honeybees also visit animal feeders with chopped sugar cane, preventing the cattle from eating. This work studied the effect of natural and synthetic substances as Apis mellifera repellents in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit crop and in confined beef cattle feeders. There was a repellent effect in vitro with the following substances in decreasing order: tobacco, rue, garlic, parsley, and century plant extracts; average effect was twenty-five minutes. For the yellow passion-fruit, garlic extracts and 2-heptanone were equally efficient with a two and a half hour repellent action. Garlic and citronella extracts were efficient in repelling Apis mellifera from confined beef cattle feeder for six hours. Garlic repellent action was higher than citronella.

  6. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Borrell, Luisa N; Savitz, David A; Herring, Amy H; Rundle, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The association between neighbourhood characteristics and gestational diabetes has not been examined previously. We investigated the relationship between the number of healthy food outlets (supermarkets; fruit/vegetable and natural food stores), and unhealthy food outlets (fast food; pizza; bodegas; bakeries; convenience, candy/nut and meat stores) in census tract of residence, and gestational diabetes in New York City. Gestational diabetes, census tract and individual-level covariates were ascertained from linked birth-hospital data for 210 926 singleton births from 2001 to 2002 and linked to commercial data on retail food outlets. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated using a multilevel logistic model. No association between food environment measures and gestational diabetes was found, with aORs ranging from 0.95 to 1.04. However, an increased odds of pre-pregnancy weight >200 lbs for women living in a given neighbourhood with no healthy food outlets [aOR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07, 1.21] or only one healthy food place [aOR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04, 1.18] relative to two or more healthy food outlets was found. Due to probable misclassification of neighbourhood food environment and pre-pregnancy obesity results are likely to be biased towards the null. Future research, including validity studies, on the neighbourhood food environment, obesity during pregnancy and gestational diabetes is warranted.

  7. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  8. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Masalu, Joyce Rose

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. METHODS: The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. RESULTS: Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. CONCLUSION: This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania.

  9. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. Methods The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. Results Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania.

  10. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Susin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in the field of Analytical Chemistry due to the complexity of the composition of such a food. On the other hand, the sodium content of foods is currently a major concern. Thus, this work aims to provide information concerning the composition of commercial milk chocolate in terms of its fatty acid profile and sodium content. To achieve this purpose, analytical adjustments and improvements to the methodology were made and described in this paper. Sodium (FAAS and a total of 50 fatty acids (GC-FID were determined in eight samples of milk chocolate bars from different manufacturers. The samples were purchased from retailers in Porto Alegre – Brazil. In the determination of the fatty acids, possible losses during methylation deserved special attention and were studied. Nevertheless, large differences were not found in comparison with the nutritional facts declared on the label. However, the results obtained for sodium demonstrated the importance of food inspection, considering the discrepancies found.

  11. 浓香型白酒酒醅可培养真菌的分离、鉴定及系统发育分析%Isolation,Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Culturable Fungi in Fermented Grains of Nongxiang Baijiu(Liquor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 夏珊; 徐坤; 冯鸿; 冯霞; 曹子建

    2015-01-01

    The culturable fungi in fermented grains of Sichuan Nongxiang Baijiu(liquor) were isolated and identified. Then homology analysis was done. Some filamentous fungi could be identified at species level by use of ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequences. As a result, Aspergillus sp., Monascus sp., Rhizopus sp. were the dominant strains. Yeasts could be identified at species level by use of 26S rRNA D1/D2 sequences. And Candida sp. and Pichia sp. were the dominant strains.%对四川浓香型白酒酒醅可培养真菌进行分离、鉴定,并做系统发育分析。运用ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2序列可将部分菌株鉴定到种的水平,可培养丝状真菌优势菌为曲霉属(Aspergillus sp.)、红曲霉属(Monascus sp.)、根霉(Rhizopus sp.)。26S rRNA D1/D2序列可将所有分离酵母鉴定到种的水平,可培养酵母优势菌为假丝酵母属(Candi-da sp.)和毕赤酵母属(Pichia sp.)。

  12. Standard test method for determining liquidus temperature of immobilized waste glasses and simulated waste glasses

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures for determining the liquidus temperature (TL) of nuclear waste, mixed nuclear waste, simulated nuclear waste, or hazardous waste glass in the temperature range from 600°C to 1600°C. This method differs from Practice C829 in that it employs additional methods to determine TL. TL is useful in waste glass plant operation, glass formulation, and melter design to determine the minimum temperature that must be maintained in a waste glass melt to make sure that crystallization does not occur or is below a particular constraint, for example, 1 volume % crystallinity or T1%. As of now, many institutions studying waste and simulated waste vitrification are not in agreement regarding this constraint (1). 1.2 Three methods are included, differing in (1) the type of equipment available to the analyst (that is, type of furnace and characterization equipment), (2) the quantity of glass available to the analyst, (3) the precision and accuracy desired for the measurement, and (4) candi...

  13. Restaurant 2 goes Cordon Bleu

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Domaine de Chouilly. Who said fine cuisine was too expensive? For a whole week between the 19th and 23rd February you will have the opportunity to enjoy gastronomic delights a short walk away from your office for only 17 CHF. The Chef and his colleagues from the famous Chateauvieux restaurant at the Domaine de Chouilly will be coming to Restaurant No. 2 to prepare a different gastronomic delight each day and will bring with them their own ingredients, equipment and even their own crockery! The list of fare is mouthwatering: Limousin lamb filet au gratin served with two-olive tapenade, and filet of char served with dill and candied lemon are just two of the delicious dishes on the week's menu. Restaurant No. 2 has rustled up another innovation: at the beginning of March it will be starting a pasta serving area on the ground floor called 'The Olivetto Corner'. 'The Corner is designed for customers who don't have much time and for those who like their pasta al dente,' explains Jean-Marie Fornerod, who mana...

  14. 发酵型黑莓醋饮料的研究%Study on the Production of Fermenting Blackberry Vinegar Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荣妹; 吴广黔; 周剑丽

    2012-01-01

    Blackberry vinegar juice was prepared by alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation of flesh blackberry. The optimum technical pa- rameters were determined and the recipe of vinegar beverage was summed up by orthogonal experiments as follows: 20 % blackberry vinegar juice, 10 % jujube juice, and 8 % sweetener (xylitol, sugar candy and honey). Besides, the technology of high temperature instant sterilization was adopted in the production of blackberry vinegar beverage. (Tran, by YUE Yang)%以新鲜黑莓(Blackeny)为原料,经过酒精发酵和醋酸发酵制取黑莓醋汁。通过试验,得出了黑莓醋汁的最佳酒精发酵和醋酸发酵的工艺参数。选用正交实验,得出醋酸饮料的配方:黑莓醋汁20%,红枣汁10%,甜味剂(木糖醇、冰糖、蜂蜜)8%。黑莓果醋饮料采用高温瞬间灭菌的杀菌工艺。

  15. A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chibueze Izah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks. Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the concentration of heavy metals from some commercially-packaged beverages consumed in Nigeria. The study found that heavy metal concentrations, including iron, mercury, tin, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, and manganese, seldom exceed the maximum contaminant level recommended by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and the World Health Organization (WHO as applicable to drinking water resources. The occurrence of heavy metals in the beverages could have resulted from the feedstocks and water used in their production. Consumption of beverages high in heavy metal could be toxic and cause adverse effect to human health, depending on the rate of exposure and accumulation dosage. This study concludes by suggesting that heavy metal concentration in the feedstocks and water should be monitored by producers, and its concentration in beverages should also be monitored by appropriate regulatory agencies.

  16. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs.

  17. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  18. Food marketing on popular children's web sites: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Lisa M; Calvert, Sandra L

    2008-04-01

    In 2006 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that food marketing was a contributor to childhood obesity in the United States. One recommendation of the IOM committee was for research on newer marketing venues, such as Internet Web sites. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to answer the IOM's call by examining food marketing on popular children's Web sites. Ten Web sites were selected based on market research conducted by KidSay, which identified favorite sites of children aged 8 to 11 years during February 2005. Using a standardized coding form, these sites were examined page by page for the existence, type, and features of food marketing. Web sites were compared using chi2 analyses. Although food marketing was not pervasive on the majority of the sites, seven of the 10 Web sites contained food marketing. The products marketed were primarily candy, cereal, quick serve restaurants, and snacks. Candystand.com, a food product site, contained a significantly greater amount of food marketing than the other popular children's Web sites. Because the foods marketed to children are not consistent with a healthful diet, nutrition professionals should consider joining advocacy groups to pressure industry to reduce online food marketing directed at youth.

  19. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  20. Concomitant pulmonary arteriovenous and inferior vena cava malformations. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawass, N.D.; Kolawole, T.M.; Badawi, M.G.

    1988-05-01

    A case of pulmonary arterio-venous malformation (AVM) presenting with dyspnoea diagnosed by computer tomography (CT) and pulmonary angiography is reported. Venous anomalies in the form of agenesis of the iliac veins and the inferior vena cava (IVC), were discovered through femoral venograms performed after technical difficulties were encountered at pulmonary angiography performed via the femoral route. These venous anomalies co-existed with normal but dilated azygos and hemiazygos systems, and with the azygos appearing as a right hilar mass lesion which showed the 'candy cane sign' on the lateral view on venography. A dilated varix at the confluence of the right renal vein and the IVC collaterals was also noted. This association of a pulmonary AVM and IVC agenesis has not been previously reported in the literature. The embryogenesis of the inferior vena cava and the azygos system is presented in an attempt to explain the rare association of these anomalies. The various techniques of diagnosing the disease entities, expecially by CT, are discussed. The rare co-existence of pulmonary AVM and the absence of the IVC is emphasized.

  1. Process Development and Future for Solid Fru-glucose%固体果葡糖生产工艺研究及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乃强; 尹月玲; 杨海军; 王明珠; 王彩梅

    2013-01-01

      固体果葡糖是一种新型糖源,与果葡糖浆相比,具有便于运输、贮藏、计量和使用等优点。它是以果葡糖浆为原料经真空干燥、粉碎后得到的一种果葡糖浆固体状产品,可广泛应用于食品、医药、化学等领域,具有广阔的市场潜力和需求。%Solid Fru-glucose is a new kind of candy sources. It is easy for transportation,storage,measurement and use than Fructose syrup. Solid Fru-glucose was prepared from Fructose srup via vacuum drying and grinding. It is used in food,medicine and chemistry,and wil have broad potential market and demand.

  2. RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN PATIENTS WITH HIV LIPODYSTROPHIC SYNDROME

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    Claudia Daniele Tavares Dutra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipodystrophy is quite common in HIV positive patient using antiretroviral therapy (ART. Objective: to investigate the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD in patients with HIV lipodystrophic syndrome (HIVLS. Methods: Transversal study with adult patients with HIVLS. Social-demographic, anthropometric and risk factors for CVD were collected. Results: 117 patients were studied, being 63.2% male, average age 44.61 (± 9.22. The majority (53,8% presented the mixed form of HIVLS. As for the risk factors for CVD, it was observed that 20.5% of the patients smoked, 46.2% consumed alcoholic beverages, 70.9% were sedentary and 79,5% were dyslipidemic. Hypertension, diabetes and overweight were prevalent in 12.0%, 14.7% and 23.9%, respectively, independently from sex. The analysis of the food consumption has revealed a low consumption of food considered as protectors, just like fruit, vegetables and greens and a high consumption of food considered risky, like meat with apparent fat, chicken with skin, candies and sweets. Conclusion: The patients bearing SLHIV presented a higher risk for CVD, so the participation of the multidisciplinary team on the service for these patients is fundamental, stimulating them to changes in their life styles.

  3. Fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing to assess swallowing outcomes as a function of head position in a normal population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Head position practice has been shown to influence pill-swallowing ability, but the impact of head position on measures of swallowing outcomes has not yet been studied with fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether head position impacts penetration-aspiration scale scores and/or post-swallow pharyngeal residue as assessed by FEES. Documenting the incidence of pharyngeal residue and laryngeal penetration and aspiration in a normal population was a secondary goal. Methods Adults without swallowing difficulties (N = 84) were taught a pill swallowing technique based on learning five head positions and were asked to practice with small, hard candies (e.g., TicTacs) for two weeks. Then they demonstrated swallowing in each of the head positions for two conditions, liquid and purée, while undergoing FEES. Results Out of 840 examined swallows, one event of aspiration and 5 events of penetration occurred. During practice >50% participants found positions they preferred over the center position for swallowing but head position was not associated with penetration-aspiration scores assessed by FEES. Significant associations and non-significant trends were found between pharyngeal residue and three variables: age, most preferred head position, and least preferred head position. Conclusion Head position during swallowing (head up) and age greater than 40 years may result in increased pharyngeal residue but not laryngeal penetration or aspiration. PMID:24755159

  4. Associated factors of overweight in adolescents from public schools in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to support plans and actions that combat the local increasing overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents, the factors associated to weight excess in public school students from Montes Claros, MG, Southeast Brazil, were studied.METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of adolescents from the public schools of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated and an inquiry was carried out in the schools to determine food consumption and practice of physical activities. Factors associated to weight excess were assessed by bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression.RESULTS: Weight excess prevalence was detected in 18.5% of the 535 adolescents evaluated. The factors associated to weight excess were: per capita income above half minimum wage (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.01-3.93, candy consumption above two daily portions (OR 1.94; 95%CI 1.13-3.32 and absence of sport activity during leisure time (OR 2.54; 95%CI 1.15-5.59.CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of weight excess in adolescents from public schools is relevant and associated with socioeconomic condition of the family, bad eating habits and sedentary life.

  5. Foliar fertilization of peanuts with cobalt and molybdenum: agronomic characteristics of production and physiological potential of seeds

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    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a crop, the peanut is becoming increasingly important in Brazil because it is used to renew areas where sugarcane is cultivated. The peanuts are mainly used by the candy industry and their importance has also grown because of the exploitation of oil crops to produce biodiesel. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying different levels Co and Mo foliar fertilizer to two peanut cultivars. The experiment was conducted in cerrado, during the rainy season, and the treatments consisted of applying Mo and Co fertilizer at zero, 400 and 800g.ha–1 to the Runner IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST cultivars. The study found that there were differences in the parameters of the cultivars but there were no changes when the rates of cobalt and molybdenum were increased. The foliar application of cobalt and molybdenum in doses up to 800g.ha–1, during the initial stage of seed formation, does not change the agronomic characteristics of peanuts; Runner IAC 886 is more productive than the IAC Tatu ST cultivar, and seeds with higher molybdenum content do not have more physiological potential.

  6. Proceedings of the second SISAL users` conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, J T; Frerking, C; Miller, P J [eds.

    1992-12-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: A sisal code for computing the fourier transform on S{sub N}; five ways to fill your knapsack; simulating material dislocation motion in sisal; candis as an interface for sisal; parallelisation and performance of the burg algorithm on a shared-memory multiprocessor; use of genetic algorithm in sisal to solve the file design problem; implementing FFT`s in sisal; programming and evaluating the performance of signal processing applications in the sisal programming environment; sisal and Von Neumann-based languages: translation and intercommunication; an IF2 code generator for ADAM architecture; program partitioning for NUMA multiprocessor computer systems; mapping functional parallelism on distributed memory machines; implicit array copying: prevention is better than cure ; mathematical syntax for sisal; an approach for optimizing recursive functions; implementing arrays in sisal 2.0; Fol: an object oriented extension to the sisal language; twine: a portable, extensible sisal execution kernel; and investigating the memory performance of the optimizing sisal compiler.

  7. Progress in the Synthesis of Carvone from Limonene%苧烯合成香芹酮的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁金桃; 何荔英; 刘海萍; 唐家兴

    2012-01-01

    在过去的50年中,随着香芹酮广泛应用于牙膏、糖果、饮料、香皂等行业,其市场需求日益扩大。然而,以前的香芹酮生产工艺逐渐满足不了现代工业生产的要求,因此一些新的合成方法被研究出来。本文总结了由苧烯合成香芹酮的一系列合成方法,以便为它的现代化工业生产提供思路和方法。%Over the past 50 years,the carvone was widely used in the toothpaste,candy,drinks,soap and other industries,and the market demand for carvone was gradually increasing.However,the previous process of producing carvone gradually can't satisfy the requirements of modern industrial production.Therefore,some of the new synthetic methods were developed.A series of methods of synthesizing carvone from limonene were summerized to provide ideas and methods for its modern industrial production.

  8. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  9. Annona muricata (Annonaceae: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  10. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

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    Camila Niclis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils, Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains, Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products, and Cheese (cheeses. High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099 and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128 showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  11. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits.

  12. Isolation and Purification of an Antibacterial Protein from Immune Induced Haemolymph of American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

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    Hamid Reza Basseri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial peptides play a role as effectors substances in the immunity of vertebrate and inverte­brate hosts. In the current study, antimicrobial peptide was isolated from the haemolymph of the American cock­roach, Periplaneta americana.Methods: Micrococcus luteus as Gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria were candi­date for injection. Induction was done by injecting both bacteria into the abdominal cavity of two groups of cock­roaches separately. The haemolymphs were collected 24 hours after post injection and initially tested against both bacteria. Subsequently, the immune induced haemolymph was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity.Results: The non-induced haemolymph did not show any activity against both bacteria whereas induced haemo­lymph exhibited high activity against M. luteus but did less against E. coli. Two fractions showed antibacterial activ­ity against M. luteus. Finally the molecular weight of the isolated antibacterial proteins were determined as 72 kDa and 62 kDa using SDS-PAGE.Conclusion: Induced haemolymph of American cockroaches has the ability to produce peptides to combat against Gram-positive bacteria when an immune challenge is mounted. Further work has to be done to sequence of the pro­tein, which it would be advantageous.

  13. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosotsubo, Miyu; Magota, Tetsuro; Egusa, Masahiko; Miyawaki, Takuya; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy). The results indicated that Young’s modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing. PMID:27977775

  14. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed.

  15. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.

  16. Prevalence of Artificial Food Colors in Grocery Store Products Marketed to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Jacobson, Michael F

    2016-10-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) in foods and beverages may be harmful to children. This study assesses the percentage of grocery store products marketed to children that contain AFCs, by category and company. The research team collected product and food-color information about 810 products in one grocery store in North Carolina in 2014. Overall, 350 products (43.2%) contained AFCs. The most common AFCs were Red 40 (29.8% of products), Blue 1 (24.2%), Yellow 5 (20.5%), and Yellow 6 (19.5%). Produce was the only category that did not have any AFCs. The highest percentage of products with AFCs was found in candies (96.3%), fruit-flavored snacks (94%), and drink mixes/powders (89.7%). Forty-one of the 66 companies marketed products containing AFCs. Given concerns about health effects of AFCs and high proportions of high-AFC categories, clinicians, parents, food companies, and the government can take steps to support children's healthy eating and development by reducing AFCs in children's diets.

  17. Le cas des beurres végétaux et des cires d’origine naturelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossow Véronique

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural waxes such as Beeswax, Carnauba wax and Candelilla wax are widely used in the Cosmetic and Food industries. Thanks to their composition, and besides a compulsory high safety, they provide desirable properties such as strength, gloss, emolliency, barrier effect, making them essential in numerous applications. For example, lots of candies are coated with either one or a mix of these 3 waxes, while for Cosmetics, the waxy part of lipsticks contains various combinations of such waxes. Within the cosmetic industry, the “green wave” – natural products – which is developing to the detriment of synthetic or mineral raw materials, has generated know-hows to enlighten new values to natural resources. Several types of developments have occurred: managing to substitute materials facing bad press (ex: petrolatum, lanolin, mimicking trendy “butter-like” textures either by adequate mixture or by chemical reaction to offer alternatives to overused Shea or Cupuaçu Butter, or as a result of more recent research programs, identifying natural waxes acting more like active ingredients than “just” like excipients (Mimosa Flower wax, Lemon Peel or Orange Peel waxes, etc..

  18. The cost of a healthy diet: a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Norman J; Steyn, Nelia P

    2011-05-01

    Energy-dense foods are relatively cheap sources of energy but typically have a low nutrient density. People with a low income may therefore select a relatively less healthy diet. The high energy density of such diets helps explain the association between obesity and low socioeconomic status. Most studies have been carried out in highly developed countries. We have extended this research to South Africa. Some foods, such as oats, beans, carrots, and apples, are moderately priced sources of energy and are healthy (i.e., they have a low energy density and are nutrient dense). However, such foods are likely to be less desired than many other foods, such as candy, cookies, jam, and chocolate, that have a similar cost (in terms of food energy) but are less healthy. We compared the cost of a typical South African diet with a healthier one. On average, the healthier diet costs 69% more, but this estimate is greatly affected by food choices. For a family whose household income is exceeded by one-third of the population, this increased expenditure represents about 30% of total household income. This could be decreased to about 10% to 15% if a healthy diet is carefully designed. Overall, a healthy diet is unaffordable for most South Africans. This shows the importance of not only educating people in developing countries to the importance of a healthy diet but also explaining how to make such a diet affordable. A more effective strategy is government intervention that manipulates food prices.

  19. PENGARUH VARIABEL-VARIABEL MOTIVASI TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS TENAGA KERJA KARYAWAN PADA INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA DI KABUPATEN SIDOARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundring Pantja Djati

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out to find the effect of motivation variables such as physical need, safety and labor need, social need, self-esteem need, and actualization need on the productivity of workers at home industries in Sidoarjo region. This research also intended to find which variables mostly affect that productivity. I used the primary data which was derived form a survey on 40 respondents of home industries located at 4 local districts in Sidoarjo region: Tanggulangin, Candi, Buduran and Waru. The technique of data collecting used in this research wan Non Proportional Satisfied Random Sampling. Validity and reliability analysis was used to test the validity and reliability technique. Double linear regression was used as an analysis model. This model was chosen because this research intended to find to that extend independent variables affect dependent variables. This research indicated that motivation variables such as physical need, safety need, labor safety need, social need, self-esteem need and actualization need together showed a significant effect on the productivity of worker at home-industries in Sidoarjo. Partial and simultaneous analysis both indicated that, among those variables, physical both indicated the strongest influence, especially at Candi region. This was in line with the type of industry in that region that is "tempe" (soybean cake industry. This industry offers lower payment/wages compared with other industries which produce bags, suitcases, shoes and other leather handicraft. The result of calculation for all the district as well as for each district indicated that self-actualization variables did not al all affect the productivity of workers. This was indicated by the regression coefficient value and the low T value which conformed to the theory that self-actualization need is the last-fulfilled need after the other four needs. This condition was supported by the low education level of the workers which approved

  20. Líquido cefalorraqueano em infecção do sistema nervoso central por leveduras do gênero Candida: análise de 11 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Livramento

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 44 amostras de liqüido cefalorraqueano (LCR de 11 pacientes em que foi possível fazer diagnóstico etiológico de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC por leveduras do gênero Candida. Todos os pacientes apresentavam fatores de risco para a afecção. Cinco apresentavam quadro de meningite crônica a esclarecer; dois, síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida; dois, traumatismo crânioencefálico seguido de meningite crônica; um, coagulação intravascular disseminada seguida de septicemia; um, candi-díase sistêmica pós-transplante renal. O diagnóstico etiológico foi feito pelo exame do LCR, possibilitando em 9 o isolamento da levedura por crescimento em meio de cultura. Em dois o diagnóstico foi feito pela presença das leveduras ao exame direto e, em um deles, também pela positividade da reação de fixação de complemento para Candida realizada em três amostras sucessivas de LCR. Discute-se a importância das alterações encontradas no exame do LCR na candidíase do SNC.

  1. Purification and Study of Proteolytic Activity of Ficin Enzyme of Fig (Ficus Carica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mostafaie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Ficin is a member of plant cystein proteases that is abundant in fig. This enzyme has many pharmacological and industrial uses. In the present study, the enzyme was purified by a simple procedure and its proteolytic activity was assayed on several plant and animal proteins. Materials & Methods: Ficin was extracted from unripe fig, precipitated by ammonium sulfate and purified using ion-exchange chromatography on a Carboxymethyl Sepharose column. Proteolytic activities of the purified enzyme were determined in 4 buffering conditions on casein, alpha lactalbumin, beta lactoglobulin and gelatin proteins. Results: Purified enzymes include two bands with molecular mass of 24 and 26 KDa. Re-sults of proteolytic activity showed that ficin can digest casein. It has moderate hydrolytic activity on beta lactoglobulin and gelatin but ficin can not hydrolyze alpha lactalbumin. Conclusion: It seems ficin has selective effects on some proteins so it can be a good candi-date for digestion of casein and making related drugs. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (2:126-132

  2. Beyond pleasure and pain: Facial expression ambiguity in adults and children during intense situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Sofia; Levine, Sarah; van Dick, Rolf; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Aviezer, Hillel

    2016-09-01

    According to psychological models as well as common intuition, intense positive and negative situations evoke highly distinct emotional expressions. Nevertheless, recent work has shown that when judging isolated faces, the affective valence of winning and losing professional tennis players is hard to differentiate. However, expressions produced by professional athletes during publicly broadcasted sports events may be strategically controlled. To shed light on this matter we examined if ordinary people's spontaneous facial expressions evoked during highly intense situations are diagnostic for the situational valence. In Experiment 1 we compared reactions with highly intense positive situations (surprise soldier reunions) versus highly intense negative situations (terror attacks). In Experiment 2, we turned to children and compared facial reactions with highly positive situations (e.g., a child receiving a surprise trip to Disneyland) versus highly negative situations (e.g., a child discovering her parents ate up all her Halloween candy). The results demonstrate that facial expressions of both adults and children are often not diagnostic for the valence of the situation. These findings demonstrate the ambiguity of extreme facial expressions and highlight the importance of context in everyday emotion perception. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Direct simultaneous determination of eight sweeteners in foods by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmannová, Michaela; Krivánková, Ludmila; Bartos, Martin; Vytras, Karel

    2006-05-01

    A method for isotachophoretic determination of sweeteners of different character in candies and chewing gums was developed. A capillary of 0.8 mm ID and 90 mm effective length made of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer is filled with an electrolyte system consisting of 10 mM HCl + 14 mM Tris, pH 7.7 (leading electrolyte) and 5 mM L-histidine + 5 mM Tris, pH 8.3 (terminating electrolyte). The analysis is performed at a driving current of 200 microA and for detection current is decreased to 100 microA. Boric acid is added to the aqueous sample solution to form borate complexes with substances of polyhydroxyl nature and make them migrate isotachophoretically. Using conductivity detection, the calibration curves in the tested concentration range up to 2.5 mM were linear for all components of interest: acesulfame K, saccharine, aspartame, cyclamate, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol, and xylitol. The concentration detection limits ranged between 0.024 and 0.081 mM. Good precision of the ITP method is evidenced by favorable RSD values ranging from 0.8 to 2.8% obtained at the analyte concentration of 1.0 mM (n = 6). The analysis time was about 20 min. Simplicity, accuracy, and low cost of analyses make ITP an alternative procedure to methods used so far for the determination of ionizable sweeteners.

  4. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  5. Diminished social reward anticipation in the broad autism phenotype as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony; Kohls, Gregor; Naples, Adam J; Mukerji, Cora E; Coffman, Marika C; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; McPartland, James C

    2015-10-01

    Diminished responsivity to reward incentives is a key contributor to the social-communication problems seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Social motivation theories suggest that individuals with ASD do not experience social interactions as rewarding, leading to negative consequences for the development of brain circuitry subserving social information. In this study, we examined neural responses to social and non-social reward anticipation in 35 typically developing young adults, examining modulation of reward sensitivity by level of autistic traits. Using an Event-related potential incentive-delay task incorporating novel, more ecologically valid forms of reward, higher expression of autistic traits was associated with an attenuated P3 response to the anticipation of social (simulated real-time video feedback from an observer), but not non-social (candy), rewards. Exploratory analyses revealed that this was unrelated to mentalizing ability. The P3 component reflects motivated attention to reward signals, suggesting attenuated motivation allocation specific to social incentives. The study extends prior findings of atypical reward anticipation in ASD, demonstrating that attenuated social reward responsiveness extends to autistic traits in the range of typical functioning. Results support the development of innovative paradigms for investigating social and non-social reward responsiveness. Insight into vulnerabilities in reward processing is critical for understanding social function in ASD.

  6. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

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    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  7. Sociobehavioral Factors Associated with Caries Increment: A Longitudinal Study from 24 to 36 Months Old Children in Thailand

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    Karl Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate sociobehavioral risk factors from the prenatal period until 36 months of age, and the caries increment from 24 to 36 months of the child in Thailand. The data utilized in this study come from the prospective cohort study of Thai children (PCTC from prenatal to 36 months of the child in Mueang Nan district, Northern Thailand. The total sample size recruited was 783 infants. The sample size with dental caries data was 603 and 597, at 24 months and at 36 months, respectively. The sample size of having two assessment points with a dental examination (at 24 months and at 36 months was 597. Results indicate that the caries increment was 52.9%, meaning from 365 caries free children at 24 months 193 had developed dental caries at 36 months. The prevalence of dental caries was 34.2% at 24 months (n = 206 and 68.5% at 36 months of age (n = 409. In bivariate analysis, higher education of the mother, lower household income, bottle feeding of the infant, frequent sweet candy consumptions, and using rain or well water as drinking water were associated with dental caries increment, while in multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis lower household income, higher education of the mother, and using rain or well water as drinking water remained associated with dental caries increment. In conclusion, a very significant increase in caries development was observed, and oral health may be influenced by sociobehavioural risk factors.

  8. Determination of seven certified color additives in food products using liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Barrows, Julie N

    2013-04-17

    This study describes a new method for determining FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Blue No. 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red No. 3, FD&C Red No. 40, FD&C Yellow No. 5, and FD&C Yellow No. 6 in food products. These seven color additives are water-soluble dyes that are required to be batch certified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) before they may be used in food and other FDA-regulated products. In the new method, the color additives are extracted from a product using one of two procedures developed for various product types, isolated from the noncolored components, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The method was validated by determining linearity, range, precision, recovery from various matrices, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and relative standard deviation for each color additive. A survey of 44 food products, including beverages, frozen treats, powder mixes, gelatin products, candies, icings, jellies, spices, dressings, sauces, baked goods, and dairy products, found total color additives ranging from 1.9 to 1221 mg/kg. FDA intends to use the new method for conducting a rigorous, comprehensive dietary exposure assessment of certified color additives in products likely to be consumed by children.

  9. [Oral hygiene habits and use of dental services among teenage students in a city in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freddo, Silvia Letícia; Aerts, Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Abegg, Claídes; Davoglio, Rosane; Vieira, Patrícia Conzatti; Monteiro, Lisiane

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated oral hygiene habits and use of dental services among teenage students, and analyzed their association with sociodemographic factors and life styles. This cross-sectional study included a representative sample of 1,170 seventh-graders from municipal public schools of Gravataí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Cox regression model for univariate analysis, modified for cross-sectional studies, was used to analyze the association between variables. Of the adolescents included in the study, 77.8% brushed their teeth three or more times a day, 31.9% flossed daily, 68.9% visited the dentist regularly, and 50% visited the dentist for dental treatment. Tooth brushing was more frequent among female adolescents. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with a lower frequency of daily flossing, fewer annual dental visits, and a greater prevalence of dental treatment visits. Similar results were found for adolescents with a sedentary lifestyle or that had tried smoking. The consumption of candy was associated with lower frequency of annual dental visits, and the consumption of soft drinks, with greater frequency of treatment visits. A healthy life style was associated with better oral hygiene habits and more frequent dental visits.

  10. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimbei, Elena; Botsaris, George; Gekas, Vassilis; Panayiotou, Andrie G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess dietary-related habits among young adults. Design and Setting. Dietary habits were assessed cross-sectionally, using a self-completed questionnaire in 193 students enrolled in public and private universities in Cyprus. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the validated KIDMED index. BMI was estimated based on weight and height measurements. Results. The mean BMI was 23.31 (±3.98). The mean adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was 6.0 (IQR 4 to 8), with 26.9% of students being classified as high adherers and 21.8% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 32% of students consumed a second serving of fruit and vegetables more than once a day, whereas 26% reported going more than once a week to a fast-food restaurant and 31% consumed sweets and candy several times a day. On the other hand, 76% of participants reported consumption of at least two dairy products daily and 88% use olive oil at home. The majority consume coffee 2-3 times per day. Conclusions. Results support a shift from traditional healthy diets to more unhealthy eating patterns. However, we also report a high dairy intake and use of olive oil. Tailored-made strategies targeting the young adult population could be warranted.

  11. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey

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    Elena Hadjimbei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess dietary-related habits among young adults. Design and Setting. Dietary habits were assessed cross-sectionally, using a self-completed questionnaire in 193 students enrolled in public and private universities in Cyprus. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the validated KIDMED index. BMI was estimated based on weight and height measurements. Results. The mean BMI was 23.31 (±3.98. The mean adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was 6.0 (IQR 4 to 8, with 26.9% of students being classified as high adherers and 21.8% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 32% of students consumed a second serving of fruit and vegetables more than once a day, whereas 26% reported going more than once a week to a fast-food restaurant and 31% consumed sweets and candy several times a day. On the other hand, 76% of participants reported consumption of at least two dairy products daily and 88% use olive oil at home. The majority consume coffee 2-3 times per day. Conclusions. Results support a shift from traditional healthy diets to more unhealthy eating patterns. However, we also report a high dairy intake and use of olive oil. Tailored-made strategies targeting the young adult population could be warranted.

  12. Date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera Linn): an emerging medicinal food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayalil, Praveen K

    2012-01-01

    Date palm is one of the oldest trees cultivated by man. In the folk-lore, date fruits have been ascribed to have many medicinal properties when consumed either alone or in combination with other herbs. Although, fruit of the date palm served as the staple food for millions of people around the world for several centuries, studies on the health benefits are inadequate and hardly recognized as a healthy food by the health professionals and the public. In recent years, an explosion of interest in the numerous health benefits of dates had led to many in vitro and animal studies as well as the identification and quantification of various classes of phytochemicals. On the basis of available documentation in the literature on the nutritional and phytochemical composition, it is apparent that the date fruits are highly nutritious and may have several potential health benefits. Although dates are sugar-packed, many date varieties are low GI diet and refutes the dogma that dates are similar to candies and regular consumption would develop chronic diseases. More investigations in these areas would validate its beneficial effects, mechanisms of actions, and fully appreciate as a potential medicinal food for humans all around the world. Therefore, in this review we summarize the phytochemical composition, nutritional significance, and potential health benefits of date fruit consumption and discuss its great potential as a medicinal food for a number of diseases inflicting human beings.

  13. Empirically derived major dietary patterns and their associations with overweight in Korean preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyung Ok; Oh, Se-Young; Park, Hyun Suh

    2007-08-01

    Prevailing dietary patterns and their association with nutritional outcomes are poorly understood, particularly for children in Korea. Our purposes were to identify major dietary patterns and to examine their associations with overweight among young children in Korea. For 1441 preschool children, usual diet was assessed by a FFQ, from which thirty-three food groups were created and entered into a factor analysis. We identified three dietary patterns by relative intake frequency of (1) vegetables, seaweeds, beans, fruits, milk and dairy products (Korean healthy pattern); (2) beef, pork, poultry, fish and fast foods (animal foods pattern); and (3) ice cream, soda, chocolate, cookies and candies (sweets pattern). The Korean healthy pattern was associated with better health status. As compared with the lowest quintile, the multivariate-adjusted OR of the highest quintile for health status inferior or similar to their peers was 0.59 (95 % CI 0.42, 0.84). Likelihood of being overweight was higher among those in the highest quintile (OR 1.77 (95 % CI 1.06, 2.94)) v. the lowest quintile regarding the animal foods pattern. These findings suggest that major dietary patterns are predictors of overweight and health status in Korean preschool children.

  14. Dietary cravings and aversions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1978-08-01

    Interviews of 250 women concerning dietary changes during pregnancy were undertaken immediately after delivery. With regard to beverages, of women who regularly drank coffee or alcoholic items prior to conception, almost 30% reported a significant drop in ingestion during pregnancy. For coffee this change was attributed primarily to "endogenous" factors e.g., provocation of nausea or a loss of taste for the beverage. Concern regarding maternal or infant health was the most frequent reason for decrease in alcoholic beverages, although endogenous factors were also mentioned. Soda beverages were also ingested less frequently, predominantly because of dieting. The main increase was in milk consumption, primarily attributed to concern for the infant, but many mothers cited only a craving for the beverage. Other foods for which specific cravings were frequently cited were ice cream, sweets, and candy (particularly chocolate), fruits, and fish. Foods for which aversions outnumbered cravings were meats, poultry, and sauces flavored with oregano. Possible explanations for these changes associated with pregnancy are discussed.

  15. Enamel erosion caused by the effervescent acid powder in Tiritón ice cream: An in vitro study.

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    Katherine Beltrán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to visualize the erosive effect on human dental enamel of effervescent acid powder in the Tiritón ice cream (Savory, Nestle, Vevey, Switzerland. The erosive potential of Tiritón ice cream was determined in in vitro conditions by submitting 5 enamel pieces from 3 healthy first molars. The samples were submitted to the mixture of saliva from a girl without cavity incidence and the effervescent powder in the Tiritón ice cream, at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 seconds, then the results were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and measurement of pH. All specimens showed pH 3.0. SEM showed increasing degrees of erosion with longer periods of exposure. The Tiritón ice cream generates a much larger acid solution than necessary for the onset of the dissolution of enamel which subsequently causes susceptibility to dental cavities and erosion, higher than reported for other candies. The images obtained by SEM made possible to visualize clearly the erosive effect produced by the effervescent acid powder in periods of exposure of less than a minute.

  16. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (pfood addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  17. Developing a Model to Support Students in Solving Subtraction

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    Nila Mareta Murdiyani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the differentstrategies. The meaning of “taking away something” suggests a directsubtraction, while the meaning of “determining the difference betweentwo numbers” is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Manyprior researches found that the second meaning and second strategy rarely appeared in the mathematical textbooks and teacher explanations, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study was conducted to contribute to the development of a local instruction theory for subtraction by designing instructional activities that can facilitate first grade of primary school students to develop a model in solving two digit numbers subtraction. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate approach for achieving the research aim and Realistic Mathematics Education (RME was used as a guide to design the lesson. This study involved 6 students in the pilot experiment, 31 students in the teaching experiment, and a first grade teacher of SDN 179 Palembang. The result of this study shows that the beads string could bridge students from the contextual problems (taking ginger candies and making grains bracelets to the use of the empty number line. It also shows that the empty number line could promote students to use different strategies (direct subtraction, indirect addition, and indirect subtraction in solving subtraction problems. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply RME in the teaching learning process to make it more meaningful for students.

  18. Simultaneous Analytical Techniques for Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Colors in Foods by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.K.; Lee, C.H.; Park, J.S.; Yoon, H.J.; Kim, S.H.; Hong, Y.; Lee, J.O.; Lee, C.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    This Study has been carried out to develop a method of analysis of 8 permitted synthetic food colors [including Brilliant Blue FCF (B1), Indigocarmine (B2), Fast green FCF (G3), Amaranth (R2), Erythrosine (R3), Allura red (R40), Tartrazine (Y4), Sunset Yellow FCF (Y5)] in Korean foods by HPLC. After adjusting to 0.5% HCl, each of the food colors extracted was eluted by Sep-pak C{sub 18} cartridge. Eluates were then determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with a UV-VIS detector. Recoveries of the 8 synthetic food colors were found to be 81.2-98.0% for soft drinks, 80.6-96.1% for candy, 79.8-96.3% for chewing gum, 76.5-91.7% for cereals, 79.0-93.8% for ice cream and 78.6-94.7% for jelly, respectively. The detection limits were 0.05-0.1 {mu}g/g. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  20. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all Ppattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all Ppatterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.

  1. Localization and diagnosis framework for pediatric cataracts based on slit-lamp images using deep features of a convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Long, Erping; Cui, Jiangtao; Zhu, Mingmin; An, Yingying; Zhang, Jia; Liu, Zhenzhen; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Jingjing; Cao, Qianzhong; Li, Jing; Wu, Xiaohang; Wang, Dongni

    2017-01-01

    Slit-lamp images play an essential role for diagnosis of pediatric cataracts. We present a computer vision-based framework for the automatic localization and diagnosis of slit-lamp images by identifying the lens region of interest (ROI) and employing a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN). First, three grading degrees for slit-lamp images are proposed in conjunction with three leading ophthalmologists. The lens ROI is located in an automated manner in the original image using two successive applications of Candy detection and the Hough transform, which are cropped, resized to a fixed size and used to form pediatric cataract datasets. These datasets are fed into the CNN to extract high-level features and implement automatic classification and grading. To demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the deep features extracted in the CNN, we investigate the features combined with support vector machine (SVM) and softmax classifier and compare these with the traditional representative methods. The qualitative and quantitative experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method offers exceptional mean accuracy, sensitivity and specificity: classification (97.07%, 97.28%, and 96.83%) and a three-degree grading area (89.02%, 86.63%, and 90.75%), density (92.68%, 91.05%, and 93.94%) and location (89.28%, 82.70%, and 93.08%). Finally, we developed and deployed a potential automatic diagnostic software for ophthalmologists and patients in clinical applications to implement the validated model. PMID:28306716

  2. SINERGISME PEMANFAATAN SUMBERDAYA LOKAL DAN PEMBERDAYAAN KELOMPOK IBU-IBU DI DESA LAMUNTI PERMAI A1 KAWASAN EKS PLG KALIMANTAN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTI IRYA ICHRIANI, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Community Service was conducted in conjunction to the IbM programme DP2M DIKTI 2013 with the women groups of Lamunti Permai Kawasan Ex PLG, sub distric Mentangai, District Kapuas, Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan. The purposes of IbM programme (1 assist local communities in order to empower the surrounding natural resources, namely pineapple and (2 provide the skills of women to cultivate pineapple into processed food products which can become be a business opportunity for them. In late the IbM program, the group of women partners are skilled making, packing and labeling of processed pineapple products. Processed pineapple products are made in the form of crackers and wetcandied pineapples. The products were introduced to the outside Lamunti Permai. The problems encountered were the standard product could not be done in the distant location for marketing which led to increase the production costs, and moreover the production license that does not exist so that consumer confidence in processed food products is still low. Keywords: pineapple crackers, pineapple candied

  3. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  5. Marine debris in a World Heritage Listed Brazilian estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Spach, Henry L; Cattani, André P; Lamour, Marcelo R; Santos, Lilyane O; Cordeiro, Nathalie M A; Broadhurst, Matt K

    2015-02-28

    Using monthly otter-trawl deployments, spatial and temporal variability among the relative densities of marine debris were assessed in the Paranaguá estuarine complex; a subtropical World Heritage Listed area in southern Brazil. During 432 deployments over 12 months, 291 marine debris items were identified; of which most (92%) were plastic, and more specifically shopping bags, food packages, candy wrappers and cups typically >21 mm long. The most contaminated sectors were those closest to Paranaguá city and the adjacent port, and had up to 23.37±3.22 pieces ha(-1). Less urbanized sectors had between 12.84±1.49 and 9.32±1.10 pieces ha(-1). Contamination did not vary between dry or wet seasons, but rather was probably affected by consistent urban disposal and localized hydrological processes. Marine debris might be minimized by using more environment friendly materials, however a concrete solution requires adequately integrating local government and civil society.

  6. Applying state diagrams to food processing and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Y.; Karel, M.

    1991-01-01

    The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

  7. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N=172 in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  8. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  9. Planning for selective amygdalohippocampectomy involving less neuronal ifber damage based on brain connectivity using tractography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-Hak Lee; Mansu Kim; Hyunjin Park

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe resection is an important treatment option for epilepsy that involves removal of potentially essential brain regions. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy is a widely performed temporal lobe surgery. We suggest starting the incision for selective amygdalohippocampec-tomy at the inferior temporal gyrus based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tractography. Diffusion MRI data from 20 normal participants were obtained from Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database (www.ppmi-info.org). A tractography algorithm was applied to extract neuronal fiber information for the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and amygdala. Fiber information was analyzed in terms of the number of fibers and betweenness centrality. Distances between starting incisions and surgical target regions were also considered to explore the length of the surgical path. Middle temporal and superior temporal gyrus regions have higher connectivity values than the inferior temporal gyrus and thus are not good candi-dates for starting the incision. The distances between inferior temporal gyrus and surgical target regions were shorter than those between middle temporal gyrus and target regions. Thus, the in-ferior temporal gyrus is a good candidate for starting the incision. Starting the incision from the inferior temporal gyrus would spare the important (in terms of betweenness centrality values) middle region and shorten the distance to the target regions of the hippocampus and amygdala.

  10. Estudo técnico-econômico de projetos para cozimento de frutas cristalizadas com a utilização de vapor d’água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Carvalho Gomes de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This technical economic study shows the results of three constructive projects, and which one is more economically viable concerning the water steam consumption for heating pans of candied fruits in a food industry. The thermal analysis was emphasized on to determine the ideal constructive form of the necessary equipment for the process. Three forms of water steam use were compared for the heating of the pan: the use of the steam in a direct form, injecting the steam directly inside the pans, the use of the steam in an indirect form, heating the mixture by envolving the pan, and the steam use in an indirect form, heating the mixture by inserting a steam circulating coil in the pan. The study was based on an actual operation of an industry which uses steam in an indirect form. The steam was discharged after use. The analysis calculated the energy amount necessary for the fruits cooking cicle. After that, for each form of steam use, it was calculated the necessary steam rate and the cost to get it. The study shows that there is not a significant difference between the last two processes, which use steam in an indirect form, and that the use of direct water steam injection process is much more economic, with a financial reduction of 59,4%

  11. Protective effects of Chaenomeles thibetica extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced damage via the MAPK/Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bingxin; Wang, Jing; Tong, Jing; Zhou, Gao; Chen, Yuxin; He, Jingsheng; Wang, Youwei

    2016-03-01

    Chaenomeles thibetica, a type of fruit of the genus Chaenomeles, is commonly cultivated and used as Mugua in China and as liquor, candy, and functional food in Tibet. Total phenol, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents were measured in C. thibetica extract (CTE). CTE had a positive effect on free radical scavenging and anti-lipid oxidation in vitro. The protective effects of CTE against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative damage in vivo were also measured. The results of antioxidative enzymes indicated that CTE can increase the activities of the catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione contents and reduce the level of malondialdehyde in rats. The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin were significantly reversed by CTE compared with the elevated levels in the CCl4 group. Besides, CTE could reverse the cell viability of HepG2 inoculated with CCl4via phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), activating the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and increasing the expression of phase II detoxification enzymes. These effects may expand the applications of C. thibetica and offer alternative food with antioxidant and hepatoprotective functions in the food industry.

  12. Effects of Isomalt on enamel de- and remineralization, a combined in vitro pH-cycling model and in situ study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Tsutomu; Exterkate, Rob A M; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2008-06-01

    Isomalt is a non-cariogenic sweetener, which is widely used in sugar-free candy and chewing gum. Little is known about the effects of Isomalt on de- and remineralization. Binding between calcium and Isomalt has been reported, which could affect the mineral balance. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Isomalt on de- and remineralization of bovine enamel lesions, both in vitro and in situ. In in vitro study, subsurface enamel lesions were subjected to 3-weeks pH-cycling. Treatments were 5-min rinses with 10% Isomalt solutions daily and 10% Isomalt additions to re- or demineralizing solutions. Standard pH-cycling conditions were used with a 0.2 ppm fluoride background during the remineralization phase. In in situ study, subsurface lesions were exposed 2 months in vivo and brushed three times daily with 10% Isomalt containing toothpaste. Treatment effects were assessed by chemical analysis of the solutions (in vitro) and transversal microradiography (in vitro and in situ). In in vitro study, while 5-min rinses with 10% Isomalt gave slightly increased remineralization, continuous presence of 10% Isomalt (in re- or demineralizing solutions) inhibited both de- and/or remineralization. This lead to significantly smaller overall mineral loss when Isomalt was added during demineralization. In in situ study, remineralization enhancement during short Isomalt treatments was confirmed. Isomalt had a positive effect on the de/remineralization balance when given under conditions relevant to practical use.

  13. Transpiration and biomass production of the bioenergy crop Giant Knotweed Igniscum under various supplies of water and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovani Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil water availability, nutrient supply and climatic conditions are key factors for plant production. For a sustainable integration of bioenergy plants into agricultural systems, detailed studies on their water uses and growth performances are needed. The new bioenergy plant Igniscum Candy is a cultivar of the Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, which is characterized by a high annual biomass production. For the determination of transpiration-yield relations at the whole plant level we used wicked lysimeters at multiple irrigation levels associated with the soil water availability (25, 35, 70, 100% and nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1. Leaf transpiration and net photosynthesis were determined with a portable minicuvette system. The maximum mean transpiration rate was 10.6 mmol m-2 s-1 for well-watered plants, while the mean net photosynthesis was 9.1 μmol m-2 s-1. The cumulative transpiration of the plants during the growing seasons varied between 49 l (drought stressed and 141 l (well-watered per plant. The calculated transpiration coefficient for Fallopia over all of the treatments applied was 485.6 l kg-1. The transpiration-yield relation of Igniscum is comparable to rye and barley. Its growth performance making Fallopia a potentially good second generation bioenergy crop.

  14. Brazilian infant and preschool children feeding: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santos Mello

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the feeding profile of Brazilian infants and preschool children aged 6 months to 6 years, based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of food and nutrient intake. Data source This review analyzed studies carried out in Brazil that had food survey data on infants and preschool children. The search was limited to publications from the last 10 years included in the LILACS and MEDLINE electronic databases. Data summary The initial search identified 1480 articles, of which 1411 were excluded after the analysis of abstracts, as they were repeated or did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 69 articles assessed in full, 31 articles contained data on food survey and were selected. Only three studies concurrently assessed children from different Brazilian geographical regions. Of the assessed articles, eight had qualitative data, with descriptive analysis of food consumption frequency, and 23 had predominantly quantitative data, with information on energy and nutrient consumption. Conclusions The articles assessed in this review showed very heterogeneous results, making it difficult to compare findings. Overall, the feeding of infants and preschool children is characterized by low consumption of meat, fruits, and vegetables; high consumption of cow's milk and inadequate preparation of bottles; as well as early and high intake of fried foods, candies/sweets, soft drinks, and salt. These results provide aid for the development of strategies that aim to achieve better quality feeding of Brazilian infants and preschoolers.

  15. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Barnoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  16. What do love and jealousy taste like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Qin; Tong, Eddie M W; Tan, Deborah H; Koh, Alethea H Q

    2013-12-01

    Metaphorical expressions linking love and jealousy to sweet, sour, and bitter tastes are common in normal language use and suggest that these emotions may influence perceptual taste judgments. Hence, we investigated whether the phenomenological experiences of love and jealousy are embodied in the taste sensations of sweetness, sourness, and bitterness. Studies 1A and 1B validated that these metaphors are widely endorsed. In three subsequent studies, participants induced to feel love rated a variety of tastants (sweet-sour candy, bitter-sweet chocolates, and distilled water) as sweeter than those who were induced to feel jealous, neutral, or happy. However, those induced to feel jealous did not differ from those induced to feel happy or neutral on bitter and sour ratings. These findings imply that emotions can influence basic perceptual judgments, but metaphors that refer to the body do not necessarily influence perceptual judgments the way they imply. We further suggest that future research in metaphoric social cognition and metaphor theory may benefit from investigating how such metaphors could have originated.

  17. Poisoning in animals due to oral application of iron. With description of a case in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnbjerg, J

    1981-02-01

    Peroral application of iron salts in various types of anemia was previously considered atoxic. The increased use of iron has, however, led to an increasing number of poisoning in children, taking iron tablets for candy. There have only been reported a few number of spontaneous intoxications in animals, but experimentally it has been possible to produce fatal intoxications in various kinds of animal species. The clinical findings are quite similar in the various animals, starting with vomiting, bloody diarrhoea and metabolic acidosis. If the intoxication is severe, shock and coma may develop, and death occurs quite soon. The histological findings are also similar in the various animals, varying from erosions of the tops of the villi to necrosis of the mucosal membrane of the jejunum. Degenerative changes in the liver as well as in the kidney are seen in several cases. The mentioned case was a horse given about 475 g ferro fumarate over a period of 5 days. The horse developed the classic clinical picture and death occurred on day 7. The diagnosis was confirmed by very high levels of iron in the liver, kidney and serum. The blood values of the enzymes ASAT and gamma GT were extremely high as a sign of a severe damage of the liver.

  18. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  19. Science Outreach for the Thousands: Coe College's Playground of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. E.; Franke, M.; Affatigato, M.; Feller, S.

    2011-12-01

    Coe College is a private liberal arts college nestled in the northeast quadrant of Cedar Rapids, IA. Coe takes pride in the outreach it does in the local community. The sciences at Coe find enjoyment in educating the children and families of this community through a diverse set of venues; from performing science demonstrations for children at Cedar Rapids' Fourth of July Freedom Festival to hosting summer forums and talks to invigorate the minds of its more mature audiences. Among these events, the signature event of the year is the Coe Playground of Science. On the last Thursday of October, before Halloween, the science departments at Coe invite nearly two thousand children from pre elementary to high school ages, along with their parents to participate in a night filled with science demos, haunted halls, and trick-or-treating for more than just candy. The demonstrations are performed by professors and students alike from a raft of cooperative departments including physics, chemistry, biology, math, computer science, nursing, ROTC, and psychology. This event greatly strengthens the relationships between institution members and community members. The sciences at Coe understand the importance of imparting the thrill and hunger for exploration and discovery into the future generations. More importantly they recognize that this cannot start and end at the collegiate level, but the American public must be reached at younger ages and continue to be encouraged beyond the college experience. The Playground of Science unites these two groups under the common goal of elevating scientific interest in the American people.

  20. September 2012 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on 9/26//2012 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 18 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology, and radiology communities.A discussion was held on Pending Premium Cigar Legislation HR. 1639 and S.1461, the "Traditional Cigar Manufacturing and Small Business Jobs Preservation Act of 2011”. This bill would exempt "premium cigars" from FDA oversight. The definition of premium cigars is so broad that candy flavored cigars, cigarillos and blunts would be exempted from FDA regulation. Teenage cigar smoking is increasing and this legislation may result in a further increase. The Arizona Thoracic Society is opposed to this bill. Dr. Robbins is to put a link on the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care website linking to the ATS website. This will enable members to contact their Congressmen opposing this legislation. A discussion was also held on a proposed combined Tucson/Phoenix …

  1. Efficient diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis by use of a new rapid immunochromatography test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Pilon, Françoise; Beucher, Bertrand; Poulain, Daniel; Robert, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    The clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are nonspecific, and misdiagnosis is common, leading to a delay in the initiation of antifungal treatment. We evaluated a new immunochromatography test (ICT), the CandiVagi assay (SR2B, Avrille, France), for the rapid diagnosis of VVC. This test, which employs an immunoglobulin M antibody directed against the beta-1,2-mannopyranosyl epitopes found in the yeast cell wall, was compared with direct microscopic examination and culture of vaginal swabs. Two-hundred five women were investigated, including 130 women with symptomatic vaginitis and 75 asymptomatic controls. Two vaginal swabs were obtained from each woman: one was used to prepare a wet mount and Gram-stained preparations for direct microscopic examination and was also cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of Candida spp., and the second swab was used for ICT. The sensitivities of microscopic examination, culture, and ICT for the diagnosis of VVC were 61%, 100%, and 96.6%, respectively, while the specificities of the three methods were 100%, 82%, and 98.6%, respectively. ICT had a negative predictive value of 98.6%, a positive predictive value of 96.6%, and an efficiency of 98%. ICT provided a rapid result and a better compromise between sensitivity and specificity than conventional microscopy and culture for the diagnosis of VVC. This easy-to-perform diagnostic test will be useful to practitioners treating women with symptoms of vaginitis.

  2. 教学型高仿真乒乓球发球机械手设计%Design of Teaching High Simulation Table Tennis Serve Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佩川; 肖增文

    2013-01-01

    Using pneumatic & hydraulic actuators and PLC control,real human arm movements playing table tennis was simula-ted. The hydraulic cylinder was used to push the pitching machine to move. The pneumatic cylinder was used to simulate the arm movements. Servo motor was used to drive the racket to simulate wrist angle to serve an apinning ball. At the same time,PLC was used to control the movements of cylinders and motors. It is superior to friction gear serve and candy bar serve in that it can serve all kind of apinning balls and has highly simulation.%采用气液联动、PLC控制的方式,高度模拟真人挥动手臂的发球方式,用液压缸带动发球机移动变位,用气压缸模拟手臂动作,用伺服电机带动球拍模拟手腕角度发出旋转球,同时用PLC控制各执行机构运动,突破了现有摩擦轮发球和一般直板式发球模式的局限,可实现各种旋球的随机变向变位发球,具有高度仿真性。

  3. Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-02-01

    Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000-2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children.

  4. [Food habits and caries experience in young adults from Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, A; Poletto, L; Pezzotto, S M

    2007-12-01

    Odontological assistance in Rosary City is offered in private and public services. The public ones lack programs to avoid dental loss in adults. Our aim was to describe the caries experience and dietetic habits in three sub-populations of young adults. Applying a standardized anamnesis, 517 patients, both sexes, 15-45 years old, attending to a private service (19%) and two public ones (81%), were investigated. Studied variables: oral health, lacteal and sweet food consumed, and instruction level. Student t-test, ANOVA and chi-square tests were applied. Average decayed teeth were 1.7+/-2.0 in the private service, and 4.1+/-2.8 in the public ones (pcreams, sodas and chocolates, and in the public ones, hard candies and chewing gums, with and without sugar. Although a high number of patients consume delicacies and sweet foods at any hour, private patients were a minority; and they were a majority when considering its ingestion only after a food.

  5. The influence of consumer capital to the formation corporate strategic planning system of confectionery enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Ibragimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. In this paper we have identified the factors of consumer capital, which are accounted in the process of strategic planning on the confectionery enterprises.The results of the analysis. For consumer capital growth it is necessary to consider the features of consumer needs in the strategic planning of the company. A behavior is characterized by the volume and frequency of purchases.Consumer capital is often understood as capital of relations. In this sense, it includes contracts and agreements, reputation, brand, trademarks, distribution channels and product portfolio, relationships with consumers. Sociological data needed in the allocation of a certain market for groups of consumers are public.For this information analyzing we should use data from different sources, and to consider the thoughts and intuition leadership concerning the market situation. The main task of this research is to identify groups of customers with varying degrees of receptivity of products and brands.To assess consumer capital of confectioner enterprises we have provided market research in 2012 in Donetsk. In conducting marketing research (processed 50 customers the degree of confidence probability was 95%, confidence interval 10,04%. This made it possible to identify the benefits and demands of confectionery consumers, as well as to determine the factors that motivate them to buy.50% of respondents often choose products of brand Roshen. Consumers of PA Konti products there are 40%. Wide range of products, favorable prices, quality products etc. allow Konti company to win a large market share of confectionery in the country. On the third place there is AVK company. Products of this corporation are bought by 32% of respondents. Note that the AVK company is the market leader in Ukraine in category of chocolate candy.More than a half of respondents (56% choose this type of confectionery like chocolate candy. 46%of respondents prefer cookies. Bars and

  6. Fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em estudantes do ensino médio da rede pública estadual do município de Caruaru (PE Factores asociados al sobrepeso y la obesidad en estudiantes de la secundaria de la red pública provincial del municipio de Caruaru (Pernambuco, Brasil Factors associated with overweight and obesity among public high school students of the city of Caruaru, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Moraes V Petribú

    2011-12-01

    behavior, dietary intake, stress levels, smoking, alcohol consumption and quality of sleep. Binary logistic regression was conducted, considering overweight and obesity as the main outcomes, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 600 students (62.5% females, with a mean age of 17.5±1.6 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0% (95%CI 15.9-22.4 and 5.5% (95%CI 3.8-7.7, respectively, without differences between genders. The proportion of overweight was higher among those who reported a negative perception of stress, those with insufficient physical activities, and the individuals who reported alcohol consumption. There was a higher proportion of obesity among the students with a negative perception of sleep, those with insufficient physical activities, and those who reported watching TV more than three hours per day and having candies four times or more per week. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity associated with modifiable risk factors such as physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, negative perception of sleep, time in front of TV greater than three hours per day and consumption of candies four times or more per week.

  7. Fatores associados a hábitos de saúde bucal e utilização de serviços odontológicos entre adolescentes Factors associated with oral health habits and use of dental services by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Silvia Davoglio

    2009-03-01

    of annual dental visits was higher among individuals with higher SES. Preventive dental checkups were more frequent among individuals with higher SES, those who felt understood by their parents, and those who did not habitually eat candy. Oral health habits were associated with family SES and psychosocial factors except for frequency of annual dental visits. As for lifestyle, low candy consumption had a positive impact on reasons for use of dental appointments.

  8. Descubriendo los hábitos alimenticios en la escuela multicultural a través de los debates infantiles Discovering the eating habits in the multicultural school through the children’s debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª de los Ángeles Merino Godoy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad infantil en España y el auge de estos casos se está convirtiendo en un problema de salud de gran relevancia. El ayuno, la comida rápida y el abuso de golosinas son hábitos cada vez más populares, lo que genera trastornos alimenticios como la obesidad, la anorexia o la bulimia, que a su vez desencadenan en enfermedades crónicas desde edades más tempranas. Andalucía es una de las comunidades autónomas españolas con más prevalencia de obesidad infantil y también es una de las comunidades con mayor población inmigrante, por lo que la mayoría de nuestras escuelas son multiculturales. Esta variabilidad cultural la hemos tenido en cuenta en nuestra investigación, centrada en los escolares de Infantil y Primer Ciclo de Primaria. Nuestro estudio persigue conocer las valoraciones del alumnado acerca de la alimentación saludable y de sus propios hábitos, así como del respeto por las costumbres alimenticias de otras culturas. El debate infantil es el instrumento seleccionado para este estudio de campo que forma parte de una investigación más amplia que analiza la conducta alimenticia en la infancia desde todos los ámbitos: los comedores escolares, las familias, la administración y su política. Como resultado llegamos a descubrir que estos escolares apenas desayunan y comen poco pescado y verduras porque no les gusta. Les gusta la comida rápida como las pizzas y las hamburguesas, pero disfrutan más si alguna vez las elaboran sus propias madres. Carecen de conocimientos básicos sobre alimentación, sin embargo reproducen a la perfección las canciones y los eslóganes de los alimentos que publicitan en la televisión. También desconocen los hábitos alimenticios de su propia cultura, por lo que no se han descubierto problemas de rechazo o intolerancia ante las costumbres de cada uno.Children obesity in Spain and its peak are becoming a great relevance health problem. The fasting, the fast food and the candy`s abuse are

  9. The comparing study of TEMPO/TVC method for determination of aerobic plate count with national food safety standard method in foods%TEMPO/TVC法与国标方法测定食品中菌落总数的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 凌秀梅; 李俊霞; 周浩; 邓堃; 叶梅; 万渝平

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To confirm the detecting property of TEMPO/TVC method in foods. [Methods] TEMPO/TVC method compared with national food safety standard GB4789.2 aerobic plate count method in foods, including cooked meat products, convenience food, quick-frozen food, puffed food, candy, pastry, condiment. [Results] The results of TEMPO/TVC method and national food safety standard method showed good agreement; and the P value was greater than 0.05, no significance difference between the two methods. [Conclusion] TEMPO/TVC method is a rapid and accurate method, worthy of promoting in routine examination.%[目的]确证TEMPO/TVC计数食品中菌落总数的检测性能.[方法]使用TEMPO/TVC法和国标方法GB4789.2对熟肉制品、方便食品、速冻食品、膨化食品、糖果、糕点、调味品7类食品进行菌落总数测定.[结果]TEMPO/TVC法和国标方法检测食品中菌落总数的检测结果一致性较好(符合率95.4%);且两种方法检测7类食品样品的检测结果P值均大于0.05,无显著性差异.[结论]TEMPO/TVC法具有操作简便、快速、高效和人为误差小的特点,在日常检测中值得推广应用.

  10. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children.

  11. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhimovsky, Sharon S.; Feigl, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3). Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990–2016) and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied. Conclusions The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs. PMID:27669014

  12. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan Lorinda L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81 in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100% and convenience stores (75%. They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%, cigarettes (25% or candy (5%. Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%. "Free Trial" (24%, "Special Price" (24%, "What's Your Style?" (22%. At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243, and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p Conclusions

  13. Recent research progress in pharmacological effects of glycyrrhizic acid%甘草酸药理作用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑶聃; 王彬; 王政雨; 张亚弢; 杨凌云; 周金培; 张惠斌

    2012-01-01

    Glycyrrhizic acid, the main water-soluble constituent extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Glycyrrhiza glabra, has been used for several thousands of year in traditional Chinese medicine. Both glycyrrhizic acid and its aglycone glycyrrhtic acid (GA) have been proven to be useful for various therapeutic purposes. Glycyrrhizic acid is used as a flavoring agent in some candies, pharmaceuticals, and tobacco products and is known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-viral, anti-tumor and liver-protecting activities. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid has synergistic effect with other drugs. This paper reviewed the recent research progress in pharmacological effects of glycyrrhizic acid.%甘草的使用已有几千年历史,现在在世界各地广泛应用.甘草酸是中药甘草根部提取物中的重要成分之一,含有2分子葡萄糖醛酸和1分子甘草次酸,具有水溶性.甘草酸在临床上得到了广泛应用,甚至食品中也有使用.甘草酸有多种生物活性,例如抗炎、抗溃疡、抗过敏、抗氧化、免疫调节、抗病毒、抗癌和保肝等.此外与其他药物联用,甘草酸可起增效作用.本文综述了甘草酸的药理作用.

  14. Trans Fatty Acid Levels in Foods and Intakes among Population Aged 3 Years and above in Beijing and Guangzhou Cities, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai Dong; LI Jian Wen; LIU Zhao Ping; ZHOU Ping Ping; MAO Wei Feng; LI Ning; ZHANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the dietary intake levels of trans fatty acids (TFA) in a Chinese population and establish a basis for health risk assessment of trans fatty acids. Methods The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake. Results The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68±0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89±2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86±0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83±1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41±0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29%of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and≥18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42%demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively. Conclusion The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices.

  15. Remove food dye (Acid Red 18 by using activated carbon of sunflower stalk modified with Iron nanoparticles Fe3O4 from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Namazi Zoweram

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: acid pale yellow dye(AY-6, acid yellow 23 (AY-23 and Acid Red 18 (AR-18 are of the most important dyes among artificial dyes that are used to create the colors orange and red. They are used in confectionery, beverage making, chips, corn, cereals, cake mixes, sports drinks, ice cream, candy, gelatins, pickles, Yakhmaks, fermented foods, prescription drugs and tablet, chewing gum, pudding, fruit juice, mustard sauce, soda, cosmetics, and other products.However, about 10-20% of the dye is lost during the manufacturing process and as a result large amounts of food dye enter the wastewater that must be refined. Absorption by using natural absorbents has found a significant usage among the methods of removal and treatment of colored wastewaters. For this purpose, activatedcarbon was produced from sunflower plantstalk in this study. It was modified by iron nanoparticles to recover and separate absorbent from aqueous solutions. Dye Acid Red 18 of Azo dyes was used in a laboratory environment to assess the efficiency, which is widely used in food and textile industries. Materials and Methods:The present study was done experimentally in laboratory scale, with the aim to examine the efficacy of removal of Acid Red 18 dye from aqueous solutions by using activatedcarbon produced from sunflower stalk, and modified with iron nanoparticles. Various parameters such as initial concentration of colored material, adsorbent material dosage, PH, and contact time were investigated in a batch system. Findings:The present study results show dye removal efficiency of 98.6% at a concentration of 25 milligrams per liter with 0.5 g adsorbent dosage and contact time of 120 minutes at a pH equal to 3. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained from the study it can be concluded activatedcarbon produced from sunflower stalk as an agricultural wastes has relatively good efficiency in absorption of acid red18 dye from aqueous solutions.

  16. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  17. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  18. Developing a Model to Support Students in Solving Subtraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nila Mareta Murdiyani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtraction has two meanings and each meaning leads to the different strategies. The meaning of “taking away something” suggests a direct subtraction, while the meaning of “determining the difference between two numbers” is more likely to be modeled as indirect addition. Many prior researches found that the second meaning and second strategy rarely appeared in the mathematical textbooks and teacher explanations, including in Indonesia. Therefore, this study was conducted to contribute to the development of a local instruction theory for subtraction by designing instructional activities that can facilitate first grade of primary school students to develop a model in solving two digit numbers subtraction. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate approach for achieving the research aim and Realistic Mathematics Education (RME was used as a guide to design the lesson. This study involved 6 students in the pilot experiment, 31 students in the teaching experiment, and a first grade teacher of SDN 179 Palembang. The  result of this study shows that the beads string could bridge students from the contextual problems (taking ginger candies and making grains bracelets to the use of the empty number line. It also shows that the empty number line could promote students to  use different strategies (direct subtraction, indirect addition, and indirect subtraction in solving subtraction problems. Based on these findings, it is recommended to apply RME in the teaching learning process to make it more meaningful for students. Keywords: Subtraction, Design Research, Realistic Mathematics Education, The Beads String, The Empty Number Line DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.567.95-112

  19. Cotton-wool-like bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poologasundarampillai, G; Wang, D; Li, S; Nakamura, J; Bradley, R; Lee, P D; Stevens, M M; McPhail, D S; Kasuga, T; Jones, J R

    2014-08-01

    Inorganic sol-gel solutions were electrospun to produce the first bioactive three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration with a structure like cotton-wool (or cotton candy). This flexible 3-D fibrous structure is ideal for packing into complex defects. It also has large inter-fiber spaces to promote vascularization, penetration of cells and transport of nutrients throughout the scaffold. The 3-D fibrous structure was obtained by electrospinning, where the applied electric field and the instabilities exert tremendous force on the spinning jet, which is required to be viscoelastic to prevent jet break up. Previously, polymer binding agents were used with inorganic solutions to produce electrospun composite two-dimensional fibermats, requiring calcination to remove the polymer. This study presents novel reaction and processing conditions for producing a viscoelastic inorganic sol-gel solution that results in fibers by the entanglement of the intermolecularly overlapped nanosilica species in the solution, eliminating the need for a binder. Three-dimensional cotton-wool-like structures were only produced when solutions containing calcium nitrate were used, suggesting that the charge of the Ca(2+) ions had a significant effect. The resulting bioactive silica fibers had a narrow diameter range of 0.5-2μm and were nanoporous. A hydroxycarbonate apatite layer was formed on the fibers within the first 12h of soaking in simulated body fluid. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells cultured on the fibers showed no adverse cytotoxic effect and they were observed to attach to and spread in the material.

  20. 《毒品化学》实践教学模式的改革与创新%Innovation and Reform of Practical Teaching Mode in the Course of Forensic Drug Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟梁

    2015-01-01

    目前我国公安教育普遍面临实践教学体系薄弱的现状,因此在公安技术教育中坚持以实战为导向具有重要的意义。坚持以培养具有实战办案和科技创新能力的应用型禁毒侦查专业人才为目标,优化和改革《毒品化学》教学模式,结合侦查学和刑事科学技术领域的最新研究进展,及时调整课程教学内容,创新课程教学方法,引入新的教学手段和考核方式,建立符合新形势下公安实际工作需要的实践教学模式,从而促进学生的知识积累和应用,提高学生的办案实践能力,以培养出优秀的禁毒民警。%At present, public security education is confronted with the situation of weak practical teaching sys-tem, so it is important that public security education must insist on the practical teaching .Therefore,we should im-prove the teaching mode in the course of Forensic Drug Chemistry , aiming at cultivating professional police candi-dates with practical experiences and innovative skills .Meanwhile , with reorganizing the teaching content , innova-ting the teaching methods and introducing the new evaluation system , we should adjust our practical teaching mode to the changing situation in order to help students to promote their accumulation and application of knowledge , as well as the practical ability .