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Sample records for candy

  1. Candy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CLPPP CAP Healthy Homes Assessment Tools Lead Health Literacy Initiative Refugee Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and ... As blood lead levels increase, so does lead’s effects on health. How to tell if candy contains ...

  2. ARCA DWARAPALA PADA CANDI-CANDI BUDDHA DI JAWA TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahyu Sarjanawati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Temple as a product of the culture of Hindu-Buddhist period is the building that describes the concept of cosmogony and a replica of Mount Mahameru the place of the gods. Dwarapala statue is one of the guards in almost Javanese temple. The existence of this statue in the temple (depiction microcosm has a meaning. Problems which will be solved, namely: (1 where the statue Dwarapala placed in the temple Plaosan and the temple Sewu (2 how is the depiction of Dwarapala statues in the temple Palosan and the temple Sewu? Gana figure that became the object of the study were analyzed with hermeneutical analysis. Hermeneutical analysis of the statue Dwarapala can only be done if the information about these statues is known. From the results of research and discussion can be seen that the meaning of the statue at Buddhist temple Dwarapala not be separated from the concept of cosmogony. Portrayal system was adapted to the function of these statues at the temple. So it can be said that the statues have meaning that Dwarapala is a portrayal of religious situation in the Hindu-Buddhist and the symbol of the world above (heaven. The placement of temple statues Dwarapala complement cosmogony concept representations, thus building meaning of worship into a whole. Keywords:  Dwarapala, temple, hermeneutic   Candi sebagai produk dari budaya masa Hindu-Buddha adalah bangunan yang menggambarkan konsep kosmogoni dan replika Gunung Mahameru tempat para dewa. Patung Dwarapala adalah salah satu penjaga di kuil hampir Jawa. Keberadaan patung ini di candi (mikrokosmos penggambaran memiliki arti. Masalah yang akan dipecahkan, yaitu: (1 bagaimana patung Dwarapala ditempatkan di candi Plaosan dan candi Sewu (2 bagaimana penggambaran patung Dwarapala di candi Palosan dan candi Sewu? Gana sosok yang menjadi objek penelitian dianalisis dengan analisis hermeneutis. Analisis hermeneutis patung Dwarapala hanya dapat dilakukan jika informasi tentang patung-patung ini dikenal

  3. Erosive Potential of Commercially Available Candies

    OpenAIRE

    Maghata Lazzaris; Maria Mercês Aquino Gouveia Farias; Silvana Marchiori de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the acidity of commercially available candies. Material and Methods: Tic Tac® candies with the following flavors were selected: mint, orange, extra-strong, cinnamon, strawberry, cherry/passion fruit, acquired in supermarkets. Candies were triturated and from the resulting powder, 3 samples of 5 grams were separated and dissolved in 10ml of doubly deionized water. This process has allowed reading pH in triplicate, measured with the aid of an in vitro combined potentiomete...

  4. Erosive Potential of Commercially Available Candies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghata Lazzaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure the acidity of commercially available candies. Material and Methods: Tic Tac® candies with the following flavors were selected: mint, orange, extra-strong, cinnamon, strawberry, cherry/passion fruit, acquired in supermarkets. Candies were triturated and from the resulting powder, 3 samples of 5 grams were separated and dissolved in 10ml of doubly deionized water. This process has allowed reading pH in triplicate, measured with the aid of an in vitro combined potentiometer and electrode, previously gauged with pH 4 and 7 with standard solutions before reading. In candies with pH values under 5.5.pH, tritatable acidity was verified. Three 15-gram candy powder samples were separately dissolved in 30 ml of doubly deionized water. In this solution, aliquots of 100 μl 1N NaOH were added to reach pH 5.5. Mineral water was used as control. The results were submitted to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. The comparisons of means were carried out by the Tukey test at 5% significance level (p<0.05. Results: Only orange (pH 2.17, cherry/passion fruit (pH 2,26 and strawberry flavors (pH 2.46 have shown pH values under the critical point for enamel dissolution, significantly diverging from control and the other flavors. The volume of 1N NaOH used to raise the pH to 5.5 ranged from 2,000 to 2,800 μl, and the strawberry flavor has presented the highest tritatable acidity, significantly differing from the others. Conclusion: Candies of orange, cherry/passion fruit and strawberry flavors presented erosive potential and their frequent consumption can contribute to the development of dental erosion.

  5. The Candy Project: the re-enchantment of candy in a liquid world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki MARTINEZ DE ALBENIZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption has become an extremely serious problem, especially since its incorporation into every type of food not only those considered to be sweet culturally. This is not exclusively a health problem but also a gastronomic one, since this “invisible sugar” is perceptible by the stomach but not by the senses. Sugar’s ubiquity has led to its demonization. The consumption of candy has been one of the victims of this process. A social image of “empty calories”, or food without nutrients, has been built up around it. In this article I want to emphasize what this “medicalized” image of candy leaves out: the social, imaginary, nutritional and gastronomic potentialities of this form of alimentation. It is true that since sugar became invisible we have no understanding of its power. But by focusing solely on negative aspects we overlook the potentiality of candy as, amongst other things, vehicles for nutritional socialization and education in taste. Redeeming candy thus involves changing the social imaginaries associated with it. This new imaginary is largely emerging in the field of internet and the new technologies.

  6. Sticky physics of joy: On the dissolution of spherical candies

    CERN Document Server

    Windisch, Andreas; Popescu, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Assuming a constant mass-decrease per unit-surface and -time we provide a very simplistic model for the dissolution process of spherical candies. The aim is to investigate the quantitative behavior of the dissolution process throughout the act of eating the candy. In our model we do not take any microscopic mechanism of the dissolution process into account, but rather provide an estimate which is based on easy-to-follow calculations. Having obtained a description based on this calculation, we confirm the assumed behavior by providing experimental data of the dissolution process. Besides a deviation from our prediction caused by the production process of the candies below a diameter of 2 mm, we find good agreement with our model-based expectations. Serious questions on the optimal strategy of enjoying a candy will be addressed, like whether it is wise to split the candy by breaking it with the teeth or not.

  7. Sticky physics of joy: on the dissolution of spherical candies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Andreas; Windisch, Herbert; Windisch, Anita

    2013-03-01

    Assuming a constant mass decrease per unit surface and unit time we provide a very simplistic model for the dissolution process of spherical candies. The aim is to investigate the quantitative behaviour of the dissolution process throughout the act of eating the candy. In our model we do not take any microscopic mechanism of the dissolution process into account, but rather provide an estimate which is based on easy-to-follow calculations. Having obtained a description based on this calculation, we confirm the assumed behaviour by providing experimental data for the dissolution process. Besides a deviation from our prediction caused by the production process of the candies below a diameter of 2 mm, we find good agreement with our model-based expectations. Delicate questions on the optimal strategy for enjoying a candy will be addressed, such as whether it is wise to split the candy by breaking it with the teeth or not.

  8. Kids, candy, brain and behavior: Age differences in responses to candy gains and losses

    OpenAIRE

    Luking, Katherine R.; Joan L. Luby; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    The development of reward-related neural systems, from adolescence through adulthood, has received much recent attention in the developmental neuroimaging literature. However, few studies have investigated behavioral and neural responses to both gains and losses in pre-pubertal child populations. To address this gap in the literature, in the present study healthy children aged 7–11 years and young-adults completed an fMRI card-guessing game using candy pieces delivered post-scan as an incenti...

  9. Candy and the brain: neural response to candy gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luking, Katherine R; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-09-01

    Incentive processing is a critical component of a host of cognitive processes, including attention, motivation, and learning. Neuroimaging studies have clarified the neural systems underlying processing of primary and secondary rewards in adults. However, current reward paradigms have hindered comparisons across these reward types as well as between age groups. To address methodological issues regarding the timing of incentive delivery (during scan vs. postscan) and the age-appropriateness of the incentive type, we utilized fMRI and a modified version of a card-guessing game (CGG), in which candy pieces delivered postscan served as the reinforcer, to investigate neural responses to incentives. Healthy young adults 22-26 years of age won and lost large and small amounts of candy on the basis of their ability to guess the number on a mystery card. BOLD activity was compared following candy gain (large/small), loss (large/small), and neutral feedback. During candy gains, adults recruited regions typically involved in response to monetary and other rewards, such as the caudate, putamen, and orbitofrontal cortex. During losses, they displayed greater deactivation in the hippocampus than in response to neutral and gain feedback. Additionally, individual-difference analyses suggested a negative relationship between reward sensitivity (assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales) and the difference between high- and low-magnitude losses in the caudate and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Also within the striatum, greater punishment sensitivity was positively related to the difference in activity following high as compared to low gains. Overall, these results show strong overlap with those from previous monetary versions of the CGG and provide a baseline for future work with developmental populations.

  10. Candy and the brain: neural response to candy gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luking, Katherine R; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-09-01

    Incentive processing is a critical component of a host of cognitive processes, including attention, motivation, and learning. Neuroimaging studies have clarified the neural systems underlying processing of primary and secondary rewards in adults. However, current reward paradigms have hindered comparisons across these reward types as well as between age groups. To address methodological issues regarding the timing of incentive delivery (during scan vs. postscan) and the age-appropriateness of the incentive type, we utilized fMRI and a modified version of a card-guessing game (CGG), in which candy pieces delivered postscan served as the reinforcer, to investigate neural responses to incentives. Healthy young adults 22-26 years of age won and lost large and small amounts of candy on the basis of their ability to guess the number on a mystery card. BOLD activity was compared following candy gain (large/small), loss (large/small), and neutral feedback. During candy gains, adults recruited regions typically involved in response to monetary and other rewards, such as the caudate, putamen, and orbitofrontal cortex. During losses, they displayed greater deactivation in the hippocampus than in response to neutral and gain feedback. Additionally, individual-difference analyses suggested a negative relationship between reward sensitivity (assessed by the Behavioral Inhibition/Behavioral Activation Scales) and the difference between high- and low-magnitude losses in the caudate and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Also within the striatum, greater punishment sensitivity was positively related to the difference in activity following high as compared to low gains. Overall, these results show strong overlap with those from previous monetary versions of the CGG and provide a baseline for future work with developmental populations. PMID:23519971

  11. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-03-01

    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction.

  12. Development and quality evaluation of honey based carrot candy

    OpenAIRE

    Durrani, Anisa Musarath; P.K. Srivastava; Verma, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    Candy was prepared with 3 different combinations of honey and carrot by using 750 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T1), 1,000 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T2) and 1,250 g honey + 1,000 g carrot (T3). To establish the best product, sensory evaluation was done on 9-point Hedonic scale. T1 was found to be most preferred candy. Further the T1 candy was assessed for overall quality during storage at room temperature (25–30 °C) for 6 months. Candy can be preserved safely for 6 months in both glass and LDPE p...

  13. Free riding and the provision of candy bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Kooreman, P.

    2002-01-01

    A wealth of experimental literature studies the effect of repetition and group size on the extent of free riding in the provision of public goods. In this paper, we use data from honor systems for candy bars in 166 firms to test whether such effects can be found outside the laboratory. We find that

  14. Erosive potential of calcium-modified acidic candies in irradiated dry mouth patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte;

    2010-01-01

    candies, while their whole saliva was collected into a closed system. The erosive potential of both candies was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and by dissolution of hydroxyapatite (HAp) directly in candy-stimulated saliva. The results were compared to normative......PURPOSE: Patients who have received irradiation therapy on the head and neck area are known to suffer from reduced saliva flow and may therefore use acidic candies to relieve symptoms of dry mouth. However, such acidic candies have erosive potential even among healthy individuals. Therefore......, the aim of the present study was to determine if calcium-modified acidic candies have reduced erosive potential in irradiated cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen cancer patients (26 to 70 years) ipsilaterally irradiated on the head and neck area sucked control and calcium-modified acidic...

  15. [Anti-Candida activity of aroma candy and its protective activity against murine oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Sato, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A daily eatable candy that has possible protective activity against oral candidiasis was experimentally produced. The candy was made from reduced-maltose as main constituent and from several natural products, such as oligonol (depolymerized polyphenols derived from lychee), cinnamon (cassia), citral, and capric acid, which are known to have anti-Candida activity in vitro and in vivo. The candy effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans, even when it was diluted 1,000 times with culture media. We assessed the protective activity of the candy against murine candidiasis. When 50μl of candy dissolved and diluted 4 times with water was administered 3 times into the oral cavity of Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the Candida-infected tongues improved on day 2. These findings suggest that this candy has potential as food that provides protective activity against oral candidiasis.

  16. APLIKASI METODE GEOMAGNETIK UNTUK MEMETAKAN SITUS ARKEOLOGI CANDI BADUT MALANG JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Wulan Kencana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Arkeologi mengarahkan kajian pada benda-benda peninggalan manusia yang bersifat material dan berhubungan dengan periode paling kuno dalam sejarah umat manusia. Candi badut merupakan peralihan gaya bangunan klasik dari Jawa tengah ke Jawa timur. Awal mulanya hanya berupa gundukan batu, reruntuhan dan tanah. Sehingga diperlukan metode geomagnetic untuk mengetahui struktur dan posisi arkeologi Candi Badut. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat magnetometer jenis proton procession magnetometer (PPM selama satu hari dengan luasan daerah 3025 m2, serta titik pengukuran dibuat dengan jarak 2.5 m sehingga menghasilkan 418 titik pengukuran. Interpretasi dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif dengan menggunakan software surfer 10, magpick dan mag2dc. Hasil penelitian untuk interpretasi kualitatif diperoleh peta kontur anomali residual magnetik memiliki variasi nilai anomali antara -1000 nT - 800 nT. Kemungkinan nilai anomali tinggi diduga adalah candi induk dan pondasi pagar candi yang berada disebelah barat candi induk. Candi induk dan pagar candi terbuat dari batuan andesit. Untuk hasil interpretasi kuantitatif pada irisan AB didapatkan nilai suseptibilitas 0,613 pada batuan candi induk dengan kedalaman 3 m dan nilai suseptibilitas 0,23 pada pondasi pagar sebelah barat candi induk pada kedalaman 2 m.

  17. Erosive potential of calcium-modified acidic candies in irradiated dry mouth patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Buchwald, Christian von; Nauntofte, Brigitte;

    2010-01-01

    Patients who have received irradiation therapy on the head and neck area are known to suffer from reduced saliva flow and may therefore use acidic candies to relieve symptoms of dry mouth. However, such acidic candies have erosive potential even among healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of the...

  18. 75 FR 32802 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Offshore Supply Vessel ROSS CANDIES... Alternative Compliance was issued for the offshore supply vessel ROSS CANDIES as required by 33 U.S.C. 1605(c... Title 33, Code of Federal Regulation, part 81, has been issued for the offshore supply vessel...

  19. PENGHAMBATAN CAJUPUTS CANDY TERHADAP VIABILITAS KHAMIR Candida albicans SECARA IN VITRO [Inhibition of Cajuputs Candy Toward the Viability of Candida albicans by using In Vitro Assay

    OpenAIRE

    C. Hanny Wijaya 2); A. Fieki Rachmatillah1); Bachtiar, Boy M.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of cajuput essential oil as a flavor in candy may produce a physiological active added value. Some compounds of cajuput plant (Melaleuca cajuputi L) have been reported for their anti-microbial activities. Candida albicans is a normal commensal organism in human mouth. However, it may become virulent and responsible for oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of cajuput and peppermint oil in cajuputs candy in inhibiting the C. albicans ...

  20. Effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata candy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabeera Muzzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is highly nutritious and antioxidant-rich vegetable widely grown all over the world. Present study reports the effect of storage on physicochemical, microbial, and antioxidant properties of pumpkin candy. Pumpkin and its candy were analyzed for the physicochemical characteristics like moisture content, ash, total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, and color. Beta-carotene and vitamin-C content of pumpkin and its candy were also studied. Antioxidant properties like 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenolic content (TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation of methanolic extracts of pumpkin and processed candy were evaluated. During storage, a significant increase in TSS while a non-significant increase in titrable acidity, reducing and total sugars was observed. Beta-carotene, vitamin C, color, and antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP, TPC, reducing power, and lipid peroxidation also showed a non-significant decrease during storage at ambient temperature. Microbial load of pumpkin candy (1.74–3.2 log cfu/g suggested that candies were safe for human consumption during storage. Hence, candy preparation from pumpkin could be an effective method for preservation of pumpkin and retention of its bioactive components.

  1. Sweet promises: Candy advertising to children and implications for industry self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; LoDolce, Megan; Dembek, Cathryn; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2015-12-01

    Candy advertising illustrates limitations of the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) self-regulatory program to improve food marketing to children. Participating companies pledge to not advertise candy in child-directed media. Yet independent analyses show that children viewed 65% more candy ads on U.S. television in 2011 than in 2007, before CFBAI implementation. The present research corroborates these findings, characterizes the increase, and examines how CFBAI-participating and non-participating companies use child-targeted techniques and media placement to advertise candy on U.S. television. Content analysis identified child-targeted messages and techniques in 2011 television candy ads, and Nielsen data (2008-2011) quantified candy advertising viewed on children's and other types of television programming. Differences between brands according to CFBAI status and use of child-targeted techniques in ads are evaluated. Data were obtained and analyzed in 2013. CFBAI-company non-approved brands represented 65% of candy ads viewed by children in 2011, up from 45% in 2008, and 77% of these ads contained child-targeted techniques. Although CFBAI companies only placed ads for approved brands on children's networks, 31% of ads viewed by children for CFBAI non-approved brands appeared on networks with higher-than-average youth audiences. CFBAI non-participating companies placed child-targeted candy ads primarily on children's networks. Despite CFBAI pledges, companies continue to advertise candy during programming with large youth audiences utilizing techniques that appeal to children. Both increased CFBAI participation and a more effective definition of "child-directed advertising" are required to reduce children's exposure to targeted advertising for foods that can harm their health.

  2. Sweet promises: Candy advertising to children and implications for industry self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; LoDolce, Megan; Dembek, Cathryn; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2015-12-01

    Candy advertising illustrates limitations of the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) self-regulatory program to improve food marketing to children. Participating companies pledge to not advertise candy in child-directed media. Yet independent analyses show that children viewed 65% more candy ads on U.S. television in 2011 than in 2007, before CFBAI implementation. The present research corroborates these findings, characterizes the increase, and examines how CFBAI-participating and non-participating companies use child-targeted techniques and media placement to advertise candy on U.S. television. Content analysis identified child-targeted messages and techniques in 2011 television candy ads, and Nielsen data (2008-2011) quantified candy advertising viewed on children's and other types of television programming. Differences between brands according to CFBAI status and use of child-targeted techniques in ads are evaluated. Data were obtained and analyzed in 2013. CFBAI-company non-approved brands represented 65% of candy ads viewed by children in 2011, up from 45% in 2008, and 77% of these ads contained child-targeted techniques. Although CFBAI companies only placed ads for approved brands on children's networks, 31% of ads viewed by children for CFBAI non-approved brands appeared on networks with higher-than-average youth audiences. CFBAI non-participating companies placed child-targeted candy ads primarily on children's networks. Despite CFBAI pledges, companies continue to advertise candy during programming with large youth audiences utilizing techniques that appeal to children. Both increased CFBAI participation and a more effective definition of "child-directed advertising" are required to reduce children's exposure to targeted advertising for foods that can harm their health. PMID:26232330

  3. Candies to Dye For: Cooperative, Open-Ended Student Activities To Promote Understanding of Electrophoretic Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emry, Randall; Curtright, Robert D.; Wright, Jonathan; Markwell, John

    2000-01-01

    Introduces electrophoresis activities developed for chemistry and biology courses in which students identify the food, drug, and cosmetic identity of the food dyes used in the coating of candies. (YDS)

  4. The Candy Wrapper Velocity Model for the Earth's Inner Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattesini, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent global expansion of seismic data motivated a number of seismological studies of the Earth's inner core that proposed the existence of increasingly complex structure and anisotropy. In the meantime, new hypotheses of dynamic mechanisms have been put forward to interpret seismological results. Here, the nature of hemispherical dichotomy and anisotropy is re-investigated by bridging the observations of PKP(bc-df) differential travel-times with the iron bcc/hcp elastic properties computed from first-principles methods.The Candy Wrapper velocity model introduced here accounts for a dynamic picture of the inner core (i.e., the eastward drift of material), where different iron crystal shapes can be stabilized at the two hemispheres. We show that seismological data are best explained by a rather complicated, mosaic-like, structure of the inner core, where well-separated patches of different iron crystals compose the anisotropic western hemispherical region, and a conglomerate of almost indistinguishable iron phases builds-up the weakly anisotropic eastern side.

  5. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace-elements in candies marketed in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace metals concentrations in food are significant for nutrition, due either to their nature or toxicity. Sweets, including chewing gum and candies, are not exactly a food, but they usually are unwearied consumed by children, the most vulnerable age-group to any kind of metal contamination in the food chain. The presence of relatively high concentrations of heavy metals such as Lead elicits concern since children are highly susceptible to heavy metals poisoning. Trace-metals concentrations were determined for six different flavors of a Mexican candy by means of Total X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Triplicate samples of the various candy's flavours (strawberry, pineapple, lemon, blackberry, orange and chilli) were digested in 8 mL of a mix of supra-pure HNO3 and H2O2 (6 mL: 2 mL) in a microwave oven MARS-X. Results show the presence of essential and toxic elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. All metal concentrations were higher and significantly different (α = 0.05) in chilli candy, compared to other candy flavours. Lead concentration fluctuated in the range of 0.102 to 0.342 μg g-1. A discussion about risk consumption and concentration allowed by Mexican and International Norms is made. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a NIST standard of 'Citrus Leaves' and a blank were treated in the same way.

  6. Determination of toxic metals in different brand of chocolates and candies, marketed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs) were determined by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration, for comparative purpose to obtain results within the 95% confidence level. No significant differences were observed for TMs obtained from both methods (P 0.05). The concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were observed in chocolates and candy samples is ranged as of 0.099 - 0.353, 1.45 - 4.33 and 1.11 - 2.48 mu g/g, respectively. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of TMs than milk- based chocolates and candies. (author)

  7. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Buntaran W, Astirin PA, Mahajoeno M. 2009. Effect of various sugar solution concentrations on characteristics of dried candy tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 55-61. The aims of the research were to study the effects of sugar syrup concentration on dried candy tomato characteristics and to determine the proper sugar solution concentration that gives the best characteristics of dry candy tomatoes. The research used Randomized Block Design Method with four treatments and six times repetitions. The treatment that be used was immersing the tomato in sugar solution, with concentration of A (40%, B (50%, C (60%, and D (70% group in 18 hours. The variables measured were water content, ash, vitamin C and organoleptic tests include flavor, color, flavor and texture test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test (Analysis of Variance followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result showed that sugar solution concentration had different effect on water content, ash content, vitamin C content, texture, and organoleptic test for colour, taste, and flavor of the dry candy tomato. The best characteristics of dry tomato candy was obtained on A (40% group, with water content of 24.20%, ash content of 0.62%, and vitamin C content of 31.15 mg/100 g. Standar quality of water content for dry fruit candy was maximal 25% (SII No.0718-2003 and maximal allowed ash content for food materials was 1.0% (SII 0272.90. Vitamin C content was not much decreased compared with ripe tomato i.e. 30-40 mg/100. Organoleptic tets result indicated that A (40% group get the highest score, i.e. 3,98 for taste, 3,89 for flavor, and 3,98 for colour.

  8. 成熟的意大利糖果市场%The mature Italian candy market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵声群

    2005-01-01

    According to the investigation of DATAMONITOR, the Italian candy production market has been developed to the very mature phase, though the whole economic scale is still considerable, the consuming level of the candy production is still on the comparatively low status。

  9. PENGHAMBATAN CAJUPUTS CANDY TERHADAP VIABILITAS KHAMIR Candida albicans SECARA IN VITRO [Inhibition of Cajuputs Candy Toward the Viability of Candida albicans by using In Vitro Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hanny Wijaya1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of cajuput essential oil as a flavor in candy may produce a physiological active added value. Some compounds of cajuput plant (Melaleuca cajuputi L have been reported for their anti-microbial activities. Candida albicans is a normal commensal organism in human mouth. However, it may become virulent and responsible for oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of cajuput and peppermint oil in cajuputs candy in inhibiting the C. albicans biofilms formation by using in vitro biofilm assay and viability assay. Furthermore, the influence of concentration of cajuput oil on the anti-microbial activities had been analyzed. All the tested concentration of cajuput oil in cajuputs candy was effective to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The provision of flavor components of cajuput and peppermint oil could produce synergistic effects compared to a single flavor component. The addition of cajuput oil at 0.6% was able to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The activities of the cajuput oil showed positive correlation to the concentration. The variable of plus and minus 0.1% addition of the cajuput oil concentration, however, produced no significant difference to inhibit the growth of C. albicans in biofilm. Sensory test, hedonic test, was conducted to evaluate the flavor, aroma, and overall attributes, resulting in no significant difference between 0.6 to 0.8% additions of cajuput oil upon the sensory acceptance.

  10. Making a Low Cost Candy Floss Kit Gets Students Excited about Learning Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Nazir; Subramaniam, R.

    2009-01-01

    An activity to excite kinaesthetically inclined students about learning physics is described in this article. Using only commonly available materials, a low cost candy floss kit is fabricated by students. A number of physics concepts are embedded contextually in the activity so that students get to learn these concepts in a real world setting…

  11. [Development of a gummy candy reduced in calories by sugar substitution with Stevia rebaudiana B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Tamayo-Dzul, Óscar; Barbosa-Martín, Enrique; Segura-Campos, Maira; Moguel-Ordoñez, Yolanda; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of gummy candy is widespread among people of different ages but mainly by children. The formulation of this product requires sugar that contributes to their flavor and consistency, but with the undesirable effect of increase its glycemic index and its calories from simple sugars; it is known that consumption of products with these last two characteristics are related to childhood obesity, which is a worldwide growing disease. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with high sweetening power and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this work was to develop a gummy candy reduced in calories by replacing sugar with Stevia rebaudiana B., and analyzes its texture and acceptability. Gummy candy were prepared with different percentage of sugar reduction (-20, -40, -60, -80 and -100%) and a product control (100% sugar); gummy elasticity was assess by displacement and maximum deformation, whereas resistance was evaluated by breaking strength; those gummies with better elasticity and resistance parameters underwent proximate analysis and sensory evaluations with a unstructured scale applied to 90 school children aged between 6 and 10 years old. A gummy candy reduced in calories with 60% sugar substitution with S. rebaudiana was developed; the level of satisfaction in school children was statistically the same respect to the gummy made of 100% sugar (p <0.05). PMID:25561127

  12. The effects of processing on the nutritional composition and quality evaluation of candied celeriac

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Greta Krešić; Vesna Lelas; Borislav Šimundić

    2004-02-01

    In this work, a new candying procedure with partial re-use of sugar syrup is proposed. Physicochemical analysis, together with sensory evaluation, of candied celeriac samples was done. Candying was performed in a pilot unit at 65° C, through three cycles of 5 hours duration each. Sugar syrups of 75° Brix were used. Effects of 1% (m/v) citric and 1% (m/v) ascorbic acid addition, as well as the drying of candied celeriac (60° C for 8 h) were studied. Sugar syrup deterioration was estimated by the concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural. The results obtained showed that there were no significant $(P \\le 0.01)$ differences in total dry matter and total sugar content between samples, while the increases after drying were significant $(P \\ge 0.01)$. Differences were observed in sugar compositions between samples. After three cycles, samples turned lighter, with decreased $L^\\ast$ values after drying. The celeriac from the first cycle of the ascorbic acid addition procedure was adjudged best with respect to all quality parameters. The decreased concentration of hydroxymethylfurfural confirmed that re-use of sugar syrup is possible.

  13. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace-elements in candies marketed in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, T., E-mail: tmc@servidor.unam.m [Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Nuclear. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Lartigue, J. [Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Nuclear. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P. [National Institute of Nuclear Research. Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 05045 (Mexico); Navarrete, M. [Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica y Nuclear. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Tejeda, S. [National Institute of Nuclear Research. Ocoyoacac, Edo. de Mexico, 05045 (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    Trace metals concentrations in food are significant for nutrition, due either to their nature or toxicity. Sweets, including chewing gum and candies, are not exactly a food, but they usually are unwearied consumed by children, the most vulnerable age-group to any kind of metal contamination in the food chain. The presence of relatively high concentrations of heavy metals such as Lead elicits concern since children are highly susceptible to heavy metals poisoning. Trace-metals concentrations were determined for six different flavors of a Mexican candy by means of Total X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Triplicate samples of the various candy's flavours (strawberry, pineapple, lemon, blackberry, orange and chilli) were digested in 8 mL of a mix of supra-pure HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (6 mL: 2 mL) in a microwave oven MARS-X. Results show the presence of essential and toxic elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. All metal concentrations were higher and significantly different ({alpha} = 0.05) in chilli candy, compared to other candy flavours. Lead concentration fluctuated in the range of 0.102 to 0.342 {mu}g g{sup -1}. A discussion about risk consumption and concentration allowed by Mexican and International Norms is made. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a NIST standard of 'Citrus Leaves' and a blank were treated in the same way.

  14. Some theoretical and practical approaches to the production of candied fruit based on raw plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepochatykh Tetyana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with studying the impact of external physical factors on the acceleration of the process of candied fruit production. It is proved, that the diffusion of sugar syrup into raw plant carried in by capillary forces or the forces of wetting. The porosity of materials affects this process the most. To reduce cooking time is possible by artificial increasing the porosity of plant material or by the destruction of the cell membrane of the plant material.

  15. STS-33 MS Carter and MS Thornton display 'Maggot on Board' sign and candy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Mission Specialist (MS) Manley L. Carter, Jr (left) and MS Kathryn C. Thornton display 'Maggot on Board' sign and 'SMARTIES' candy stored in plastic bag on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The mission specialists are wearing their mission polo shirts and communications kit assembly headsets. An overhead window appears above their heads. A gold necklace chain floats around Carter's neck.

  16. Presence of Candy and Snack Food at Checkout in Chain Stores: Results of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Kernan, William D; Menafro, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Community health professionals must use multiple strategies to address the rising rates of childhood obesity in the United States. One such strategy is to address the underlying causes of childhood obesity, including lack of exercise and the consumption of calorically-dense snack foods. This study examines the presence of candy and snack food in the checkout lines of all retail chain stores in a selected community to determine the presence of these products, the ways in which these products are promoted, and the type of physical environment through which customers navigate during the checkout process. The findings confirm that candy, soft drinks, snacks, and ice cream were present in a large majority of these retail stores. Further, this pilot study found that many of these stores "corral" customers through the check-out line in such a way that it is necessary to pass these snack foods directly. Three themes for discussion emerged from the review of the data collected, including product marketing, product packaging, and product placement. Implications for childhood health are presented in the context of these marketing strategies. The results and subsequent discussion provide important insight into the ways in which the presence of candy and snack food at checkout lines might contribute to childhood obesity rates. PMID:27101366

  17. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Nieborg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical political economy, this article surveys the political economy of game apps and investigates how it is symbiotically related to the technological and economic logic underlying connective platforms operated by Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. These social media platforms operate app stores that sustain the transformation of games as fixed, physically distributed products that follow a transaction logic, into digitally distributed, freely accessible, or “free-to-play” apps. Through a case study of the popular casual game Candy Crush Saga it is contended that the connective properties of social media platforms affect the form and format of game apps as cultural commodities. Candy Crush Saga developer King Digital Entertainment has been able to attract hundreds of millions of players and build a business model that combines the commodification of virtual items, connectivity, user attention, user data, and play. It is argued that the free-to-play commodity form comprises three commodity types: the product commodity, the “prosumer commodity,” and the player commodity. Furthermore, Candy Crush Saga’s commodity form is structured by a platformed modality of cultural production and circulation and therefore embedded in the political economy of its host platform.

  18. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC.

  19. Production of nano bacterial cellulose from waste water of candied jujube-processing industry using Acetobacter xylinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Lifen; Hua, Jiachuan; Jia, Shiru; Zhang, Jianfei; Liu, Hao

    2015-04-20

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of waste water of candied jujube-processing industry for the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter xylinum CGMCC No.2955 and to study the structure properties of bacterial cellulose membranes. After acid pretreatment, the glucose of hydrolysate was higher than that of waste water of candied jujube. The volumetric yield of bacterial cellulose in hydrolysate was 2.25 g/L, which was 1.5-folds of that in waste water of candied jujube. The structures indicated that the fiber size distribution was 3-14 nm in those media with an average diameter being around 5.9 nm. The crystallinity index of BC from pretreatment medium was lower than that of without pretreatment medium and BCs from various media had similar chemical binding. Ammonium citrate was a key factor for improving production yield and the crystallinity index of BC. PMID:25662694

  20. A Spoonful of C[subscript 12]H[subscript 22]O[subscript 11] Makes the Chemistry Go Down: Candy Motivations in the High School Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennever, Fanny K.

    2007-01-01

    A food motivation activity, using a candy bar for high school chemistry classes is described. The use of everyday items like candy makes lab sessions interesting for students and may also help connect chemical concepts to their observable world and encourage them to ask questions.

  1. Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovasc...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS OF CANDIED FRUITS ENRICHED WITH VITAMIN C BY DIFFERENT METHODS ON ITS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Wypchoł

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of storage conditions of candied fruits enriched with vitamin C on its concentration in that product. The materials were candied fruits (black chokeberry and black currant enriched with vitamin C by two methods during their production. The final products were stored within 3 months at 8 and 20°C. On the basis of the results it was stated that enrichment method affected the concentration of the vitamin C in fruits measured during storage period at the above conditions. doi:10.5219/55

  3. Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049 and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132 participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods : Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results : In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001 and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001 than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p = 0.0337. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers. Conclusion

  4. Risk of vitamin A toxicity from candy-like chewable vitamin supplements for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Chow, Chung Mo; Poon, Wing Tat; Lai, Chi Kong; Chan, Kwan Chee Allen; Yeung, Wai Lan; Hui, Joannie; Chan, Albert Yan Wo; Ng, Pak Cheung

    2006-08-01

    Numerous vitamin supplements are available over-the-counter to the general public. Some such supplements are available as candy-like chewable preparations to encourage consumption by children. We report 3 cases of overdose of such preparations. Each patient had taken an estimated 200,000 to 300,000 IU of vitamin A. Their circulating vitamin A (retinol and retinyl palmitate) concentrations were monitored over a 6-month period. There were no clinical or biochemical complications noted. However, there were marked increases in both retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations above age-related reference ranges. In particular, it took 1 to 3 weeks for the serum retinol concentrations to peak and many months for them to normalize. Parents should be warned about the dangers of excessive vitamin consumption. Clinicians should be aware of the late peak in serum retinol concentrations, which may lead to late complications of vitamin A overdose.

  5. 苦瓜凝胶糖果的研制%The Development of Momordica Charantia Gel Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向东; 刘迎宾; 李斌; 王锡彬

    2015-01-01

    Momordica charantia was processed as principal raw material to develope gel candy in the experiments.Through the L9(34) orthogonal test, the contents of momordica charantia juice, fructose-glucose syrup and colloid in candy product were determinated. The results showed that the optimal formula was 40 %momordica charantia juice,40%fructose-glucose syrup,13%Maltodextrin and 3.5%colloid and the optimal drying process was at 70 ℃ temperature for 6 h-8 h,by which the best taste, flavor and presentation of gel candy products could be provided.%以苦瓜为主要原料研制凝胶糖果,对苦瓜汁、果葡糖浆、凝胶剂的用量及最佳烘干条件等主要因素进行了研究,通过L9(34)正交试验确定了苦瓜凝胶糖果的配方。结果表明:苦瓜凝胶糖果的最佳配方为苦瓜汁40%、果葡糖浆40%、麦芽糊精13%、凝胶剂3.5%,最佳烘干条件为70℃下烘烤6 h~8 h,所得产品能达到最佳的口感、风味与外观。

  6. Effect of slice thickness and blanching time on different quality attributes of instant ginger candy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, A; Deka, Bidyut C; Jha, A K; Paul, D; Misra, L K

    2013-02-01

    Fresh ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) suffers from weight loss, shrinkage, sprouting and rotting during storage after 3-4 weeks. This spoilage may be overcome by processing fresh produce to some value added products. An attempt was made to optimize the protocol for production of instant ginger candy. The experimental parameters considered were slice thickness (5.0-25.0 mm) and blanching duration (10-30 min) followed by dipping in 40°B and 75°B sugar solutions containing 2.0% citric acid respectively, for 1 and 2 h at 95 °C and dried at 60 °C for 1 h. RSM design was considered for this experiment and final products were evaluated for their textural properties, TSS, acidity, TSS: acid ratio, taste score and overall acceptability. The optimum product qualities in terms of hardness (2.08 kg), TSS (73.4%), acidity (1.31%), TSS: acid ratio (56.3), taste score (7.98) and overall acceptability (8.07) were obtained for slice thickness of 10.9 mm and blanching time of 24.9 min.

  7. Development of Fig Gel Candy%无花果凝胶软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶超; 刘毅

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of the best fudge recipe fig gel. Single factor experiment, with different proportions of agar, gelatin, preferably the best gel matrix;the basis of the above experiment, the gel matrix, white sugar, glucose and fig syrup addition level factors, three levels of design , the orthogonal test and the composite score. According to the Composite score, the optimum formula was gel matrix ∶White sugar ∶glucose ∶fig syrup =3 ∶ 35 ∶ 20 ∶ 10. Obtained based on the best recipe fig gel candy was soft, delicate tissue, smooth taste, retaining the unique flavor of the fig and the nutritional value, lay a foundation for the production.%  优选无花果凝胶软糖的最佳配方.采用单因素试验,用不同比例的琼脂、明胶,优选最佳凝胶基质;在上述试验基础上,以凝胶基质、白砂糖、葡萄糖和无花果浆的添加量为因素,设计三个水平,进行正交试验并综合评分.根据综合评分,得出最佳配方,即凝胶基质:白砂糖:葡萄糖:无花果浆=3∶35∶20∶10.根据最佳配方制得的无花果凝胶软糖质地柔软、组织细腻、口感滑润,保留了无花果特有的风味及营养价值,为进一步开发提供实验基础.

  8. PENERAPAN TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT SUATU EVALUASI MELALUI KARAKTERISTIK KERJA (Studi Kasus Pada Perusahaan Gula Candi Baru Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatane Semuel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present, management has transformed radically from traditional change into Total Quality Management (TQM which stresses on organizational excellences such as reliability, responsiveness, assurance, competency and human resources. This research is an evaluation of TQM application held by a sugar factory, Candi Baru Sidoarjo through its program namely Gugus Kendali Mutu (GKM It is program of TQM at which it serves as an approach to endeavor its workers to have perception at different stages about different qualities. In addition, this is based on an analysis of job satisfaction of the workers, which is focused on woek charecteristics such as skill variation, job description, autonomy and feedback. From the results, it is concluded that human recources (workers, equipments or instruments being used as well as available period of time has positive relationship, especially between job satisfaction and skill variation. Other indicators, such as work flow and work result which are evaluated by the workers themselves as well as by their co-workers, have positive relationship between job satisfaction and job description. Furthermore, cooperation among workers within the same division having different levels of position has positive relationship between job satisfaction and job significance. In general, GKM implication in endeavoring the workers has positive impact towards worker satisfaction in sugar factory like Candi Baru Sidoarjo. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Manajemen mengalami transformasi yang cukup radikal, yaitu perubahan dari model tradisional bergeser kepada Total Quality Management (TQM yang menuntut keunggulan organisasi seperti kecepatan, daya tanggap, kelincahan, pembelajaran, dan kompetensi karyawan. Penilitian ini merupakan suatu evaluasi penerapan program TQM yang dijalankan oleh Pabrik Gula (PG Candi Baru Sidoarjo melalui Gugus Kendali Mutu (GKM, yang merupa-kan suatu pendekatan dalam mewujudkan pemberdayaan karyawan, yang pada

  9. Candy consumption was not associated with body weight measures, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, or metabolic syndrome in US adults: NHANES 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Carol E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2011-02-01

    There is limited research examining the relationship of candy consumption by adults on diet and health. The purpose of this study was to determine total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption and their effect on energy, saturated fatty acid and added sugar intake, weight, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diet quality in adults 19 years and older (n = 15,023) participating in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Covariate-adjusted means ± SE and prevalence rates were determined for candy consumption groups. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of cardiovascular risk factors and MetS. A total of 21.8%, 12.9%, and 10.9% of adults consumed total, chocolate, and sugar candy, respectively. Mean daily per capita intake of total, chocolate, and sugar candy was 9.0 ± 0.3, 5.7 ± 0.2, and 3.3 ± 0.2 g, respectively; intake in consumers was 38.3 ± 1.0, 39.9 ± 1.1, and 28.9 ± 1.3 g, respectively. Energy (9973 ± 92 vs 9027 ± 50 kJ; P chocolate consumers had a 19% decreased risk of lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0364) and a 15% reduced risk of MetS (P = .0453). Results suggest that the current level of candy consumption was not associated with health risks. PMID:21419316

  10. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-01-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine rec

  11. 金黄蜜枣包装改良设计探析%Analysis of the Improved Packaging Design of Golden Candied Dates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵全宜; 彭超

    2012-01-01

    Taking the improved packaging design of golden candied dates for instance, it analyzed the disadvantages of original packaging of the golden candied dates in the market competition, discussed the goods packaging was the interoperability bridge of goods and life. The packaging is no longer content merely to protect the commodity function, more importantly, that the landscaping products, promotional merchandise and promotional packaging design only to grasp the minds of consumers, to meet consumer demand, stimulate consumer desire to be able to stand out in afierce combat the goods. It summarized the improved elements of golden candied dates packaging, by virtue of the visual elements symbol to enhance the overall image of the golden candied dates packaging, and to analyze the main trends of the golden candied dates packaging.%以金黄蜜枣包装改良设计为例,分析了金黄蜜枣原包装在市场竞争中的劣势。论述了商品包装是商品与生活的互通桥梁,包装不再仅仅满足于保护商品的功能,更重要是在于美化商品、宣传商品和促销商品,提出了包装设计只有把握消费者的心理,满足消费者的需求,激发消费者的购买欲望,才能够在激烈的商品实战中脱颖而出。归纳出了金黄蜜枣包装的改良要素,论述了如何凭借视觉元素符号来提升金黄蜜枣包装整体形象,并分析了金黄蜜枣包装的主要发展方向。

  12. Economics of non-oil value chains in peanut: A case of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindaraj Gurrappanaidu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the extent of value-addition, employment generating potential and economics of peanut-candy and salted-peanut small-scale units in India. In the low-capacity peanut-candy units, the value-addition at the end of Stage-I (pod to kernel was $ 2.4/q, whereas, it was $ 2.2/q in the high-capacity units. In salted-peanut units, the value-addition in the low- and high-capacity was $2.2/q and $2.3/q, respectively. In Stage-II (kernel to final product, the value-addition was high across sizes and type of the processing units. Around 525 and 635 man-days of employment/month/unit were generated by low and high-capacity peanut-candy units, respectively. The employment generation was less in salted-peanut vis-à-vis peanut-candy units due to different processing methods. The kernel alone constituted 50 to 52 per cent of the total cost in peanut-candy, and 89 per cent in salted-peanut units. The sensitivity analysis revealed that change in the kernel price directly affected the magnitude of profits. The important policy implications emerged were: if the units process the pods to obtain kernel (Stage-I instead of procuring kernels from the market, considerable value-addition can be made, kernel price directly affects the profits and hence an appropriate mechanism like ‘contract farming’ would stabilise the kernel prices, majority of the units retrench labour during off-peak period due to less demand and hence diversification in processing will generate sufficient employment to retain the existing skilled employees, and appropriate policy intervention is necessary to address the capital, technology and marketing constraints of the peanut processing units.

  13. NGS tools for traceability in candies as high processed food products: Ion Torrent PGM versus conventional PCR-cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing methodologies are considered the next step within DNA-based methods and their applicability in different fields is being evaluated. Here, we tested the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in food traceability analyzing candies as a model of high processed foods, and compared the results with those obtained by PCR-cloning-sequencing (PCR-CS). The majority of samples exhibited consistency between methodologies, yielding more information and species per product from the PGM platform than PCR-CS. Significantly higher AT-content in sequences of the same species was also obtained from PGM. This together with some taxonomical discrepancies between methodologies suggest that the PGM platform is still pre-mature for its use in food traceability of complex highly processed products. It could be a good option for analysis of less complex food, saving time and cost per sample.

  14. PREPARATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF LEVAMISOLE HYDROCHLORIDE AS A CANDY BASED ANTHELMINTIC MEDICATED LOLLIPOPS FOR PEDIATRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi Kamath

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminthiasis is prevalent globally, but is more common in developing countries with poorer personal and environmental hygiene, which is the major cause of undernourishment, anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia. The development of taste masking for bitter-tasting drugs administered orally for children has always been a formidable challenge for formulation scientists and this study reflects one of the contemporary advancements in the pediatric dosage forms. This study involves the preparation of candy based medicated lollipops of drug Levamisole, a synthetic imidathiazole derivative which acts by targeting the nematode nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor for pediatrics, by heating and congealing technique, using polymers like Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, Methyl cellulose, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose and comparing with lollipops with no hydrocolloids. It was found that the formulation containing methyl cellulose showed better drug release and was more stable, unlike the other formulations.

  15. NGS tools for traceability in candies as high processed food products: Ion Torrent PGM versus conventional PCR-cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Sequencing methodologies are considered the next step within DNA-based methods and their applicability in different fields is being evaluated. Here, we tested the usefulness of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in food traceability analyzing candies as a model of high processed foods, and compared the results with those obtained by PCR-cloning-sequencing (PCR-CS). The majority of samples exhibited consistency between methodologies, yielding more information and species per product from the PGM platform than PCR-CS. Significantly higher AT-content in sequences of the same species was also obtained from PGM. This together with some taxonomical discrepancies between methodologies suggest that the PGM platform is still pre-mature for its use in food traceability of complex highly processed products. It could be a good option for analysis of less complex food, saving time and cost per sample. PMID:27507519

  16. Study on the Production Process of Peanut Candy with Xylitol and Rose%木糖醇玫瑰花生糖生产工艺的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁捷; 陈韬; 刘肼螺; 周宏林

    2013-01-01

      本文概述了新型木糖醇玫瑰花生糖的生产工艺,包括原料验收、原料处理、营养强化、熬糖、保温搅拌、成型切割、包装等。该品种花生糖保留了传统花生酥的口感,降低了蔗糖含量,赋予其一种新颖的玫瑰风味。%This article describes the production process of peanut candy with xylitol and rose, including the accep-tance of raw materials, raw material treatment, nutritional enrichment, the decoction of sugar, heat-preservation stirring, Forming and Cutting, Packaging, etc. The new candy contain Low-Sugar, which keep the food fluffy and crisp, and which creat a distinct rose flavor.

  17. Analysis on Problems in Chinese Candy Industry Development%蜜饯产业发展中存在的问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳发; 胡菊英; 彭志兵; 肖霖; 叶辉; 彭志雄

    2012-01-01

    蜜饯是我国经典、特色且深受百姓喜爱的传统食品.然而,随着产业结构的调整、人们生活水平的提高以及饮食观念的改变,蜜饯产业的发展遭遇了瓶颈.针对近年来蜜饯产业发展中所遇到的问题,尤其是原料供应、生产过程中的质量控制、生产设备、人才力量以及产业升级等方面的问题,进行了详细的阐释,以期为今后蜜饯产业的发展方向以及相关法规政策的制定提供一定的参考.%Chinese Candy is a classical, characteristic and traditional food, which was very popular in Chinese folk. However, with the adjustment of the industrial structure, the rapid improvement of people s living standards, and the change of diet concept, now candy industry is suffering a bottleneck. The problems that appeared in the development of Chinese Candy industry were elaborated, such as problems in material supply, quality control, production equipment, personnel strength, industry upgrade, so as to provide a reference for the evolution and policy making of this industry.

  18. 低糖佛手瓜蜜饯加工技术研究%Study on Processing Technology of Low-Sugar-Content Candied Chayote

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽; 高月明; 杨君; 袁利鹏; 刘后伟; 李东梅

    2012-01-01

    In order to gratify various reqmrement ot market, utilize cnayotes nutritional vame, me processing technology and the optimum material formula of low-sugar-content candied chayote was studied. The final product was analyzed by sensory, chemical and microbiological inspection. Results showed that the candied chayote with golden color, special chayote flavor, and high safety was obtained by blanching for 30 s, hardening for 2 h with 0.2% CaC12, second candying for 25 min with 40% sugar solution, hot-air drying for 18 h at 50℃-60℃ with the material formula of chayote 73.6%, sugar 26.2%, citric acid 0.08%, vanillin 0.2 %.%为满足市场多样性需求,充分利用佛手瓜营养价值,研究了低糖佛手瓜蜜饯的加工工艺及原料配方,并进行产品感官、理化及微生物分析。结果表明,在烫漂30s,0.2%CaCl2硬化2h,40%糖液二次糖煮25rain,50℃-60℃热风干燥18h条件下,以73.6%佛手瓜,26.2%白砂糖,0.08%柠檬酸,0.2%香兰素为配方组成,可制得色泽金黄、质地柔软、甜而不腻、风味独特、卫生安全的低糖佛手瓜蜜饯。

  19. PERHITUNGAN BIAYA RAWAT JALAN BERBASIS KINERJA DI PUSKESMAS GEDANGAN DAN PUSKESMAS CANDI KABUPATEN SIDOARJO (Kajian Isu Publik dalam Formulasi Kebijakan Kesehatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didik Budianto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: De-centralization urges was every area task force, including health sector was managed the monetary with  effective, efficient, transparante, accountable, and auditable. This fenomena was made primary health care unit (puskesmas need to fulfill consumers need. By ABC (Activity Based Costing method will more countable to accurate the cost from very activities. The research aims to identify the resource that need to count the primary health care program activity cost based on their activities and based on ABC. Method: The research design was descriptive with data compiled bycross-section and retorspective approach within taken from outpatient data. The data taken porpusif sampled with primary health care staf population that directed with care unit. The time for research undergo for 5 months on Gedangan and Candi Health Care Unit. Results: The result shows that the tariff cost after activity-based counted only Rp 7.782,00 for Gedangan Primary Health Care and Rp 8.071,00 for Candi, better than tariff with decision Sidoarjo district. The element cost or operational cost counted based on service activity improvement or patient visited at 1 years, historical methode to average vessel to crossing with tariff. The average riding animal in Gedangan Primary health care amount 14% and Candi Health care amount 11%. About annually without ABC methode was accounting realisted operational cousted. Recomendation: The research recommendation was need to a counting to treatment primary health care. Key words: ABC (Activity Based Costing, primary health care

  20. 酸解木薯淀粉及其软糖性能研究%Study on properties of acid hydrolysis cassava starch and its jelly candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范浩然; 熊柳; 孙庆杰

    2013-01-01

    The acid hydrolysis of cassava starches were prepared using cassava starch as material, treating starch with 6%HCl at 50℃for different durations(0 min,30 min,60 min,90 min). At the same time the acid hydrolysis of cassava starches were used to produce cassava starch jelly candy. The properties of the acid hydrolysis of cassava starch were investigated by determining the gelatinization and texture properties and assay the tensile properties and texture properties of the acid hydrolysis cassava starch jelly candy. The results showed that a significant decrease in starch viscosity and set back and an increase in hardness with increase in acid hydrolysis. The tensile properties of jelly candy with three different hydrolysis time all accord with industrial production index. The jelly candy with 60 min acid hydrolysis of cassava starch was better on hardness,adhesiveness,chewiness and resilience.%  以木薯淀粉为原料,在50℃下,用6%HCl对木薯淀粉进行不同时间(0 min、30 min、60 min、90 min)酸解改性,制备酸解木薯淀粉,并对酸解淀粉糊化特性和质构特性进行研究与分析;同时采用酸解木薯淀粉制备软糖,对制得酸解木薯淀粉软糖进行拉伸与质构分析.实验结果表明,随酸解时间增加;酸解木薯淀粉最低粘度、峰值粘度、回生值显著降低,淀粉凝胶硬度显著增加.3个不同水解时间木薯软糖拉伸率均符合工业生产指标,60 min酸解木薯淀粉制备软糖硬度适中,胶粘性、咀嚼性、回复性良好.

  1. Study on Processing of Pectin Soft Candy being Made of Loquat Pomace%枇杷果渣制取果胶软糖的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方榕辉

    2013-01-01

      Loquat fruit pomace and Pectin were used as the main raw material to develop loquat pectin soft can⁃dy. The best combination of antioxidants was confirmed by comparison experiments. The optimal preparation pro⁃cessing of loquat pectin soft candy was explored by orthogonal experiments. The results showed that:0.1% Sodi⁃um metabisulphite and 0.15% sodium D-isoascorbate as pectin soft candy antioxidant;the gelling agent in 1.5%pectin;attached flavor formula were 35% Loquat pomace,65% sugar,0.3% Citric acid%  以枇杷果渣、高酯果胶为主要原料,研究枇杷果胶软糖的制取工艺条件。通过试验确定枇杷果胶软糖最佳抗氧化剂组合,采用正交试验设计枇杷果胶软糖产品配方。结果表明:0.1%焦亚硫酸钠和0.15%D-异抗坏血酸钠作为枇杷果胶软糖抗氧化剂;1.5%高酯果胶作为胶凝剂;最佳配方比例:35%枇杷渣、65%白砂糖、0.3%柠檬酸。

  2. Comparative Study of Candy Packaging Colors of China and Japan%中日糖果包装色彩比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪开庆; 姚予婧

    2009-01-01

    日本的糖果包装色彩设计能将日本传统的灰色调运用其中,同时也能将鲜艳亮丽的色彩搭配得恰到好处.中国糖果包装在色彩运用和搭配上也受到民族传统的影响,与日本相比略有不足.通过对两国糖果包装色彩进行比较研究,找出两国文化的差异和消费者对包装色彩的不同喜好.%Japan's candy packaging color design can use traditional Japanese gray, also bright color matches can be made properly. The application of colors in candy packaging and colors matches in China were influenced by the national tradition and there was certain deficiency compared with that in Japan. The purpose was to find cultural differences and color preference of consumers between the two countries.

  3. Supergene destruction of a hydrothermal replacement alunite deposit at Big Rock Candy Mountain, Utah: Mineralogy, spectroscopic remote sensing, stable-isotope, and argon-age evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Rockwell, B.W.; Kunk, M.J.; Councell, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Big Rock Candy Mountain is a prominent center of variegated altered volcanic rocks in west-central Utah. It consists of the eroded remnants of a hypogene alunite deposit that, at ???21 Ma, replaced intermediate-composition lava flows. The alunite formed in steam-heated conditions above the upwelling limb of a convection cell that was one of at least six spaced at 3- to 4-km intervals around the margin of a monzonite stock. Big Rock Candy Mountain is horizontally zoned outward from an alunite core to respective kaolinite, dickite, and propylite envelopes. The altered rocks are also vertically zoned from a lower pyrite-propylite assemblage upward through assemblages successively dominated by hypogene alunite, jarosite, and hematite, to a flooded silica cap. This hydrothermal assemblage is undergoing natural destruction in a steep canyon downcut by the Sevier River in Marysvale Canyon. Integrated geological, mineralogical, spectroscopic remote sensing using AVIRIS data, Ar radiometric, and stable isotopic studies trace the hypogene origin and supergene destruction of the deposit and permit distinction of primary (hydrothermal) and secondary (weathering) processes. This destruction has led to the formation of widespread supergene gypsum in cross-cutting fractures and as surficial crusts, and to natrojarosite, that gives the mountain its buff coloration along ridges facing the canyon. A small spring, Lemonade Spring, with a pH of 2.6 and containing Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Cl, and SO4, also occurs near the bottom of the canyon. The 40Ar/39 Ar age (21.32??0.07 Ma) of the alunite is similar to that for other replacement alunites at Marysvale. However, the age spectrum contains evidence of a 6.6-Ma thermal event that can be related to the tectonic activity responsible for the uplift that led to the downcutting of Big Rock Candy Mountain by the Sevier River. This ???6.6 Ma event also is present in the age spectrum of supergene natrojarosite forming today, and probably dates

  4. Key Factors Influencing the Sensory Qualities of Hard Candy%影响硬糖感官品质的关键因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓丹; 李文钊

    2013-01-01

    The key factors that influence the sensory qualities of hard candy were studied. The influence of high fructose corn syrup,citric acid,boiling temperature and time on the qualities of hard candy was analysised. The results showed that their impact on the sensory qualities of hard candy from strong to weak is boiling temperature,boiling time,the amount of fructose syrup and citric acid. With the increase of boiling temperature,hardness increased and brittleness first increased,and then reached a plateau;sensory evaluation marks first increasd,and then decreased. With the increase of boiling time, hardness and brittleness increased,and sensory evaluation marks decreased. With the increase of the amount of high fructose corn syrup,both hardness and brittleness had a descending trendency,while sensory evaluation marks first increased,and then decreased. With the increase of the amount of citric acid,hardness and brittleness and sensory evaluation marks all first increased,and then decreased,and hardness and brittleness had the same variation trend. When boiling temperature was 155,℃,boiling time was 5,minutes,the amount of high fructose corn syrup was 10%,and the amount of citric acid was 0.50%,the sensory quality of hard candy was the best.%  主要研究了影响硬糖感官品质的关键因素.分析果葡糖浆、柠檬酸的添加量以及熬制温度、熬制时间对硬糖品质的影响,结果表明:对硬糖感官品质影响程度由大到小依次为:熬制温度、熬制时间、果葡糖浆添加量、柠檬酸的添加量.随着熬制温度的增加,硬度呈增大趋势,脆性先增大后趋于平稳,感官评价分值先增大后减小;随着熬制时间的增加,硬度和脆性都呈增大趋势,感官评价分值呈下降趋势;随着果葡糖浆添加量的增大,硬度及脆性都呈下降趋势,感官评价结果先增大后减小;随着柠檬酸添加量的增大,硬度、脆性和感官评价分值都呈先增大后减

  5. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue.

  6. Research on the Making Technology of Konjak Soft Candy%魔芋软糖制作工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘士平; 薛艳红

    2009-01-01

    [目的]为开发利用魔芋资源研制一种保健魔芋软糖.[方法]以魔芋精粉和木糖醇为原料,比较魔芋软糖生产中的几种原料配方,进而研制出一种较理想的保健魔芋软糖.[结果]魔芋精粉、明胶和琼脂的最佳用量比例最终确定为10∶30∶3.木糖醇与蜂蜜的最佳用量分别为70和25 g.葡萄或橙汁香精的用量为0.2 g.魔芋软糖的最佳配方为:魔芋精粉5 g + 木糖醇70 g + 蜂蜜25 g + 琼脂1.5 g + 明胶15 g + 柠檬酸1 g + 香精0.2 g + 色素适量 + 水150 m1.产品呈黄色,表面光滑,块形完整,凝胶强度适中,具有弹性,香气宜人,酸甜适口.产品的固形物含量为75%~80%,铅和砷含量不超过0.5 mg/kg.产品的细菌总数不超过750个/g,大肠杆菌少于300个/kg,没有致病菌检出.产品保质期为半年.[结论]该生产工艺操作简便,产品质量合格.%[Objective]The aim was to prepare a health konjak soft candy for exploiting konjak resources. [Method]With konjak flour and xylitol as raw materials, a few raw material formulas used in the production of konjak soft candy were compared and a relatively ideal health konjak soft candy was prepared. [Result]The optimum dosage ratio of konjak flour, glutin and agar was finally ascertained as 10∶30∶3. The optimum dosages of xylitol and honey were 70 and 25 g resp. The dosage of essence from grape or orange juice was 0.2 g. The optimum formula of konjak soft candy was konjak flour 5 g + xylitol 70 g + honey 25 g + agar 1.5 g + glutin 15 g + citric acid 1 g + essence 0.2 g + appropriate pigment + water 150 m1. The products were yellow and had smooth surface, complete block shape, moderate gel strength, elasticity, pleasant aroma and delicious flavour. The solid content in product was 75%~80%, and its contents of lead and arsernic were no higher than 0.5 mg/kg. The total bacteria in product were no more than 750 per gram, its Escherichia coli were less than 300 per kilogram and there was no

  7. RESTRUKTURISASI PENGELOLAAN DANA PROGRAM KEMITRAAN DAN BINA LINGKUNGAN OLEH BADAN USAHA MILIK NEGARA DALAM RANGKA OPTIMALISASI PELAKSANAAN CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Studi Kasus Pada PT. (Persero) Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan & Ratu Boko

    OpenAIRE

    Indarjaya, Prima Bagus

    2014-01-01

    This research on the Restructuring of fund management of the Partnership and Community Development Program by State Owned Enterprises in Optimizing the Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility is a normative research. This research is aimed at identifying the implementation of the Partnership and Community Development Program at PT. (Persero) Taman Wisata Candi Borobudur, Prambanan & Ratu and evaluating the implementation of the Partnership and Community Development Program through a...

  8. 喜糖包装设计中文化意蕴的传承与发展%Inheritance and Development of Culture Implication in the Packaging of Wedding Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞; 汤米; 李会科

    2012-01-01

    分析了东西方婚礼习俗的差异和文化渊源,阐述了不同婚礼习俗下的婚礼礼品特征。论述了喜糖的发展历程及其与文化发展的密切关系,阐明了喜糖包装设计中文化意蕴的表现形式,包括传统吉祥图案的应用、传统色彩的使用、传统包装材料的使用。提出在当前市场状况下,喜糖的发展还应注重包装造型的设计,注重个性表现以及东西方文化的融合。%It analyzed the difference between the western and eastern wedding custom and culture, elaborated the characteristics of wedding present in different wedding custom. It described the development history of wedding candy and explains the relationship with culture development, explained the expression form of the culture in the wedding candy packaging, including the appliance of traditional auspicious pattern, the selection of traditional color and traditional material. Nowadays, the individuality of wedding candy packaging and the integration of different culture should also be valued.

  9. 糖果和饮料包装设计创新途径探析%Analysis of the Candy and Beverage Innovation Way of Packaging Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强

    2012-01-01

    以国内外的糖果和饮料品牌包装为例,分析了用感官设计、趣味设计的具体表现方法。论述了感官设计主要是通过色彩的表现力,刺激消费者的视觉、听觉、味觉的互动;趣味设计主要是包装形态在对事物的具象和抽象的仿生,又结合色彩和图形的巧妙设计达到生动有趣的效果。进一步强调了感官设计和趣味设计是包装设计创新的有效途径。%Taking the packaging of candy and beverage brand at home and abroad as example, it analyzed the specific expression method of sensory design and interesting design, discussed the sensory design was mainly through the color expressive force, to stimulate consumer visual, auditory, gustatory interaction; and interesting design was the main form of packaging for the concrete and abstract things in the bionic, and combination of color and graphic ingenious design achieve vivid interesting effect. It further emphasized the sensory design and interesting design were the effective way of packaging design innovation.

  10. THE PARTITION OF INDIA AND ITS REFLECTIONS IN KHUSHWANT SINGH’S TRAIN TO PAKISTAN AND BAPSI SIDHWA’S ICE CANDY MAN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldipsinh D. Jadeja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Partition of Indian Sub-continent is one of the most terrible events in the history of the sub continent. The Sub-continent got freedom in 1947 along with its vivisection on the communal basis which leaves us puzzled weather the year 1947 is worthy to be remembered for the independence or for the massacre and atrocities during involuntary migration of a huge mass of people for their existence. Various writers have attempted to deal with the theme of Partition of Indian Sub-continent in their works. However, a kind of variations in the depiction of the historical events, differences in the   approaches to the truth and differences in the focus and attitude of the authors are quite natural. Even the treatment of the same event or incident may differ from author to author. The present paper aims at the comparative study of Khushwant Singh’s Train to Pakistan and Bapsi Sidhwa’s Ice Candy Man. Both the writers have witnessed the event themselves and tried to depict the terror of the conflict and the suffering of people during those days in their novels. Both the writers have got worldwide recognition for their treatment of the theme of partition in their novels. The present paper discusses the similarities and dissimilarities in the treatment of the same theme.

  11. Stick Candy Packaging Intelligent Technology and Development Prospects%棒糖包装智能化技术与发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健; 王成山

    2014-01-01

    Intelligent horizontal bar sugar heat sealing knot packaging equipment is full automatic stick candy packaging equipment to a new generation of light,machine,electricity and gas in one,the equipment of packaging speed is more than 3 times the ordinary packaging equipment developed in the past.Intelligent pack-aging is the packaging industry in the future,but to really put the intelligent packaging popularity in place,the better the development of which the profit space,in addition to increase investment in the development of intel-ligent packaging technology of manpower material resources,more to keep track of the current our country from industrialization to the informationthe pace of change,from two aspects of the new trend of intelligenttechnology concerns and promotion of mature technologies to increase investment.%智能化卧式棒糖热封扭结包装设备是新一代集光、机、电、气于一体的全自动棒糖包装设备,该设备包装速度是过去开发的普通包装设备的3倍多。智能包装是包装产业的未来,但要真正把智能包装普及到位,更好地开发其中的利润空间,除了加大对包装的智能技术开发的人力物力投入,更要跟紧当前我国从工业化向信息化转变的脚步,从关注智能技术新动向和推广成熟技术两个方面加大投入力度。

  12. 荧光法测定糖果中的总糖含量%Detection of Total Sugar in Candy by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀伟; 黄延俊

    2016-01-01

    合成了带有荧光基团的分子探针,光谱显示探针对糖类物质具有较强的荧光响应.通过条件优化,选取328 nm作为荧光激发波长,pH 10.0的缓冲溶液为最佳测定介质,当测试溶液中葡萄糖浓度为0.05~1 mmol/L时,显示良好的响应线性.方法对果糖中总糖含量测定的检测限为6.2μmol/L,回收率在76.4%~90.0%,RSD达到3.18%.%In order to overcome the complicated operation and relatively low sensitivity of conventional method, a method to determine the total sugar of candy by fluorescence spectrometry has been established. The procedure started with the synthesis of a molecular probe bearing pyrene fluorephore, which shows strong fluorescent response towards carbohydrates. After optimization of the experiment, the determinaton of glucose concentraion was performed in a pH of 10. 0 aqueous buffer, with the assay solution being excited at 328 nm. The calibration curve showed good linearty over the glucose concentration of 0. 05~1 mmol/L. The limit of detection for the method herein reported was 6. 2μmol/L , with recovery in the range of 76. 4% ~90. 0%, and the RSD was 3. 18%.

  13. Perfil da contaminação com aflatoxina entre embalagens de produtos de amendoim Afloxin contamination profile among packages of peanut candies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Micotti da Gloria

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o perfil da distribuição da contaminação com aflatoxinas entre embalagens constituintes de lotes de confeitos de amendoim, expostos à venda no comércio. Os dados da distribuição da ocorrência e dos níveis de contaminação, aqui obtidos, sugerem que os procedimentos de amostragem, visando à detecção de aflatoxinas em produtos processados, sempre estarão associando um grau de incerteza muito elevado quanto à presença ou não e quanto ao nível médio de contaminação de um lote de produto processado. Entretanto, para melhorá-los, devem-se considerar as diferenças existentes entre os produtos com relação ao processamento ou não dos grãos que constituem sua matéria-prima, pois, em lotes de produtos em que a matéria-prima foi triturada ou moída, como por exemplo, o doce de amendoim do tipo paçoca, a distribuição da ocorrência e dos níveis mostrou um grau bem mais elevado de homogeneidade, quando comparado ao amendoim japonês que mantém a integridade da matéria-prima durante o seu processo de fabricação.This study was carried out to evaluate the profile of aflatoxin contamination distribution among packages of peanut candies trading. Aflatoxin occurrence and distribution date from this study suggest that sampling plans to aflatoxin detection in processed products are always associated with high degree of uncertain of presence or not and of the true average level of contamination. To improve sampling plans it is necessary to consider the differences among product types. There are processed products whose the raw material is grounded, like "paçoca" and other that it is not, like "amendoim japonês". Occurrence and distribution of aflatoxin contamination among packages in lots of "paçoca" was more homogeneus than in lots of "amendoim japonês".

  14. STUDY OF CHANGES OF QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF JELLY CANDIES IN STORAGE PROCESS Исследование изменения качественных характеристик желейных конфет в процессе хранения

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonov D. V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of experimental studies of changes in humidity and plastic hardness of jelly candies in storage process are reviewed. Nature of the influence of various forms of water-retaining additives, coatings and types of packaging on the physical and chemical characteristics of candies is identified

  15. Research on the Potential Application of Bacillus coagulans on Probiotics Candy Production%凝结芽孢杆菌在益生菌糖果中应用的可能性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王祯; 何志勇; 陈洁; 曾茂茂; 秦昉

    2012-01-01

    为了探究益生菌糖果制作的可能性,以凝结芽孢杆菌(Bacillus coagulans)为研究对象,通过测定不同温度、柠檬酸添加量以及组分下B.coagulans的D值,判断糖果加工条件对其存活数的影响程度。结果表明,在硬糖调和温度(110℃)下,18.41 min会造成90%B.coagulans死亡;在奶糖的调和温度(100℃)下,其D值为32.78min;在软糖的调和温度(70℃、75℃)下,B.coagulans死亡数较少;添加0.5%~1.5%的柠檬酸,会降低凝结芽孢杆菌的耐热性;110℃下添加茶粉后,凝结芽孢杆菌无法存活;110℃添加可可粉、100℃添加全脂乳粉对糖果中B.coagulans的存活没有影响。由此可知,B.coagulans完全可以应用于益生菌软糖糖果制品的开发,从而可以选择性地应用于奶糖、硬糖糖果制作。%The objective of current study was to elucidate the availability of probiotic candy productions using B.coagulans.Initially,the D values of B.coagluan at different temperatures under the presence of different amounts of citric acid and different components were determined to evaluate the effects of processing conditions on the survival rate of B.coagulans.The results indicated that 90% of B.coagulans in hard candy was inactivated within 18.41 min at 110 °C.32.78 min of D value was obtained at 100 °C of harmonic temperature.However,most of B.coagulans strain were remained active during gums production at 70 or 75 °C.The thermal tolerance of B.coagulans could be reduced by adding 0.5%~1.5% citric acid,whereas no survival when tea powder was added to hard candy at 110 °C.Moreover,the addition of coco and whole mike powders at 110 and 100 °C respectively had no significant impact on the rate of B.coagulans.Therefore,it was believed that B.coagluan can be applied as one of probiotics to develop probiotic candy and partially be applied to toffee and hard candy productions.

  16. Study on stability of poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy (human diploid cell), live%口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗(人二倍体细胞)的稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋; 王红燕; 张亮; 梁晶; 徐冉; 金歌; 柯伟华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the stability of poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy (human diploid cell), live, which is produced consecutively by using cell factory units .Methods The vaccine was stored at -20℃for 24 months, the vac-cine titer ( CCID50 ) , appearance , residual antibiotics , sterility and identification of serotypes for virus seeds were tested . The evaluation of vaccine stability stored at 2-8℃for 12 months., the accelerated thermal stability assay at room tempera-ture for 7 weeks and at 37 ℃ for 7 days were performed , resprctively .Results The duration of vaccine is at least 24 months stored at -20 ℃, the shelf life of vaccine can extend to 12 months stored at 2-8 ℃, and freezing-thawing cycles have little effect on vaccine ’ s stability.Conclusion The quality of the vaccine is stable , the test results are complied with requirements of poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy (human diploid cell), live in 《Pharmacopeia of People’s Republic of China》( Volume Ⅲ) ( Edition:2010 ) and TiantanBio licensed standard for poliomyelitis vaccine in dragee candy ( hu-man diploid cell ) , live.%目的:评价细胞工厂工艺连续生产的口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗(人二倍体细胞)的稳定性。方法疫苗在-20℃放置24个月,检测病毒滴度、外观、抗生素残留量、无菌性,及对病毒血清型进行鉴别;2~8℃放置12个月检测疫苗稳定性;室温放置7周、37℃放置7 d检测加速热稳定性并冻融的稳定性。结果该疫苗-20℃可贮存24个月以上,2~8℃有效期可延长至12个月,且冻融不会影响疫苗的稳定性。结论疫苗质量稳定,各项检测结果均符合《中华人民共和国药典》三部(2010版)及企业《口服脊髓灰质炎减毒活疫苗(人二倍体细胞)注册标准》。

  17. 凝胶软糖质构特性的感官评定与仪器分析研究%Study on Sensory Evaluation and Instrumental Measurement of Texture Characteristics of Gel Candies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹丹; 李汴生; 阮征

    2011-01-01

    The correlations of sensory evaluation and instrumental measurement for the different commercially available gel candies in current Guangzhou market were studied in this paper.Nine common commercial gel candies were collected.Texture profile analysis with%针对目前广州市场上不同品牌的凝胶软糖的质地特性进行感官评定与仪器分析的相关性研究。选用9种市售凝胶软糖,采用质地剖面检验法进行感官评定,质构仪(TPA模式)进行仪器分析,对感官评定与质构仪测定结果进行相关性分析。研究表明,凝胶软糖的仪器分析能很好地反映感官质构,其中质构仪测定出的硬度、弹性、咀嚼性与对应的感官指标有显著的相关性。选取主要仪器分析指标为自变量,感官评定指标为因变量,进行逐步回归分析,得到具有统计意义的感官硬度和感官弹性的预测方程。表明TPA质构分析和感官质构评价均能较准确地测定和反映目前市售

  18. 脐橙凝胶型果派产品配方优化及工艺研究%Research on Formulation and Process Optimization of Citrus sinensis Osbeck gel Style Candy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秋潜; 刘幸科; 杨禹晗; 欧阳健; 朱建华; 钟瑞敏; 邹秀容

    2015-01-01

    以新鲜脐橙果浆、食品亲水胶体、果葡糖浆与白砂糖为主要原料制备脐橙凝胶型果派产品。以感官品评总体评价分值为产品质量评价指标,在单因素实验结果基础上,通过正交实验获得最优配方为:47.0%(质量比)甜味剂(果葡糖浆:白砂糖为1.3∶1)、13.0%(质量比)脐橙果浆、1.7%(质量比)胶凝剂(琼脂1.3%、黄芪胶0.2%、卡拉胶0.2%)、1.1%(质量比)柠檬酸。该配方下制备的产品色泽均一,具典型脐橙香味,酸甜味适中,并具良好的咀嚼性和弹性等质构特性。%In this paper the Citrus sinensis Osbeck gel style candy was prepared mainly with fresh orange pulp , food hydrocolloids, high fructose syrup and sugar. Based on single factor and orthogonal experiments, combined with overall sensory evaluation score as quality indicators the optimal formula was obtained as follows:47.0%(w/w)sweeteners(high fruit syrup to sugar as 1.3∶1),13.0%(w/w)orange pulp, 1.7%(w/w)gelling agent(agar 1.3%,tragacanth 0.2%, carrageenan0.2%), 1.1%(w/w) citric acid. The gel style candy prepared with the optimal formula had uniform color, a typical Citrus sinensis Osbeck flavor, moderate sweet and sour taste, and with good texture such as chewing and elasticity characteristics.

  19. 富含低聚异麦芽糖的酥心糖研制及其对肠道菌群增殖研究%Preparation of Crisp Candy Rich in Oligo-ismaltose and its Effect on ProliferationIntestinal Flora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于立梅; 白卫东; 冯卫华; 汪薇

    2012-01-01

    Based on process of sesame satinettes, a bifidus candy with adjusting the intestinal flora balance was developed by adding functional materials to sesame satinettes to reduce the calorific value and improve candy nutritional value. The proliferation of Intestine Probiotic and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. The results showed that process conditions of crunchy candy were: boiling sugar temperature 140 °C, oil sauce temperature 55 °C, sugar billet temperature 75 °C, water content 35%. and oligo-ismaltose dosage 60%. Under these process conditions, the product showed improved nutrition and health functions. Compared with the control, their proliferation effect on Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were increased by 55.2% and 33.6%, respectively. Adding oligo-ismaltose showed little effect on endogenous antioxidant system of sesame crisp candy.%本文在酥心糖工艺基础上,在配方中添加低聚异麦芽糖来降低酥心糖的热值,并以肠道益生菌的增殖和抗氧化活性为评价指标,开发具有调节肠道菌群平衡的“双歧”功能酥心糖.结果表明酥心糖的工艺条件为:熬糖温度140℃,油籽酱温度55℃.糖坯温度为75℃.加水量为白砂糖的35%,添加砂糖60%的低聚异麦芽糖不仅满足生产工艺条件,且从营养和功能方面有了改善,对双歧杆菌和乳酸杆菌的增殖比对照分别增加了55.2%,33.6%.内源抗氧化稳态表明:添加的低聚异麦芽糖不会影响芝麻酥心糖内源抗氧化体系.

  20. Metformin : Taking away the candy for cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalving, Mathilde; Gietema, Jourik A.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; de Jong, Steven; Reyners, Anna K. L.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.

    2010-01-01

    Metformin is widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 where it reduces insulin resistance and diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. Population-based studies show that metformin treatment is associated with a dose-dependent reduction in cancer risk. The metformin treatment also in

  1. Processing and properties of jelly candy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xi Jr

    2014-01-01

    Vain tiivistelmÀ. OpinnÀytteiden arkistokappaleet ovat luettavissa Helsingin yliopiston kirjastossa. Hae HELKA-tietokannasta (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka/index.htm). Abstract only. The paper copy of the whole thesis is available for reading room use at the Helsinki University Library. Search HELKA online catalog (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka/index.htm). Endast avhandlingens sammandrag. Pappersexemplaret av hela avhandlingen finns för lÀsesalsbruk i Helsingfors universitets bibliote...

  2. Protecting the Goodies in the Digital Candy Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasch, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of the protection of intellectual property on the Internet suggests strong regulation of content. Topics addressed include economic losses; access control; encryption; educating the public on copyright law; illegal bulletin board systems; software piracy; copyright infringement; downloading copyrighted material; fair use; and copyright…

  3. Candies in hell: women's experiences of violence in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberg, M; Peña, R; Herrera, A; Liljestrand, J; Winkvist, A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of domestic violence against women in León, Nicaragua. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 488 women between the ages of 15-49. The physical aggression sub-scale of the Conflict Tactics Scale was used to identify women suffering abuse. In-depth interviews with formerly battered women were performed and narratives from these interviews were analysed and compared with the survey data. Among ever-married women 52% reported having experienced physical partner abuse at some point in their lives. Median duration of abuse was 5 years. A considerable overlap was found between physical, emotional and sexual violence, with 21% of ever-married women reporting all three kinds of abuse. Thirty-one percent of abused women suffered physical violence during pregnancy. The latency period between the initiation of marriage or cohabitation and violence was short, with over 50% of the battered women reporting that the first act of violence act took place within the first 2 years of marriage. Significant, positive associations were found between partner abuse and problems among children, including physical abuse. Both the survey data and the narrative analysis pointed to extreme jealousy and control as constant features of the abusive relationship. Further, the data indicate that battered women frequently experience feelings of shame, isolation and entrapment which, together with a lack of family and community support, often contribute to women's difficulty in recognizing and disengaging from a violent relationship. These findings are consistent with theoretical conceptualisations of domestic violence developed in other countries, suggesting that, to a large degree, women's experiences of violence transcend specific cultural contexts. PMID:11072881

  4. Process Variability and Capability in Candy Production and Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Ronald S.

    2016-01-01

    In this short, in-class activity, students use fun size packages of M&Ms to study process variability, including a real-world application of C[subscript pk]. How process variability and legal requirements force the company to put "Not Labeled for Individual Retail Sale" on each fun size package is discussed, as is the economics of…

  5. Gum Base Candy%胶基糖(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵发基

    2007-01-01

    胶基糖(Gum Base Candy)又称胶姆糖,是一种含水不溶性树胶、添加甜味和香味料的耐咀嚼性糖果,几个世纪以来深受人们的喜爱。胶基糖有口香糖(Chewing Gum)和泡泡糖(Bubble Gum)两大类,约占全球糖果巧克力销售量的5%,约为60~70万吨。

  6. Sex and Candy: Unwrapping How We Define Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Kate

    2016-01-01

    When seeking a more nuanced understanding of sexuality, participants can benefit from hands-on activities that provide experience with the limitation of descriptors and social shaping of definitions. In many sexuality education contexts, participants enter the learning environment with a narrow definition of sexuality. The following game provides…

  7. Candy Bar Chants, Mozart Maps: Creativity in Your Choral Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on how music teachers can make choral rehearsals more interesting for students by incorporating creative lessons and activities. Explores what it means to be creative and includes examples of creative lessons that can be used in the choral rehearsal. (CMK)

  8. Is candy eating a way to control body weight?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogelholm, Mikael; Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has called for actions already in place for years. Unfortunately, the results so far have been mostly disappointing. The role of science in combating obesity is to provide evidence for decision-making at political (national and local) level, in ...

  9. Planeamento de uma estrada utilizando CCS Candy - Caso de estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sara Maria de

    2013-01-01

    O tema desta dissertação foi escolhido tendo em consideração a crescente necessidade de planeamento de empreitadas de construção de estradas, sendo um dos objetivos desta dissertação o de oferecer uma visão global do processo de planeamento da construção de uma estrada, focado apenas no fator tempo, recorrendo a ferramentas informáticas e utilizando um caso de estudo de uma estrada real e já construída. Inicialmente, faz-se uma breve descrição dos métodos de planeamento mais aplicados em p...

  10. She wants revenge——记电影HARD CANDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lune

    2007-01-01

    @@ 在看这部电影前,读过一句这样的介绍:"出来混,总是要还的",于是我一直误认为本片类似Lucky Number Slevin (黑帮+阴谋+复仇).等真正开始看才发现一切与黑帮无关,但感觉之前提到的那句评论却是画龙点睛.

  11. Cosmologist's tour through the new particle zoo (candy shop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in elementary particle physics have led to a renaissance in cosmology, in general, and in the study of structure formation, in particular. Already, the study of the very early (t less than or equal to 10-2 sec) history of the Universe has provided valuable hints as to the 'initial data' for the structure formation problem - the nature and origin of the primeval density inhomogeneities, the quantity and composition of matter in the Universe today, and numerous candidates for the constituents of the ubiquitious dark matter. I review the multitude of WIMP candidates for the dark matter provided by modern particle physics theories, putting them into context by briefly discussing the theories which predict them. I also review their various birth sites and birth processes in the early Universe. At present the most promising candidates seem to be a 30 or so eV neutrino, a few GeV photino, or the 'invisible axion' (weighing in at about 10-5 eV), with a planck mass monopole, quark nuggets, and shadow matter as the leading 'dark' horse candidates. I also mention some very exotic possibilities - unstable WIMPs, cosmic strings, and even the possibility of a relic cosmological term

  12. EVALUASI ATRIBUT WISATA TERHADAP KEPUASAN, KEPERCAYAAN DAN DESTINATION LOYALTY (Studi pada Candi Prambanan)

    OpenAIRE

    PUTRI MUNGGAR, PINKAN NIDYA

    2014-01-01

    This research is purposed to understanding the significance of three tourism attributes influence consist of perceived differences culture, perceived safety, perceived convenient transportation toward the tourist’s satisfaction and confidence, and the influence of tourist’s satisfaction and confidence toward destination loyalty. Prambanan temple is being a tourism destination that researched with the number of respondents as much as 200 persons from domestic tourists who has...

  13. KERAWANAN LONGSOR LERENG JALAN STUDI KASUS RUAS JALAN SUKASADA – CANDI KUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Hartini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Slope stability analysis along roads Denpasar – Singaraja have been calculated using Felenius Method and Software Plaxis 8.2. This calculation was conducted using  material model Mohr - Columb, soil cohesion (c and tan f soil parameters. Calculations safety factor using phi – c reduction value, condition until structural failure occurs. The results of computation Felenius Method give stability value Fs < 1.5 which mean landslide would be accurred in this slope. Calculation using Plaxis 8.2 produce Fs > 1,5. This study has been on optimization of soil parameters, so that plaxis gives better result. This study may conclude that plaxis should be used with caution and with proper soil parameters

  14. 保健食品南瓜脯的生产%Development of candied pumpkin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任永新

    2007-01-01

    为了充分发挥南瓜较高的营养和药用价值,具体阐述了南瓜的营养成分和保健作用功能,并介绍了以南瓜为主要原料的保健食品南瓜脯的生产工艺流程及操作要点,对护色问题、硬化问题和产品的市场前景进行了讨论.

  15. Innovations in Teaching Race and Class Inequality: "Bittersweet Candy" and "The Vanishing Dollar"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Roxanna

    2009-01-01

    Instructors teaching students about social inequality, especially sexism and racism, often face some degree of student resistance. Opposition is particularly strong when students are from a white, middle to upper class background. As Haddad and Lieberman (2002) remark, "Students from privileged backgrounds lack personal experience with structures…

  16. ANALISIS RISIKO TERHADAP PENDAPATAN PADA PT. TAMAN WISATA CANDI (TWC) BOROBUDUR, PRAMBANAN DAN RATU BOKO YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Leonardus Adityo

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at analyzing of appeared risk and determine the solution strategy that will do by PT TWC Borobudur, Prambanan, dan Ratu Boko Yogyakarta from mar PT TWC Borobudur, Prambanan, dan Ratu Boko Yogyakarta from market, technique, and financial aspect. The study used many analyzes and by its tend to describe about the proper measurement of its business. This research activities are completed by many datas by interviewing with management officers and observed about locations and tic...

  17. Cosmologist's tour through the new particle zoo (candy shop)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    Recent developments in elementary particle physics have led to a renaissance in cosmology, in general, and in the study of structure formation, in particular. Already, the study of the very early (t less than or equal to 10/sup -2/ sec) history of the Universe has provided valuable hints as to the 'initial data' for the structure formation problem - the nature and origin of the primeval density inhomogeneities, the quantity and composition of matter in the Universe today, and numerous candidates for the constituents of the ubiquitious dark matter. I review the multitude of WIMP candidates for the dark matter provided by modern particle physics theories, putting them into context by briefly discussing the theories which predict them. I also review their various birth sites and birth processes in the early Universe. At present the most promising candidates seem to be a 30 or so eV neutrino, a few GeV photino, or the 'invisible axion' (weighing in at about 10/sup -5/ eV), with a planck mass monopole, quark nuggets, and shadow matter as the leading 'dark' horse candidates. I also mention some very exotic possibilities - unstable WIMPs, cosmic strings, and even the possibility of a relic cosmological term.

  18. CANDI: A decision support system for management of agricultural pesticides with irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, R. C.; Aly, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of pesticides is an integral part of today's agriculture. Pesticides contribute significantly to improved crop productivity and to public health. Some pesticides, even in extremely low concentrations, can pose a risk to human health and to the environment. Applied to plants or soil, pesticides can leach to the groundwater or may be washed off by surface water. A portion of water that has fallen on the earth, either from precipitation or irrigation, infiltrates the soil through pore sp...

  19. Teaching Principles of One-Way Analysis of Variance Using M&M's Candy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    I present an active learning classroom exercise illustrating essential principles of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The exercise is easily conducted by the instructor and is instructive (as well as enjoyable) for the students. This is conducive for demonstrating many theoretical and practical issues related to ANOVA and lends itself…

  20. From Candy Crush to Catan: One Student's Perspective on the Benefits of Gaming in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbs, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    In the spring semester of 2015, Morgan Ebbs made the bold decision to take a class called "The Rhetoric of Gaming." Having only really played games during childhood, Ebbs now thinks that choice was a bit naive. He is not ashamed to admit that he was the definition of what some like to refer to as "casual," "plebe," or…

  1. Crushing Candy: The Free-to-Play Game in Its Connective Commodity Form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.B. Nieborg

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article is to add a complementary perspective to the study of social network sites by surveying how the political economy of social media platforms relates to the structure of free-to-play games in their commodity form. Drawing on the theory of multisided markets and critical politi

  2. Design and implementation of safety traceability system for candied fruits based on two-dimension code technology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Kun; Wang, Jigang; JIANG Zhonglin; TAO Shanshan; Li, Yunxia; Chen, Wenwen; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Traceability is the basic principle of food safety.A food safety traceability system based on QR code and cloud computing technology was introduced in this paper.First of all we introduced the QR code technology and the concept of traceability.And then through the field investigation,we analyzed the traceability process.At the same time,we designed the system and database were found,and the consumer experiencing technology is studied.Finally we expounded the traceability information collectio...

  3. Design and implementation of safety traceability system for candied fruits based on two-dimension code technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Kun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the basic principle of food safety.A food safety traceability system based on QR code and cloud computing technology was introduced in this paper.First of all we introduced the QR code technology and the concept of traceability.And then through the field investigation,we analyzed the traceability process.At the same time,we designed the system and database were found,and the consumer experiencing technology is studied.Finally we expounded the traceability information collection,transmission and final presentation style and expected the future development of traceability system.

  4. 果汁求斯糖的研制%The research on chews candy with fruit juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠良才

    2008-01-01

    从现有的瑞士果汁糖实样分析,同时参考德国糖果中央学院Juan Falsy教授提供的求斯糖基本配方,结合本单位实际,经数十次试验,确定了配方及工艺,取得了成功.

  5. 全球糖果及巧克力市场分析%Analysis of global candy and chocolate market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东

    2004-01-01

    Euromonitor预计,全球巧克力市场销售额在2003年增长近4%达到560亿美元。这并不是一个令人满意的增长形势,低速增长是由于美元疲软,但也是因为消费者将钱转向购买更高档的产品。2003年巧克力销量的增长是自1998年以来增长最低的一年。但据分析,传统意义上的全球糖果和巧克力市场中产

  6. 喜糖包装的易开合结构设计研究%The Structure Design of Easy to Open and Close for Wedding Candy Packaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋兵; 刘艳飞

    2014-01-01

    目的 改良和开发易开合结构的喜糖包装.方法 通过分析比较易开合的折叠纸盒、粘贴纸盒和捆扎式礼盒(礼袋)这三类喜糖包装结构的优缺点,从喜糖包装的结构入手进行深化设计,实现易开合的功能.结论 喜糖包装结构的优化设计实现了喜糖包装易开合、便利化的功能,减少了包装原材料的使用,增加了喜糖包装的情趣性,使喜糖包装更加简便化、个性化和绿色环保化.

  7. From Candy Girls to Cyber Sista-Cipher: Narrating Black Females' Color-Consciousness and Counterstories in "and" out "of School"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Carmen Kynard provides a window into a present-day "hush harbor," a site where a group of black women build generative virtual spaces for counterstories that fight institutional racism. Hidden in plain view, these intentional communities have historically allowed African American participants to share and create knowledge and find…

  8. 自动化模块设计在糖果包装机上的应用%Automatic Modular Design Application in the Candy Packing Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江涛

    2012-01-01

    通过对奶糖包装机的工艺难点分析,整合台达自动化产品,为客户提供整套奶糖包装机系统控制架构.整个控制系统的核心为包装纸的输送,为了实现高速的控制要求,采用A2伺服特有的色标对位修正功能和电子凸轮功能实现核心控制功能.经实际测试,该套控制系统方案可以使包装速度达到350包/min,速度提升30%.%This article analyzes the milk sugar packaging machine technology and difficulties analysis, the integration of sets of automation product advantage and characteristics, and put forward a complete set for the customer to milk sugar packaging machine system control architecture. The core of the whole control system for conveying wrapping paper, in order to realize high speed control requirements, the unique color standard A2 servo contrapuntal fixed function and electronic CAM function to realize the core control function. The actual one, the control system solution greatly improved the system packing speed and efficiency.

  9. Infographics as Eye Candy: Review of World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties by Peter Doyle (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Best

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Doyle. World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties, illustrated by Lindsey Johns (Buffalo NY: Firefly Books, 2013. 224 pp. ISBN: 177085195X. Doyle’s book contains dozens of graphs of statistical data dealing with World War II. Many of these graphs are visually striking. However, they often violate fundamental graphing principles, in that they distort quantitative relationships, use unidentified scales, and often make it difficult to compare quantities. Graphic software makes it easy to create imaginative images, but these can fail to communicate the very information that is the graph’s purpose.

  10. Infographics as Eye Candy: Review of World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties by Peter Doyle (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Best

    2016-01-01

    Peter Doyle. World War II in Numbers: An Infographic Guide to the Conflict, Its Conduct, and Its Casualties, illustrated by Lindsey Johns (Buffalo NY: Firefly Books, 2013). 224 pp. ISBN: 177085195X. Doyle’s book contains dozens of graphs of statistical data dealing with World War II. Many of these graphs are visually striking. However, they often violate fundamental graphing principles, in that they distort quantitative relationships, use unidentified scales, and often make it difficult ...

  11. Em busca das escolas na escola: por uma epistemologia das "balas sem papel" In search of schools within School: for an epistemology of "unwrapped candy"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Garcia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto discute a produção de conhecimento no paradigma científico moderno a fim de ponderar sobre seus limites para acessar as nuances do cotidiano. Entende que, no rastro do cientificismo moderno seguido pelas ciências sociais, resignamo-nos e naturalizamos a prática de conhecer satisfazendo-nos e crendo em rótulos, embalagens que pretendem acessar e explicar o viver humano ordinário. Procura evidenciar a pertinência das opções que levam à proposição da pesquisa nos/dos/com os cotidianos como caminho, não como paradigma, para se compreender e valorizar os saberesfazeres das práticas cotidianas, não decifráveis por ângulos ou enquadramentos discursivos formais. Narrar experiências não é superestimar o que, pelo improvável aspecto "positivo", pareça-nos uma "ode ao desvio-padrão". Assumir os riscos de trazê-las implica acreditar que o ato de desestabilizar as concepções dominantes sobre a escola contribui para a pensarmos sem "pré-conceitos", longe das impossibilidades e da beira do abismo.This paper discusses the knowledge production in the modern scientific paradigm to ponder over its limits and to access nuances of the quotidian. It assumes that, in the wake of the modern scientific approach followed by the social sciences, we resign and understand as natural the practice of experience satisfying ourselves and believe in labels and packages that intent to access and explain the ordinary human living. It tries to evidence the importance of options leading to propose research in/of/with the quotidian, like a way, rather than a paradigm, to understand and value the knowledgedoings of the everyday practices, that cannot be deciphered by some angles and framing of the formal discourse. Telling experiences is not overestimating the things that, by the improbable positivist aspect, would look as an "ode to standard deviation". Assuming the risks of bringing them implies believing that the act of destabilizing the dominant conceptions on school will contribute to thinking without prejudice, far from the impossibilities and the edge of the abyss.

  12. Modernismi nauding vaatamiseks : elamu Pärnus Seedri tänaval = Modernism as Eye Candy : Residence in Seedri St, Pärnu / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2007-01-01

    Külaliskortermaja Seedri 4 Pärnus. Arhitektuur: AB JVR. Autor Kalle Vellevoog, kaasautor Margus Tamm. Konstruktor Ahti Lääne (OÜ EstKONSULT). Sisekujundaja Tiiu Truus. Maastikuarhitekt Vaike Parker. Projekt: 2005, valmis: 2007. Ill.: IV korruse plaan, 5 värv. vaadet

  13. Survey on the Characteristics of Hinduism Candis in Java Indonesia%印尼爪哇岛印度教神庙研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杰伟; 王妍

    2007-01-01

    印度教在东南亚的古代史中扮演了非常重要的角色,国内学术界对这个问题的研究主要集中在宏观层面,对微观的文化现象的研究一直不够深入.在实地考察的基础上,本文以爪哇岛的印度教神庙作为研究对象,通过对比中爪哇的普兰班南神庙和东爪哇的加维神庙在建筑风格上的异同点,阐述爪哇岛印度教神庙的建筑特点.

  14. Helping Your Overweight Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are high in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white ... make smoothies. Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child ...

  15. Sjögren's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and saliva. Damage to these glands causes a reduction in both the quantity and quality of their ... hard candy. However, gum and candy must be sugar-free, because dry mouth makes you extremely prone ...

  16. Clinical Observation of Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablet in the Treatment of Pregnancy with Vulvovaginal Candi-diasis%克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖金英; 冯燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎的疗效和安全性。方法:106例妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎患者随机分为观察组(56例)和对照组(50例)。观察组患者于用药前清洗外阴部,保持洁净,用送药器将克霉唑阴道片1片放入阴道内5~6 cm处,每2日1次;对照组患者于用药前清洁外阴部,用送药器将乳酸菌素阴道胶囊1粒放入阴道内5~6 cm处,每日1次。两组疗程均为8d。治疗期间停止性生活,避免使用其他药物。观察两组患者的临床疗效、念珠菌清除率、妊娠情况及不良反应发生情况。结果:观察组患者总有效率、念珠菌清除率均显著高于对照组,带菌率显著低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组患者妊娠情况、不良反应发生率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:克霉唑阴道片治疗妊娠合并念珠菌性阴道炎疗效显著,可清除念珠菌,安全性较好。%OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of Clotrimazole vaginal tablet in the treatment of pregnancy with vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS:106 pregnant patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly divided into observation group (56 cases) and control group (50 cases). Observation group was given one tablet Clotrimazole vaginal tablet,washed the genital area before treatment to keep clean and one Clotrimazole vaginal tablet was sent to intravaginal 5-6 cm,once every 2 day. Control group was given Lactobacillus vaginal capsule,once a day,washed the genital area before treatment and one Lactobacillus vaginal capsule was sent to intravaginal 5-6 cm. The treatment course for both groups was 8 d. No sexual activities during treatment and no other drugs. Clinical efficacy,clearance rate of candidiasis,pregnancy and incidence of adverse reactions in 2 groups were observed. RESULTS:The total effective rate and clearance rate of candidiasis in observation group were significantly higher than control group,carrier rate was significantly lower than control group,the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). CONCLU-SIONS:Clotrimazole vaginal tablet shows significant efficacy in the treatment of pregnancy with vulvovaginal candidiasis and can clear candidiasis,with good safety.

  17. Simultaneous determination of five aluminum lake dyes in coated candy by ultra performance liquid chromatography%超高效液相色谱法同时测定包衣糖果中5种铝色淀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨奕; 张晶; 赵珊; 邵兵

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立包衣糖果中柠檬黄、日落黄、胭脂红、诱惑红和亮蓝5种铝色淀的超高效液相色谱测定方法.方法 用NaOH溶液浸泡提取包衣糖果中的色淀,以乙腈-乙酸铵(10 mmol/L)为流动相,梯度洗脱,多波长检测定量.结果 5种目标化合物在0.25~50 mg/L范围内呈良好的线性,相关系数R2 >0.999.该方法中5种目标化合物的定量限(LOQ)均为1.0 mg/kg.在1、5、25 mg/kg三个添加浓度水平下,5种目标化合物的加标回收率为79.5% ~116.4%,RSD为0.92% ~6.48%.结论 该方法简单、快速、准确,适于包衣糖果中5种铝色淀的同时检测.

  18. Clinical observation of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment for relapse prevention of Vulvovaginal candi-diasis%中药外洗预防外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病复发的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 周艳; 党慧敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察中药外洗对减少外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病复发的临床效果。方法选取120例外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病患者,除去失访的13例患者,其余随机分为观察组54例与对照组53例。观察组与对照组均给克霉唑阴道片1枚,阴道用药,观察组同时予中药煎液阴道外用灌洗。随访6个月,比较2组复发情况。结果观察组总有效率79.6%,对照组总有效率73.6%,2组比较差异无统计学意义(P ﹥0.05)。观察组随访6个月内复发11例,复发率25.6%;对照组随访6个月复发28例,复发率71.8%,观察组复发率明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P ﹤0.05)。结论采用中医外洗能显著降低外阴阴道假丝酵母菌病治疗后的复发率,但仍需扩大样本进一步观察其疗效和安全性。%Objective To observe the effect of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment for preventing recur-rence of Vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods 107 cases of Vulvovaginal candidiasis patients were divided into observation group(54 cases)and control group(53 cases). All the patients were first diagnosed as Vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablet was given only one time. The patients of observation group were given the external treatment of Chinese medicine vaginal lavage once before vaginal tablet used. And the patients would recieve external washing 20 minutes every night for the following 5 days. The patients of control group would only treated with Clotrimazole Vaginal Tablet once. All the patients were followed up for 6 months. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 79. 6% ,the total effective rate was 73. 6% in the control group,the difference was not statistically significant(P ﹥ 0. 05). Follow up for 6 months,the recurrence rate of the observation group was 25. 6% ,significantly lower than the control group of 71. 8% ,the difference was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion For relapse prevention of Vulvovaginal candidiasis,the traditional Chinese medicine ex-ternal treatment can effectively reduce the recurrence of Vulvovaginal candidiasis,but there still need expanding the cases to in-vestigate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. Dynamics of the contact salty water candy-water in water-bearing slabs submissive intensive salt water operation; Dinamica del contacto agua dulce-agua salada en acuiferos costeros sometidos a explotacion intensiva de agua salada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joreto, S.; Pulido-Bosch, A.; Sanchez-Martos, F.; Frances, I.; Gisbert, J.

    2008-07-01

    The behaviour of coastal aquifers that are subject to abstraction is well-studied. what is not yet assessed is the behaviour of coastal aquifers subject to seawater abstractions. The proliferation in recent years of desalination plants along the southeastern Spanish coast, in addition to the plants yet to be planned and/or constructed, has led us to focus on the processes associated with this unusual disturbance of the coastal systems. the pseudo-natural equilibrium in the aquifer between the fresh and the saltwater was established by means of periodic measurements of water temperature and conductivity in observation wells that are slotted over the whole water column, and continuous monitoring of water level, temperature and conductivity over a network of boreholes that are slotted over the lengths corresponding to each of the water levels (fresh, interface and slat). The recent partial-commissioning of the desalination plant serving the city of Almeria has also enabled assessment of the immediate response of the aquifer to intensive abstraction of seawater, as well as observation of the response of the fresh water-salt water contact, which is becoming deeper and very well-defined. The spatio-temporal evolution of these parameters will be crucial in formulating a hypothesis to understand the behaviour of the interface under these unprecedented conditions. (Author)

  20. Evidence-Based Recommendations for Short- and Long-Term Management of Uninvestigated Dyspepsia in Primary Care: An Update of the Canadian Dyspepsia Working Group (CanDys Clinical Management Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander JO Veldhuyzen van Zanten

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is an update to and extension of the previous systematic review on the primary care management of patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia (UD. The original publication of the clinical management tool focused on the initial four- to eight-week assessment of UD. This update is based on new data from systematic reviews and clinical trials relevant to UD. There is now direct clinical evidence supporting a test-and-treat approach in patients with nondominant heartburn dyspepsia symptoms, and head-to-head comparisons show that use of a proton pump inhibitor is superior to the use of H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs in the initial treatment of Helicobacter pylori-negative dyspepsia patients. Cisapride is no longer available as a treatment option and evidence for other prokinetic agents is lacking. In patients with long-standing heartburn-dominant (ie, gastroesophageal reflux disease and nonheartburn-dominant dyspepsia, a once-in-a-lifetime endoscopy is recommended. Endoscopy should also be considered in patients with new-onset dyspepsia that develops after the age of 50 years. Conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetylsalicylic acid and cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors can all cause dyspepsia. If their use cannot be discontinued, cotherapy with either a proton pump inhibitor, misoprostol or high-dose H2RAs is recommended, although the evidence is based on ulcer data and not dyspepsia data. In patients with nonheartburn-dominant dyspepsia, noninvasive testing for H pylori should be performed and treatment given if positive. When starting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for a prolonged course, testing and treatment with H2RAs are advised if patients have a history of previous ulcers or ulcer bleeding.

  1. Two Methods for Assaying of Allured Red Pigment Content in Candy Lipstick%两种方法测定口红糖中诱惑红色素含量的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧云付; 尹平河; 赵玲; 黄智诚

    2006-01-01

    本文用液相色谱法和分光光度法分别测定了某品牌口红糖中诱惑红色素的含量.经t检验,这两种方法测得的数据无显著性差别,分光光度法可以用于测定产品中诱惑红色素的含量.对含单一色素的糖果产品,紫外-可见比色法测定色素含量更简单、更实用.

  2. Landnutzungswandel und Stickstoffauswaschung im Einzugsgebiet der Parthe

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsbeck-Ullmann, Mignon

    2007-01-01

    Für Einzugsgebiet der Parthe bei Leipzig wurden mit dem Simulationsmodells CANDY Untersuchungen zur Auswirkung der landwirtschaftlichen Bewirtschaftung auf den Wasser- und Stickstoffhaushalt der Ackerflächen durchgeführt. Das Simulationsmodell CANDY bildet die Wasser- und Stoffverlagerungsprozesse im Boden eindimensional, vertikal gerichtet nach. Zur Überprüfung der Anwendbarkeit des Modells auf die Verhältnisse im Parthegebiet wurde CANDY an den Messdaten der Lysimeterstation Brandis validie...

  3. Analisa Pengawet Natrium Benzoat Pada Manisan Buah Di Pasar Tradisional Kota Medan Tahun 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Kurnia Sari P

    2011-01-01

    Preservative sodium benzoate chemical with formula of C7H5O2 This research was a descriptive survey researched that analyzed the content of sodium benzoate on the candied fruit. Fruit with total sampling 12 sample candied fruit consisting of three kinds of fruit, salak, mango and kedondong. Primary data from this research were obtained from laboratory test on sodium benzoate preservative substences contained in the candied fruit. Data obtained were analyzed descriptively. Na were Substance...

  4. Contexts for Column Addition and Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Fernandez, Jorge M.; Velazquez Estrella, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss their approach to column addition and subtraction algorithms. Adapting an original idea of Paul Cobb and Erna Yackel's from "A Contextual Investigation of Three-Digit Addition and Subtraction" related to packing and unpacking candy in a candy factory, the authors provided an analogous context by designing…

  5. 76 FR 12916 - Benzocaine; Weight Control Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... of gum, lozenges, or candy is an effective OTC drug product for weight control'' (47 FR 8466 at 8474... were published in the Federal Register as an ANPR for OTC weight control products in 1982 (47 FR 8466...) Group 5: Glucose candy only (control group) Over the course of 4 weeks, 170 participants dropped out...

  6. Study on Viscosity of κ-Carrageenan and Gelatin Solutions and Their Mixture using for Candy%软糖用κ-卡拉胶与明胶溶液及其复配液的表观粘度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 李丹丹; 李汴生; 阮征

    2012-01-01

    本文研究了剪切速率、胶液浓度、测定温度对k-卡拉胶及明胶溶液表现粘度的影响,并将两者进行复配,研究了复配比例、复配胶溶液浓度及测定温度对复合胶溶液表现粘度的影响.研究结果表明,单一胶体溶液的表观粘度随着浓度的增加而增加;随着测定温度的升高而下降,卡拉胶溶液表现出剪切变稀的假塑性,明胶溶液随着剪切速率的变化,表观粘度趋于稳定.复配胶的表观粘度随k-卡拉胶所占比例的增大而增大,随着复配胶浓度的增加而增加,随着测定温度的升高而降低;在总胶含量4%,卡拉胶比明胶为3:7的配比下,复配胶液流动性好,冷却后可形成富有弹性和咀嚼性的凝胶体.%The impact of shear rate, concentration and testing temperature on the viscosity of K-carrageenan and gelatin solution was studied in this paper. Gelatin and K-carrageenan were compounded and the influences of mixture ratio, concentration and temperature on the viscosity of complex solution were concerned The results showed that the viscosity of single K-carrageena and gelatin solution was increased with the increase of concentration; and decreased with the testing temperature. Carrageenan solution showed shear-thinning pseudoplastic; the apparent viscosity of gelatin solution trended to stabilize with the shear rate changes. The viscosity of mixture solution was improved with the increase of K-carrageenan content in the complex and the concentration of complex solution, and decreased with the testing temperature. With the total content 4% and the ratio of carrageenan and gelatin was 3:7, an easy flowing solution which can form the gel with elasticity and chewiness was gained.

  7. Feeding Your Teen Vegetarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Feeding Your Teen Vegetarian By Mindy Hermann, MBA, RD Published July ... fries, soft drinks, desserts and candy. Have Your Teen Help "A vegetarian meal can be a healthy ...

  8. Surgical Webcast for Treatment of Acid Reflux

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have them do. We try to decrease their air intake, number one, so that they don’t ... small amounts of material will make them swallow air, so gum, or sucking on candy; sucking on ...

  9. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as cakes, cookies, candy, and other desserts juices, soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks that ... of added sugars for Americans are sugar-sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports drinks, and energy drinks grain- ...

  10. Staying Healthy and Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not "empty calories" such as those found in soft drinks, candies, and desserts. Although you want to be ... of fluids daily. Water, juices, coffee, tea, and soft drinks all count toward your fluid needs. But keep ...

  11. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street names: Candy, Drank, Robo Print What Are Cough and Cold Medicines? Also known as: robotripping, robo, tussin, triple c, ...

  12. Keeping Your Heart Healthy: What You Should Know about Lipids When You Have Chronic Kidney Disease (Stages 1-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jelly beans and hard candy; plain popcorn Chocolate, potato chips, nachos, buttered popcorn Fruit juices, tea, coffee, ... for transplantation. With offices nationwide, the NKF provides early detection screenings and other vital patient and community ...

  13. Pop / Mart Kuldkepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuldkepp, Mart

    2008-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Me, Myself and I "Aastaajad", Madonna "Hard Candy", Kathryn Williams and Neill MacColl "Two", Tindersticks "The Hungry Saw", Joy Division "The Best of Joy Divison", Quiet Village "Silent Movie"

  14. Is It Really True That Chocolate May Be Good for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161592.html Is It Really True That Chocolate May Be Good for ... re tempted to raid the candy aisle: While it seems to be beneficial, the impact of chocolate ...

  15. Bone marrow transplant - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar-free popsicles or sugar-free hard candies. Take care of your dentures, braces, or other dental products. ... Take care not to get infections for up to 1 year or more after your transplant. Practice safe ...

  16. After chemotherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar-free popsicles or sugar-free hard candies. Take care of your dentures, braces, or other dental products. ... Take care not to get infections for up to 1 year or more after your chemotherapy. Practice safe ...

  17. Snacks for adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food snacks like chips, candy, cake, cookies, and ice cream. The best way to keep from eating junk ... fruit bowl. Store foods like cookies, chips, or ice cream where they are hard to see or reach. ...

  18. Snacks and sweetened drinks - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food snacks like chips, candy, cake, cookies, and ice cream. It is easier to keep kids away from ... If you have foods like cookies, chips, or ice cream in your house, store them where they are ...

  19. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in certain foods (such as nuts, seeds, and popcorn) and small objects (such as buttons and beads). ... foods such as hot dogs, whole grapes, nuts, popcorn, or hard candy to children under age 3. ...

  20. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food (meats, nuts, seeds, candy, fruit pits, and popcorn). Coins, marbles, safety pins, buttons, crayon pieces, erasers, ... of children's reach. Do not give children peanuts, popcorn, or gum until age 7 as they are ...

  1. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other potential lead sources include imported foods, candy, cosmetics, costume jewelry, brass keys, and toys or household ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  2. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixes for cakes, cookies, pancakes, and biscuits instant potatoes, soups, and breakfast drinks lunch meats (other than Kosher) frozen dinners salad dressings margarines candies and other snacks Dietary supplements with lactase enzyme are available to help people digest foods that ...

  3. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-04-01

    Results of analysis of CCD photometry observations obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory of asteroids 970 Primula, 3015 Candy, 3751 Kiang, 6746 Zagar, 7750 McEwen, 10046 Creighton, and 19251 Totziens are presented.

  4. Healthy Eating for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 ounces yogurt ¾ ounce cheese 1 string cheese Some foods are easy for your child to choke on while eating. Skip hard, small, whole foods, such as popcorn, nuts, seeds, and hard candy. Cut up foods such ...

  5. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  6. Why Should I Lose Weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and trans fats, sodium and calories. • Avoid pastries, sugar-sweetened beverages, candy bars, pies and cakes. (continued) ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction Fitness + Weight Management • Drink lots of water. • Limit ...

  7. 21 CFR 1.377 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substances that migrate into food from food packaging and other articles that contact food, dietary... water, live food animals, bakery goods, snack foods, candy, and canned foods. Perishable food means...

  8. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sorbitol, commonly used as a sweetener in many dietetic foods, candies, and gums; and fructose, also used ... everyone. A physician can take a brief dietary history and with a 2–3 week diary of ...

  9. 阅读理解专项训练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐枫

    2013-01-01

    In 1980 Candy Lighmer's 13-year-old daughter Cari was killed by a drunken hit-and-run driver as she walked down a suburban street in California. "I promised myself on the day of Cari's death that I would fight to make this needless killing count for something positive in the years ahead," Candy Lighmer later wrote.

  10. Avaliação microbiológica, físico-química e das condições de fabricação de bombom de chocolate com recheio de frutas
    Microbiological and physical-chemical evaluation and manufacturing conditions of chocolate candies filled with fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. H. LOURENÇO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Neste trabalho foram avaliadas as condições microbiológicas (Coliformes a 45ºC, Estafilococos coagulase positiva, Salmonella sp., bactérias mesófilas, bolores e leveduras, a composição o valor calórico de bombons de chocolate com recheios de cupuaçu, coco e castanha do Brasil, produzidos na cidade de Belém (PA. Foram analisadas quatro amostras de produção industrial e três de produção caseira. Aplicou-se a lista de verificação sanitária, para avaliar os aspectos higiênico-sanitárias de dois dos estabelecimentos produtores de bombom estudados. Não foi detectada a presença de Salmonella sp e Estafilococus coagulase positiva em nenhum dos bombons avaliados, porém foi detectada presença de coliformes a 45ºC nos bombons de produção caseira. A presença de bactérias aeróbias mesófilas e de bolores e leveduras na produção industrial e na produção caseira indicou deficiência na higienização durante a produção dos bombons. Todas as formulações apresentaram alto valor calórico. O estabelecimento de produção industrial obteve 67,0% dos itens em conformidade, enquanto o estabelecimento de produção caseira alcançou apenas 35,6% de conformidade.

  11. Is less always more? The effects of low-fat labeling and caloric information on food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebneter, Daria S; Latner, Janet D; Nigg, Claudio R

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined whether low-fat labeling and caloric information affect food intake, calorie estimates, taste preference, and health perceptions. Participants included 175 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions. A 2×2 between subjects factorial design was used in which the fat content label and caloric information of chocolate candy was manipulated. The differences in food intake across conditions did not reach statistical significance. However, participants significantly underestimated the calorie content of low-fat-labeled candy. Participants also rated low-fat-labeled candy as significantly better tasting when they had caloric information available. Participants endorsed more positive health attributions for low-fat-labeled candy than for regular-labeled candy, independent of caloric information. The inclusion of eating attitudes and behaviors as covariates did not alter the results. The study findings may be related to the "health halo" associated with low-fat foods and add to the research base by examining the interaction between low-fat and calorie labeling.

  12. Using brand characters to promote young children's liking of and purchase requests for fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Droog, Simone M; Valkenburg, Patti M; Buijzen, Moniek

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether brand characters can enhance children's liking of and purchase request intent for fruit compared to candy. The authors assigned 216 preschool students between the ages of 4 and 6 years to 9 experimental conditions in which they were presented with a healthy snack (chopped bananas) and an unhealthy snack (banana candy). The packages of these snacks portrayed a familiar character (i.e., Dora from Dora the Explorer or SpongeBob from SpongeBob SquarePants), an unfamiliar character, or no character (control group). The authors' results showed that brand characters can increase children's liking of and purchase request intent for fruit up to a level similar to candy. However, the effects on liking and purchase request intent did not differ between familiar and unfamiliar characters. These results may be helpful for future marketing campaigns to promote children's consumption of healthy foods. PMID:21058143

  13. Saliva in relation to dental erosion before and after radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjorg; von Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Low saliva flow and abnormal saliva composition are common conditions after radiotherapy for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer. Both conditions increase the susceptibility to dental caries and erosion, which may be further accelerated by changes in food preferences. The aim...... of this study was to determine changes in saliva flow and susceptibility to erosive challenges in pharyngeal cancer patients before and after radiotherapy to the head and neck. Materials and methods: The erosive potential of sucking acidic candies with and without calcium was determined in nine patients (50......-68 years) before and after receiving a radiation dose of 66 Gy to the head and neck area. The erosive potential was evaluated from saliva degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and by dissolution of HAp in candy-stimulated saliva. Results. Sucking acidic candies increased saliva flow...

  14. The role of explicit and implicit self-esteem in peer modeling of palatable food intake: a study on social media interaction among youngsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This experimental study investigated the impact of peers on palatable food intake of youngsters within a social media setting. To determine whether this effect was moderated by self-esteem, the present study examined the roles of global explicit self-esteem (ESE, body esteem (BE and implicit self-esteem (ISE. METHODS: Participants (N = 118; 38.1% boys; M age 11.14±.79 were asked to play a computer game while they believed to interact online with a same-sex normal-weight remote confederate (i.e., instructed peer who ate either nothing, a small or large amount of candy. RESULTS: Participants modeled the candy intake of peers via a social media interaction, but this was qualified by their self-esteem. Participants with higher ISE adjusted their candy intake to that of a peer more closely than those with lower ISE when the confederate ate nothing compared to when eating a modest (β = .26, p = .05 or considerable amount of candy (kcal (β = .32, p = .001. In contrast, participants with lower BE modeled peer intake more than those with higher BE when eating nothing compared to a considerable amount of candy (kcal (β = .21, p = .02; ESE did not moderate social modeling behavior. In addition, participants with higher discrepant or "damaged" self-esteem (i.e., high ISE and low ESE modeled peer intake more when the peer ate nothing or a modest amount compared to a substantial amount of candy (kcal (β = -.24, p = .004; β = -.26, p<.0001, respectively. CONCLUSION: Youngsters conform to the amount of palatable food eaten by peers through social media interaction. Those with lower body esteem or damaged self-esteem may be more at risk to peer influences on food intake.

  15. The Offer Framing Effect: Choosing Single versus Bundled Offerings Affects Variety Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mittelman; Eduardo B. Andrade; Amitava Chattopadhyay; C. Miguel Brendl

    2014-01-01

    Choices of multiple items can be framed as a selection of single offerings (e.g., a choice of two individual candy bars) or of bundled offerings (e.g., a choice of a bundle of two candy bars). Four experiments provide strong evidence that consumers seek more variety when choosing from single than from bundled offerings. The offer framing effect shows that the mechanics of choosing--the ways consumers go about making choices of multiple items--affect variety seeking in a systematic manner. The...

  16. The mathematics of games an introduction to probability

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, David G

    2014-01-01

    Dice, Coins, and Candy Introduction ProbabilityCandy (Yum)! Wheels and More Dice RouletteCrapsCounting the Pokers Cards and CountingSeven Card Pokers Texas Hold'Em BluffingWindmills and Black Jacks? Blackjack Blackjack VariantsMore Fun Dice!Liar's Dice Yahtzee Zombie Dice Board Games, Not ""Bored"" Games Board Game Movement Pay Day (The Board Game) MonopolySpread, RevisitedCan You Bet and Win? Betting SystemsGambler's RuinThere Are More Games! The LotteryBingo Baccarat Farkle BackgammonMemoryAppendices A Probabilities with Infinity B St. Petersburg Paradox C Prisoner's Dilemma and More Game Th

  17. Isolasi Dan Analisis Komponen Minyak Atsiri Secara GC-MS Pada Manisan Buah Pala (Myristica Fragrans Houtt) Dari Desa Klambir Lima Hamparan Perak

    OpenAIRE

    Bakri, Afriandi

    2015-01-01

    Nutmeg is one of Indonesian plant containing volatile oil, especially in the seed. Purpose of this research was to analyse of nutmeg oil’s components from nutmeg and nutmeg candy using GC-MS. Nutmeg was taken from Desa Klambir Lima Hamparan Perak. Isolation was done for nutmeg candy and fresh nutmeg. Isolation volatile oil using Stahl instrument, then the volatile oil analysed using GC-MS with column oven temperature method, capillary column Rtx-1 MS, column length 30 m, column thickness...

  18. Election in the united states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嘉伟

    2002-01-01

    Every four years, Americans elect a president. According to the Constitution(宪法) any American citizen over 40 years of age who was born in the UoSo can be president. There are always many candi- dates who hope they will be elected. There are many political parties in the United States,

  19. 26 CFR 1.355-2 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operates a fast food restaurant in State M and owns all of the stock of corporation Y, which owns and operates a fast food restaurant in State N. X and Y operate their businesses under franchises granted by D.... Corporation X is engaged in the manufacture and sale of toys and the manufacture and sale of candy....

  20. Share the Love: Why Not Celebrate Valentine's Day by Encouraging Kids to Give Back to the Community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy Mann

    2011-01-01

    February is a natural time to teach students that love involves more than hearts and candy--it also means giving of oneself. According to Terri Kennamer, a third-grade teacher at West Elementary School in Vestavia Hills, Alabama, it is the responsibility of educators to help students recognize that they are citizens of the world. Children have…

  1. Polymeric, Metallic, and Other Glasses in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-ceramic glasses are not adequately discussed in introductory chemistry. Such glasses include polycarbonate, which many corrective lenses are made of, amber, enamel, gelatin, hard candy, coal, refrigerated glycerol, and metallic glasses that have been marketed in recent decades. What is usually discussed in elementary texts is siliceous glass,…

  2. SPRING STEPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yan

    2012-01-01

    At the tail of the Chinese Lunar New Year,the whole country is still immersed in gaiety.The joyous atmosphere lingers in the red lanterns along the streets,in the colorful candy wrappers,and in the brilliant folk art performances.

  3. Quiescent water-in-oil Pickering emulsions as a route toward healthier fruit juice infused chocolate confectionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skelhon, T.S.; Grossiord, N.; Morgan, A.R.; Bon, S.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a route toward the preparation of healthier fruit juice infused chocolate candy. Up to 50 wt% of the fat content in chocolate, that is cocoa butter and milk fats, is replaced with fruit juice in the form of emulsion droplets using a quiescent Pickering emulsion fabrication strategy. F

  4. French Fries, Dialysis Tubing & Computer Models: Teaching Diffusion & Osmosis through Inquiry & Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichsen, Patricia Meis; Pallant, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Can eating large amounts of sugarless candy and gum lead to diarrhea? How does Milk of Magnesia work? How does penicillin kill bacteria? These are some of the questions that students answer in this series of lessons on diffusion and osmosis. To begin the unit, students predict the results of a demonstration involving the relationship between…

  5. 16 CFR 1500.17 - Banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section do not apply to artists' paints and related materials. (ii) Any toy or other article intended for... Act (see 16 CFR part 1303), paragraphs (i) and (ii) of § 1500.17(a)(6) are revoked as to the subject... devices that may be confused with candy or other foods, such as “dragon eggs,” and “cracker balls”...

  6. A Lesson In Lavender%难忘的一课

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph B.Walker; 约瑟夫·沃克; 秋暮寒

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 For as long as I can remember,Easter Sunday has been my favorite day to go to church. 2 I was almost always able to smuggle a few pieces of Easter candy into the meeting,and the way I saw it,anything is tolerable if you're munching on malted milk eggs and chocolate bunnies.Even church.

  7. Food Crystals: the Role of Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a food product can be beneficial or detrimental and is of particular importance in candy and frozen desserts. The most common crystal in foods is sugar which affects the quali...

  8. Functional Foods Containing Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...

  9. Making Health Easier: Healthy Snacking in Philadelphia, PA PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-06-07

    Instead of candy bars and chips, see how one employee is making healthier snack choices with the help of new vending machines.  Created: 6/7/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/7/2013.

  10. 78 FR 52201 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... beverages). FDA is interested in studying whether fortification of these foods could cause consumers to... snack foods such as cookies, carbonated beverages, and candy. The study will use a 15-minute Web-based... Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852, and...

  11. Do Curved Reaching Movements Emerge from Competing Perceptions? A Reply to van der Wel et al. (2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Michael J.; Dale, Rick; Knoblich, Guenther; Grosjean, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Spivey, Grosjean, and Knoblich (2005) reported smoothly curved reaching movements, via computer-mouse tracking, which suggested a continuously evolving flow of distributed lexical activation patterns into motor movement during a phonological competitor task. For example, when instructed to click the "candy," participants' mouse-cursor trajectories…

  12. Dicty_cDB: VFJ685 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ida boidinii strain with lowered protease activity and utilization thereof as host for producing foreign...ctivity and utilization thereof as host for producing foreign protein. 38 1e-06 5 AB060540 |AB060540.1 Candi

  13. 75 FR 19185 - Direct and Counter-Cyclical Program and Average Crop Revenue Election Program, Disaster...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ..., Marketing Assistance Loans and Loan Deficiency Payments Program, Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments... Assistance Payments Program (SURE) and the Marketing Assistance Loans (MAL) and Loan Deficiency Payments (LDP...; e-mail: Candy.Thompson@wdc.usda.gov . Persons with disabilities who require alternative means...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16371-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 28_1( EU445028 |pid:none) Balaenoptera musculus DMP1 (DMP1) ... 37 5.5 AY344225_1( AY344225 |pid:none) Candi...1) ... 36 9.4 EU445031_1( EU445031 |pid:none) Balaenoptera bonaerensis DMP1 (DMP... 36 9.4 AY245909_1( AY245

  15. Why Finish Your Antibiotics? A Novel, Hands-On, Classroom Approach for Teaching the Dynamics of Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmer, Gary T.; Kipe-Nolt, Judith A.; Chayko, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an effective, engaging, and fun method for teaching how the use or misuse of antibiotics can select for resistant strains of bacteria. This method uses candy as a substitute for strains of bacteria varying in resistance to a given antibiotic. Results and discussion are presented in the context of this emerging healthcare crisis.

  16. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  17. Kuula. Kuu artist Scarlett Johansson. Kuu plaat / Mart Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Mart, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Näitlejast ja lauljast Scarlett Johanssonist. Heliplaatidest: Madonna "Hard Candy", Vaiko Eplik ja Eliit "3: Kosmoseodüsseia", Pia Fraus "After Summer", HU? "Film", Enrique Iglesias "95/08 Exitos", Pendulum "In Silico", Mariah Carey "E=MC2"

  18. Molecular markers discriminate closely related Encarsia spp. (E. diaspidicola and E. berlesei): candidate biocontrol agents for white peach scale in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white peach scale (WPS), Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozetti (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) is a serious economic pest of papaya in Hawaii. In 2006, Encarsia diaspidicola Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) was imported from Samoa to perform host-range studies. Another potential future candi...

  19. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream. PMID:26604358

  20. EVALUATION OF FOOD COLOR CONSUMPTION AND DETERMINING COLOR TYPE BY THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Farzianpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the role of the social demographic parameters of the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak (a type of coin-shaped candy and rock candy in the consumption of food colors and to determine color type by thin layer chromatography in Shahr-e-kord city in 2011. This research was an interventional-analytical study and its target population is the people in charge of the facilities producing pastry, poolak and rock candy in Shahr-e-kord city. Social demographic data of the participants were collected using checklists and 720 samples of pastry, poolak and rock candy weighing at least 250 gr were randomly taken over a period of 10 months. With respect to color additives, the samples were analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC in four groups: natural colors permitted artificial colors, forbidden artificial colors and without colors. 48.47% contained food color and 6.52% contained forbidden artificial food color. Sunset Yellow was the color the most consumed among the colors used. Regarding the results obtained, there is a high rate of consumption of artificial colors (41.22%, sunset Yellow being the most consumed. Therefore, it is of great importance to raise the awareness and change the attitude of the people in charge in these jobs as well as the consumers with regard to the side effects of artificial colors, which can be done through the mass media and NGOs.

  1. Dicty_cDB: SLA423 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m discoideum slug cDNA, clone SLA423. 470 0.0 3 ( ES615204 ) NGPAP47TR NGPA Nasonia giraulti cDNA, mRNA sequ.... 50 2e-05 2 ( EV418706 ) 210774888 NGP Nasonia giraulti cDNA clone 128A21 ... 40 3e-05 3 ( AP006852 ) Candi

  2. 新奶味主义%New toffeeism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    With the adjustment of the confectionery industry in 1990s, the traditional toffee market shrinking gradually. Since 21 st century, the quick emergenc of the candy with functional benefit and snacking concept has brought about the rapid development of the whole confectionary industry. The snacking appeal of toffee also provides the enterprises with broader growth.

  3. Is the voter only a tweet away? Micro-blogging in the 2009 European Parliament elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Sams, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the use of Twitter by candidates, in particular their networking and micro–blogging activities in the election campaign for the European Parliament elections of 2009 in the Netherlands. The main focus is on identifying what political aspects (e.g., party characteristics and candi

  4. Kommentar til den statistiske usikkerhed - livets forfaerdeligheds princip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Jensen, Michael Gejl; Brabrand, Mikkel;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We have all tried it: it is pouring down with rain, we reach for the keys, and choose the wrong one. The mathematical probability for choosing the correct key - out of two - is 50%. During the 1990s, candy.scient. Jarle Gundersson (JG) proposed a mathematically unexplainable factor of...

  5. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  6. Mexican Folkart for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Graciela; And Others

    Directions, suggested materials, and illustrations are given for making paper mache pinatas and masks, cascarones, Ojos de Dios, maracas, dresser scarf embroidery, burlap murals, yarn designs, paper plate trays, paper cut designs, the poppy, sarape aprons, and paper Mexican dolls. Filled with candy and broken, the pinata is used on most Mexican…

  7. Stand Together or Apart: A Thematic Unit for "The Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Lisa

    This thematic unit is all about what a classic novel about race relations in the 1930s American South, "To Kill a Mockingbird," and a frequently banned contemporary teen story about a candy sale, "The Chocolate War," have in common. The unit considers what people have in common, what it means to stand apart, and what individuals do when forced to…

  8. 78 FR 24232 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Ottumwa, Terminal Ave., Ottumwa, 13000273 LOUISIANA Ouachita Parish Ouachita Coca-Cola Bottling Company, Inc.--Ouachita Candy Company, Inc., 215 Walnut St., Monroe, 13000275 NEBRASKA Douglas County Olson's... time. While you can ask us in your comment to withhold your personal ] identifying information...

  9. Making the Economic Concept of Scarcity Oh-so-Sweet: An Activity for the K-12 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Melanie; Davis, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The authors outline an innovative activity that helps teachers make the abstract concepts of scarcity and allocation concrete in the K-12 classroom. Students evaluate the scarcity of chocolate and often determine, incorrectly, that the candy is not scarce because there is enough for each student to have one piece. After students reveal their…

  10. Mapping by sequencing in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) line MD52ne identified candidate genes for fiber strength and its related quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber strength, length, maturity and fineness determine the market value of cotton fibers and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton fiber strength has been recognized as a critical quality attribute in the modern textile industry. Fine mapping along with quantitative trait loci (QTL) validation and candi...

  11. "Early Sprouts" Establishing Healthy Food Choices for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre

    2009-01-01

    The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…

  12. Fun While Learning and Earning. A Look Into Chattanooga Public Schools' Token Reinforcement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William F.; Sanders, Frank J.

    A token reinforcement program was used by the Piney Woods Research and Demonstration Center in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Children who were from economically deprived homes received tokens for positive behavior. The tokens were redeemable for recess privileges, ice cream, candy, and other such reinforcers. All tokens were spent on the day earned so…

  13. Behavior Modification of an Adjustment Class: A Token Reinforcement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; Becker, Wesley C.

    1967-01-01

    A base rate of deviant behavior was obtained for the eight most disruptive children in a third grade adjustment class. In a token reinforcement program, the children received teacher's ratings, which were exchangeable for reinforcers such as candy and trinkets. With the introduction of the token reinforcement program, an abrupt reduction in…

  14. Extraction and [superscript 1]H NMR Analysis of Fats from Convenience Foods: A Laboratory Experiment for Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartel, Aaron M.; Moore, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction and analysis of fats from convenience foods (crackers, cookies, chips, candies) has been developed as an experiment for a second-year undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. Students gravimetrically determine the fat content per serving and then perform a [superscript 1]H NMR analysis of the recovered fat to determine the…

  15. Discovery by the Epistasis Project of an epistatic interaction between the GSTM3 gene and the HHEX/IDE/KIF11 locus in the risk of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Bullock (James); C. Medway (Christopher); M. Cortina-Borja (Mario); J.C. Turton (James); J.A. Prince (Jonathan); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); M. Schuur (Maaike); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P.G. Kehoe (Patrick); R. Barber (Rachel); E. Coto (Eliecer); V. Alvarez (Victoria); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); N. Hammond (Naomi); O. Combarros (Onofre); I. Mateo (Ignacio); D.R. Warden (Donald); M.G. Lehmann (Michael); O. Belbin (Olivia); K. Brown (Kristelle); G.K. Wilcock (Gordon); R. Heun (Reinhard); H. Kölsch (Heike); A.D. Smith; D.J. Lehmann (Donald); K. Morgan (Kevin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDespite recent discoveries in the genetics of sporadic Alzheimer's disease, there remains substantial " hidden heritability." It is thought that some of this missing heritability may be because of gene-gene, i.e., epistatic, interactions. We examined potential epistasis between 110 candi

  16. The role of KRAS rs61764370 in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer: implications for clinical testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pharoah, P.D.; Palmieri, R.T.; Ramus, S.J.; Gayther, S.A.; Andrulis, I.L.; Anton-Culver, H.; Antonenkova, N.; Antoniou, A.C.; Goldgar, D.; Beattie, M.S.; Beckmann, M.W.; Birrer, M.J.; Bogdanova, N.; Bolton, K.L.; Brewster, W.; Brooks-Wilson, A.; Brown, R.; Butzow, R.; Caldes, T.; Caligo, M.A.; Campbell, I.; Chang-Claude, J.; Chen, Y.A.; Cook, L.S.; Couch, F.J.; Cramer, D.W; Cunningham, J.M.; Despierre, E.; Doherty, J.A.; Dork, T.; Durst, M.; Eccles, D.M.; Ekici, A.B.; Easton, D.; Fasching, P.A.; Fazio, A. de; Fenstermacher, D.A.; Flanagan, J.M.; Fridley, B.L.; Friedman, E.; Gao, B.; Sinilnikova, O.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Godwin, A.K.; Goode, E.L.; Goodman, M.T.; Gross, J.; Hansen, T.V.; Harnett, P.; Rookus, M.; Heikkinen, T.; Hein, R.; Hogdall, C.; Hogdall, E.; Iversen, E.S.; Jakubowska, A.; Johnatty, S.E.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kauff, N.D.; Kaye, S.B.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Kelemen, L.E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Kjaer, S.K.; Lambrechts, D.; Lapolla, J.P.; Lazaro, C.; Le, N.D.; Leminen, A.; Leunen, K.; Levine, D.A.; Lu, Y.; Lundvall, L.; MacGregor, S.; Marees, T.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; McLaughlin, J.R.; Menon, U.; Montagna, M.; Moysich, K.B.; Narod, S.A.; Nathanson, K.L.; Nedergaard, L.; Ness, R.B.; Nevanlinna, H.; Nickels, S.; Osorio, A.; Paul, J.; Pearce, C.L.; Phelan, C.M.; Pike, M.C.; Radice, P.; Rossing, M.A.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Sellers, T.A.; Singer, C.F.; Song, H.; Stram, D.O.; Sutphen, R.; Lindblom, A.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: An assay for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs61764370, has recently been commercially marketed as a clinical test to aid ovarian cancer risk evaluation in women with family histories of the disease. rs67164370 is in a 3'-UTR miRNA binding site of the KRAS oncogene and is a candi

  17. Does Halloween Belong in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevitch, Gary

    2005-01-01

    For many teachers, trying to organize a Halloween celebration has become more of a trick than a treat. Some religious groups protest the observance of what they consider a pagan celebration and administrators fret about maintaining security during events that are, by definition, wild. Even educators complain that class time devoted to candy corn…

  18. Technology Helps Students Transcend Part-Whole Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Evans, Michael A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Balci, Osman; Chang, Mido

    2014-01-01

    The authors introduce an educational video game (application, or "app"), "CandyFactory Educational Game," designed to promote students' development of partitive understanding of fractions while demonstrating the critical need to promote that development. The app includes essential game features of immediate feedback,…

  19. AcEST: DK959154 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fadin OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Mllt4 PE=1 SV=1 33 0.57 sp|Q80ZC9|PS1C2_MOUSE Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candi...APPPPPQRNASYLKTQVLSPDSLF 1731 >sp|Q80ZC9|PS1C2_MOUSE Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate gene 2 protein hom

  20. After the Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Selling domestic companies to foreign multinationals does not always yield desired expansions for Chinese brands Nestle Group, the world’s largest food manufacturer,announced on July 11 it had entered a partnership agreement with Chinese candy and pastry producer Hsu Fu Chi International Ltd.

  1. 21 CFR 1.276 - What definitions apply to this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the port of entry as defined in 19 CFR 101.1. (13) Registration number means the registration number... (including alcoholic beverages and bottled water), live food animals, bakery goods, snack foods, candy, and..., milling, grinding, extracting juice, distilling, labeling, or packaging. Crops that have been cleaned...

  2. Cut Back on Your Kid's Sweet Treats: 10 Tips to Decrease Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t get them very often. Sweet treats and sugary drinks have a lot of calories but few nutrients. ... come from sodas, sports drinks, energy drinks, juice drinks, cakes, cookies, ice cream, candy, and other ... food fun Sugary foods that are marketed to kids are advertised ...

  3. Taking Care of Your Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important to keeping teeth healthy. When you eat sugary foods or drink sodas frequently throughout the day, the enamel that protects your teeth is constantly exposed to acids. Hard candies, cough ... foods containing sugar. Sugary or starchy foods eaten with a meal are ...

  4. Token Economy at the Classroom Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoff, David G.; Weaver, Jerome F.

    Evaluated was a pilot study on the use of behavior modification with 116 delinquent boys (8- to 15-years-old) committed to a residential treatment center. Upon assignment to classes, each S was placed on an individual contract which, when completed, was worth points redeemable for such things as candy and potato chips. Ss were administered the…

  5. A Middle School Experiment: Can a Token Economy Improve Reading Achievement Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jay C.; And Others

    Incentive programs in the form of token economies (the granting of points or counters which can later be exchanged for tangible rewards such as free time, listening to records, or candy) are widely used in schools today. The Pizza Hut restaurant chain promotes a motivation plan called "Book It" with free pizza as the reward for increased free…

  6. Valentine’s Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓玲

    2009-01-01

    Valentine’s Day, which falls on February 14, is one of the most popular festivals of western society and even the whole world. It is a day for lovers, a day when people present chocolates, cards and candies to their beloved (心爱的人).

  7. Valentine's Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾晓玲

    2009-01-01

    Valentine’s Day,which falls on February14,is one of the most popular festivals of western society and even the whole world.It is a day for lovers,a day when people present chocolates,cards and can-dies to their beloved(心爱的人).

  8. Reactive transport in surface sediments. I. Model complexity and software quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Herman, P.M.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of three recent diagenetic model codes (OMEXDIA, CANDI and STEADYSED) revealed that codes have a rigid, static and problem-specific character, leaving little autonomy for the application user. The resulting lack of flexibility and extensibility, and the associated need for ground-level repr

  9. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallow tobacco juice when they chew or dip benefit most from nicotine replacement. Find an oral substitute for smokeless tobacco that you enjoy. This may be sugarless gum, hard candy, beef jerky or sunflower seeds. Don't substitute cigarette smoking for smokeless tobacco. ...

  10. Rainy Day Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  11. KURSUS SINGKAT DAN PELATIHAN PEMANFAATAN PEPAYA (CARISA PAPAYA L. MENJADI MANISAN KERING BUAH PEPAYA DI DESA TIMUHUN, KECAMATAN BANJARANGKAN, KABUPATEN KLUNGKUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Nada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Desa Timuhun, eventhough papaya is not primary fruit product, but usually papaya is planted among the other plants and easily to grow. Papaya has good potency to be processed to become food product. Matured papaya fruit is usually fresh served for desk fruit. On the other hand, for papaya which is not mature yet, usually used for vegetable. Papaya has high water content, so it makes papaya fruit easy to experience damage. With papaya processing, papaya which is originally assumed improper to be sold or to be consumed (mechanical damage, diseased, acid, physical damage and will only to be thrown, finally can be used. The making of papaya dry candy is one of effort to preserve and to vary form of papaya serving. It also improves the economic value of papaya. The making of papaya can be conducted in big or small scale. The activity objectives are to introduce and give additional knowledge to society about papaya processing technology, to increase economic added value of papaya and the using of papaya which is improper to be sold or to be consumed becoming valuable food product .Realization of the objectives above are by performing an information sharing and discussion with the society about process of the making dry candy from papaya, training of papaya dry candy making, introduce simple technology of dry candy papaya making. This activity was performed at the head of Desa Timuhun office, on Friday, September 14, 2007 and was attended by 26 persons, including association of woman farmer and the staff in that office. The result of this activity shows that there was positive response of people who attend this activity, because by processing papaya fruit into dry candy, have a lot of advantage compare to sale it freshly. Beside that, this dry candy is healthy snack, without synthetic preservation, enriched with vitamins which is useful for health, also this dry candy is still good up to 1 month and of course it could to improve economic

  12. Pastillas De Leche from Cow’s and Carabao’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Rana-Parducho

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Pastillas de leche or milk candies were prepared by separately evaporating fresh cow’s and carabao's milk and adding sugar to each until the mixture formed a soft ball.Statistical analysis of the results of organoleptic tests did not reveal significant differences in sweetness, flavor, odor, and general acceptability of these finished products. However, differences in color, body, and texture were noted. Carabao's milk scored high in terms of all organoleptic parameters and was favored by the panel of testers.The candies made from carabao's milk were also shown to have a higher fat and protein content than those made from cow’s milk; thus, the higher yield obtained in the case of carabao's milk.

  13. Crystallization inhibition of an amorphous sucrose system using raffinose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEINEN K.M.; LABUZA T.P.

    2006-01-01

    The shelf life of pure amorphous sucrose systems, such as cotton candy, can be very short. Previous studies have shown that amorphous sucrose systems held above the glass transition temperature will collapse and crystallize. One study,however, showed that adding a small percent of another type of sugar, such as trehalose, to sucrose can extend the shelf life of the amorphous system by slowing crystallization. This study explores the hypothesis that raffinose increases the stability of an amorphous sucrose system. Cotton candy at 5 wt% raffinose and 95 wt% sucrose was made and stored at room temperature and three different relative humidities (%RH) 11%RH, 33%RH, and 43%RH. XRD patterns, and glass transition temperatures were obtained to determine the stability as a function of %RH. The data collected showed that raffinose slows sucrose crystallization in a low moisture amorphous state above the glass transition temperature and therefore improves the stability of amorphous sucrose systems.

  14. 山药软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波

    2015-01-01

    A new type of soft candy is developed using such main ingredients as yam, glucose syrup, agar. Through experiments optimum process parameters are as follow: yam paste 400 g, agar 40 g, glucose syrup 480 g, citric acid 0.4 g. The soft candy has a good taste and rich tension, with the rich flavor of the yam.%以山药、葡萄糖浆、琼脂为主要原料,开发出新型软糖。通过试验确定山药软糖最佳工艺参数方为山药浆400 g,琼脂40 g,葡萄糖浆480 g,柠檬酸0.4 g,制得的软糖口感独特且富有弹力,具有浓郁的山药风味。

  15. Gum Arabic as a Cause of Occupational Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arja Viinanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gum arabic is a potential sensitizer in food industry. Methods. We examined 11 candy factory workers referred to examinations due to respiratory and skin symptoms paying attention to exposure and sensitization to gum arabic. Skin tests, pulmonary function tests, and respiratory provocation tests were carried out as indicated by the symptoms and findings. Results. Occupational asthma, caused by gum arabic was diagnosed in 4/11 candy factory workers and two of them had also occupational contact urticaria and one had occupational rhinitis. One of them had oral symptoms associated with ingestion of products containing gum arabic. Conclusions. Airborne exposure to gum arabic may cause sensitization leading to allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.

  16. 山药软糖的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波

    2015-01-01

    以山药、葡萄糖浆、琼脂为主要原料,开发出新型软糖。通过试验确定山药软糖最佳工艺参数方为山药浆400 g,琼脂40 g,葡萄糖浆480 g,柠檬酸0.4 g,制得的软糖口感独特且富有弹力,具有浓郁的山药风味。%A new type of soft candy is developed using such main ingredients as yam, glucose syrup, agar. Through experiments optimum process parameters are as follow: yam paste 400 g, agar 40 g, glucose syrup 480 g, citric acid 0.4 g. The soft candy has a good taste and rich tension, with the rich flavor of the yam.

  17. Teores de corantes artificiais em alimentos determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Contents of synthetic dyes in foods determined by high performence liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre Prado

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are much used in processed foods. HPLC was applied to different types of snacks, such as colored cereals, chocolate confetti, chewing gums and candies for the determination of those additives. In the case of artificially colored breakfast cereals, 71% of the samples exceeded the allowed limits. Regarding the portions recommended for consumption by the makers of two of the samples, the amounts exceeded those allowed by the Brazilian legislation. In the case of chocolate confetti and candies none of the samples showed higher amounts than those allowed. However 37% of the chewing gum samples presented larger contents than the authorized ones, and one sample contained five times more synthetic dyes than allowed.

  18. Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector

    OpenAIRE

    Zuntz, J.; Zlosnik, T. G.; Bourliot, F.; Ferreira, P G; Starkman, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called Generalized Einstein-Aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark-matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark-energy candi...

  19. Деякі теоретичні та практичні підходи до виробництва цукатів на основі рослинної сировини

    OpenAIRE

    Непочатых, Татьяна Анатольевна

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with studying the impact of external physical factors on the acceleration of the process of candied fruit production. It is proved, that the diffusion of sugar syrup into raw plant carried in by capillary forces, or the forces of wetting. The porosity of materials affects this process the most. To reduce cooking time is possible by artificial increasing the porosity of plant material or by the destruction of the cell membrane of the plant material.

  20. Nash versus Schelling? The importance of constraints in legislative bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Bailer, Stefanie; Schneider, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    When the Council of Ministers had to decide on the so-called chocolate directive in 1999, its plan to allow vegetable fat in the production of candy products met with fierce opposition from Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. These three member states objected to the usage of vegetable fats other than cocoa in chocolate. Although they advanced some consumer-friendly arguments, continental manufacturers also tried to avoid competition from the British chocolate industry and to protect some o...

  1. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus G. Grunert; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Nielsen, Niels A.; Poulsen, Jacob B.; Ueland, Oydis; Åström, Annika

    2000-01-01

    1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were investigated: modification of the raw material, use of genetic modification in enzyme production, and direct use of genetically modified microorganisms. In addition, three levels of presence of the ...

  2. Jelly Belly mixing and uniform multinomial distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Burks, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Jelly Belly gourmet jellybeans have not always been the household name they are today. The product of Fairfield California’s Jelly Belly Candy Company first gained its national recognition during Ronald Reagan’s presidential inauguration in 1981. Reagan ordered more than three tons (2.4 million beans) of the gourmet jellybeans to help celebrate his inauguration and propelled the beans into the national spotlight.

  3. Trends in Snacking Among U.S. Children

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Nationally representative surveys of food intake in US children show large snacking increases between the 1989–91 to 1994–98 and 1994–98 to 2003–06 periods. Childhood snacking trends are moving toward three snacks per day with over 27% of daily calories coming from snacks. The largest increases have been in salty snack and candy consumption, while desserts and sweetened beverages remain the major sources of calories from snacks.

  4. Research Findings on Xylitol and the Development of Xylitol Vehicles to Address Public Health Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Rothen, M

    2009-01-01

    Xylitol has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective tooth decay preventive agent when used habitually. Nevertheless, its application has been limited by absence of formulations that demand minimal adherence and are acceptable and safe in settings where chewing gum may not be allowed. A substantial literature suggests that a minimum of five to six grams and three exposures per day from chewing gum or candies are needed for a clinical effect. At the same time there is conflicting evidence ...

  5. Tried and True: Using Diet Coke and Mentos to Teach Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Adding mint Mentos candy to a two-liter bottle of Diet Coke produces a fountain of soda foam that can reach 3 m high. A demonstration such as this can get a "Wow" out of most audiences, usually followed by a "Do it again!"--but can it be used to teach anything? The answer is a definite "Yes," and what follows is a guided inquiry activity that…

  6. 阅读理解专练

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈君杰

    2006-01-01

    A In the U.S family,even very young children are given opportunities to make their own choices and express their own opinions.A parent will ask a one- year-old child what color balloon she wants,which candy bar she would prefer,or whether she wants to sit next to mommy or daddy.The child’s preference (选择)will normally be supported.

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China orders another increase in interest rates as the country gears up to calm inflationary jitters.The purchasing managers index tumbles to a 28-month low,a reflection of weaknesses in the manufacturing industry. Chinese steelmakers reel from severe costs inflation.The government adds a new category of "micro-enterprises" in a move to help small businesses.The Swiss food giant Nestle launches a bid to acquire Chinese candy maker Hsu Fu Chi.

  8. Pengajaran Literasi dan Penilaian Portofolio dalam Konteks Pembelajaran Menulis di SD

    OpenAIRE

    Muhana Gipayana

    2016-01-01

    This classroom action research was aimed at maximizing the quality of teaching writing by adopting the concept of literacy learning and portfolio assessment. The subjects were 5th-grade students of SDN Pisang Candi I, II, and III Kodya Malang. The design implemented was the three-cycle model by Kemmis and McTaggart (1988). The results indicated that the quality of teaching writing improved. The students motivation could be enhanced, their reading and writing activities were observable, and th...

  9. A case of anaphylaxis to peppermint

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Roian; Borici-Mazi, Rozita

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis, a form of IgE mediated hypersensitivity, arises when mast cells and possibly basophils are provoked to secrete mediators with potent vasoactive and smooth muscle contractile activities that evoke a systemic response. We report a case of IgE mediated anaphylaxis to peppermint (Mentha piperita) in a male shortly after sucking on a candy. Case presentation A 69 year old male developed sudden onset of lip and tongue swelling, throat tightness and shortness of breath within...

  10. Menthol Cigarettes | Smokefree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is a substance naturally found in mint plants such as peppermint and spearmint. It gives a cooling sensation. It is often used to relieve minor pain and irritation and prevent infection.    Menthol is added to many products. These include lozenges, syrups, creams and ointments, nasal sprays, powders, and candy. But none of these products are lighted or smoked when used. That makes them different from menthol cigarettes.  

  11. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  12. Teores de corantes artificiais em alimentos determinados por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Contents of synthetic dyes in foods determined by high performence liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Alexandre Prado; Helena Teixeira Godoy

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are much used in processed foods. HPLC was applied to different types of snacks, such as colored cereals, chocolate confetti, chewing gums and candies for the determination of those additives. In the case of artificially colored breakfast cereals, 71% of the samples exceeded the allowed limits. Regarding the portions recommended for consumption by the makers of two of the samples, the amounts exceeded those allowed by the Brazilian legislation. In the case of chocolate confetti...

  13. YOUNG CONSUMERS’ DEMAND FOR NATURAL SWEETENERS

    OpenAIRE

    Krutkramele, Katrina; Ehmke, Mariah D.

    2010-01-01

    Health conscious consumers are increasingly concerned about the caloric content and glycemic index of sweeteners added to food. Currently, the average American consumes 22 teaspoons of added sugar in processed foods per day. Young people typically consume higher amounts of sweeteners via candy, sports drinks, and soda (Smed, Jensen et al. 2007). Recently, the American Heart Association issued a statement recommending no more than six teaspoons for women and nine teaspoons for men of added sug...

  14. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Lipińska; Robert Klewicki; Elżbieta Klewicka; Krzysztof Kołodziejczyk; Michał Sójka; Adriana Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candi...

  15. A Recursive Framework for Expression Recognition: From Web Images to Deep Models to Game Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Tsangouri, Christina; Abtahi, Farnaz; Zhu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a recursive framework to recognize facial expressions from images in real scenes. Unlike traditional approaches that typically focus on developing and refining algorithms for improving recognition performance on an existing dataset, we integrate three important components in a recursive manner: facial dataset generation, facial expression recognition model building, and interactive interfaces for testing and new data collection. To start with, we first create a candi...

  16. Esophageal Thermal Injury by Hot Adlay Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Woong; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Young A; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sae Hee; Lim, Sin Hyung

    2007-01-01

    Reversible thermal injury to the esophagus as the result of drinking hot liquids has been reported to generate alternating white and red linear mucosal bands, somewhat reminiscent of a candy cane. This phenomenon is associated with chest pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Here, we report a case of thermal injury to the esophageal and oral cavity due to the drinking of hot tea, including odynophagia and dysphagia. A 69-year-old man was referred due to a difficulty in swallowing...

  17. Turn-Taking Model in the Chinese Recruitment Reality show-BelongtoYou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Fan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the theories of conversational analysis proposed by Sacks et al,this paper chooses excerpts of candidates’inter-view from the Chinese recruitment reality TV show BelongtoYou in Tianjin TV. Through analyzing the excerpt, how the rules of turn-taking are applied in this program will be demonstrated. And the features of turn-taking strategies used by the host,candi-dates and bosses will be concluded.

  18. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Delisle Nyström; Elisabet Forsum; Hanna Henriksson; Ylva Trolle-Lagerros; Christel Larsson; Ralph Maddison; Toomas Timpka; Marie Löf

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery p...

  19. Is Maternal Food Security a Predictor of Food and Drink Intake Among Toddlers in Oregon?

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T.; Rosenberg, Kenneth D.; May, Ashleigh L.; Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Ahluwalia, Indu B.

    2012-01-01

    Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, populat...

  20. Cotton Stars in Movie Night Cotton Blankets,Jammies and More Bring Comfort to Movie Night

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Going to the movies has become an expensive and often annoying activity.In some parts of the country,movie-goers are paying as much as$10.50 a ticket. Multiply that times two if you take a friend;then add in popcorn and soda,and maybe some chocolate covered raisins,too---they are"nature’s candy"---and you’re$40 the poorer.

  1. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK; Ogrinc, Nives; Lilek, Nataša; Boštjan NOČ; Božič, Janko; Korošec, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper c...

  2. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in chicory (Cichorium intybus) using quantitative real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bockstaele Erik; Maroufi Asad; De Loose Marc

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes must be selected to accurately compare mRNA transcripts across different samples and tissues. Thus far, only actin-2 has been used as a reference gene for qRT-PCR in chicory, and a full comparison of several candidate reference genes in chicory has not yet been reported. Results Seven candi...

  3. 美味在口 健康逃走——十大垃圾食品你还在吃吗?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒开智

    2007-01-01

    <正>Do you enjoy eating hamburgers,hot dogs,French fries or chips?Are you fond of soft drinks,candy or ice cream?If your an- swers are"Yes",you’d better take care.Most of them are junk food! What is junk food? Junk food has lots of fat(脂肪),salt and sugar,but few nutrients(营养物质).Most sci- entists say junk food is unhealthy.

  4. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF RICE BRAN WAX AS OINTMENT BASE

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-01-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the...

  5. DVD-d / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2007-01-01

    Kolm mängufilmide DVD-d : ameerika sõltumatu mängufilm "Karm tüdruk" ("Hard Candy"; režissöör David Slade; 2005), ameerika mängufilm "Kaitseingel" ("The Guardian"; režissöör Andrew Davis; 2006) ja Venemaa õudusfilm "Surnud tütred" ("Mjortvõje dotsheri"; režissöör Pavel Ruminov)

  6. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  7. Fresh fruit marbles: desenvolvimento de um produto inovador para confeitaria

    OpenAIRE

    Chiché, Avril Flores

    2011-01-01

    Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar - Instituto Superior de Agronomia The aim of this work was the development of an appealing fresh fruit translucent candy, with gelling agents, alternative to the natural fruit pectin. Three fruit gel formulations were developed, named Fresh Fruits Marbles (FFM), two apple based and one lemon juice based. These were inspired on the traditional French patisserie products Patê de Fruits. At first, high methoxyl (HM) pectin (1.5%) was used as a gelling agent...

  8. Buy What Is Advertised on Television? Evidence from Bans on Child-Directed Food Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Rui; Yang, Muzhe

    2010-01-01

    In response to the growing childhood obesity rate, the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CFBAI) was launched in November 2006. Our study presents the first empirical analysis of the impact of CFBAI on consumers' food choices. We combine monthly data on advertising exposure, measured by gross rating points and by age group between 2006 and 2008, and household candy purchases. We find that CFBAI has not produced significant changes in consumers' exposure to television adverti...

  9. Investigation of Vertical Spiral Resonators for Low Frequency Metamaterial Design

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jiwen; Stevens, Christopher J; Edwards, David J

    2008-01-01

    This paper thoroughly explores the characteristics of vertical spiral resonators (VSR). They exhibit rela-tively high Q factors and sizes around a few percent of the free space wavelength, which make them ideal candi-dates for assembling metamaterial devices. A quasistatic model of VSR is obtained from simple analytical ex-pressions, and the effects of certain geometrical parameters on the resonant frequency are investigated.

  10. Plasma cell gingivitis - A rare case related to Colocasia (arbi leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Bali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell gingivitis is an uncommon inflammatory condition of uncertain etiology often flavoured chewing gum, spices, foods, candies, or dentifrices. The diagnosis of plasma cell gingivitis is based on comprehensive history taking, clinical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests. Here we are presenting a rare case of plasma cell gingivitis caused by consumption of colocasia (arbi leaves. Colocasia is a kind of vegetable, very commonly consumed in the regions of North India.

  11. Kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of methyl ricinoleate

    OpenAIRE

    Neeharika, T. S.V.R.; Lokesh, P.; Prasanna Rani, K. N.; Prathap Kumar, T.; Prasad, R. B.N.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinoleic acid is an unsaturated hydroxy fatty acid that naturally occurs in castor oil in proportions of up to 85–90%. Ricinoleic acid is a potential raw material and finds several applications in coatings, lubricant formulations and pharmaceutical areas. Enzymatic hydrolysis of castor oil is preferred over conventional hydrolysis for the preparation of ricinoleic acid to avoid estolide formation. A kinetics analysis of the enzymatic hydrolysis of Methyl Ricinoleate in the presence of Candi...

  12. Representasi Guru dalam Cerpen dan Novel Sastrawan Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper discusses two novels and two short storiesby examining modern teacher’s characters by Balinese fictional authors. These four literary works are a novelin Balinese language entitled Bukit Buung Bukit Mentik (Buung and Mentik Hills by Agung Wiyat S Ardhi, a novel in Indonesian language Senja di Candi Dasa (Twilight inCandi Dasa by Aryantha Soethama, and two short stories in Balinese language Sertifikat(si (A Certificate (ion” by I Made Lewis, and Ngabdi (Serving by I Nyoman Alit Suwarbawa. By reading them in parallel way, these four works offiction are analyzed using the theory of New Historicism. It is found that the images of teacher characters in the writers mind are identical with that in real life. The teacher characters in these four stories seem to have changed from that of the traditional images of the past. Then, teachers were described as wise, knowledgeable and idealistic men. These kind of quality only are found in the Bukit Buung Bukit Menti. Where as, in Senja di Candi Dasa, Sertifikat(si and Ngabdi, such moral fibers are changing because of the increasingly glamorous lifestyle. The analysis also concludes that these fictions andfacts appear together, complementing one another. If fictions are a story and facts are history, then both appear simultaneously.

  13. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules.

  14. 香甜红小豆加工工艺的研究%Study on the processing technology of sweet adzuki beans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解蕊; 正山大

    2012-01-01

    试验确定了香甜红小豆的最佳工艺及操作条件,其浸泡煮制最佳工艺条件:原料红小豆以25℃的清水浸泡24h,预煮10min,煮制50rain;真空蜜渍最佳条件:在真空度为2.66kPa的条件下,蜜渍时间为40min,蜜渍温度为60℃,蜜渍液浓度为70%;干燥最佳条件:常压下,以60~63℃热风干燥180min。%The optimum technical and operating conditions for sweet adzuki beans were determined by the test. The optimum soaking and cooking process condition was that adzuki beans were soaked in water with 25 ℃ for 24 hours, pre - cooking for 10 minutes, cooking for 50 minutes. The optimum vacuum candied condition was that candied for 40 minutes with the vacuum degree 2.66 kPa at 60 ℃, the concentration of candied solution 70%. The optimum drying condition was under atmospheric pressure, drying with 60 - 63 ℃ hot air forl80 minutes.

  15. The availability of novelty sweets within high school localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljawad, A; Morgan, M Z; Rees, J S; Fairchild, R

    2016-06-10

    Background Reducing sugar consumption is a primary focus of current global public health policy. Achieving 5% of total energy from free sugars will be difficult acknowledging the concentration of free sugars in sugar sweetened beverages, confectionery and as hidden sugars in many savoury items. The expansion of the novelty sweet market in the UK has significant implications for children and young adults as they contribute to dental caries, dental erosion and obesity.Objective To identify the most available types of novelty sweets within the high school fringe in Cardiff, UK and to assess their price range and where and how they were displayed in shops.Subjects and methods Shops within a ten minute walking distance around five purposively selected high schools in the Cardiff aea representing different levels of deprivation were visited. Shops in Cardiff city centre and three supermarkets were also visited to identify the most commonly available novelty sweets.Results The ten most popular novelty sweets identified in these scoping visits were (in descending order): Brain Licker, Push Pop, Juicy Drop, Lickedy Lips, Big Baby Pop, Vimto candy spray, Toxic Waste, Tango candy spray, Brain Blasterz Bitz and Mega Mouth candy spray. Novelty sweets were located on low shelves which were accessible to all age-groups in 73% (14 out of 19) of the shops. Novelty sweets were displayed in the checkout area in 37% (seven out of 19) shops. The price of the top ten novelty sweets ranged from 39p to £1.Conclusion A wide range of acidic and sugary novelty sweets were easily accessible and priced within pocket money range. Those personnel involved in delivering dental and wider health education or health promotion need to be aware of recent developments in children's confectionery. The potential effects of these novelty sweets on both general and dental health require further investigation. PMID:27283564

  16. Sweet Christmas: Do overweight and obese children associate special events more frequently with food than normal weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; Pasch, Sophie; Roefs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined children's spontaneous associations of special events with food. Children in primary education (N = 111, age between 10 and 13 years) at a school in Germany wrote down their first five associations with five special or festive events (Christmas, holidays, weekend, carnival and birthday). After completing the free-word association test, they were offered a choice between a candy and a toy. Finally, their body mass index (BMI) was measured. The first prediction was that overweight and obese children would associate special events more often with food than normal weight and leaner children. The second prediction was that choice for a candy would be predicted by a higher number of food-related associations. The first hypothesis was not supported: BMI was negatively related to number of food-related associations (the lower the BMI, the more food-related associations). The second hypothesis was also not supported: There was no relation between number of food-related associations and choice for a candy or toy. A possible explanation for the finding that leaner children reported more food-related associations is that for them specific sweets and snack food are more exclusively connected to special occasions than for overweight children. Speculatively, this may be the result of differences in food parenting styles between parents of heavier and leaner children. Parents of leaner children often have a more restrictive style, i.e., reserving specific foods for specific, relatively rare occasions whereas parents of overweight children adopt more liberal food rules. PMID:26463017

  17. Attention and Recall of Point-of-sale Tobacco Marketing: A Mobile Eye-Tracking Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maansi Bansal-Travers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: As tobacco advertising restrictions have increased, the retail ‘power wall’ behind the counter is increasingly invaluable for marketing tobacco products. Objective: The primary objectives of this pilot study were 3-fold: (1 evaluate the attention paid/fixations on the area behind the cash register where tobacco advertising is concentrated and tobacco products are displayed in a real-world setting, (2 evaluate the duration (dwell-time of these fixations, and (3 evaluate the recall of advertising displayed on the tobacco power wall. Methods: Data from 13 Smokers (S and 12 Susceptible or non-daily Smokers (SS aged 180–30 from a mobile eye-tracking study. Mobile-eye tracking technology records the orientation (fixation and duration (dwell-time of visual attention. Participants were randomized to one of three purchase tasks at a convenience store: Candy bar Only (CO; N = 10, Candy bar + Specified cigarette Brand (CSB; N = 6, and Candy bar + cigarette Brand of their Choice (CBC; N = 9. A post-session survey evaluated recall of tobacco marketing. Key outcomes were fixations and dwell-time on the cigarette displays at the point-of-sale. Results: Participants spent a median time of 44 seconds during the standardized time evaluated and nearly three-quarters (72% fixated on the power wall during their purchase, regardless of smoking status (S: 77%, SS: 67% or purchase task (CO: 44%, CSB: 71%, CBC: 100%. In the post session survey, nearly all participants (96% indicated they noticed a cigarette brand and 64% were able to describe a specific part of the tobacco wall or recall a promotional offer. Conclusions: Consumers are exposed to point-of-sale tobacco marketing, regardless of smoking status. FDA should consider regulations that limit exposure to point-of-sale tobacco marketing among consumers.

  18. Problematika "PET FOOD" - krmivo pro psy

    OpenAIRE

    Zemanová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to create a list of feed and a questionnaire to assess the market for these products. The market in the Czech Republic are represented by many manufacturers . It is a manufacturer as a worldwide ( Pedigree , Candy , British) and regional ( Fitmin , Propesko ). Its portfolio of products are represented in assortment mostly all groups of dogs ( both age and breed according to the load but also by dogs). The conducted survey shows that most people feed their dogs a combi...

  19. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Grigoriadis, Joannis; Trulsson, Mats;

    2015-01-01

    movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with ten 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw...... task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights on into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation...

  20. Investigation of Multi-Antenna Mobile Terminals in Terms of Hearing Aids Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of the near fields (NF) of different configurations of two antennas mobile phones with a candy bar phone factor. The study has been carried out via Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations. Interesting paradigms not valid for the single antennas ...... have been identified. In order to obtain a hearing aids compatible (HAC) mobile phone having two antennas, special attention has to be focused on the NF at the high band as opposed to the single antenna case where the HAC is defined by the NF at the low band....

  1. A Modified Metamaterial Inspired Antenna Solution for Reduction of the Specific Absorption Rate in the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Ivan Bonev; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Franek, Ondrej;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design of a metamaterial inspired inverted F antenna (MIIFA) mounted on a ground plane with form factor corresponding to a typical candy bar type of mobile phone. The presented design is compared with a conventional inverted F antenna (IFA) in terms of an averaged...... Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) values in the head. The SAR has been evaluated as it is described in the standard but also the influence of the hand on the SAR has been demonstrated. The proposed MIIFA has decreased SAR values in the head by close to 40 % compared to the conventional design....

  2. How to Keep a Good Eating Habit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧敏

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary for us all to develop a healthy lifestyle. If you want to take care of your health, you should eat more fruit and vegetables and stay away from sugar and candy. You are not supposed to eat too much food that is fried like French fries, barbecues and unhealthy food. They can increase the risk of cancer. In order to have a healthy lifestyle, as teenagers, we should have a balanced diet and don't eat too much junk food. We must take more exercise a day.

  3. The z = 9-10 galaxy population in the Hubble Frontier Fields and CLASH surveys: the z = 9 luminosity function and further evidence for a smooth decline in ultraviolet luminosity density at z≥ 8

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, D. J.; McLure, R. J.; Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for z = 9-10 galaxies within the first eight pointings of the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) survey and 20 cluster fields from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) survey. Combined with our previous analysis of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, we have now completed a search for z = 9-10 galaxies over ≃ 130 arcmin2, spread across 29 Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/IR pointings. We confine our primary search for high-redshift candi...

  4. I Married a Chinese Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN SAYERS

    1997-01-01

    He became known all over China because of his appearance on the national television competition "Foreigners Singing Chinese Songs."Dressed in traditional Chinese costume and accompanied by his Chinese wife,he Chinese Girl."In this article,Stephen Sayers tells about his marriage and his personal feelings during his five years in China,Stephen and his wife Candy just moved to Macao in July.In arecent letter he asked the editor to give the money for this article to the education-aiding"Hope project" and specified it for Guizhou.

  5. Understanding middle school math cool problems to get students thinking and connecting

    CERN Document Server

    Hyde, Arthur; Heck, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    In Understanding Middle School Math, Arthur Hyde gathers 50 cool problems that lead to deep thinking. Problems such as Chocolate Algebra, where students discover linear relationships among the pocket money needed for differently priced chocolate candies. With the latest research and decades of classroom experience, he braids language, cognition, and math to create problems that connect math to the real world, to students' lives, and to prior knowledge. Extensively field-tested problems that scaffold content and processes, and give students multiple entry points into learning.

  6. 硬派时尚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    G.cell GLove篮牙滑雪手套;Lamps吊灯;Planika暖炉;PAPPA*PHONE电话;Macbook Air Cover笔记本电脑保护套;007 Villain Collection腕表;Cinemizer视频眼镜;Elements Stardust收音机;Shuella防水鞋套;Power Purse太阳能手袋;Nebo移动式购物站;NS08概念手机;Eye Candy Can情感“棒棒糖”;

  7. PRODUKSI BIBIT KENTANG (Solanum tuberosum L.) G1 DARI STEK BATANG

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Wina Andriani Lestari; Made Ria Defiani; Ida Ayu Astarini

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to find out the best media and auxin for plantingpotato cutting to produce G1 seed potato. Research was done at a shade house ofKebun Bibit Hortikultura Kembang Merta, Candi Kuning Village, Baturiti, TabananRegency, Bali. Were planted at the screen house for sprouting. Four weeks old ofshoots were used as cutting. Each cutting measured 10 cm. Stem cutting of G0 seedpotatoes was dipped in 2 different auxin types (Rootone F and auxin paste) and plantedin 2 different ...

  8. Searching the Gamma-ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: Fermi GBM and LAT Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

    OpenAIRE

    Racusin, J. L.; Burns, E; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; C. A. Wilson-Hodge(NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, United States); Jenke, P.; Blackburn, L.; Briggs, M. S.; Broida, J.; Camp, J.; Christensen, N.; Hui, C. M.; Littenberg, T.; Shawhan, P.; Singer, L.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candi- date LVT151012. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for char- acterizing the upper limits across a large area of the sky. Due to the partial GB...

  9. Pengajaran Literasi dan Penilaian Portofolio dalam Konteks Pembelajaran Menulis di SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhana Gipayana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This classroom action research was aimed at maximizing the quality of teaching writing by adopting the concept of literacy learning and portfolio assessment. The subjects were 5th-grade students of SDN Pisang Candi I, II, and III Kodya Malang. The design implemented was the three-cycle model by Kemmis and McTaggart (1988. The results indicated that the quality of teaching writing improved. The students motivation could be enhanced, their reading and writing activities were observable, and their writing skill was well developed.

  10. [Comparative study of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients after consumption of mono- and disaccharides and sweeteners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Meshcheriakova, V A; Plotnikova, O A; Gapparov, M G

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the influence of mono- and disaccharides, sugar alcohols, honey, corn patoka and products with nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners on dynamic of postprandial glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. After ingestion of 30 g fructose, blood glucose did not show a marked increase in comparison with sucrose or honey. After ingestion of 30 g sorbitol or isomalt, blood glucose curve was not significantly different. It was indicated that corn patoka in chewing candies with isomalt has a high hyperglycaemic effect whereas drink with nonnutritive sweeteners did not change blood glucose from fasting levels. PMID:12125470

  11. Learning Vaadin

    CERN Document Server

    Frankel, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This book begins with a tutorial on Vaadin 7, followed by a process of planning, analyzing, building, and deploying a fully functional RIA while covering troubleshooting details along the way, making it an invaluable resource for answers to all your Vaadin questions. If you are a Java developer with some experience in Java web development and want to enter the world of Rich Internet Applications this technology and book are ideal for you. Learning Vaadin will be perfect as your next step towards building eye-candy dynamic web applications on a Java-based platform.

  12. In the Same Boat and at Each Other’s Throat: Gender Politics in Female-Male Collaborations in Hip Hop Music, 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Heidi R.

    2007-01-01

    It is no secret that both female and male Hip Hop artists often participate in the overt objectification of women’s bodies. On any given day, one can turn on BET or MTV and catch a glimpse of several scantily clad women dancing or gyrating at the disposal of one or more male rap artists. These visual images are also present in Hip Hop magazines, such as The Source and XXL, one that showcases a section called “Eye Candy,” in which female models are featured wearing skimpy bathing suits and lin...

  13. Pineapple holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Calixte, L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Padilla V, A.; Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Ruiz-Limón, B.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2006-02-01

    We show that juice pineapple can be considering as new unconventional holographic recorded medium, because it has good chemical and optical properties. Some structures of computers phase holograms are copied into this material by thermo-polymerization therefore in this research we present a preliminary analysis and experimental results. The major improvements from our material are: good diffraction efficiency, reduced cost, easily to apply on any substrate and the hologram is making with out develop process. the nature sweetener from pineapple can be applied for the food industry mainly in the candy industry.

  14. Formulation and evaluation of rice bran wax as ointment base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M; Manish, Lavhale; Krishna, Sini

    2004-07-01

    Rice Bran wax is obtained from natural sources and is abundantly available in the country. Rice bran wax is suitable for use in chocolate enrobes, as an enteric coating for candy and lozenges, as a plasticizing material in chewing gums etc. Present study attempts to find if rice bran wax is useful as ointment base. The oleaginous type ointment base is prepared by using rice bran wax and evaluated for speardabililty, water number and active ingredient diffusibility. The results obtained in the present study indicate, rice bran wax can be used as a good component in ointment base, comparable with white wax. PMID:22557151

  15. Exome sequencing reveals a heterozygous DLX5 mutation in a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant split-hand/foot malformation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xue; Xin, Qian; Li, Lin; Li, Jiangxia; Zhang, Changwu; Qiu, Rongfang; Qian, Chenmin; Zhao, Hailing; Liu, Yongchao; Shan, Shan; Dang, Jie; Bian, Xianli; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin; Liu, Qiji

    2013-01-01

    Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital limb deformity due to the absence or dysplasia of central rays of the autopod. Six SHFM loci have already been identified. Here we describe a Chinese family with autosomal-dominant SHFM1 that has previously been mapped to 7q21.2-21.3. The two affected family members, mother and son, showed deep median clefts between toes, ectrodactyly and syndactyly; the mother also showed triphalangeal thumbs. Exome sequencing and variant screening of candi...

  16. Biotecnologia animal

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge

    2010-01-01

    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  17. Consumer perceptions of food products involving genetic modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, L.; Nielsen, Niels Asger;

    2001-01-01

    Product descriptions of cheese, candy and salmon products were presented to samples of respondents in four Nordic countries. The descriptions represented various applications of genetic modification (GM), varied along a "distance" dimension and a "what is modified" dimension, and were presented...... and risks, but mostly with uncertainty and unhealthiness. Benefits of the use of GM were perceived and regarded as relevant, but could not compensate for the negative associations. The "distance" dimension had a clear impact on consumer preferences, whereas the "what is modified" dimension had effects which...

  18. Does green mean healthy? Nutrition label color affects perceptions of healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2013-01-01

    The food industry has recently implemented numerous front-of-package nutrition labels to readily convey key aspects a food product's nutritional profile to consumers (e.g., calories and fat content). Although seemingly well-intentioned, such labels might lead consumers to perceive relatively poor nutrition foods in a healthier light. The present research explores whether one underresearched aspect of nutrition labels-namely, their color-might influence perceptions of a product's healthfulness. In Study 1, participants perceived a candy bar as healthier when it bore a green rather than a red calorie label, despite the fact that the labels conveyed the same calorie content. Study 2 examined the perceived healthfulness of a candy bar bearing a green versus white calorie label and assessed individual differences in the importance of healthy eating. Overall, results suggest that green labels increase perceived healthfulness, especially among consumers who place high importance on healthy eating. Discussion focuses on implications for health-related judgment and nutrition labeling.

  19. Perbandingan Kadar Vitamin dan Mineral dalam Buah Segar dan Manisan Basah Karika Dieng (Carica pubescens Lenne & K.Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare levels of vitamin A, vitamin C and minerals phosphorus, ironand calcium in wet sweets and fresh fruit Carica pubescens Lenne & K. Koch (mountainpapaya Dieng, and determine the optimal long boiling the fruit in order to evaluate thecandied wet processing techniques. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Biology andChemistry, State Unnes, Laboratory of Food Technology Unika Soegijapranoto Semarangand Laboratory of Agricultural Engineering Technology- Seamarang University. Levelsof vitamin C was analyzed by yacobs iodine titration, vitamin A with spectronic 20, andmineral analysis by AAS. Data content of vitamins and minerals in wet candied andfresh fruits were analyzed by t test, whereas the optimal boiling time data were analyzedby Fe 1.2 ppm, P 0.0254%, while in 5 brands carica candied fruit vitamin C content24-30mg/100g ranged, ranged 300-500ìg/100 g vitamin A, minerals ranging from 5-9ppm Ca, Fe minerals ranged from 0.58 to 0.8 ppm, and mineral P ranging from .003 to.008%. Optimal boiling time with high enough levels of vitamin C is 10 minutes.Keywords : vitamin A, vitamin C, phosphor, calsium, iron, Carica pubescens

  20. Prolonged chewing at lunch decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Jones, Alison

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged chewing of food can reduce meal intake. However, whether prolonged chewing influences intake at a subsequent eating occasion is unknown. We hypothesised that chewing each mouthful for 30s would reduce afternoon snack intake more than (a) an habitual chewing control condition, and (b) an habitual chewing condition with a pauses in between each mouthful to equate the meal durations. We further hypothesised that this effect may be related to effects of prolonged chewing on lunch memory. Forty three participants ate a fixed lunch of sandwiches in the laboratory. They were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental groups according to a between-subjects design. Appetite, mood and lunch enjoyment ratings were taken before and after lunch and before snacking. Snack intake of candies at a taste test 2h after lunch was measured as well as rated vividness of lunch memory. Participants in the prolonged chewing group ate significantly fewer candies than participants in the habitual chewing group. Snack intake by the pauses group did not differ from either the prolonged or habitual chewing groups. Participants in the prolonged chewing group were less happy and enjoyed their lunch significantly less than participants in other conditions. Appetite ratings were not different across groups. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with intake but there was no correlation with rated lunch enjoyment. Prolonged chewing of a meal can reduce later snack intake and further investigation of this technique for appetite control is warranted.

  1. The Occurrence of Hyperhydricity on Several Carnations (Dianthus carryophyllus L. Cultivars during Low Temperature Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The incident of hyperhydricity was a common problem in propagated carnation (Dianthus carryophyllus L. during in vitro culture. Due to its possible relations with the decrease in phenotypic performance of plantlets, the observation on the occurrence of hyperhydricity was conducted on several in vitro conserved carnation cultivars. The research was conducted from July 2007 to August 2008 at The Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Cianjur, West Java. A complete factorial experiment with 24 replications was designed to accomplish the combination of two factors. The first factor was six commercial carnation cultivars, namely light pink candy, malaga, opera, white candy, liberty and pink maladi, while the seconds dealt with type of conservation media, i.e. ½MS+DMSO 3%, ½MS+DMSO 3%+3% sucrose and control (½MS+3% sucrose. The results showed that the percentage of hyperhydric plantlet and plantlet viability after in vitro conservation were varied among carnation cultivars. Single treatment of sucrose had the least capacity in inducing plantlet resistance to low temperature conditions during in vitro conservation. Supplemental DMSO postponed the occurrence of hyperhydricity and with the existence of sucrose, higher plantlet viability were achieved.

  2. 蜜饯保鲜技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨龙; 张慧; 蔡成岗; 沙如意; 刘霞

    2015-01-01

    The processes and preservation methods in the candied fruit products are summarized. The characteristics, application and shortage of the sulfur-containing preservation techniques are analyzed. And the new production technology, research and development of new type health protection preserves,desulfurization and no-sulfur addition security additive development and application on candied fruit products and technology are also prospected.%综述蜜饯产品的生产过程和主要应用的保鲜技术方法,并对主要采用的含硫化合物保鲜技术方法的特点、应用、不足等进行分析,从新工艺、新型保健型蜜饯研发、脱硫与安全无硫添加剂开发和现存技术应用等方面对蜜饯产品的生产和技术应用进行展望。

  3. Analysis of Mobile Phone Antenna Performance within the Head and Hand Phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Iqbal Faruque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the effect of the hand-hold position on the electromagnetic (EM wave interaction of a candy bar type and clamshell type cellular handset and a human head and hand is investigated. The human hand influences the performance of terminal antennas, and it is the main cause for absorption and  detuning. In spite of its importance in mobile-phone design and validation processes, it is still complicated to take it into account because a lack of knowledge in the area. In this paper, a rigorous investigation methodology is described for the study of candy bar, and clam shell mobile phone CAD model is used to numerically investigate the effect of hand phantom of mobile phone antenna radiation performance. The simulation results show that mobile phone grip styles of the hand phantom material properties, wrist and length, and hand phantom sizes and different positions is the important parameter to antenna performance. The grip style has direct implications in  the definition of phantom head. The preference of the handset with respect to the side of the user’s head depends on the mobile phone form factor and size. The results established high reliability and suitability for providing decision rationale for the design of complex high-end multi-band mobile phones.

  4. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. PMID:26921486

  5. Detection of 10 sweeteners in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Shiang Chang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for sweeteners in various food matrixes is very important for food quality control and regulation enforcement. A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 10 sweeteners [acesulfame potassium (ACS-K, aspartame (ASP, cyclamate (CYC, dulcin (DUL, glycyrrhizic acid (GA, neotame (NEO, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC, saccharin (SAC, sucralose (SCL, and stevioside (STV] in various foods by liquid chromatography/tandem mass chromatography (LC–MS/MS was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Phenomenex Luna Phenyl-Hexyl (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 150 mm column with gradient elution of 10 mM ammonium acetate in water and 10 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. The recoveries of the 10 sweeteners were between 75% and 120%, and the coefficients of variation were less than 20%. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for NHDC and SCL. For the other sweeteners, the limits of quantification were 0.1 μg/kg. Compared to the traditional high-performance liquid chromatography method, the LC–MS/MS method could provide better sensitivity, higher throughput, enhanced specificity, and more sweeteners analyzed in a single run. The samples included 27 beverages (16 alcoholic and 11 nonalcoholic beverages and 15 pickled foods (1 pickled pepper, 3 candies, and 11 candied fruits. Two remanufactured wines were found to contain 7.2, 8.5 μg/g SAC and 126.5, 123 μg/g CYC, respectively. ACS-K, ASP, SCL, and NEO were detected in five beverages and drinks. The pickled peppers and candied fruits were found to contain SAC, GA, CYC, ASP, STV, NEO, and ACS-K. The wine with sweeteners detected was remanufactured wine, not naturally fermented wine. Therefore, the ingredient label for the sweeteners of remanufactured wine should be regulated by the proper authority for inspection of sweeteners.

  6. The Giant Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis var. Igniscum) as a new plant resource for biomass production for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebzien, S.; Veste, M.; Fechner, H.; Koning, L.; Mantovani, D.; Freese, D.

    2012-04-01

    The cultivation of bioenergy crop for energetic biomass production and biogas will increase in the next decades in Europe and the world. In Germany maize is the most commonly used energy crops for biogas. To optimize the sustainability of bioenergy crop production new land management systems and crop species are needed. Herbaceous perennials have a great potential to fulfill this requirement. A new species for bioenergy production is the Giant Knotweed or Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis F. Schmidt ex Maxim., Fam. Polygonaceae) The knotweed is originated from Sakhalin, Korea and Japan .The plant is characterized by a high annual biomass production and can reach heights up to 3-4 m. As a new bioenergy crop the new cultivars IGNISCUM Basic (R) and IGNISCUM Candy (R) were cultured from the wild form and commercially used. Important is that both cultivars are not invasive. IGNISCUM Basic is used for combined heat and power plants. IGNISCUM Candy can be harvested 2-3 times during the growing season and the green biomass can be used for biogas production. Comprehensive test series are carried out to analyze the biogas. First results from lab investigations and experiments in biogas plants show that fresh matter of IGNISCUM Candy can well substitute maize as substrate in biogas power plants. Yields per hectare and the amount of biogas per ton of organic dry matter can be considered as almost equal to maize. Concerning the wooden biomass of IGNISCUM Basic values of combustion can be compared with wood chips from forest trees. For a sustainable and optimal production of biomass we develop cultivation technology for this species. Field experiments are arranged under different climatic and soil conditions across Germany from Schleswig-Holstein to southern Germany to investigate the plant growth and biomass production on the field scale. Physiological parameters are determined for the relations between growth stages, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and plant

  7. Emulsion and it’s Applications in Food Processing – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adheeb Usaid A.S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An emulsion is a heterogeneous system consisting of atleast one immiscible liquid dispersed in another in the form of droplets. Emulsions are classified based on the nature of the emulsifier or the structure of the system. The range of droplets size for each type of emulsion is quite arbitrary. Macro emulsions are the most common form of emulsions used in food industries than nano and micro emulsions. There are several methods are possible and a wide range of equipments are available for emulsion formations. These methods include shaking, stirring and injection, and the use of colloid mills, homogenizers and ultrasonics. The unique nature of emulsions with a narrow size distribution of different sized droplets has number of applications in food industries including bakery products, dairy, candy products, meat products and beverages. Still most applications are waiting for commercial exploitation.

  8. Can A Food Retailer-Based Healthier Foods Initiative Improve The Nutrient Profile Of US Packaged Food Purchases? A Case Study Of Walmart, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Healthier foods initiatives (HFIs) by national food retailers offer an opportunity to improve the nutritional profile of packaged food purchases (PFPS). Using a longitudinal dataset of US household PFPs, with methods to account for selectivity of shopping at a specific retailer, we modeled the effect of Walmart’s HFI using counterfactual simulations to examine observed vs. expected changes in the nutritional profile of Walmart PFPs. From 2000 to 2013, Walmart PFPs showed major declines in energy, sodium, and sugar density, as well as declines in sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy, beyond trends at similar retailers. However, post-HFI declines were similar to what we expected based on pre-HFI trends, suggesting that these changes were not attributable to Walmart’s HFI. These results suggest that food retailer-based HFIs may not be sufficient to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. PMID:26526244

  9. Mineshafts on Treasure Island: A Relief Map of the eBay Fraud Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Calkins

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As explorers once opened up new trade passages, thus attracting hordes of both honest traders and dishonest pirates, so too has the Internet opened new lanes of commerce and attracted the modern versions of the same. One of the widest of these lanes undoubtedly runs through eBay, located at http://www.ebay.com . From its humble beginnings as a little-known auction site hawking PEZ candy dispensers, broken laser pointers and other garage-sale pickings, eBay has transformed itself into a reputable public sales powerhouse where a Gulfstream II jet, million-dollar sports artifacts, and Madonna’s wedding tiara might easily change hands.4

  10. Construcció de sensors electroquímics amb el nou ionòfor tetronasina i aplicació en estratègies analítiques avançades

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Boluda, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    L'interès que hi ha per trobar elèctrodes selectius d'ions (ISE) de millors característiques i el fet que l'antibiòtic tetronasina presenta uns equilibris d'intercanvi iònic en solució molt ràpids ens va fer plantejar l'ús d'aquest antibiòtic com a element electroactiu en ISE. La primera part de la investigació realitzada va correspondre a la construcció i avaluació de la resposta d'ISE basats en l'antibiòtic tetronasina per la detecció de l'ió sodi. A priori, aquest ió va ser el primer candi...

  11. 鳕鱼胶原蛋白在食品加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶晶

    2014-01-01

    Cod collagen is a functional protein, due to unique physico-chemical properties and biological functions, it has been widely application in the food processing industry. This paper discusses its application in dairy, fruit juices, candy, cakes, meat and packing material.%鳕鱼胶原蛋白是一种功能性蛋白质,其独特的理化性质与生物功能使其在食品加工行业中有着广泛的应用。论述其在乳制品、果汁、糖果、蛋糕、肉制品、包装材料中的应用。

  12. 麦芽糖及麦芽糖醇的生产与应用%The production and application of maltose and maltitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光辉; 修秀红; 李玉珍

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了不同规格的麦芽糖和麦芽糖醇的生产技术,和在功能性食品、糖果、巧克力、果汁饮料和冷冻食品中的应用情况,表明麦芽糖和麦芽糖醇作为一种重要的食品添加剂和甜味剂,在我国食品工业中具有广阔的应用前景.%This paper reports the production technology of different kinds of maltose and maltitol. The applications in producing functional foods, candy, chocolate, fruit juice beverage and frozen foods show that as an important food additive and sweeter, maltose and maltitol have a broad application prospects in food industry.

  13. The Functional Properties and Product Development of Purple Sweet Potato%紫甘薯的功能性质及产品开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何胜生

    2013-01-01

    详细介绍了紫甘薯的营养成分及其生理功能的研究现状.同时,对紫色甘薯的营养及药用价值的深入研究也促进了紫甘薯加工的发展,简述了紫色甘薯脆片、紫色甘薯软糖、紫色地瓜干等紫甘薯系列产品的加工工艺.%The research status of nutritional components and physiological functions of purple sweet potato were introduced in details. The deeply research about nutrition and medicinal value of purple sweet potato could promote the development of purple sweet potato processing. The processing technique of purple sweet potato crisp, purple potato soft candy and dried purple sweet potato were briefly described.

  14. Soledade. The first cemetery of the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rabelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of cemeteries occurred because of a change in funeral habits, when burials were transferred from the church to saint fields. In 1850, the first public cemetery was inaugurated in the city of Belem, Brazil. The Cemetery Nossa Senhora da Soledade (CNSS has a strong symbolic representation. Although its burials have ceased 30 years after its opening, the place is still visited for religious purpose, expressed in the practice souls and popular saints cults, held every Monday when the cemetery is open to the public. Hundreds of people come to the CNSS for pray near the graves. They deposit candies, soft drinks, flowers, and some sculptures adorned with shirts and ribbons, as a signal of gratitude for the graces received, attributed to the souls represented by the saints. Summed to the offerings, the tombs abandon, dirty plus graffiti, the cemetery is in a bad condition.

  15. J-PARC annual report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2011 the major event at the J-PARC facility was the recovery from the damage caused by the March earthquake. At the time when this earthquake occurred, I thought that it will be almost impossible to resume operations within a year. Roads were winding like wet candies; many electric power supplies and water supplies torn down; accelerator magnets and shielding concretes plus irons moved significantly; and some adjunct facility buildings inclined. In addition, water and electricity were not available for the first few weeks. Nevertheless, by carefully examining all the damages, we created a schedule of recovery to the original shape within 9 months, to be completed by the end of the year. Our people worked very hard, day and night, and finally by December 9th of 2011 all the elements were recovered back and the J-PARC was able to restart data acquisition with users from the beginning of 2012. (J.P.N.)

  16. PENGARUH VARIABEL-VARIABEL MOTIVASI TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS TENAGA KERJA KARYAWAN PADA INDUSTRI RUMAH TANGGA DI KABUPATEN SIDOARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundring Pantja Djati

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out to find the effect of motivation variables such as physical need, safety and labor need, social need, self-esteem need, and actualization need on the productivity of workers at home industries in Sidoarjo region. This research also intended to find which variables mostly affect that productivity. I used the primary data which was derived form a survey on 40 respondents of home industries located at 4 local districts in Sidoarjo region: Tanggulangin, Candi, Buduran and Waru. The technique of data collecting used in this research wan Non Proportional Satisfied Random Sampling. Validity and reliability analysis was used to test the validity and reliability technique. Double linear regression was used as an analysis model. This model was chosen because this research intended to find to that extend independent variables affect dependent variables. This research indicated that motivation variables such as physical need, safety need, labor safety need, social need, self-esteem need and actualization need together showed a significant effect on the productivity of worker at home-industries in Sidoarjo. Partial and simultaneous analysis both indicated that, among those variables, physical both indicated the strongest influence, especially at Candi region. This was in line with the type of industry in that region that is "tempe" (soybean cake industry. This industry offers lower payment/wages compared with other industries which produce bags, suitcases, shoes and other leather handicraft. The result of calculation for all the district as well as for each district indicated that self-actualization variables did not al all affect the productivity of workers. This was indicated by the regression coefficient value and the low T value which conformed to the theory that self-actualization need is the last-fulfilled need after the other four needs. This condition was supported by the low education level of the workers which approved

  17. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  18. MASADA: A Modeling and Simulation Automated Data Analysis framework for continuous data-intensive validation of simulation models

    CERN Document Server

    Foguelman, Daniel Jacob; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Complex networked computer systems are usually subjected to upgrades and enhancements on a continuous basis. Modeling and simulation of such systems helps with guiding their engineering processes, in particular when testing candi- date design alternatives directly on the real system is not an option. Models are built and simulation exercises are run guided by specific research and/or design questions. A vast amount of operational conditions for the real system need to be assumed in order to focus on the relevant questions at hand. A typical boundary condition for computer systems is the exogenously imposed workload. Meanwhile, in typical projects huge amounts of monitoring information are logged and stored with the purpose of studying the system’s performance in search for improvements. Also research questions change as systems’ operational conditions vary throughout its lifetime. This context poses many challenges to determine the validity of simulation models. As the behavioral empirical base of the sys...

  19. Studi Intervensi Klaster Kawasan Tanpa Rokok pada Tingkat Rumah Tangga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmah Najmah

    2015-05-01

    sampling method. The intervention included integrated counseling, distribution of candy as substitute for cigarette, and healthy saving. Results of study showed that proportion of respondents who smoked every day in a recent month and had a commitment not to smoke in the future reached 71.6% and 62% in the intervention group, then 91% and 38% in the non-intervention group respectively. This intervension had opportunity worth 46% reducing the smoking behavior of the respondents (RP= 0.46 after controlled by the variable of education (RP = 0.152 and attitude (RP = 0.216 with p value < 0.0001. This integrated intervention was profoundly successful changing smoking behavior at household level. So that, public participation and health agency need to follow up the implementation of this intervention in a long term.

  20. Effects of deceptive packaging and product involvement on purchase intention: an elaboration likelihood model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, H B

    2000-04-01

    From an Elaboration Likelihood Model perspective, it was hypothesized that postexposure awareness of deceptive packaging claims would have a greater negative effect on scores for purchase intention by consumers lowly involved rather than highly involved with a product (n = 40). Undergraduates who were classified as either highly or lowly (ns = 20 and 20) involved with M&Ms examined either a deceptive or non-deceptive package design for M&Ms candy and were subsequently informed of the deception employed in the packaging before finally rating their intention to purchase. As anticipated, highly deceived subjects who were low in involvement rated intention to purchase lower than their highly involved peers. Overall, the results attest to the robustness of the model and suggest that the model has implications beyond advertising effects and into packaging effects. PMID:10840911

  1. Distribution of sucrose around the mouth and its clearance after a sucrose mouthrinse or consumption of three different foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, L M; Dawes, C

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of sucrose in whole saliva and in saliva from seven different regions of the mouth was determined in 10 subjects over the 10-min period following the chewing of a doughnut, sucking on a mint candy, the drinking of orange juice, or use of a 10% sucrose mouthrinse. With all products, the sucrose was distributed non-uniformly, with particularly low concentrations on the lingual surfaces of the lower incisors and the facial surfaces of the upper molars. Clearance was also most rapid from these sites. Since the depth and duration of a Stephan curve in dental plaque is influenced by the sugar concentration to which the plaque is exposed, the results, together with previous results on salivary film velocity in different regions of the mouth, help to provide an explanation for the site-specificity of smooth-surface caries and of supragingival calculus deposition. PMID:8033187

  2. Dietary habits and dental caries in a population of Spanish schoolchildren with low levels of caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Majem, L; García Closas, R; Ramón, J M; Manau, C; Cuenca, E; Krasse, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between current dietary habits and dental caries in schoolchildren from an area of Spain on which the prevalence of caries was low. The results of an epidemiological study conducted on a random sample of 893 children from the cities of Girona and Figueres are presented. The method of dietary interview consisted of a food-frequency questionnaire. This showed a positive relationship between dental caries and consumption of ice cream, pastries, cakes, sliced bread, on the one hand, and sugar-free chewing gum and sugar-free candies, on the other. A protective effect of skimmed milk and artificial sweeteners was also observed. Results reflect the role of certain foods in caries development, but also the outcome of selective dietary counseling to high-risk children. PMID:8281564

  3. 厨神%A GREAT COOK--Joseph Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.

  4. No influence of sugar, snacks and fast food intake on the degree of obesity or treatment effect in childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, C; Fonvig, C E; Bøjsøe, C;

    2016-01-01

    treatment program was associated with the baseline degree of obesity or the treatment effect. METHODS: This prospective study included 1349 overweight and obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores (BMI SDS) ≥ 1.64) enrolled in treatment at The Children's Obesity Clinic, Copenhagen University......BACKGROUND: Increased consumption of sweetened beverages has previously been linked to the degree of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess whether the intake of sweetened beverages, candy, snacks or fast food at baseline in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity...... Hospital Holbaek. The children were evaluated at baseline and after up to 5.9 years of treatment (median 1.3 years). RESULTS: Both boys and girls decreased their BMI SDS during treatment with a mean decrease in boys of 0.35 (p 

  5. OPINION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Credit Cards Not Candy Nowadays, colleges and universities have become a big market for many banks and competition is fierce. At the start of every new semester, numerous banks will send their staff to promote credit cards among college students and some students even havetwo or three credit cards.As long as they are able to pay off theiroverdraft, it’s acceptable to give college stu-dents credit cards. However, students don’have stable incomes. By targeting this group banks have to lower the threshold for cardapplications. Sometimes, they even do nocheck student applicants’ repayment capa-bilities. An important reason for this practiceis that banks know behind the students aretheir parents. If students can’t pay back thecredit, banks will turn to the parents to make good the outstanding amounts.

  6. My 2012 Chinese New Year in Sydney%来自悉尼的新年报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    l went to see Apple alter work at the invitation oi her landlord Aunt Qin. Aunty said the 23rd of lunar 12th month was the day to bribe the Kitchen God with candy. The day is considered a prelude to Spring Festival. As overseas Chinese are especially friendly to each other, I accepted the invitation gladly.%杭州姑娘李岳留学澳洲,毕业后在悉尼工作。今年春节前后,她每天发回一些文字介绍自己过年的情况,我们摘编选登,从平常事中看一个别具特色的海外中国年。

  7. Spisevaner og sundhedsadfaerd blandt 11-15 årige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, P; Holstein, B E; Ito, H;

    1991-01-01

    A total of 1,671 school children aged 11, 13 and 15 years answered a questionnaire on diet, other health behaviour, social background, social network, health and life satisfaction. The proportions who ate fruit, vegetables, and rye bread every day were 77%, 64% and 94%. Moreover, 78% had fibre...... the healthy diet components but an increasing consumption of unhealthy components with increasing age. Among girls we found a decreasing consumption of both healthy and unhealthy components with increasing age. Healthy diet was associated with high social class, good health, positive life satisfaction......-containing breakfast every day and 79% had a regular lunch meal every day. 26% of the children received an optimal diet containing all of these five components every day, and 19% received less than three of these components every day. The proportions who consumed five unhealthy diet components every day (candy, chips...

  8. 灰姑娘大PK:王心凌vs.杨丞琳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    王心凌:小公主外形.圆灰姑娘梦想 王心凌,1982年出生在台湾.处女座.追求完美,永远相信“有志者事竞成”。《车正在追》饰牛奶,《西街少年》饰沈银荷。《天国的嫁衣》饰陶艾青。《微笑Pasta》饰成晓诗。2003年.《运转手之恋》(客串)饰槟榔西施,2008年《Candy Rain-花吃了那女孩/爱情糖果雨》饰小云.

  9. 甜味剂 D-塔格糖的生产及其在食品中的应用%Production of Sweetener D-tagatose and Its Application in Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2016-01-01

    The production methods of sweetener D-tagatose are reviewed.Its application in food such as healthy beverage,dairy products,cereal products,candy and low sugar preserved fruit is stated. Meanwhile,the direction on the research and development of D-tagatose is put forward.%综述了甜味剂 D-塔格糖的生产方法,阐述了 D-塔格糖在健康饮料、乳制品、谷物制品、糖果及低糖果脯等食品领域的应用研究进展,并提出了 D-塔格糖的研究开发方向。

  10. Focusing for Pronoun Resolution in English Discourse An Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ersan, E; Ersan, Ebru; Akman, Varol

    1994-01-01

    Anaphora resolution is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing. This study examines focusing as a tool for the resolution of pronouns which are a kind of anaphora. Focusing is a discourse phenomenon like anaphora. Candy Sidner formalized focusing in her 1979 MIT PhD thesis and devised several algorithms to resolve definite anaphora including pronouns. She presented her theory in a computational framework but did not generally implement the algorithms. Her algorithms related to focusing and pronoun resolution are implemented in this thesis. This implementation provides a better comprehension of the theory both from a conceptual and a computational point of view. The resulting program is tested on different discourse segments, and evaluation and analysis of the experiments are presented together with the statistical results.

  11. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME NOVEL PYRAZOLES AND THEIR GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY ON SOME FLOWERING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hushare VJ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of chlorosubstituted 4-aroylpyrazoles have been synthesized by refluxing of chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and 3-alkoylchromone with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride in dioxane medium with 0.5 ml of piperidine. Chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and chlorosubstituted-3-alkoylchromone were prepared by refluxing them separately with iodine crystal in ethanol. Initially chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavanones and 3-alkoylchromanone have been prepared separately by the interaction of different aldehydes with 1(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione. Constitutions of synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, UV-Visible, I.R. and 1H-NMR spectral data. The titled compounds were evaluated for their growth promoting activity on some flowering plants viz. Papaver rhoeas, Dianthus chinensis, Candy tuft, Calendula officinalise, Gladiola tristis, Gaillardia.

  12. Estudio por HPLC de la acción de dos elicitores bióticos sobre la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios en células de clavel (Dianthus canophyilus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Ligia Higuera M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la investigación que busca contribuir al estudio de los mecanismos de defensa que operan en la interacción clavel (Dianthus caryophyllus L. - Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. dianthi, se evaluó la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios asociados con resistencia del clavel. Para ello se usaron cultivos de células en suspensión de variedades de clavel resistente (var. Candy y susceptible (var. Rosana, elicitadas durante 3 y 15 días con dos elicitores bióticos, ácido fusárico y filtrado de medio de cultivo del hongo.

  13. Studies on Dictyostelid Cellular Slime Molds in Henan Province%河南省网柄细胞状黏菌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 刘朴; 李玉

    2014-01-01

    从在河南省采集的75份基物中共分离得到14株网柄细胞状黏菌,其中网柄菌属Dictyostelium的圆头网柄菌D.sphaerocephalum、棒形网柄菌D.clavatum和紫网柄菌D.purpureum和轮柄菌属Polysphondylium的亮白轮柄菌P.candidum、紫轮柄菌P.violaceum和纤细轮柄菌P.tenuissium,均为河南省新记录种.文中对该6种网柄菌进行了形态学描述,并附有生长发育部分阶段形态和显微照片.

  14. AcEST: DK958587 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ult : TrEMBL tr_hit_id Q2J5V7 Definition tr|Q2J5V7|Q2J5V7_FRASC Molybdate ABC tra... OS=Candi... 34 9.2 >tr|Q2J5V7|Q2J5V7_FRASC Molybdate ABC transporter, permease protein OS=Frankia sp. (stra..........done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value tr|Q2J5V7|Q2J5V7_FRASC Molybd...ate ABC transporter, permease prote... 39 0.49 tr|Q9CI25|Q9CI25_LACLA N-acetylmuram

  15. The Temporal Dynamics of Spoken Word Recognition in Adverse Listening Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the temporal dynamics of spoken word recognition in noise and background speech. In two visual-world experiments, English participants listened to target words while looking at four pictures on the screen: a target (e.g. candle), an onset competitor (e.g. candy), a rhyme competitor (e.g. sandal), and an unrelated distractor (e.g. lemon). Target words were presented in quiet, mixed with broadband noise, or mixed with background speech. Results showed that lexical competition changes throughout the observation window as a function of what is presented in the background. These findings suggest that, rather than being strictly sequential, stream segregation and lexical competition interact during spoken word recognition. PMID:26420754

  16. High Tech Hunks of Steel: Fixed-Site Amusement Rides and Safety Under State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Kingsley

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  Tomorrow is the big day! Little Bobby Missoula is going to turn ten tomorrow and his parents have promised to take him to Outlandish Adventures, an amusement park that Bobby has seen advertised on television. As Bobby drifts off to sleep, he begins to dream about the fun that he will have on his birthday. He dreams about the smell of cotton candy and the yells of carnies soliciting people in to play their games, but most of all, he dreams about the Lightning Bolt - the tallest, fastest, and scariest roller coaster that little Bobby has ever seen. In his dream, the Lightning Bolt whips Bobby around sharp angles, through upside down loops so close to water that Bobby’s hair and face get wet, down vertical descents at speeds over 100 miles per hour, and finally to an abrupt stop where Bobby rushes to the end of the line to do it all over again.

  17. Consumer perception of food products involving genetic modification: Results from a qualitative study in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Nielsen, Niels Asger;

    2000-01-01

    and living/able to function. 2. The results from consumer samples in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are remarkably similar, showing a strong stability in consumer reactions to the use of genetic modification in food production in these four countries. 3. Consumer perception is characterised by a basic......1. The present study addresses consumer acceptance of food products involving the use of different applications of genetic modification in four Nordic countries. Three food products were used as examples: hard cheese, hard candy, and salmon. Three types of applications of genetic modification were...... in the final product has a clear impact on consumer acceptance. When the GM material is present and viable/able to function, acceptance is lowest. 5. The type of application of genetic modification has an impact on consumer acceptance as well, but it differs across products. Still, there is a clear tendency...

  18. Research Findings on Xylitol and the Development of Xylitol Vehicles to Address Public Health Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Rothen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Xylitol has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective tooth decay preventive agent when used habitually. Nevertheless, its application has been limited by absence of formulations that demand minimal adherence and are acceptable and safe in settings where chewing gum may not be allowed. A substantial literature suggests that a minimum of five to six grams and three exposures per day from chewing gum or candies are needed for a clinical effect. At the same time there is conflicting evidence in the literature from toothpaste studies suggesting that lower-doses and less frequent exposures might be effective. The growing use of xylitol as a sweetener in low amounts in foods and other consumables is, simultaneously, increasing the overall exposure of the public to xylitol and may have additive benefits. PMID:19710081

  19. Searching the Gamma-ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: Fermi GBM and LAT Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

    CERN Document Server

    Racusin, J L; Goldstein, A; Connaughton, V; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Jenke, P; Blackburn, L; Briggs, M S; Broida, J; Camp, J; Christensen, N; Hui, C M; Littenberg, T; Shawhan, P; Singer, L; Veitch, J; Bhat, P N; Cleveland, W; Fitzpatrick, G; Gibby, M H; von Kienlin, A; McBreen, S; Mailyan, B; Meegan, C A; Paciesas, W S; Preece, R D; Roberts, O J; Stanbro, M; Veres, P; Zhang, B -B; Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonino, R; Bregeon, J; Bruel, P; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cavazzuti, E; Charles, E; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Costanza, F; Cuoco, A; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Desiante, R; Digel, S W; Di Lalla, N; Di Mauro, M; Di Venere, L; Drell, P S; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Gill, R; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Granot, J; Green, D; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Jogler, T; Johannesson, G; Kamae, T; Kensei, S; Kocevski, D; Kuss, M; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Li, J; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lubrano, P; Magill, J D; Maldera, S; Malyshev, D; McEnery, J E; Michelson, P F; Mizuno, T; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Negro, M; Nuss, E; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Principe, G; Raino, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Parkinson, P M Saz; Scargle, J D; Sgro, C; Simone, D; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spada, F; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Thayer, J B; Torres, D F; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vianello, G; Wood, K S; Wood, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candi- date LVT151012. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for char- acterizing the upper limits across a large area of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, dif- ferences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  20. Controlling the motion of multiple objects on a Chladni plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Sariola, Veikko; Latifi, Kourosh; Liimatainen, Ville

    2016-09-01

    The origin of the idea of moving objects by acoustic vibration can be traced back to 1787, when Ernst Chladni reported the first detailed studies on the aggregation of sand onto nodal lines of a vibrating plate. Since then and to this date, the prevailing view has been that the particle motion out of nodal lines is random, implying uncontrollability. But how random really is the out-of-nodal-lines motion on a Chladni plate? Here we show that the motion is sufficiently regular to be statistically modelled, predicted and controlled. By playing carefully selected musical notes, we can control the position of multiple objects simultaneously and independently using a single acoustic actuator. Our method allows independent trajectory following, pattern transformation and sorting of multiple miniature objects in a wide range of materials, including electronic components, water droplets loaded on solid carriers, plant seeds, candy balls and metal parts.

  1. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastavrou, Evridiki; Frangos, Savvas; Tamana, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions. PMID:27446226

  2. Un artisan verrier crétois à Venise

    OpenAIRE

    Maltézou, Chryssa

    2016-01-01

    Dans les documents vénitiens l’artisan travaillant le cristal est mentionné comme cristallaio, cristalario (cristellarius). Une sentence judiciaire du 21 juillet 1401, conservée aux Archives d’État de Venise, se réfère à un différend entre une artisane du verre – d’après son nom probablement juive – et son associé crétois. Selon le document publié ci-après, dona Jacoba, cristalario, habitant San Zulian, avait donné à Manoli Foca (Fuga) de Candie, représentant son frère Antonio, une somme de 6...

  3. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  4. 厨神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨行胜

    2006-01-01

    Mom was a good cook. No,I take that back. She was a great cook. She could take a little hamburger,a few potatoes and some canned tomatoes and whip up (激起) a great party worthy of the International Olympic Committee.And the things she could do with a chicken...well,it makes my mouth water to think about it. Her homemade chili sauce was second to none. Her bottled peaches were better than candy. And I once offered to make my sister Kathy's bed for a week if she would give me the last slice of toast made with Mom's homemade bread and slathered in Mom's homemade apricot jam.……

  5. Development of Barrier Layers for the Protection of Candidate Alloys in the VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Carlos G. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jones, J. Wayne [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Pollock, Tresa M. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Was, Gary S. [Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-01-22

    The objective of this project was to develop concepts for barrier layers that enable leading candi- date Ni alloys to meet the longer term operating temperature and durability requirements of the VHTR. The concepts were based on alpha alumina as a primary surface barrier, underlay by one or more chemically distinct alloy layers that would promote and sustain the formation of the pro- tective scale. The surface layers must possess stable microstructures that provide resistance to oxidation, de-carburization and/or carburization, as well as durability against relevant forms of thermo-mechanical cycling. The system must also have a self-healing ability to allow endurance for long exposure times at temperatures up to 1000°C.

  6. Cooperative Autonomous Observation of Volcanic Environments with sUAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravela, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Autonomous Observing System Project (CAOS) at the MIT Earth Signals and Systems Group has developed methodology and systems for dynamically mapping coherent fluids such as plumes using small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS). In the CAOS approach, two classes of sUAS, one remote the other in-situ, implement a dynamic data-driven mapping system by closing the loop between Modeling, Estimation, Sampling, Planning and Control (MESPAC). The continually gathered measurements are assimilated to produce maps/analyses which also guide the sUAS network to adaptively resample the environment. Rather than scan the volume in fixed Eulerian or Lagrangian flight plans, the adaptive nature of the sampling process enables objectives for efficiency and resilience to be incorporated. Modeling includes realtime prediction using two types of reduced models, one based on nowcasting remote observations of plume tracer using scale-cascaded alignment, and another based on dynamically-deformable EOF/POD developed for coherent structures. Ensemble-based Information-theoretic machine learning approaches are used for the highly non-linear/non-Gaussian state/parameter estimation, and for planning. Control of the sUAS is based on model reference control coupled with hierarchical PID. MESPAC is implemented in part on a SkyCandy platform, and implements an airborne mesh that provides instantaneous situational awareness and redundant communication to an operating fleet. SkyCandy is deployed on Itzamna Aero's I9X/W UAS with low-cost sensors, and is currently being used to study the Popocatepetl volcano. Results suggest that operational communities can deploy low-cost sUAS to systematically monitor whilst optimizing for efficiency/maximizing resilience. The CAOS methodology is applicable to many other environments where coherent structures are present in the background. More information can be found at caos.mit.edu.

  7. Study on color keeping effect during low sugar loquat processing%低糖枇杷果脯护色条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦

    2012-01-01

    In order to look for safe and effective sulfur-free color-preserving reagent,the different concentrations of sodium hydrogensulfite and sulfur-free color-preserving reagent(citric acid,VC,phytic acid)were selected to investigate color-preserving effects on raw loquat and loquat candied.Results showed that 0.3% level of sodium hydrogensulfite could significantly improve the L value and H value of loquat;the color-preserving with critic acid was more effective than VC,but in the process of candying,they had the similar colour protecting effect;phytic acid had little effect on the colour of loquat.The colour protecting effect of the mixture of 0.4% citric acid and 0.2% VC was similar to 0.3% sodium hydrogensulfite.%采用不同浓度的亚硫酸氢钠、无硫护色剂(柠檬酸、VC、植酸)分别对枇杷护色处理和糖渍后分析色泽变化的情况,以便进一步寻找安全有效的无硫护色剂。研究表明:添加0.3%的亚硫酸氢钠对枇杷亮度L*值、彩度H值有显著提高作用;柠檬酸单独护色效果较VC好,但在糖渍过程中两者对枇杷的影响相当;植酸的护色效果较差。0.4%柠檬酸+0.2%VC复配使用可以达到0.3%亚硫酸氢钠护色的效果。

  8. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  9. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  10. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper chamber. Authentication of honey from the standpoint of the presence of sugar syrup is very complex, because there is no single method by which honey adulteration can be reliably confirmed. Feeding the colonies in spring should result in stronger colonies and hence the collection of more honey in the brood chambers. The objective of the present study was to determine whether this has effects also on honey authenticity, and to discover a simple method for detection of honey adulteration. The colonies were fed with candy paste that had added yeast and blue dye, to provide markers for detection of honey adulteration. The strength of the colonies and quantity of honey in the brood chambers were monitored. The results of the analysis of stable isotope and activity of foreign enzymes were compared with the results of yeast quantity and colour of the honey (absorbance, L*, a*, b* parameters. Detection of yeast in the honey samples and presence of colour as a consequence of added dye appear to be appropriate methods to follow honey adulteration, and further studies are ongoing.

  11. ACCUMULATION OF POLYHYDROXYALKANOIC ACIDS BY AZOTOBACTER CHROOCOCCUM MAL-201 FROM ORGANIC WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Pal Saha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Azotobacter chroococcum MAL-201 (MTCC 3853, a free-living nitrogen-fixing bacterium accumulated intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid [P(3HB] accounting 69% of cell dry weight (CDW when grown in nitrogrn-free Stockdale medium containing 2% (w/v glucose. It also produced copolymer of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate co-3-hydroxyvalerate [P(3HB-co-3HV] using glucose as primary carbon source and valerate cas cosubstrate. To make the polymer production cost effective four types of waste material of different origin were tested for growth and polymer production. Stockdale medium supplemented with 1% (w/v waste materials failed to yield good growth and polymer accumulation. Two–step cultivation was adopted for better growth and enhanced polymer accumulation. The candy factory waste was most suitable for synthesis of P(3HB accounting 17.8 and 40.58% using single and two-step cultivation conditions respectively. Wastes of domestic and poultry origin produced P(3HB-co-3HV with 3HV content 28.8 and 21.5 mol% respectively in two-step cultivation. Increase concentration of these wastes resulted in further upliftment of 3HV content of polymer with reduced growth and polymer accumulation. However, at optimum incubation the strain MAL-201 cells accumulated P(3HB 48.5% of CDW (at 40h from candy factory waste and P(3HB-co-3HV 24.75 % of CDW with 3HV 34.65 mol % from domestic waste. Intrinsic viscosity, molecular weight and thermal degradation of the polymers accumulated in the cells grown in glucose, glucose with valerate and glucose with waste were compared.

  12. The template preparation and characterization of three new shapes of titania nanometer-array systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yuming; XU Mingxia; LIU Xiangzhi; GE Lei

    2006-01-01

    A two-step anodization process was used to prepare highly ordered porous anodic alumina template (PAA). The template method was combined with the sol-electrophoresis deposition and sol-gel method to synthesize three types of nanometer-array systems. The titania nano-arrays have a high specific surface area. The sol-gel template method was also applied to prepare the rod-shaped titania nanowire-arrays. The diameter of titania nanometer-array is about 50 nm; the length is about 20 μm; and the distance of neighboring two nanowires is about 100 nm. Through controlling the pore depth of the template, the membrane with periodical modulating titania nanodots was prepared. The diameter of the nanodots on the membrane surface was about 75 nm and the dot distance was about 100 nm. Also a compact structure has been found on the back face of the membrane. The sol-electrophoresis template method was used to prepare the nanowire-array system with the shape of string of candied haws. The diameter of nanowires was about 75 nm and the length was about 20 μm. The periodic concave-convex structures were found in each nanowire and the shape looked like string of candied haws. The three types of nano-array systems have a high specific surface area. It can be predicted that this type of surface modulating array system will have new properties and effects that are different from those of common membranes, nanodots and nanowires.

  13. The study of populations of hazelnut c. Avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. Colurna L. and their selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of populations of hazelnut C. avelana L. and Turkish hazelnut C. colurna L. in different regions of Serbia were studied over 1998 - 2005. Round-fruit selections suitable for candy industry were concurrently singled out. Populations of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut are characterized by small or medium large fruits with round shape index and kernel index ranging from 0.77 - 0.89 and 0.78 - 0.84 respectively. Singled out selections of hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut have averagely medium large fruits and kernel. Round shape index of fruits and kernel of hazelnut amount to 0.98 (1.01 - 0.91 and 0.99 (1.00 - 0.96 respectively, whereas the same parameter in Turkish hazelnut amounts to 0.99 (0.99 - 0.97 and 0.98 (0.98 - 0.97. Average fruit weight of the singled out selections is 1.79 g (hazelnut and 1.74 g (Turkish hazelnut. Average kernel mass is 0.75 - 0.70 g. i.e. kernel ratio in hazelnut and Turkish hazelnut amounts to 41% and 40.2% respectively. The mineral matter content in the kernel of the selections amounted to 2.4% and 2.3% respectively. Raw proteins content ranged from 13.8% - 12.4% respectively, and oil content ranged from 47.7 - 50.2% respectively. The majority of indicators under in situ conditions suggest that all selections singled out from the population deserve attention with objective of more intensified propagation and wider introduction into commercial production. It particularly refers to the round shaped kernel which is the most suitable for the candy industry. .

  14. An evaluation of lead concentrations in imported hot sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger Ritchie, Jennifer A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued several warnings and recalls for food products that exceed FDA standards for lead. Products containing chili peppers and salt were often suspected as sources of lead contamination, and included items such as candy that are routinely investigated. However, products such as hot sauces that contain similar ingredients have not been the focus of evaluations. This study quantified lead concentrations in imported hot sauces, evaluated product compliance to existing United States standards, and calculated potential dietary lead exposure for children using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model. Finally, recommendations for reducing the risk of lead exposure from hot sauces are provided. Twenty-five (25) bottles of imported hot sauces manufactured in Mexico and South America were purchased in Clark County, Nevada. All hot sauces were analyzed for lead concentrations, pH, and leaded packaging. Hot sauces were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and packaging was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence technology. Four brands of hot sauces (16%) exceeded 0.1 ppm lead, the current FDA action level for lead in candy. Hot sauces with lead concentrations >0.1 ppm lead contained salt and were manufactured in Mexico. Subsequent analysis of additional lots of hot sauces exceeding 0.1 ppm lead revealed inconsistent lead concentrations between and within manufacturer lots. The lead concentrations of the plastic hot sauce lids ranged from below the limit of detection to 2,028 ppm lead. There was no association between lead concentrations in hot sauces and pepper type. These results indicate the need for more rigorous screening protocols for products imported from Mexico, the establishment of an applicable standard for hot sauce, and resources to allow for the enforcement of existing food safety policies. The data reported herein represent the first known investigation of lead

  15. Koreografi Lingkungan’ Masyarakat Plempoh, Prambanan, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Desa Plempoh, yang berada di wilayah Prambanan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta,diharapkan sebagai penyangga pariwisata situs purbakala candi Boko. Akan tetapi,kenyataannya desa yang terletak di lereng bukit Boko menjelang masuk area candi,tidak menampilkan wujud sebagaimana yang diharapkan. Untuk itu, penulisdan sekaligus koreografer menawarkan alternatif solusi yang dapat memenuhikepentingan masyarakat. Masyarakat diberdayakan dalam pelatihan seni tari,nyanyi, dan teater. Metode yang digunakan adalah ‘Koreografi Lingkungan’,yaitu sebuah proses kreatif bekerja bersama antara tim perancangan seni denganmasyarakat untuk mewujudkan sebuah tari rakyat yang mengangkat legendasetempat, yaitu Jonggrang. Koreografinya mengungkapkan kearifan lokal denganpendekatan masa kini dan menggunakan versi rakyat yang membedakannya dengansendratari Rara Jonggrang yang sudah seringkali ditampilkan selama ini. Environmental Choreography of Plempoh society, Prambanan, Yogyakarta.Plempoh village, located in the region of Prambanan Yogyakarta, is expected as a bufferof Boko temple archaeological tourism sites. However, the fact that the village is locatedon the hillside of the entrance of the temple area, does not display the form as it isexpected. Therefore, the writer, also a choreographer, offers an alternative solution to meetthe interests of the community. The people of this society were empowered by the trainingsof dancing, singing, and theater. The method used in the research was ‘EnvironmentalChoreography’ which was a creative process of group working between the design teamand the society to create a public art with a folk dance which raised the local legend,Jonggrang. The choreography revealed the local wisdom with the present approach, andused the version distinguishing people with Rara Jonggrang ballet that has often beenshown lately.

  16. Identification of a DYRK1A Inhibitor that Induces Degradation of the Target Kinase using Co-chaperone CDC37 fused with Luciferase nanoKAZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonamoto, Rie; Kii, Isao; Koike, Yuka; Sumida, Yuto; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Okuno, Yukiko; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase family includes attractive targets for drug development. Methods for screening of kinase inhibitors remain largely limited to in vitro catalytic assays. It has been shown that ATP-competitive inhibitors antagonize interaction between the target kinase and kinase-specific co-chaperone CDC37 in living cells. Here we show a cell-based method to screen kinase inhibitors using fusion protein of CDC37 with a mutated catalytic 19-kDa component of Oplophorus luciferase, nanoKAZ (CDC37-nanoKAZ). A dual-specificity kinase DYRK1A, an importance of which has been highlighted in Alzheimer's disease, was targeted in this study. We established 293T cells stably expressing CDC37-nanoKAZ, and analyzed interaction between CDC37-nanoKAZ and DYRK1A. We revealed that DYRK1A interacted with CDC37-nanoKAZ. Importantly, point mutations that affect autophosphorylation strengthened the interaction, thus improving signal/noise ratio of the interaction relative to non-specific binding of CDC37-nanoKAZ. This high signal/noise ratio enabled screening of chemical library that resulted in identification of a potent inhibitor of DYRK1A, named CaNDY. CaNDY induced selective degradation of DYRK1A, and inhibited catalytic activity of recombinant DYRK1A with IC50 value of 7.9 nM by competing with ATP. This method based on a mutant target kinase and a bioluminescence-eliciting co-chaperone CDC37 could be applicable to evaluation and development of inhibitors targeting other kinases. PMID:26234946

  17. Relationship of medical status, medications, and salivary flow rates in adults of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Brightman, V J; Pogoda, J M

    1996-02-01

    Multiple systemic disorders and medications have been reported to cause xerostomia or salivary gland hypofunction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship among systemic disorders, medications, and salivary flow rates. Sixty-three ambulatory dental patients aged 23 to 82 years were randomly selected. The nature, duration, and number of systemic disorders and medications were documented. Repeated measurements of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid salivary flow rates were obtained. Data were analyzed with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test. For persons with systemic disorders who were taking medication, all salivary flow rates were significantly (p = 0.03 - 0.001) lower than the flow rates in healthy persons. Among persons with at least one systemic disorder who were taking medication, those who had been taking medication for longer than 2 years had significantly lower unstimulated whole saliva (p = 0.002), chewing-stimulated whole saliva (p = 0.0004), and candy-stimulated parotid saliva (p = 0.02) flow rates than those who had been taking medication for 1 to 2 years. The number of systemic disorders significantly (p = 0.02) and negatively affected the acid-stimulated parotid salivary rates. The prevalence of salivary hypofunction determined on the basis of unstimulated whole saliva and acid-stimulated parotid saliva was significantly higher (p = < 0.001, p = 0.007) in the those persons with systemic disorders and taking medications. The results suggest that salivary secretion is affected by the number of systemic disorders and duration of the potentially xerogenic medications.

  18. Beyond Television: Children’s Engagement with Online Food and Beverage Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rena Mendelson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food and beverage marketing has been implicated in the childhood obesity “pandemic.” Prior studies have established the negative impact of television advertising on children’s dietary intake, yet few have considered the role of online food and beverage marketing, particularly within the Canadian context.Objective: This study explores children’s engagement in online marketing and investigates the potential impact on their dietary intake.Methods: Participants were recruited from the Ryerson University Summer Day Camp to participate in a single one-on-one semi-structured interview.Results: A total of 83 children (age 7 to13 years; mean 9.99 years; 56.3% boys, 43.8% girls participated in the study. Fewer children thought that there is food, drink, or candy advertising on the internet (67.7% than on television (98.8% (p 0.001. Awareness of online marketing increased with age: 7 to 8 year olds (23.67%; 4, 9 to10 years (63.89%; 23, 11 to12 years (86.96%; 20; 13 years (100%; 9. Over one-third of children had visited a website after seeing the address advertised on television (n = 32; 38.55% or on product package (n = 29; 34.94%.Conclusions: Branded internet sites, commonly featured on television and product packaging, offer new opportunities for marketers to reach children with messages promoting commercial food and beverage items. These websites are subsequently spread via word-of-mouth through children’s peer networks. The independent impact of web-based food, drink and candy marketing, as well as the synergistic effect of multi-channel product promotion, on children’s dietary intake merits further investigation.

  19. Composição química e valores energéticos de alimentos alternativos para leitões Chemical composition and energetic values of alternative feedstuffs for piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Wesendonck

    2013-02-01

    candy and chocolate bar waste (CCBW using nursery piglets as an experimental model. Ten castrated piglets weighing 7.4±0.97kg individually housed in a metabolic cage were used. The piglets were distributed in five treatments: 1 Reference diet (RD; 2 60% RD + 40% CW; 3 60% RD + 40% WW; 4 80% RD + 20% CCW; and, 5 80% RD + 20% CCBW. The experiment was repeated in three consecutive 12 day timeframes, being seven for adaptation and five for total collection of feces and urine. The ferric oxide was used as fecal marker. Randomized block design was used to compare the digestibility coefficients. Crude protein values were 7.96, 10.78, 6.33 and 4.01 for cookie flour, dry wafer, caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars, respectively. A high amount of ether extract was observed on cookie flour and dry wafer (11.7 and 9.4%, respectively, however the chocolate by-products presented higher values (24.7 and 34.3%, for caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars, respectively. There was no difference (P>0.05 among digestibility coefficients of nutrients and energy and metabolizability energy coefficients among the feedstuff studied. The digestible and metabolisable energy values were 3914 and 3745; 4040 and 3767; 4454 and 4200; and, 4937 and 4790 kcal/kg for cookie flour, dry wafer, caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars, respectively. It is concluded that cookie flour, dry wafer, caramel chocolate and candy and chocolate bars have potential to be used in the diets of nursery pigs.

  20. Conducere apothecam, in qua exercere artem nostram: Το εργαστήριο ενός βυζαντινού και ενός βενετού ζωγράφου στην Κρήτη

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Μαρία ΚΩΝΣΤΑΝΤΟΥΔΑΚΗ-ΚΙΤΡΟΜΗΛΙΔΟΥ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marie Constantoudaki-KitromilidesConducere apothecam,  in  qua exercere artem nostram. L'atelier d'un peintre byzantin et d'un peintre vénitien à CandieIl y a plus de trente ans, le père Mario Cattapan publia une première série de documents, provenant des Archives d'État de Venise et concernant des peintres ayant exercé en Crète de 1300 à 1500. Ce travail constitua un tournant important pour l'étude de la peinture dans l'île sous domination vénitienne. Depuis, des témoignages nouveaux ont éclairé l'activité d'artistes connus de la même époque; d'autres ont révélé les noms et l'activité d'artistes inconnus jusqu'à maintenant.La recherche du père Cattapan, ainsi que des documents étudiés par nous-même, ont apporté de données nouvelles sur l'activité du peintre Nicolaos Philanthropenos, habitant de Candie et probablement descendant d'une famille originaire de Constantinople. De ce dossier, nous publions et commentons ici une pièce rare.Il s'agit d'un contrat, rédigé dans la ville de Candie et daté du 23 novembre 1400, qui concerne la collaboration, sous forme de coopération professionelle (societas, entre Nicolaos Philantrhopenos et le peintre vénitien Nicolaus (Nicolò Storlado. Les deux artistes décident de louer ensemble une boutique pour exercer leur métier pendant une période de trois ans.L'analyse du document et son commentaire nous permettent de mieux comprendre l'activité du peintre Nicolaos Philanthropenos dans l'île de Crète mais aussi à Constantinople et à Venise. En effet, la production artistique de Philanthropenos s'étendait depuis les icônes byzatntines aux retables (pale d'altare de type occidental et aux mosaïques de Saint Marc de Venise. D'autre part, notre document éclaire les chemins de contact entre les peintres crétois et l'art vénitien. Le fonctionnement d'un atelier commun, tenu par deux peintres de formation et expérience culturelle différentes peut être interp

  1. Risk Factors of Dental Cavities in Children Factores de riesgo de caries dental en niños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sexto Delgado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Dental cavities are a kind of disease that is increasing. The quantitative change has also produced qualitative changes concerning the type, extension and location of the lesions. Objective: To identify the selected risks of dental cavities among the students of a primary school. Methods: An analytic investigation of the controls and cases performed during academic course 2004 to 2005. The universe was constituted by 320 students where 204 were selected for this study. The cases were selected among the children who were affected by cavities (102 and the controls were selected by a simple randomized sample, i.e. a control one for each case (102. A consultation was carried out in the school to value the risks and the presence of the disease. Affectation due to cavities, malocclusion, and parodontopathies, age, sex, scholar degree, bad oral hygiene, previous experience of cavities in primary and permanent dentition, saliva viscosity, dental overlapping, orthodontic treatment, and sugar candies ingestions were the variables analyzed. Results: It was corroborated that the 49.5 % of the cases were affected by cavities, 23 % by malocclusion, and parodontopathies were observed in the 2, 0 %. The 80.3 % of the cases had a very bad oral hygiene, 50 % presented saliva viscosity and 95.1 % of the cases used to ingest sugar candies. Conclusions: The association between the classic risks of dental cavities appearance such as bad oral hygiene, previous experience of cavities, saliva viscosity and sugar candies ingestion were shown in this study.

    Fundamento: La caries dental es una enfermedad que ha ido aumentando. El cambio cuantitativo en ella también ha producido cambios cualitativos en cuanto al tipo, extensión y localización de las lesiones. Objetivo: Identificar los riesgos seleccionados de caries dental entre los

  2. Study on enzymatic browning and blanching methods of chestnut%板栗的酶促褐变特性及灭酶预处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷婷; 张立彦; 芮汉明

    2011-01-01

    The activity and thermal stability of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in frozed chestnut were studied. The blanching methods and their effects on candying processing of chestnut were also investigated. Results showed that the thermal stability of PPO was higher than POD,the optimum temperature and pH of PPQ were 20℃,6.5 respectively, When the relative activity of PPO was decreased to less than 8%,the enzymes causing browning in chestnut were estimated to be inactivated enough, Compared with the way of hot water and steam blanching, enzymatic browning in chestnut was inhibited efficiently by microwave blanching ,and the sugar impregnation into chestnut was enhanced too in the processing of low-sugar candied chestnut, The optimal treatment of microwave blanching was that chestnut was heated at 4W/g power indensity for 6min.%对冻藏板栗中多酚氧化酶(PPO)的活力及热稳定性进行了比较,研究低糖板栗果脯灭酶顸处理及其对后续渗糖过程的影响。结果表明:板栗中影响褐变的酶主要有PPO和POD,其中PPO较POD热稳定性略高。冻藏后的板栗中PPO最适温度及pH分别为20℃和6.5。板栗加工中应以板栗PPO活力降至8%以下作为是否灭酶充分的标准。通过与热水烫漂灭酶、蒸汽灭酶比较发现,微波热烫处理可抑制低糖板粟果脯加工过程中的褐变,并有助于提高渗糖效率。微波炎酶的最佳条件是:功率密度4W/g,处理6min。

  3. Astronomy for Extremely ill or Traumatically Injured Children and Their Families - IAU OAD Grant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    This grant funded a program for extremely ill or traumatically injured children, their siblings, and family members rlated to the children’s surgery and medical treatments at nearby hospitals. This grant provided an educational family-learning experience and out-of-this world diversion from the stress of being sick or of having a sick family member hospitalized. The families stayed at the four Ronald McDonald Houses (RMHs) of Chicago. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.The RMH staff and volunteers were trained to: use optical and solar telescopes; use the Stellarium program to show the night sky, identify objects, and plan observing sessions; use Sky and Telescope or Astronomy Magazine to selected the best nights for observing; conduct simple family oriented demonstrations; demonstrate citizen science/Zooniverse activities; and provide information about science museums and astronomy clubs near their home. The Chicago Astronomical Society (amateur astronomy club) provides ongoing support.I created an Activity Book with demonstrations and participatory hands-on activities including a toilet plunger sundial, making a sundial, creating a scale model of the Solar System (football field or toilet paper), phases and craters of the Moon (Oreo cookie phases, flour/ cocoa crater formation), eclipses, make constellations from chocolate chips in chocolate-chip cookies, crate your own constellation patterns, stellar temperature (images, demonstrations, candy), order images of the stages of

  4. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Methods Principals from elementary (n = 369) and middle/high schools (n = 118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman’s Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. Results In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR = 6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR = 4.54 and OR = 3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR = 5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR = .80) and sugar

  5. Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present dietary intake of elderly Icelanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eysteinsdottir Tinna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies exist on the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs administered to elderly people. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a short FFQ on present dietary intake, developed specially for the AGES-Reykjavik Study, which includes 5,764 elderly individuals. Assessing the validity of FFQs is essential before they are used in studies on diet-related disease risk and health outcomes. Method 128 healthy elderly participants (74 y ± 5.7; 58.6% female answered the AGES-FFQ, and subsequently filled out a 3-day weighed food record. Validity of the AGES-FFQ was assessed by comparing its answers to the dietary data obtained from the weighed food records, using Spearman's rank correlation, Chi-Square/Kendall's tau, and a Jonckheere-Terpstra test for trend. Result For men a correlation ≥ 0.4 was found for potatoes, fresh fruits, oatmeal/muesli, cakes/cookies, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, tea and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.40-0.71. A lower, but acceptable, correlation was also found for raw vegetables (r = 0.33. The highest correlation for women was found for consumption of rye bread, oatmeal/muesli, raw vegetables, candy, dairy products, milk, pure fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee and tea (r = 0.40-0.61. An acceptable correlation was also found for fish topping/salad, fresh fruit, blood/liver sausage, whole-wheat bread, and sugar in coffee/tea (r = 0.28-0.37. Questions on meat/fish meals, cooked vegetables and soft drinks did not show a significant correlation to the reference method. Pearson Chi-Square and Kendall's tau showed similar results, as did the Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test. Conclusion A majority of the questions in the AGES-FFQ had an acceptable correlation and may be used to rank individuals according to their level of intake of several important foods/food groups. The AGES-FFQ on present diet may therefore be used to study the relationship between

  6. 实时三维人体卡通运动的设计与实现%Real-Time 3D Human Cartoon Animation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘登志; 卢书芳; 万贤美; 金小刚

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for generating 3D real-time cartoon animation. We first use the Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filter to process the motion capture data, which results in a more “alive” or “animated” animation style. Then, we use the analogy to heat equilibrium to automatically rig the mesh model. After that, we retarget the filtered data to the rigged mesh model and generate cartoon animation sequences. The spherical blend skinning (SBS) is employed to avoid collapse and candy wrapper artifacts, which costs low computation and memory space. The advantage of the presented method lies in its simplicity and real-time performance. Experiments show that our approach can produce satisfactory results. The system is easy to use even for novices.%为了实现虚拟角色的三维卡通运动,提出一种结合卡通滤波与骨骼模型自动绑定的实时生成算法.首先运用高斯拉普拉斯算子对捕获的运动数据进行滤波,然后用热量平衡的原理来自动绑定给定的人体模型,最后将滤波后的运动数据加载到绑定好的模型中,生成卡通化的夸张的动画序列.为了避免出现"collapse"和"candy wrapper"等走样现象,采用了SBS算法对网格进行变形.运动捕获数据滤波与蒙皮过程均使用GPU进行了加速.实验结果表明,运用该算法生成的动画效果满足动画法则,网格变形后表面光滑,用户交互简单.

  7. Study on the relationship between oral hygiene habits and early childhood caries%口腔卫生习惯与儿童乳牙龋发病的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢青侠

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析儿童乳牙龋与口腔卫生习惯方面的相关性,为临床乳牙龋的预防提供理论依据.方法 对北京原宣武区部分幼儿园的165位儿童并按照是否患有乳牙龋分为病例组87例和健康对照组88例,采用多因素条件Logistic回归分析口腔卫生习惯与乳牙龋发病的相关性.结果 儿童开始刷牙时间<2岁,每日刷牙次数<1次,喜欢吃糖果,睡前吃零食与乳牙龋病发病密切相关,而使用氟牙膏和有漱口习惯可以减少乳牙龋病发病.结论 刷牙年龄过大,刷牙频率过低,喜欢糖果及睡前吃零食与儿童乳牙龋发病密切相关.%OBJECTIVE To study on the relationship between oral hygiene habits and early childhood caries, and provide a theoretical basis. METHODS 165 children in Beijing Xuanwu District kindergarten and were divided into a group of 87 patients and healthy control group 88 cases by status of caries. By using the multivariate Logistic regression analysis, we analyzed the association between oral hygiene and early childhood caries in primary teeth of pathogenetic relevance. RESULTS Children who start brushing time < 2years of age, times of brushing teeth < ltimes, loves to eat candy, bedtime snacks and dental caries in early childhood caries are closely related, and the use of fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash can be used to reduce the incidence of caries in early childhood caries. CONCLUSION Stating brushing teeth is too old, and tooth brushing frequency is too low, like candy and bedtime snacks and closely related to the onset of early childhood caries.

  8. Hedonic appreciation and verbal description of pleasant and unpleasant odors in untrained, trainee cooks, flavorists and perfumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eSezille

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is characterized by a salient hedonic dimension. Previous studies have shown that these affective responses to odors are modulated by physicochemical, physiological and cognitive factors. The present study examined expertise influenced processing of pleasant and unpleasant odors on both perceptual and verbal levels. For this, performance on 2 olfactory tasks was compared between novices, trainee cooks and experts (perfumers and flavorists: members of all groups rated the intensity and pleasantness of pleasant and unpleasant odors (perceptual tasks. They were also asked to describe each of the 20 odorants as precisely as possible (verbal description task. On a perceptual level, results revealed that there were no group-related differences in hedonic ratings for unpleasant and pleasant odors. On a verbal level, descriptions of smells were richer (e.g. chemical, olfactory qualities and olfactory sources terms and did not refer to pleasantness in experts compared to untrained subjects who used terms referring to odor sources (e.g. candy accompanied by terms referring to odor hedonics. In conclusion, the present study suggests that as novices, experts are able to perceptually discriminate odors on the basis of their pleasantness. However, on a semantic level, they conceptualize odors differently, being inclined to avoid any reference to odor hedonics.

  9. Science Outreach for the Thousands: Coe College's Playground of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. E.; Franke, M.; Affatigato, M.; Feller, S.

    2011-12-01

    Coe College is a private liberal arts college nestled in the northeast quadrant of Cedar Rapids, IA. Coe takes pride in the outreach it does in the local community. The sciences at Coe find enjoyment in educating the children and families of this community through a diverse set of venues; from performing science demonstrations for children at Cedar Rapids' Fourth of July Freedom Festival to hosting summer forums and talks to invigorate the minds of its more mature audiences. Among these events, the signature event of the year is the Coe Playground of Science. On the last Thursday of October, before Halloween, the science departments at Coe invite nearly two thousand children from pre elementary to high school ages, along with their parents to participate in a night filled with science demos, haunted halls, and trick-or-treating for more than just candy. The demonstrations are performed by professors and students alike from a raft of cooperative departments including physics, chemistry, biology, math, computer science, nursing, ROTC, and psychology. This event greatly strengthens the relationships between institution members and community members. The sciences at Coe understand the importance of imparting the thrill and hunger for exploration and discovery into the future generations. More importantly they recognize that this cannot start and end at the collegiate level, but the American public must be reached at younger ages and continue to be encouraged beyond the college experience. The Playground of Science unites these two groups under the common goal of elevating scientific interest in the American people.

  10. Process Development and Future for Solid Fru-glucose%固体果葡糖生产工艺研究及前景展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乃强; 尹月玲; 杨海军; 王明珠; 王彩梅

    2013-01-01

      固体果葡糖是一种新型糖源,与果葡糖浆相比,具有便于运输、贮藏、计量和使用等优点。它是以果葡糖浆为原料经真空干燥、粉碎后得到的一种果葡糖浆固体状产品,可广泛应用于食品、医药、化学等领域,具有广阔的市场潜力和需求。%Solid Fru-glucose is a new kind of candy sources. It is easy for transportation,storage,measurement and use than Fructose syrup. Solid Fru-glucose was prepared from Fructose srup via vacuum drying and grinding. It is used in food,medicine and chemistry,and wil have broad potential market and demand.

  11. SINERGISME PEMANFAATAN SUMBERDAYA LOKAL DAN PEMBERDAYAAN KELOMPOK IBU-IBU DI DESA LAMUNTI PERMAI A1 KAWASAN EKS PLG KALIMANTAN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTI IRYA ICHRIANI, dkk.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Community Service was conducted in conjunction to the IbM programme DP2M DIKTI 2013 with the women groups of Lamunti Permai Kawasan Ex PLG, sub distric Mentangai, District Kapuas, Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan. The purposes of IbM programme (1 assist local communities in order to empower the surrounding natural resources, namely pineapple and (2 provide the skills of women to cultivate pineapple into processed food products which can become be a business opportunity for them. In late the IbM program, the group of women partners are skilled making, packing and labeling of processed pineapple products. Processed pineapple products are made in the form of crackers and wetcandied pineapples. The products were introduced to the outside Lamunti Permai. The problems encountered were the standard product could not be done in the distant location for marketing which led to increase the production costs, and moreover the production license that does not exist so that consumer confidence in processed food products is still low. Keywords: pineapple crackers, pineapple candied

  12. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Susin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in the field of Analytical Chemistry due to the complexity of the composition of such a food. On the other hand, the sodium content of foods is currently a major concern. Thus, this work aims to provide information concerning the composition of commercial milk chocolate in terms of its fatty acid profile and sodium content. To achieve this purpose, analytical adjustments and improvements to the methodology were made and described in this paper. Sodium (FAAS and a total of 50 fatty acids (GC-FID were determined in eight samples of milk chocolate bars from different manufacturers. The samples were purchased from retailers in Porto Alegre – Brazil. In the determination of the fatty acids, possible losses during methylation deserved special attention and were studied. Nevertheless, large differences were not found in comparison with the nutritional facts declared on the label. However, the results obtained for sodium demonstrated the importance of food inspection, considering the discrepancies found.

  13. Rac1 governs exercise-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle through regulation of GLUT4 translocation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sylow, Lykke; Nielsen, Ida Marie Laurent; Kleinert, Maximilian;

    2016-01-01

    Exercise increase skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signaling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood but the GTPase Rac1 is a candi......KO muscle. Our findings implicate Rac1 as a regulatory element critical for controlling glucose uptake during exercise via regulation of GLUT4 translocation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Exercise increase skeletal muscle energy turnover and one of the important substrates for the working muscle is glucose taken up from the blood. Despite extensive efforts, the signaling mechanisms vital for glucose uptake during exercise are not yet fully understood but the GTPase Rac1 is a...... candidate molecule. This study investigated the role of Rac1 in muscle glucose uptake and substrate utilization during treadmill exercise in mice in vivo. Exercise-induced uptake of radiolabelled 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) at 65% max running capacity was blocked in soleus and decreased by 80 and 60% in...

  14. Fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing to assess swallowing outcomes as a function of head position in a normal population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Head position practice has been shown to influence pill-swallowing ability, but the impact of head position on measures of swallowing outcomes has not yet been studied with fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether head position impacts penetration-aspiration scale scores and/or post-swallow pharyngeal residue as assessed by FEES. Documenting the incidence of pharyngeal residue and laryngeal penetration and aspiration in a normal population was a secondary goal. Methods Adults without swallowing difficulties (N = 84) were taught a pill swallowing technique based on learning five head positions and were asked to practice with small, hard candies (e.g., TicTacs) for two weeks. Then they demonstrated swallowing in each of the head positions for two conditions, liquid and purée, while undergoing FEES. Results Out of 840 examined swallows, one event of aspiration and 5 events of penetration occurred. During practice >50% participants found positions they preferred over the center position for swallowing but head position was not associated with penetration-aspiration scores assessed by FEES. Significant associations and non-significant trends were found between pharyngeal residue and three variables: age, most preferred head position, and least preferred head position. Conclusion Head position during swallowing (head up) and age greater than 40 years may result in increased pharyngeal residue but not laryngeal penetration or aspiration. PMID:24755159

  15. Education Psychological Studies of Art Students in Current Vocational College%当前高职院校艺术类学生的教育心理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉诺; 杨丽冬

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of candidates with the art more and more, many vocational colleges have gained en-rollment eligibility arts candidates, however, due to the special nature of the environment in Vocational Colleges Arts candi-dates and their professional features make these some students are very prone to psychological problems, thus the develop-ment of the school's students even have been a certain extent. In view of this, the study and analysis of the psychological prob-lems of today's art students in vocational colleges and put forward their own proposals.%近年来,随着艺考生数量的越来越多,很多的高职院校都获得了艺考生的招生资格,然而由于高职院校艺考生所处环境的特殊性及自身专业的特点使得这些学生很容易在心理上产生一些问题,从而学生甚至学校的发展都受到了一定程度的影响。鉴于此,在考察和分析当今高职院校艺术专业学生存在的心理问题并提出了自己的建议。

  16. Nutritional standards for energy-dense low-nutrient density foods for children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Kyu; Park, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Youn-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The increasing rate of child obesity has developed into a serious concern in contemporary society. In Korea, additional concerns over unsanitary environments of food establishments near schools led to the enforcement in 2009 of the Special Act on the Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life in order to improve food safety and nutrition. Some of the main policies of the Special Act are the prohibition of Energy- dense Low-Nutrient density Foods (hereinafter referred to as EDLNF) at school canteens and in the outstanding businesses, along with restrictions on television advertisement for EDLNF products. Confectioneries, candies, sweetened-ice products, breads, chocolates, processed milk, fermented milk, ice cream, fish-meat sausages, fruit/vegetable beverages, carbonated beverages, mixed beverages, and lactic acid bacteria beverages are classified as applicable food types of EDLNF. To establish the nutritional standards for EDLNF, the intake proportions and the pattern of nutrients in children's preferred foods in Korea were analyzed, based on the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Korea. The foods containing more than 250 kcal, more than 17 g of sugar or more than 4 g of saturated fat and less than 2 g of protein per serving are considered EDLNF snacks. The Korean government is concentrating its efforts in promoting healthy environments for children in its research and in food policies. Further studies are necessary to investigate the current state of changes in the children's foods industry. PMID:24561969

  17. Proceedings of the second SISAL users` conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, J T; Frerking, C; Miller, P J [eds.

    1992-12-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: A sisal code for computing the fourier transform on S{sub N}; five ways to fill your knapsack; simulating material dislocation motion in sisal; candis as an interface for sisal; parallelisation and performance of the burg algorithm on a shared-memory multiprocessor; use of genetic algorithm in sisal to solve the file design problem; implementing FFT`s in sisal; programming and evaluating the performance of signal processing applications in the sisal programming environment; sisal and Von Neumann-based languages: translation and intercommunication; an IF2 code generator for ADAM architecture; program partitioning for NUMA multiprocessor computer systems; mapping functional parallelism on distributed memory machines; implicit array copying: prevention is better than cure ; mathematical syntax for sisal; an approach for optimizing recursive functions; implementing arrays in sisal 2.0; Fol: an object oriented extension to the sisal language; twine: a portable, extensible sisal execution kernel; and investigating the memory performance of the optimizing sisal compiler.

  18. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed.

  19. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  20. The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, O. O.; Sadimenko, A. A.; Afolayan, A. J.

    The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and a minimum during the pre-flowering stage (0.13%). The compositions also showed different patterns at different phases of the vegetative cycle. Sesquiterpenes (α-cadinene, α-cadinol, T-muurolol and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) and monoterpenes (limonene, 1, 8-cineole and trans-β-ocimene) showed the highest correlations with the age of the plant. Aiming the use of essential oil as a food ingredient, the most interesting stage is the post-flowering period, the essential oil at this time being rich in α-cadinene, α-cadinol, t-muurolol, limonene, 1,8-cineole, with P-cymene present at lower levels. α-cadinene is an important flavouring agent in baked foods, candy and chewing gum and also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and detergents. T-muurolol and α-cadinol are important antimicrobial agents.

  1. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, Erika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Becker, Wulf; Andersson, Agneta; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Cederholm, Tommy; Sjögren, Per; Fung, Teresa T

    2016-01-14

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010-11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51-0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25-0·31) (all Psugar (r 0·20-0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13-0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes. PMID:26490112

  2. Simultaneous Analytical Techniques for Determination of 8 Synthetic Food Colors in Foods by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.K.; Lee, C.H.; Park, J.S.; Yoon, H.J.; Kim, S.H.; Hong, Y.; Lee, J.O.; Lee, C.W. [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    This Study has been carried out to develop a method of analysis of 8 permitted synthetic food colors [including Brilliant Blue FCF (B1), Indigocarmine (B2), Fast green FCF (G3), Amaranth (R2), Erythrosine (R3), Allura red (R40), Tartrazine (Y4), Sunset Yellow FCF (Y5)] in Korean foods by HPLC. After adjusting to 0.5% HCl, each of the food colors extracted was eluted by Sep-pak C{sub 18} cartridge. Eluates were then determined by high performance liquid chromatograph with a UV-VIS detector. Recoveries of the 8 synthetic food colors were found to be 81.2-98.0% for soft drinks, 80.6-96.1% for candy, 79.8-96.3% for chewing gum, 76.5-91.7% for cereals, 79.0-93.8% for ice cream and 78.6-94.7% for jelly, respectively. The detection limits were 0.05-0.1 {mu}g/g. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  3. Change of sensory characteristics and some quality parameters of mixed milk and cocoa spreads during storage up to 180 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main role of milk and milk products in the technology of confectionery products (chocolates, caramele-candy products, dairy products, spreads, etc. is to increase the nutritional value of the final product and to influence some sensory characteristics of quality (appearance, consistence/texture, flavor. In this study, mixtures of milk and cocoa spreads of a new composition with increased content of milk components were produced, and then assessed for sensory quality traits, peroxide value, free fatty acid content and the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium and copper during storage from 0-30 to 180 days at room temperature (18 - 20ºC. The samples were evaluated using the analytical-descriptive sensory analysis (point system with description of the dominant properties (appearance-color, surface gloss, consistence-spreadability, dynamic property of melting, the consistence in the oral cavity-oiliness and flavor-odor and taste. The results of sensory analysis were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance MANOVA, LSD and Levene's test. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that the composition of mixtures of milk and cocoa spreads significantly affects all characteristics, whereas the storage time significantly affects the appearance, consistence, i.e. spreadability and taste of the product.

  4. Yukimarimo at Dome C, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petenko, Igor

    2015-04-01

    Natural frostballs called "yukimarimo" were observed at at Dome C, Antarctica, during the winter of 2014. Frostballs have spheroidal or lightly oblate form. Four cases of the yukimarimo were observed in the period April - August. The characteristics concerning their sizes, density, distribution over the surface varied for different cases. The diameters ranged from several millimetres to 120 mm, the density ranged from 15 to 60 kg/m3 . The heaviest one weighted 14 g and had a diameter of ≈90 mm. The initial "material" from which they formed resembles candy floss or fluff. In one case, only the initial stage of the small-yukimarimo formation was observed; the further development was interrupted. The meteorological conditions observed diuring the yukimarimo were not particular. The near-surface temperature varied between -70° and -60°C. Winds favouring to the yukimarimo formation were low, but not less than 2 m/s^1. A two-step mechanism of their formation and development is assumed: 1) at the initial stage, an electrostatic attraction favours the clumping of ice crystals to form some ice mass resembling floss structured in spherical pieces; 2) some pieces of ice floss are rolled by the wind and collect more ice crystals and increase in size like to a tumbleweed. Special comprehensive studies of electrical properties of the frost during the initial stage are necessary. Videos of moving yukimarimo at different stages of their formation are available.

  5. Gains Made By Walmart's Healthier Food Initiative Mirror Preexisting Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-11-01

    Healthier food initiatives conducted by national food retailers may offer opportunities to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. Using a longitudinal data set of packaged food purchases made by US households, we examined the effect of a healthier food initiative officially launched by Walmart in 2011. From 2000 to 2013, household-level purchases of packaged foods at Walmart showed major declines in energy, sodium, and total sugar density, as well as in quantities of sugary beverages, grain-based desserts, snacks, and candy. These trends in packaged food purchases were more pronounced than similar concurrent trends seen at other major food retailers. However, the declines seen at Walmart after the initiative's official implementation did not exceed what would have been expected had pre-implementation trends continued, and therefore they cannot be attributed to the initiative. These results suggest that food retailer-based initiatives that purportedly create a healthier food environment may not suffice to improve the nutritional profile of food purchases. More systemic shifts in consumers' characteristics and preferences may be needed. PMID:26526244

  6. Space-Spurred Metallized Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Spurred R&D toward improved vacuum metallizing techniques led to an extensive line of commercial products, from insulated outdoor garments to packaging for foods, from wall coverings to window shades, from life rafts to candy wrappings, reflective blankets to photographic reflectors. Metallized Products, Inc. (MPI) was one of the companies that worked with NASA in development of the original space materials. MPI markets its own metallized products and supplies materials to other manufacturers. One of the most widely used MPI products is TXG laminate. An example is a reflective kite, the S.O.S. Signal Kite that can be flown as high as 200 feet to enhance radar and visual detectability. It offers a boon to campers, hikers, mountain climbers and boaters. It is produced by Solar Reflections, Inc. The company also markets a solar reflective hat. Another example is by Pro-Tektion, Inc. to provide protection for expensive musical equipment that have sensitive electronic components subject to damage from the heat of stage lights, dust, or rain at outdoor concerts. MP supplied the material and acceptance of the covers by the sound industry has been excellent.

  7. Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-02-01

    Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000-2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children.

  8. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  9. What's on Malaysian television? - A survey on food advertising targeting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Chinna, Karuthan; Mee, Loi Huei; Mei, Lim Siau; Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2008-01-01

    The Malaysian government recently introduced a ban on fast food advertisements targeting children on television. This study reports on data covering 6 months of television food advertising targeting children. Six out of seven of the Nation's commercial television networks participated (response rate = 85.7%). Based on reported timings of children's programmes, prime time significantly differed ( p <0.05) between weekdays (mean = 1.89 +/- 0.18 hr) and weekends (mean = 4.61 +/- 0.33 hr). The increased trend during weekends, school vacation and Ramadhan was evident. Over the six-month period, the mean number of food advertisements appearing per month varied greatly between television stations (C = 1104; D = 643; F = 407; B = 327; A = 59; E = 47). Food advertising also increased the most in September (n = 3158), followed by July (n = 2770), August (n = 2431), October (n = 2291), November (n = 2245) and June (n = 2211). Content analysis of advertisements indicated snacks were the highest (34.5%), followed by dairy products (20.3%), sugars and candies (13.4%), biscuits (11.2%), fast food (6.7%), breakfast cereal (6.4%), beverages (4.1%), supplements (0.9%), rice (0.6%), noodles (0.5%), bread (0.3%), miscellaneous and processed foods (0.2%). Paradoxically, we found that the frequency of snack food advertised during children's prime time was 5 times more than fast foods. The sodium content (mean = 620 mg per 100g) of these snack foods was found to be highest.

  10. Transpiration and biomass production of the bioenergy crop Giant Knotweed Igniscum under various supplies of water and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovani Dario

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil water availability, nutrient supply and climatic conditions are key factors for plant production. For a sustainable integration of bioenergy plants into agricultural systems, detailed studies on their water uses and growth performances are needed. The new bioenergy plant Igniscum Candy is a cultivar of the Sakhalin Knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis, which is characterized by a high annual biomass production. For the determination of transpiration-yield relations at the whole plant level we used wicked lysimeters at multiple irrigation levels associated with the soil water availability (25, 35, 70, 100% and nitrogen fertilization (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1. Leaf transpiration and net photosynthesis were determined with a portable minicuvette system. The maximum mean transpiration rate was 10.6 mmol m-2 s-1 for well-watered plants, while the mean net photosynthesis was 9.1 μmol m-2 s-1. The cumulative transpiration of the plants during the growing seasons varied between 49 l (drought stressed and 141 l (well-watered per plant. The calculated transpiration coefficient for Fallopia over all of the treatments applied was 485.6 l kg-1. The transpiration-yield relation of Igniscum is comparable to rye and barley. Its growth performance making Fallopia a potentially good second generation bioenergy crop.

  11. Sociobehavioral Factors Associated with Caries Increment: A Longitudinal Study from 24 to 36 Months Old Children in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate sociobehavioral risk factors from the prenatal period until 36 months of age, and the caries increment from 24 to 36 months of the child in Thailand. The data utilized in this study come from the prospective cohort study of Thai children (PCTC from prenatal to 36 months of the child in Mueang Nan district, Northern Thailand. The total sample size recruited was 783 infants. The sample size with dental caries data was 603 and 597, at 24 months and at 36 months, respectively. The sample size of having two assessment points with a dental examination (at 24 months and at 36 months was 597. Results indicate that the caries increment was 52.9%, meaning from 365 caries free children at 24 months 193 had developed dental caries at 36 months. The prevalence of dental caries was 34.2% at 24 months (n = 206 and 68.5% at 36 months of age (n = 409. In bivariate analysis, higher education of the mother, lower household income, bottle feeding of the infant, frequent sweet candy consumptions, and using rain or well water as drinking water were associated with dental caries increment, while in multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis lower household income, higher education of the mother, and using rain or well water as drinking water remained associated with dental caries increment. In conclusion, a very significant increase in caries development was observed, and oral health may be influenced by sociobehavioural risk factors.

  12. Answer Ranking with Discourse Structure Feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    For the complex questions of Chinese question answering system, we propose an answer extraction method with discourse structure feature combination. This method uses the relevance of questions and answers to learn to rank the answers. Firstly, the method analyses questions to generate the query string, and then submits the query string to search engines to retrieve relevant documents. Sec- ondly, the method makes retrieved documents seg- mentation and identifies the most relevant candidate answers, in addition, it uses the rhetorical relations of rhetorical structure theory to analyze the relationship to determine the inherent relationship between para- graphs or sentences and generate the answer candi- date paragraphs or sentences. Thirdly, we construct the answer ranking model,, and extract five feature groups and adopt Ranking Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm to train ranking model. Finally, it re-ranks the answers with the training model and fred the optimal answers. Experiments show that the proposed method combined with discourse structure features can effectively improve the answer extrac- ting accuracy and the quality of non-factoid an- swers. The Mean Reciprocal Rank (MRR) of the an- swer extraction reaches 69.53%.

  13. Cross-sectional association of dietary patterns with insulin-resistant phenotypes among adults without diabetes in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enju; McKeown, Nicola M; Newby, P K; Meigs, James B; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Quatromoni, Paula A; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Jacques, Paul F

    2009-08-01

    Cluster analysis is a valuable tool for exploring the health consequences of consuming different dietary patterns. We used this approach to examine the cross-sectional relationship between dietary patterns and insulin-resistant phenotypes, including waist circumference, BMI, fasting insulin, 2 h post-challenge insulin, insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120), HDL-cholesterol, TAG and blood pressure, using data from the fifth examination cycle of the Framingham Offspring Study. Among 2875 participants without diabetes, we identified four dietary patterns based on the predominant sources of energy: 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains', 'Refined Grains and Sweets', 'Beer' and 'Soda'. After adjusting for multiple comparisons and potential confounders, compared with the 'Fruits, Reduced Fat Dairy and Whole Grains' pattern, the 'Refined Grains and Sweets' pattern had significantly higher mean waist circumference (92.4 v. 90.5 cm; P = 0.008) and BMI (27.3 v. 26.6 kg/m2; P = 0.02); the 'Soda' pattern had significantly higher mean fasting insulin concentration (31.3 v. 28.0 microU/ml; P refined grains, high-fat dairy, sweet baked foods, candy and sugar-sweetened soda may promote insulin-resistant phenotypes. PMID:19216828

  14. Differential dietary habits among 570 young underweight Japanese women with and without a desire for thinness: a comparison with normal weight counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Nagisa; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The strong social pressure for thinness in Japanese society has produced a dramatic increase in underweight (body mass index: thinness. Data on dietary habits and other lifestyle variables, including the desire for thinness, were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted at 54 academic institutions in Japan, from which we selected 3634 female students for analysis. The subjects were divided into three groups of normal weight (84.3%), and underweight with (6.4%) or without (9.3%) a desire for thinness. After adjusting for potential confounders, the underweight subjects with a desire for thinness consumed less cereal and rice, whereas those without a desire for thinness consumed more cereal and rice than the normal weight subjects. In addition, those without a desire for thinness consumed less confectionaries, including candies and ice cream, and less fats and oils than the normal weight subjects. These results suggest that dietary habits differ between underweight women with and without a desire for thinness. Although both groups require nutritional education to maintain appropriate body weight, underweight women with a desire for thinness require particular attention to improve recognition of their constitution and dietary habits. PMID:26965768

  15. The processing technology of pineapple pellet%菠萝果粒加工工艺的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘功德; 苏艳兰; 韦茂新; 黎新荣

    2012-01-01

    With pineapple as materials, the processing technology of pineapple source pellet was studied. The results showed that as materials, green mature or mature ripe stage of Philippine cultivar pineapple was subjected to the combined anti-browing treatment which included soaking in 0.5% sodium metabisulfite for 8 h, blanching on 100 ℃ for 6 min as well as the process of forced circulation of candy and hot air counter current drying. Under the conditions of normal temperature and without solarization preservation, the shelf life of the products was up to 12 months.%以菠萝为主要原料,研制菠萝果粒的加工工艺。实验结果表明:青熟期或完熟期的菲律宾品种菠萝,经焦亚硫酸钠浓度为0.5%、浸泡时间为8h、烫漂温度为100℃、烫漂时间为6min的联合护色工艺处理,采用常温常压强制循环糖渍法进行糖渍及热风逆流变温烘干法进行烘干,产品保质期在常温避光贮存条件下达到12个月。

  16. Beyond pleasure and pain: Facial expression ambiguity in adults and children during intense situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Sofia; Levine, Sarah; van Dick, Rolf; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Aviezer, Hillel

    2016-09-01

    According to psychological models as well as common intuition, intense positive and negative situations evoke highly distinct emotional expressions. Nevertheless, recent work has shown that when judging isolated faces, the affective valence of winning and losing professional tennis players is hard to differentiate. However, expressions produced by professional athletes during publicly broadcasted sports events may be strategically controlled. To shed light on this matter we examined if ordinary people's spontaneous facial expressions evoked during highly intense situations are diagnostic for the situational valence. In Experiment 1 we compared reactions with highly intense positive situations (surprise soldier reunions) versus highly intense negative situations (terror attacks). In Experiment 2, we turned to children and compared facial reactions with highly positive situations (e.g., a child receiving a surprise trip to Disneyland) versus highly negative situations (e.g., a child discovering her parents ate up all her Halloween candy). The results demonstrate that facial expressions of both adults and children are often not diagnostic for the valence of the situation. These findings demonstrate the ambiguity of extreme facial expressions and highlight the importance of context in everyday emotion perception. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Experimental evaluation of energy efficiency in a gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Technological Development Center (CDT de GAS) has developed a new gas-heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle as a solution for temperature-controlled cooking of pulp fruit in the Colombian traditional candy-making industry. This initiative seeks to contribute to the promotion of natural gas as a cleaner and more efficient alternative to traditional fuels such as wood and coal in the Andean countries. Prototype follows the operational and safety rules provided by international and local standards: ASTM-F1602, ASME (section VIII, division 1), and NTC-4082. This paper presents the methodology, experimental setup and results obtained during the performance tests for heating efficiency evaluation of the kettle, according to the ASTM-F1785 standard, and the estimation of measurement uncertainty according to GUM method. The heating efficiency rate for this new prototype is higher to the convectional and commercial models of gas heated self-contained steam jacketed kettle. The results showed a heating efficiency of 63.83% ± 1.66% (k=2), whereas the emission of CO and NOX in stack gases was under the regulate limits for natural gas equipment

  18. Cost analysis of electrical power from an ethanol reformer and the fuel cell in the development of productive activities in the community Pico do Amor, MT, Brazil; Analise do custo da energia eletrica proveniente de um reformador de etanol e celula a combustivel no desenvolvimento de atividades produtivas na comunidade Pico do Amor/MT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Davi Gabriel; Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Lopes, Daniel Gabriel; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Departamento de Energia; Instituto Aqua Genesis, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Hytron, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work has the objective to analyze the impact of the cost of from an ethane reformer / fuel cell in the family income considering the development of two productive activities selected by the community itself: the production and marketing of cassava flour and 'rapadura', a typical brazilian candy. The community energy demand was analyzed to achieve the results; estimated the energy cost from the implemented system and the money from the selling of the cassava flour and 'rapadura' produced with this electricity; the study of sensibility of the ethanol price in the electrical energy cost was done too, and the cassava flour and 'rapadura' in the family funds. From the results, it was verified that the electrical energy cost has a 16,4% impact in the family gross income and a net value around R$ 260,85/family, indicating that the community will have enough funds to pay for the energy and also will rise the amount of money for each family. Besides, the comparative analyze of the cost of the electricity from the ethanol/fuel cell reformer and photovoltaic systems shows that, considering only the maintenance and operation costs, the first one should be more attractive than the second one. (author)

  19. Traditional Dietary Pattern Increases Risk of Prostate Cancer in Argentina: Results of a Multilevel Modeling and Bias Analysis from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Niclis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that dietary habits play a role in prostate cancer (PC occurrence. Argentinean cancer risk studies require additional attention because of the singular dietary pattern of this population. A case-control study (147 PC cases, 300 controls was conducted in Córdoba (Argentina throughout 2008–2013. A principal component factor analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns. A mixed logistic regression model was applied, taking into account family history of cancer. Possible bias was evaluated by probabilistic bias analysis. Four dietary patterns were identified: Traditional (fatty red meats, offal, processed meat, starchy vegetables, added sugars and sweets, candies, fats, and vegetable oils, Prudent (nonstarchy vegetables, whole grains, Carbohydrate (sodas/juices and bakery products, and Cheese (cheeses. High adherence to the Traditional (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.569–5.099 and Carbohydrate Patterns (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.470–3.128 showed a promoting effect for PC, whereas the Prudent and Cheese Patterns were independent factors. PC occurrence was also associated with family history of PC. Bias adjusted ORs indicate that the validity of the present study is acceptable. High adherence to characteristic Argentinean dietary patterns was associated with increased PC risk. Our results incorporate original contributions to knowledge about scenarios in South American dietary patterns and PC occurrence.

  20. High on Attractiveness, Low on Nutrition: An Over-Time Comparison of Advertising Food Products on Israeli Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Keren; Te'eni-Harari, Tali

    2016-08-01

    This content analysis examines Israeli television food advertising. It compares 2008-2009 and 2012-2013, two periods immediately before and several years after regulatory, educational, and public-advocacy efforts have been advanced to raise awareness of and tackle the television-obesity link. Advertisements were drawn from a composite week sample aired on Israeli broadcast channels from 4:00 p.m. until midnight in each of the two periods. Nearly a quarter of ads were for food products, even after a significant drop over the years. The most common food categories included candies and sweetened drinks, whereas fruit and vegetables were among the least common products advertised. The most prevalent central message in food advertisements was that the product makes for an economically sensible purchase, with a much lower focus on the health qualities of the food products. Food advertisements were characterized by a very short duration and an increased reliance on emotional, rather than cognitive, appeal, especially in ads for low-nutrient foods. A significant increase was observed in 2012-2013 in the reliance on thin models in food advertisements, and these were most often associated with high levels of physical attractiveness, promoting the thin ideal. Findings are discussed in light of theory, previous research conducted worldwide, and audience effects. Implications are addressed for health and media industry regulation efforts.

  1. Effect of adding flours from marolo fruit (Annona crassiflora Mart and jerivá fruit (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm on the physicals and sensory characteristics of food bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Pablo da SILVA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart. and jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana Cham Glassm fruits grow in the Cerrado biome, and have important sensory and nutritional characteristics. These fruits are eaten fresh or processed and embedded in ice cream, candy, juices, and liquors. However, their use is very limited and is localized exclusively to their native region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of these fruits in food consumer products to improve the nutritional patterns of consumers and extend knowledge thereof. To do this, different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of flour derived from the marolo and jerivá fruits were incorporated into food bars, which were then characterized in terms of their physical of the texture (TPA, porosity, color and sensorial properties. The food bars enriched with marolo and jerivá flours had an intense yellow color and increased hardness relative to the control bars; the porosity of the bars progressively decreased as the amount of flour added increased. The sensorial analysis in the snack bars developed added with the fruits flour no was influence by incorporation this component, showed good averages for the scores evaluated.

  2. Operators of nuclear reactors. A study about their professional identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research studies the process of identity formation/transformation in a group of workers at a Research Institute, which deals with nuclear energy for peaceful uses. It had as a referential the work developed by Antonio da Costa Ciampa (1995). This approach conceives identity as metamorphosis and it is empirically expressed by characters. The research was candied out at the IPEN-CNEN/SP with the oldest reactor operators at work, with open interviews mainly. At the end of the analysis, it was observed that the team, in spite of its grievance and complaints, is still united and operates the reactor with great responsibility. This fact can be proved since no accidents have happened in the last forty years. Nevertheless, the group misses the community recognition for the importance of its work. This was interpreted as the search for an emancipatory feeling towards the development of a collective identity. The lack of this feeling tends to produce an identity with a mere instrumental rationality, suggesting that the organization identity policy must be reviewed. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the response of Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 to sucrose-induced osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny-Roberts, E O; Knorr, D

    2008-02-01

    Environmental osmotic changes are one of the stresses live probiotics may encounter either in their natural habitats or as a result of usage in food formulations and processing. Response to osmotic stress, induced by sucrose, of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus VTT E-97800 (E800) was investigated. The fluorescence-based approach used, by combined staining with caboxyfluorescein (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) could give insights on the osmotic-induced changes of microbial esterase activity and membrane integrity; also the extrusion of intracellular accumulated carboxyfluorescein (cF) upon energizing with glucose. Comparison of the flowcytometric viability assessment with the conventional culture techniques revealed that sucrose-stressed cells had a slight loss of culturability (logN/N(0) approximately -0.3) at 1.2 and 1.5M sucrose concentration though they could perform an enzymatic conversion of cFDA into cF. The presence of such metabolically active bacteria in food might be critical as they may excrete toxic or food spoilage metabolites. Moreover, the perturbation of cF extrusion activities became a limiting factor for reproductive capacities. There was no change in the cell morphology. These results proved the ability of the strain of study to tolerate sucrose, even at extreme concentrations and these must be taken into consideration for its usage in the formulation/processing of sugar-based foods, e.g. jams, candies, etc.

  4. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Barnoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  5. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  6. 表面活性剂及其在食品工业中的应用%Surfactant applications in the food industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世仙; 刘焱; 王正武; 王修俊

    2012-01-01

    This review mainly highlights on the function of surfactants (extended solvent, ernulsification, wetting) , their applications in the food industry (beverage,condiment,cream candy,pastry,food detection, microcapsule technology) and fat substitute based on the definition and classifications of surfactants. The future prospects for the surfactants research are also included.%从表面活性剂的定义、分类出发,阐述表面活性剂的主要功能(增溶、乳化、润湿功能),及其在食品工业中的应用(在饮料、调味品、奶糖、糕点、食品检测、功能食品和微胶襄技术中的应用),以及作为脂肪替代品等方面的应用研究进展,同时也对表面活性剂的研究方向和发展趋势作了展望.

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  8. Radiocesium contents in foodstuffs sampled at Saitama Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1988, the Saitama Prefecture Administration has started a survey for radiosecium contents in foodstuffs. This reprot deals with the results of surveys performed in 1988 and 1989. During a two-year period, spaghetti was analyzed in terms of the relationship between the date of production and the concentration of radioactivity. Eighty-one and 93 food samples, including candies, cereals and grains, vegetables, and fish, were collected during 1988 and 1989, respectively. In foodstuffs collected in 1988, Cs-134 was detected in dried mushroom (Shiitake) and spaghetti, and Cs-137 was detected in 8 samples, including leaves, and green teas. For the 1989 samples, Cs-134 was not detected, but Cs-137 was detected in 12 samples, such as green teas and spaghetti. Of a total of 174 foodstuffs collected during a 2-year period, Cs-134 was detected in 2 (1.1%) and Cs-137 was detected in 22 (12.6%). According to foodstuffs, radiosecium was commonly found in spaghetti, green teas, and nuts. In monthly survey for radiosecium contents in spaghetti, the Chernobyl accident may influence the content of both Cs-134 and Cs-137. (N.K.)

  9. Optical rotation measurements in process control and engineering research in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta-Ruelas, J.; Lopez-Echevarria, D.; Mendoza-Sanchez, P.; Kongraksawech, T.; Velazquez, G.; Torres, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    A system to measure optical rotation (OR) and transmitted light (TL) was built and tested by the Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada (CICATA, Mexico). A similar system was built and tested by the Food Process Engineering Group (FPEG) at Oregon State University. OR and TL values, as a function of time and sample temperature, were recorded by a data acquisition system. Sucrose (1% w/v) and distilled water were used to calibrate both instruments while sucrose solutions were used to determine sensitivity, linearity and stability. The OR of sucrose solutions was measured with less than 3% (0.03 to 20 g/100 mL) and 2% error (0.01 to 20 g/100 mL) for the FPEG and CICATA system, respectively. The instrument setup was tested at CICATA by monitoring sucrose hydrolysis and by comparing initial and final OR with published reference values. Application examples tested by FPEG were the characterization of hard candies and the fermentation monitoring of tepache, a pre hispanic alcoholic beverage consumed in Mexico and some Latin American countries. These tests confirmed the instrument versatility and the advantages of building modular units with light sources and electronic components available today at low cost. This work showed, using specific applications, that modular units for well-established optical measurements such as OR and TL could have additional applications in food process control and engineering research. (Author) 27 refs.

  10. Standard test method for determining liquidus temperature of immobilized waste glasses and simulated waste glasses

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These practices cover procedures for determining the liquidus temperature (TL) of nuclear waste, mixed nuclear waste, simulated nuclear waste, or hazardous waste glass in the temperature range from 600°C to 1600°C. This method differs from Practice C829 in that it employs additional methods to determine TL. TL is useful in waste glass plant operation, glass formulation, and melter design to determine the minimum temperature that must be maintained in a waste glass melt to make sure that crystallization does not occur or is below a particular constraint, for example, 1 volume % crystallinity or T1%. As of now, many institutions studying waste and simulated waste vitrification are not in agreement regarding this constraint (1). 1.2 Three methods are included, differing in (1) the type of equipment available to the analyst (that is, type of furnace and characterization equipment), (2) the quantity of glass available to the analyst, (3) the precision and accuracy desired for the measurement, and (4) candi...

  11. [Surveillance of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among adolescents: the experience in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia Oliveira; Engstrom, Elyne Montenegro; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the implementation of a Surveillance System for Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents. A random sample of 8th-grade students (n = 1,684) enrolled in municipal schools in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. Students were asked to complete a confidential questionnaire on food consumption, physical activity, sedentary leisure-time activities, and tobacco consumption. Prevalence estimates of risk factors were calculated for the entire sample and by gender. Non-response rates ranged from 1.1 to 8.9%. The findings included low consumption of fruits (45.8%) and vegetables (20.0% and 16.5% for salads and cooked vegetables, respectively), regular consumption of soft drinks (36.7%) and candies (46.7%), extensive time on TV, computer, and videogames (71.7% spend at least 4h/day at these activities), low frequency of regular physical activity (40%), and 6.4% prevalence of smoking. Girls showed less physical activity and more smoking. The system appeared to be feasible and indicated high prevalence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases.

  12. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  13. Experiences and Challenges in Earth Science Software Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) has faced many of the challenges common to organizations serving the Earth Science community’s growing needs for advanced data access interfaces and enhanced processing capabilities. Open source software has led to a growth in code reuse through many different software packages, where an open source layer serves as a basis of collaboration from which interfaces and systems with unprecedented flexibility, portability, and ease of integration have been constructed. LP DAAC adopts these open source foundations in its pursuit of code reuse as the most efficient method of meeting the challenges presented in the Earth Science community. Rather than relying on the traditional “grow your own” philosophy of software development, LP DAAC now focuses on determining which projects and initiatives will most benefit from code reuse. The implementation of a software reuse strategy at LP DAAC reduces the time, effort, and complexity of several projects. Facing technological challenges, enhanced interface requirements, and restrictive policy guidelines, LP DAAC identifies collaborative solutions and integrates them successfully into innovative projects. The MODIS Reprojection Tool for the Web (MRTWeb), the Cross-DAAC Access and New Distribution Interface (CANDI), and the Digital Elevation Model Explorer (DEMEX) respectively benefit from software reuse in achieving their objectives. The challenges, methods, and results from each of these collaborations with USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS), and George Mason University (GMU) represent efficient utilization of a software reuse strategy at LP DAAC.

  14. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  15. Ni48.7Mn30.1Ga21.2铁磁性形状记忆合金的显微组织和相变行为%Microstructure and Transformation Behavior of Ni48.7Mn30.1 Ga21.2 Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金林; 王海波

    2012-01-01

    Microstructure and phase transformation behavior of Ni48.7 Mn30.1Ga21.2 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy was investigated. XRD result shows the parent phase and martensite co-exit in room temperatue. It was also found this co-exit microstructure at optical micrographs and there are some flsky martensite in parent phase. The fractograph with rock candy pattern is the typical intergranular fracture. DSC result shows that this alloy occuring one-step martensitic transformation in cooling and heating run.%研究了Ni48.7Mn30.1Ga21.2铁磁性形状记忆合金的相变行为和显微组织.XRD结果表明:室温下合金为5M马氏体和母相共存,金相结果表明合金的显微组织为双相组织,在母相的晶粒中存在少量的马氏体片,合金的室温微观断口形貌表明该合金为典型的沿晶断裂,DSC结果表明该合金在升降温过程中发生了一步马氏体正逆相变.

  16. Authenticity of Ficus Hispida as a Local Traditional Product in the Lembah Lenggong World Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz Siti Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lembah Lenggong is a place well known amongst locals as an archaeological site; the valley has been attested as a World Heritage Site. There is an overwhelming variety of plant species that are uniquely used in their cultural and traditional cuisines including Ficus hispida (Senia. Ficus hispida is a well-known species restricted to the native people in Lembah Lenggong. It is recognized as one of the plants used specifically in the traditional cuisine of the locals, especially amongst the old folks. The plant leaves are a major part of a local traditional dish called ‘Masak Pindang’. The fruit of Ficus hispida is also edible, and consumed locally in candied form (halwa. In their traditional herbal remedies, Ficus hispida is used in treating wounds and as a medicine in post and pre natal care (maternal remedies. The desired outcome of this study is to emphasize and promote this specific species as one of the more unique products of Lembah Lenggong in a tourism aspect. The traditional knowledge and practices involving the use of Ficus hispida should be cherished and treasured by future generations to retain the authenticity of their local traditional and cultural products in the light of the awakening tourism industry.

  17. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  18. Líquido cefalorraqueano em infecção do sistema nervoso central por leveduras do gênero Candida: análise de 11 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Livramento

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas 44 amostras de liqüido cefalorraqueano (LCR de 11 pacientes em que foi possível fazer diagnóstico etiológico de comprometimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC por leveduras do gênero Candida. Todos os pacientes apresentavam fatores de risco para a afecção. Cinco apresentavam quadro de meningite crônica a esclarecer; dois, síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida; dois, traumatismo crânioencefálico seguido de meningite crônica; um, coagulação intravascular disseminada seguida de septicemia; um, candi-díase sistêmica pós-transplante renal. O diagnóstico etiológico foi feito pelo exame do LCR, possibilitando em 9 o isolamento da levedura por crescimento em meio de cultura. Em dois o diagnóstico foi feito pela presença das leveduras ao exame direto e, em um deles, também pela positividade da reação de fixação de complemento para Candida realizada em três amostras sucessivas de LCR. Discute-se a importância das alterações encontradas no exame do LCR na candidíase do SNC.

  19. Planning for selective amygdalohippocampectomy involving less neuronal ifber damage based on brain connectivity using tractography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung-Hak Lee; Mansu Kim; Hyunjin Park

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe resection is an important treatment option for epilepsy that involves removal of potentially essential brain regions. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy is a widely performed temporal lobe surgery. We suggest starting the incision for selective amygdalohippocampec-tomy at the inferior temporal gyrus based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tractography. Diffusion MRI data from 20 normal participants were obtained from Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database (www.ppmi-info.org). A tractography algorithm was applied to extract neuronal fiber information for the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and amygdala. Fiber information was analyzed in terms of the number of fibers and betweenness centrality. Distances between starting incisions and surgical target regions were also considered to explore the length of the surgical path. Middle temporal and superior temporal gyrus regions have higher connectivity values than the inferior temporal gyrus and thus are not good candi-dates for starting the incision. The distances between inferior temporal gyrus and surgical target regions were shorter than those between middle temporal gyrus and target regions. Thus, the in-ferior temporal gyrus is a good candidate for starting the incision. Starting the incision from the inferior temporal gyrus would spare the important (in terms of betweenness centrality values) middle region and shorten the distance to the target regions of the hippocampus and amygdala.

  20. Restaurant 2 goes Cordon Bleu

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Domaine de Chouilly. Who said fine cuisine was too expensive? For a whole week between the 19th and 23rd February you will have the opportunity to enjoy gastronomic delights a short walk away from your office for only 17 CHF. The Chef and his colleagues from the famous Chateauvieux restaurant at the Domaine de Chouilly will be coming to Restaurant No. 2 to prepare a different gastronomic delight each day and will bring with them their own ingredients, equipment and even their own crockery! The list of fare is mouthwatering: Limousin lamb filet au gratin served with two-olive tapenade, and filet of char served with dill and candied lemon are just two of the delicious dishes on the week's menu. Restaurant No. 2 has rustled up another innovation: at the beginning of March it will be starting a pasta serving area on the ground floor called 'The Olivetto Corner'. 'The Corner is designed for customers who don't have much time and for those who like their pasta al dente,' explains Jean-Marie Fornerod, who mana...

  1. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimbei, Elena; Botsaris, George; Gekas, Vassilis; Panayiotou, Andrie G

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess dietary-related habits among young adults. Design and Setting. Dietary habits were assessed cross-sectionally, using a self-completed questionnaire in 193 students enrolled in public and private universities in Cyprus. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the validated KIDMED index. BMI was estimated based on weight and height measurements. Results. The mean BMI was 23.31 (±3.98). The mean adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was 6.0 (IQR 4 to 8), with 26.9% of students being classified as high adherers and 21.8% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 32% of students consumed a second serving of fruit and vegetables more than once a day, whereas 26% reported going more than once a week to a fast-food restaurant and 31% consumed sweets and candy several times a day. On the other hand, 76% of participants reported consumption of at least two dairy products daily and 88% use olive oil at home. The majority consume coffee 2-3 times per day. Conclusions. Results support a shift from traditional healthy diets to more unhealthy eating patterns. However, we also report a high dairy intake and use of olive oil. Tailored-made strategies targeting the young adult population could be warranted. PMID:27293883

  2. Determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in high-sugar-content traditional Turkish foods by affinity column cleanup and LC fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senyuva, Hamide Z; Cimen, Dilek; Gilbert, John

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of an affinity column cleanup procedure followed by LC with fluorescence detection was established for the determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in high-sugar-content traditional Turkish foods. Traditional foods, such as baklava (finely layered pastry filled with nuts and steeped in syrup), halvah (containing sesame paste and pistachios), cevizli sucuk (a confection made of grape juice boiled and dried on strings of nuts), Turkish delight (containing hazelnuts, pistachios, or walnuts), and pişmaniye (candy made of sugar, butter, and flour), were tested, and the performance of the method was established with spiked samples. To examine the robustness of the methodology, baklava was prepared from raw materials and spiked at the initial stage of dry ingredients and through subsequent stages of preparation of dough, after cooking, and after addition of syrup and nuts. For all products, the analytical method required grinding the composite foodstuff under liquid nitrogen to form a fine powder, which was then thoroughly mixed before subsampling. After vortex extraction into methanol-water (aflatoxins) and aqueous sodium bicarbonate (ochratoxin A), the sample was filtered, diluted with phosphate-buffered saline, and then passed through either an aflatoxin or ochratoxin A affinity column before HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection (using post-column bromination for the aflatoxins). In all the traditional Turkish products, the recovery of aflatoxin B1 ranged from 77 to 98%, and LODs were extractives, and the method has proved to be robust enough to be used for food control purposes. PMID:19714981

  3. Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: a systematic review and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, V I; Story, M

    2015-02-01

    Reducing the extent and persuasive power of marketing unhealthy foods to children worldwide are important obesity prevention goals. Research is limited to understand how brand mascots and cartoon media characters influence children's diet. We conducted a systematic review of five electronic databases (2000-2014) to identify experimental studies that measured how food companies' mascots and entertainment companies' media characters influence up to 12 diet-related cognitive, behavioural and health outcomes for children under 12 years. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies used 21 unique popular media characters, but no brand mascots. Results suggest that cartoon media character branding can positively increase children's fruit or vegetable intake compared with no character branding. However, familiar media character branding is a more powerful influence on children's food preferences, choices and intake, especially for energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods (e.g. cookies, candy or chocolate) compared with fruits or vegetables. Future research should use a theoretically grounded conceptual model and larger and more diverse samples across settings to produce stronger findings for mediating and moderating factors. Future research can be used to inform the deliberations of policymakers, practitioners and advocates regarding how media character marketing should be used to support healthy food environments for children. PMID:25516352

  4. 临氢管道焊接接头断裂失效分析%Failure Analysis on the Welding Joint Fracture of the Hydrogen Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张本所; 夏明六

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, the macroscopic, chemical composition, the microstructure and fracture morphology of fracture of the hydrogen pipelines were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the main reasons of the hydrogen pipelines fracture was intergranular corrosion by sensitization in the heat affected zone. Fracture was a typical rock-candy structure, carbide crystalline region had aggregated with countless carbides, and a great deal of crystalline grain had dropped in metallographic sample preparation. The stainless steel tubes was 0Cr18Ni9(304 stainless steel is USA).%通过对断裂钢管的宏观断口、化学成分、微观组织、断口形貌等方法查找该管道的断裂原因。结果表明:该管道材质为0Cr18Ni9(美标牌号为304)。断口为典型的脆性断口,细晶区碳化物聚集严重,在金相制样浸蚀过程中晶粒大量脱落,细晶区敏化程度严重,热影响区的敏化作用是导致发生晶间腐蚀断裂的主要原因。

  5. Marine debris in a World Heritage Listed Brazilian estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possatto, Fernanda E; Spach, Henry L; Cattani, André P; Lamour, Marcelo R; Santos, Lilyane O; Cordeiro, Nathalie M A; Broadhurst, Matt K

    2015-02-28

    Using monthly otter-trawl deployments, spatial and temporal variability among the relative densities of marine debris were assessed in the Paranaguá estuarine complex; a subtropical World Heritage Listed area in southern Brazil. During 432 deployments over 12 months, 291 marine debris items were identified; of which most (92%) were plastic, and more specifically shopping bags, food packages, candy wrappers and cups typically >21 mm long. The most contaminated sectors were those closest to Paranaguá city and the adjacent port, and had up to 23.37±3.22 pieces ha(-1). Less urbanized sectors had between 12.84±1.49 and 9.32±1.10 pieces ha(-1). Contamination did not vary between dry or wet seasons, but rather was probably affected by consistent urban disposal and localized hydrological processes. Marine debris might be minimized by using more environment friendly materials, however a concrete solution requires adequately integrating local government and civil society. PMID:25304737

  6. Prevalence of Artificial Food Colors in Grocery Store Products Marketed to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Jacobson, Michael F

    2016-10-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) in foods and beverages may be harmful to children. This study assesses the percentage of grocery store products marketed to children that contain AFCs, by category and company. The research team collected product and food-color information about 810 products in one grocery store in North Carolina in 2014. Overall, 350 products (43.2%) contained AFCs. The most common AFCs were Red 40 (29.8% of products), Blue 1 (24.2%), Yellow 5 (20.5%), and Yellow 6 (19.5%). Produce was the only category that did not have any AFCs. The highest percentage of products with AFCs was found in candies (96.3%), fruit-flavored snacks (94%), and drink mixes/powders (89.7%). Forty-one of the 66 companies marketed products containing AFCs. Given concerns about health effects of AFCs and high proportions of high-AFC categories, clinicians, parents, food companies, and the government can take steps to support children's healthy eating and development by reducing AFCs in children's diets. PMID:27270961

  7. Quality of diversified value addition from some minor fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ivi; Chaurasiya, A K; Saha, J

    2011-12-01

    Diversified value added products like palm spread, palm toffee, palm burfi, passion-mango blended squash, passion rind pickle, passion rind candy, blended jamun nectar and jack-passion spread from various minor fruits including palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims), jamun (Syzygium cumini Rom) and jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) were developed and their quality assessed. Among these two products viz. passion-mango blended squash and palm spread were rich in antioxidant properties. Passion rind pickle and passion-mango blended squash stored up to 1 year in sealed glass bottle under ambient temperature (25-37 °C). Similarly, passion-mango blended squash has a longer storage life of 15 months followed by jack-passion spread (14 months) under refrigerated temperature (8-10 °C). Passion rind pickle, jack-passion spread and passion-mango blended squash were the most acceptable with a score of above 3.5 out of 5.0. The microbial population of the products showed acceptable limit with respect to the yeast and bacterial count till their respective storage period. PMID:23572816

  8. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment. PMID:22701497

  9. Oral health in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Duška

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of fetal teeth as well as preventing tooth decay in pregnant women. The optimal period for introducing preventive measures is the first trimester of pregnancy. Alterations of oral health during pregnancy Because of hormonal alterations there is an increased incidence of dental diseases: gingivitis and low salivary pH (inflammation and bleeding gums. Impact of nutrition during pregnancy on oral health Eating habits of pregnant women may lead to frequent snacking on candy or other decay-promoting foods, thereby increasing the risk of caries. However, very poor oral health, possible dental complications and their consequences to the health as well as emotional status represent very strong reasons for activation of dental health care in this period.

  10. Diminished social reward anticipation in the broad autism phenotype as revealed by event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anthony; Kohls, Gregor; Naples, Adam J; Mukerji, Cora E; Coffman, Marika C; Rutherford, Helena J V; Mayes, Linda C; McPartland, James C

    2015-10-01

    Diminished responsivity to reward incentives is a key contributor to the social-communication problems seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Social motivation theories suggest that individuals with ASD do not experience social interactions as rewarding, leading to negative consequences for the development of brain circuitry subserving social information. In this study, we examined neural responses to social and non-social reward anticipation in 35 typically developing young adults, examining modulation of reward sensitivity by level of autistic traits. Using an Event-related potential incentive-delay task incorporating novel, more ecologically valid forms of reward, higher expression of autistic traits was associated with an attenuated P3 response to the anticipation of social (simulated real-time video feedback from an observer), but not non-social (candy), rewards. Exploratory analyses revealed that this was unrelated to mentalizing ability. The P3 component reflects motivated attention to reward signals, suggesting attenuated motivation allocation specific to social incentives. The study extends prior findings of atypical reward anticipation in ASD, demonstrating that attenuated social reward responsiveness extends to autistic traits in the range of typical functioning. Results support the development of innovative paradigms for investigating social and non-social reward responsiveness. Insight into vulnerabilities in reward processing is critical for understanding social function in ASD. PMID:25752905

  11. Direct simultaneous determination of eight sweeteners in foods by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmannová, Michaela; Krivánková, Ludmila; Bartos, Martin; Vytras, Karel

    2006-05-01

    A method for isotachophoretic determination of sweeteners of different character in candies and chewing gums was developed. A capillary of 0.8 mm ID and 90 mm effective length made of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer is filled with an electrolyte system consisting of 10 mM HCl + 14 mM Tris, pH 7.7 (leading electrolyte) and 5 mM L-histidine + 5 mM Tris, pH 8.3 (terminating electrolyte). The analysis is performed at a driving current of 200 microA and for detection current is decreased to 100 microA. Boric acid is added to the aqueous sample solution to form borate complexes with substances of polyhydroxyl nature and make them migrate isotachophoretically. Using conductivity detection, the calibration curves in the tested concentration range up to 2.5 mM were linear for all components of interest: acesulfame K, saccharine, aspartame, cyclamate, sorbitol, mannitol, lactitol, and xylitol. The concentration detection limits ranged between 0.024 and 0.081 mM. Good precision of the ITP method is evidenced by favorable RSD values ranging from 0.8 to 2.8% obtained at the analyte concentration of 1.0 mM (n = 6). The analysis time was about 20 min. Simplicity, accuracy, and low cost of analyses make ITP an alternative procedure to methods used so far for the determination of ionizable sweeteners. PMID:16830728

  12. Changes in Candida spp., mutans streptococci and lactobacilli following treatment of early childhood caries: a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinke, T; Urban, M; Lück, C; Hannig, C; Kuhn, M; Krämer, N

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is closely related to high numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida albicans. Oral colonization of these microorganisms was monitored in a prospective clinical study in order to investigate the effect of comprehensive treatment under general anesthesia and the sustainability of microbial changes. Saliva samples were collected from 50 healthy infants with ECC before and in regular intervals up to 12 months after treatment. Microorganisms were detected by cultivation on selective agars (CRT® bacteria and Sabouraud/CandiSelect™) and scored. Additionally, plaque on upper front teeth and the dmft were recorded. Parents were repeatedly interviewed regarding the children's diet and oral hygiene, accompanied by corresponding advice. Plaque frequency and the numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and yeasts were significantly reduced as a result of treatment (p caries relapse (p Nutritional and oral hygiene habits changed only slightly despite advising. Elimination and restoration of ECC lesions under general anesthesia proved to be an effective procedure in reducing cariogenic bacteria and yeasts. A satisfactory and sustainable success, however, could be achieved neither regarding microbiologic parameters nor with respect to the relapse rate. More suitable strategies are needed. PMID:24216710

  13. [Food preferences of 10- to 14-year-old boys and girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, J M

    1999-02-01

    To assess their food preferences a list of 114 foods and 14 beverages was submitted to a sample of 696 boys and 537 girls aged 10 to 14 years. For each item subjects had to rare by means of a five-point facial scale how much they liked or disliked it. Items with highest preference ratings were foods like pizza, ice cream, spaghetti, French fries, hamburgers, pudding, corn flakes, potato chips and popcorn, but also included the most common types of fruit. Disliked to a high degree were liver, canned or steamed fish, raw sauerkraut and red cabbage. In food groups derived by factor analysis, fast food, candy and salty snacks (along with fruit) showed highest mean liking, while vegetables (particularly cooked) ranked at the bottom of the scale. In boys significantly stronger preferences were found for food groups such as fast food, meats, cold cuts and fish, whereas girls had a (slightly) higher preference for fruit, vegetables and cheese. Neither children's age nor relative weight were related to their food preferences to a significant degree. Similarly, groups defined by father's educational level did not show important differences in their food preferences. PMID:10081073

  14. Environmental influences on children's physical activity and eating habits in a rural Oregon County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Jerofke, Linda J; Brogoitti, Victoria W

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. To identify environmental barriers and facilitators of children's physical activity and healthy eating in a rural county. DESIGN. Community-based participatory research using mixed methods, primarily qualitative. SETTING. A rural Oregon county. SUBJECTS. Ninety-five adults, 6 high school students, and 41 fifth-grade students. MEASURES. In-depth interviews, focus groups, Photovoice, and structured observations using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment, System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity, Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit, and School Food and Beverage Marketing Assessment Tool. ANALYSIS. Qualitative data were coded by investigators; observational data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings were triangulated to produce a composite of environmental barriers and assets. RESULTS. Limited recreational resources, street-related hazards, fear of strangers, inadequate physical education, and denial of recess hindered physical activity, whereas popularity of youth sports and proximity to natural areas promoted physical activity. Limited availability and high cost of healthy food, busy lifestyles, convenience stores near schools, few healthy meal choices at school, children's being permitted to bring snacks to school, candy used as incentives, and teachers' modeling unhealthy eating habits hindered healthy eating, whereas the agricultural setting and popularity of gardening promoted healthy eating. CONCLUSIONS. This study provides data on a neglected area of research, namely environmental determinants of rural childhood obesity, and points to the need for multifaceted and multilevel environmental change interventions. PMID:22040399

  15. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Christou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.10, and p<0.05, resp.. Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p<0.001. Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p=0.37, whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p=0.99. Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions.

  16. Microstructures and transformation characteristics of thin films of TiNiCu shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程秀兰; 徐东; 蔡炳初; 王莉; 陈鉴; 李刚; 徐实

    2002-01-01

    Both sputtering conditions and crystallizing temperatures have great influence on the microstructures and phase transformation characteristics for Ti51Ni44Cu5.By means of the resistance-temperature measurement,X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study,the results indicate that the transformation temperatures of the thin films increase and the "rock candy" martensitic relief is more easily obtained with promoting the sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature.However,when sputtering Ar pressure,sputtering power,or crystallizing temperature are lower,a kind of "chrysanthemum" relief,which is related with Ti-rich GP zones,is much easier to be observed.The reason is that during crystallization process,both of the inherent compressive stresses introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure or higher crystallizing temperature are helpful to the transition from GP zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.The addition of copper to substitute for 5% nickel in mole fraction can reduce the transformation hysteresis width to about 10~15 ℃.

  17. Tracking of a dietary pattern and its components over 10-years in the severely obese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Johns

    Full Text Available Understanding how dietary intake changes over time is important for studies of diet and disease and may inform interventions to improve dietary intakes. We investigated how a dietary pattern (DP tracked over 10-years in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study control group. Dietary intake was assessed at multiple time-points in 2037 severely obese individuals (BMI 41 ± 4 kg/m(2. Reduced rank regression was used to derive a dietary pattern using dietary energy density (kJ/g, saturated fat (% and fibre density (mg/kJ as response variables and score respondents at each follow-up. Tracking coefficients for the DP, its key foods and macronutrient response variables and corrected for time-dependent and time-independent covariates were calculated using generalised estimating equations to take into account all available data. The DP tracking coefficient was moderate for women (0.40; 95% CI: 0.38-0.42 and men (0.38; 95% CI: 0.35-0.41. Of the eleven foods key to this DP, fruit and vegetable intakes had the strongest tracking coefficient for both sexes. Fast food and candy had the lowest tracking coefficients for women and men respectively. Scores for an energy dense, high saturated fat, low fibre density DP appear moderately stable over a 10-year period in this severely obese population. Furthermore, some food groups appear more amenable to change while others, often the most healthful, appear more stable and may require intervention before adulthood.

  18. RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN PATIENTS WITH HIV LIPODYSTROPHIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Daniele Tavares Dutra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipodystrophy is quite common in HIV positive patient using antiretroviral therapy (ART. Objective: to investigate the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD in patients with HIV lipodystrophic syndrome (HIVLS. Methods: Transversal study with adult patients with HIVLS. Social-demographic, anthropometric and risk factors for CVD were collected. Results: 117 patients were studied, being 63.2% male, average age 44.61 (± 9.22. The majority (53,8% presented the mixed form of HIVLS. As for the risk factors for CVD, it was observed that 20.5% of the patients smoked, 46.2% consumed alcoholic beverages, 70.9% were sedentary and 79,5% were dyslipidemic. Hypertension, diabetes and overweight were prevalent in 12.0%, 14.7% and 23.9%, respectively, independently from sex. The analysis of the food consumption has revealed a low consumption of food considered as protectors, just like fruit, vegetables and greens and a high consumption of food considered risky, like meat with apparent fat, chicken with skin, candies and sweets. Conclusion: The patients bearing SLHIV presented a higher risk for CVD, so the participation of the multidisciplinary team on the service for these patients is fundamental, stimulating them to changes in their life styles.

  19. Role of density gradient driven trapped electron mode turbulence in the H-mode inner core with electron heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Guttenfelder, W.; Rhodes, T. L.; Dimits, A. M.; Bravenec, R.; Grierson, B. A.; Holland, C.; Lohr, J.; Marinoni, A.; McKee, G. R.; Petty, C. C.; Rost, J. C.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Zemedkun, S.; Zeng, L.

    2016-05-01

    A series of DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] low torque quiescent H-mode experiments show that density gradient driven trapped electron mode (DGTEM) turbulence dominates the inner core of H-mode plasmas during strong electron cyclotron heating (ECH). Adding 3.4 MW ECH doubles Te/Ti from 0.5 to 1.0, which halves the linear DGTEM critical density gradient, locally reducing density peaking, while transport in all channels displays extreme stiffness in the density gradient. This suggests that fusion α-heating may degrade inner core confinement in H-mode plasmas with moderate density peaking and low collisionality, with equal electron and ion temperatures, key conditions expected in burning plasmas. Gyrokinetic simulations using GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] (and GENE [Jenko et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000)]) closely match not only particle, energy, and momentum fluxes but also density fluctuation spectra from Doppler backscattering (DBS), with and without ECH. Inner core DBS density fluctuations display discrete frequencies with adjacent toroidal mode numbers, which we identify as DGTEMs. GS2 [Dorland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)] predictions show the DGTEM can be suppressed, to avoid degradation with electron heating, by broadening the current density profile to attain q0>qmin>1 .

  20. Structure-based view on [PSI(+)] prion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Stanislav A; Zhouravleva, Galina A; Belousov, Mikhail V; Kajava, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    Yeast [PSI(+)] prion is one of the most suitable and well characterized system for the investigation of the prion phenomenon. However, until recently, the lack of data on the 3D arrangement of Sup35p prion fibrils hindered progress in this area. The recent arrival in this field of new experimental techniques led to the parallel and in-register superpleated β-structure as a consensus model for Sup35p fibrils. Here, we analyzed the effect of amino acid substitutions of the Sup35 protein through the prism of this structural model. Application of a newly developed computational approach, called ArchCandy, gives us a better understanding of the effect caused by mutations on the fibril forming potential of Sup35 protein. This bioinformatics tool can be used for the design of new mutations with desired modification of prion properties. Thus, we provide examples of how today, having progress toward elucidation of the structural arrangement of Sup35p fibrils, researchers can advance more efficiently to a better understanding of prion [PSI(+)] stability and propagation.

  1. Development and evaluation of a rapid latex agglutination test using a monoclonal antibody to identify Candida dubliniensis colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cell component extraction suggested that the specific epitope probably resides on a protein moiety absent from C. albicans. However, we failed to identify the target protein by Western blotting, owing to its sensitivity to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate. MAb 12F7-F2 was further used to develop a commercial latex agglutination test to identify C. dubliniensis colonies (Bichro-dubli Fumouze test; Fumouze Diagnostics). The test was validated on yeast strains previously identified by PCR and on fresh clinical isolates; these included 46 C. dubliniensis isolates, 45 C. albicans isolates, and other yeast species. The test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose, CHROMagar Candida, and CandiSelect media and 97.8% sensitivity for C. dubliniensis grown on Candida ID medium. The test is rapid (5 min) and easy to use and may be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories and for epidemiological investigations. PMID:16390961

  2. 浓香型白酒酒醅可培养真菌的分离、鉴定及系统发育分析%Isolation,Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Culturable Fungi in Fermented Grains of Nongxiang Baijiu(Liquor)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 夏珊; 徐坤; 冯鸿; 冯霞; 曹子建

    2015-01-01

    The culturable fungi in fermented grains of Sichuan Nongxiang Baijiu(liquor) were isolated and identified. Then homology analysis was done. Some filamentous fungi could be identified at species level by use of ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 sequences. As a result, Aspergillus sp., Monascus sp., Rhizopus sp. were the dominant strains. Yeasts could be identified at species level by use of 26S rRNA D1/D2 sequences. And Candida sp. and Pichia sp. were the dominant strains.%对四川浓香型白酒酒醅可培养真菌进行分离、鉴定,并做系统发育分析。运用ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2序列可将部分菌株鉴定到种的水平,可培养丝状真菌优势菌为曲霉属(Aspergillus sp.)、红曲霉属(Monascus sp.)、根霉(Rhizopus sp.)。26S rRNA D1/D2序列可将所有分离酵母鉴定到种的水平,可培养酵母优势菌为假丝酵母属(Candi-da sp.)和毕赤酵母属(Pichia sp.)。

  3. September 2012 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A dinner meeting was held on 9/26//2012 at Scottsdale Shea beginning at 6:30 PM. There were 18 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, pathology, and radiology communities.A discussion was held on Pending Premium Cigar Legislation HR. 1639 and S.1461, the "Traditional Cigar Manufacturing and Small Business Jobs Preservation Act of 2011”. This bill would exempt "premium cigars" from FDA oversight. The definition of premium cigars is so broad that candy flavored cigars, cigarillos and blunts would be exempted from FDA regulation. Teenage cigar smoking is increasing and this legislation may result in a further increase. The Arizona Thoracic Society is opposed to this bill. Dr. Robbins is to put a link on the Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care website linking to the ATS website. This will enable members to contact their Congressmen opposing this legislation. A discussion was also held on a proposed combined Tucson/Phoenix …

  4. Working memory load affects processing time in spoken word recognition: Evidence from eye-movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt eHadar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the ‘visual world’ eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g. point at the candle. Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset or at the last syllable (offset. Eye movements captured listeners’ ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal. We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load or four (high-load spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions.

  5. Le cas des beurres végétaux et des cires d’origine naturelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossow Véronique

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural waxes such as Beeswax, Carnauba wax and Candelilla wax are widely used in the Cosmetic and Food industries. Thanks to their composition, and besides a compulsory high safety, they provide desirable properties such as strength, gloss, emolliency, barrier effect, making them essential in numerous applications. For example, lots of candies are coated with either one or a mix of these 3 waxes, while for Cosmetics, the waxy part of lipsticks contains various combinations of such waxes. Within the cosmetic industry, the “green wave” – natural products – which is developing to the detriment of synthetic or mineral raw materials, has generated know-hows to enlighten new values to natural resources. Several types of developments have occurred: managing to substitute materials facing bad press (ex: petrolatum, lanolin, mimicking trendy “butter-like” textures either by adequate mixture or by chemical reaction to offer alternatives to overused Shea or Cupuaçu Butter, or as a result of more recent research programs, identifying natural waxes acting more like active ingredients than “just” like excipients (Mimosa Flower wax, Lemon Peel or Orange Peel waxes, etc..

  6. Working Memory Load Affects Processing Time in Spoken Word Recognition: Evidence from Eye-Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, Britt; Skrzypek, Joshua E; Wingfield, Arthur; Ben-David, Boaz M

    2016-01-01

    In daily life, speech perception is usually accompanied by other tasks that tap into working memory capacity. However, the role of working memory on speech processing is not clear. The goal of this study was to examine how working memory load affects the timeline for spoken word recognition in ideal listening conditions. We used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm. The task consisted of spoken instructions referring to one of four objects depicted on a computer monitor (e.g., "point at the candle"). Half of the trials presented a phonological competitor to the target word that either overlapped in the initial syllable (onset) or at the last syllable (offset). Eye movements captured listeners' ability to differentiate the target noun from its depicted phonological competitor (e.g., candy or sandal). We manipulated working memory load by using a digit pre-load task, where participants had to retain either one (low-load) or four (high-load) spoken digits for the duration of a spoken word recognition trial. The data show that the high-load condition delayed real-time target discrimination. Specifically, a four-digit load was sufficient to delay the point of discrimination between the spoken target word and its phonological competitor. Our results emphasize the important role working memory plays in speech perception, even when performed by young adults in ideal listening conditions. PMID:27242424

  7. A Swedish perspective on research ethics review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius, M.D., G.P., Ph.D.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I have participated in writing ethical approval applications for research projects in Sweden a dozen times. I am also since some years a member of the local ethics advisory board in a mostly rural area serving 180.000 people. From that position I advise on what types of local project applications will have to be sent further to the regional ethics committee, REPN in Sweden. With that background I will try to give a brief Swedish perspective on research ethics reviews in general and regarding CGT (classic grounded theory studies using qualitative data in particular.The most famous Swedish example of unethical research is the 1947-1951 Vipeholm sugar trial (Krasse, 2001. Several hundred intellectually and mentally challenged persons at the Vipeholm institution were for years given an excess amount of sugar, mostly in the shape of candy. This resulted in caries that totally ruined the teeth of 50 persons. Of course participants did not give informed consent. Yet, at the time the research was not considered unethical. At least there was no debate about it.

  8. Use of repellents for honeybees (Apis mellifera L. in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit (Passiflora edulis Deg crop and in confined beef cattle feeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nicodemo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Apis mellifera in places such as candy and soft drink factories, restaurants, and ice-cream shops has been a concern to many people. In the yellow passion-fruit crop, Apis mellifera is able to collect all anther pollen but has no active role in pollination. Honeybees also visit animal feeders with chopped sugar cane, preventing the cattle from eating. This work studied the effect of natural and synthetic substances as Apis mellifera repellents in vitro in the yellow passion-fruit crop and in confined beef cattle feeders. There was a repellent effect in vitro with the following substances in decreasing order: tobacco, rue, garlic, parsley, and century plant extracts; average effect was twenty-five minutes. For the yellow passion-fruit, garlic extracts and 2-heptanone were equally efficient with a two and a half hour repellent action. Garlic and citronella extracts were efficient in repelling Apis mellifera from confined beef cattle feeder for six hours. Garlic repellent action was higher than citronella.

  9. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  10. 发酵型黑莓醋饮料的研究%Study on the Production of Fermenting Blackberry Vinegar Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾荣妹; 吴广黔; 周剑丽

    2012-01-01

    Blackberry vinegar juice was prepared by alcohol fermentation and acetic fermentation of flesh blackberry. The optimum technical pa- rameters were determined and the recipe of vinegar beverage was summed up by orthogonal experiments as follows: 20 % blackberry vinegar juice, 10 % jujube juice, and 8 % sweetener (xylitol, sugar candy and honey). Besides, the technology of high temperature instant sterilization was adopted in the production of blackberry vinegar beverage. (Tran, by YUE Yang)%以新鲜黑莓(Blackeny)为原料,经过酒精发酵和醋酸发酵制取黑莓醋汁。通过试验,得出了黑莓醋汁的最佳酒精发酵和醋酸发酵的工艺参数。选用正交实验,得出醋酸饮料的配方:黑莓醋汁20%,红枣汁10%,甜味剂(木糖醇、冰糖、蜂蜜)8%。黑莓果醋饮料采用高温瞬间灭菌的杀菌工艺。

  11. Highly sensitive determination of sunset yellow FCF (E110) in food products based on Chitosan/Nanoparticles/MWCNTs with modified gold electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovina, K.; Siddiquee, S.; Shaarani, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Sunset Yellow belongs to the family of azo dyes, commonly used in food industry. High consumption of Sunset Yellow can cause health problem to human. Due to arising of the health issues, there are several analytical methods available for determination of Sunset Yellow. However, these methods are required skilled manpower, complicated procedures, time consuming and high cost. Herein, an electrochemical sensor was developed based on the combination of chitosan (CHIT), calcium oxide nanoparticles (CaONPs) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) sensing film for detection of Sunset Yellow in food products. Electrochemical behavior of the modified gold electrode in the presence of Sunset Yellow was studied by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The morphological characteristics of CHIT/CaONPs/MWCNTs were observed under scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Under optimal conditions, the DPV was detected with different concentrations of Sunset Yellow in the range of 0.9 to 10 ppm, with detection limit of 0.8 ppm. The developed method has successfully applied for monitoring the presence of Sunset Yellow with different food products including candy, royal jelly, ice cream and soft drink with satisfactory results.

  12. Pre-exposure to food temptation reduces subsequent consumption: A test of the procedure with a South-African sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Helen Inseng; Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Dewitte, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the consumption of unhealthy Westernized diet in a context of poverty and resultant food insecurity may have contributed to South-Africa's status of the third fattest country in the World. Considering that a number of South-Africans are reported to have experienced, or are still experiencing food insecurity, procedures which have been shown to reduce the consumption of unhealthy food in higher income countries may be ineffective in South-Africa. We thus tested the robustness of the so called pre-exposure procedure in South-Africa. We also tested the moderating role of childhood poverty in the pre-exposure procedure. With the pre-exposure procedure, a respondent is exposed to a tempting unhealthy food (e.g. candy) in a context that is designed such that eating the food interferes with a task goal. The typical result is that this procedure spills over and reduces consumption of similar tempting food later on. An experimental study conducted in a South-African laboratory showed that the pre-exposure effect is robust even with a sample, where food insecurity prevails. Childhood poverty did not moderate the effect. This study proves that behavioral procedures aimed at reducing the consumption of unhealthy food would be valuable in less rich non-Western countries. Further testing of the robustness of the pre-exposure effect is however recommended in other poorer food insecure countries. PMID:26505288

  13. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  14. Food consumption by young children: a function of parental feeding goals and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison E; Hoffmann, Debra A; Meers, Molly R; Koball, Afton M; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2014-03-01

    Staggering health implications are associated with poor child diet. Given the importance of parents in impacting children's eating outcomes, the current study examined a theoretical framework in which both parental feeding goals and practices impact specific healthy and unhealthy child eating behaviors. Participants were 171 mothers of 3-6year old children who were diverse both socioeconomically and with regard to BMI. Mothers completed questionnaires via Mechanical Turk, an online workforce through Amazon.com. Structural Equation Modeling showed an adequate model fit in which Negative Feeding Practices (e.g., using food as a reward) mediated the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals (i.e., feeding children with health-oriented goals in mind) and Negative Eating Behaviors (e.g., consumption of candy and snacks). However, Negative Feeding Practices did not mediate the relationship between Health-Related Feeding Goals and Positive Eating Behaviors (i.e., fruits and vegetables). These findings suggest the important role of habitual food parenting practices in children's eating and have implications for parental health education programs.

  15. Content Analysis of Food Advertising in Iranian Children′s Television Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertisements can influence children′s health related behaviors. Television advertisements are the main avenues directing commercials at children in Iran. This study aimed to explore the content of food advertisement during children′s television programs in 2007-8 and to compare it with those reported in 2000. Methods: All advertisements broadcasted before, during, and after children′s programs aired on two major Iran national television networks were videotaped for a period of 4 weeks during 2007-8. For each advertisement, type of product(s and mode of presentation (s were coded. Results: A total of 229 television advertisements were broadcasted. Food commercials were the most frequent group (31% across the two channels. Among the food products advertised, calorie dense foods, including chocolate, soft drinks, extruded cereals, ice cream, cookies and candies were the most frequent. The appeal mainly used in television food advertisements was "stimulation of hunger/thirst" (38.5%. The advertisements were mostly presented as animations (54% and the messages used were mainly directed to good taste. Conclusion: Although the total number of food advertisements during children′s television programs has decreased but the consumption of high fat, high sugar, low nutrient dense foods continues to be promoted. Policies to address the issue should be scrutinized.

  16. Nutritional standards for energy-dense low-nutrient density foods for children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Kyu; Park, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Youn-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The increasing rate of child obesity has developed into a serious concern in contemporary society. In Korea, additional concerns over unsanitary environments of food establishments near schools led to the enforcement in 2009 of the Special Act on the Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life in order to improve food safety and nutrition. Some of the main policies of the Special Act are the prohibition of Energy- dense Low-Nutrient density Foods (hereinafter referred to as EDLNF) at school canteens and in the outstanding businesses, along with restrictions on television advertisement for EDLNF products. Confectioneries, candies, sweetened-ice products, breads, chocolates, processed milk, fermented milk, ice cream, fish-meat sausages, fruit/vegetable beverages, carbonated beverages, mixed beverages, and lactic acid bacteria beverages are classified as applicable food types of EDLNF. To establish the nutritional standards for EDLNF, the intake proportions and the pattern of nutrients in children's preferred foods in Korea were analyzed, based on the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Korea. The foods containing more than 250 kcal, more than 17 g of sugar or more than 4 g of saturated fat and less than 2 g of protein per serving are considered EDLNF snacks. The Korean government is concentrating its efforts in promoting healthy environments for children in its research and in food policies. Further studies are necessary to investigate the current state of changes in the children's foods industry.

  17. Poisoning in animals due to oral application of iron. With description of a case in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnbjerg, J

    1981-02-01

    Peroral application of iron salts in various types of anemia was previously considered atoxic. The increased use of iron has, however, led to an increasing number of poisoning in children, taking iron tablets for candy. There have only been reported a few number of spontaneous intoxications in animals, but experimentally it has been possible to produce fatal intoxications in various kinds of animal species. The clinical findings are quite similar in the various animals, starting with vomiting, bloody diarrhoea and metabolic acidosis. If the intoxication is severe, shock and coma may develop, and death occurs quite soon. The histological findings are also similar in the various animals, varying from erosions of the tops of the villi to necrosis of the mucosal membrane of the jejunum. Degenerative changes in the liver as well as in the kidney are seen in several cases. The mentioned case was a horse given about 475 g ferro fumarate over a period of 5 days. The horse developed the classic clinical picture and death occurred on day 7. The diagnosis was confirmed by very high levels of iron in the liver, kidney and serum. The blood values of the enzymes ASAT and gamma GT were extremely high as a sign of a severe damage of the liver.

  18. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in chicken lmbr1 gene were associated with chicken growth and carcass traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lmbr1 is the key candidate gene controlling vertebrate limb development, but its effects on animal growth and carcass traits have never been reported. In this experiment, lmbr1 was taken as the candi-date gene affecting chicken growth and carcass traits. T/C and G/A mutations located in exon 16 and one A/C mutation located in intron 5 of chicken lmbr1 were detected from Silky, White Plymouth Rock broilers and their F2 crossing chickens by PCR-SSCP and sequencing methods. The analysis of vari-ance (ANOVA) results suggests that T/C polymorphism of exon 16 had significant association with eviscerated yield rate (EYR), gizzard rate (GR), shank and claw rate (SCR) and shank girth (SG); A/C polymorphism of intron 5 was significantly associated with SCR, liver rate and head-neck weight (HNW), while both sites had no significant association with other growth and carcass traits. These results demonstrate that lmbr1 gene could be a genetic locus or linked to a major gene significantly affecting these growth and carcass traits in chicken.

  19. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics of University Students in Cyprus: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hadjimbei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess dietary-related habits among young adults. Design and Setting. Dietary habits were assessed cross-sectionally, using a self-completed questionnaire in 193 students enrolled in public and private universities in Cyprus. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the validated KIDMED index. BMI was estimated based on weight and height measurements. Results. The mean BMI was 23.31 (±3.98. The mean adherence score to the Mediterranean diet was 6.0 (IQR 4 to 8, with 26.9% of students being classified as high adherers and 21.8% as low adherers to the Mediterranean diet. About 32% of students consumed a second serving of fruit and vegetables more than once a day, whereas 26% reported going more than once a week to a fast-food restaurant and 31% consumed sweets and candy several times a day. On the other hand, 76% of participants reported consumption of at least two dairy products daily and 88% use olive oil at home. The majority consume coffee 2-3 times per day. Conclusions. Results support a shift from traditional healthy diets to more unhealthy eating patterns. However, we also report a high dairy intake and use of olive oil. Tailored-made strategies targeting the young adult population could be warranted.

  20. Nucleus accumbens mediates relative motivation for rewards in the absence of choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Clithero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To dissociate a choice from its antecedent neural states, motivation associated with the expected outcome must be captured in the absence of choice. Yet, the neural mechanisms that mediate behavioral idiosyncrasies in motivation, particularly with regard to complex economic preferences, are rarely examined in situations without overt decisions. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in a large sample of participants while they anticipated earning rewards from two different modalities: monetary and candy rewards. An index for relative motivation toward different reward types was constructed using reaction times to the target for earning rewards. Activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc and anterior insula (aINS predicted individual variation in relative motivation between our reward modalities. NAcc activation, however, mediated the effects of aINS, indicating the NAcc is the likely source of this relative weighting. These results demonstrate that neural idiosyncrasies in reward efficacy exist even in the absence of explicit choices, and extend the role of NAcc as a critical brain region for such choice-free motivation.

  1. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Masalu, Joyce Rose

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. METHODS: The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. RESULTS: Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. CONCLUSION: This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania. PMID:11782294

  2. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. Methods The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. Results Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. Conclusion This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania.

  3. Determination of acesulfam-K in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodolliet, J; Bruelhart, M

    1993-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method was evaluated for the determination of the intense sweetener acesulfam-K in tabletop sweetener, candy, soft drink, fruit juice, fruit nectar, yogurt, cream, custard, chocolate, and biscuit commercial preparations. Samples are extracted or simply diluted with water and filtered. Complex matrixes need a clarification step with Carrez solutions. An aliquot of the extract is analyzed on a reversed-phase mu Bondapak C18 column using 0.0125M KH2PO4 (pH 3.5)-acetonitrile (90 + 10) as mobile phase. Detection is performed by UV absorbance at 220 nm. Recoveries ranged from 95.2 to 106.8%. With one exception, all analyzed values were within +/- 15% of the declared levels. The repeatabilities and the repeatability coefficients of variation were, respectively, 0.37 mg/100 g and 0.98% for products containing less than 40 mg/100 g acesulfam-K and 2.43 mg/100 g and 1.29% for other products. The same procedure also allowed detection of many food additives or natural constituents, such as other intense sweeteners, organic acids, and alkaloids, in a single run without interfering with acesulfam-K. The method is simple, rapid, precise, and sensitive; therefore, it is suitable for routine analyses. PMID:8471852

  4. Reduction of dangerously aggressive behavior in a severely retarded resident through a combination of positive reinforcement procedures1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelich, Ron; Hake, D. F.

    1971-01-01

    A severely retarded resident was released from a timeout chair only occasionally for brief periods of time. Under the timeout contingency alone, the subject made a choke response within minutes of being released. Attention, such as hugs, smiles, and candy was then increased, first by providing it non-contingently and continuously as long as there were no aggressive responses and then, by making it contingent upon incompatible responses. Under conditions of timeout plus increased attention, choking decreased aburptly. Grabbing responses, which increased when choking was reduced, were also reduced under conditions of timeout plus attention. Unrestrained time was gradually increased and all extra attention, i.e., more scheduled attention than provided other residents, was gradually withdrawn. When the resident was unrestrained all day and all extra attention was withdrawn, grabs and, to a lesser extent, chokes increased. Both were again reduced to a manageable level by scheduling several brief periods of attention each day. Hence, the program resulted in quick reductions that endured when the program was largely withdrawn. The changes in aggressive responding as a function of the presence and absence of extra attention suggest the importance of extra “positive reinforcement” in programs based upon positive reinforcement procedures and dealing with retarded residents for whom positive reinforcers may be scarce. PMID:16795297

  5. Are we ready for definitive clinical guidelines on xylitol/polyol use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, M; González-Cabezas, C

    2012-09-01

    In the past decades, numerous studies have looked at the anticaries effects of polyols, particularly xylitol, and a great many studies have focused on xylitol's antimicrobial properties. Researched vehicles have mostly included chewing gums, followed by lozenges/candies, toothpastes, and others (e.g., syrup). Good evidence supports the claims that xylitol is non-cariogenic and has a dose-/frequency-dependent antimicrobial effect on dental plaque/mutans streptococci, and that polyol use is very safe. However, interpretation of caries data has been controversial, due in part to variability in study designs, formulations/dosages tested, and outcomes reported (e.g., many caries studies have a "no gum" control, limiting the interpretation of the polyol's benefit; few studies have compared different polyols side-by-side, or in adults). Even when the level/strength of high-quality anticaries evidence is still limited, most recent systematic reviews have consistently concluded that the habitual use of sucrose-free xylitol or polyol-combination chewing gum/ lozenges is an effective adjunct in coronal caries prevention. Consequently, many health organizations worldwide are supporting this recommendation for at-risk populations. However, most experts agree that well-designed, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) (focusing on efficacy, feasibility, adherence, dosage, vehicle, synergism with other preventive strategies, and cost) are still needed in target populations worldwide to reach definitive caries-preventive/therapeutic recommendations. PMID:22899694

  6. Genetic variation for susceptibility to storm-induced stem breakage in Solidago altissima: The role of stem height and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael J.; Abrahamson, Warren G.

    2010-07-01

    While storms can have obvious ecological impacts on plants, plants' potential to respond evolutionarily to selection for increased resistance to storm damage has received little study. We took advantage of a thunderstorm with strong wind and hail to examine genetic variation for resistance to stem breakage in the herbaceous perennial Solidago altissima. The storm broke the apex of nearly 10% of 1883 marked ramets in a common-garden plot containing 26 genets of S. altissima. Plant genets varied 20-fold in resistance to breakage. Stem height was strongly correlated with resistance to breakage, with taller stems being significantly more susceptible. A stem's growth form (erect versus nodding) had no detectable effect on its resistance to breakage. Therefore, we rejected the hypothesis that a function of the nodding, or "candy-cane," morphology is protection of the apex from storm damage. The significant genetic variation in S. altissima for stem breakage suggests that this plant has the capacity to respond to selection imposed by storms - particularly through changes in mean stem height. Tradeoffs between breakage resistance and competition for light and pollinators may act to maintain a large amount of genetic variation in stem height.

  7. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; Pfine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:26162238

  8. Fatal Hyponatremic Encephalopathy as a Result of Child Abuse From Forced Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michael L; Lauridson, James R

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of fatal hyponatremic encephalopathy in a child who was forced to exercise as a form of punishment. A 9-year-old girl with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was forced to run repeated 50-ft sprints to the point of exhaustion by her grandmother as punishment for taking candy from a classmate. After more than 3 hours of forced running, the child collapsed, began to vomit, and had repeated clonic seizures. Upon presentation to the emergency department, she was nonresponsive with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 11 and had noncardiogenic pulmonary edema with serum sodium of 117 mEq/L. She was treated with antiepilectic medications and transferred to a university children's hospital where she later died. On postmortem examination, she was found to have massive cerebral edema with transtentorial herniation and pulmonary edema. Her clinical presentation closely resembled exercise-associated hyponatremic encephalopathy seen in adult endurance athletes. This appears to be the first report of fatal exercise-associated hyponatremia in a child. PMID:26600233

  9. Efficient diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis by use of a new rapid immunochromatography test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Pilon, Françoise; Beucher, Bertrand; Poulain, Daniel; Robert, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    The clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are nonspecific, and misdiagnosis is common, leading to a delay in the initiation of antifungal treatment. We evaluated a new immunochromatography test (ICT), the CandiVagi assay (SR2B, Avrille, France), for the rapid diagnosis of VVC. This test, which employs an immunoglobulin M antibody directed against the beta-1,2-mannopyranosyl epitopes found in the yeast cell wall, was compared with direct microscopic examination and culture of vaginal swabs. Two-hundred five women were investigated, including 130 women with symptomatic vaginitis and 75 asymptomatic controls. Two vaginal swabs were obtained from each woman: one was used to prepare a wet mount and Gram-stained preparations for direct microscopic examination and was also cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of Candida spp., and the second swab was used for ICT. The sensitivities of microscopic examination, culture, and ICT for the diagnosis of VVC were 61%, 100%, and 96.6%, respectively, while the specificities of the three methods were 100%, 82%, and 98.6%, respectively. ICT had a negative predictive value of 98.6%, a positive predictive value of 96.6%, and an efficiency of 98%. ICT provided a rapid result and a better compromise between sensitivity and specificity than conventional microscopy and culture for the diagnosis of VVC. This easy-to-perform diagnostic test will be useful to practitioners treating women with symptoms of vaginitis.

  10. 教学型高仿真乒乓球发球机械手设计%Design of Teaching High Simulation Table Tennis Serve Manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高佩川; 肖增文

    2013-01-01

    Using pneumatic & hydraulic actuators and PLC control,real human arm movements playing table tennis was simula-ted. The hydraulic cylinder was used to push the pitching machine to move. The pneumatic cylinder was used to simulate the arm movements. Servo motor was used to drive the racket to simulate wrist angle to serve an apinning ball. At the same time,PLC was used to control the movements of cylinders and motors. It is superior to friction gear serve and candy bar serve in that it can serve all kind of apinning balls and has highly simulation.%采用气液联动、PLC控制的方式,高度模拟真人挥动手臂的发球方式,用液压缸带动发球机移动变位,用气压缸模拟手臂动作,用伺服电机带动球拍模拟手腕角度发出旋转球,同时用PLC控制各执行机构运动,突破了现有摩擦轮发球和一般直板式发球模式的局限,可实现各种旋球的随机变向变位发球,具有高度仿真性。

  11. Measuring the Food Environment: A Systematic Technique for Characterizing Food Stores Using Display Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics—such as the number and placement of display stands—on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N=172 in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  12. The iceberg principles

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer-Devlin, Marni

    2013-01-01

    The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...

  13. Applying state diagrams to food processing and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Y.; Karel, M.

    1991-01-01

    The physical state of food components affects their properties during processing, storage, and consumption. Removal of water by evaporation or by freezing often results in formation of an amorphous state (Parks et al., 1928; Troy and Sharp, 1930; Kauzmann, 1948; Bushill et al., 1965; White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). Amorphous foods are also produced from carbohydrate melts by rapid cooling after extrusion or in the manufacturing of hard sugar candies and coatings (Herrington and Branfield, 1984). Formation of the amorphous state and its relation to equilibrium conditions are shown in Fig. 1 [see text]. The most important change, characteristic of the amorphous state, is noticed at the glass transition temperature (Tg), which involves transition from a solid "glassy" to a liquid-like "rubbery" state. The main consequence of glass transition is an increase of molecular mobility and free volume above Tg, which may result in physical and physico-chemical deteriorative changes (White and Cakebread, 1966; Slade and Levine, 1991). We have conducted studies on phase transitions of amorphous food materials and related Tg to composition, viscosity, stickiness, collapse, recrystallization, and ice formation. We have also proposed that some diffusion-limited deteriorative reactions are controlled by the physical state in the vicinity of Tg (Roos and Karel, 1990, 1991a, b, c). The results are summarized in this article, with state diagrams based on experimental and calculated data to characterize the relevant water content, temperature, and time-dependent phenomena of amorphous food components.

  14. Beyond pleasure and pain: Facial expression ambiguity in adults and children during intense situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, Sofia; Levine, Sarah; van Dick, Rolf; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Aviezer, Hillel

    2016-09-01

    According to psychological models as well as common intuition, intense positive and negative situations evoke highly distinct emotional expressions. Nevertheless, recent work has shown that when judging isolated faces, the affective valence of winning and losing professional tennis players is hard to differentiate. However, expressions produced by professional athletes during publicly broadcasted sports events may be strategically controlled. To shed light on this matter we examined if ordinary people's spontaneous facial expressions evoked during highly intense situations are diagnostic for the situational valence. In Experiment 1 we compared reactions with highly intense positive situations (surprise soldier reunions) versus highly intense negative situations (terror attacks). In Experiment 2, we turned to children and compared facial reactions with highly positive situations (e.g., a child receiving a surprise trip to Disneyland) versus highly negative situations (e.g., a child discovering her parents ate up all her Halloween candy). The results demonstrate that facial expressions of both adults and children are often not diagnostic for the valence of the situation. These findings demonstrate the ambiguity of extreme facial expressions and highlight the importance of context in everyday emotion perception. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337681

  15. The influence of consumer capital to the formation corporate strategic planning system of confectionery enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Ibragimov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. In this paper we have identified the factors of consumer capital, which are accounted in the process of strategic planning on the confectionery enterprises.The results of the analysis. For consumer capital growth it is necessary to consider the features of consumer needs in the strategic planning of the company. A behavior is characterized by the volume and frequency of purchases.Consumer capital is often understood as capital of relations. In this sense, it includes contracts and agreements, reputation, brand, trademarks, distribution channels and product portfolio, relationships with consumers. Sociological data needed in the allocation of a certain market for groups of consumers are public.For this information analyzing we should use data from different sources, and to consider the thoughts and intuition leadership concerning the market situation. The main task of this research is to identify groups of customers with varying degrees of receptivity of products and brands.To assess consumer capital of confectioner enterprises we have provided market research in 2012 in Donetsk. In conducting marketing research (processed 50 customers the degree of confidence probability was 95%, confidence interval 10,04%. This made it possible to identify the benefits and demands of confectionery consumers, as well as to determine the factors that motivate them to buy.50% of respondents often choose products of brand Roshen. Consumers of PA Konti products there are 40%. Wide range of products, favorable prices, quality products etc. allow Konti company to win a large market share of confectionery in the country. On the third place there is AVK company. Products of this corporation are bought by 32% of respondents. Note that the AVK company is the market leader in Ukraine in category of chocolate candy.More than a half of respondents (56% choose this type of confectionery like chocolate candy. 46%of respondents prefer cookies. Bars and

  16. Fatores associados a hábitos de saúde bucal e utilização de serviços odontológicos entre adolescentes Factors associated with oral health habits and use of dental services by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Silvia Davoglio

    2009-03-01

    of annual dental visits was higher among individuals with higher SES. Preventive dental checkups were more frequent among individuals with higher SES, those who felt understood by their parents, and those who did not habitually eat candy. Oral health habits were associated with family SES and psychosocial factors except for frequency of annual dental visits. As for lifestyle, low candy consumption had a positive impact on reasons for use of dental appointments.

  17. Fatores associados ao sobrepeso e à obesidade em estudantes do ensino médio da rede pública estadual do município de Caruaru (PE Factores asociados al sobrepeso y la obesidad en estudiantes de la secundaria de la red pública provincial del municipio de Caruaru (Pernambuco, Brasil Factors associated with overweight and obesity among public high school students of the city of Caruaru, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Moraes V Petribú

    2011-12-01

    behavior, dietary intake, stress levels, smoking, alcohol consumption and quality of sleep. Binary logistic regression was conducted, considering overweight and obesity as the main outcomes, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: The final sample consisted of 600 students (62.5% females, with a mean age of 17.5±1.6 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.0% (95%CI 15.9-22.4 and 5.5% (95%CI 3.8-7.7, respectively, without differences between genders. The proportion of overweight was higher among those who reported a negative perception of stress, those with insufficient physical activities, and the individuals who reported alcohol consumption. There was a higher proportion of obesity among the students with a negative perception of sleep, those with insufficient physical activities, and those who reported watching TV more than three hours per day and having candies four times or more per week. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity associated with modifiable risk factors such as physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, negative perception of sleep, time in front of TV greater than three hours per day and consumption of candies four times or more per week.

  18. Descubriendo los hábitos alimenticios en la escuela multicultural a través de los debates infantiles Discovering the eating habits in the multicultural school through the children’s debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª de los Ángeles Merino Godoy

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad infantil en España y el auge de estos casos se está convirtiendo en un problema de salud de gran relevancia. El ayuno, la comida rápida y el abuso de golosinas son hábitos cada vez más populares, lo que genera trastornos alimenticios como la obesidad, la anorexia o la bulimia, que a su vez desencadenan en enfermedades crónicas desde edades más tempranas. Andalucía es una de las comunidades autónomas españolas con más prevalencia de obesidad infantil y también es una de las comunidades con mayor población inmigrante, por lo que la mayoría de nuestras escuelas son multiculturales. Esta variabilidad cultural la hemos tenido en cuenta en nuestra investigación, centrada en los escolares de Infantil y Primer Ciclo de Primaria. Nuestro estudio persigue conocer las valoraciones del alumnado acerca de la alimentación saludable y de sus propios hábitos, así como del respeto por las costumbres alimenticias de otras culturas. El debate infantil es el instrumento seleccionado para este estudio de campo que forma parte de una investigación más amplia que analiza la conducta alimenticia en la infancia desde todos los ámbitos: los comedores escolares, las familias, la administración y su política. Como resultado llegamos a descubrir que estos escolares apenas desayunan y comen poco pescado y verduras porque no les gusta. Les gusta la comida rápida como las pizzas y las hamburguesas, pero disfrutan más si alguna vez las elaboran sus propias madres. Carecen de conocimientos básicos sobre alimentación, sin embargo reproducen a la perfección las canciones y los eslóganes de los alimentos que publicitan en la televisión. También desconocen los hábitos alimenticios de su propia cultura, por lo que no se han descubierto problemas de rechazo o intolerancia ante las costumbres de cada uno.Children obesity in Spain and its peak are becoming a great relevance health problem. The fasting, the fast food and the candy`s abuse are

  19. Sensorial, physical and chemical evaluation of bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara N.G. Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bio-fortified sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck beta-carotene rich, has been included in the most vulnerable population’s diet with the purpose of reducing health disturbances associated with hipovitaminosis. Aims:To evaluate a physical and chemical analysis of total carotenes and beta-carotene and to determine the antioxidant potential as well as to carry out a sensorial analysis of the bio-fortified Ipomoea batatas (L. Lamarck (BDB in nature and processed. Methods: BDB was processed as sweet (in natura, paste and syrup and physicochemical characteristics were compared, total carotenoids, beta-carotene, antioxidant activity (DPPH and microbiological and sensory analyses were performed. Results:The analysis of total carotenoids, beta-carotene and anti-oxidant potential showed the following results: BDB in nature – 11.81 mg/100 g/440.5 mg/100 g/26.30%; sweet paste – 0.61 mg/100 g/53.5 mg/100 g/53.40% and savored syrup – 0.85 mg/100 g/46.0 mg/100 g/14.30%. The methods of conservation avoided the coliforms growth at 35 and 45°C, Staphylococcus coagulasa positivo, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella in all elaborated candies. The sensorial analysis didn’t detect significant differences among the syrup or paste. Conclusions: The conservation methods have an important function keeping the physical, chemical characteristics and sensorial of BDB, although they can influence in their chemical and nutritional composition, mainly in relation to the quantity of total carotenoids and beta-carotene.

  20. Young Children's Development of Fairness Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-01-01

    Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position. PMID:27625616

  1. Flavored Tobacco Product Use Among Middle and High School Students--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Apelberg, Benjamin J; King, Brian A

    2015-10-02

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act prohibits "characterizing flavors" (e.g., candy, fruit, and chocolate) other than tobacco and menthol in cigarettes; however, characterizing flavors are not currently prohibited in other tobacco products. Analyses of retail sales data suggest that U.S. consumption of flavored noncigarette tobacco products, including flavored cigars and flavored e-cigarettes, has increased in recent years. There is growing concern that widely marketed varieties of new and existing flavored tobacco products might appeal to youths (2) and could be contributing to recent increases in the use of tobacco products, including e-cigarettes and hookah, among youths. CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2014 National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS) to determine the prevalence of past 30 day use (current use) of flavored e-cigarette, hookah tobacco, cigar, pipe tobacco or smokeless tobacco products, and menthol cigarettes among middle and high school students, and the proportion of current tobacco product users who have used flavored products. An estimated 70.0% (3.26 million) of all current youth tobacco users had used at least one flavored tobacco product in the past 30 days. Among current users, 63.3%, (1.58 million) had used a flavored e-cigarette, 60.6%, (1.02 million) had used flavored hookah tobacco, and 63.5% (910,000) had used a flavored cigar in the past 30 days. Given the millions of current youth tobacco users, it is important for comprehensive tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavored tobacco products, among U.S. youths.

  2. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims. PMID:27413658

  3. Contributors to dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the Netherlands: the role of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluik, Diewertje; Atkinson, Fiona S; Brand-Miller, Jennie C; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-04-14

    Diets high in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) have been associated with a higher diabetes risk. Beer explained a large proportion of variation in GI in a Finnish and an American study. However, few beers have been tested according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methodology. We tested the GI of beer and estimated its contribution to dietary GI and GL in the Netherlands. GI testing of pilsner beer (Pilsner Urquell) was conducted at The University of Sydney according to ISO international standards with glucose as the reference food. Subsequently, GI and GL values were assigned to 2556 food items in the 2011 Dutch food composition table using a six-step methodology and consulting four databases. This table was linked to dietary data from 2106 adults in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010. Stepwise linear regression identified contribution to inter-individual variation in dietary GI and GL. The GI of pilsner beer was 89 (SD 5). Beer consumption contributed to 9·6 and 5·3% inter-individual variation in GI and GL, respectively. Other foods that contributed to the inter-individual variation in GI and GL included potatoes, bread, soft drinks, sugar, candy, wine, coffee and tea. The results were more pronounced in men than in women. In conclusion, beer is a high-GI food. Despite its relatively low carbohydrate content (approximately 4-5 g/100 ml), it still made a contribution to dietary GL, especially in men. Next to potatoes, bread, sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, beer captured a considerable proportion of between-person variability in GI and GL in the Dutch diet.

  4. Cytogenetic Studies on Sativa Rebounded Produced by Tissue Culture and Affected by GAMMA Rays and Drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a plant which produces a variety of high-potency, low-calorie sweetener in its leaf tissue (Jarma et al ., 2006). The leaves of this plant contain sweet diterpene glucosides; rebaudioside A, rebaudioside C, stevioside and dulcoside. Stevioside is about 110 to 270 times sweeter than sucrose, while rebaudioside A is 150 to 320 times sweeter than sucrose (Yao et al., 1999). The leaves also produce biologically active substances, e.g. flavonoids, coumarins, cinnamic acids and essential oil (Dzyuba, 1998). (Lobov and Yurtaeva, 2002) showed that diterpenoid glycosides from leaves of S. rebaudiana were the most promising non-sugar sweeteners of plant origin for food and pharmaceutical industries to overcome the problem of human diseases related to disorders of carbon metabolism. The sweetener from leaves has a good taste and is suitable for use in food products as chocolates, marmalades, biscuits, ice-cream, sweets, juices, beverages and candy. The dried leaves could be mixed within the tea packages to reduce the consumption of sugar. The stevioside does not induce tooth decay could safely by used by diabetic patients and could be used in the low caloric diets to reduce human body weight without side effects for these reasons many countries are now using this plant to produce a larger portion of their sugar consumption (El-Zifzafi, 2003). Stevia, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a small herbaceous plant (2 n = 22). It is a member of compositae family (Yao et al., 1999). Estimates of total number of species in this genus ranges from 150 to 300 . Stevia rebaudiana is one of the species of the genus stevia, which includes S.eupatoria, S.purpurea and S .serrata (Lisitsin and kovalev, 2000).

  5. Changes in the physicochemical and microbiological properties of frozen araça pulp during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Damiani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Araça belongs to the Myrtaceae family and is popularly known as araçá-comum, araçá-azedo, or araçá-do-campo. Frozen fruit pulp is of great importance for the food industry, which can produce it at the time of harvest, store it, and use it according to the demand of the consumer market and/or as an ingredient in the formulation of products such as yogurt, candies, and ice creams among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microbiological stability of frozen araça pulp during 12 months of frozen storage. It was observed that the levels of moisture (90.55-88.75%, ash (0.34-0.26% total soluble sugars (7.11-6.62%, sucrose (3.55-1.39%, soluble pectin (0.24-0.23%, total pectin (0.5-0.46%, pH (3.82-2.31%, organic acids (698.12-122.25 µg.g-1 citric acid, and phenolic compounds (6.22-0.00 mg GAE.100 g-1 decreased during storage, whereas the levels of protein (0.61-0.83%, lipids (0.14-0.38%, total carbohydrates (8.36-9.78%, calorific value (37.14-45.86 kcal.100 g-1, reducing sugars (3.51-5.21%, soluble solids (5.17-6.0%, total antioxidant capacity (6.89-35.13%, and color parameters (L*49.75-50.67; a*0.79-1.82 and b*22.5-25.19 increased over the one-year storage period. According to the chemical and microbiological parameters assessed, the product can be stored for 12 months without loss of quality with addition of citric acid as a preservative.

  6. ESTUDO DE GENÓTIPOS DE PUÇÁ ‘COROA DE FRADE’ DA VEGETAÇÃO LITORÂNEA DE BEBERIBE-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRCIA RÉGIA SOUZA DA SILVEIRA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ceara State has a variety of species of non-traditional fruits that are consumed in natura and/or processed by local population, with economic potential for agro-industrial processing, however, still poorly studied. In this context, the aim of this research was to evaluate the genetic variability of puçazeiro ‘Coroa de Frade’, native tree from coastal vegetation of Beberibe, Ceará, Brazil, by physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of their fruits. Fifteen genotypes were evaluated. The traits analyzed were: soluble solids (SS, titrable acidity (TA (% of citric acid, pH, SS/TA ratio, total sugars, reducing sugars, starch and, total and soluble pectin. The genotypes were characterized as a good alternative to the market of exotic fruits, showing high values of SS (20,40 a 31,00 °Brix and low mean values of titrable acidity (0,27 a 0,58 % of citric acid, producing SS/TA ratio ranged between 37,5 and 102,43, with emphasis on the genotype '8', which pre- sented SS/TA ratio of 95.05. The genotypes showed fruit netting with high starch (> 1%. The values of total pectin (0.35 to 0.98% and soluble pectin (0.13 to 0.74% reinforcing the use of this fruits in the industry, with low cost to manufacture of candy and jellies. The repeatability analysis showed that most of the observed varia- tion among genotypes is associated with the genetic component. Therefore, it can be concluded that the studied genotypes of puçazeiro 'Coroa de Frade' showed wide genetic variability and have fruits indicated even for fresh consumption as well as for processing.

  7. Comparing alternative methods for holding virgin honey bee queens for one week in mailing cages before mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Bigio

    Full Text Available In beekeeping, queen honey bees are often temporarily kept alive in cages. We determined the survival of newly-emerged virgin honey bee queens every day for seven days in an experiment that simultaneously investigated three factors: queen cage type (wooden three-hole or plastic, attendant workers (present or absent and food type (sugar candy, honey, or both. Ten queens were tested in each of the 12 combinations. Queens were reared using standard beekeeping methods (Doolittle/grafting and emerged from their cells into vials held in an incubator at 34C. All 12 combinations gave high survival (90 or 100% for three days but only one method (wooden cage, with attendants, honey gave 100% survival to day seven. Factors affecting queen survival were analysed. Across all combinations, attendant bees significantly increased survival (18% vs. 53%, p<0.001. In addition, there was an interaction between food type and cage type (p<0.001 with the honey and plastic cage combination giving reduced survival. An additional group of queens was reared and held for seven days using the best method, and then directly introduced using smoke into queenless nucleus colonies that had been dequeened five days previously. Acceptance was high (80%, 8/10 showing that this combination is also suitable for preparing queens for introduction into colonies. Having a simple method for keeping newly-emerged virgin queens alive in cages for one week and acceptable for introduction into queenless colonies will be useful in honey bee breeding. In particular, it facilitates the screening of many queens for genetic or phenotypic characteristics when only a small proportion meets the desired criteria. These can then be introduced into queenless hives for natural mating or insemination, both of which take place when queens are one week old.

  8. Physiological function of polydextrose as dietary fiber%膳食纤维聚葡萄糖的生理功能研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛修锋

    2011-01-01

    本文主要介绍了聚葡萄糖的生理功能及其在食品中的应用特性.聚葡萄糖是一种难消化性碳水化合物,属于水溶件膳食纤维.诸多研究表明它具有良好的生理功能,因难以被人体消化利用而具有较低的能量,可调节肠道菌群的平衡,维持健康的肠道功能、防止便秘;提高免疫力,促进矿物质吸收,改善脂质代谢,降低血糖和控制体重等.聚葡萄糖具有高度的安全性和稳定的加工特性,不但可以用于食品的纤维强化,还能够改善食品的质构和口感,已被广泛应用于饮料、乳品、焙烤、糖果等各种食品及保健品中.%Polydextrose as a water - soluble dietary fiber has many beneficial physiological functions, such as low calorie, regulating intestinal function, enhancing immunity, promoting mineral absorption and lowing glycaemic and assisting in fat reduction. Polydextrose has high security and processing stability, which can increase dietary fiber and improve the texture and taste of foods. So it has been widely used in beverages, dairy products, baking foods, candies and health products.

  9. Erosive Tooth Wear and Related Risk Factors in 8- and 14-Year-Old Greek Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provatenou, Efthymia; Kaklamanos, Eleftherios G; Kevrekidou, Aikaterini; Kosma, Ismini; Kotsanos, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the erosive tooth wear of primary and permanent teeth and its association with related risk factors. Two groups of Greek children aged 8 (n = 329) and 14 years (n = 263) were examined in the classroom using the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Data concerning risk factors were collected using questionnaires. Dental caries (DMFS/dmfs) was also recorded. The data were analyzed using the t test, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, Fisher's exact test, and the χ2 test. In the 8-year-olds, the primary teeth showed a predominantly medium level of wear and the permanent teeth no wear. A majority of the 14-year-olds exhibited low risk levels of wear. The most frequently affected dental surface in both age groups was the occlusal surface of the mandibular posterior teeth. In the 8-year-olds, BEWE scores and the prevalence of wear in the primary teeth was influenced by gender (p = 0.020). In their permanent teeth, soft drink consumption (p soft drinks in the mouth influenced wear prevalence (p = 0.008), risk (p = 0.004), and BEWE scores (p = 0.022). In the 14-year-olds, wear prevalence was significantly affected by the consumption of lemon-flavored candies (p = 0.016) and soft drinks (p = 0.050). BEWE scores were significantly affected by gender (p = 0.022) and soft drink consumption (p = 0.030). Gender influenced tooth wear risk in both age groups (p = 0.010 and p = 0.021, respectively). The results of this study indicate that erosive tooth wear differed between primary and permanent teeth and was influenced by gender and dietary factors. PMID:27286713

  10. Salivary function after radioiodine therapy: poor correlation between symptoms and salivary scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eJonklaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between salivary symptoms and salivary functioning following radioiodine therapy. Fifteen patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer completed a questionnaire assessing their salivary and nasal symptoms and underwent salivary scanning prior to therapy and 3 and 12 months after therapy. Measures of salivary gland accumulation and secretion were correlated with scores of salivary and nasal symptomatology. The mean number of salivary, nasal, and total symptoms at 3 months increased significantly over the number of symptoms at baseline by 3.7, 2.7, and 6.3 symptoms respectively (p values 0.001, 0.0046, and <0.001. The mean right parotid gland accumulation and secretion of radioisotope declined significantly at 3 months, compared with baseline. There was no association between the increase in salivary, nasal, or total symptoms and the change in scintigraphy measures. The increases in nasal and total symptoms were significant in those with co-existent Hashimoto’s disease, compared with those without this condition (p values 0.01 and 0.04. Nasal symptoms decreased (p value 0.04 in those who used sour candies, compared with those who did not. Increasing body mass index was significantly associated with increasing nasal symptoms (p value 0.05. Greater decline in salivary parameters at 3 months compared with baseline was generally associated with heavier body weight, decreased thyroid cancer stage, absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and pre-menopausal status. Although salivary and nasal symptoms increased and salivary scintigraphy parameters decreased after radioiodine therapy, the variables associated with symptoms and changes in salivary scan parameters differed. A better understanding of the relationship between salivary gland symptoms and functioning, and the factors affecting susceptibility to salivary and nasal damage after radioiodine

  11. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  12. Cigarette advertising in Mumbai, India: targeting different socioeconomic groups, women, and youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, R; John, S; Ling, P

    2005-01-01

    Background: Despite a recent surge in tobacco advertising and the recent advertising ban (pending enforcement at the time of this study), there are few studies describing current cigarette marketing in India. This study sought to assess cigarette companies' marketing strategies in Mumbai, India. Methods: A two week field study was conducted in Mumbai in September 2003, observing, documenting, and collecting cigarette advertising on billboards, storefronts and at point of sale along two major thoroughfares, and performing a content analysis of news, film industry, and women's magazines and three newspapers. Results: Cigarette advertising was ubiquitous in the environment, present in news and in film magazines, but not in women's magazines or the newspapers. The four major advertising campaigns all associated smoking with aspiration; the premium brands targeting the higher socioeconomic status market utilised tangible images of westernisation and affluence whereas the "bingo" (low priced) segment advertisements invited smokers to belong to a league of their own and "rise to the taste" using intangible images. Women were not depicted smoking, but were present in cigarette advertisements—for example, a woman almost always accompanied a man in "the man with the smooth edge" Four Square campaign. Advertisements and product placements at low heights and next to candies at point of sale were easily accessible by children. In view of the iminent enforcement of the ban on tobacco advertisements, cigarette companies are increasing advertising for the existing brand images, launching brand extensions, and brand stretching. Conclusion: Cigarette companies have developed sophisticated campaigns targeting men, women, and children in different socioeconomic groups. Many of these strategies circumvent the Indian tobacco advertising ban. Understanding these marketing strategies is critical to mimimise the exploitation of loopholes in tobacco control legislation. PMID:15923471

  13. The effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables: results of a randomized trial in a three-dimensional web-based supermarket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Lowering the price of fruit and vegetables is a promising strategy in stimulating the purchase of those foods. However, the true effects of this strategy are not well studied and it is unclear how the money saved is spent. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables on food purchases in a supermarket environment. Methods A randomized controlled trial with two research conditions was conducted: a control condition with regular prices (n = 52) and an experimental condition with a 25% discount on fruits and vegetables (n = 63). The experiment was carried out using a three-dimensional web-based supermarket, which is a software application in the image of a real supermarket. Data were collected in 2010 in the Netherlands. Participants received a fixed budget and were asked to buy weekly household groceries at the web-based supermarket. Differences in fruit and vegetable purchases, differences in expenditures in other food categories and differences in total calories were analyzed using independent samples t-tests and multiple linear regression models accounting for potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results The purchased amount of fruit plus vegetables was significantly higher in the experimental condition compared to the control condition (Δ984 g per household per week, p = .03) after appropriate adjustments. This corresponds to a 25% difference compared to the control group. Both groups had similar expenditures in unhealthier food categories, including desserts, soda, crisps, candy and chocolate. Furthermore, both groups purchased an equal number of food items and an equal amount of calories, indicating that participants in the discount condition did not spend the money they saved from the discounts on other foods than fruits and vegetables. Conclusion A 25% discount on fruits and vegetables was effective in stimulating purchases of those products and did neither lead to higher expenditures in

  14. Experimental analysis of the effect of taxes and subsides on calories purchased in an on-line supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Finkelstein, Eric; Raynor, Hollie; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Fletcher, Kelly D; Jankowiak, Noelle; Paluch, Rocco A

    2015-12-01

    Taxes and subsidies are a public health approach to improving nutrient quality of food purchases. While taxes or subsidies influence purchasing, it is unclear whether they influence total energy or overall diet quality of foods purchased. Using a within subjects design, selected low nutrient dense foods (e.g. sweetened beverages, candy, salty snacks) were taxed, and fruits and vegetables and bottled water were subsidized by 12.5% or 25% in comparison to a usual price condition for 199 female shoppers in an experimental store. Results showed taxes reduced calories purchased of taxed foods (coefficient = -6.61, CI = -11.94 to -1.28) and subsidies increased calories purchased of subsidized foods (coefficient = 13.74, CI = 8.51 to 18.97). However, no overall effect was observed on total calories purchased. Both taxes and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for grains (taxes: coefficient = -6.58, CI = -11.91 to -1.24, subsidies: coefficient = -12.86, CI = -18.08 to -7.63) and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for miscellaneous foods (coefficient = -7.40, CI = -12.62 to -2.17) (mostly fats, oils and sugars). Subsidies improved the nutrient quality of foods purchased (coefficient = 0.14, CI = 0.07 to 0.21). These results suggest that taxes and subsidies can influence energy purchased for products taxed or subsidized, but not total energy purchased. However, the improvement in nutrient quality with subsidies indicates that pricing can shift nutritional quality of foods purchased. Research is needed to evaluate if differential pricing strategies based on nutrient quality are associated with reduction in calories and improvement in nutrient quality of foods purchased.

  15. Analysis of monitoring results on food additives in snack foods in Ningbo%宁波市休闲食品中食品添加剂使用状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To realize the situation of food additives in snack foods in Ningbo. Methods: Comparison were made a-mong the nine additives in three kinds of snack food during 2009 -2010. Results: The qualified rate of candies was the highest (100% ) .followed by that of puffed foods(92.2% )and then preserved fruits (48.1% ). Unqualified causes mainly were due to the use of preservatives and sweeteners. Excessive sulfur dioxide residue was the most important reason. The other food additives exceeded were sodium cyclamate, benzoic acid, saccharin,acesulfame K and carmine. Conclusion: The relevant departments should strengthen supervision and regulation on the excessive use and misuse of food additives in the snack foods.%目的:了解宁波市休闲食品中食品添加剂使用状况.方法:对2009年-2010年3类休闲食品的9类食品添加剂使用情况进行分析.结果:合格率最高为糖果类(100%),其次是膨化食品类(92.2%),最低为蜜饯凉果类(48.1%).不合格原因主要存在防腐剂和甜味剂的使用上.其中二氧化硫残留量是超标的最重要原因,其他分别是甜蜜素、苯甲酸、糖精钠、安赛蜜、胭脂红.结论:建议食品监管部门加强对休闲食品的食品添加剂过量、超范围使用管理.

  16. Using of Bangun-Bangun Leafs (Coleus Amboinicus, L on Red Sugar Block to Upgrading Milk Production of Frisian Holstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelzi Fati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Science and technology for the Community Activities Program (IBM granting wake leaf meal in urea red sugar  block has been implemented in a herd prosperous green valley village Kampung Manggis, Western District of Padang Panjang, Municipality of Leopold. This activity aims to increase the milk production of dairy cows through the application of technology utilization wake leaf meal in urea  red sugar block. The benefits of this activity is to assist farmers in improving milk production per day, so that milk production can increase the impact on increasing revenue. To achieve the goal of service to the community mentioned above, it has been conducted lectures, live demonstrations on the making lick candy made from leaf shapes. Six cows used as a demonstration, two dairy cows with urea red sugar block containing 2.5% leaf shapes, two dairy cows with urea red sugar block containing leaf shapes 5% and two cows with urea red sugar block containing leaves wake up 7.5%. Wake up dried leaves with the help of sunlight and then made ready for use in the flour mixture forming urea red sugar block which serves as a feed supplement in dairy cattle. Evaluation activities indicate that the application of urea  red sugar block starchy wake leaves 5% can increase the production of milk 2 liters / day / head (average increase 10%.Of this service activities can be concluded that the use of leaf meal wake up in 5% urea red sugar  block can increase milk production of dairy cows 2 liters / day / head compared with 2.5%, 7.5%.

  17. Trends in exposure to television food advertisements in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Powell, Lisa M; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Given the increased concern about the impact of TV food advertisements (ads) on individual food choices, we provide important evidence on TV food ad exposure between 2004 and 2009 in South Korea. We used monthly targeted ratings data by age group as the number of ads seen daily from Korean Nielsen Media Research. We generated six food groups: beverages (milk, soda, fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, water, coffee/tea products, and other); snacks/sweets (cookies/chips, candy, and chewing gum); fast food (Domino's pizza, Lotteria, McDonald's, Mr. Pizza, Pizza Hut, local chicken and pizza franchises, and other); instant noodle; full-service restaurants; and other. From 2004 to 2009, overall exposure to television food ads fell by 19.0% (from 6.8 to 5.5 ads daily), although exposure to full-service restaurant ads increased over that time period by 45.7%. While fast-food ad exposure fell overall, exposure to ads for local fried chicken franchises nearly doubled, making them the most commonly seen fast-food ads by 2009. Fast-food and instant noodle ads made up larger proportions of total ad exposure in 2009 than in 2004 in all age groups, with the largest increase among adolescents. Beverage ads continue to be the most prevalent food ads seen in South Korea. Differential trends found in exposure across and within food product categories and differences by age groups highlight the need for continued monitoring to help inform the regulatory policy debate on food advertising, particularly with regards to ads directed at children and adolescents.

  18. Sample preparation for the analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, J G; Conte, E D; Kim, Y; Holcomb, M; Sutherland, J B; Miller, D W

    2000-06-01

    Off-flavors in foods may originate from environmental pollutants, the growth of microorganisms, oxidation of lipids, or endogenous enzymatic decomposition in the foods. The chromatographic analysis of flavors and off-flavors in foods usually requires that the samples first be processed to remove as many interfering compounds as possible. For analysis of foods by gas chromatography (GC), sample preparation may include mincing, homogenation, centrifugation, distillation, simple solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized-fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, or methylation. For high-performance liquid chromatography of amines in fish, cheese, sausage and olive oil or aldehydes in fruit juice, sample preparation may include solvent extraction and derivatization. Headspace GC analysis of orange juice, fish, dehydrated potatoes, and milk requires almost no sample preparation. Purge-and-trap GC analysis of dairy products, seafoods, and garlic may require heating, microwave-mediated distillation, purging the sample with inert gases and trapping the analytes with Tenax or C18, thermal desorption, cryofocusing, or elution with ethyl acetate. Solid-phase microextraction GC analysis of spices, milk and fish can involve microwave-mediated distillation, and usually requires adsorption on poly(dimethyl)siloxane or electrodeposition on fibers followed by thermal desorption. For short-path thermal desorption GC analysis of spices, herbs, coffee, peanuts, candy, mushrooms, beverages, olive oil, honey, and milk, samples are placed in a glass-lined stainless steel thermal desorption tube, which is purged with helium and then heated gradually to desorb the volatiles for analysis. Few of the methods that are available for analysis of food flavors and off-flavors can be described simultaneously as cheap, easy and good.

  19. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

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    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  20. Attractancy and toxicity of an attracticide for Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Phillips, Thomas W

    2004-04-01

    Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) is a serious and widespread postharvest pest on cereal products, dried fruits, candy, and pet food. Due to the strong positive anemotactic flight response of P. interpunctella males to the main component of the female-produced pheromone [(Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, herein referred to as ZETA], we evaluated the potential of an attracticide for this pest, in which ZETA as attractant was combined with permethrin as the killing agent. Two concentrations of ZETA [0.16 and 0.32% (wt:wt)] and five concentrations of permethrin [0, 3, 6, 12, and 18% (wt:wt)] were incorporated into Last Call gel (10 different permethrin:ZETA combinations). All attracticide gels were evaluated in a toxicity test, in which either the tip of a leg or an antenna of a virgin P. interpunctella male was touched interpunctella males with attracticide gel containing 3-18% permethrin caused a significant reduction in mating and killed males moths within 24 h. A wind tunnel test was conducted to evaluate the flight responses of P. interpunctella males to the same 10 attracticide gels. Male moths displayed significantly higher levels of positive anemotactic flight and more males made contact with the attracticide gel when the ZETA concentration was 0.16% compared with 0.32%. P. interpunctella males showed no signs of repellency to permethrin concentrations within a range of 0-18% in the attracticide gel. Three densities of P. interpunctella pairs were released into small warehouse rooms, and we found that the attracticide gel suppressed oviposition when the moth density was at a low level, but it was ineffective when the moth density exceeded one male-female pair per 11.3 m3.

  1. Mycotoxin monitoring for commercial foodstuffs in Taiwan

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    Ming-Tzai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic food contaminants that are naturally produced by certain fungi. They induce negative effects on human health by making food unsafe for consumption. In this study, analyses were performed to determine the levels and incidence of aflatoxins (AFs in peanut products, tree nuts, spices, and Coix seeds; ochratoxin A (OTA in wheat and roasted coffee, as well as OTA and AFs in rice; and citrinin (CIT in red yeast rice (RYR products. A total of 712 samples from nine different food categories were collected between 2012 and 2013. The samples were analyzed over 2 years for AFs, OTA, and CIT by methods recommended by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These official analytical methods were extensively validated in-house and through interlaboratory trials. The analytical values of suspected contaminated specimens were confirmed by liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry analysis to identify the specific mycotoxin present in the sample. We show that 689 samples (96.8% complied with the regulations set by the Ministry of Health and Welfare. AFs were found in four peanut-candy products, one peanut-flour product, one pistachio product, one Sichuan-pepper product, and one Coix seed product. All had exceeded the maximum levels of 15 parts per billion for peanut and 10 parts per billion for other food products. Furthermore, 14 RYR samples contained CIT above 5 parts per million, and one RYR tablet exceeded the maximum amount allowed. Instances of AFs in substandard Sichuan pepper and Coix seeds were first detected in Taiwan. Measures were taken by the relevant authorities to remove substandard products from the market in order to decrease consumer exposure to mycotoxin. Border control measures were applied to importing food commodities with a higher risk of mycotoxin contamination, such as peanut, Sichuan pepper, and RYR products. Declining trends were observed in the noncompliance rate of AFs in peanut products, as well as that of

  2. Trans Fatty Acid Levels in Foods and Intakes among Population Aged 3 Years and above in Beijing and Guangzhou Cities, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ai Dong; LI Jian Wen; LIU Zhao Ping; ZHOU Ping Ping; MAO Wei Feng; LI Ning; ZHANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the dietary intake levels of trans fatty acids (TFA) in a Chinese population and establish a basis for health risk assessment of trans fatty acids. Methods The TFA contents data of 2613 food items and food consumption data of 10,533 people aged 3 years and above in two large cities in China were matched and a simple assessment method was used to estimate the distribution of dietary TFA intake. Results The mean content of TFA was highest in margarine (1.68±0.83 g/100g), followed by chocolate and candy (0.89±2.68 g/100g), edible vegetable oils (0.86±0.82 g/100g), milk (0.83±1.56 g/100g), and bakery foods (0.41±0.91 g/100g). TFA intake accounted for 0.34%, 0.30%, 0.32%, and 0.29%of the total energy intake in the 3-6, 7-12, 13-17, and≥18 year age groups, respectively. Of the populations studied, 0.42%demonstrated TFA intakes (as percentage of energy intake) greater than 1%. The main sources of dietary TFA intake were edible vegetable oils, milk, mutton, and beef, and baked foods, which accounted for 49.8%, 16.56%, 12.21%, and 8.87%, respectively. Conclusion The current intake of TFA among people in two cities did not appear to be of major health concern regarding the threshold of TFA intake as the percentage of total energy recommended by the World Health Organization. Because most TFA were derived from industrially processed foods, the government should reinforce nutrition labeling and regulate food producers to further reduce TFA in food and to provide scientific instruction for consumers to make sound choices.

  3. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Racquel Tan Chua-Barcelo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods: Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results: A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions: Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet.

  4. 《毒品化学》实践教学模式的改革与创新%Innovation and Reform of Practical Teaching Mode in the Course of Forensic Drug Chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟梁

    2015-01-01

    目前我国公安教育普遍面临实践教学体系薄弱的现状,因此在公安技术教育中坚持以实战为导向具有重要的意义。坚持以培养具有实战办案和科技创新能力的应用型禁毒侦查专业人才为目标,优化和改革《毒品化学》教学模式,结合侦查学和刑事科学技术领域的最新研究进展,及时调整课程教学内容,创新课程教学方法,引入新的教学手段和考核方式,建立符合新形势下公安实际工作需要的实践教学模式,从而促进学生的知识积累和应用,提高学生的办案实践能力,以培养出优秀的禁毒民警。%At present, public security education is confronted with the situation of weak practical teaching sys-tem, so it is important that public security education must insist on the practical teaching .Therefore,we should im-prove the teaching mode in the course of Forensic Drug Chemistry , aiming at cultivating professional police candi-dates with practical experiences and innovative skills .Meanwhile , with reorganizing the teaching content , innova-ting the teaching methods and introducing the new evaluation system , we should adjust our practical teaching mode to the changing situation in order to help students to promote their accumulation and application of knowledge , as well as the practical ability .

  5. Caracterización de los hábitos alimentarios y estilos de vida de los niños, de la institución obra misionera Jesús y María, Jardín Sol-Solecito, localidad de Suba, Bogotá D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cuervo-Lozada

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of food habits and lifestyles of children attending the Sol Solecito Kindergarden in Suba, Bogotá, D.C. Thisstudy was aimed to characterize the food habits and lifestyles of the children of the Sol Solecito Kindergarden in Bogotá, D.C., using theLund and Burk model as the conceptual framework for the analysis of conduct of children in relation to food. The study was descriptive andcross sectional. The sample consisted of 54 children, selected by a proportional random-stratified sampling. Children’s nutritional statusaccording to the Weight/Age Index showed normality for 68.8% of them; when classified by Weight/Age Index, 53.8% showed normality,for the Weight/Stature Index 52.1% showed normality but 35.8% of the children revealed overweight, a result not reported in previousstudies. The percentage of families having both parents was 81% and parents ages ranged from 15 to 54 years old. Foods preferred bychildren were: milk, yogurt, rice, pasta, chicken, candy, fruits, and fruit juices. Rejected foods were lettuce and cassava. The most frequenthealth problem was influenza. 40.7% of the children practice a sport but not on a routinely basis. On average, 50% of the children watchtelevision 2-3 hours daily. Parents and teachers expressed their interest in receiving qualified training on nutrition since they consider itimportant for the child’s growth and development. Based on the results of our study, we designed a training program aimed to improve thefood habits and therefore the nutritional status of the children.

  6. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS: A FUTURE COMPACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Saurabh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An orally disintegrating tablet or mouth dissolving tablet (MDT is a drug dosage form available for a limited amount of over-the-counter (OTC and prescription medications. MDTs differ from traditional tablets in that they are designed to be dissolved on the tongue rather than swallowed whole. A variety of pharmaceutical research has been conducted to develop new dosage forms. Among the dosage forms developed to facilitate ease of medication, the mouth dissolving tablet (MDT is one of the most widely employed commercial products. As our society is becoming increasingly aged, the development of mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and travelling and may not have access to water. Such formulations provide an opportunity for product line extension in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms (viz., solutions, suspensions, tablets, and capsules because of hand tremors and dysphagia. Oral delivery is currently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery having the highest patient compliance. Recent development in fast disintegrating technology mainly works to improve the disintegration quality of these delicate dosage forms without affecting their integrity. This article focuses on the patented technologies available and the advances made so far in the field of fabrication of mouth dissolving tablets. Apart from the conventional methods of fabrication, this review also provides the detailed concept of some unique technologies like freeze drying, direct compression, spray drying, tablet molding, sublimation, fast dissolving films cotton candy process, along with their advantages and limitations.

  7. Intervention effects on kindergarten and first-grade teachers' classroom food practices and food-related beliefs in American Indian reservation schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J; Himes, John H; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2013-08-01

    Prevalence of obesity among American Indian children is higher than the general US population. The school environment and teachers play important roles in helping students develop healthy eating habits. The aim of this prospective study was to examine teachers' classroom and school food practices and beliefs and the effect of teacher training on these practices and beliefs. Data were used from the Bright Start study, a group-randomized, school-based trial that took place on the Pine Ridge American Indian reservation (fall 2005 to spring 2008). Kindergarten and first-grade teachers (n=75) from 14 schools completed a survey at the beginning and end of the school year. Thirty-seven survey items were evaluated using mixed-model analysis of variance to examine the intervention effect for each teacher-practice and belief item (adjusting for teacher type and school as random effect). At baseline, some teachers reported classroom and school food practices and beliefs that supported health and some that did not. The intervention was significantly associated with lower classroom use of candy as a treat (P=0.0005) and fast-food rewards (P=0.008); more intervention teachers disagreed that fast food should be offered as school lunch alternatives (P=0.019), that it would be acceptable to sell unhealthy foods as part of school fundraising (P=0.006), and that it would not make sense to limit students' food choices in school (P=0.035). School-based interventions involving teacher training can result in positive changes in teachers' classroom food practices and beliefs about the influence of the school food environment in schools serving American Indian children on reservations.

  8. [The structure of the nourishment of preschoolers during the weekend (short report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapeshkina, N V

    2014-01-01

    To study the feeding of 190 children aged 3-7 years attending 4 preschool educational institutions in the city Mezhdurechensk, Kemerovo region, at home on weekends questionnaires were conducted by the parents. Studies have shown that multiple meals in 57% of children was 5 times a day, 43% of children--4 times a day, including snacks; 97% of children have at breakfast main dish, drinks and sandwiches and only 3% of children have breakfast that did not meet standards for structure and was insufficient and inadequate to cover subsistence expenses of energy, because consisted of a sandwich and a drink. Only 7% of preschooler's lunch met recommendations on its structure and included the first, main dish, salad and drink, lunch of 93% of children included only one hot dish (first course, or the second). Dinner in volume, compared with the recommended standards, was redundant on average 57% of preschoolers since consisted of sandwiches, salad, meat dish and side, drink. Children's snacking during the day included the following suite of products: sandwiches (with sausage, cheese, butter), tea with sweets (candies, chocolate), fermented milk drink, fruits. When examining the frequency of meals during the day on weekends, there is a tendency to use the same dishes (what children ate for lunch, they eat at dinner on the same day, and then for breakfast on Sunday). The study of the structure of meals in pre-school children at home during the days of the week (evening meal) found that in most cases (67.8%) their dinner was irrational, the structure was identical to the structure of the adults of the family (fried dishes: fried pies, fried potatoes, sodas). Irrationally organized meals for children at the weekend showed inadequate knowledge of parents on the healthy diet for their child at home. PMID:25059071

  9. Women Are Seen More than Heard in Online Newspapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Sen; Lansdall-Welfare, Thomas; Sudhahar, Saatviga; Carter, Cynthia; Cristianini, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Feminist news media researchers have long contended that masculine news values shape journalists’ quotidian decisions about what is newsworthy. As a result, it is argued, topics and issues traditionally regarded as primarily of interest and relevance to women are routinely marginalised in the news, while men’s views and voices are given privileged space. When women do show up in the news, it is often as “eye candy,” thus reinforcing women’s value as sources of visual pleasure rather than residing in the content of their views. To date, evidence to support such claims has tended to be based on small-scale, manual analyses of news content. In this article, we report on findings from our large-scale, data-driven study of gender representation in online English language news media. We analysed both words and images so as to give a broader picture of how gender is represented in online news. The corpus of news content examined consists of 2,353,652 articles collected over a period of six months from more than 950 different news outlets. From this initial dataset, we extracted 2,171,239 references to named persons and 1,376,824 images resolving the gender of names and faces using automated computational methods. We found that males were represented more often than females in both images and text, but in proportions that changed across topics, news outlets and mode. Moreover, the proportion of females was consistently higher in images than in text, for virtually all topics and news outlets; women were more likely to be represented visually than they were mentioned as a news actor or source. Our large-scale, data-driven analysis offers important empirical evidence of macroscopic patterns in news content concerning the way men and women are represented. PMID:26840432

  10. Lead poisoning following ingestion of pieces of lead roofing plates: pica-like behavior in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouraud, Sabine; Testud, François; Descotes, Jacques; Benevent, Monique; Soglu, Gilbert

    2008-03-01

    A 37-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of abdominal pain for the past two weeks. On admission the abdominal radiograph showed multiple radio-opaque flecks dispersed throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Blood testing showed hemoglobin level 8.7 g/dL and a blood lead level of 112.4 microg/dL. The family interview revealed that the patient had pica-like behavior since childhood. He was a site foreman and had been ingesting pieces of roofing plates for a few weeks. The patient was treated with laxatives and CaNa(2)EDTA therapy was initiated. The blood lead level then dropped to 69.9 microg/dL. The patient received two subsequent courses of oral succimer and the blood lead level decreased to 59 microg/dL 21 days after the first course. The follow-up abdominal X-ray 20 days after the first examination was normal. Four months later, an outpatient follow-up visit showed a blood lead level within normal limits (14.5 microg/dL) and a psychiatric follow-up was initiated. Lead poisoning following the ingestion of lead-containing foreign bodies is particularly rare in adults, while it is sometimes observed in children. Pica behavior is a well-identified risk factor of lead intoxication in children but is quite exceptional in adults, where it is usually considered to be a psychiatric condition. Other unusual sources of lead poisoning include the ingestion of lead bullets, ceramic lead glaze or glazed earthenware, lead-contaminated candies, ethnic or herbal remedies. PMID:17906991

  11. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  12. No difference in compensation for sugar in a drink versus sugar in semi-solid and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadah, Nouf S; Kyle, Lesley A; Smith, Jessica E; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Rogers, Peter J

    2016-03-15

    It is claimed that sugar consumed in a drink is poorly compensated for by a reduction in subsequent energy intake, however very little research has tested directly the effect on appetite of adding sugar to a drink versus food. In this between subjects study, 144 participants (72 men) consumed preloads sweetened with either sucrose or the low-energy sweetener, sucralose (preload energy difference 162kcal) in the form of a blackcurrant drink, jelly or candy. The different preload viscosities were achieved by varying the amount of thickener (carrageenan) and water in the recipes. Participants completed hunger ratings before and 5, 10 and 20min after consuming their preload. After the 20-minute rating they were served a test-meal comprising an excess of bite-sized sandwiches and a sweet dessert. Energy intake measured for the same meal consumed the previous day (baseline day, no preload consumed) was used in the data analyses to control for individual differences in energy intake. Overall, there was 36% compensation for the energy difference in the preloads, but this did not vary with preload viscosity - if anything compensation was greater for the drink preload, and greater in men. The drink preload also showed an effect of sucrose versus sucralose for hunger. The lack of the predicted effect of viscosity on compensation could not be explained by differences in blood-glucose concentration 20min after the preload (measured in a separate study) or by differences in preload sweetness, flavour intensity, liking or familiarity. Comparison of baseline and test-meal food intakes indicated that, irrespective of energy content, the sweet drinks reduced the relative intake of sweet food. In conclusion, short-term energy compensation did not differ across a set of realistic drink and food stimuli. PMID:26747054

  13. Assessment of Nutritional Status among Preparatory School Girls in Talkha City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Rahman, S. I. & Aly Hassan S. A. & EL-Bastawesy S.I

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood, and it occupies a crucial position in the human life. Nutrition for adolescents is important in which there was found changes in growth and hormones, activity, and food intake. The objective of the work: was to assess the nutritional status of preparatory school girls in Talkha city. Patients and methods: a descriptive cross- sectional study on a group of 500 students from the second and third year of the preparatory school girls at Talkha City in Dakahlia governorate , the tools used : 1- A self-administered questionnaire for assessing socio-demographic characteristics of students, anthropometric measurements included weight and height, nutritional health problems, assessing dietary knowledge, and eating habits.2 - An observational checklist to observe signs of malnutrition for the students. Results: majority of students, girls aged from 13- 14 years old and their mothers were house wife (69.6% &77.3% , Only less than half studied sample has correct knowledge about the balanced diet, the components of healthy diet, and the effect of healthy balanced diet on individual’s health (34.6 %&20%&78.4% respectively. Majority of students prefer eating food during watching TV., eating spices and salty food, and eating much candies (76.2% &74.6%& 73.6% respectively. The most common health problems were headache, GIT problems and dental decay respectively. Conclusion: only one quarter of the studied sample had correct and complete answers about balanced diet. The present study recommended that, health education for nutrition and healthy balanced diet should be integrated in the curriculum of preparatory school girls. Nurses and medical staff must play a significant role in screening, teaching, and guiding of adolescents about healthy balanced diet.

  14. Snacking habits and caries in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, I; Holgerson, P Lif; Kressin, N R; Nunn, M E; Tanner, A C

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is caused by a combination of infection and diet. This disease, if left untreated, may lead to pain, and impair the quality of life, nutritional status and development of young children. The objective was to investigate the association between snacking and caries in a population at high risk of dental caries. American preschool children (n = 1,206) were recruited in the offices of paediatricians. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene, breast-feeding, use of bottle and snacking were collected by questionnaire. Plaque presence, the number of teeth and their caries status (deft) were scored. The children sampled were 61% Black, 27% White and 10% Asian. Of the 1- to 2-, 2- to 3- and 3- to 4-year-old children, 93.8, 82.4 and 77.3% were caries free, and their mean caries scores were 0.16, 0.58 and 0.93, respectively. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modelling revealed plaque presence, lowest income, descriptors for tooth exposure time (number of teeth and age) and cariogenic challenge (total intake of sugar-containing snacks and chips/crisps, and chips intake with a sugar-containing drink) to be associated with more caries. These differences were also found in univariate analyses; in addition, children who continued breast-feeding after falling asleep had significantly higher deft values than those who did not. PLS modelling revealed that eating chips clustered with eating many sweet snacks, candies, popcorn and ice cream. We conclude that, in addition to the traditional risk indicators for caries - presence of plaque, sugar intake and socioeconomic status -, consumption of chips was associated with caries in young children. PMID:20720422

  15. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  16. Simultaneous Analysis of Cannabinoid and Synthetic Cannabinoids in Dietary Supplements Using UPLC with UV and UPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seok; Yoo, Geum Joo; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Hyoung Joon; Do, Jung-Ah; Cho, Sooyeul; Baek, Sun Young; Park, Sung-Kwan

    2016-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a method based on UPLC with UV and UPLC-MS-MS for the simultaneous analysis of different cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids in food as well as in herbal and dietary supplements. The limits of detection and quantitation of the method ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 and 0.3 to 0.9 μg/mL by UPLC with UV, respectively. The coefficient of determination was >0.999; the intra- and interday precision of the method were 0.1-3.7 and 0.9-4.1%, respectively. The intra- and interday accuracy were 94.8-103.1 and 98.3-100.9%, respectively. The mean recoveries of nine cannabinoids obtained from tablet samples ranged from 81.1 to 105.4%. The mean extraction recoveries of nine target cannabinoids obtained from various types of samples (tablets, capsules, powders, liquids, cookies and candies) ranged from 82.26 to 112.40%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the stability of the prepared sample solutions was cannabinoids were accomplished by ion spray UPLC-MS-MS using multiple reaction monitoring. The UPLC-MS-MS method was validated for linearity (R(2) > 0.99); the precision was 0.1-4.0% (intraday) and 0.1-2.8% (interday), and the accuracy was 98.0-103.5% (intraday) and 97.1-103.2% (interday). The mean extraction recoveries of six types of samples were 82.2-114.5% and the RSD of stability was cannabinoids present in food. PMID:27185817

  17. Trends in food and beverage sources among US children and adolescents: 1989–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M.; Mathias, Kevin; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the historical rise and recent plateau of child overweight and obesity, levels remain exceedingly high. To understand these trends and identify targets for intervention it is important to examine concomitant trends in children’s diets. The objective of the current analysis was to describe 21-year trends in total energy intake and the major food and beverage sources of energy among 2- to 18- year olds in the United States (US). Six nationally representative surveys were examined in 2012, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals Surveys (1989–1991 and 1994–1996, 1998) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2003–2004, 2005–2006, 2007–2008 and 2009–2010). Total energy intake among US children and adolescents rose considerably from 1989 to 2004, and subsequently declined through 2010. Seven sources were consistently major contributors across all time points: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), pizza, high fat milk, grain-based desserts, breads, pasta dishes and savory snacks. Intakes of high fat milk, meats and processed meat products, ready-to-eat cereals, burgers, fried potatoes, fruit juice and vegetables decreased from 1989–2010 while intakes of low fat milk, poultry, sweet snacks and candies and tortilla and corn-based dishes increased linearly over the 21-year period. Significant non-linear time trends were observed with recent decreases in intakes of SSBs, pizza, pasta dishes, breads and rolls and savory snacks and recent increases in intake of fruit. Energy intakes of US children began to decline in 2003–2004 and continued to decline through 2009–2010. However among preschool children (2–5 years old) and children from low income families, total energy intakes in 2009–2010 still remained significantly higher than in 1989–1991. PMID:23916972

  18. Trends in food and beverage sources among US children and adolescents: 1989-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M; Mathias, Kevin C; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the historical rise and recent plateau of child overweight and obesity, levels remain exceedingly high. To understand these trends and identify targets for intervention it is important to examine concomitant trends in children's diets. The objective of our analysis was to describe 21-year trends in total energy intake and the major food and beverage sources of energy among 2- to 18-year-olds in the United States. Six nationally representative surveys were examined in 2012, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 and 1994-1996, 1998) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010). Total energy intake among US children and adolescents rose considerably from 1989 to 2004, and subsequently declined through 2010. Seven sources were consistently major contributors across all time points: sugar-sweetened beverages, pizza, full-fat milk, grain-based desserts, breads, pasta dishes, and savory snacks. Intakes of full-fat milk, meats and processed meat products, ready-to-eat cereals, burgers, fried potatoes, fruit juice, and vegetables decreased from 1989-2010 whereas intakes of nonfat milk, poultry, sweet snacks and candies, and tortilla- and corn-based dishes increased linearly over the 21-year period. Significant nonlinear time trends were observed with recent decreases in intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, pizza, pasta dishes, breads and rolls, and savory snacks and recent increases in intake of fruit. Energy intakes of US children began to decline in 2003-2004 and continued to decline through 2009-2010. However, among preschool children (aged 2 to 5 years) and children from low-income families, total energy intakes in 2009-2010 still remained significantly higher than in 1989-1991. PMID:23916972

  19. Are food and beverage purchases in households with preschoolers changing? A longitudinal analysis from 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Christopher N.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background US dietary studies from 2003–2010 show decreases in children’s caloric intake. We examine purchases of consumer-packaged foods/beverages in the US between 2000- and 2011 among households with children ages 2–5y. Objectives Describe changes in consumer-packaged goods purchases between 2000 and 2011 after adjusting for economic indicators, and explore differences by race, education, and household income level. Methods Consumer-packaged goods purchases data were obtained for 42,753 US households with ≥1 child aged 2–5y using the Nielsen Homescan Panel. Top sources of calories purchased were grouped, and random effects regression was used to model the relationship between calories purchased from each food/beverage group and race, female head of household education, and household income. Models adjusted for household composition, market-level unemployment rate, prices, and quarter. Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Results Between 2000 and 2011, adjusted total calories purchased from foods (−182 kcal/d) and beverages (−100 kcal/d) declined significantly. Decreases in purchases of milk (−40 kcal), soft drinks (−27 kcal/d), juice and juice drinks (−24 kcal/d), grain-based desserts (−24 kcal/d), savory snacks (−17 kcal/d), and sweet snacks and candy (−13 kcal/d) were among the major changes observed. There were significant differences by race, female head of household education, and household income for changes in consumer-packaged food and beverage purchases between 2000 and 2011. Conclusions Trends in consumer-packaged goods purchases suggest that solid fats and added sugars are decreasing in the food ply of US preschool children. Yet, pronounced differences by race, education, and household income persist. PMID:25049217

  20. Prevalence of Food and Beverage Brands in Movies: 1996–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Lisa A.; MacKenzie, Todd; Purvis, Lisa A.; Dalton, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to describe food and beverage brand placements in a large representative sample of popular movies. METHODS We identified and coded brand placements for foods, beverages, and food retail establishments in the top 20 US box office movie hits for each year from 1996 to 2005. We also coded general movie characteristics (Motion Picture Association of America rating, run time, genre, and information about major characters). We summarized the number and types of food, beverage, and food retail establishment brands by movie characteristics and also identified manufacturers that are associated with each of the brands. RESULTS Of the 200 movies coded, 138 (69%) contained at least 1 food, beverage, or food retail establishment brand. Movies rated PG-13 and R were significantly more likely to have brand placements compared with movies in other rating categories. Comedies, action/adventures, and horror films had more brand placements than other genres. We did not detect a significant difference in the number of movies with brand placements or mean number of placements per movie by year of movie release. A total of 1180 brand placements were identified and verified, including 427 food, 425 beverage, and 328 food retail establishment brand placements. Candy/confections (26%) and salty snacks (21%) were the most prevalent food brands, sugar-sweetened beverages (76%) were the most prevalent beverage brands, and fast food composed two thirds of the food retail establishment brand placements. CONCLUSIONS Food, beverage, and food retail establishment brands are frequently portrayed in movies, and most of the brand placements are for energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods or product lines. Movies are a potent source of advertising to children, which has been largely overlooked. PMID:20142289