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Sample records for candu-6 type plants

  1. Radionuclide Release after End Fitting Failure Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

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    Choi, Hoon; Kim, Yun Ho; Lee, Kwang Ho [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The total amount of mass and energy discharged into containment building from primary heat transport system in the event of end fitting failure accident in CANDU-6 plant is similar to that of small loss of coolant accident. But the ejection of fuel bundles into fuelling machine room is unique phenomenon and causes radio nuclides release from the physically broken fuel rod to outside containment building. The only objective of containment behavior analysis for end fitting failure event is to assess the amount of radio nuclides release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in case of end fitting failure with all safety system available, that is containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  2. Probabilistic seismic safety assessment of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant including ambient vibration tests: Case study

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    Nour, Ali [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada); Cherfaoui, Abdelhalim; Gocevski, Vladimir [Hydro Québec, Montréal, Québec H2L4P5 (Canada); Léger, Pierre [École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C3A7 (Canada)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • In this case study, the seismic PSA methodology adopted for a CANDU 6 is presented. • Ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a 3D FEM and to reduce uncertainties is performed. • Procedure for the development of FRS for the RB considering wave incoherency effect is proposed. • Seismic fragility analysis for the RB is presented. - Abstract: Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan there is a worldwide interest in reducing uncertainties in seismic safety assessment of existing nuclear power plant (NPP). Within the scope of a Canadian refurbishment project of a CANDU 6 (NPP) put in service in 1983, structures and equipment must sustain a new seismic demand characterised by the uniform hazard spectrum (UHS) obtained from a site specific study defined for a return period of 1/10,000 years. This UHS exhibits larger spectral ordinates in the high-frequency range than those used in design. To reduce modeling uncertainties as part of a seismic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), Hydro-Québec developed a procedure using ambient vibrations testing to calibrate a detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the containment and reactor building (RB). This calibrated FE model is then used for generating floor response spectra (FRS) based on ground motion time histories compatible with the UHS. Seismic fragility analyses of the reactor building (RB) and structural components are also performed in the context of a case study. Because the RB is founded on a large circular raft, it is possible to consider the effect of the seismic wave incoherency to filter out the high-frequency content, mainly above 10 Hz, using the incoherency transfer function (ITF) method. This allows reducing significantly the non-necessary conservatism in resulting FRS, an important issue for an existing NPP. The proposed case study, and related methodology using ambient vibration testing, is particularly useful to engineers involved in seismic re-evaluation of

  3. Characteristics of U-tube assembly design for CANDU 6 type steam generators

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    Park, Jun Su; Jeong, Seung Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Since the first operation of nuclear steam generator early 1960s, its performance requirements have been met but the steam generator problems have been met but the steam generator problems have been major cause of reducing the operational reliability, plant safety and availability. U-tube assembly of steam generator forms the primary system pressure boundary of the plant and have experienced several types of tube degradation problems. Tube failure and leakage resulting from the degradation will cause radioactive contamination of secondary system by the primary coolant, and this may lead to unplanned plant outages and costly repair operations such as tube plugging or steam generator replacement. For the case of steam generators for heavy water reactors, e.g. Wolsong 2, 3, and 4 NPP, a high cost of heavy water will be imposed additionally. During the plant operation, steam generator tubes can potentially be subject to adverse environmental conditions which will cause damages to U-tube assembly. Types of the damage depend upon the combined effects of design factors, materials and chemical environment of steam generator, and they are the pure water stress corrosion cracking, intergranular attack, pitting, wastage, denting, fretting and fatigue, etc. In this report, a comprehensive review of major design factors of recirculating steam generators has been performed against the potential tube damages. Then the design characteristics of CANDU-type Wolsong steam generator were investigated in detail, including tube material, thermalhydraulic aspects, tube-to-tubesheet joint, tube supports, water chemistry and sludge management. 9 tabs., 18 figs., 38 refs. (Author) .new.

  4. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

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    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  5. Desktop Severe Accident Graphic Simulator Module for CANDU6 : PSAIS

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    Park, S. Y.; Song, Y. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The ISAAC ((Integrated Severe Accident Analysis Code for CANDU Plant) code is a system level computer code capable of performing integral analyses of potential severe accident progressions in nuclear power plants, whose main purpose is to support a Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment or severe accident management strategy developments. The code has the capability to predict a severe accident progression by modeling the CANDU6- specific systems and the expected physical phenomena based on the current understanding of the unique accident progressions. The code models the sequence of accident progressions from a core heatup, pressure tube/calandria tube rupture after an uncovery from inside and outside, a relocation of the damaged fuel to the bottom of the calandria, debris behavior in the calandria, corium quenching after a debris relocation from the calandria to the calandria vault and an erosion of the calandria vault concrete floor, a hydrogen burn, and a reactor building failure. Along with the thermal hydraulics, the fission product behavior is also considered in the primary system as well as in the reactor building.

  6. Fuel management simulation for CANFLEX-RU in CANDU 6

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    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel management simulations have been performed for CANFLEX-09% RU fuel in the CANDU 6 reactor. In this study, the bi-directional 4-bundle shift fuelling scheme was assumed. The lattice cell and time-average calculation were carried out. The refuelling simulation calculations were performed for 600 full power days. Time-averaged results show good axial power profile with the CANFLEX-RU fuel. During the simulation period, the maximum channel and bundle power were maintained below the licensing limit of CANDU 6 reactor. 7 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  7. EC6{sup TM} - Enhanced Candu 6{sup TM} reactor safety characteristics

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    Popov, N.; Snell, V.; Cormier, M.; Hopwood, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The EC6 is a 740 MWe-class natural-uranium-fuelled, heavy-water-cooled and -moderated pressure-tube reactor, which has evolved from the eleven (11) CANDU{sup R} 6 plants operating in five countries (on four continents). CANDU 6 has over 150 reactor-years of safe operation. The most recent CANDU 6 - at Qinshan, in China - is the Reference Design for EC6. The EC6 shares many inherent, passive and engineered safety characteristics with the Reference Design. However EC6 has been designed to meet modern regulatory requirements and safety expectations. The resulting design changes have improved these safety characteristics, and this paper provides a convenient summary. The paper addresses the safety functions of reactivity control, heat removal, and containment of radioactive material. For each safety function, the EC6 characteristics are categorized as inherent, passive, or engineered. The paper focuses mostly on the first two. The Enhanced CANDU 6 uses an appropriate mix of passive, inherent, and engineered safety functions. Reactivity transients are generally slow, mild and inherently limited due to the natural uranium core and use of on-power refuelling. Only the coolant void coefficient can cause a large reactivity insertion, particularly in a large LOCA. This is mitigated by the long prompt neutron lifetime and the large delayed neutron fraction, and terminated by either of the two shutdown systems. For EC6, the large LOCA power transient has been reduced significantly by speeding up the slower of the two shutdown systems. Redundant shutdown and the LOCA power pulse improvements mitigate the limiting large positive reactivity insertion. Decay heat removal shows a very high component of passive safety, from thermo-siphoning in the Reactor Coolant System to passive heat removal in severe accidents via the moderator or reactor vault. The latter two can maintain the fuel in a more predictable and favourable geometry than 'core on the floor'. The containment

  8. Operating Experience of MACSTOR Modules at CANDU 6 Stations

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    Beaudoin, Robert R. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Chalk River (Canada)

    2005-11-15

    Over the last three decades, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has contributed to the technology development and implementation of dry spent fuel management facilities in Canada, Korea and Romania During that period, AECL has developed a number of concrete canister models and the MACSTOR200 module, a medium size air-cooled vault with a 228 MgU (Mega grams of Uranium) capacity. AECL's dry storage technologies were used for the construction of eight large-scale above ground dry storage facilities for CANDU spent fuel. As of 2005, those facilities have an installed capacity in excess of 5,000 MgU. Since 1995, the two newest dry storage installations built for CANDU 6 reactors at Gentilly 2 (Canada) and Cernavoda (Romania) used the MACSTOR 200 module. Seven such modules have been built at Gentilly 2 during the 1995 to 2004 period and one at Cernavoda in 2003. The construction and operating experience of those modules is reviewed in this paper. The MACSTOR 200 modules were initially designed for a 50-year service life, with recent units at Gentilly 2 licensed for a 100-year service life in a rural (non-maritime) climate. During the 1995-2005 period, six of the eight modules were loaded with fuel. Their operation has brought a significant amount of experience on loading operations, performance of fuel handling equipment, radiation shielding, heat transfer, monitoring of the two confinement boundaries and radiation dose to personnel. Heat dissipation performance of the MACSTOR 200 was initially licensed using values derived from full scale tests made at AECL's Whiteshell Research Laboratories, that were backed-up by temperature measurements made on the first two modules. Results and computer models developed for the MACSTOR 200 module are described. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) and its subsidiary Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC), in collaboration with Hyundai Engineering Company Ltd. (HEC) and AECL, are developing a new dry storage

  9. Core analysis during transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in CANDU 6

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    Jeong, Chang Joon; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    An 1200-day time-dependent fuel-management for the transition from 37-element fuel to CANFLEX-NU fuel in a CANDU 6 reactor has been simulated to show the compatibility of the CANFLEX-NU fuel with the reactor operation. The simulation calculations were carried out with the RFSP code, provided by cell averaged fuel properties obtained from the POWDERPUFS-V code. The refueling scheme for both fuels was an eight bundle shift at a time. The simulation results show that the maximum channel and bundle powers were maintained below the license limit of the CANDU 6. This indicates that the CANFLEX-NU fuel bundle is compatible with the CANDU 6 reactor operation during the transition period. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  10. Thermal Analysis of CANDU6-Moderator System for Loss of Cooling%CANDU6慢化剂系统丧失冷却情况下的温度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐珍

    2012-01-01

    The coolant system and moderator system of CANDU6 are independent. The prompt neutrons are moderated as thermal neutrons by the moderator and the continuous nuclear fission in the reactor is maintained. At the same time the moderator system supplies the heat sink for the heat produced by the neutrons moderation. During the in-service maintenance of plant, the standby RCW which will only cool down reactor coolant system operates instead of RCW and can not supply heat sink for moderator system heat exchanger. As the result, the moderator system will lose heat sink during the operation of standby RCW. To estimate the moderator temperature, was compared with the experiment data and evaluated in this paper. the thermal analysis of moderator system for loss of cooling the system failure caused by the temperature raising wasevaluated in this paper.%压力管卧式重水反应堆(CANDU6)具有相互独立的冷却剂系统和慢化剂系统。慢化剂系统将堆芯高能裂变中子慢化到能维持持续裂变所需的热中子水平,并将慢化中子过程中产生的热量带出。在反应堆大修期间,需要对再循环冷却水系统(RCW)进行检修,则需要并投入其备用系统,但是RCW备用系统仅对反应堆冷却剂系统进行冷却,不提供慢化剂系统热交换器冷却水。所以在RCW备用系统投入的情况下,慢化剂系统丧失冷却。为判断在此情况下慢化剂的温度变化情况,本文对CANDU6大修期间慢化剂系统丧失冷却情况下的温度变化进行分析并与试验结果进行比较,评估是否会由于温度过高而导致系统失效。

  11. Evaluation of CANDU6 PCR (power coefficient of reactivity) with a 3-D whole-core Monte Carlo Analysis

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    Motalab, Mohammad Abdul; Kim, Woosong; Kim, Yonghee, E-mail: yongheekim@kaist.ac.kr

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The PCR of the CANDU6 reactor is slightly negative at low power, e.g. <80% P. • Doppler broadening of scattering resonances improves noticeably the FTC and make the PCR more negative or less positive in CANDU6. • The elevated inlet coolant condition can worsen significantly the PCR of CANDU6. • Improved design tools are needed for the safety evaluation of CANDU6 reactor. - Abstract: The power coefficient of reactivity (PCR) is a very important parameter for inherent safety and stability of nuclear reactors. The combined effect of a relatively less negative fuel temperature coefficient and a positive coolant temperature coefficient make the CANDU6 (CANada Deuterium Uranium) PCR very close to zero. In the original CANDU6 design, the PCR was calculated to be clearly negative. However, the latest physics design tools predict that the PCR is slightly positive for a wide operational range of reactor power. It is upon this contradictory observation that the CANDU6 PCR is re-evaluated in this work. In our previous study, the CANDU6 PCR was evaluated through a standard lattice analysis at mid-burnup and was found to be negative at low power. In this paper, the study was extended to a detailed 3-D CANDU6 whole-core model using the Monte Carlo code Serpent2. The Doppler broadening rejection correction (DBRC) method was implemented in the Serpent2 code in order to take into account thermal motion of the heavy uranium nucleus in the neutron-U scattering reactions. Time-average equilibrium core was considered for the evaluation of the representative PCR of CANDU6. Two thermal hydraulic models were considered in this work: one at design condition and the other at operating condition. Bundle-wise distributions of the coolant properties are modeled and the bundle-wise fuel temperature is also considered in this study. The evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 was used throughout this Serpent2 evaluation. In these Monte Carlo calculations, a large number

  12. Study on the use of slightly enriched uranium fuel cycle in an existing CANDU 6 reactor

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    Yeom, Choong Sub; Kim, Hyun Dae [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    To test the viability of CANFLEX-SEU bundles in an existing CANDU 6 reactor, core follow-up simulation has been carried out using the reactor fueling simulation program of the CANDU 6, RFSP computer code, and a lattice physics code, WIMS-AECL. During the core follow-up, bundle and channel powers and zone levels have been checked against their operating limits at each simulation. It is observed from the simulation results that an equilibrium core loaded with 0.9 w/o CANFLEX-SEU bundles could be refueled and maintained for 550 FPD without any significant violations in the channel and bundle power limits and the permissible operating range of the liquid zone controllers. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  13. EVALUATION OF THE APPLICABLE REACTIVITY RANGE OF A REACTIVITY COMPUTER FOR A CANDU-6 REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUN KI LEE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a CANDU digital reactivity computer system (CDRCS to measure the worth of the liquid zone controller in a CANDU-6 was developed and successfully applied to a physics test of refurbished Wolsong Unit 1. In advance of using the CDRCS, its measureable reactivity range should be investigated and confirmed. There are two reasons for this investigation. First, the CANDU-6 has a larger reactor and smaller excore detectors than a general PWR and consequently the measured reactivity is likely to reflect the peripheral power variation only, not the whole core. The second reason is photo neutrons generated from the interaction of the moderator and gamma-rays, which are never considered in a PWR. To evaluate the limitations of the CDRCS, several tens of three-dimensional steady and transient simulations were performed. The simulated detector signals were used to obtain the dynamic reactivity. The difference between the dynamic reactivity and the static worth increases in line with the water level changes. The maximum allowable reactivity was determined to be 1.4 mk in the case of CANDU-6 by confining the difference to less than 1%.

  14. Estimation of Aging Effects on LOHS for CANDU-6

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    Yoon, Yong Ki; Moon, Bok Ja; Kim, Seoung Rae [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    To evaluate the Wolsong Unit 1's capacity to respond to large-scale natural disaster exceeding design, the loss of heat sink(LOHS) accident accompanied by loss of all electric power is simulated as a beyond design basis accident. This analysis is considered the aging effects of plant as the consequences of LOHS accident. Various components of primary heat transport system(PHTS) get aged and some of the important aging effects of CANDU reactor are pressure tube(PT) diametral creep, steam generator(SG) U-tube fouling, increased feeder roughness, and feeder orifice degradation. These effects result in higher inlet header temperatures, reduced flows in some fuel channels, and higher void fraction in fuel channel outlets. Fresh and aged models are established for the analysis where fresh model is the circuit model simulating the conditions at retubing and aged model corresponds to the model reflecting the aged condition at 11 EFPY after retubing. CATHENA computer code[1] is used for the analysis of the system behavior under LOHS condition. The LOHS accident is analyzed for fresh and aged models using CATHENA thermal hydraulic computer code. The decay heat removal is one of the most important factors for mitigation of this accident. The major aging effect on decay heat removal is the reduction of heat transfer efficiency by steam generator. Thus, the channel failure time cannot be conservatively estimated if aged model is applied for the analysis of this accident.

  15. Assessment of DUPIC fuel compatibility with CANDU-6

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    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Jeong, C. J.; Rhee, B. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will require a quantitative analysis later. (author).

  16. Pressure tube creep impact on the physics parameters for CANDU-6 reactors

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    Kim, W. Y.; Min, B. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kam, S. C.; Kim, M. E. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The lattice cell calculations are performed to assess the sensitivity of the reactor physics parameters to pressure tube creep resulting from radiation aging. The physics parameters of the lattice cell are calculated by using WIMSD-5B code, WIMS- AECL code, and MCNP code. The reference model(normal state) and two perturbed models accounting for the pressure tube creep are developed on the basis of CANDU-6 lattice cell. The 2.5% and 5% values of pressure tube diameter creep are considered. Also, The effects of the analyzed lattice parameters which are the coolant void reactivity, the fuel fission density and the atom density of Pu isotopes on the lattice.

  17. Development of finite element models for the study of ageing effects in CANDU 6 concrete containment buildings

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    Ding, Y.; Jaffer, S., E-mail: Yuqing.Ding@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    In nuclear power plants (NPPs), concrete containment buildings (CCBs) provide the final physical barrier against the release of radioactive materials into the environment and protect the nuclear structures housed within the containment building. CCBs have to be maintained to ensure leak tightness and sound structural integrity for the safe operation throughout the life of NPPs. However, the integrity of CCBs may be affected by the ageing of its concrete, post-tensioning cables and reinforcing bars (rebars). Finite element models (FEMs) of CANDU 6 CCBs have been developed using 2 independent finite element programs for the study of the effect of ageing of CCBs. These FEMs have been validated using multiple-source data and have been used for preliminary analyses of the effect of thermal load and ageing degradation on the concrete structure. The modelling assumptions and simplifications, approach, and validation are discussed in this paper. The preliminary analyses for temperature effects and potential applications to the study of ageing degradation in CCBs using the FEMs are briefly introduced. (author)

  18. Analysis of Moderator System Failure Accidents by Using New Method for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 Reactor

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    Jin, Dongsik; Kim, Jonghyun; Cho, Cheonhwey [Atomic Creative Technology Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungmin [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    To reconfirm the safety of moderator system failure accidents, the safety analysis by using the reactor physics code, RFSP-IST, coupled with the thermal hydraulics code, CATHENA is performed additionally. In the present paper, the newly developed analysis method is briefly described and the results obtained from the moderator system failure accident simulations for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 reactor by using the new method are summarized. The safety analysis of the moderator system failure accidents for Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 reactor was carried out by using the new code system, i. e., CATHENA and RFSP-IST, instead of the non-IST old codes, namely, SMOKIN G-2 and MODSTBOIL. The analysis results by using the new method revealed as same with the results by using the old method that the fuel integrity is warranted because the localized power peak remained well below the limits and, most importantly, the reactor operation enters into the self-shutdown mode due to the substantial loss of moderator D{sub 2}O inventory from the moderator system. In the analysis results obtained by using the old method, it was predicted that the ROP trip conditions occurred for the transient cases which are also studied in the present paper. But, in the new method, it was found that the ROP trip conditions did not occur. Consequently, in the safety analysis performed additionally by using the new method, the safety of moderator system failure accidents was reassured. In the future, the new analysis method by using the IST codes instead of the non-IST old codes for the moderator system failure accidents is strongly recommended.

  19. Development of scaling laws on thermal-hydraulic effect test facility for CANDU-6 moderator

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    Lee, J. Y.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, N. S. [Handong University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. W.; Kim, H. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The scaling laws on thermal-hydraulic effect test facility for CANDU-6 moderator (HGU-KINS) have been investigated and manufactured. The basic laws are the satisfaction of energy conservation and dimensionless number, Ar and Re, for the similarities of thermal-hydraulic properties. And then the thermal-hydraulic scaling analyses of test facilities, SPEL(1/10 scale) and STERN(1/4 scale), have been identified by the present method. As a result, in the case of SPEL, the energy conservation is confirmed, but the similarities of Ar and the heat density are not considered. In the case of STERN, the energy conservation and the characteristics of Ar were well defined. But the similarity of the heat density is unsatisfied, either. Therefore the present method was applied with 1/8 length scale. For the performance test, CFD analysis has been accomplished by CFX5. The results of flow pattern certifications and variation of axial properties with CANDU show that the present scaling method is acceptable.

  20. Measurement of Velocity and Temperature Profiles in the 1/40 Scaled-Down CANDU-6 Moderator Tank

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    Hyoung Tae Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the CANDU-6 moderator circulation phenomena during steady state operating and accident conditions, a scaled-down moderator test facility has been constructed at Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI. In the present work an experiment using a 1/40 scaled-down moderator tank has been performed to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement in the scaled-down moderator test facility. With a transparent moderator tank model, a flow field is visualized with a particle image velocimetry (PIV technique under an isothermal state, and the temperature field is measured using a laser induced fluorescence (LIF technique. A preliminary CFD analysis is also performed to find out the flow, thermal, and heating boundary conditions with which the various flow patterns expected in the prototype CANDU-6 moderator tank can be reproduced in the experiment.

  1. THE IMPACT OF POWER COEFFICIENT OF REACTIVITY ON CANDU 6 REACTORS

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    D. KASTANYA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of reactivity coefficients, along with other core nuclear characteristics, determine reactor core behavior in normal operation and accident conditions. The Power Coefficient of Reactivity (PCR is an aggregate indicator representing the change in reactor core reactivity per unit change in reactor power. It is an integral quantity which captures the contributions of the fuel temperature, coolant void, and coolant temperature reactivity feedbacks. All nuclear reactor designs provide a balance between their inherent nuclear characteristics and the engineered reactivity control features, to ensure that changes in reactivity under all operating conditions are maintained within a safe range. The CANDU® reactor design takes advantage of its inherent nuclear characteristics, namely a small magnitude of reactivity coefficients, minimal excess reactivity, and very long prompt neutron lifetime, to mitigate the demand on the engineered systems for controlling reactivity and responding to accidents. In particular, CANDU reactors have always taken advantage of the small value of the PCR associated with their design characteristics, such that the overall design and safety characteristics of the reactor are not sensitive to the value of the PCR. For other reactor design concepts a PCR which is both large and negative is an important aspect in the design of their engineered systems for controlling reactivity. It will be demonstrated that during Loss of Regulation Control (LORC and Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA events, the impact of variations in power coefficient, including a hypothesized larger than estimated PCR, has no safety-significance for CANDU reactor design. Since the CANDU 6 PCR is small, variations in the range of values for PCR on the performance or safety of the reactor are not significant.

  2. Update on use of AECL's MACSTOR module at CANDU 6 stations

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    Beaudoin, R.; Moussalam, G.; Kachef, I. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    AECL has contributed to the technology development and implementation of dry spent fuel management facilities in Canada and internationally over the last three decades. During that period, AECL has designed a number of concrete canister models and the MACSTOR module; a medium size air-cooled vault. AECL's dry storage technology was used in Canada, Korea and Romania for the construction of eight large-scale above ground dry storage facilities for CANDU spent fuel. These projects add up to a constructed capacity in excess of 5,000 MgU, that represents a significant share of the total worldwide dry storage capacity. This paper describes basic research and technology developments made at AECL's facilities to develop those dry storage technologies for its own reactors and for the operating CANDU 6 reactors. The current operating status of the facilities using concrete canisters is provided. A description of the MACSTOR 200 modules each having a capacity of 228 MgU that is in use at the Gentilly 2 and Cernavoda stations is provided. The Cernavoda spent fuel management facility was commissioned in 2003. The organisational, licensing, equipment supply and construction aspects that were necessary to deliver this turnkey project by AECL and its Romanian partners in 25 months are described. The paper also provides an outline of the joint program between AECL and KHNP-NETEC to develop the new MACSTOR/KN-400 and provides a description of this module having a capacity of 456 MgU (thus twice the MACSTOR 200 capacity) to be deployed by 2007 at the Wolsong site in Korea. (author)

  3. Comparison Study on Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Depending on Liquid Relief Valve Response for an Station Blackout in CANDU-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. M.; Kho, D. W. [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. H.; Moon, B. J.; Kim, S. R. [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the results of thermal-hydraulic analysis depending on liquid relief valve response during a station black out (SBO) events in CANDU-6. The primary heat transport system (PHTS) behavior following the postulated SBO is analyzed using CATHENA code. In the paper, analysis was performed to evaluate the effect on coolant system where LRVs are assumed to be opened or opened according to normal open characteristics in the condition of SBO. The result showed that the primary pressure boundary is extended from LRV to DCT and the effects on primary system behavior were neglectable.

  4. Radionuclide Release after Channel Flow Blockage Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon; Jun, Hwang Yong [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The channel flow blockage accident is one of the in core loss of coolant accidents, the release path of radionuclide is very different from conventional loss of coolant accidents. The large amount of radionuclide released from broken channel is being washed during it passes through the moderator in Calandria. The objective of containment behavior analysis for channel flow blockage event is to assess the amount of radionuclide release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in case of channel flow blockage with all safety system available, that is containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  5. Radionuclide Release after LBLOCA with Loss of Class IV Power Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A large break in a pipe train of a primary heat transport system discharges coolant, which has high energy and large mass, into the containment building. Reactor shutdown and emergency core cooling water will limit the fuel cladding failure, but cannot prevent it entirely. The containment building is the last barrier of radionuclide release to the environment. Containment isolation and pressure suppression by dousing and local air cooler reduce the amount of radionuclide release to the environment. The objective of containment behavior analysis for large break loss of coolant with loss of class IV power accident is to assess the amount of radionuclide release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in this event, with all safety system available, that is, the containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment, are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  6. An Evaluation of a General Venting Strategy in CANDU 6 Reactor Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Darl; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Soo Yong; Song, Yong Man; Jin, Young Ho

    2006-03-15

    If the reactor building sprays or local air coolers are not available, depressurization by reactor building venting is considered as a useful mitigation strategy for a severe accident management of the Wolsong plants. As the CFVS is not established in the Wolsong Units, the reactor building isolation system can be a substitute for reactor building venting. The D{sub 2}O Vapour recovery system which has a 30' diameter penetration is expected to meet the NRC requirements. To investigate the effectiveness of the Reactor Building Venting Strategy, three kinds of accidents are analyzed: a SBO, a SLOCA and a Large LOCA. The reactor building pressure behavior was analyzed with ISAAC 2.0.2 for four different cases: without venting, 55psig/50psig, 50psig/40psig and 50psig/30psig valve open/close pressures. It was found that applying venting for a SBO reduces the mass fraction of the CsI released to the environment by 67.8% (valve open/close pressure of 55psig/50psig), by 64.4% (valve open/close pressure of 50psig/40psig) and by 63.5% (valve open/close pressure of 50psig/30psig). For a SLOCA, venting strategy reduces the mass fraction of the CsI by 58.3% (valve open/close pressure of 55psig/50psig), by 55.0% (valve open/close pressure 50psig/40psig) and by 48.3% (valve open/close pressure 50psig/30psig). For a LLOCA, reactor building venting reduces the mass fraction of the CsI released to the environment by less than 10% when compared to that without reactor building venting. When the reactor building spray or local air coolers can not be operated, a depressurization strategy by using the D{sub 2}O Vapour Recovery System could prevent a reactor building failure and reduce the amount of CsI released to the environment. The present study shows that the operation of valves at a pressure of 55psig/50psig is safe and effective. Based on the current study, the strategy of reactor building venting is involved SAMG-5.

  7. Etude de l'influence du champ magnetique dans une section d'essais thermohydraulique d'un canal de reacteur nucleaire CANDU 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry-Lavoie, Renaud

    This memoir deals with the effects of the magnetic fields present in a thermal hydraulic test section of the Canadian nuclear industry. This test section is used to determine the thermal hydraulic conditions that can lead to critical heat flux in a channel of a CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. To perform their series of experiments the STERN Company used strong electric currents to heat the simulation bundles with a thermal power similar to the one found in a channel of a CANDU reactor. The materials constituting the simulation channel and its supports are of ferromagnetic nature. The strong magnetic field generated by the bundles implies that they are subjected to a magnetostatic force due to the magnetization of the ferromagnetic materials. The nuclear industry wants to know if these efforts, combined with the force of gravity, are sufficient to maintain the bundles in place in the simulation channel. The question also arises whether or not the magnetic field present in the channel can affect the parameters of boiling heat transfer. To determine the magnetic field distribution in the simulation channel, we had recourse to the magnetostatic image method and the integral method of calculation of magnetization. The results of the calculations show that the magnetostatic forces exerted by the ferromagnetic elements of the test section are inferior in magnitude to the one estimated by the STERN laboratorie. We used the mechanistic model of Sullivan et al. (1964) to evaluate the possible influence of the magnetic fields on the departure diameter of the vapor bubbles. The deviation in the frequency of bubble emission was evaluated by using the correlations of Zuber et al. (1959) and Cole (1960). By introducing a magnetostatic force in the boiling model and in the correlations, we demonstrated that the magnetic field present in the STERN test section has a negligible effect on the bubble departure diameter and their emission frequency. We conclude that the conditions in the test

  8. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 9 - CUTTING AND EXTRACTING DEVICE FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin POPESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a constructive solution proposed by the authors in order to achieve of a cutting and extracting device for the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED performs the dismantling, cutting and extraction of the fuel channel components. It's a flexible and modular device, which is designed to work inside the fuel channel and has the following functions: moving with variable speed, temperature monitoring and video surveillance inside the pipe, unblock and extract the channel closure plug (from End Fitting - EF, unblock and extract the channel shield plug (from Lattice Tube - LT, block and cut the middle of the pressure tube, block and cut the end of the pressure tube, block and extract the half of pressure tube. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED consists of following modules: guiding-fixing module, traction modules, cutting module, guiding-extracting module and flexible elements for modules connecting. The guiding-fixing module is equipped with elastic guiding rollers and fixing claws in working position, the traction modules are provided with variable pitch rollers for allowing variable travel speed through the fuel channel. The cutting module is positioned in the middle of the device and it is equipped with three knife rolls for pressure tube cutting, using a system for cutting place video surveillance and pyrometers for monitoring cutting place temperature. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED is fully automated, connected by wires to a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and controlled from a Human Machine Interface (HMI. The design of the Cutting and Extraction Device (CED shall be achieved according to the particular features of the fuel channel components to be dismantled and to ensure radiation protection of workers.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 6 - PRESENTATION OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a possible solution for the designing of a device for the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The decommissioning activities are dismantling, demolition, controlled removal of equipment, components, conventional or hazardous waste (radioactive, toxic in compliance with the international basic safety standards on radiation protection. One as the most important operation in the final phase of the nuclear reactor dismantling is the decommissioning of fuel channels. For the fuel channels decommissioning should be taken into account the detailed description of the fuel channel and its components, the installation documents history, adequate radiological criteria for decommissioning guidance, safety and environmental impact assessment, including radiological and non-radiological analysis of the risks that can occur for workers, public and environment, the description of the proposed program for decommissioning the fuel channel and its components, the description of the quality assurance program and of the monitoring program, the equipments and methods used to verify the compliance with the decommissioning criteria, the planning of performing the final radiological assessment at the end of the fuel channel decommissioning. These will include also, a description of the proposed radiation protection procedures to be used during decommissioning. The dismantling of the fuel channel is performed by one device which shall provide radiation protection during the stages of decommissioning, ensuring radiation protection of the workers. The device shall be designed according to the radiation protection procedures. The decommissioning device assembly of the fuel channel components is composed of the device itself and moving platform support for coupling of the selected channel to be dismantled. The fuel channel decommissioning device is an autonomous device designed for

  10. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Wright, M.D

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  11. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 10 - PRESENTATION OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE OPERATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin D. STANESCU,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution proposed by the authors in order to achieve of a cutting and extracting device operating panel for the decommissioning of the horizontal fuel channels in the CANDU 6 nuclear reactor. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED is fully automated, connected by wires to a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and controlled from a Human Machine Interface (HMI. The Cutting and Extraction Device (CED performs the dismantling, cutting and extraction of the fuel channel components, moving with variable speed, temperature monitoring and video surveillance inside the pipe, unblock and extract the channel closure plug (from End Fitting - EF, unblock and extract the channel shield plug (from Lattice Tube - LT, block and cut the middle of the pressure tube, block and cut the end of the pressure tube, block and extract the half of pressure tube. All operations can be monitored and controlled from a operating panel. The PLC fully command the device in automatic or manually mode, to control the internal sensors, transducers, electrical motors, video surveillance and pyrometers for monitoring cutting place temperature. The device controller has direct access to the measured values with these sensors, interprets and processes them, preparing the next actionafter confirming the action in progress. The design of the Cutting and Extraction Device (CED shall be achieved according to the particular features of the fuel channel components to be dismantled and to ensure radiation protection of workers.

  12. Basic types of plant layout

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Bacalla, Julio; Docente FII-UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    Basic formats plant layout shown, considering the criteria to be taken into account in each of the formats.  Se muestra los formatos básicos de la distribución de planta, considerando los criterios que se deben tomar en cuenta en cada uno de los formatos.

  13. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 4 - FUEL CHANNEL ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, costeffective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 5 - FUEL CHANEL DECOMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, cost-effective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 3 - FUEL CHANNEL REFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, cost-effective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning. The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  16. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR PART 2 - FUEL CHANNEL PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As many nuclear power plants are reaching their end of lifecycle, the decommissioning of these installations has become one of the 21st century’s great challenges. Each project may be managed differently, depending on the country, development policies, financial considerations, and the availability of qualified engineers or specialized companies to handle such projects. The principle objective of decommissioning is to place a facility into such a condition that there is no unacceptable risk from the decommissioned facility to public health and safety of the environment. In order to ensure that at the end of its life the risk from a facility is within acceptable bounds, action is normally required. The overall decommissioning strategy is to deliver a timely, costeffective program while maintaining high standards of safety, security and environmental protection. If facilities were not decommissioned, they could degrade and potentially present an environmental radiological hazard in the future. Simply abandoning or leaving a facility after ceasing operations is not considered to be an acceptable alternative to decommissioning.The final aim of decommissioning is to recover the geographic site to its original condition.

  17. Evolution of plant P-type ATPases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian N.S. Pedersen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five organisms having completely sequenced genomes and belonging to all major branches of green plants (Viridiplantae were analyzed with respect to their content of P-type ATPases encoding genes. These were the chlorophytes Ostreococcus tauria and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the streptophytes Physcomitrella patens (a moss, Selaginella moellendorffii (a primitive vascular plant, and Arabidopsis thaliana (a model flowering plant. Each organism contained sequences for all five subfamilies of P-type ATPases. Our analysis demonstrates when specific subgroups of P-type ATPases disappeared in the evolution of Angiosperms. Na/K-pump related P2C ATPases were lost with the evolution of streptophytes whereas Na+ or K+ pumping P2D ATPases and secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPases remained until mosses. An N-terminally located calmodulin binding domain in P2B ATPases can only be detected in pumps from Streptophytae, whereas, like in animals, a C-terminally localized calmodulin binding domain might be present in chlorophyte P2B Ca2+-ATPases. Chlorophyte genomes encode P3A ATPases resembling protist plasma membrane H+-ATPases and a C-terminal regulatory domain is missing. The complete inventory of P-type ATPases in the major branches of Viridiplantae is an important starting point for elucidating the evolution in plants of these important pumps.

  18. Global GPP based on Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroustraete, Frank; Balzarolo, Manuela

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation variables like Gross Primary productivity (GPP) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are key variables in vegetation carbon exchange studies. Field measurements of the NDVI are time consuming due to landscape heterogeneity across time. Typically a sampling protocol adopted during field campaigns is based on the VALERI protocol in that case toe estimate LAI. Field campaign GPP or NDVI measurements can be scaled up to using in-situ FLUXNET radiation raster maps. Regression analysis can then be applied to construct transfer functions for the determination of GPP raster maps raster imagery from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) raster maps derived from in-situ FLUXNET radiation raster maps. Subsequently, in the VALERI approach the scaling up of raster maps is performed by aggregation of high resolution in-situ FLUXNET radiation raster maps data into high resolution raster maps and subsequently aggregating these to 1x1 km MODIS NDVI raster maps by calculating average NDVI values for the low resolution data. The up-scaled 1x1 km pixels are then used to validate the MODIS GPP and NVI products. Hence up scaling based on in-situ FLUXNET radiation measurements are not a luxury for large and heterogeneous sites. Therefore this paper tackles the problem of up scaling using in-situ FLUXNET radiation measurements. Key Words: FLUXNET, GPP, Plant Functional Types, Up-scaling

  19. Female Plant Types of Ginkgo biloba L. in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Peng; He Fengren; Tao Jun; Qian Bolin; Wei Jun; Ling Yuping; Wang Li

    2003-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba is a dioecious and unique species within Ginkgo family and Ginkgo genus, but it shows a big variability. From 1950s, resources of female plants in China were investigated and collected, and the seed anatomical structure and morphological characters at different development stages were observed. According to the shape, length, width and thickness of ovule bracket and seed stone, as well as the characteristics of both sides and top of the stone, the female plants of Ginkgo biloba have been divided into five types, long-stone, Buddha-finger, horse-bell, mume-stone and round-stone. In addition, the important cultivars belonging to different types were also determined. The stone weight, index of stone shape, and contents of dry matter, amylose, amylopectin, starch, rough protein, soluble sugar and hydrocyanic acid in seed kernel of each type were measured, and the qualities of seed stone were appraised, which lays a foundation for the improvement and utilization of female plant resources in Ginkgo biloba.

  20. Nitroaromatic detection and infrared communication from wild-type plants using plant nanobionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Min Hao; Giraldo, Juan P.; Kwak, Seon-Yeong; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Sinclair, Rosalie; Lew, Tedrick Thomas Salim; Bisker, Gili; Liu, Pingwei; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    Plant nanobionics aims to embed non-native functions to plants by interfacing them with specifically designed nanoparticles. Here, we demonstrate that living spinach plants (Spinacia oleracea) can be engineered to serve as self-powered pre-concentrators and autosamplers of analytes in ambient groundwater and as infrared communication platforms that can send information to a smartphone. The plants employ a pair of near-infrared fluorescent nanosensors--single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) conjugated to the peptide Bombolitin II to recognize nitroaromatics via infrared fluorescent emission, and polyvinyl-alcohol functionalized SWCNTs that act as an invariant reference signal--embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. As contaminant nitroaromatics are transported up the roots and stem into leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll, resulting in relative changes in emission intensity. The real-time monitoring of embedded SWCNT sensors also allows residence times in the roots, stems and leaves to be estimated, calculated to be 8.3 min (combined residence times of root and stem) and 1.9 min mm-1 leaf, respectively. These results demonstrate the ability of living, wild-type plants to function as chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances.

  1. Engineering controlled mammalian type O-Glycosylation in plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Drew, Damian Paul; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Human mucins are large heavily O-glycosylated glycoproteins (>200 kDa), which account for the majority of proteins in mucus layers that e.g. hydrate, lubricate and protect cells from proteases as well as from pathogens. O-linked mucin glycans are truncated in many cancers, yielding truncated cancer...... specific glyco-peptide epitopes, such as the Tn epitope (GalNAc sugar attached to either Serine or Threonine), which are antigenic to the immune system. In the present study, we have identified plant cells as the only eukaryotic cells without mammalian type O-glycosylation or competing (for sites) O...

  2. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Ty...

  3. Functional Plant Types Drive Plant Interactions in a Mediterranean Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Petr; Prieto, Iván; Macková, Jana; Pistón, Nuria; Pugnaire, Francisco I

    2016-01-01

    Shrubs have positive (facilitation) and negative (competition) effects on understory plants, the net interaction effect being modulated by abiotic conditions. Overall shrubs influence to great extent the structure of plant communities where they have significant presence. Interactions in a plant community are quite diverse but little is known about their variability and effects at community level. Here we checked the effects of co-occurring shrub species from different functional types on a focal understory species, determining mechanisms driving interaction outcome, and tested whether effects measured on the focal species were a proxy for effects measured at the community level. Growth, physiological, and reproductive traits of Euphorbia nicaeensis, our focal species, were recorded on individuals growing in association with four dominant shrub species and in adjacent open areas. We also recorded community composition and environmental conditions in each microhabitat. Shrubs provided environmental conditions for plant growth, which contrasted with open areas, including moister soil, greater N content, higher air temperatures, and lower radiation. Shrub-associated individuals showed lower reproductive effort and greater allocation to growth, while most physiological traits remained unaffected. Euphorbia individuals were bigger and had more leaf N under N-fixing than under non-fixing species. Soil moisture was also higher under N-fixing shrubs; therefore soil conditions in the understory may counter reduced light conditions. There was a significant effect of species identity and functional types in the outcome of plant interactions with consistent effects at individual and community levels. The contrasting allocation strategies to reproduction and growth in Euphorbia plants, either associated or not with shrubs, showed high phenotypic plasticity and evidence its ability to cope with contrasting environmental conditions.

  4. 40 CFR 63.1581 - Does the subpart distinguish between different types of POTW treatment plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... different types of POTW treatment plants? 63.1581 Section 63.1581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... treatment plants? Yes, POTW treatment plants are divided into two subcategories. A POTW treatment plant which does not meet the characteristics of an industrial POTW treatment plant belongs in the...

  5. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. 146.33 Section 146.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  6. Functional plant types drive plant interactions in a Mediterranean mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eMacek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shrubs have both positive (facilitation and negative (competition effects on understory plants, the net interaction effect being modulated by abiotic conditions. Overall shrubs influence to great extent the structure of plant communities where they have significant presence. Interactions in a plant community are quite diverse but little is known about their variability and effects at community level. Here we checked the effects of co-occurring shrub species from different functional groups on a focal understory species, determining mechanisms driving interaction outcome, and tested whether effects measured on the focal species were a proxy for effects measured at the community level. Growth, physiological, and reproductive traits of Euphorbia nicaeensis, our focal species, were recorded on individuals growing in association with four dominant shrub species and in adjacent open areas. We also recorded community composition and environmental conditions in each microhabitat.Shrubs provided environmental conditions for plant growth, which contrasted with open areas, including moister soil, greater N content, higher air temperatures, and lower radiation. Shrub-associated individuals showed lower reproductive effort and greater allocation to growth, while most physiological traits remained unaffected. Euphorbia individuals were bigger and had more leaf N under N-fixing than under non-fixing species. Soil moisture was also higher under N-fixing shrubs; therefore soil conditions in the understory may counter reduced light conditions.There was a significant effect of species identity and functional types in the outcome of plant interactions with consistent effects at individual and community levels. The contrasting allocation strategies to reproduction and growth in Euphorbia plants, either associated or not with shrubs, showed high phenotypic plasticity and evidence its ability to cope with contrasting environmental conditions.

  7. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Type III effectors also interfere with additional plant cellular processes including proteasome-dependent protein degradation, phytohormone signaling, the formation of the cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and gene expression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular functions of type III effector proteins with known plant target molecules. Furthermore, plant defense strategies for the detection of effector protein activities or effector-triggered alterations in plant targets are discussed. PMID:27526699

  8. Inheritance of the dwarf plant type in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, S; Singh, D P

    1985-07-01

    The inheritance of the dwarf plant type was studied in blackgram (V. mungo (L.) Hepper). 'Type 9' has erect plant type with normal internode length. The mutant line, 'EMSD' has reduced internode length. The F1, F2 and F3 generations of a cross between 'Type 9' and 'EMSD' and its reciprocal were studied. The extreme dwarf plant type appeared to be governed by a single recessive gene, dw 1 dw 1 with no cytoplasmic effect.

  9. Future of Plant Functional Types in Terrestrial Biosphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Iversen, C. M.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system models describe the physical, chemical, and biological processes that govern our global climate. While it is difficult to single out one component as being more important than another in these sophisticated models, terrestrial vegetation is a critical player in the biogeochemical and biophysical dynamics of the Earth system. There is much debate, however, as to how plant diversity and function should be represented in these models. Plant functional types (PFTs) have been adopted by modelers to represent broad groupings of plant species that share similar characteristics (e.g. growth form) and roles (e.g. photosynthetic pathway) in ecosystem function. In this review the PFT concept is traced from its origin in the early 1800s to its current use in regional and global dynamic vegetation models (DVMs). Special attention is given to the representation and parameterization of PFTs and to validation and benchmarking of predicted patterns of vegetation distribution in high-latitude ecosystems. These ecosystems are sensitive to changing climate and thus provide a useful test case for model-based simulations of past, current, and future distribution of vegetation. Models that incorporate the PFT concept predict many of the emerging patterns of vegetation change in tundra and boreal forests, given known processes of tree mortality, treeline migration, and shrub expansion. However, representation of above- and especially belowground traits for specific PFTs continues to be problematic. Potential solutions include developing trait databases and replacing fixed parameters for PFTs with formulations based on trait co-variance and empirical trait-environment relationships. Surprisingly, despite being important to land-atmosphere interactions of carbon, water, and energy, PFTs such as moss and lichen are largely absent from DVMs. Close collaboration among those involved in modelling with the disciplines of taxonomy, biogeography, ecology, and remote sensing will be

  10. Plant functional type mapping for earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of global carbon and water cycling to climate variability is coupled directly to land cover and the distribution of vegetation. To investigate biogeochemistry-climate interactions, earth system models require a representation of vegetation distributions that are either prescribed from remote sensing data or simulated via biogeography models. However, the abstraction of earth system state variables in models means that data products derived from remote sensing need to be post-processed for model-data assimilation. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM rely on the concept of plant functional types (PFT to group shared traits of thousands of plant species into just several classes. Available databases of observed PFT distributions must be relevant to existing satellite sensors and their derived products, and to the present day distribution of managed lands. Here, we develop four PFT datasets based on land-cover information from three satellite sensors (EOS-MODIS 1 km and 0.5 km, SPOT4-VEGETATION 1 km, and ENVISAT-MERIS 0.3 km spatial resolution that are merged with spatially-consistent Köppen-Geiger climate zones. Using a beta (β diversity metric to assess reclassification similarity, we find that the greatest uncertainty in PFT classifications occur most frequently between cropland and grassland categories, and in dryland systems between shrubland, grassland and forest categories because of differences in the minimum threshold required for forest cover. The biogeography-biogeochemistry DGVM, LPJmL, is used in diagnostic mode with the four PFT datasets prescribed to quantify the effect of land-cover uncertainty on climatic sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration fluxes. Our results show that land-cover uncertainty has large effects in arid regions, contributing up to 30 % (20 % uncertainty in the sensitivity of GPP (transpiration to precipitation. The availability of plant functional type datasets that

  11. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  12. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. 146.43 Section 146.43 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology...

  13. Terpenoid Metabolism in Wild-Type and Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aharoni, A.; Giri, A.P.; Deuerlein, S.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Jongsma, M.A.; Schwab, W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Volatile components, such as terpenoids, are emitted from aerial parts of plants and play a major role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Analysis of the composition and emission pattern of volatiles in the model plant Arabidopsis showed that a range of volatile components are

  14. Plant functional type mapping for earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of global carbon and water cycling to climate variability is coupled directly to land cover and the distribution of vegetation. To investigate biogeochemistry-climate interactions, earth system models require a representation of vegetation distributions that are either prescribed from remote sensing data or simulated via biogeography models. However, the abstraction of earth system state variables in models means that data products derived from remote sensing need to be post-processed for model-data assimilation. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM rely on the concept of plant functional types (PFT to group shared traits of thousands of plant species into usually only 10–20 classes. Available databases of observed PFT distributions must be relevant to existing satellite sensors and their derived products, and to the present day distribution of managed lands. Here, we develop four PFT datasets based on land-cover information from three satellite sensors (EOS-MODIS 1 km and 0.5 km, SPOT4-VEGETATION 1 km, and ENVISAT-MERIS 0.3 km spatial resolution that are merged with spatially-consistent Köppen-Geiger climate zones. Using a beta (ß diversity metric to assess reclassification similarity, we find that the greatest uncertainty in PFT classifications occur most frequently between cropland and grassland categories, and in dryland systems between shrubland, grassland and forest categories because of differences in the minimum threshold required for forest cover. The biogeography-biogeochemistry DGVM, LPJmL, is used in diagnostic mode with the four PFT datasets prescribed to quantify the effect of land-cover uncertainty on climatic sensitivity of gross primary productivity (GPP and transpiration fluxes. Our results show that land-cover uncertainty has large effects in arid regions, contributing up to 30% (20% uncertainty in the sensitivity of GPP (transpiration to precipitation. The availability of PFT datasets that are consistent

  15. New insights on the evolution of Leafy cotyledon1 (LEC1) type genes in vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliari, Alexandro; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Korbes, Ana Paula; Maraschin, Felipe Dos Santos; Margis, Rogerio; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    NF-Y is a conserved oligomeric transcription factor found in all eukaryotes. In plants, this regulator evolved with a broad diversification of the genes coding for its three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC). The NF-YB members can be divided into Leafy Cotyledon1 (LEC1) and non-LEC1 types. Here we presented a comparative genomic study using phylogenetic analyses to validate an evolutionary model for the origin of LEC-type genes in plants and their emergence from non-LEC1-type genes. We identified LEC1-type members in all vascular plant genomes, but not in amoebozoa, algae, fungi, metazoa and non-vascular plant representatives, which present exclusively non-LEC1-type genes as constituents of their NF-YB subunits. The non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rates (Ka/Ks) between LEC1 and non-LEC1-type genes indicate the presence of positive selection acting on LEC1-type members to the fixation of LEC1-specific amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that plant LEC1-type genes are evolutionary divergent from the non-LEC1-type genes of plants, fungi, amoebozoa, algae and animals. Our results point to a scenario in which LEC1-type genes have originated in vascular plants after gene expansion in plants. We suggest that processes of neofunctionalization and/or subfunctionalization were responsible for the emergence of a versatile role for LEC1-type genes in vascular plants, especially in seed plants. LEC1-type genes besides being phylogenetic divergent also present different expression profile when compared with non-LEC1-type genes. Altogether, our data provide new insights about the LEC1 and non-LEC1 evolutionary relationship during the vascular plant evolution.

  16. Effects of gasification biochar on plant-available water capacity and plant growth in two contrasting soil types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Petersen, Carsten Tilbæk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gasification biochar (GB) contains recalcitrant carbon that can contribute to soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement. However, the impact of GB on plant-available water capacity (AWC) and plant growth in diverse soil types still needs to be explored. A pot experiment......, the reduced water regime significantly affected plant growth and water consumption, whereas the effect was less pronounced in the coarse sand. Irrespective of the soil type, both GBs increased AWC by 17–42%, with the highest absolute effect in the coarse sand. The addition of SGB to coarse sand led...

  17. Plant physiological, morphological and yield-related responses to night temperature changes across different species and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Jing

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs during the daytime whereas plant respiration occurs throughout the day. The effects of high night temperature (HNT and low night temperature (LNT on plant ecophysiological and growing processes and how the effects vary among different plant functional types (PFTs have not been analyzed extensively. In this meta-analysis, we examined the effect of HNT and LNT on plant physiology and growth across different PFTs and experimental settings. Plant species were grouped according to their photosynthetic pathways (C3, C4 and CAM, growth forms (herbaceous, woody, and economic purposes (crop, non-crop. We found that HNT and LNT both had a negative effect on plant yield, but the effect of HNT on plant yield was primarily related to a reduction in biomass allocation to reproduction organs and the effect of LNT on plant yield was more related to a negative effect on total biomass. Leaf growth was stimulated at HNT and suppressed at LNT. HNT accelerated plants ecophysiological processes, including photosynthesis and dark respiration, while LNT slowed these processes. Overall, the results showed that the effects of night temperature on plant physiology and growth varied between HNT and LNT, among the response variables and PFTs, and depended on the magnitude of temperature change and experimental design. These findings suggest complexities and challenges in seeking general patterns of terrestrial plant growth in HNT and LNT. The PFT specific responses of plants are

  18. Global land model development: time to shift from a plant functional type to a plant functional trait approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, P. B.; Butler, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    This project will advance global land models by shifting from the current plant functional type approach to one that better utilizes what is known about the importance and variability of plant traits, within a framework of simultaneously improving fundamental physiological relations that are at the core of model carbon cycling algorithms. Existing models represent the global distribution of vegetation types using the Plant Functional Typeconcept. Plant Functional Types are classes of plant species with similar evolutionary and life history withpresumably similar responses to environmental conditions like CO2, water and nutrient availability. Fixedproperties for each Plant Functional Type are specified through a collection of physiological parameters, or traits.These traits, mostly physiological in nature (e.g., leaf nitrogen and longevity) are used in model algorithms to estimate ecosystem properties and/or drive calculated process rates. In most models, 5 to 15 functional types represent terrestrial vegetation; in essence, they assume there are a total of only 5 to 15 different kinds of plants on the entire globe. This assumption of constant plant traits captured within the functional type concept has serious limitations, as a single set of traits does not reflect trait variation observed within and between species and communities. While this simplification was necessary decades past, substantial improvement is now possible. Rather than assigning a small number of constant parameter values to all grid cells in a model, procedures will be developed that predict a frequency distribution of values for any given grid cell. Thus, the mean and variance, and how these change with time, will inform and improve model performance. The trait-based approach will improve land modeling by (1) incorporating patterns and heterogeneity of traits into model parameterization, thus evolving away from a framework that considers large areas of vegetation to have near identical trait

  19. Microstructure, quantification and control of dislocations in bast-type plant fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Lester, Catherine L.; Mortensen, Ulrich Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    Bast-type plant fibres are increasingly being used for structural composite applications where high quality fibres with good mechanical properties are required. A central aspect for this application is the existence of dislocations in the cell wall of plant fibres, i.e. regions of misaligned...

  20. Development of a 200kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, Tetsuo; Kuwata, Yutaka; Adachi, Masahito; Ogata, Tsutomu [NTT Integrated Information & Energy System Labs., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NFT) has been developing a 200 kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant which can generate AC 200 kW of constant power by switching fuel from pipeline town gas to liquefied propane gas (LPG) and vice versa. This paper describes the outline of the demonstration test plant and test results of its fundamental characteristics.

  1. Plant functional types define magnitude of drought response in peatland CO2 exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, J.J.; Mooij, W.M.; Bragazza, L.; Robroek, B.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Peatlands are important sinks for atmospheric carbon (C), yet the role of plant functional types (PFTs) for C sequestration under climatic perturbations is still unclear. A plant-removal experiment was used to study the importance of vascular PFTs for the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) during (i.e

  2. Analysis and Simulation of Plant Type on Canopy Structure and Radiation Transmission in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ning; LU Chuan-gen; YAO Ke-min; CHEN Jing; ZHANG Xiao-cui

    2013-01-01

    Three typical hybrid rice cultivars,together with three artificially modified plant types by the application of N fertilizer during the elongation of the two uppermost leaves were used to analyze how the plant type affected the layered leaf area and radiation transmission.Plant type factors,layered leaf area and radiation distribution were measured at the full heading,10 d and 25 d after full heading stages,respectively.A model for calculating the layered leaf area from plant type factors was established and validated to determine the effects of plant type factors on the layered leaf area for the three hybrids.Furthermore,the relationship between layered leaf area and radiation transmission was established by using the radiation transmission model.The effects of the plant type factors on the radiation transmission for the three hybrids were evaluated by using this model.Finally,a method was established to describe the canopy structure,such as the layered leaf area index and the radiation distribution in the rice canopy.

  3. Engineering Mammalian Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Drew, Damian P; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that confers a variety of biological properties and functions to proteins. This post-translational modification has a particularly complex and differentially regulated biosynthesis rendering prediction and control of where O...... classes of proteins are hydroxylated and further substituted with plant-specific O-glycosylation; unsubstituted hydroxyprolines were identified in our MUC1 construct. In summary, this study demonstrates that mammalian type O-glycosylation can be established in plants and that plants may serve as a host...

  4. Phyllobilins--the abundant bilin-type tetrapyrrolic catabolites of the green plant pigment chlorophyll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräutler, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    The seasonal disappearance of the green plant pigment chlorophyll in the leaves of deciduous trees has long been a fascinating biological puzzle. In the course of the last two and a half decades, important aspects of the previously enigmatic breakdown of chlorophyll in higher plants were elucidated. Crucial advances in this field were achieved by the discovery and structure elucidation of tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll catabolites, as well as by complementary biochemical and plant biological studies. Phyllobilins, tetrapyrrolic, bilin-type chlorophyll degradation products, are abundant chlorophyll catabolites, which occur in fall leaves and in ripe fruit. This tutorial review outlines 'how' chlorophyll is degraded in higher plants, and gives suggestions as to 'why' the plants dispose of their valuable green pigments during senescence and ripening. Insights into chlorophyll breakdown help satisfy basic human curiosity and enlighten school teaching. They contribute to fundamental questions in plant biology and may have practical consequences in agriculture and horticulture.

  5. Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7. Mammea-type coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana (Clusiaceae are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. brasiliense. Mammea A/AA was obtained from the fruit peels of M. americana. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The most potent compounds were mammea A/BA, A/BB, A/AA, A/BD and B/BA, with MC100 values in the range of 15 to 90 g/ml. Coumarins with a cyclized ,-dimethylallyl substituent on C-6, such as mammea B/BA, cyclo F + B/BB cyclo F, and isomammeigin, showed MC100 values > 200 g/ml. Several active coumarins were also tested against normal human lymphocytes in vitro, which showed that mammea A/AA and A/BA were not toxic. Other compounds from C. brasiliense, such as the triterpenoids, friedelin, canophyllol, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, and protocatechuic and shikimic acids, were inactive against the epimastigotes. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds.

  6. Callus induction and plant regeneration from different explant types of Miscanthus x ogiformis Honda 'Giganteus'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    1996-01-01

    . The explants were cultured on urashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 4.5, 13.6, 22.6 or 31.7 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Three types of callus were formed but only one was embryogenic and regenerated plants. Callus induction and formation of embryogenic callus depended on the type and developmental...

  7. Plasma membrane-association of SAUL1-type plant U-box armadillo repeat proteins is conserved in land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eVogelmann

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational protein modification plays a pivotal role in the regulation and specific turnover of proteins. One of these important modifications is the ubiquitination of target proteins, which can occur at distinct cellular compartments. At the plasma membrane, ubiquitination regulates the internalization and thus trafficking of membrane proteins such as receptors and channels. The Arabidopsis plant U-box armadillo repeat (PUB-ARM ubiquitin ligase SAUL1 (SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED UBIQUITIN LIGASE1 is part of the ubiquitination machinery at the plasma membrane. In contrast to most other PUB-ARM proteins, SAUL1 carries additional C-terminal ARM repeats responsible for plasma membrane-association. Here, we demonstrated that the C-terminal ARM repeat domain is also essential and sufficient to mediate plasma membrane-association of the closest Arabidopis paralog AtPUB43. We investigated targeting of PUB-ARM ubiquitin ligases of different plant species to find out whether plasma membrane-association of SAUL1-type PUB-ARM proteins is conserved. Phylogenetic analysis identified orthologs of SAUL1 in these plant species. Intracellular localization of transiently expressed GFP fusion proteins revealed that indeed plasma membrane-association due to additional C-terminal ARM repeats represents a conserved feature of SAUL1-type proteins. Analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing N-terminally masked or truncated proteins revealed that interfering with the function of SAUL1-type proteins resulted in severe growth defects. Our results suggest an ancient origin of ubiquitination at the plasma membrane in the evolution of land plants.

  8. Potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors: modulating plant physiology and host resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turra, David; Lorito, Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) are a large and complex group of plant proteins. Members of the potato type I (Pin1) and II (Pin2) proteinase inhibitor families are among the first and most extensively characterized plant PIs. Many insects and phytopathogenic microorganisms use intracellular and extracellular serine proteases playing important roles in pathogenesis. Plants, however, are able to fight these pathogens through the activation of an intricate defence system that leads to the accumulation of various PIs, including Pin1 and Pin2. Several transgenic plants over-expressing members of the Pin1 and Pin2 families have been obtained in the last twenty years and their enhanced defensive capabilities demonstrated against insects, fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, Pin1 and Pin2 genetically engineered plants showed altered regulation of different plant physiological processes (e.g., dehydratation response, programmed cell death, plant growth, trichome density and branching), supporting an endogenous role in various plant species in addition to the well established defensive one. This review summarizes the current knowledge about Pin1 and Pin2 structure, the role of these proteins in plant defence and physiology, and their potential exploitation in biotechnology.

  9. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Moon-Sik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. Results We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1. After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. Conclusion This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  10. Optimal Cooling Load Sharing Strategies for Different Types of Absorption Chillers in Trigeneration Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Conte

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trigeneration plants can use different types of chillers in the same plant, typically single effect and double effect absorption chillers, vapour compression chillers and also cooling storage systems. The highly variable cooling demand of the buildings connected to a district heating and cooling (DHC network has to be distributed among these chillers to achieve lower operating costs and higher energy efficiencies. This problem is difficult to solve due to the different partial load behaviour of each chiller and the different chiller combinations that can cover a certain cooling demand using an appropriate sizing of the cooling storage. The objective of this paper is to optimize the daily plant operation of an existing trigeneration plant based on cogeneration engines and to study the optimal cooling load sharing between different types of absorption chillers using a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model. Real data from a trigeneration plant connected to a DHC close to Barcelona (Spain is used for the development of this model. The cooling load distribution among the different units is heavily influenced by the price of the electricity sold to the grid which rules the duration of the operation time of the engines. The main parameter to compare load distribution configurations is the primary energy saving indicator. Cooling load distribution among the different chillers changes also with the load of the whole plant because the chiller performance changes with load.

  11. Invasive Plant-Soil Feedbacks and Ecosystem Resistance and Resilience: A Comparison of Three Vegetation Types in California

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Sara Jo Myrtle

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATIONInvasive Plant-Soil Feedbacks and Ecosystem Resistance and Resilience: A Comparison of Three Vegetation Types in CaliforniaBy Sara Jo DickensDoctor of Philosophy, Graduate Program in Plant BiologyUniversity of California, Riverside, December 2010Dr Edith B. Allen, ChairpersonEcosystem processes are strongly dependant on plant-soil feedbacks. The invasion of exotic plant species can result in the introduction of novel traits capable of de-coupling native plant-soil ...

  12. Expression of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Protein in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Li LIU; Wen-Sheng LI; Ting LEI; Jing ZHENG; Zheng ZHANG; Xiao-Fei YAN; Zhe-Zhi WANG; Yi-Li WANG; Lü-Sheng SI

    2005-01-01

    To develop a plant expression system for the production of the human papillomavirus type 16(HPV16) vaccine, we investigated whether the HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in tobacco plants and whether it can be used as the cheapest form of edible vaccine. The HPV16 L1 coding sequence was amplified by PCR using specific primers from the plasmid pGEM-T-HPV16 containing the template sequence, and subcloned into the intermediate vector pUCmT and binary vector pBI121 consecutively to obtain the plant expression plasmid pBI-L1. The T-DNA regions of the pBI-L1 binary vector contained the constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and the neomycin phosphotransferase npt Ⅱ gene, which allowed the selection of transformed plants using kanamycin. The tobacco plants were transformed by cocultivating them, using the leaf disc method, with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, which harbored the plant expression plasmid. The regenerated transgenic tobacco plants were selected using kanamycin, and confirmed by PCR. The results of the Southern blot assay also showed that the HPV16 L1 gene was integrated stably into the genome of the transformed tobacco plants. The Western blot analysis showed that the transformed tobacco leaves could express the HPV16 L1 protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated by ELISA assay that the expressed protein accounted for 0.034%-0.076% of the total soluble leaf protein, was able to form 55 nm virus-like particles compatible with HPV virus-like particle (VLP), and induced mouse erythrocyte hemagglutination in vitro. The present results indicate that the HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in transgenic tobacco plants and the expressed protein possesses the natural features of the HPV 16L1 protein, implying that the HPV16 L1 transgenic plants can be potentially used as an edible vaccine.

  13. Variation in Plant Traits Explains Global Biogeographic Variation in the Abundance of Major Forest Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Contrasting leaf types (needle vs. broadleaf) with different lifespans (annual vs. perennial) represent different adaptive strategies of plants under different environmental conditions. Previous studies explained adaptive advantages of different strategies using empirical models but cannot adequately explain the co-dominance of multiple plant functional types (PFTs) as observed in many parts of the world. Here we used a process-based model to explore whether observed inter- and intra-PFT variation in key plant traits can explain global biogeographic variation in co-dominance of major forest functional types. Using a parameter screening method, we identified the four most important plant traits for simulating annual net primary production (NPP) using the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere-Land Exchange model (CABLE). Using ensemble CABLE simulations, we estimated the fraction of global land cover attributed to each PFT by comparing the simulated NPP for all three PFTs at each land point, globally. Our results were consistent with land area cover fractions of major forest types estimated from remote sensing data products; i.e., evergreen needle-leaf forests dominate in boreal regions, evergreen broadleaf forests dominate in tropical regions, and deciduous broadleaf forests are distributed widely across a broad range of environmental conditions. More importantly our approach successfully explained a paradox that has puzzled ecologists for over a century: why evergreen leaf types dominate in both boreal and tropical regions. We conclude that variation in and co-variation between key plant traits can explain significant fractions of global biogeographic variation of three major forest types, and should be taken into account when simulating global vegetation dynamics.

  14. Health promoting effects of bioactive compounds in plants: Targeting Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala

    concentrate on screening plant extracts commonly used in folk medicine for pure compounds, exploiting promising results in treatment of, among others, type 2 diabetes. Another area of diabetes research, focused on the complex biology of adipose tissue and its influence on the development of insulin resistance....... Moreover, the crosstalk between gut bacteria and insulin sensitive tissues like fat, pancreas and skeletal muscle has received much attention and all aspects are important in order to better understand the basics of this disease. This PhD thesis is based on 5 scientific papers focusing on plant derived......While type 2 diabetes is an increasing problem worldwide, there is still no cure and therefore search for the new insulin sensitizer continues. Plants are a natural source of bioactive compounds and have been used to improve human health and wellbeing for centuries. Today, several studies...

  15. Assessment of computer codes for VVER-440/213-type nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabados, L.; Ezsol, Gy.; Perneczky [Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear power plant of VVER-440/213 designed by the former USSR have a number of special features. As a consequence of these features the transient behaviour of such a reactor system should be different from the PWR system behaviour. To study the transient behaviour of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant of VVER-440/213-type both analytical and experimental activities have been performed. The experimental basis of the research in the PMK-2 integral-type test facility , which is a scaled down model of the plant. Experiments performed on this facility have been used to assess thermal-hydraulic system codes. Four tests were selected for {open_quotes}Standard Problem Exercises{close_quotes} of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Results of the 4th Exercise, of high international interest, are presented in the paper, focusing on the essential findings of the assessment of computer codes.

  16. Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Hölscher, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Diversity of Medicinal Plants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinal plants collected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinal plants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinal plant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinal plants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinal plants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinal plants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  17. Sucrose-induced translational repression of plant bZIP-type transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiese, A.; Elzinga, N.; Wobbes, B.; Smeekens, S.

    2005-01-01

    Sugars as signalling molecules exert control on the transcription of many plant genes. Sugar signals also alter mRNA and protein stability. Increased sucrose concentrations specifically repress translation of the S-class basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) type transcription factor AtbZIP11/ATB2. Thi

  18. BRSMG Uai: common bean cultivar with carioca grain type and upright plant architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno Antonio Patto Ramalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The common bean cultivar with carioca grain type, BRSMG Uai, is recommended for cultivation in Minas Gerais and stands out for its upright plant architecture, which facilitates cultivation and mechanical harvesting. This cultivar has high yield potential and is resistant to the major races of anthracnose that occur in region.

  19. Feedbacks Between Microenvironment and Plant Functional Type and Implications for CO2 Flux in Arctic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, E.; Rodenheizer, H.; Natali, S.; Mann, P.

    2013-12-01

    Future climate models predict a warmer, drier Arctic, with resultant shifts in vegetative composition and implications for ecosystem carbon budgets. The impact of vegetation change, however, may depend on which plant functional groups are favored in a warming Arctic. Physiological and functional differences between plant groups influence both the local microenvironment and, on a broader scale, whole-ecosystem CO2 flux. We examined the interactions between plants and their microenvironment, and analyzed the effect of these interactions on both soil microbial communities and CO2 flux across different functional groups. Physical and biological aspects of the microenvironment differed between plant functional groups. Lichen patches were characterized by deeper thaw depths, lower soil moisture, greater thermal conductivity, and a thinner organic layer than mosses. To better understand the development of these plant-environment interactions, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment, switching multiple lichen and moss patches. Temporal changes in environmental parameters at these sites will demonstrate how different plants modify their environment and will help identify associated implications for soil microbial communities and CO2 flux. We measured CO2 flux and used Biolog assays to examine soil microbial communities in undisturbed patches of mosses, lichens, and shrubs. Patches of birch shrubs had more negative net ecosystem exchange, signifying a carbon sink. Soils from alder shrubs and mosses hosted more active microbial communities than soils under birch shrubs and lichens. These results suggest a strong link between environment, plant functional type, and C cycling. Understanding how this relationship differs among plant functional types is an important part of predicting ecosystem carbon budgets as Arctic vegetation composition shifts in response to climate change.

  20. The Active Role of Leguminous Plant Components in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gętek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes appears to be one of the most frequent noncommunicable diseases in the world. A permanent growth in the incidence of diabetes can be observed and according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF the year 2030 will mark the increase in the number of diabetics to 439 mln worldwide. Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all diabetes incidence. Nutrition model modification not only features the basic element in type 2 diabetes treatment but also constitutes the fundamental factor influencing a morbidity rate decrease. Leguminous plants are a key factor in the diabetic diet; plants such as pulses or soybeans are nutritious products valued highly in nutrition. These legumes are high in the content of wholesome protein and contain large amounts of soluble alimentary fiber fractions, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, and bioactive substances with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. They are distinguished by the high amount of bioactive compounds that may interfere with the metabolism of glucose. The most significant bioactive compounds displaying antidiabetic activity in leguminous plants are as follows: genistein and daidzein, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. In vitro research using leguminous plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties. Leguminous plants should be employed in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of functional food.

  1. Comparative Analysis on Rice Plant Type of Two Super Hybrids and Shanyou63

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; ZOU Jiang-shi

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of plant type and physiological indices for photosynthesis were analyzedusing two super hybrid rices, Liangyoupeijiu and LiangyouE32 as materials, and an indica hybrid, Shan-you63 as a control. Based on the present analysis and various theories and breeding practices on rice planttype, a model of plant ideotype for super hybrid rice (indica) in the lower reaches of Yangtze River Valleywas proposed. This was: a length of 35 - 40 cm for top leaf with a width of 2 cm, and that of 50 - 55 cmand 55 - 60 crm, respectively, for the second and third leaves from top, meanwhile, having a leaf angle of5°, 10° and 15° respectively, and a curvature of 1 - 1.5 cm-1 for the leaf face at heading stage; the upper-most three leaves keeping their activities for as long as 70 d, which could lead a LAI of 3 at full ripeness;loose plant type with thin (SLW=2.5- 3 gcm-2 , dry weight) and curve-slant leaves during early growingstage, and compact plant type by thick (SLW = 4 - 5 gcm-2 ) and erect leaves during the middle and lategrowing stages; with a coefficient of light extinction of 0.3 - 0.4, which allowed for an optimal LAI high of8 - 10 during the middle growth period; plant height of 110 -120 cm, with 2 -4 cm basal internode and along uppermost internode occupying 45 % of total stem length; 25 - 28 cm panicle with 8 - 10 spikelets percentimeter showing bend-type in ripening; a rich chlorophyll which led to a high net photosynthetic rate,and tolerance to light shading and photooxidation which is of benefit to increasing the adaptability to varyinglight conditions.

  2. Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Kudo, Gaku; Alatalo, Juha M.; Molau, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic-alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed. Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

  3. The female gametophyte: an emerging model for cell type-specific systems biology in plant development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc William Schmid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology, a holistic approach describing a system emerging from the interactions of its molecular components, critically depends on accurate qualitative determination and quantitative measurements of these components. Development and improvement of large-scale profiling methods (omics now facilitates comprehensive measurements of many relevant molecules. For multicellular organisms, such as animals, fungi, algae, and plants, the complexity of the system is augmented by the presence of specialized cell types and organs, and a complex interplay within and between them. Cell type-specific analyses are therefore crucial for the understanding of developmental processes and environmental responses. This review first gives an overview of current methods used for large-scale profiling of specific cell types exemplified by recent advances in plant biology. The focus then lies on suitable model systems to study plant development and cell type specification. We introduce the female gametophyte of flowering plants as an ideal model to study fundamental developmental processes. Moreover, the female reproductive lineage is of importance for the emergence of evolutionary novelties such as an unequal parental contribution to the tissue nurturing the embryo or the clonal production of seeds by asexual reproduction (apomixis. Understanding these processes is not only interesting from a developmental or evolutionary perspective, but bears great potential for further crop improvement and the simplification of breeding efforts. We finally highlight novel methods, which are already available or which will likely soon facilitate large-scale profiling of the specific cell types of the female gametophyte in both model and non-model species. We conclude that it may take only few years until an evolutionary systems biology approach toward female gametogenesis may decipher some of its biologically most interesting and economically most valuable processes.

  4. Plant Resources, 13C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Ruan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives.

  5. Plant Resources, (13)C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jingya; Zheng, Chang; Qu, Lu; Liu, Yanxia; Han, Lifeng; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2016-08-12

    Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT) widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives.

  6. SNF1-related protein kinases type 2 are involved in plant responses to cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Anna; Anielska-Mazur, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Koen, Emmanuel; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Zmienko, Agnieszka; Krzywinska, Ewa; Wawer, Izabela; McLoughlin, Fionn; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Figlerowicz, Marek; Testerink, Christa; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Wendehenne, David; Dobrowolska, Grazyna

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium ions are notorious environmental pollutants. To adapt to cadmium-induced deleterious effects plants have developed sophisticated defense mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways underlying the plant response to cadmium are still elusive. Our data demonstrate that SnRK2s (for SNF1-related protein kinase2) are transiently activated during cadmium exposure and are involved in the regulation of plant response to this stress. Analysis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Osmotic Stress-Activated Protein Kinase activity in tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide, produced mainly via an l-arginine-dependent process, contribute to the kinase activation in response to cadmium. SnRK2.4 is the closest homolog of tobacco Osmotic Stress-Activated Protein Kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparative analysis of seedling growth of snrk2.4 knockout mutants versus wild-type Arabidopsis suggests that SnRK2.4 is involved in the inhibition of root growth triggered by cadmium; the mutants were more tolerant to the stress. Measurements of the level of three major species of phytochelatins (PCs) in roots of plants exposed to Cd(2+) showed a similar (PC2, PC4) or lower (PC3) concentration in snrk2.4 mutants in comparison to wild-type plants. These results indicate that the enhanced tolerance of the mutants does not result from a difference in the PCs level. Additionally, we have analyzed ROS accumulation in roots subjected to Cd(2+) treatment. Our data show significantly lower Cd(2+)-induced ROS accumulation in the mutants' roots. Concluding, the obtained results indicate that SnRK2s play a role in the regulation of plant tolerance to cadmium, most probably by controlling ROS accumulation triggered by cadmium ions.

  7. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waegeneers, Nadia [Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)], E-mail: nadia.waegeneers@agr.kuleuven.ac.be; Sauras-Yera, Teresa [Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Thiry, Yves [SCK.CEN, Radioecology Laboratory, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vallejo, V. Ramon [Departament de Biologia Vegetal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, Charles Darwin 14, 46980 Parterna (Spain); Smolders, Erik [Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Brechignac, Francois [SERLAB, ISPN, Department for Environmental Protection, CE-Cadarache Batiment 159, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex 13108 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Uptake of {sup 137}Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil {sup 137}Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution {sup 137}Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in {sup 137}Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in {sup 137}Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  8. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Thiry, Yves; Vallejo, V Ramón; Smolders, Erik; Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Bréchignac, François

    2009-06-01

    Uptake of (137)Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil (137)Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of (137)Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution (137)Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The (137)Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in (137)Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in (137)Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  9. Plant flavonoids target Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 flagella and type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Paola; Farias, Gabriela A; Nogales, Joaquina; Prada, Harold; Carvajal, Vivian; Barón, Matilde; Rivilla, Rafael; Martín, Marta; Olmedilla, Adela; Gallegos, María-Trinidad

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are among the most abundant plant secondary metabolites involved in plant protection against pathogens, but micro-organisms have developed resistance mechanisms to those compounds. We previously demonstrated that the MexAB-OprM efflux pump mediates resistance of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 to flavonoids, facilitating its survival and the colonization of the host. Here, we have shown that tomato plants respond to Pto infection producing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. The effects of flavonoids on key traits of this model plant-pathogen bacterium have also been investigated observing that they reduce Pto swimming and swarming because of the loss of flagella, and also inhibited the expression and assembly of a functional type III secretion system. Those effects were more severe in a mutant lacking the MexAB-OprM pump. Our results suggest that flavonoids inhibit the function of the GacS/GacA two-component system, causing a depletion of rsmY RNA, therefore affecting the synthesis of two important virulence factors in Pto DC3000, flagella and the type III secretion system. These data provide new insights into the flavonoid role in the molecular dialog between host and pathogen.

  10. Advances in plant cell type-specific genome-wide studies of gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Yuling JIAO

    2011-01-01

    Cell is the functional unit of life.To study the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules,it is crucial to dissect these molecules at the cell level.In recent years,major progresses have been made by plant biologists to profile gene expression in specific cell types at the genome-wide level.Approaches based on the isolation of cells,polysomes or nuclei have been developed and successfully used for studying the cell types from distinct organs of several plant species.These cell-level data sets revealed previously unrecognized cellular properties,such as cell-specific gene expression modules and hormone response centers,and should serve as essential resources for functional genomic analyses.Newly developed technologies are more affordable to many laboratories and should help to provide new insights at the cellular resolution in the near future.

  11. EVACUATION SYSTEMS OF SCREW-TYPE WATER TURBINES IN SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evacuation solutions of hydroelectric power set applied in a screw-type turbine in Small Hydropower Plant (SHP. The article compares the solutions applied in Poland and other European countries in the yield of green energy from the water sector. Innovative solutions of the turbine safety problem in hydro building development in case of flood waters of rivers in Poland.

  12. Growth of castor bean plant under different types of wastewaters and soil water levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Antunes de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of different levels of water into the soil and types of treated wastewaters from industries of Campina Grande city, Paraíba state, on the growth of castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the National Center of Research of Cotton. The experimental design was in entirely randomized blocks with 15 treatments in scheme of additional factorial analysis [(4 x 3 + 3] with three replications, having the following factors: three types of treated wastewaters and water of provisioning (A1 = IPELSA - Industry of Cellulose and Paper of Paraíba S/A; A2 = COTEMINAS - Industry of improvement of cotton fiber S/A; A3 = ILCASA - Industry of dairy products of Grande S/A (LEBOM; A4 = Water of the network of public provisioning of Campina Grande city, three levels of available soil water (AW (N1 = 100%, N2 = 80% and N3 = 70% and three controls, one for each AW with water of provisioning and with inorganic fertilizer in the foundation (A4C. In order to evaluate the growth of the castor bean plant during a period of 135 days, biweekly measures of the plant height, diameter of the stem and total foliar area variables were accomplished. For all growth variables there were significant interactions among the studied factors, denoting the interdependence among them, what was reflected on the growth of the plants. The castor bean plant, variety BRS Nordestina, responded well to irrigation with treated wastewater, especially from COTEMINAS industry mainly when associated to the level of 100% of the available soil water.

  13. Multiparametric analysis, sorting, and transcriptional profiling of plant protoplasts and nuclei according to cell type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, David W; Janda, Jaroslav; Lambert, Georgina M

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometry has been employed for the analysis of higher plants for approximately the last 30 years. For the angiosperms, ∼500,000 species, itself a daunting number, parametric measurements enabled through the use of flow cytometers started with basic descriptors of the individual cells and their contents, and have both inspired the development of novel cytometric methods that subsequently have been applied to organisms within other kingdoms of life, and adopted cytometric methods devised for other species, particularly mammals. Higher plants offer unique challenges in terms of flow cytometric analysis, notably the facts that their organs and tissues are complex three-dimensional assemblies of different cell types, and that their individual cells are, in general, larger than those of mammals.This chapter provides an overview of the general types of parametric measurement that have been applied to plants, and provides detailed methods for selected examples based on the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. These illustrate the use of flow cytometry for the analysis of protoplasts and nuclear DNA contents (genome size and the cell cycle). These are further integrated with measurements focusing on specific cell types, based on transgenic expression of Fluorescent Proteins (FPs), and on analysis of the spectrum of transcripts found within protoplasts and nuclei. These measurements were chosen in particular to illustrate, respectively, the issues encountered in the flow analysis and sorting of large biological cells, typified by protoplasts; how to handle flow analyses under conditions that require processing of large numbers of samples in which the individual samples contain only a very small minority of objects of interest; and how to deal with exceptionally small amounts of RNA within the sorted samples.

  14. Drought sensitivities of dominant plant functional types in the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. L.; Duniway, M.; Belnap, J.

    2014-12-01

    Drylands of the Southwestern US are predicted to experience greater water limitations with climate change due to changes in precipitation and increased warming. Certain plants may be living at or near their tolerance thresholds in these ecosystems and thus subtle changes in water availability may have dramatic effects on their performances. We imposed a four-year experiment in the Colorado Plateau to assess the vulnerability of this dryland ecosystem to chronic, but subtle drought using 40 sites varying in plant communities, parent materials and soil textures. Within a site, two plots were selected with matching cover of target species, which were randomly assigned to either control (ambient precipitation) or drought (35% reduction) treatments. Drought treatments were imposed year-round from 2011 through 2014. Over the course of the experiment, we examined plant cover changes and mortality of four dominant plant functional types (PFT's): C3 grasses, C4 grasses, C3 shrubs and C4 shrubs. We hypothesized that overall, grasses would be more sensitive to drought than shrubs, and that within these two groups, plants with C3 photosynthesis would be more sensitive than plants with C4 photosynthesis. During three of the four years, precipitation inputs were either near average (50th percentile, control) or dry (25th percentile, drought). However in 2012, both treatments experienced extremely dry growing season precipitation with the control and drought below the 5th and 1st percentiles, respectively. We observed three general responses to drought in this experiment: 1. change in cover with mortality (C3 grasses), 2. change in cover without mortality (C4 grasses and C4 shrubs) and 3. no change in cover or mortality (C3 shrubs). The dramatic responses of the C3 grasses suggest that this PFT is very sensitive to drought and it is living at or near its tolerance threshold in this region. While the C4 grasses also experienced cover changes, they did not experience widespread

  15. Convergence in the temperature response of leaf respiration across biomes and plant functional types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskel, Mary A; O'Sullivan, Odhran S; Reich, Peter B; Tjoelker, Mark G; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Penillard, Aurore; Egerton, John J G; Creek, Danielle; Bloomfield, Keith J; Xiang, Jen; Sinca, Felipe; Stangl, Zsofia R; Martinez-de la Torre, Alberto; Griffin, Kevin L; Huntingford, Chris; Hurry, Vaughan; Meir, Patrick; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2016-04-05

    Plant respiration constitutes a massive carbon flux to the atmosphere, and a major control on the evolution of the global carbon cycle. It therefore has the potential to modulate levels of climate change due to the human burning of fossil fuels. Neither current physiological nor terrestrial biosphere models adequately describe its short-term temperature response, and even minor differences in the shape of the response curve can significantly impact estimates of ecosystem carbon release and/or storage. Given this, it is critical to establish whether there are predictable patterns in the shape of the respiration-temperature response curve, and thus in the intrinsic temperature sensitivity of respiration across the globe. Analyzing measurements in a comprehensive database for 231 species spanning 7 biomes, we demonstrate that temperature-dependent increases in leaf respiration do not follow a commonly used exponential function. Instead, we find a decelerating function as leaves warm, reflecting a declining sensitivity to higher temperatures that is remarkably uniform across all biomes and plant functional types. Such convergence in the temperature sensitivity of leaf respiration suggests that there are universally applicable controls on the temperature response of plant energy metabolism, such that a single new function can predict the temperature dependence of leaf respiration for global vegetation. This simple function enables straightforward description of plant respiration in the land-surface components of coupled earth system models. Our cross-biome analyses shows significant implications for such fluxes in cold climates, generally projecting lower values compared with previous estimates.

  16. Sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to rice in southern subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Yang

    Full Text Available Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350-2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process.

  17. Antiviral activity of some Tunisian medicinal plants against Herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, A Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, F; Bourgougnon, N; Aouni, M

    2008-01-10

    Fifteen species of Tunisian traditional medicinal plants, belonging to 10 families, were selected for this study. They were Inula viscosa (L.) Ait and Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth ssp. discolor (Pom.) Batt. (Asteraceae), Mesembryanthemum cristallinum L. and M. nodiflorum L. (Aizoaceae), Arthrocnemum indicum (Willd.) Moq., Atriplex inflata Muell., A. parvifolia Lowe var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire, and Salicornia fruticosa L. (Chenopodiaceae), Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae), Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), Erica multiflora L. (Ericaceae), Frankenia pulverulenta L. (Frankeniaceae), Hypericum crispum L. (Hypericaceae), Plantago coronopus L. ssp. eu-coronopus Pilger var. vulgaris G.G. (Plantaginaceae) and Zygophyllum album L. (Zygophyllaceae). Fifty extracts prepared from those plants were screened in order to assay their antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), using neutral red incorporation. Extracts from eight plants among these 15 showed some degree of antiviral activity, while the methanolic extract of E. multiflora was highly active with EC(50) of 132.6 microg mL(-1). These results corroborate that medicinal plants from Tunisia can be a rich source of potential antiviral compounds.

  18. Analysis of galanthamine-type alkaloids by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkov, Strahil; Bastida, Jaume; Viladomat, Francesc; Codina, Carles

    2008-01-01

    Galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and galanthamine-type alkaloids are synthesised in different plants of the family Amaryllidaceae. A capillary gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic (CGC-MS) method for the separation of 7 galanthamine type alkaloids, including galanthamine and epigalanthamine, is described in the present paper. A simple method for the routine quantification of galanthamine in plants was developed using pre-packed columns with diatomaceous earth (Isolute HM-N), allowing simultaneous preparation of a large number of samples. Galanthamine showed excellent linearity in the range from 50 to 1000 microg/mL and the limit of quantification was 5 microg/mL in total ion current mode and 1.6 ng/mL in selected ion monitoring mode. The recovery of galanthamine was more than 90%. Interday reproducibility (RSD) of the extraction was 2.74%. A method to find and to microextract Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in low-mass plant samples is also described.

  19. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Hu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD. Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1, deciduous woody species (PFT2, herbs (PFT3, and ferns (PFT4. We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  20. Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Vellani, Vittorio; Schiano-Moriello, Aniello; Marini, Pietro; Magherini, Pier Cosimo; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    The plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), cannabidiol (CBD), and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were previously shown to activate transient receptor potential channels of both vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1), respectively. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid anandamide is known to activate TRPV1 and was recently found to antagonize the menthol- and icilin-sensitive transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8). In this study, we investigated the effects of six phytocannabinoids [i.e., CBD, THC, CBD acid, THC acid, cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG)] on TRPA1- and TRPM8-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ in either HEK-293 cells overexpressing the two channels or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. All of the compounds tested induced TRPA1-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells with efficacy comparable with that of mustard oil isothiocyanates (MO), the most potent being CBC (EC(50) = 60 nM) and the least potent being CBG and CBD acid (EC(50) = 3.4-12.0 microM). CBC also activated MO-sensitive DRG neurons, although with lower potency (EC(50) = 34.3 microM). Furthermore, although none of the compounds tested activated TRPM8-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells, they all, with the exception of CBC, antagonized this response when it was induced by either menthol or icilin. CBD, CBG, THC, and THC acid were equipotent (IC(50) = 70-160 nM), whereas CBD acid was the least potent compound (IC(50) = 0.9-1.6 microM). CBG inhibited Ca2+ elevation also in icilin-sensitive DRG neurons with potency (IC(50) = 4.5 microM) similar to that of anandamide (IC(50) = 10 microM). Our findings suggest that phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts exert some of their pharmacological actions also by interacting with TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels, with potential implications for the treatment of pain and cancer.

  1. Soybean GmPHD-type transcription regulators improve stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is one of the most important crops for oil and protein resource. Improvement of stress tolerance will be beneficial for soybean seed production. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six GmPHD genes encoding Alfin1-type PHD finger protein were identified and their expressions differentially responded to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. The six GmPHDs were nuclear proteins and showed ability to bind the cis-element "GTGGAG". The N-terminal domain of GmPHD played a major role in DNA binding. Using a protoplast assay system, we find that GmPHD1 to GmPHD5 had transcriptional suppression activity whereas GmPHD6 did not have. In yeast assay, the GmPHD6 can form homodimer and heterodimer with the other GmPHDs except GmPHD2. The N-terminal plus the variable regions but not the PHD-finger is required for the dimerization. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the GmPHD2 showed salt tolerance when compared with the wild type plants. This tolerance was likely achieved by diminishing the oxidative stress through regulation of downstream genes. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide important clues for soybean stress tolerance through manipulation of PHD-type transcription regulator.

  2. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  3. Some applications related to the structural integrity analyses of CANDU 6 pressure tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radu, V.S. [Inst. for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Pitesti (Romania)]. E-mail: vradu@nuclear.ro

    2006-07-01

    The flaws found during in-service inspection of Zr-2.5%Nb CANDU pressure tubes include fuel bundle bearing pad fretting flaws and debrise fretting flaws. In-service flaws are evaluated using fitness-for-service procedures to justify continued operation of pressure tube containing the flaw. The flaw evaluation procedures address crack initiation due to Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) under constant loading and also address fracture initiation and plastic collapse. The paper presents some applications related to the influence of the residual hoop stresses at roll-expanded joint region into stainless steel fittings at both ends on the structural integrity evaluation in the presence of blunt flaws. Two cases of blunt flaws were considered for evaluation: fuel bundle bearing pad fretting flaws and debrise fretting flaws. The blunt flaw geometry modeling and stress-strain analyses were performed by means finite element method (FEM) with FEA-Flaw computer code. The allowable peak flaw-tip stress and the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) for DHC initiation criterion were used for integrity assessment for the mentioned blunt flaws. Applications are performed as part of the research program address to evaluation of the in-service inspection results of the fuel channels from Cernavoda NPP. (author)

  4. Simulation model for jet flow in liquid injection system of CANDU-6 SDS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, K. M.; Yoo, S. Y. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B. W.; Choi, H. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-10-01

    For the performance analysis of the secondary shutdown system (SDS-2), a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the poison jet flow is being developed to analyze the flow and poison concentration fields formed inside the moderator tank. As the ratio between Calandria shell and the nozzle hole diameter of the injection system is so big as 1055, it is impractical to develop a full size model encompassing the whole Calandria tank. To reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of the five-lattice-pitch length segment of the tank was modeled by using the symmetric nature of the jet and the injected jet was treated as source term to remove the limit caused by the small diameter of the injection nozzle hole, when the grid of the calculation domain was generated. A half model calculation was performed to show the symmetricity of the quarter model. For the validation of the source treatment of the inlet flow condition, the simulation result was compared with the experimental data of the gas jet. The symmetricity was confirmed by the results of simulation the half model calculation on the symmetric line and the result of simulation for the source treatment well agreed with the experiment when a fine mesh grid structure was used near the inlet.

  5. Impact of plant species, substrate types and porosity on the fractionation of rare-earth elements in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semhi, K.; Clauer, N.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution and content of rare-earth elements (REEs) were determined in two radish species (Raphanus sativus and Raphanus raphanistrum) that were grown under laboratory-controlled conditions, in three substrates consisting in illite for one and in smectite for the two others, the two latter being of the same type but with different porosities. The plants were split into two segments: the leaves and the stems+roots. The results indicate that both species pick up systematically higher amounts of REEs when grown in the illite substrate, considering that the smectite contains about 3 times more REEs. In R. sativus, the REE concentration of the leaves and of the stems+roots, whatever the substrate, ranges from 1.4 to 1.9 g/g. After normalization to the substrate in which they grew, the distribution patterns for the leaves of those from illite substrate are nearly flat, but irregular with a positive Eu anomaly. Those for the stems+roots are similar, but enriched in heavy REEs, also with a positive Eu anomaly. The REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots of R. sativus grown in smectite are analytically similar at 1.6 and 1.4 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two organs, normalized again to those of the substrate, are very similar, flat with a distinct Eu anomaly. The heavy REE of the stems+roots of R. sativus grown on illite are enriched relative to those of the leaves, and a distinct positive Eu anomaly is observed in both the leaves and stems+roots from species grown on both illite and smectite. In the case of R. raphanistrum, the REE concentrations of the leaves and the stems+roots for those grown in the illite substrate were found to be significantly different at 11.0 and 6.6 g/g, respectively. The REE distribution patterns for the two different plant organs normalized to those of the substrates were found to be quite similar, all being quite flat, with a more or less pronounced Ce negative anomaly, and a prominent

  6. Performance of monosphere new gel type ion exchange resins for condensate polisher at PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, S.; Nakamura, M.; Asou, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Izumi, T.; Deguchi, T.; Ino, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    1998-12-31

    There are two kinds of ion exchange resins of gel type and porous one which are used as condensate polisher in LWR nuclear power plants. In order to estimate the performance of these resins on the condensate polisher at the secondary cycle of Japanese PWR plants, a column test was performed setting the column test device in Ohi power station unit 1 of the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. and the variations of the resin properties and the samples at the end of column were analyzed. The column test showed that the cross-linking degree of the new gel resins used was lower than those of porous ones. The new resins captured larger amounts of Matrix-Diffused Crud than the conventional cation resins before regeneration but not after that. Whereas the surface adsorbed crud was less captured by the new resins than conventional anion resins. However, there were little differences among these resins in respects of rinsing characteristics, sphericity, water quality, break through capacity, etc. At the condensate polisher in the secondary system it was confirmed that new gel resins had almost the same performance as one of the conventional ones and could be applied to the actual plant. (M.N.)

  7. SCREENING THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ESCHERICHIA COLI TYPE (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAZA ANWAR AL LAHAM, FRDOOS MOHAMMAD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of Escherichia coli causing mastitis and of bacteria resistant to conventional antibiotics has become aserious problem in recent years. So the search for new antibiotics and alternative products to solve this problem is the question ofthe age. This research aims to investigate the effectiveness of the extracts prepared from different parts of the following plants:Olea europea Linn (Oleaceae ، Myrtus communis Linn (Liliaceae، Majorana syriacus Linn (Laminaceae، Zingiber officinaleLinn (Zingiberaceae، Achillea falcata Linn (Asteraceae against resistant Escherichia coli Type (1. Investigation began forE.coli bacteria in 667 milk samples. The bacteria were identified culturally, morphologically and biochemically. Antibioticsusceptibility testing against E.coli by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method were conducted. Then using the blood agar,MacConkey agar, salmonella - shigella agar, and biochemical testing method [API 20 E testing Enterobacteriaceae] were made totype E.coli. Plants were extracted with water, absolute alcohol, then ether using a soxhlet apparatus and rotary vacuumevaporator. Then extracts susceptibility testing against antibiotic resistant E.coli Type (1 were studied. E. coli was defined asoxidase negative, indole positive, catalase positive. The studied antibiotics did not show any antibacterial effect against E.coli .By the results of the biochemical analysis (API20e on resistant E.coli , E.coli type (1 was 33.35% of the total number ofsamples. The anti-bacterial effectiveness against E.coli type (1 of ethanol extracts prepared from different parts of the studiedplants were variant, whereas the Myrtus communis extract effectively has the most powerful antibacterial effect for these bacteria,while the Zingiber officinale extract has the lowest influence.

  8. Plant physiological, morphological and yield-related responses to night temperature changes across different species and plant functional types

    OpenAIRE

    Panpan Jing; Dan Wang; Chunwu Zhu; Jiquan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Land surface temperature over the past decades has shown a faster warming trend during the night than during the day. Extremely low night temperatures have occurred frequently due to the influence of land-sea thermal difference, topography and climate change. This asymmetric night temperature change is expected to affect plant ecophysiology and growth, as the plant carbon consumption processes could be affected more than the assimilation processes because photosynthesis in most plants occurs ...

  9. Carbon sequestration and plant nutrients in soil in different land types in Thingvellir Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svavarsdóttir, María; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Mankasingh, Utra

    2015-04-01

    Special properties of volcanic soils (andisol) that is most common in Iceland can sequestrate considerably more carbon (C) that other types of soils. A mellow developed andisol with natural ecosystem such as birch forest or grass- and heathland is presumably to be fertile and sequestrate a lot of carbon. Coniferous tree species have been imported to Iceland for large scale utilisation in Icelandic forestry and is therefore an imported species/ecosystem. Abroad it has been noticed that coniferous trees acidify soil and change the properties of the soil so other species cannot thrive in it. The Icelandic Forest service is aiming tenfold the coverage of forests in Iceland before the year 2100 but about 50% of tree species that the institution uses is coniferous species. It is therefore important to research the soil due to the plant types that are planted in the soil. The aim of this project is to compare soil properties, soil nutrients and soil sequestration in heathland, birch forest and coniferous forest in Thingvellir national park in Iceland. Heathland and birch forest represent the natural ecosystem but coniferous forest imported ecosystem. Carbon (C) in soil will be measured, proportion of carbon and nitrogen (C:N), respiration from soil (CO2) and live green biomass and organic matter in the soil. The speed of decomposition of organic matter will be estimated. Important nutrients, pH and cation exchange capacity will be measured among other physical properties as bulk density, grain size and water holding capacity of the soil.

  10. Analysis of volatile organic compound from Elaeis guineensis inflorescences planted on different soil types in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Fahmi, M. H.; Ahmad Bukhary, A. K.; Norma, H.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    The main attractant compound for Eleidobius kamerunicus to male spikelet Elaeis guineensis (oil palm) were determined by analyzing volatile organic compound extracted from E. guineenses inflorescences planted on different soil types namely peat soil, clay soil and sandy soil. Anthesizing male oil palm inflorescences were randomly choosen from palm aged between 4-5 years old age. Extraction of the volatiles from the oil palm inflorescences were performed by Accelerated Solvent Extraction method (ASE). The extracted volatile compound were determined by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Out of ten identified compound, estragole was found to be a major compound in sandy soil (37.49%), clay soil (30.71%) and peat soil (27.79%). Other compound such as 9,12-octadecadieonic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid were found as major compound in peat soil (27.18%) and (7.45%); sandy soil (14.15 %) and (9.31%); and clay soil (30.23%) and (4.99%). This study shows that estragole was the predominant volatile compound detected in oil palm inflorescences with highly concentrated in palm planted in sandy soil type.

  11. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 → C4 → CAM with commute possibilities: C3 → CAM; C4 → CAM.

  12. Possible Implications of Two Management Types in Olive Groves on Plant Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Radić Lakoš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the impact of two predominant management types (mowing vs. tilling in olive groves on plant diversity, we have surveyed olive groves at ten localities in the surroundings of Šibenik (Dalmatia, Croatia. Among the surveyed groves, 12 were managed by tilling and 11 were managed by mowing. Altogether 323 taxa from 207 genera and 58 families were recorded. The families with the highest numbers of taxa were Fabaceae, Poaceae, Cichoriaceae and Asteraceae. Mowed olive groves were significantly richer in flora (280 taxa in relation to the tilled ones (181 taxa, with 138 taxa in common to the both management types. An analysis of the life forms showed the domination of therophytes (54.18% and the phytogeographycal analysis showed that the most frequent floral element was Mediterranean (46.13%. Mowed olive groves almost exclusively contained endemic and endangered species while the invasive alien plant taxa were recorded mostly in the tilled olive groves. Mowing seems as much better management practice from the standpoint of the nature conservation. Based on its floristic composition and richness, tillage seems to completely remove the nursing effect that olive groves can provide for the dry grasslands listed in the Annex I of the Habitat Directive, which are otherwise, in open spaces without grazing exposed to disappearing through the process of secondary succession.

  13. Influence of weight and type of planting material on fruit quality and its heterogeneity in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Cultural practices can affect the quality of pineapple fruits and its variation. The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) effects of weight class and type of planting material on fruit quality, heterogeneity in quality and proportion and yield of fruits meeting European export standards, and (b) the improvement in quality, proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards when flowering was induced at optimum time. Experiments were conducted in Benin with cvs Sugarloaf (a Perola type) and Smooth Cayenne. In cv. Sugarloaf, experimental factors were weight class of planting material (light, mixed, heavy) and time of flowering induction (farmers', optimum) (Experiment 1). In cv. Smooth Cayenne an additional experimental factor was the type of planting material (hapas, ground suckers, a mixture of the two) (Experiment 2). Fruits from heavy planting material had higher infructescence and fruit weights, longer infructescences, shorter crowns, and smaller crown: infructescence length than fruits from light planting material. The type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not significantly affect fruit quality except crown length: fruits from hapas had shorter crowns than those from ground suckers. Crops from heavy planting material had a higher proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards than those from other weight classes in Experiment 1 only; also the type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not affect these variates. Heterogeneity in fruit quality was usually not reduced by selecting only light or heavy planting material instead of mixing weights; incidentally the coefficient of variation was significantly reduced in fruits from heavy slips only. Heterogeneity was also not reduced by not mixing hapas and ground suckers. Flowering induction at optimum time increased the proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards in fruits from light and mixed slip weights and in those from the mixture of heavy hapas plus ground suckers.

  14. Exploring the relationship between species discrimination and plant functional types with hyperspectral remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Dennison, P. E.; Alonzo, M.

    2012-12-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data has been used extensively to map vegetation function and to classify plant functional types (PFTs) and species. Still, room remains to explore how these two exercises are related. Species-specific variations can hinder the broader applicability of models, and likewise, the role of functional differences in species discrimination has only recently been conceptually framed. The relationship between our ability to discriminate species with hyperspectral data and how species are grouped into plant functional types bears examination. Here we present an exploratory data analysis of this relationship using hyperspectral data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) for approximately 56 plant species over five ecosystems. We address three main research questions: 1) How spectrally separable are species overall?; 2) Which wavelengths and functional indices/features best discriminate species and do these relate to functional differences?; and 3) What optical functional types appear to exist across species? Reflectance spectra from each site were extracted from areas of known species dominance, and a suite of vegetation indices and spectral feature parameters (e.g., red edge wavelength) were calculated. Reflectance data and index/feature data were used separately in analyses. Classification via Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) was used to reduce data dimensionality and determine spectral separability across all species. The resulting kappa coefficient represents overall class separability, and the error matrix contains information on which pairs of species were more or less separable. The importance of individual variables to species discrimination was evaluated using the total structure coefficients for each function. These allowed us to identify the information a function carries that is useful for discrimination. We also calculated the potency index, a measure of the total contribution of each variable

  15. THE VARIATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS FROM FRESH COW CHEESE CREAM TYPE WITH ADDED AROMATIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA DIACONESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advanced studies in the field of cheese fabrication technology include, amongother, the usage of aromatic plants and spices as a mean of improving theorganoleptic properties and as a mean of decreasing the lipidic peroxidationphenomenon. For this purpose, three types of fresh cow cheese produced by S.C.Marion Invest Trade 94 SRL, experimentally added with dill, savory and rosemary,were comparatively studied from a chemical point of view (pH, acidity, humidity, ashand a biochemical point of view(raw fat, total proteins, total cholesterol, acidphosphatase’s enzymatic activity, superoxide dismutase’s enzymatic activity, calciumcontent.From a chemical point of view, no significant differences appeared between the creamcheese types analyzed, excepting the pH( lower in the cheeses with dill and rosemaryFrom a biochemical point of view, two phenomenon can be observed: a significantdecrease of the acidic phosphatase activity in the cheeses with added dill androsemary ( positively correlating with the pH value and decreased values of the SODactivity in all cheese types.

  16. Deciphering evolutionary strata on plant sex chromosomes and fungal mating-type chromosomes through compositional segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi S; Azad, Rajeev K

    2016-03-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved from a pair of homologous autosomes which differentiated into sex determination systems, such as XY or ZW system, as a consequence of successive recombination suppression between the gametologous chromosomes. Identifying the regions of recombination suppression, namely, the "evolutionary strata", is central to understanding the history and dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Evolution of sex chromosomes as a consequence of serial recombination suppressions is well-studied for mammals and birds, but not for plants, although 48 dioecious plants have already been reported. Only two plants Silene latifolia and papaya have been studied until now for the presence of evolutionary strata on their X chromosomes, made possible by the sequencing of sex-linked genes on both the X and Y chromosomes, which is a requirement of all current methods that determine stratum structure based on the comparison of gametologous sex chromosomes. To circumvent this limitation and detect strata even if only the sequence of sex chromosome in the homogametic sex (i.e. X or Z chromosome) is available, we have developed an integrated segmentation and clustering method. In application to gene sequences on the papaya X chromosome and protein-coding sequences on the S. latifolia X chromosome, our method could decipher all known evolutionary strata, as reported by previous studies. Our method, after validating on known strata on the papaya and S. latifolia X chromosome, was applied to the chromosome 19 of Populus trichocarpa, an incipient sex chromosome, deciphering two, yet unknown, evolutionary strata. In addition, we applied this approach to the recently sequenced sex chromosome V of the brown alga Ectocarpus sp. that has a haploid sex determination system (UV system) recovering the sex determining and pseudoautosomal regions, and then to the mating-type chromosomes of an anther-smut fungus Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae predicting five strata in the non

  17. An impact source localization technique for a nuclear power plant by using sensors of different types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Chul; Park, Jin-Ho; Choi, Kyoung-Sik

    2011-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, a loose part monitoring system (LPMS) provides information on the location and the mass of a loosened or detached metal impacted onto the inner surface of the primary pressure boundary. Typically, accelerometers are mounted on the surface of a reactor vessel to localize the impact location caused by the impact of metallic substances on the reactor system. However, in some cases, the number of accelerometers is not sufficient to estimate the impact location precisely. In such a case, one of useful methods is to utilize other types of sensor that can measure the vibration of the reactor structure. For example, acoustic emission (AE) sensors are installed on the reactor structure to detect leakage or cracks on the primary pressure boundary. However, accelerometers and AE sensors have a different frequency range. The frequency of interest of AE sensors is higher than that of accelerometers. In this paper, we propose a method of impact source localization by using both accelerometer signals and AE signals, simultaneously. The main concept of impact location estimation is based on the arrival time difference of the impact stress wave between different sensor locations. However, it is difficult to find the arrival time difference between sensors, because the primary frequency ranges of accelerometers and AE sensors are different. To overcome the problem, we used phase delays of an envelope of impact signals. This is because the impact signals from the accelerometer and the AE sensor are similar in the whole shape (envelope). To verify the proposed method, we have performed experiments for a reactor mock-up model and a real nuclear power plant. The experimental results demonstrate that we can enhance the reliability and precision of the impact source localization. Therefore, if the proposed method is applied to a nuclear power plant, we can obtain the effect of additional installed sensors.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis of Plant Hormone-Related Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Genes in a Sunlight-Type Plant Factory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tanigaki

    Full Text Available In plant factories, measurements of plant conditions are necessary at an early stage of growth to predict harvest times of high value-added crops. Moreover, harvest qualities depend largely on environmental stresses that elicit plant hormone responses. However, the complexities of plant hormone networks have not been characterized under nonstress conditions. In the present study, we determined temporal expression profiles of all genes and then focused on plant hormone pathways using RNA-Seq analyses of gene expression in tomato leaves every 2 h for 48 h. In these experiments, temporally expressed genes were found in the hormone synthesis pathways for salicylic acid, abscisic acid, ethylene, and jasmonic acid. The timing of CAB expression 1 (TOC1 and abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABA1 and open stomata 1 (OST1 control gating stomata. In this study, compare with tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana, expression patterns of TOC1 have similarity. In contrast, expression patterns of tomato ABI1 and OST1 had expression peak at different time. These findings suggest that the regulation of gating stomata does not depend predominantly on TOC1 and significantly reflects the extracellular environment. The present data provide new insights into relationships between temporally expressed plant hormone-related genes and clock genes under normal sunlight conditions.

  19. Plant regeneration through callus organogenesis and true-to-type conformity of plants by RAPD analysis in Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheruvathur, Meena K; Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2013-03-01

    An efficient plant regeneration protocol was established for an endangered ethnomedicinal plant Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. Morphogenic calli were produced from 96 % of the cultures comprising the immature leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (4.0 mg l(-1)) in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.8 mg l(-1)). For callus regeneration, various concentrations of BA (1.0-5.0 mg l(-1)) or thidiazuron (TDZ; 1.0-5.0 mg l(-1)) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.2-1.0 mg l(-1)) were used. Highest response of shoot regeneration was observed on MS medium fortified with TDZ (4.0 mg l(-1)) and IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) combination. Here, 100 % cultures responded with an average number of 22.3 shoots per gram calli. Inclusion of indole-3-butyric acid in half MS medium favored rooting of recovered shoots. Out of 45 rooted plants transferred to soil, 40 survived. Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of the acclimatized plants of D. gangeticum. Analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA using 13 arbitrary decanucleotide primers showed the genetic homogeneity in all the ten plants regenerated from callus with parental plant, suggesting that shoot regeneration from callus could be used for the true-to-type multiplication of this plant.

  20. Genetic divergence and its implication in breeding of desired plant type in coriander -Coriandrum sativum L.-

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    Singh S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy germplasm lines of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. of diverse eco-geographical origin were undertaken in present investigation to determine the genetic divergence following multivariate and canonical analysis for seed yield and its 9 component traits. The 70 genotypes were grouped into 9 clusters depending upon the genetic architecture of genotypes and characters uniformity and confirmed by canonical analysis. Seventy percent of total genotypes (49/70 were grouped in 4 clusters (V, VI, VIII and IX, while apparent diversity was noticed for 30 percent genotypes (21/70 that diverged into 5 clusters (I, II, III, FV, and VII. The maximum inter cluster distance was between I and IV (96.20 followed by III and IV (91.13 and I and VII (87.15. The cluster VI was very unique having genotypes of high mean values for most of the component traits. The cluster VII had highest seeds/umbel (35.3 ± 2.24, and leaves/plant (12.93 ± 0.55, earliest flowering (65.05 ± 1.30 and moderately high mean values for other characters. Considering high mean and inter cluster distance breeding plan has been discussed to select desirable plant types.

  1. Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lebamba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical rain forest (TRFO biome is well identified from tropical seasonal forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map should be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  2. Field Guide to the Plant Community Types of Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber-Langendoen, Don; Aaseng, Norman; Hop, Kevin; Lew-Smith, Michael

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program is to classify, describe, and map vegetation for most of the park units within the National Park Service (NPS). The program was created in response to the NPS Natural Resources Inventory and Monitoring Guidelines issued in 1992. Products for each park include digital files of the vegetation map and field data, keys and descriptions to the plant communities, reports, metadata, map accuracy verification summaries, and aerial photographs. Interagency teams work in each park and, following standardized mapping and field sampling protocols, develop products and vegetation classification standards that document the various vegetation types found in a given park. The use of a standard national vegetation classification system and mapping protocol facilitate effective resource stewardship by ensuring compatibility and widespread use of the information throughout the NPS as well as by other Federal and state agencies. These vegetation classifications and maps and associated information support a wide variety of resource assessment, park management, and planning needs, and provide a structure for framing and answering critical scientific questions about plant communities and their relation to environmental processes across the landscape. This field guide is intended to make the classification accessible to park visitors and researchers at Voyageurs National Park, allowing them to identify any stand of natural vegetation and showing how the classification can be used in conjunction with the vegetation map (Hop and others, 2001).

  3. Use of lance-type water blowers in refuse incineration plants; Einsatz von Wasserlanzenblaesern in Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefers, W.; Fey, W. [Babcock-Steinmueller GmbH, Gummersbach (Germany); Simon, S.; Kahle, F.D. [Clyde Bergemann GmbH, Wesel (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    In order to achieve the desired boiler campaign lengths in refuse incineration plants, cleaning devices are an absolute necessity. Whereas the cleaning of convective heating surfaces in vertical-pass and horizontal-pass boilers presents no great difficulty, the possibilities for effective cleaning of the radiant passes were up to now limited. The use of lance-type water blowers has considerably improved this situation. (orig.) [German] Um die gewuenschten Reisezeiten bei Muellverbrennungsanlagen einhalten zu koennen, ist der Einsatz von Reinigungseinrichtungen notwendig. Waehrend die Reinigung der Konvektivheizflaechen bei Vertikal- und Horizontalzugkesseln keine Probleme bereitet, waren bisher die Moeglichkeiten zur Reinhaltung der Strahlungszuege begrenzt. Durch den Einsatz von Wasserlanzenblaesern ergibt sich hier eine deutlich verbesserte Situation. (orig.)

  4. A New Atisane-Type Diterpene from the Bark of the Mangrove Plant Excoecaria Agallocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Chang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new atisane-type diterpene, ent-16α-hydroxy-atisane-3,4-lactone (4 and three known diterpenes, ent-16α-hydroxy-atisane-3-one (1, ent-atisane-3β,16α-diol (2, ent-3,4-seco-16α-hydroxyatis- 4(19-en -3-oic acid (3 were isolated from the bark of the mangrove plant Excoecaria agallocha. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by means of extensive NMR and MS analysis. Compound 3 exhibited significant anti-microfouling activity against the adherence of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, with an EC50 value of 0.54 ± 0.01 ppm.

  5. Rapid In Situ Identification of Source Water and Leaf Water in a Variety of Plant Species and Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Hu, J.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Barnard, H. R.; Rahn, T.; Hsiao, G.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Plant rooting distributions and use of soil water resources are important determinants of ecological and hydrological function. The isotope composition of plant xylem water can be used to infer soil water source variations, in particular differences among species and plant functional types. We report here on dynamics in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of plant and soil water pools and fluxes within the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Rockies. For this work, we used multiple in situ laser-based spectroscopic analyzers to collect isotope data on soil water, leaf water, stem water, transpiration water, and canopy vapor from multiple heights in the canopy. Using an Induction Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy system, which extracts and analyzes soil and plant samples in a few minutes, we measured soil and plant water isotopic composition from multiple soil depths and plant species at several points throughout the growing season. Stem (source) water isotopic composition varied greatly among the various plant species and functional types (pine trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses), broadly in agreement with expected plant rooting depths. The steady-state isotopic composition of leaf transpiration, another proxy of source water, was also consistent with this variation by plant functional type and rooting depth. Leaf water generally followed these patterns, but pine needles exhibited dramatic isotopic gradients along the needle length, with hydrogen isotope gradients of close to 100 per mil from leaf base to tip. We also introduced an isotopic label in two pines of different sizes (that were previously instrumented with sapflow probes and dendrometers) to further identify the pathways and pace of water flow though the trees. These results demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple source and fluxes of water, and that simple ecosystem isotope models, while generally valid, require careful evaluation as high-frequency and in situ isotopic data

  6. Patterns of plant diversity in seven temperate forest types of Western Himalaya, India

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    Javid Ahmad Dar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant biodiversity patterns were analyzed in seven temperate forest types [Populus deltoides (PD, Juglans regia, Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, mixed coniferous, Abies pindrow (AP and Betula utilis (BU] of Kashmir Himalaya. A total of 177 plant species (158 genera, 66 families were recorded. Most of the species are herbs (82.5%, while shrubs account for 9.6% and trees represent 7.9%. Species richness ranged from 24 (PD to 96 (AP. Shannon, Simpson, and Fisher α indices varied: 0.17–1.06, 0.46–1.22, and 2.01–2.82 for trees; 0.36–0.94, 0.43–0.75, and 0.08–0.35 for shrubs; and 0.35–1.41, 0.27–0.95, and 5.61–39.98 for herbs, respectively. A total of five species were endemic. The total stems and basal area of trees were 35,794 stems (stand mean 330 stems/ha and 481.1 m2 (stand mean 40.2 m2/ha, respectively. The mean density and basal area ranged from 103 stems/ha (BU to 1,201 stems/ha (PD, and from 19.4 m2/ha (BU to 51.9 m2/ha (AP, respectively. Tree density decreased with increase in diameter class. A positive relationship was obtained between elevation and species richness and between elevation and evenness (R2 = 0.37 and 0.19, respectively. Tree and shrub communities were homogenous in nature across the seven forest types, while herbs showed heterogeneous distribution pattern.

  7. Low removal of acidic and hydrophilic pharmaceutical products by various types of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Gagnon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical substances represent a risk for aquatic environments and their potential impacts on the receiving environment are poorly understood. Municipal effluents are important sources of contaminants including common pharmaceuticals like anti-inflammatory and anti-convulsive substances. The removal of pharmaceuticals, particularly those highly soluble can represent a great challenge to conventional wastewater treatment processes. Hydrophilic drugs (e.g. acidic drugs have properties that can highly influence removal efficiencies of treatment plants. The performance of different wastewater treatment processes for the removal of specific pharmaceutical products that are expected to be poorly removed was investigated. The obtained results were compared to inherent properties of the studied substances. Clofibric acid, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen and naproxen were largely found in physicochemical primary-treated effluents at concentrations ranging from 77 to 2384 ng/L. This treatment type showed removal yields lower than 30%. On the other hand, biological treatments with activated sludge under aerobic conditions resulted in much better removal rates (>50% for 5 of the 8 studied substances. Interestingly, this latter type of process showed evidence of selectivity with respect to the size (R2=0.7388, solubility (R2=0.6812, and partitioning (R2=0.9999 of the removed substances; the smallest and least sorbed substances seemed to be removed at better rates, while the persistent carbamazepine (392 ng/L and diclofenac (66 ng/L were poorly removed (<10% after biological treatment. In the case of treatment by aerated lagoons, the most abundant substances were the highly soluble hydroxy-ibuprofen (350-3321 ng/L, followed by naproxen (42-413 n/L and carbamazepine (254-386 ng/L. In order to assess the impacts of all these contaminants of various properties on the environment and human health, we need to better understand the chemical and physical

  8. Quantitative Assessment of Soil Health Under Different Planting Patterns and Soil Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Chun-Juan; CHEN Zhen-Lou; WANG Jun; ZHOU Dong

    2013-01-01

    Soil health assessment is an important step toward understanding the potential effects of agricultural practices on crop yield,quality and human health.The objectives of this study were to select a minimum data set for soil health evaluation from the physical,chemical and biological properties and environmental pollution characteristics of agricultural soil and to develop a soil health diagnosis model for determining the soil health status under different planting patterns and soil types in Chongming Island of Shanghai,China.The results showed that the majority of the farmland soils in Chongming Island were in poor soil health condition,accounting for 48.9% of the survey samples,followed by the medium healthy soil,accounting for 32.2% of the survey samples and mainly distributed in the central and mid-eastern regions of the island.The indicators of pH,total organic carbon,microbial biomass carbon and Cd exerted less influence on soil health,while the soil salinization and nitrate accumulation under a greenhouse cropping pattern and phosphate fertilizer shortage in the paddy field had limited the development of soil health.Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes,hexachlorocyclohexanes and Hg contributed less to soil health index (SHI) and showed no significant difference among paddy field,greenhouse and open-air vegetable/watermelon fields.The difference of the SHI of the three soil types was significant at P=0.05.The paddy soil had the highest SHI values,followed by the gray alluvial soil,and the coastal saline soil was in a poor soil health condition,indicating a need to plant some salt-tolerant crops to effectively improve soil quality.

  9. Maximum yields of microsomal-type membranes from small amounts of plant material without requiring ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abas, Lindy; Luschnig, Christian

    2010-06-15

    Isolation of a microsomal membrane fraction is a common procedure in studies involving membrane proteins. By conventional definition, microsomal membranes are collected by centrifugation of a postmitochondrial fraction at 100,000g in an ultracentrifuge, a method originally developed for large amounts of mammalian tissue. We present a method for isolating microsomal-type membranes from small amounts of Arabidopsis thaliana plant material that does not rely on ultracentrifugation but instead uses the lower relative centrifugal force (21,000g) of a microcentrifuge. We show that the 21,000g pellet is equivalent to that obtained at 100,000g and that it contains all of the membrane fractions expected in a conventional microsomal fraction. Our method incorporates specific manipulation of sample density throughout the procedure, with minimal preclearance, minimal volumes of extraction buffer, and minimal sedimentation pathlength. These features allow maximal membrane yields, enabling membrane isolation from limited amounts of material. We further demonstrate that conventional ultracentrifuge-based protocols give submaximal yields due to losses during early stages of the procedure; that is, extensive amounts of microsomal-type membranes can sediment prematurely during the typical preclearance steps. Our protocol avoids such losses, thereby ensuring maximal yield and a representative total membrane fraction. The principles of our method can be adapted for nonplant material.

  10. Differential regulation of two types of monogalactosyldiacylglylcerol synthase in membrane lipid remodeling under phosphate-limited conditions in sesame plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie eShimojima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate (Pi limitation causes drastic lipid remodeling in plant membranes. Glycolipids substitute for the phospholipids that are degraded, thereby supplying Pi needed for essential biological processes. Two major types of remodeling of membrane lipids occur in higher plants: whereas one involves an increase in the concentration of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol in plastids to compensate for a decreased concentration of phosphatidylglycerol, the other involves digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG synthesis in plastids and the export of DGDG to extraplastidial membranes to compensate for reduced abundances of phospholipids. Lipid remodeling depends on an adequate supply of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG, which is a substrate that supports the elevated rate of DGDG synthesis that is induced by low Pi availability. Regulation of MGDG synthesis has been analyzed most extensively using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, although orthologous genes that encode putative MGDG synthases exist in photosynthetic organisms from bacteria to higher plants. We recently hypothesized that two types of MGDG synthase diverged after the appearance of seed plants. This divergence might have both enabled plants to adapt to a wide range of Pi availability in soils and contributed to the diversity of seed plants. In the work presented here, we found that membrane lipid remodeling also takes place in sesame, which is one of the most common traditional crops grown in Asia. We identified two types of MGDG synthase from sesame (encoded by SeMGD1 and SeMGD2 and analyzed their enzymatic properties. Our results show that both genes correspond to the Arabidopsis type-A and -B isoforms of MGDG synthase. Notably, whereas Pi limitation up-regulates only the gene encoding the type-B isoform of Arabidopsis, low Pi availability up-regulates the expression of both SeMGD1 and SeMGD2. We discuss the significance of the different responses to low Pi availability in sesame and

  11. The characteristics of the medicinal plants used in the herbal medicine оf type 2 diabetes

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    Sergei Kalmykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: consider the rational combination of the herbs in fytocomplexes applied in the rehabilitation of the type 2 diabetes. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the use of herbal medicine in the complex rehabilitation for patients with diabetes. Results: modern views on the necessity and the features of the use of herbal remedies especially in the diabetes type 2 are presented; the main medicinal plants used in this pathology are described. The main attention is paid to the peculiarities of forming up an integrated cure that contains a mixture of several kinds of medicinal plants. The classification of herbal drugs used for diabetes is given. Conclusions: advantages of application of collection of medicinal plants over synthetic drugs in the complex treatment of the type 2 diabetes are proved.

  12. Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacterial and Archaeal Type Strains, Phase III: the genomes of soil and plant-associated and newly described type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, William B; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhou, Yuguang; Lilburn, Timothy G; Beck, Brian J; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Eisen, Jonathan A; Garrity, George; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2015-01-01

    The Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project was launched by the JGI in 2007 as a pilot project to sequence about 250 bacterial and archaeal genomes of elevated phylogenetic diversity. Herein, we propose to extend this approach to type strains of prokaryotes associated with soil or plants and their close relatives as well as type strains from newly described species. Understanding the microbiology of soil and plants is critical to many DOE mission areas, such as biofuel production from biomass, biogeochemistry, and carbon cycling. We are also targeting type strains of novel species while they are being described. Since 2006, about 630 new species have been described per year, many of which are closely aligned to DOE areas of interest in soil, agriculture, degradation of pollutants, biofuel production, biogeochemical transformation, and biodiversity.

  13. Fine Scale ANUClimate Data for Ecosystem Modeling and Assessment of Plant Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. F.; Kesteven, J. L.; Xu, T.; Evans, B. J.; Togashi, H. F.; Stein, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution spatially extended values of climate variables play a central role in the assessment of climate and projected future climate in ecosystem modeling. The ground based meteorological network remains a key resource for deriving these spatially extended climate variables. We report on the production, and applications, of new anomaly based fine scale spatial interpolations of key climate variables at daily and monthly time scale, across the Australian continent. The methods incorporate several innovations that have significantly improved spatial predictive accuracy, as well as providing a platform for the incorporation of additional remotely sensed data. The interpolated climate data are supporting many continent-wide ecosystem modeling applications and are playing a key role in testing optimality hypotheses associated with plant functional types (PFTs). The accuracy, and robustness to data error, of anomaly-based interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating physical process aspects of the different climate variables and employing robust statistical methods implemented in the ANUSPLIN package. New regression procedures have also been developed to estimate "background" monthly climate normals from all stations with minimal records to substantially increase the density of supporting spatial networks. Monthly mean temperature interpolation has been enhanced by incorporating process based coastal effects that have reduced predictive error by around 10%. Overall errors in interpolated monthly temperature fields are around 25% less than errors reported by an earlier study. For monthly and daily precipitation, a new anomaly structure has been devised to take account of the skewness in precipitation data and the large proportion of zero values that present significant challenges to standard interpolation methods. The many applications include continent-wide Gross Primary Production modeling and assessing constraints on light and water use efficiency derived

  14. Assessment of the Performance of Membranes Type Koch in Hartha Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'a Abdulrazaq Jassim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the assessment of the performance of reverse osmosis membranes type (TFC-Koch model (8822XR-365 which are used in water desalination unit in Hartha power plant, one of the electrical power plant in the south Iraq. This unit has a capacity of 100 m3/h withdraws water from Shat Al-Arab River as a raw water having total dissolved solid (TDS >3000 ppm, and consists of two stages with total recovery and salt rejection of about 60% and 95%, respectively. The first array contains twelve vessels and the second six vessels. Each vessel contains six elements, 8 inches in diameter and 40 inches in length. The performance of the reverse osmosis (RO membranes is based on surveying the chemical analysis of different ions present in water for both permeate and rejected streams from the unit log book, and only those readings where the overall recovery was 60% were selected. The results depicted that the reduction of membrane efficiency is attributed to the membrane blockage due to scaling and fouling. Under high fouling conditions the permeate flow rate is reduced and accordingly a high feed pressure is required to produce the design flow rate of permeate or percent recovery. A simulation of the behavior of RO membranes was conducted using standard Saehane software and compared with predicted model that was developed by the same authors. The results revealed that the reduction in water flow in both elements one and two in each vessel in the first array is attributed to the high permeate water flux through these two elements beyond the operation limits. Accordingly it is necessary to replace these two elements or change their position relative to other elements periodically.

  15. Intracellular NHX-Type Cation/H+ Antiporters inPlants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Cells depend on the homeostatic maintenance of pHwithin specific cellular compartments to ensure optimalconditions for metabolic and enzymatic processes as wellas protein structure and function. In the animal secre-tory pathway, cells maintain distinct luminal pHs withinvarious compartments (Paroutis et al., 2004). Among themany molecular players that contribute to pH and ionhomeostasis in plants, Na+(K+)/H+ exchangers (also knownas NHX-type cation/H+ antiporters) appear to be particu-larly important for the regulation of a wide variety ofphysiological processes, including cell expansion, cellvolume regulation, osmotic adjustment, pH regulation,membrane trafficking, protein processing, and cellularstress responses (Pardo et al., 2006; Rodriguez-Rosaleset al., 2009; Bassil et al., 2012). In plants, NHX antiportersappeared early in evolution and are ubiquitously encodedmembers of the CPA1 cation/H+ antiporters subgroupthat belongs to the large family of monovalent cation/H+ transporters CPA (Brett et al., 2005). NHX antiport-ers are found, thus far, in all sequenced plant genomes(Bassil et al., 2012; Chanroj et al., 2012). In Arabidopsis,the NHX family consists of eight isoforms, six of whichare intracellular (AtNHXl-AtNHX6), located either to thevacuole (AtNHXl to AtNHX4) or endosomes (AtNHX5 andAtNHX6) and an additional two more divergent members(AtNHX7/SOSl and AtNHX8) at the plasma membrane(Bassil et al., 2012). Orthologous sequences in each of thethree classes (plasma membrane, vacuolar, or endosomal)appear in all sequenced genomes, suggesting that distinctfunctional NHX classes appeared early in evolution andmay have conserved roles that are compartment-specific(Bassil et al., 2012). Emerging new evidence highlightsthe importance of particular intracellular NHX antiport-ers in the regulation of vesicular and vacuolar pH andK+ homeostasis. Vacuolar NHXs are needed to maintainK+ homeostasis

  16. Effects of salt stress on wild type and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana: Model plant to engineer tolerance towards salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalatbari Amir Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major environmental constraints impairing plant distribution and yield is believed to be salt stress. Additionally, engineered abiotic stress resistance or/and tolerance is considered as an indispensable target in order to enhance plant productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on physiological and morphological of wild type (Columbia-0 and vte4 mutant Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under different NaCl concentrations. These salt treatments, including control condition, 50mM and 100mM NaCl were imposed on the plants. Each salt treatment was replicated three times in a complete randomized design with factorial arrangement. Wild type and mutant A.thaliana plants were subjected to the abiotic stress (salinity for up to 11 days to evaluate the parameters of growth, development and water relations. As a result, the performance of wild type plants was stronger than vte4 mutant under different salt treatments. Under control condition, rosette dry weight, maximum quantum efficiency (PSII and specific leaf area obtained the highest values of 13.85 mg, considered, wild type A.thaliana recorded higher value of 0.82 gW/gFW for relative water content (RWC under 50mM NaCl whereas mutant plants gained the value of 0.78 gW/gFW under the same condition. However, root mass fraction indicated an increase for both wild type and vte4 mutant plants after 11 days of salt stress onset. The reduction of water potential was observed for wild type and mutant A.thaliana where it scored -1.3 MPa and -1.4, respectively. As a conclusion, these findings implied that under different salt treatments morphological and physiological responses of wild type and vte4 mutant were affected in which wild type plants showed more tolerance. Lack of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ -TMT gene in vte4 seemed to impair defence mechanism of this mutant against salinity.

  17. Foods for Special Dietary Needs: Non-dairy Plant-based Milk Substitutes and Fermented Dairy-type Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi Elina; Wanhalinna, Viivi; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke Karin

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of consumers opt for plant-based milk substitutes for medical reasons or as a lifestyle choice. Medical reasons include lactose intolerance, with a worldwide prevalence of 75%, and cow's milk allergy. Also, in countries where mammal milk is scarce and expensive, plant milk substitutes serve as a more affordable option. However, many of these products have sensory characteristics objectionable to the mainstream western palate. Technologically, plant milk substitutes are suspensions of dissolved and disintegrated plant material in water, resembling cow's milk in appearance. They are manufactured by extracting the plant material in water, separating the liquid, and formulating the final product. Homogenization and thermal treatments are necessary to improve the suspension and microbial stabilities of commercial products that can be consumed as such or be further processed into fermented dairy-type products. The nutritional properties depend on the plant source, processing, and fortification. As some products have extremely low protein and calcium contents, consumer awareness is important when plant milk substitutes are used to replace cow's milk in the diet, e.g. in the case of dairy intolerances. If formulated into palatable and nutritionally adequate products, plant-based substitutes can offer a sustainable alternative to dairy products.

  18. The Presence of Plants Alters the Effect of Soil Moisture on Soil C Decomposition in Two Different Soil Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, F. A.; Cheng, W.

    2005-12-01

    While it is well known that soil moisture directly affects microbial activity and soil C decomposition, it is unclear if the presence of plants alters these effects through rhizosphere processes. We studied soil moisture effects on soil C decomposition with and without sunflower and soybean. Plants were grown in two different soil types with soil moisture contents of 45 and 85% of field capacity in a greenhouse experiment. We continuously labeled plants with depleted 13C, which allowed us to separate plant-derived CO2-C from original soil-derived CO2-C in soil respiration measurements. We observed an overall increase in soil-derived CO2-C efflux in the presence of plants (priming effect) in both soils with on average a greater priming effect in the high soil moisture treatment (60% increase in soil-derived CO2-C compared to control) than in the low soil moisture treatment (37% increase). Greater plant biomass in the high soil moisture treatment contributed to greater priming effects, but priming effects remained significantly higher after correcting for plant biomass. Possibly, root exudation of labile C may have increased more than plant biomass and may have become more effective in stimulating microbial decomposition in the higher soil moisture treatment. Our results indicate that changing soil moisture conditions can significantly alter rhizosphere effects on soil C decomposition.

  19. Evaluation of the uncertainty due to land cover observation and conversion into plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgievski, Goran; Hartley, Andrew; MacBean, Natasha; Hagemann, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Land surface processes represented in the latest generation of climate models (IPCC AR5) use the concept of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) to group different vegetation types and species according to similar physiological, biochemical and structural characteristics. The 5th IPCC Assessment Report recognizes the role of the Land Surface Models (LSMs) as one of the key contributors to uncertainty in climate change impacts projections. In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI), a new global land cover (LC) data set was derived. We aim to investigate two sources of uncertainties in LSMs and their ranges: (i) uncertainty of ESA-CCI state of the art satellite observation of LC classes, and (ii) uncertainty due to LC conversion ("cross-walking (CW) procedure") into PFTs. Therefore, we have derived 5 perturbations of PFTs maps: (i) reference map (REF), (ii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MinLC MinCW), (iii) map that minimizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MinLC RefCW), (iv) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation with reference CW procedure (MaxLC RefCW), and (v) map that maximizes biomass in LC observation and CW procedure (MaxLC MaxCW). Our analysis demonstrates that there is still considerable uncertainty in the methods used to convert LC classes into the PFTs used by LSMs. Furthermore, uncertainty in the labelling of LC classes has an equal magnitude compared to the cross-walking uncertainty. In the next phase, we aim to quantify the sensitivity of the carbon, hydrological and energy cycles to LC and CW uncertainty with 3 LSMs (JSBACH, JULES, and ORHCIDEE). This work will enable us to both advice the land cover mapping community about the accuracy requirements for land cover maps, and to provide insights to the earth system modelling community on the implications of decisions taken when converting from land cover classes to PFTs.

  20. Challenges and implications of global modeling approaches that are alternatives to using constant plant functional types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodegom, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years a number of approaches have been developed to provide alternatives to the use of plant functional types (PFTs) with constant vegetation characteristics for simulating vegetation responses to climate changes. In this presentation, an overview of those approaches and their challenges is given. Some new approaches aim at removing PFTs altogether by determining the combination of vegetation characteristics that would fit local conditions best. Others describe the variation in traits within PFTs as a function of environmental drivers, based on community assembly principles. In the first approach, after an equilibrium has been established, vegetation composition and its functional attributes can change by allowing the emergence of a new type that is more fit. In the latter case, changes in vegetation attributes in space and time as assumed to be the result intraspecific variation, genetic adaptation and species turnover, without quantifying their respective importance. Hence, it is assumed that -by whatever mechanism- the community as a whole responds without major time lags to changes in environmental drivers. Recently, we showed that intraspecific variation is highly species- and trait-specific and that none of the current hypotheses on drivers of this variation seems to hold. Also genetic adaptation varies considerably among species and it is uncertain whether it will be fast enough to cope with climate change. Species turnover within a community is especially fast in herbaceous communities, but much slower in forest communities. Hence, it seems that assumptions made may not hold for forested ecosystems, but solutions to deal with this do not yet exist. Even despite the fact that responsiveness of vegetation to environmental change may be overestimated, we showed that -upon implementation of trait-environment relationships- major changes in global vegetation distribution are projected, to similar extents as to those without such responsiveness.

  1. Elucidation of Listeria monocytogenes contamination routes in cold-smoked salmon processing plants detected by DNA-based typing methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Huss, Hans Henrik; Ojeniyi, B.;

    2001-01-01

    and environment could not be excluded. Contamination of the product occurred in specific areas (the brining and slicing areas). In plant I, the same RAPD type (RAPD type 12) was found over a 4-year period, indicating that an established in-house flora persisted and was not eliminated by routine hygienic...... to the ubiquitous nature of the organism, sporadic contamination occurred. A subset of strains was also typed by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and amplified fragment length polymorphism profiling, and these methods confirmed the type division obtained by RAPD profiling.......The contamination routes of Listeria monocytogenes in cold- smoked salmon processing plants were investigated by analyzing 3,585 samples from products (produced in 1995, 1996, 1998, and 1999) and processing environments (samples obtained in 1998 and 1999) of two Danish smokehouses. The level...

  2. A DWARF DETERMINATE PLANT TYPE FOR ACHIEVING HIGHER AND STABLE YIELD IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO L. HEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. RAMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a dwarf determinate type of urdbean was used along with two traditional varieties and two elite lines to test their performance at higher plant density and nitrogen fertilizer levels. Genotype differ significantly for all the traits studied, spacing showed significant difference for total number of pods per plant, harvest index and plot yield while nitrogen levels showed significant difference for total number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, dry weight of stem, husk, biological yield and harvest index. Closer spacing enhanced seed yield by 36.5 percent, harvest index by 29.9 percent and plot yield by 47.9 percent while higher nitrogen level enhanced dry weight of stem, husk and biological yield by 26.7, 34.1 and 17.5 percent respectively but reduced harvest index by 18.1 percent. The dwarf determinate line (V.K.6 recorded lower values of pods per plant, dry weight of stem, leaves, husk and biological yield but higher number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, seed yield per plant and seed yield per plot. Mean performance and stability parameter for grain yield and its component traits revealed that the genotype V.K.6 exhibited the highest seed yield per plant (2.87 g and plot yield (60.53 g - over six environments. The dwarf determinate type showed wider adaptability and higher stable yield over environments and therefore can be recommended for cultivation by the farmers

  3. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  4. Phenalenone-type phytoalexins mediate resistance of banana plants (Musa spp.) to the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Dhakshinamoorthy, Suganthagunthalam; Alexandrov, Theodore; Becker, Michael; Bretschneider, Tom; Buerkert, Andreas; Crecelius, Anna C; De Waele, Dirk; Elsen, Annemie; Heckel, David G; Heklau, Heike; Hertweck, Christian; Kai, Marco; Knop, Katrin; Krafft, Christoph; Maddula, Ravi K; Matthäus, Christian; Popp, Jürgen; Schneider, Bernd; Schubert, Ulrich S; Sikora, Richard A; Svatoš, Aleš; Swennen, Rony L

    2014-01-01

    The global yield of bananas-one of the most important food crops-is severely hampered by parasites, such as nematodes, which cause yield losses up to 75%. Plant-nematode interactions of two banana cultivars differing in susceptibility to Radopholus similis were investigated by combining the conventional and spatially resolved analytical techniques (1)H NMR spectroscopy, matrix-free UV-laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging, and Raman microspectroscopy. This innovative combination of analytical techniques was applied to isolate, identify, and locate the banana-specific type of phytoalexins, phenylphenalenones, in the R. similis-caused lesions of the plants. The striking antinematode activity of the phenylphenalenone anigorufone, its ingestion by the nematode, and its subsequent localization in lipid droplets within the nematode is reported. The importance of varying local concentrations of these specialized metabolites in infected plant tissues, their involvement in the plant's defense system, and derived strategies for improving banana resistance are highlighted.

  5. Field Validation of IEC 61400-27-1 Wind Generation Type 3 Model with Plant Power Factor Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Altin, Müfit; Fortmann, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    Generic electrical simulation models of wind power generation have been developed as standards, such as the IEC 61400-27-1, to be used by wind industry, system operators, and academia for power system stability studies. In this paper, the IEC type 3 wind turbine model with wind turbine level...... voltage controller and with wind power plant level power factor controller is validated based on field measurements from a 52-MW wind power plant. In addition to the validation of the IEC type 3 wind turbine and wind power plant controller models, a comparison of the validation approaches, which...... are the full grid and play-back simulation, is provided together with a survey of the existing validation studies and recommendations for future modeling and validation tasks. The implemented IEC models are tuned to match the measurements accurately and the validated values for the control parameters...

  6. Plant regeneration of non-toxic Jatropha curcas—impacts of plant growth regulators, source and type of explants

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2011-01-28

    Jatropha curcas is an oil bearing species with multiple uses and considerable economic potential as a biofuel plant, however, oil and deoiled cake are toxic. A non-toxic variety of J. curcas is reported from Mexico. The present investigation explores the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) viz. 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ) individually and in combination with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), on regeneration from in vitro and field-grown mature leaf explants, in vitro and glasshouse-grown seedlings cotyledonary leaf explants of non-toxic J. curcas. In all the tested parameters maximum regeneration efficiency (81.07%) and the number of shoot buds per explants (20.17) was observed on 9.08 μM TDZ containing Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium from in vitro cotyledonary leaf explants. The regenerated shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 μM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 μM BAP and 5.5 μM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with 2.25 μM BAP and 8.5 μM IAA. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing different concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA and NAA for four days followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg/l activated charcoal. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate.

  7. Influence of weight and type of planting material on fruit quality and its heterogeneity in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V.N.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Agbossou, E.K.; Struik, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Cultural practices can affect the quality of pineapple fruits and its variation. The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) effects of weight class and type of planting material on fruit quality, heterogeneity in quality and proportion and yield of fruits meeting European export standards,

  8. The effect of bulb planting time and type of mulch on the yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Laskowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of bulb planting time and the type of mulch on the morphological traits of plants and on bulb yield of Allium aflatunense B. Fedtsch. 'Purple Sensation'. Bulbs of 12 cm diameter were used as the study material. The bulbs were planted in plots on three dates: September 15th, October 1st, and October 15th. The plantation was mulched after frost with two types of mulch: composted pine bark and wheat straw. Phenological phases of the plants were observed during the growing season. At the full flowering stage, several observations and measurements were taken: length of leaves, length of inflorescence peduncle, peduncle diameter, inflorescence diameter, and number of flowers per inflorescence. After harvest, total numerical and weight yield of bulbs were evaluated as well as number and weight of the largest bulbs (21–22 cm diameter. The study showed that in order to obtain Allium aflatunense of high ornamental value, which is determined by the number of flowers per inflorescence and the inflorescence peduncle diameter, bulbs need to be planted in the middle of September. Bulb planting in October leads to production of inflorescences of greater diameter. The optimum method of Allium aflatunense cultivation which ensures production of good total yield of bulbs, expressed in its weight, is bulb planting on September 15th and soil mulching with composted pine bark or straw. Mulching a plantation of Allium aflatunense planted on September 15th with bark has a positive effect on the number and weight of bulbs of 21–22 cm diameter.

  9. Testing the generality of above-ground biomass allometry across plant functional types at the continent scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Chave, Jerome; England, Jacqueline R; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Specht, Alison; Lewis, Tom; Bennett, Lauren T; Baker, Thomas G; Adams, Mark A; Huxtable, Dan; Montagu, Kelvin D; Falster, Daniel S; Feller, Mike; Sochacki, Stan; Ritson, Peter; Bastin, Gary; Bartle, John; Wildy, Dan; Hobbs, Trevor; Larmour, John; Waterworth, Rob; Stewart, Hugh T L; Jonson, Justin; Forrester, David I; Applegate, Grahame; Mendham, Daniel; Bradford, Matt; O'Grady, Anthony; Green, Daryl; Sudmeyer, Rob; Rance, Stan J; Turner, John; Barton, Craig; Wenk, Elizabeth H; Grove, Tim; Attiwill, Peter M; Pinkard, Elizabeth; Butler, Don; Brooksbank, Kim; Spencer, Beren; Snowdon, Peter; O'Brien, Nick; Battaglia, Michael; Cameron, David M; Hamilton, Steve; McAuthur, Geoff; Sinclair, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    Accurate ground-based estimation of the carbon stored in terrestrial ecosystems is critical to quantifying the global carbon budget. Allometric models provide cost-effective methods for biomass prediction. But do such models vary with ecoregion or plant functional type? We compiled 15 054 measurements of individual tree or shrub biomass from across Australia to examine the generality of allometric models for above-ground biomass prediction. This provided a robust case study because Australia includes ecoregions ranging from arid shrublands to tropical rainforests, and has a rich history of biomass research, particularly in planted forests. Regardless of ecoregion, for five broad categories of plant functional type (shrubs; multistemmed trees; trees of the genus Eucalyptus and closely related genera; other trees of high wood density; and other trees of low wood density), relationships between biomass and stem diameter were generic. Simple power-law models explained 84-95% of the variation in biomass, with little improvement in model performance when other plant variables (height, bole wood density), or site characteristics (climate, age, management) were included. Predictions of stand-based biomass from allometric models of varying levels of generalization (species-specific, plant functional type) were validated using whole-plot harvest data from 17 contrasting stands (range: 9-356 Mg ha(-1) ). Losses in efficiency of prediction were biomass prediction in 92% of the 53 species tested. Further, overall efficiency of stand-level biomass prediction was 99%, with a mean absolute prediction error of only 13%. Hence, for cost-effective prediction of biomass across a wide range of stands, we recommend use of generic allometric models based on plant functional types. Development of new species-specific models is only warranted when gains in accuracy of stand-based predictions are relatively high (e.g. high-value monocultures).

  10. 31P NMR characterization and efficiency of new types of water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers to supply plant-available phosphorus in diverse soil types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Javier; Baigorri, Roberto; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2011-03-01

    Hydroponic plant experiments demonstrated the efficiency of a type of humic acid-based water-insoluble phosphate fertilizers, named rhizosphere controlled fertilizers (RCF), to supply available phosphorus (P) to different plant species. This effect was well correlated to the root release of specific organic acids. In this context, the aims of this study are (i) to study the chemical nature of RCF using solid-state (31)P NMR and (ii) to evaluate the real efficiency of RCF matrix as a source of P for wheat plants cultivated in an alkaline and acid soil in comparison with traditional water-soluble (simple superphosphate, SSP) and water-insoluble (dicalcium phosphate, DCP) P fertilizers. The (31)P NMR study revealed the formation of multimetal (double and triple, MgZn and/or MgZnCa) phosphates associated with chelating groups of the humic acid through the formation of metal bridges. With regard to P fertilizer efficiency, the results obtained show that the RCF matrix produced higher plant yields than SSP in both types of soil, with DCP and the water-insoluble fraction from the RCF matrix (WI) exhibiting the best results in the alkaline soil. By contrast, in the acid soil, DCP showed very low efficiency, WI performed on a par with SSP, and RCF exhibited the highest efficiency, thus suggesting a protector effect of humic acid from soil fixation.

  11. Competition between plant functional types in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) v. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, J. R.; Arora, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) is the interactive vegetation component in the Earth system model of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis. CTEM models land-atmosphere exchange of CO2 through the response of carbon in living vegetation, and dead litter and soil pools, to changes in weather and climate at timescales of days to centuries. Version 1.0 of CTEM uses prescribed fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs) although, in reality, vegetation cover continually adapts to changes in climate, atmospheric composition and anthropogenic forcing. Changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation occur on timescales of years to centuries as vegetation distributions inherently have inertia. Here, we present version 2.0 of CTEM, which includes a representation of competition between PFTs based on a modified version of the Lotka-Volterra (L-V) predator-prey equations. Our approach is used to dynamically simulate the fractional coverage of CTEM's seven natural, non-crop PFTs, which are then compared with available observation-based estimates. Results from CTEM v. 2.0 show the model is able to represent the broad spatial distributions of its seven PFTs at the global scale. However, differences remain between modelled and observation-based fractional coverage of PFTs since representing the multitude of plant species globally, with just seven non-crop PFTs, only captures the large-scale climatic controls on PFT distributions. As expected, PFTs that exist in climate niches are difficult to represent either due to the coarse spatial resolution of the model, and the corresponding driving climate, or the limited number of PFTs used. We also simulate the fractional coverage of PFTs using unmodified L-V equations to illustrate its limitations. The geographic and zonal distributions of primary terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes from the versions of CTEM that use prescribed and dynamically simulated fractional coverage of PFTs compare

  12. Competition between plant functional types in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM v. 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Melton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM is the interactive vegetation component in the Earth system model of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis. CTEM models land–atmosphere exchange of CO2 through the response of carbon in living vegetation, and dead litter and soil pools, to changes in weather and climate at timescales of days to centuries. Version 1.0 of CTEM uses prescribed fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs although, in reality, vegetation cover continually adapts to changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and anthropogenic forcing. Changes in the spatial distribution of vegetation occur on timescales of years to centuries as vegetation distributions inherently have inertia. Here, we present version 2.0 of CTEM which includes a representation of competition between PFTs based on a modified version of the Lotka–Volterra (L–V predator–prey equations. Our approach is used to dynamically simulate the fractional coverage of CTEM's seven natural, non-crop PFTs which are then compared with available observation-based estimates. Results from CTEM v. 2.0 show the model is able to represent the broad spatial distributions of its seven PFTs at the global scale. However, differences remain between modelled and observation-based fractional coverages of PFTs since representing the multitude of plant species globally, with just seven non-crop PFTs, only captures the large scale climatic controls on PFT distributions. As expected, PFTs that exist in climate niches are difficult to represent either due to the coarse spatial resolution of the model, and the corresponding driving climate, or the limited number of PFTs used. We also simulate the fractional coverages of PFTs using unmodified L–V equations to illustrate its limitations. The geographic and zonal distributions of primary terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes from the versions of CTEM that use prescribed and dynamically simulated fractional

  13. Arabidopsis type B cytokinin response regulators ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively regulate plant responses to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Nishiyama, Rie; Watanabe, Yasuko; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; Fujita, Yasunari; Tran, Uven Thi; Li, Weiqiang; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki; Schaller, G Eric; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we used a loss-of-function approach to elucidate the functions of three Arabidopsis type B response regulators (ARRs)--namely ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12--in regulating the Arabidopsis plant responses to drought. The arr1,10,12 triple mutant showed a significant increase in drought tolerance versus WT plants, as indicated by its higher relative water content and survival rate on drying soil. This enhanced drought tolerance of arr1,10,12 plants can be attributed to enhanced cell membrane integrity, increased anthocyanin biosynthesis, abscisic acid (ABA) hypersensitivity, and reduced stomatal aperture, but not to altered stomatal density. Further drought-tolerance tests of lower-order double and single mutants indicated that ARR1, ARR10, and ARR12 negatively and redundantly control plant responses to drought, with ARR1 appearing to bear the most critical function among the three proteins. In agreement with these findings, a comparative genome-wide analysis of the leaves of arr1,10,12 and WT plants under both normal and dehydration conditions suggested a cytokinin (CK) signaling-mediated network controlling plant adaptation to drought via many dehydration/drought- and/or ABA-responsive genes that can provide osmotic adjustment and protection to cellular and membrane structures. Expression of all three ARR genes was repressed by dehydration and ABA treatments, inferring that plants down-regulate these genes as an adaptive mechanism to survive drought. Collectively, our results demonstrate that repression of CK response, and thus CK signaling, is one of the strategies plants use to cope with water deficit, providing novel insight for the design of drought-tolerant plants by genetic engineering.

  14. SNF1-related protein kinases type 2 are involved in plant responses to cadmium stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kulik; A. Anielska-Mazur; M. Bucholc; E. Koen; E. Szymańska; A. Żmieńko; E. Krzywińska; I. Wawer; F. McLoughlin; D. Ruszkowski; M. Figlerowicz; C. Testerink; A. Sklodowska; D. Wendehenne; G. Dobrowolska

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium ions are notorious environmental pollutants. To adapt to cadmium-induced deleterious effects plants have developed sophisticated defense mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways underlying the plant response to cadmium are still elusive. Our data demonstrate that SnRK2s (for SNF1-related

  15. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type-3 Effector XopB Inhibits Plant Defence Responses by Interfering with ROS Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Peter Roman Priller

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10 (Xcv translocates about 30 type-3 effector proteins (T3Es into pepper plants (Capsicum annuum to suppress plant immune responses. Among them is XopB which interferes with PTI, ETI and sugar-mediated defence responses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and direct targets are unknown so far. Here, we examined the XopB-mediated suppression of plant defence responses in more detail. Infection of susceptible pepper plants with Xcv lacking xopB resulted in delayed symptom development compared to Xcv wild type infection concomitant with an increased formation of salicylic acid (SA and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes. Expression of xopB in Arabidopsis thaliana promoted the growth of the virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 strain. This was paralleled by a decreased SA-pool and a lower induction of SA-dependent PR gene expression. The expression pattern of early flg22-responsive marker genes indicated that MAPK signalling was not altered in the presence of XopB. However, XopB inhibited the flg22-triggered burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Consequently, the transcript accumulation of AtOXI1, a ROS-dependent marker gene, was reduced in xopB-expressing Arabidopsis plants as well as callose deposition. The lower ROS production correlated with a low level of basal and flg22-triggered expression of apoplastic peroxidases and the NADPH oxidase RBOHD. Conversely, deletion of xopB in Xcv caused a higher production of ROS in leaves of susceptible pepper plants. Together our results demonstrate that XopB modulates ROS responses and might thereby compromise plant defence.

  16. Joint Operation of Several Types of Power Plants to Increasing Net Profit in Deregulated Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes joint operation of power plant and electric energy storage plant in order to maximizing overall profit in a restructured electricity market. The goal is investigating the coupling efficiency on profit increment considering various intensities of power plant’s fuel constraint. In order to reach this goal, the amount of overall profits of fuel-constrained power plant, battery plant and their coupling are first calculated in a specific time interval. Then, the coupling efficiency is determined using incremental profit rate. Having an appropriate strategy to calculate this parameter is essential. Hence, a comprehensive approach to selfschedule of individual and coupled plants is developed. This comprehensive self-scheduling approach is therefore formulated and solved as a Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed.

  17. Influence of two types of organic matter on interaction of CeO2 nanoparticles with plants in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Franziska; Schulin, Rainer; Limbach, Ludwig K; Stark, Wendelin; Bürge, Diane; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    An important aspect in risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is to understand their environmental interactions. We used hydroponic plant cultures to study nanoparticle-plant-root interaction and translocation and exposed wheat and pumpkin to suspensions of uncoated CeO2-NP for 8d (primary particle size 17-100 nm, 100 mg L(-1)) in the absence and presence of fulvic acid (FA) and gum arabic (GA) as representatives of different types of natural organic matter. The behavior of CeO2-NPs in the hydroponic solution was monitored regarding agglomeration, sedimentation, particle size distribution, surface charge, amounts of root association, and translocation into shoots. NP-dispersions were stable over 8d in the presence of FA or GA, but with growing plants, changes in pH, particle agglomeration rate, and hydrodynamic diameter were observed. None of the plants exhibited reduced growth or any toxic response during the experiment. We found that CeO2-NPs translocated into pumpkin shoots, whereas this did not occur in wheat plants. The presence of FA and GA affected the amount of CeO2 associated with roots (pure>FA>GA) but did not affect the translocation factor. Additionally, we could confirm via TEM and SEM that CeO2-NPs adhered strongly to root surfaces of both plant species.

  18. alpha-mannosidase involved in turnover of plant complex type N-glycans in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Anowar; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we purified and characterized an alpha-mannosidase to homogeneity from mature red tomato fruits. Purified alpha-mannosidase (alpha-Man LE-1) gave two separate bands, of molecular masses of 70 kDa (L-subunit) and 47 kDa (S-subunit), on SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. On the other hand, the molecular weight was estimated to be 230 kDa by gel filtration, indicating that alpha-Man LE-1 functions in a tetrameric structure in plant cells. The N-terminal sequence of the L-subunit and the S-subunit were determined to be L-Y-M-V-Y-M-T-K-Q-G- and X-X-L-E-Q/K-S-F-S-Y-Y respectively. When pyridylaminated N-glycans were used as substrates, alpha-Man LE-1 showed optimum activity at about pH 6 and at 40 degrees C, and the activity was completely inhibited by both swainsonine and 1-deoxy-mannojirimycin. alpha-Man LE-1 hydrolyzed the alpha-mannosidic linkages from both high-mannose type and plant complex type N-glycan, but preferred a truncated plant complex type structure to high-mannose type N-glycans bearing alpha1-2 mannosyl residues.

  19. Structural features of N-glycans linked to glycoproteins expressed in three kinds of water plants: Predominant occurrence of the plant complex type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Megumi; Tani, Misato; Yoshiie, Takeo; Vavricka, Christopher J; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2016-11-29

    The Japanese cedar pollen allergen (Cry j1) and the mountain cedar pollen allergen (Jun a1) are glycosylated with plant complex type N-glycans bearing Lewis a epitope(s) (Galβ1-3[Fucα1-4]GlcNAc-). The biological significance of Lewis a type plant N-glycans and their effects on the human immune system remain to be elucidated. Since a substantial amount of such plant specific N-glycans are required to evaluate immunological activity, we have searched for good plant-glycan sources to characterize Lewis a epitope-containing plant N-glycans. In this study, we have found that three water plants, Elodea nuttallii, Egeria densa, and Ceratophyllum demersum, produce glycoproteins bearing Lewis a units. Structural analysis of the N-glycans revealed that almost all glycoproteins expressed in these three water plants predominantly carry plant complex type N-glycans including the Lewis a type, suggesting that these water plants are good sources for preparation of Lewis a type plant N-glycans in substantial amounts.

  20. An Overview of Plant Phenolic Compounds and Their Importance in Human Nutrition and Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Derong; Xiao, Mengshi; Zhao, Jingjing; Li, Zhuohao; Xing, Baoshan; Li, Xindan; Kong, Maozhu; Li, Liangyu; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yaowen; Chen, Hong; Qin, Wen; Wu, Hejun; Chen, Saiyan

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which include the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin), attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids), UV screens (flavonoids), signal compounds (salicylic acid, flavonoids) and defense response chemicals (tannins, phytoalexins). From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Therefore, it is beneficial to eat such plant foods that have a high antioxidant compound content, which will cut down the incidence of certain chronic diseases, for instance diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases, through the management of oxidative stress. Furthermore, berries and other fruits with low-amylase and high-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be thought of as candidate food items in the control of the early stages of hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.

  1. An Overview of Plant Phenolic Compounds and Their Importance in Human Nutrition and Management of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derong Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which includes the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin, attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids, UV screens (flavonoids, signal compounds (salicylic acid and flavonoids and defense response chemicals (tannins and phytoalexins. From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities. Therefore, it is beneficial to eat such plant foods that have a high antioxidant compound content, which will cut down the incidence of certain chronic diseases, for instance diabetes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases, through the management of oxidative stress. Furthermore, berries and other fruits with low-amylase and high-glucosidase inhibitory activities could be regarded as candidate food items in the control of the early stages of hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Development of adaptive core emulator for PMS-XRBP of CE type plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun; Lee, Chung Chan; Lee, Ki Bog; Rhy, Hyo Sang; Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, Young Ouk; Baek, Seung Min; Seo, Ho Joon

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop ONED-based adaptive core emulator (ACE) for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant. This report is first year report and includes (1) augmentation of ONED94 I/O system (2) non-equilibrium xenon initialization for core transient simulation (3) ONED94 verification via plant measurements (4) automatic data link system from PMS and personal computer. (author). 4 tabs., 4 figs., 8 refs.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental ...

  4. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Yang; Barton, Huw J.; Zhiwei Wan; Quan Li; Zhikun Ma; Mingqi Li; Dan Zhang; Jun Wei

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hyp...

  5. Key steps in type III secretion system (T3SS) towards translocon assembly with potential sensor at plant plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongtao; Dong, Hansong

    2015-09-01

    Many plant- and animal-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins from bacterial cells into the cytosol of eukaryotic host cells. The effector translocation occurs through an integral component of T3SS, the channel-like translocon, assembled by hydrophilic and hydrophobic proteinaceous translocators in a two-step process. In the first, hydrophilic translocators localize to the tip of a proteinaceous needle in animal pathogens, or a proteinaceous pilus in plant pathogens, and associate with hydrophobic translocators, which insert into host plasma membranes in the second step. However, the pilus needs to penetrate plant cell walls in advance. All hydrophilic translocators so far identified in plant pathogens are characteristic of harpins: T3SS accessory proteins containing a unitary hydrophilic domain or an additional enzymatic domain. Two-domain harpins carrying a pectate lyase domain potentially target plant cell walls and facilitate the penetration of the pectin-rich middle lamella by the bacterial pilus. One-domain harpins target plant plasma membranes and may play a crucial role in translocon assembly, which may also involve contrapuntal associations of hydrophobic translocators. In all cases, sensory components in the target plasma membrane are indispensable for the membrane recognition of translocators and the functionality of the translocon. The conjectural sensors point to membrane lipids and proteins, and a phosphatidic acid and an aquaporin are able to interact with selected harpin-type translocators. Interactions between translocators and their sensors at the target plasma membrane are assumed to be critical for translocon assembly.

  6. Economic evaluation of dual purpose desalination plants by fuel type in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seung-Su, Kim; Man-Ki, Lee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Dae-jeon city (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In light of the recent rapid increase in the fossil fuel prices it is meaningful to evaluate the impact of these price changes in the economics of dual-purpose desalination projects producing electricity and fresh water simultaneously. The price of crude oil and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased by about 200% and 100% during the past three or four years. The uranium price has also increased by nearly 500% during the same period. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is being developed as a small size PWR type and the LNG Combine Cycle coupled with MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) which are being acknowledged as promising energy sources for the future in Korea. The methods of analysis used in this paper are the lifetime leveled cost method for the power and water cost calculation and the power credit method for the total cost allocation. DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program) developed by IAEA was used to perform an economic comparison between the two dual-purpose desalination projects. From the results of the analysis it is found that the desalination by SMART-MED is much superior to that of LNG CC-MED under the current economic and technical situations. It is also shown that the relative superiority of SMART-MED to LNG CC-MED will be maintained even in case where an increase in the uranium price and the SMART construction cost would reach a maximum in the sensitivity analysis. In the case that the discount rate declines to 5% per year, the relative attractiveness of SMART-MED which is a capital intensive plant will be enhanced when compared to that for a 7% discount rate. In addition to this, it is thought that a nuclear energy source will be favored much more than now in the field of desalination if the regulations for the emission of greenhouse gases are to be strengthened. (authors)

  7. Use of various remote sensing land cover products for plant functional type mapping over Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottlé, C.; Lescure, J.; Maignan, F.; Poulter, B.; Wang, T.; Delbart, N.

    2013-11-01

    High-latitude ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle and in regulating the climate system and are presently undergoing rapid environmental change. Accurate land cover data sets are required to both document these changes as well as to provide land-surface information for benchmarking and initializing Earth system models. Earth system models also require specific land cover classification systems based on plant functional types (PFTs), rather than species or ecosystems, and so post-processing of existing land cover data is often required. This study compares over Siberia, multiple land cover data sets against one another and with auxiliary data to identify key uncertainties that contribute to variability in PFT classifications that would introduce errors in Earth system modeling. Land cover classification systems from GLC 2000, GlobCover 2005 and 2009, and MODIS collections 5 and 5.1 are first aggregated to a common legend, and then compared to high-resolution land cover classification systems, vegetation continuous fields (MODIS VCFs) and satellite-derived tree heights (to discriminate against sparse, shrub, and forest vegetation). The GlobCover data set, with a lower threshold for tree cover and taller tree heights and a better spatial resolution, tends to have better distributions of tree cover compared to high-resolution data. It has therefore been chosen to build new PFT maps for the ORCHIDEE land surface model at 1 km scale. Compared to the original PFT data set, the new PFT maps based on GlobCover 2005 and an updated cross-walking approach mainly differ in the characterization of forests and degree of tree cover. The partition of grasslands and bare soils now appears more realistic compared with ground truth data. This new vegetation map provides a framework for further development of new PFTs in the ORCHIDEE model like shrubs, lichens and mosses, to represent the water and carbon cycles in northern latitudes better. Updated land cover

  8. AtMYB41 activates ectopic suberin synthesis and assembly in multiple plant species and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Dylan K; Murmu, Jhadeswar; Razeq, Fakhria M; Santos, Patricia; Bourgault, Richard; Molina, Isabel; Rowland, Owen

    2014-10-01

    Suberin is a lipid and phenolic cell wall heteropolymer found in the roots and other organs of all vascular plants. Suberin plays a critical role in plant water relations and in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stresses. Here we describe a transcription factor, AtMYB41 (At4g28110), that can activate the steps necessary for aliphatic suberin synthesis and deposition of cell wall-associated suberin-like lamellae in both Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Overexpression of AtMYB41 increased the abundance of suberin biosynthetic gene transcripts by orders of magnitude and resulted in the accumulation of up to 22 times more suberin-type than cutin-type aliphatic monomers in leaves. Overexpression of AtMYB41 also resulted in elevated amounts of monolignols in leaves and an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoid and lignin biosynthetic gene transcripts. Surprisingly, ultrastructural data indicated that overexpression led to the formation of suberin-like lamellae in both epidermal and mesophyll cells of leaves. We further implicate AtMYB41 in the production of aliphatic suberin under abiotic stress conditions. These results provide insight into the molecular-genetic mechanisms of the biosynthesis and deposition of a ubiquitous cell wall-associated plant structure and will serve as a basis for discovering the transcriptional network behind one of the most abundant lipid-based polymers in nature.

  9. [Transgenic Belarussian-bred potato plants expressing genes for antimicrobial peptides of the cecropin-melittin type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutto, N L; Gapeeva, T A; Pundik, A N; Tret'iakova, T G; Volotovskiĭ, I D

    2010-12-01

    Binary vectors for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were constructed to express the genes for antimicrobial peptides (APs) of the cectropin-melittin type under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA promoter in plants. It was shown with Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells that the cassettes could be cloned in pB1121-based vectors with deletion of the 3-D-glycuronidase gene only in the orientation opposite to that of the original vector. Transgenic potato plants were obtained using the Belarussian varieties Odyssey, Vetraz, and Scarb. Their cells expressed the MsrA1 or CEMA peptides of the cecropin-melittin type. The expression was shown to confer higher resistance to bacterial (Erwinia carotovora) infection and extremely high resistance to fungal (Phytophtora infestans and Alternarla solani) infections.

  10. Variation in trait trade-offs allows differentiation among predefined plant functional types: implications for predictive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Lieneke M; Aerts, Rien; Bönisch, Gerhard; Kattge, Jens; Van Bodegom, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) aggregate the variety of plant species into a small number of functionally different classes. We examined to what extent plant traits, which reflect species' functional adaptations, can capture functional differences between predefined PFTs and which traits optimally describe these differences. We applied Gaussian kernel density estimation to determine probability density functions for individual PFTs in an n-dimensional trait space and compared predicted PFTs with observed PFTs. All possible combinations of 1-6 traits from a database with 18 different traits (total of 18 287 species) were tested. A variety of trait sets had approximately similar performance, and 4-5 traits were sufficient to classify up to 85% of the species into PFTs correctly, whereas this was 80% for a bioclimatically defined tree PFT classification. Well-performing trait sets included combinations of correlated traits that are considered functionally redundant within a single plant strategy. This analysis quantitatively demonstrates how structural differences between PFTs are reflected in functional differences described by particular traits. Differentiation between PFTs is possible despite large overlap in plant strategies and traits, showing that PFTs are differently positioned in multidimensional trait space. This study therefore provides the foundation for important applications for predictive ecology.

  11. Mapping of protein-protein interaction sites in the plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Kameda

    Full Text Available Knowing the manner of protein-protein interactions is vital for understanding biological events. The plant-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin (Fd, a well-known small iron-sulfur protein with low redox potential, partitions electrons to a variety of Fd-dependent enzymes via specific protein-protein interactions. Here we have refined the crystal structure of a recombinant plant-type Fd I from the blue green alga Aphanothece sacrum (AsFd-I at 1.46 Å resolution on the basis of the synchrotron radiation data. Incorporating the revised amino-acid sequence, our analysis corrects the 3D structure previously reported; we identified the short α-helix (67-71 near the active center, which is conserved in other plant-type [2Fe-2S] Fds. Although the 3D structures of the four molecules in the asymmetric unit are similar to each other, detailed comparison of the four structures revealed the segments whose conformations are variable. Structural comparison between the Fds from different sources showed that the distribution of the variable segments in AsFd-I is highly conserved in other Fds, suggesting the presence of intrinsically flexible regions in the plant-type [2Fe-2S] Fd. A few structures of the complexes with Fd-dependent enzymes clearly demonstrate that the protein-protein interactions are achieved through these variable regions in Fd. The results described here will provide a guide for interpreting the biochemical and mutational studies that aim at the manner of interactions with Fd-dependent enzymes.

  12. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton.

  13. Explorative study of tropical pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) types and insects that trapped inside in Sebangau National Park Palangka Raya Central Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestariningsih, Nanik; Setyaningsih, Denik

    2017-01-01

    Pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) is a plant with unique shape either of shades of colors, pouch shape and its capability in catching insects. Pitcher plant (Nepenthes sp.) is one of the plants that protected under Law Number. 5 of 1990 about Conservation of Biological Resources and Ecosystem and Government Regulation Number 7/1999 about Preservation of Plants and Animals. Sebangau National Park is one of representative of peat swamp ecosystem and one of some types of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) habitat. This study aimed to determine the types and diversity levels of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) and the trapped insects inside in Sebangau National and to determine the differences of diversity levels of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) and the trapped insects inside in the opened and closed forest in Sebangau National Park. The research type was conducted descriptive qualitative research. The method used survey method with purpossive sampling technique.The result of the study the number of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in opened forest were three types consist of Nepenthes mirabilis, Nepenthes rafflesiana and Nepenthes gracilis with two types insects trapped inside those were Diptera ordo and Hymenoptera ordo. While the number of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in closed forest as many as two types consist of Nepenthes ampullaria and Nepenthes rafflesiana with two type insects trapped inside those were Diptera ordo and Hymenoptera ordo. The results of the analysis calculation pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) species diversity index in opened and closed forest showed lower category. The diversity in row were 1 and 0,45 with H’ criteria ≤ 1 low diversity. The results of the study of insects trapped inside of pitcher plants (Nepenthes sp.) obtained in opened and closed forest showed low category. The diversity in a row were 0,63 and 0,52 with the criteria of H’ ≤ 1 low diversity.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF THE INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS TYPES OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR PERFORMANCE SOLAR DESALINATION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmatulin I.R.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of using renewable energy for water purification. Results of analysis of a preferred energy source for a water purification using installed in places where fresh water shortages and a lack of electrical energy. The possibility of desalination of salt water using solar energy for regions with temperate climate. Presented desalination plant working on energy vacuum solar collectors, principles of action developed by the desalination plant. The experimental results of a constructed distiller when working with vacuum glass tubes and vacuum tubes with copper core inside. Conclusions about the possibility of using solar collectors for water desalination, are tips and tricks to improve the performance of solar desalination plant.

  15. Global analysis of ankyrin repeat domain C3HC4-type RING finger gene family in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yuan

    Full Text Available Ankyrin repeat (ANK C3HC4-type RING finger (RF genes comprise a large family in plants and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, we identified 187 ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins from 29 species with complete genomes and named the ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins the XB3-like proteins because they are structurally related to the rice (Oryza sativa XB3. A phylogenetic relationship analysis suggested that the XB3-like genes originated from ferns, and the encoded proteins fell into 3 major groups. Among these groups, we found that the spacing between the metal ligand position 6 and 7, and the conserved residues, which was in addition to the metal ligand amino acids, in the C3HC4-type RF were different. Using a wide range of protein structural analyses, protein models were established, and all XB3-like proteins were found to contain two to seven ANKs and a C3HC4-type RF. The microarray data for the XB3-like genes of Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max revealed that the expression of XB3-like genes was in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of XB3-like genes in specified tissues and the response to phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments of Arabidopsis and Zea mays not only confirmed the microarray analysis data but also demonstrated that the XB3-like proteins play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a very useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of members of this gene family and also provide a new method for the genome-wide analysis of gene families.

  16. Habitat types on the Hanford Site: Wildlife and plant species of concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Rickard, W.H.; Brandt, C.A. [and others

    1993-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive source of the best available information on Hanford Site sensitive and critical habitats and plants and animals of importance or special status. In this report, sensitive habitats include areas known to be used by threatened, endangered, or sensitive plant or animal species, wetlands, preserves and refuges, and other sensitive habitats outlined in the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology. Potentially important species for risk assessment and species of special concern with regard to their status as threatened, endangered, or sensitive are described, and potential habitats for these species identified.

  17. Development of a novel‐type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants—npf1 and npf2 (with a 120‐bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to for...

  18. New type of dry substances content meter using microwaves for application in biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Thomas; Brückner, Kathleen; Göller, Arndt; Kaufhold, Sebastian; Nakos, Xenia; Noack, Stephan; Stöber, Heinrich; Beckmann, Dieter

    2005-11-01

    Dry substances (DS) are an important index for monitoring and controlling anaerobic co-digestion in biogas plants. We have developed and tested an online meter that measures suspended solids by means of the reflection coefficient of an exiting microwave signal, which is dependent on the dielectric properties of the suspensions. Intelligent models based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) and artificial neural network (ANN) for calibration allow exact and reproducible measurements under different circumstances. This measuring method is appropriate for contactless and online measurements of dry substance contents in biogas plants in a large range from 2-14%.

  19. Advanced nutrient root feeding system for conveyer-type cylindrical plant growth facilities developed for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Krivobok, Anna; Krivobok, Nikolay

    A new brand of cylindrical conveyer-type space plant growth facilities (PGF) has been created to improve of cosmonauts’ diet in the microgravity conditions. Up to date several ground prototypes of the space PGF have been made and tested: “Phytocycle”, “Vitacycle”, “Phytocycle-LED”, “Phytoconveyer”; now the space PGF “Vitacycle-T” for the Russian segment of the ISS is under developing. In the PGFs the ion-exchange salt-saturated fibrous artificial soil (AS) is used as a root medium. We have proposed the system for enrichment of irrigation water by nutrients to decrease of the AS store required for PGF working during the long space mission. The system includes root modules filled in fibrous ion-exchange AS, the enrichment column with crumble salt-saturation ion-exchange resin and the cassette with slow releasing fertilizer (SRF). Both substrates (ion-exchange resin and SRF) are necessary because of the SRF contains mostly N, P and K but another three essential elements S, Ca, Mg are provided by the ion-exchange resin. In the system water goes throw the enrichment column with ion-exchange resin fertilizing by the nutrients and comes into the mixer cell fertilize equipped with the electrical conductivity sensor. When the signal of the conductivity sensor is coming to the controller it turns on the pump directed the water flow throw the cassette with SRF until the electric conductivity of the solution in the mixer cell will reach the setpoint. The nutrient root feeding system was tested during 88 days when Chinese cabbage grew in PGF “Phytocycle-LED”. The crop has been continuously illuminated by red and blue LEDs in the PPF ratio 7 to 1; an integral PPF level has been (240 ± 10) µmol/(m2×s). There was no renewal of the used fibrous AS during the experiment. The PGF total electric power consumption was of 0,45 kW. The average fresh biomass productivity of the PGF during steady state working mode was equal 135×g/day per m2 of the illuminated

  20. Fate of a Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi type III secretion system mutant in olive plants (Olea europaea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Lambertsen, Lotte; Matas, Isabel M; Murillo, Jesús; Tegli, Stefania; Jiménez, Antonio J; Ramos, Cayo

    2010-06-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strain NCPPB 3335 is a model bacterial pathogen for studying the molecular basis of disease production in woody hosts. We report the sequencing of the hrpS-to-hrpZ region of NCPPB 3335, which has allowed us to determine the phylogenetic position of this pathogen with respect to previously sequenced Pseudomonas syringae hrp clusters. In addition, we constructed a mutant of NCPPB 3335, termed T3, which carries a deletion from the 3' end of the hrpS gene to the 5' end of the hrpZ operon. Despite its inability to multiply in olive tissues and to induce tumor formation in woody olive plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 can induce knot formation on young micropropagated olive plants. However, the necrosis and formation of internal open cavities previously reported in knots induced by the wild-type strain were not observed in those induced by P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3. Tagging of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed real-time monitoring of its behavior on olive plants. In olive plant tissues, the wild-type strain formed aggregates that colonized the intercellular spaces and internal cavities of the hypertrophic knots, while the mutant T3 strain showed a disorganized distribution within the parenchyma of the knot. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections revealed the release of extensive outer membrane vesicles from the bacterial cell surface of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 mutant, while the wild-type strain exhibited very few vesicles. This phenomenon has not been described before for any other bacterial phytopathogen during host infection.

  1. Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Plant-Mix Types, 3rd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphalt Inst., College Park, MD.

    The purpose of this publication is to assist engineers in the analysis, design and control of paving projects that use asphalt concrete and other asphalt plant-mixes. The scope of this new third edition has been enlarged, and changes necessitated by advances in asphalt technology have been incorporated. Chapters I and II and Appendices A and B…

  2. Aliphatic C(17)-polyacetylenes of the falcarinol type as potential health promoting compounds in food plants of the Apiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Lars P

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have provided evidence that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk for the development of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Fruits and vegetables are known to contain health promoting components such as vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and dietary fibers, however, it is unclear which of these are responsible for the health promoting properties of fruits and vegetables. Aliphatic C(17)-polyacetylenes of the falcarinol type, which occur in common food plants of the Apiaceae family such as carrot, celeriac, parsnip and parsley, have demonstrated interesting bioactivities including antibacterial, antimycobacterial, and antifungal activity as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet-aggregatory, neuritogenic and serotonergic effects. In addition, the cytotoxicity of falcarinol type polyacetylenes towards human cancer cells, bioavailability, and their potential anticancer effect in vivo indicates that these compounds may contribute to the health effects of certain vegetables and hence could be important nutraceuticals. The bioactivity of falcarinol type polyacetylenes occurring in food plants of the Apiaceae family, their possible mode of action and possible health promoting effects are discussed in this review as well as the effect of storage, processing and other factors that can influence the content of these compounds in particular root vegetables and products. Moreover, recent patents on bioactivity of falcarinol type polyacetylenes and inventions making use of this knowledge are presented and discussed.

  3. Identification of plant semiochemicals and characterization of new olfactory sensory neuron types in a polyphagous pest moth, Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyameen, Muhammad; Anderson, Peter; Ignell, Rickard; Birgersson, Göran; Razaq, Muhammad; Shad, Sarfraz A; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2014-10-01

    Phytophagous insects use blends of volatiles released from plants to select hosts for feeding and oviposition. To behaviorally analyze complex blends, we need efficient and selective methods for elucidating neuron types, their ligands, and specificity. Gas chromatography-combined single sensillum recordings (GC-SSRs) from antennal olfactory sensilla of female moth, Spodoptera littoralis revealed 38 physiologically active peaks in the headspace volatile blends from both larvae-damaged cotton plants and lilac flowers. Using GC-combined mass spectrometry, 9 new physiologically active compounds were identified from damaged cotton and 11 from lilac compared with earlier electrophysiological studies using antennae of female S. littoralis. We characterized 14 novel classes of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Among these, we found the first 2 ligands for a frequent type of short trichoid sensillum, for which no ligands were identified earlier. By using GC-SSR, a substantial increase in functional classes of OSNs and active compounds, 40% and 34% more, respectively, compared with recent studies using GC-electroantennogram or SSR using single compounds was detected. Compared with the estimated number of corresponding antennal olfactory receptors, the OSN classes now correspond to 83% of a likely maximum. The many specialist OSNs observed may facilitate behavioral confirmation of key plant volatiles in blends.

  4. Cowpea Nodules Harbor Non-rhizobial Bacterial Communities that Are Shaped by Soil Type Rather than Plant Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Fischer, Doreen; Rouws, Luc F. M.; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo I.; Hofmann, Andreas; Kublik, Susanne; Schloter, Michael; Xavier, Gustavo R.; Radl, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have been pointing to a high diversity of bacteria associated to legume root nodules. Even though most of these bacteria do not form nodules with legumes themselves, it was shown that they might enter infection threads when co-inoculated with rhizobial strains. The aim of this work was to describe the diversity of bacterial communities associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) root nodules using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, regarding the factors plant genotype and soil type. As expected, Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant genus of the detected genera. Furthermore, we found a high bacterial diversity associated to cowpea nodules; OTUs related to the genera Enterobacter, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, and unclassified Enterobacteriacea were the most abundant. The presence of these groups was significantly influenced by the soil type and, to a lesser extent, plant genotype. Interestingly, OTUs assigned to Chryseobacterium were highly abundant, particularly in samples obtained from an Ultisol soil. We confirmed their presence in root nodules and assessed their diversity using a target isolation approach. Though their functional role still needs to be addressed, we postulate that Chryseobacterium strains might help cowpea plant to cope with salt stress in semi-arid regions. PMID:28163711

  5. Richness and cover of nontimber economic plants along altitude in temperate Himalayan forest-use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M; Fouad, Hassan; Hussain, Kamran; Ullah, Riaz; Ullah, Ahsan

    2014-01-01

    Pakistani Himalaya stretches over a wide range of altitudinal gradients and supports high diversity of medicinal plants that are an important source for rural livelihood. Altitudinal effects on ground vegetation have already been indicated but ground vegetation is also under severe threat of grazing and over collection. The present study investigated the effect of altitude on medicinal plants abundance in both old-growth and derived woodland forests. Each of the five line transects was selected in old-growth and derived woodland forests. Each line transect consisted of four plots distributed at four altitudinal levels (2200, 2300, 2400, and 2500 m asl). Species richness under derived woodland had shown strong negative correlation (r = -0.95) with altitude while it was found to be nonsignificant under old-growth. Cover of most of the species such as Veronica laxa (r = -0.95, P ≤ 0.05) had shown significant negative correlation with altitude under derived woodland. Cover abundance of some species like Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens has also shown significant negative correlation under old-growth forest. Derived woodland can decrease the cover abundance of valuable medicinal plants towards extension at higher altitudes. Thus, protection of the derived woodland could serve as a tool for the improvement of rural livelihood and ecological restoration.

  6. Plant species and soil type cooperatively shape the structure and function of microbial communities in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2009-04-01

    The rhizosphere is of central importance not only for plant nutrition, health and quality but also for microorganism-driven carbon sequestration, ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. A multitude of biotic and abiotic factors are assumed to influence the structural and functional diversity of microbial communities in the rhizosphere. In this review, recent studies on the influence of the two factors, plant species and soil type, on rhizosphere-associated microbial communities are discussed. Root exudates and the response of microorganisms to the latter as well as to root morphology were shown to shape rhizosphere microbial communities. All studies revealed that soil is the main reservoir for rhizosphere microorganisms. Many secrets of microbial life in the rhizosphere were recently uncovered due to the enormous progress in molecular and microscopic tools. Physiological and molecular data on the factors that drive selection processes in the rhizosphere are presented here. Furthermore, implications for agriculture, nature conservation and biotechnology will also be discussed.

  7. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T; Hill, Allyson T; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K; Leach, Craig A; Plaxton, William C

    2011-11-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism.

  8. The effect of using the plant functional type paradigm on a data-constrained global phenology model

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    S. Caldararu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leaf seasonality impacts a variety of important biological, chemical and physical Earth system processes, which makes it essential to represent leaf phenology in ecosystem and climate models. However, we are still lacking a general, robust parametrisation of phenology at global scales. In this study, we use a simple process-based model, which describes phenology as a strategy for carbon optimality, to test the effects of the common assumption in global modelling studies that plant species within the same plant functional type have the same parameter values, implying they are assumed to have the same species traits. In a previous study this model was shown to predict spatial and temporal dynamics of leaf area index (LAI well across the entire global land surface provided local grid cell parameters were used, and is able to explain 96 % of the spatial variation in average LAI and 87 % of the variation in amplitude. In contrast, we find here that a PFT level parametrisation is unable to capture the spatial variability in seasonal cycles, explaining on average only 28 % of the spatial variation in mean leaf area index and 12 % of the variation in seasonal amplitude. However we also show that allowing only two parameters, light compensation point and leaf age, to be spatially variable dramatically improves the model predictions, increasing the model's capability of explaining spatial variations in leaf seasonality to 70 and 57 % of the variation in LAI average and amplitude respectively. This highlights the importance of identifying the spatial scale of variation of plant traits and the necessity to critically analyse the use of the plant functional type assumption in Earth system models.

  9. Alfa-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of some Mexican plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Becerra-Jiménez, Jaime; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2008-02-28

    Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disease, which accounts for 9% of deaths worldwide. The aim of oral therapy is to reach normoglycemia to prevent later complications. Among glucose-lowering medications, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors delay the absorption of ingested carbohydrates, reducing the postprandial glucose and insulin peaks. In the present study, we tested the butanolic extracts of four Mexican plants with respect to their alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity, without excluding other possible mechanisms of action. The plants Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham, Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev and Malmea depressa (Baill) R.E. Fries are used in traditional medicine to treat type 2 diabetes. In previous studies, we have demonstrated these plants' hypoglycemic activity and determined the phytochemical composition of their extracts. Our results in n-STZ diabetic rats loaded with maltose showed that Malmea and Acosmium extracts decreased plasma glucose significantly from 30 min on resembling the effect of acarbose. Cecropia extract produced the highest reduction of plasma glucose, and at 90 min, the glucose level was lower than the fasting level, which suggests another mechanism of action. Equisetum did not exert any effect. In vitro assays of alpha-glucosidase activity showed an IC(50) of 14 microg/ml for Cecropia, 21 microg/ml for Malmea, and 109 microg/ml for Acosmium, which were lower than that of acarbose (128 microg/ml). Equisetum did not show any significant effect on this assay, either. These results contribute to understand the mechanism of action of these plants on glucose metabolism.

  10. Ratio of mutated versus wild-type coat protein sequences in Pepino mosaic virus determines the nature and severity of yellowing symptoms on tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Paeleman, Anneleen; Ortega-Parra, Nelia; Borodynko, Natasza; Minicka, Julia; Czerwoniec, Anna; Thomma, Bart P H J; Hanssen, Inge M

    2013-12-01

    Recently, Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) infections causing severe yellowing symptoms in tomato plants have been reported in glasshouse tomato crops. When studying this phenomenon in commercial glasshouses, two different types of yellowing symptoms, occurring in adjacent plants, were distinguished: interveinal leaf yellowing and yellow mosaics. After several weeks, the interveinal leaf yellowing symptoms gradually disappeared and the plant heads became green again, with yellow mosaic patterns on the leaves as an intermediate stage. The sequencing of multiple isolates causing interveinal leaf yellowing identified two point mutations, occurring in positions 155 and 166 of the coat protein (CP), as unique to the yellowing pathotype. Site-directed mutagenesis of infectious clones confirmed that both CP mutations are determinants of the interveinal leaf yellowing symptoms. Sequencing of CP clones from plants or plant parts with the yellow mosaic symptoms resulted in a mixture of wild-type and mutated sequences, whereas sequencing of CP clones from the green heads of recovered plants resulted in only wild-type sequences. Yellow mosaic symptoms could be reproduced by inoculation of an artificial 1:1 mixture of RNA transcripts from the wild-type and mutated infectious clones. These results show that the ratio of mutated versus wild-type sequences can determine the nature and severity of symptom development. The gradual recovery of the plants, which coincides with the disappearance of the yellowing mutations, suggests that selection pressure acts to the advantage of the wild-type virus. Experiments with wild-type and mutated infectious clones showed that reverse mutation events from mutant to wild-type occur and that the wild-type virus does not have a replicative advantage over the mutant. These results suggest that reverse mutation events occur, with subsequent selection pressure acting in favour of the wild-type virus in the growing plant parts, possibly related to a lower

  11. Design and Exergy Analysis of a Thermal Power Plant Using Different Types of Turkish Lignite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Mustafa Yilmazoglu

    2011-07-01

    " /> The purpose of this study is to design a 240 MWel thermal power plant (TPP to be operated with ten different types of Turkish lignite and fulfill an exergy analysis including the determination and comparison of the performance for each type of lignite. Additionally an examination of the effect of the ambient temperature on the power plant’s exergy efficiency and calculation of the CO2 emissions of each lignite type is carried out. Exergy destruction of each component is investigated by using conservation of mass, conservation of energy and exergy destruction in an open system at steady state. Sivas Kangal lignite is selected for designing. Net energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant are calculated as 37

  12. Herbal Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Chemistry, Biology, and Potential Application of Selected Plants and Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero L. T. Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been recognized since antiquity. It currently affects as many as 285 million people worldwide and results in heavy personal and national economic burdens. Considerable progress has been made in orthodox antidiabetic drugs. However, new remedies are still in great demand because of the limited efficacy and undesirable side effects of current orthodox drugs. Nature is an extraordinary source of antidiabetic medicines. To date, more than 1200 flowering plants have been claimed to have antidiabetic properties. Among them, one-third have been scientifically studied and documented in around 460 publications. In this review, we select and discuss blood glucose-lowering medicinal herbs that have the ability to modulate one or more of the pathways that regulate insulin resistance, β-cell function, GLP-1 homeostasis, and glucose (reabsorption. Emphasis is placed on phytochemistry, anti-diabetic bioactivities, and likely mechanism(s. Recent progress in the understanding of the biological actions, mechanisms, and therapeutic potential of compounds and extracts of plant origin in type 2 diabetes is summarized. This review provides a source of up-to-date information for further basic and clinical research into herbal therapy for type 2 diabetes. Emerging views on therapeutic strategies for type 2 diabetes are also discussed.

  13. General patterns of acclimation of leaf respiration to elevated temperatures across biomes and plant types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Martijn; Kitajima, Kaoru

    2015-03-01

    Respiration is instrumental for survival and growth of plants, but increasing costs of maintenance processes with warming have the potential to change the balance between photosynthetic carbon uptake and respiratory carbon release from leaves. Climate warming may cause substantial increases of leaf respiratory carbon fluxes, which would further impact the carbon balance of terrestrial vegetation. However, downregulation of respiratory physiology via thermal acclimation may mitigate this impact. We have conducted a meta-analysis with data collected from 43 independent studies to assess quantitatively the thermal acclimation capacity of leaf dark respiration to warming of terrestrial plant species from across the globe. In total, 282 temperature contrasts were included in the meta-analysis, representing 103 species of forbs, graminoids, shrubs, trees and lianas native to arctic, boreal, temperate and tropical ecosystems. Acclimation to warming was found to decrease respiration at a set temperature in the majority of the observations, regardless of the biome of origin and growth form, but respiration was not completely homeostatic across temperatures in the majority of cases. Leaves that developed at a new temperature had a greater capacity for acclimation than those transferred to a new temperature. We conclude that leaf respiration of most terrestrial plants can acclimate to gradual warming, potentially reducing the magnitude of the positive feedback between climate and the carbon cycle in a warming world. More empirical data are, however, needed to improve our understanding of interspecific variation in thermal acclimation capacity, and to better predict patterns in respiratory carbon fluxes both within and across biomes in the face of ongoing global warming.

  14. Suitability of the vegetation types in Mexico's Tamaulipas state for the siting of hazardous waste treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Silke; Sommer, Irene; Morales, Luis-Miguel; Oropeza, Oralia; Carmona, Estela; González-Medrano, Francisco

    2006-07-01

    A land suitability study was carried out by applying a multiple-criteria technique to 12 different vegetation types in Mexico's Tamaulipas state to help select potentially suitable sites for hazardous waste treatment plants. Species richness, spatial distribution, and uniqueness were selected as the criteria for estimating a vegetation type's suitability. Using the analytical hierarchy process, we ranked and mapped vegetation types, then compared the results with rankings of the same vegetation types based only on their number of endemic species. The suitabilities of the various vegetation types were ordered in more or less the same way by both methods, except in two cases for which the results were very different. The method proved to be a useful tool despite the availability of only partial (mostly qualitative) information; under such circumstances, expert experience can be incorporated in the evaluation process to a limited degree. The technique described in this paper has a high potential to aid decisions when many opinions and options must be considered simultaneously.

  15. Plant NAC-type transcription factor proteins contain a NARD domain for repression of transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu-Jun; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Zou, Hong-Feng; Wei, Wei; Kang, Xu-Sheng; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Zhang, Jin-Song; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2010-10-01

    Plant-specific transcription factor NAC proteins play essential roles in many biological processes such as development, senescence, morphogenesis, and stress signal transduction pathways. In the NAC family, some members function as transcription activators while others act as repressors. In the present study we found that though the full-length GmNAC20 from soybean did not have transcriptional activation activity, the carboxy-terminal activation domain of GmNAC20 had high transcriptional activation activity in the yeast assay system. Deletion experiments revealed an active repression domain with 35 amino acids, named NARD (NAC Repression Domain), in the d subdomain of NAC DNA-binding domain. NARD can reduce the transcriptional activation ability of diverse transcription factors when fused to either the amino-terminal or the carboxy-terminal of the transcription factors. NARD-like sequences are also present in other NAC family members and they are functional repression domain when fused to VP16 in plant protoplast assay system. Mutation analysis of conserved amino acid residues in NARD showed that the hydrophobic LVFY motif may partially contribute to the repression function. It is hypothesized that the interactions between the repression domain NARD and the carboxy-terminal activation domain may finally determine the ability of NAC family proteins to regulate downstream gene expressions.

  16. Impaired plant growth and development caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueno, Marni E; Hibi, Yurina; Imai, Kenichi; Laurena, Antonio C; Okamoto, Takashi

    2010-10-01

    Previous attempts to express the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Tat (trans-activator of transcription) protein in plants resulted in a number of physiological abnormalities, such as stunted growth and absence of seed formation, that could not be explained. In the study reported here, we expressed Tat in tomato and observed phenotypic abnormalities, including stunted growth, absence of root formation, chlorosis, and plant death, as a result of reduced cytokinin levels. These reduced levels were ascribed to a differentially expressed CKO35 in Tat-bombarded tomato. Of the two CKO isoforms that are naturally expressed in tomato, CKO43 and CKO37, only the expression of CKO37 was affected by Tat. Our analysis of the Tat confirmed that the Arg-rich and RGD motifs of Tat have functional relevance in tomato and that independent mutations at these motifs caused inhibition of the differentially expressed CKO isoform and the extracellular secretion of the Tat protein, respectively, in our Tat-bombarded tomato samples.

  17. Advanced nutrient root-feeding system for conveyor-type cylindrical plant growth facilities for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Krivobok, N. M.; Krivobok, A. S.; Smolyanina, S. O.

    2016-02-01

    A compact and reliable automatic method for plant nutrition supply is needed to monitor and control space-based plant production systems. The authors of this study have designed a nutrient root-feeding system that minimizes and regulates nutrient and water supply without loss of crop yields in a space greenhouse. The system involves an ion-exchange fibrous artificial soil (AS) BIONA-V3TM as the root-inhabited medium; a pack with slow-release fertilizer as the main source of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and a cartridge with granular mineral-rich ionite (GMRI) as a source of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and iron. A controller equipped with an electrical conductivity meter controls the solution flow and concentration of the solution in the mixing tank at specified values. Experiments showed that the fibrous AS-stabilized pH of the substrate solution within the range of 6.0-6.6 is favorable to the majority of crops. The experimental data confirmed that this technique allowed solution preparation for crops in space greenhouses by means of pumping water through the cartridge and minimization of the AS stock onboard the space vehicle.

  18. Elevation-related variation in leaf stomatal traits as a function of plant functional type: evidence from Changbai Mountain, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruili Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding the variation in stomatal characteristics in relation to climatic gradients can reveal the adaptation strategies of plants, and help us to predict their responses to future climate changes. In this study, we investigated stomatal density (SD and stomatal length (SL in 150 plant species along an elevation gradient (540-2357 m in Changbai Mountain, China, and explored the patterns and drivers of stomatal characteristics across species and plant functional types (PFTs: trees, shrubs, and herbs. The average values of SD and SL for all species combined were 156 mm(-2 and 35 µm, respectively. SD was higher in trees (224 mm(-2 than in shrubs (156 mm(-2 or herbs (124 mm(-2, and SL was largest in herbs (37 µm. SD was negatively correlated with SL in all species and PFTs (P < 0.01. The relationship between stomatal characteristics and elevation differed among PFTs. In trees, SD decreased and SL increased with elevation; in shrubs and herbs, SD initially increased and then decreased. Elevation-related differences in SL were not significant. PFT explained 7.20-17.6% of the total variation in SD and SL; the contributions of CO2 partial pressure (P CO2, precipitation, and soil water content (SWC were weak (0.02-2.28%. Our findings suggest that elevation-related patterns of stomatal characteristics in leaves are primarily a function of PFT, and highlight the importance of differences among PFTs in modeling gas exchange in terrestrial ecosystems under global climate change.

  19. Elevation-related variation in leaf stomatal traits as a function of plant functional type: evidence from Changbai Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruili; Yu, Guirui; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Xia, Fucai; Zhao, Ning; Xu, Zhiwei; Ge, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the variation in stomatal characteristics in relation to climatic gradients can reveal the adaptation strategies of plants, and help us to predict their responses to future climate changes. In this study, we investigated stomatal density (SD) and stomatal length (SL) in 150 plant species along an elevation gradient (540-2357 m) in Changbai Mountain, China, and explored the patterns and drivers of stomatal characteristics across species and plant functional types (PFTs: trees, shrubs, and herbs). The average values of SD and SL for all species combined were 156 mm(-2) and 35 µm, respectively. SD was higher in trees (224 mm(-2)) than in shrubs (156 mm(-2)) or herbs (124 mm(-2)), and SL was largest in herbs (37 µm). SD was negatively correlated with SL in all species and PFTs (P soil water content (SWC) were weak (0.02-2.28%). Our findings suggest that elevation-related patterns of stomatal characteristics in leaves are primarily a function of PFT, and highlight the importance of differences among PFTs in modeling gas exchange in terrestrial ecosystems under global climate change.

  20. Efficient plant regeneration protocol through callus for Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew. (Asteraceae): effect of explant type, age and plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Uppeandra; Joshi, Mitali

    2005-06-01

    A callus induction and in vitro plantlet regeneration system for the endangered state flower of Uttaranchal (Saussurea obvallata) was optimized by studying the influence of explant type (root, hypocotyl, cotyledon and leaf), age and different concentrations of plant growth regulators. Explants from 10 to 15-day-old seedlings showed maximum callus induction. Callus formation and shoot differentiation was initiated on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium containing 6-benzyladenine (BA) and alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) in all explant types. The best results were obtained using leaf explants: 100% callusing was achieved in MS medium supplemented with 2.5 microM BA and 1.0 microM NAA, and 100% differentiation along with a multiplication rate of 12 shoots per explant with a combination of 5.0 microM BA and 1.0 microM NAA. However, the results reflected the existence of high inter-explant variability in response to growth regulators. In vitro rooting of shoots was achieved at an efficiency of 100% in one-half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.5 microM indole-3-butyric acid. Application of this protocol has potential for mass multiplication of the target species in a limited time period.

  1. Flemingin-Type Prenylated Chalcones from the Sarawak Rainforest Plant Desmodium congestum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Karlee A; Bermudez, Cindy; Edwards, David J; Elliott, Alysha G; Ripen, Jovita E; Seta, Cynthia; Huang, Johnny X; Cooper, Matthew A; Fraser, James A; Yeo, Tiong Chia; Butler, Mark S

    2015-08-28

    In an ongoing program to identify new anti-infective leads, an extract derived from whole plant material of Desmodium congestum collected in the Sarawak rainforest was found to have anti-MRSA activity. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the isolation of two new prenylated chalcones, 5'-O-methyl-3-hydroxyflemingin A (1) and 5'-O-methylflemingin C (2), which were closely related to the flemingins previously isolated from various Flemingia species. Chalcones 1 and 2, which were determined to be 4:6 enantiomeric mixtures by chiral HPLC, exhibited moderate activity against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria and were also cytotoxic to the HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line.

  2. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A.; Cherry, Julia A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2016-02-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2%). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical

  3. Detection of diurnal variation of tomato transcriptome through the molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu eHigashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The timing of measurement during plant growth is important because many genes are expressed periodically and orchestrate physiological events. Their periodicity is generated by environmental fluctuations as external factors and the circadian clock as the internal factor. The circadian clock orchestrates physiological events such as photosynthesis or flowering and it enables enhanced growth and herbivory resistance. These characteristics have possible applications for agriculture. In this study, we demonstrated the diurnal variation of the transcriptome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum leaves through molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory. Molecular timetable method have been developed to detect periodic genes and estimate individual internal body time from these expression profiles in mammals. We sampled tomato leaves every 2 h for 2 d and acquired time-course transcriptome data by RNA-Seq. Many genes were expressed periodically and these expressions were stable across the 1st and 2nd days of measurement. We selected 143 time-indicating genes whose expression indicated periodically, and estimated internal time in the plant from these expression profiles. The estimated internal time was generally the same as the external environment time; however, there was a difference of more than one hour between the two for some sampling points. Furthermore, the stress-responsive genes also showed weakly periodic expression, implying that they were usually expressed periodically, regulated by light–dark cycles as an external factor or the circadian clock as the internal factor, and could be particularly expressed when the plant experiences some specific stress under agricultural situations. This study suggests that circadian clock mediate the optimization for fluctuating environments in the field and it has possibilities to enhance resistibility to stress and floral induction by controlling circadian clock through light supplement and

  4. Station Blackout Initiated Event Chronology in LWR/HWR NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soo Yong; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Since the crisis at Fukushima nuclear power plants, a severe accident progression has been recognized as a very important area for an accident management and emergency planning. The purpose of this study is to investigate the comparative characteristics of a severe accident progression among the typical pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The OPR 1000-like (ABB-CE type PWR), Peach Bottom-like (BWR/4 RCS with a MARK I Containment), and Wolsong1-like (CANDU6 type) plants are selected as reference plants of typical 1000 MWe PWR, 1140MWe BWR, and 600 MWe PHWR, respectively. The design parameters of these plants are quite different. Some of the major different design features of CANDU6 plant from other light water reactors, in terms of a severe accident, are that the plant adopts a duel primary heat transport system and has an additional amount of cooling water in the calandria vessel (calandria tank, CT) and calandria vault (CV). Another feature is that the CT is always submerged in water because the CV is flooded during normal operation. The containment (reactor building, R/B) failure pressure of the CANDU6 plant is considerably lower than that of the typical PWR or BWR4/MARK-I. The containment vessel free volume of MARK-I is much smaller than that of the PWR or CANDU6 plant. Since there is no steam generator (SG) or passive cooling system, the amount of cooling water inventory in BWR4 is relatively less than other plants. Meanwhile the minimum available time of battery power against station blackout (SBO) accident is different among plant types: six hours for BWR4 and four hours for 1000MWe PWR. Therefore, plant responses against the severe core damage scenarios like Fukushima accident are expected to be much different. By identifying plant response signatures, the appropriate correction actions can be developed as part of severe accident management. A SBO scenario, where all off-site power is lost

  5. Size distribution of carbon layer planes in biochar from different plant type of feedstock with different heating temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guan-Yang; Ikeya, Kosuke; Watanabe, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Biochar application to soil is a strategy to decelerate the increase in the atmospheric carbon concentration. The composition of condensed aromatic clusters appears to be an important determinant of the degradation rate of char in soil. The objective of the present study was to determine the size distribution of carbon layer planes in biochars produced from different types of feedstock (a broadleaf and a coniferous tree and two herbs) using different heating treatment temperatures (HTT; 400 °C-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction 11 band profile analysis. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance with the phase-adjusted spinning side bands of the chars indicated different spectral features depending on the HTT and similar carbon composition among the plant types at each HTT. Both the content and composition of carbon layer planes in biochar produced using the same HTT were also similar among the plant types. The carbon layer plane size in the 400 °C and 600 °C chars was distributed from 0.24 to 1.68 or 1.92 nm (corresponding to 37 or 52 rings) with the mean size of 0.79-0.92 and 0.80-1.14 nm, respectively. The carbon layer planes in the 800 °C chars ranged from 0.72-0.96 nm (7-14 rings) to 2.64-3.60 nm (91-169 rings) and the mean values were 1.47-1.89 nm. The relative carbon layer plane content in the 600 °C and 800 °C chars was typically 2 and 3 times that in the 400 °C chars. These results indicate the progression of the formation and/or the size development of graphite-like structures, suggesting that a char produced at a higher HTT would have better carbon sequestrating characteristics.

  6. A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Enyan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2017-01-01

    The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120 bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6 h. When npf was knocked down by double-stranded RNA for NPF, larval food intake, weight and body size were effectively inhibited through changes of a biosynthesis and metabolism pathway; i.e. gene silencing of NPF causes decreases of total lipid and glycogen and increases of trehalose production. Moreover, we produced transgenic corn plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that O. furnacalis larvae fed on these transgenic leaves had lower food consumption and smaller body size compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the feeding control of O. furnacalis and valuable for production of potential transgenic corn. PMID:28290513

  7. Purification, characterization and stability of barley grain peroxidase BP1, a new type of plant peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christine B; Henriksen, Anette; Abelskov, A. Katrine

    1997-01-01

    The major peroxidase of barley grain (BP 1) has enzymatic and spectroscopic properties that are very differeant from those of other known plant peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) and can therefore contribute to the understanding of the many physiological functions ascribed to these enzymes. To study...... the structure-function relationships of this unique model peroxidase, large-scale and laboratory-scale purifications have been developed. The two batches of pure BP 1 obtained were identical in their enzymatic and spectral properties, and confirmed that BP 1 is different from the prototypical horseradish...... peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRP C). However, when measuring the specific activity of BP 1 at pH 4.0 in the presence of 1 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was as competent as HRP C at neutral pH towards a variety of substrates (mM mg(-1) min(-1)): coniferyl alcohol (930+/-48), caffeic acid (795+/-53), ABTS (2,2(1)-azino...

  8. Soybean GmPHD-Type Transcription Regulators Improve Stress Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wei; Jian Huang; Yu-Jun Hao; Hong-Feng Zou; Hui-Wen Wang; Jing-Yun Zhao; Xue-Yi Liu; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma; Jin-Song Zhang; Shou-Yi Chen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the most important crops for oil and protein resource. Improvement of stress tolerance will be beneficial for soybean seed production. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six GmPHD genes encoding Alfin1-type PHD finger protein were identified and their expressions differentially responded to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. The six GmPHDs were nuclear proteins and showed ability to bind the cis-element "GTGGAG". The N-terminal domain of GmPHD play...

  9. Characterization of QTL for unique agronomic traits of new-plant-type rice varieties using introgression lines of IR64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analiza G. Tagle

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the yield potential of an elite indica rice cultivar, an introgression (BC3-derived line of IR64, YTH288, was developed using a new-plant-type cultivar, IR66215-44-2-3, as a donor parent. YTH288 has agronomically valuable characteristics such as large panicles, few unproductive tillers, and large leaves inherited from NPT. To identify the genetic basis of these traits, we used 167 F2 plants derived from a cross between IR64 and YTH288 to conduct QTL analysis for five agronomic traits: days to heading (DTH, culm length (CL, flag leaf length (FLL, flag leaf width (FLW, and filled spikelet number per panicle (FSN. Six putative QTL were detected: four on chromosome 4 (for CL, FLL, FLW, and FSN and two on chromosome 2 (for DTH and FLL. All QTL with the IR66215-44-2-3 allele, except that for FLL on chromosome 2, had positive effects on each trait. To confirm the effects of these putative QTL, we developed NILs with the IR64 genetic background by marker-assisted selection. We observed significant differences in several agronomic traits between IR64 and NILs that carried these QTL on chromosomes 2 and 4. Additionally, four IR64-NILs carrying chromosomal segments derived from different NPT varieties on the long arm of chromosome 4 exhibited similar pleiotropic effects for unique agronomic traits. These NILs can be used as research materials for studying each trait and as breeding materials for yield improvement of indica rice cultivars. Abbreviations NPT, new plant type; QTL, quantitative trait loci (locus; GF, grain fertility; DTH, days to heading; CL, culm length; PL, panicle length; LL, leaf length; FLL, flag leaf length; LW, leaf width; FLW, flag leaf width; FSN, filled spikelet number per panicle; TSN, total spikelet number per panicle; PN, panicle number per plant; IRRI, International Rice Research Institute; NIL, near-isogenic line; IL, introgression line; SSR, simple sequence repeat; PCR, polymerase chain reaction

  10. New practical and theoretical approaches to the induction of morphogenesis from plant tumors in vitro using new types of plant growth regulators: towards constructive paradigms in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Using classical or traditional plant growth regulators, calli or plant tumors have been produced in vitro and subsequently have been induced to produce buds and plantlets, a process referred to as regeneration. For many years, this has been a successful procedure for in vitro, plant propagation. However, for a number of plant species investigators could not induce calli in vitro to produce buds. Organogenesis was still recalcitrant for various plants in 1980. New types or nonconventional growth regulators, such as methylglyoxal and ascorbic acid, were then found to overcome recalcitrant organogenesis in vitro. Their successful or effective use gave support to a theory that stressful, non-uniform cohesive force-fields, electromagnetic in nature, occurring through the application of certain chemicals, are necessary for in vitro morphogenesis from plant neoplasm or callus. Morphogenesis is seen as an adaptive accommodation to the inner stresses from such non-uniform, cohesive forces. Diverse chemicals, not considered traditional plant growth regulators would, it has been conjectured, enable the generation of such cohesive forces, in non-uniform arrays, and it has been predicted that more chemicals of this type will be discovered. A new constructive approach to agriculture and medicine, using a new plant tissue-culture model, based on new theory, has also been predicted.

  11. Technology of repair of selected equipment in the power plant type VVER 440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barborka, J.; Magula, V. [Welding Research Inst. (WRI), Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1998-11-01

    This article is divided in two parts: The first part is studying the effect of individual parameters by the usual and pulsed welding of 15CH2MFA steel. It can be concluded that by use of mechanized or automatic TIG process in PC position with addition of a cold wire with high nickel content the desired quality of repair welded joints of a pressure vessel of VVER 440 reactor can be achieved. Based on the results of the second laboratory study of the renovation technology applied for the rotary surfaces of pressure-tight cover and spindle of the main closing armature type DN 500 it can be concluded, that the developed technology for surfacing the sealing surfaces by TIG process with addition of a high-nickel cold wire the functional capability of the mentioned parts can be fully restored.

  12. The influence of competition between plant functional types in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) v. 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Joe; Arora, Vivek

    2015-04-01

    The Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) is the interactive vegetation component in the earth system modelling framework of the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma). In its current framework, CTEM uses prescribed fractional coverage of plant functional types (PFTs) in each grid cell. In reality, vegetation cover is continually adjusting to changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and anthropogenic forcing, for example, through human-caused fires and CO2 fertilization. These changes in vegetation spatial patterns occur over timescales of years to centuries as tree migration is a slow process and vegetation distributions inherently have inertia. Here, we present version 2.0 of CTEM that includes a representation of competition between PFTs through a modified version of the Lotka-Volterra (L-V) predator-prey equations. The simulated areal extents of CTEM's seven non-crop PFTs are compared with available observation-based estimates, and simulations using unmodified L-V equations (similar to other models like TRIFFID), to demonstrate that the model is able to represent the broad spatial distributions of its seven PFTs at the global scale. Differences remain, however, since representing the multitude of plant species with just seven non-crop PFTs only allows the large scale climatic controls on the distributions of PFTs to be captured. As expected, PFTs that exist in climate niches are difficult to represent either due to the coarse spatial resolution of the model and the corresponding driving climate or the limited number of PFTs used to model the terrestrial ecosystem processes. The geographic and zonal distributions of primary terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes from the versions of CTEM that use prescribed and dynamically simulated fractional coverage of PFTs compare reasonably with each other and observation-based estimates. These results illustrate that the parametrization of competition between PFTs in CTEM behaves in a reasonably

  13. High production of plant type levan in sugar beet transformed with timothy (Phleum pratense) 6-SFT genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Tamagake, Hideto; Sato, Yutaka; Anzai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-12-20

    Levan, a type of fructan, is an oligomer or polymer with mainly a β(2,6)-linked fructose chain attached to sucrose. We introduced two timothy genes, PpFT1 and PpFT2, coding for two homologous sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferases into sugar beet. Sugar beet produces a high concentration of sucrose, a starting substrate in fructan synthesis, in the root. Among transgenic T1 lines, we obtained sugar beet transformants that accumulated large amounts of β(2,6)-linked levans (about 20 to 75mgg(-1) FW) in the roots. The transformed sugar beet plants possessing PpFT1 or PpFT2 produced linear levans with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Namely, the PpFT1 transformants accumulated mainly high DP levans including those with DP>40, while the PpFT2 transformants accumulated levans with DP between 3 and 40. Chromatograms showed that PpFT2 produces pure β(2,6)-linked linear levans compared with fructans synthesized by PpFT1. These levans belong to the high DP class of plant fructans, but have much shorter DP than that of levans generally produced by microorganisms.

  14. Membrane topology of conserved components of the type III secretion system from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Carolin; Robin, Guillaume P; Bonas, Ulla; Koebnik, Ralf

    2010-07-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) systems play key roles in the assembly of flagella and the translocation of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Eleven proteins which are conserved among gram-negative plant and animal pathogenic bacteria have been proposed to build up the basal structure of the T3S system, which spans both inner and outer bacterial membranes. We studied six conserved proteins, termed Hrc, predicted to reside in the inner membrane of the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. The membrane topology of HrcD, HrcR, HrcS, HrcT, HrcU and HrcV was studied by translational fusions to a dual alkaline phosphatase-beta-galactosidase reporter protein. Two proteins, HrcU and HrcV, were found to have the same membrane topology as the Yersinia homologues YscU and YscV. For HrcR, the membrane topology differed from the model for the homologue from Yersinia, YscR. For our data on three other protein families, exemplified by HrcD, HrcS and HrcT, we derived the first topology models. Our results provide what is believed to be the first complete model of the inner membrane topology of any bacterial T3S system and will aid in elucidating the architecture of T3S systems by ultrastructural analysis.

  15. Analysis of plant available water in the context of climate change using Thornthwaite type monthly water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Andras; Gribovszki, Zoltan; Kalicz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological impact of climate change can be dramatic. The primary objective of this paper was to analyze plant available water in the context of climate change using Thornthwaite type monthly water balance calibrated by remote sensing based ET maps. The calibrated model was used for projection on the basis of 4 climate model datasets. The 3 periods of projection were: 2010-2040, 2040-2070, and 2070-2100. The benefit of this method is its robust build up, which can be applied if temperature and precipitation time series are accessible. The key parameter is the water storage capacity of the soil (SOILMAX), which can be calibrated using the actual available evapotranspiration data. If the soil's physical properties are available, the maximal rooting depth is also projectable. Plant available water was evaluated for future scenarios focusing water stress periods. For testing the model, a dataset of an agricultural parcel next to Mosonmagyaróvár and a dataset of a small forest covered catchment next to Sopron were successfully used. Each of the models projected slightly ascending evapotranspiration values (+7 percent), but strongly decreasing soil moisture values (-15 percent) for the 21st century. The soil moisture minimum values (generally appeared at the end of the summer) reduced more than 50 percent which indicate almost critical water stress for vegetation. This research has been supported by Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034 project.

  16. In vitro plant regeneration of two cucumber (Cucumis sativum L. genotypes: Effects of explant types and culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grozeva Stanislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different phytohormone concentrations on callusogenesis and organogenesis in two cucumber genotypes were studied. It was established that the rate of plant regeneration depends on genotype, explant type and culture medium. Hypocotyls were found to be more responsive than cotyledons in morphogenesis. In vitro planlet-regenerants have been obtained in hypocotyls explants on culture medium with 1.0 and 2.0 mgL-1 BA for cultivar Gergana and in 1.0 and 3.0 mgL-1K-line 15B. Induction of regeneration in cotyledons were established only in cultivar Gergana on culture medium supplemented with 3.0 mgL-1 BA and in combination of 0.5 mgL-1IAA.

  17. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fang; Wang Changhong; Xiong Aizhen; Wang Wan; Yang Li [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); Branford-White, Christopher J. [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom); Wang Zhengtao [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038 (China)], E-mail: wangzt@shutcm.edu.cn; Bligh, S.W. Annie [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.bligh@londonmet.ac.uk

    2007-12-12

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are alkaloids which typically contain a necine (7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolizidine) base unit, and they can be found in one third of the higher plants around the world. They are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health and safety. A specific, quick and sensitive method is therefore needed to detect and quantify the PAs sometimes in trace amount in herbs, tea or food products. Based on high performance liquid chromatography with prior derivatization of the alkaloids using o-chloranil and Ehrlich's reagent, we report an improved method for quantitative analysis of the total amount of retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (RET-PAs) in a plant extract. The total quantitation of RET-PAs is achieved because of a common colored retronecine marker, a 7-ethoxy-1-ethoxylmethyl retronecine derivative, is produced with all the different RET-PAs during the derivatization reaction. The chemical identity of the common retronecine marker was characterized on-line by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The limit of detection using the improved method is 0.26 nmol mL{sup -1} and the limit of quantitation is 0.79 nmol mL{sup -1}. The advantages of this method are much enhanced sensitivity in detection and quantitation, and, no restriction on the choice of RET-PA as a calibration standard. Application of the developed method to the quantitation of total RET esters-type PAs in Senecio scandens from different regions of China is also reported.

  18. Plant functional type classification for earth system models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, B.; MacBean, N.; Hartley, A.; Khlystova, I.; Arino, O.; Betts, R.; Bontemps, S.; Boettcher, M.; Brockmann, C.; Defourny, P.; Hagemann, S.; Herold, M.; Kirches, G.; Lamarche, C.; Lederer, D.; Ottlé, C.; Peters, M.; Peylin, P.

    2015-07-01

    Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land cover data sets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI), with land cover (LC_CCI) as 1 of 13 essential climate variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases: first responding to a survey of user needs; developing a global, moderate-resolution land cover data set for three time periods, or epochs (2000, 2005, and 2010); and the last phase resulting in a user tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFTs). The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users, and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT data set and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land-atmosphere interactions. The main difference between the new LC_CCI product and PFT data sets used currently by three different dynamic global vegetation modeling teams is a reduction in high-latitude grassland cover, a reduction in tropical tree cover and an expansion in temperate forest cover in Europe. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  19. Plant functional type classification for Earth System Models: results from the European Space Agency's Land Cover Climate Change Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Poulter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global land cover is a key variable in the earth system with feedbacks on climate, biodiversity and natural resources. However, global land-cover datasets presently fall short of user needs in providing detailed spatial and thematic information that is consistently mapped over time and easily transferable to the requirements of earth system models. In 2009, the European Space Agency launched the Climate Change Initiative (CCI, with land cover (LC_CCI as one of thirteen Essential Climate Variables targeted for research development. The LC_CCI was implemented in three phases, first responding to a survey of user needs, then developing a global, moderate resolution, land-cover dataset for three time periods, or epochs, 2000, 2005, and 2010, and the last phase resulting in a user-tool for converting land cover to plant functional type equivalents. Here we present the results of the LC_CCI project with a focus on the mapping approach used to convert the United Nations Land Cover Classification System to plant functional types (PFT. The translation was performed as part of consultative process among map producers and users and resulted in an open-source conversion tool. A comparison with existing PFT maps used by three-earth system modeling teams shows significant differences between the LC_CCI PFT dataset and those currently used in earth system models with likely consequences for modeling terrestrial biogeochemistry and land–atmosphere interactions. The LC_CCI tool is flexible for users to modify land cover to PFT conversions and will evolve as Phase 2 of the European Space Agency CCI program continues.

  20. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; De Marco, I; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm(3) reactor, swept with 1 L min(-1) N(2), at 500°C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg(-1)). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO(2); their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg(-1). The amount of COCO(2) increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char.

  1. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Cherry, Julia A; Mckee, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2 %). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise

  2. The soil microbial community composition and soil microbial carbon uptake are more affected by soil type than by different vegetation types (C3 and C4 plants) and seasonal changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griselle Mellado Vazquez, Perla; Lange, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of different vegetation types (C3 and C4 plants), soil type and seasonal changes on the soil microbial biomass, soil microbial community composition and soil microbial carbon (C) uptake. We collected soil samples in winter (non-growing season) and summer (growing season) in 2012 from an experimental site cropping C3 and C4 plants for 6 years on two different soil types (sandy and clayey). The amount of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and their compound-specific δ13C values were used to determined microbial biomass and the flow of C from plants to soil microorganisms, respectively. Higher microbial biomass was found in the growing season. The microbial community composition was mainly explained by soil type. Higher amounts of SOC were driving the predominance of G+ bacteria, actinobacteria and cyclic G- bacteria in sandy soils, whereas root biomass was significantly related to the increased proportions of G- bacteria in clayey soils. Plant-derived C in G- bacteria increased significantly in clayey soils in the growing season. This increase was positively and significantly driven by root biomass. Moreover, changes in plant-derived C among microbial groups pointed to specific capabilities of different microbial groups to decompose distinct sources of C. We concluded that soil texture and favorable growth conditions driven by rhizosphere interactions are the most important factors controlling the soil microbial community. Our results demonstrate that a change of C3 plants vs. C4 plants has only a minor effect on the soil microbial community. Thus, such experiments are well suited to investigate soil organic matter dynamics as they allow to trace the C flow from plants into the soil microbial community without changing the community abundance and composition.

  3. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  4. Wear of MgO-C Refractories in EBT Type Furnaces Experienced at Iranian Mobarakeh Steel Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Reza Rezaie; Amir Reza Hanifi; Farhad Golestani-Fard

    2002-01-01

    Mobarakeh Steel Company produces 3 million tons of steel annually with eight 180 tons EBT furnaces. Different types of magnesia-carbon refractories have been employed at slagline during last 5 years. In the present study the wear and corrosion of MgO-C refractories of these furnaces have been studied via post-mortem analysis of used bricks and the observation of operational effects. Laboratory corrosion tests were also arranged to investigate the effect of slag chemistry and the mechanism of chemical corrosion. Characterization of different magnesia-carbon bricks clarified that the crystal size, type and chemistry of magnesia as well as graphite structure have the main influence on corrosion resistance. The CaO : SiO2 ratio in slag also plays a vital role in the wear of slagline refractories. The iron oxide content of slag also has a major role in graphite oxidation. Of metallurgical parameters, the electric power input and the contact time have great influence on refractories life. The results will be discussed with emphasis on particular operational factors in Mobarakeh steel plant.

  5. Simulated annual changes in plant functional types and their responses to climate change on the northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuo, Lan; Zhang, Yongxin; Piao, Shilong; Gao, Yanhong

    2016-06-01

    Changes in plant functional types (PFTs) have important implications for both climate and water resources. Still, little is known about whether and how PFTs have changed over the past decades on the northern Tibetan Plateau (NTP) where several of the top largest rivers in the world are originated. Also, the relative importance of atmospheric conditions vs. soil physical conditions in affecting PFTs is unknown on the NTP. In this study, we used the improved Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to investigate PFT changes through examining the changes in foliar projective coverages (FPCs) during 1957-2009 and their responses to changes in root zone soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, precipitation and CO2 concentrations. The results show spatially heterogeneous changes in FPCs across the NTP during 1957-2009, with 34 % (13 %) of the region showing increasing (decreasing) trends. Dominant drivers responsible for the observed FPC changes vary with regions and vegetation types, but overall, precipitation is the major factor in determining FPC changes on the NTP with positive impacts. Soil temperature increase exhibits small but negative impacts on FPCs. Different responses of individual FPCs to regionally varying climate change result in spatially heterogeneous patterns of vegetation changes on the NTP. The implication of the study is that fresh water resources in one of the world's largest and most important headwater basins and the onset and intensity of Asian monsoon circulations could be affected because of the changes in FPCs on the NTP.

  6. Changes in soil microbial community structure associated with two types of genetically engineered plants analyzing by PLFA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kai; LUO Hai-feng; QI Hong-yan; ZHANG Hong-xun

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of GEPs(genetically engineered plants), people are more and more concerned about the ecological risks brought by their release. Assessing the effect of GEPs on soil microbial ecology is indispensable to study their ecological risks. In our study, the phospholipids fatty acid(PLFA) method was used to analyze the microbial community of soil samples collected from fields with two types of GEPs-Bt transgenic corn and PVY(potato virus Y) cell protein gene transgenic potato. The principal components analysis(PCA) showed all controls were on the right of related GEPs samples along the PC1 (the first principal component) axis, which means a decrease of fungi in soils with genetically engineered crop since most of PLFAs that are strongly positively correlated with PC1 represent fungi. For samples collected from Bt transgenic cornfield, the ratios of gram-positive to gram-negative bacteria were less than those of controls. For samples of transgenic potato field, these ratios were lower than those of controls when soils were collected from deep layer(20-40 cm), but were higher when soils collected from surface layer(0-20 cm). For soils collected from 0-20 cm, the ratios of fungi to bacteria for all GEPs samples were at the same level. So were such rations for all controls. Changes of soil microbial community in two types of GEPs fields were detected in our study, but the causes and more information still needs further study.

  7. Contrasting colonization and plant growth promoting capacity between wild type and gfp-derative of the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 in hybrid poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens N.; van der Lelie D.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, D.; Timmermans, J.-P.; Prinsen, E.; Van Oevelen, S.; D" Haen, J.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2011-06-09

    This study aims to investigate the colonization of poplar by the endophyte Pseudomonas putida W619 and its capacity to promote plant growth. Poplar cuttings were inoculated with P. putida W619 (wild-type or gfp-labelled). The colonization of both strains was investigated and morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate plant growth promotion. Inoculation with P. putida W619 (wild-type) resulted in remarkable growth promotion, decreased activities of antioxidative defence related enzymes, and reduced stomatal resistance, all indicative of improved plant health and growth in comparison with the non-inoculated cuttings. In contrast, inoculation with gfp-labelled P. putida W619 did not promote growth; it even had a negative effect on plant health and growth. Furthermore, compared to the wildtype strain, colonization by the gfp-labelled P. putida W619::gfp1 was much lower; it only colonized the rhizosphere and root cortex while the wild-type strain also colonized the root xylem vessels. Despite the strong plant growth promoting capacity of P. putida W619 (wild-type), after gfp labelling its growth promoting characteristics disappeared and its colonization capacity was strongly influenced; for these reasons gfp labelling should be applied with sufficient caution.

  8. Nutritional differences and leaf acclimation of climbing plants and the associated vegetation in different types of an Andean montane rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, J; Matezki, S; Kazda, M

    2006-03-01

    Climbing plants are known to play an important role in tropical forest systems, but key features for their distribution are only partly understood. Investigation was carried out to find if climbers differ from self-supporting vegetation in their adjustment of leaf parameters over a wide variety of light regimes in different forest types along an altitudinal gradient. Relative photon flux density (PFDrel) was assessed above 75 pairs of strictly linked climbers and supporting vegetation on seven plots between 2,020 and 2,700 m a.s.l. along a mountain range in South-Ecuador up to the Páramo vegetation. Leaf samples from both growth forms were analyzed for leaf area (LA), specific leaf mass (LMA), mass and area-based carbon and nitrogen concentration (C, Carea, N, and Narea) and concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn and Al. Leaf size of climbers was independent of general light condition, whereas the leaf size of the self-supporting vegetation increased in shade. LMA increased as expected with altitude and irradiance for both growth forms, but climbers generally built smaller leaves with lower LMA. N, P, and K concentrations were higher in the leaves of climbers than in their supporters. Relationships of LMA and Narea to the light conditions were more pronounced within the climbers than within their supporters. Slope for the regression between climber's Narea and LMA was twice as steep as for the supporter leaves. Al accumulators were only found within the self-supporting vegetation. The investigated traits indicate improved adjustment towards light supply within climbers compared to self-supporting vegetation. Thus climbing plants seem to have a higher potential trade off in resource-use efficiency regarding irradiance and nutrients.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZERS, NaHCO3,SOIL TYPE ON CHEMISTRY OF FLOODED SOILS AND RICE PLANT GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ir.Lahuddin M S; Zulkifli Nasution

    2006-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the influence of NaHCO3 and fertilizer treatments on flooded soils to the chemistry of soil and rice plant growth.The experiment was done in a greenhouse using a split-split plot design of three factors: two types of soil, three doses of fertilizers and three levels of NaHCO3 with three replications.The first factor was two kind of soils Fluvaquent and Calciquert, the factor was without nutrient (blank), macro nutrients, and completely nutrients (second macro and micro nutrients), and the third factor was 0 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of NaHCO3 or equivalent with 0 mg, 1 200 mg and 2 400 mg NaHCO3 per pot.Each experimental unit used a pot of 10 L capacity and filled with soil mud equivalent with 6 kg of dried soil.After each of treatment combination mixed into the mud soil, two plants of IR-32 variety were grown, and flooded at 5 cm high accordingly with growth period.Parameters observed were the growth of tillers, electrical conductivity (E.C.) and pH.The experiment results showed that the treatment of NaHCO3 increased the soluble salt content (E.C.) and soil acidity (pH) during flooding on Calciquerts and Fluvaquents.The content of soluble salt decreased to 2.0 mmhos/cm, while pH on Calciquert decreased towards the neutral pH.Anyhow the pH on Fluvaquents increased approach to neutral.The treatments of NaHCO3 inhibited the tiller growth, either macro fertilizer and completely fertilizer increased the tillers, but did not improve the negative effect of alkalinity due to of NaHCO3 treatment.

  10. A reconstruction of Atlantic Central African biomes and forest succession stages derived from modern pollen data and plant functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lebamba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available New detailed vegetation reconstructions are proposed in Atlantic Central Africa from a modern pollen data set derived from 199 sites (Cameroon, Gabon and Congo including 131 new sites. In this study, the concept of plant functional classification is improved with new and more detailed plant functional types (PFTs and new aggregations of pollen taxa. Using the biomisation method, we reconstructed (1 modern potential biomes and (2 potential succession stages of forest regeneration, a new approach in Atlantic Central African vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning reconstruction. When compared to local vegetation, potential biomes are correctly reconstructed (97.5% of the sites and tropical evergreen to semi-evergreen forest (TRFO biome is well identified from semi-deciduous forest (TSFO biome. When the potential biomes are superimposed on the White's vegetation map, only 76.4% of the sites are correctly reconstructed. But using botanical data, correspondence and cluster analyses, the 43 sites from Congo (Mayombe evidence more affinities with those of central Gabon and so they can also be considered as correctly reconstructed as TRFO biome and White's map must be revised. In terms of potential succession stages of forest regeneration, the mature forest (TMFO is well differentiated from the secondary forest (TSFE, but inside this latter group, the young and the pioneer stages are not clearly identified due probably to their low sampling representation. Moreover, linked to their progressive and mosaic character, the boundaries between two forest biomes or two forest stages are not clearly detected and need also a more intensive sampling in such transitions.

  11. Light-enhanced dark respiration in leaves, isolated cells and protoplasts of various types of C4 plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parys, Eugeniusz; Jastrzebski, Hubert

    2006-04-01

    The rate of respiratory CO2 evolution from the leaves of Zea mays, Panicum miliaceum, and Panicum maximum, representing NADP-ME, NAD-ME, and PEP-CK types of C4 plants, respectively, was increased by approximately two to four times after a period of photosynthesis. This light-enhanced dark respiration (LEDR) was a function of net photosynthetic rate specific to plant species, and was depressed by 1% O2. When malate, aspartate, oxaloacetate or glycine solution at 50 mM concentration was introduced into the leaves instead of water, the rate of LEDR was enhanced, far less in Z. mays (by 10-25%) than in P. miliaceum (by 25-35%) or P. maximum (by 40-75%). The enhancement of LEDR under glycine was relatively stable over a period of 1 h, whereas the remaining metabolites caused its decrease following a transient increase. The metabolites reduced the net photosynthesis rate in the two Panicum species, but not in Z. mays, where this process was stimulated by glycine. The bundle sheath cells from P. miliaceum exhibited a higher rate of LEDR than those of Z. mays and P. maximum. Glycine had no effect on the respiration rate of the cells, but malate increased in cells of Z. mays and P. miliaceum by about 50% and 30%, respectively. With the exception of aspartate, which stimulated both the O2 evolution and O2 uptake in P. maximum, the remaining metabolites reduced photosynthetic O2 evolution from bundle sheath cells in Panicun species. The net O2 exchange in illuminated cells of Z. mays did not respond to CO2 or metabolites. Leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Z. mays and P. miliaceum, and bundle sheath protoplasts of Z. mays, which are unable to fix CO2 photosynthetically, also produced LEDR, but the mesophyll protoplasts, compared with bundle sheath protoplasts, required twice the time of illumination to obtain the maximal rate. The results suggest that the substrates for LEDR in C4 plants are generated during a period of illumination not only via the Calvin cycle reactions, but

  12. Improved representation of plant functional types and physiology in the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES v4.2) using plant trait information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Anna B.; Cox, Peter M.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Wiltshire, Andy J.; Jones, Chris D.; Sitch, Stephen; Mercado, Lina M.; Groenendijk, Margriet; Robertson, Eddy; Kattge, Jens; Bönisch, Gerhard; Atkin, Owen K.; Bahn, Michael; Cornelissen, Johannes; Niinemets, Ülo; Onipchenko, Vladimir; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Lourens; Reich, Peter B.; Soudzilovskaia, Nadjeda A.; van Bodegom, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic global vegetation models are used to predict the response of vegetation to climate change. They are essential for planning ecosystem management, understanding carbon cycle-climate feedbacks, and evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on global ecosystems. JULES (the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) represents terrestrial processes in the UK Hadley Centre family of models and in the first generation UK Earth System Model. Previously, JULES represented five plant functional types (PFTs): broadleaf trees, needle-leaf trees, C3 and C4 grasses, and shrubs. This study addresses three developments in JULES. First, trees and shrubs were split into deciduous and evergreen PFTs to better represent the range of leaf life spans and metabolic capacities that exists in nature. Second, we distinguished between temperate and tropical broadleaf evergreen trees. These first two changes result in a new set of nine PFTs: tropical and temperate broadleaf evergreen trees, broadleaf deciduous trees, needle-leaf evergreen and deciduous trees, C3 and C4 grasses, and evergreen and deciduous shrubs. Third, using data from the TRY database, we updated the relationship between leaf nitrogen and the maximum rate of carboxylation of Rubisco (Vcmax), and updated the leaf turnover and growth rates to include a trade-off between leaf life span and leaf mass per unit area.Overall, the simulation of gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP, respectively) is improved with the nine PFTs when compared to FLUXNET sites, a global GPP data set based on FLUXNET, and MODIS NPP. Compared to the standard five PFTs, the new nine PFTs simulate a higher GPP and NPP, with the exception of C3 grasses in cold environments and C4 grasses that were previously over-productive. On a biome scale, GPP is improved for all eight biomes evaluated and NPP is improved for most biomes - the exceptions being the tropical forests, savannahs, and extratropical mixed forests where simulated NPP is too

  13. Metabolic Engineering of Plant-derived (E)-β-farnesene Synthase Genes for a Novel Type of Aphid-resistant Genetically Modified Crop Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Dao Yu; John Pickett; You-Zhi Ma; Toby Bruce; Johnathan Napier; Huw D.Jones; Lan-Qin Xia

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major agricultural pests that cause significant yield losses of crop plants each year.Excessive dependence on insecticides for long-term aphid control is undesirable because of the development of insecticide resistance,the potential negative effects on non-target organisms and environmental pollution.Transgenic crops engineered for resistance to aphids via a non-toxic mode of action could be an efficient alternative strategy.(E)-β-Farnesene (EβF) synthases catalyze the formation of EβF,which for many pest aphids is the main component of the alarm pheromone involved in the chemical communication within these species.EβF can also be synthesized by certain plants but is then normally contaminated with inhibitory compounds.Engineering of crop plants capable of synthesizing and emitting EβF could cause repulsion of aphids and also the attraction of natural enemies that use EβF as a foraging cue,thus minimizing aphid infestation.In this review,the effects of aphids on host plants,plants' defenses against aphid herbivory and the recruitment of natural enemies for aphid control in an agricultural setting are briefly introduced.Furthermore,the plant-derived EβF synthase genes cloned to date along with their potential roles in generating novel aphid resistance via genetically modified approaches are discussed.

  14. Mapping Plant Functional Types over Broad Mountainous Regions: A Hierarchical Soft Time-Space Classification Applied to the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlu Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on global climate change requires plant functional type (PFT products. Although several PFT mapping procedures for remote sensing imagery are being used, none of them appears to be specifically designed to map and evaluate PFTs over broad mountainous areas which are highly relevant regions to identify and analyze the response of natural ecosystems. We present a methodology for generating soft classifications of PFTs from remotely sensed time series that are based on a hierarchical strategy by integrating time varying integrated NDVI and phenological information with topography: (i Temporal variability: a Fourier transform of a vegetation index (MODIS NDVI, 2006 to 2010. (ii Spatial partitioning: a primary image segmentation based on a small number of thresholds applied to the Fourier amplitude. (iii Classification by a supervised soft classification step is based on a normalized distance metric constructed from a subset of Fourier coefficients and complimentary altitude data from a digital elevation model. Applicability and effectiveness is tested for the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A classification nomenclature is determined from temporally stable pixels in the MCD12Q1 time series. Overall accuracy statistics of the resulting classification reveal a gain of about 7% from 64.4% compared to 57.7% by the MODIS PFT products.

  15. The Diversity of Pea Microsymbionts in Various Types of Soils and Their Effects on Plant Host Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielbo, Jerzy; Podleśna, Anna; Kidaj, Dominika; Podleśny, Janusz; Skorupska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The growth and yield of peas cultivated on eight different soils, as well as the diversity of pea microsymbionts derived from these soils were investigated in the present study. The experimental plot was composed of soils that were transferred from different parts of Poland more than a century ago. The soils were located in direct vicinity of each other in the experimental plot. All soils examined contained pea microsymbionts, which were suggested to belong to Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. viciae based on the nucleotide sequence of the partial 16S rRNA gene. PCR-RFLP analyses of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS region and nodD alleles revealed the presence of numerous and diversified groups of pea microsymbionts and some similarities between the tested populations, which may have been the result of the spread or displacement of strains. However, most populations retained their own genetic distinction, which may have been related to the type of soil. Most of the tested populations comprised low-effective strains for the promotion of pea growth. No relationships were found between the characteristics of soil and symbiotic effectiveness of rhizobial populations; however, better seed yield was obtained for soil with medium biological productivity inhabited by high-effective rhizobial populations than for soil with high agricultural quality containing medium-quality pea microsymbionts, and these results showed the importance of symbiosis for plant hosts.

  16. Plant Type and Its Effects on Canopy Structure at Heading Stage in Various Ecological Areas for a Two-line Hybrid Rice Combination, Liangyoupeijiu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Chuan-gen; HU Ning; YAO Ke-min; XIA Shi-jian; QI Qing-ming

    2010-01-01

    A two-line hybrid rice combination, Liangyoupeijiu, was used to estimate several factors of plant type, and environmental models for these factors at the heading stage were established using the data of eight ecological experimental sites in 2006 and 2007. According to climatic data from 1951 to 2005, the differences in those factors and their effects on plant canopy were analyzed for four rice cropping areas in China, including South China, the middle-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Sichuan Basin, and river valley in Yunnan, China. The thickness of leaf layer (the distance from pulvinus of the third leaf from the top to the tip of flag leaf) and distribution of leaf area could be used as candidate indices for the plant type of a rice canopy.

  17. Photosynthetic Characterization of Plant Functional Types from Coastal Tundra to Improve Representation of the Arctic in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.; Xu, C.; McDowell, N. G.; Sloan, V. L.; Norby, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of Earth System Models (ESMs) is to improve understanding and projection of future global change. In order to do this they must accurately represent the carbon fluxes associated with the terrestrial carbon cycle. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake is well described by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry model of photosynthesis, and most ESMs use a derivation of this model. One of the key parameters required by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry model is an estimate of the maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco (Vc,max). In ESMs the parameter Vc,max is usually fixed for a given plant functional type (PFT) and often estimated from the empirical relationship between leaf N content and Vc,max. However, uncertainty in the estimation of Vc,max has been shown to account for significant variation in model estimation of gross primary production, particularly in the Arctic. As part of a new multidisciplinary project to improve the representation of the Arctic in ESMs (Next Generation Ecosystem Experiments - Arctic) we have begun to characterize photosynthetic parameters and N acquisition in the key Arctic PFTs. We measured the response of photosynthesis (A) to internal CO2 concentration (ci) in situ in two sedges (Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum angustifolium), a grass (Dupontia fisheri) and a forb (Petasites frigidus) growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, AK. The values of Vc,max (normalized to 25oC) currently used to represent Arctic PFTs in ESMs are approximately half of the values we measured in these species in July, 2012, on the coastal tundra in Barrow. We hypothesize that these plants have a greater fraction of leaf N invested in Rubisco (FLNR) than is assumed by the models. The parameter Vc,max is used directly as a driver for respiration in some ESMs, and in other ESMs Vc,max is linked to leaf N content and N acquisition through FLNR. Therefore, these results have implications for ESMs beyond photosynthesis, and suggest that

  18. The Effects of Peatland Plant Functional Types and Altered Hydrology on Porewater Chemistry in a Northern Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A.; Kane, E. S.; Lilleskov, E. A.; Kolka, R. K.; Chimner, R. A.; Potvin, L. R.; Romanowicz, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Northern wetlands, peatlands in particular, have been shown to store around 30% of the world's soil carbon and thus play a significant role in the carbon cycle of our planet. Carbon accumulation in peatlands is the result of retarded decomposition due to low oxygen availability in these water-logged environments. Changes in our planet's climate cycles are altering peatland hydrology and vegetation communities, resulting in changes in their ability to sequester carbon through increases in peat carbon oxidation and mineralization. To date, the consequences of altered hydrology and changes in vegetation communities, and their interactive effects on carbon storage, are not well understood. We have initiated a research plan that assesses the varying roles that water table variation and vegetation communities have on extracellular enzyme activity and labile carbon availability in porewater from an ombrotrophic bog. We assessed the effects of plant functional group (ericaceous shrubs, sedges, and bryophytes) and water table position on biogeochemical processes. Specifically, we measured dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), enzyme activity, organic acids, anions and cations, spectral indexes of aromaticity, and phenolic content in addressing our hypotheses of responses to climate change drivers. Research on these components will evaluate the relative importance of biology, water table, and their interactive affects on the porewater quality of peatlands. We hypothesized that oxygen availability will strongly influence decomposition in these systems but that this response will largely be mediated by changes in plant community and the enzymes associated with root exudates and mycorrhizae. To date, our data confirm vegetation and water table related patterns. Acetate and propionate concentrations in the sedge-dominated communities dropped significantly with depth and drainage, relative to the control and ericaceous treatments, which likely reflects

  19. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  20. Woody plants diversity and type of vegetation in non cultivated plain of Moutourwa, Far-North, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Todou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to valorize the wild vegetal resources for the efficient conservation and sustainable use in sahelo-sudanian zone in Cameroon, a study of non cultivated plain of Moutourwa was carry out to assess the floristic richness, the specific diversity and the type of vegetation. The inventory of all trees and shrubs (dbh ? 2.5 cm and the determination of the vegetation cover were done in five linear transects (20 m × 1000 m. In total, 27 families, 54 genera and 75 species were found. Caesalpinaceae is the most abundant family that relative abundance (pi*100 is 34.41%, the most abundant genus was Piliostigma (pi*100 = 30.66% and the most represented species was Piliostigma reticulatum (pi*100 = 29.56%; D = 53.6 stems/ha. The Simpson index (E= 0.89, the Shannon index (H= 3.2 and the equitability index of Pielou (J= 0.74 indicated that there were moderate diversity with more or less equitable species. The wild fruits species were numerous (pi*100 = 32.76%; D = 59.7 stems/ha. A. senegalensis is was the most represented (pi*100 = 9.04 ; D = 16.4 followed by Hexalobus monopetalus (pi*100 = 5.16 ; D = 9.4 and Balanites aegyptiaca (pi*100 = 3.69 ; D = 6.7. These results contribute efficaciously to valorize the wild vegetal resources for efficient conservation and sustainable use. Keywords: Woody plants diversity, conservation, sustainable use, sahelo-sudanian, Moutourwa

  1. The role of cis-zeatin-type cytokinins in plant growth regulation and mediating responses to environmental interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Martin; Brütting, Christoph; Meza-Canales, Ivan David;

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are well-established as important phytohormonal regulators of plant growth and development. An increasing number of studies have also revealed the function of these hormones in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. While the function of certain CK classes, including tra...

  2. Is time running out for US energy merchant companies? Part III: The prospects for principal recovery, by region and plant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, P. [McGraw-Hill Co. (USA). Standard & Poor' s

    2003-03-01

    Parts I and II of this article detailed the signs of distress in the US energy merchant sector that lenders should look for and the analytic issues they should consider in estimating load-recovery prospects if a generator defaults. This final instalment presents three examples that illustrate how Standard and Poor's loss recovery valuation analyses for secured power loans take into account variations in regional markets and plant type. Coal-MAAC, which is an example of how favourable recoveries in default could be, is a baseload, coal-fired plant that has undergone extensive retrofit work since its former owner divested it. 3 figs.

  3. Study of phytochelatins and other related thiols as complexing biomolecules of As and Cd in wild type and genetically modified Brassica juncea plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaza, Ana Pereira; Montes-Bayón, Maria; LeDuc, Danika L; Terry, Norman; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2006-03-01

    The accumulation of As and Cd in Brassica juncea plants and the formation of complexes of these elements with bioligands such as glutathione and/or phytochelatins (PCs) is studied. The genetic manipulation of these plants to induce higher As and Cd accumulation has been achieved by overexpressing the genes encoding for gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (gamma-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). These two enzymes are responsible for glutathione (GSH) formation in plants, which is the first step in the production of PCs. The biomass produced in both the wild type and the genetically modified plants, has been evaluated. Additionally, the total Cd and As concentration accumulated in the plant tissues was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after extraction. Speciation studies on the extracts were conducted using size exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled online with ICP-MS to monitor As, Cd and S. For further purification of the As fractions, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used. Structural elucidation of the PCs and other thiols, as well as their complexes with As and Cd, was performed by electrospray-quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI-Q-TOF). In both the Cd and As exposed plants it was possible to observe the presence of oxidized PC2 ([M + H]+, m/z 538), GS-PC2(-Glu) ([M + H]+, m/z 716) as well as reduced GSH ([M + H]+, m/z 308) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ([M + H]+, m/z 613). However, only the GS plants exhibited the presence of As(GS)3 complex ([M + H]+, m/z 994) that was further confirmed by MS/MS. This species is reported for the first time in B. juncea plant tissues.

  4. Impacts of different plant functional types on ambient ozone predictions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas (SMA, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-K. Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant functional type (PFT distributions affect the results of biogenic emission modeling as well as O3 and PM simulations using chemistry-transport models (CTMs. This paper analyzes the variations of both surface biogenic VOC emissions and O3 concentrations due to changes in the PFT distributions in the Seoul Metropolitan Areas, Korea. Also, this paper attempts to provide important implications for biogenic emissions modeling studies for CTM simulations. MM5-MEGAN-SMOKE-CMAQ model simulations were implemented over the Seoul Metropolitan Areas in Korea to predict surface O3 concentrations for the period of 1 May to 31 June 2008. Starting from MEGAN biogenic emissions analysis with three different sources of PFT input data, US EPA CMAQ O3 simulation results were evaluated by surface O3 monitoring datasets and further considered on the basis of geospatial and statistical analyses. The three PFT datasets considered were "(1KORPFT", developed with a region specific vegetation database; (2 CDP, adopted from US NCAR; and (3 MODIS, reclassified from the NASA Terra and Aqua combined land cover products. Comparisons of MEGAN biogenic emission results with the three different PFT data showed that broadleaf trees (BT are the most significant contributor, followed by needleleaf trees (NT, shrub (SB, and herbaceous plants (HB to the total biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. In addition, isoprene from BT and terpene from NT were recognized as significant primary and secondary BVOC species in terms of BVOC emissions distributions and O3-forming potentials in the study domain. Multiple regression analyses with the different PFT data (δO3 vs. δPFTs suggest that KORPFT can provide reasonable information to the framework of MEGAN biogenic emissions modeling and CTM O3 predictions. Analyses of the CMAQ performance statistics suggest that deviations of BT areas can significantly affect CMAQ isoprene and O3 predictions. From further evaluations of the

  5. Life time of nuclear power plants and new types of reactors; La duree de vie des centrales nucleaires et les nouveaux types de reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    This report, realized by the Evaluation Parliamentary Office of scientific and technological choices, aims to answer simple but fundamental questions for the french electric power production. What are the phenomena which may limit the exploitation time of nuclear power plants? How can we fight against the aging, at which cost and with which safety? The first chapter presents the management of the nuclear power plants life time, an essential element of the park optimization but not a sufficient element. The second chapter details the EPR and the other reactors for 2015 as a bond between the today and tomorrow parks. The last chapter deals with the necessity of efforts in the research and development to succeed in 2035 and presents other reactors in project. (A.L.B.)

  6. A single recessive gene conferring short leaves in romaine x Latin type lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crosses, and its effect on plant morphology and resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the relationship between plant morphology and disease resistance is crucial to successful breeding, particularly resistance to lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor. Latin type lettuce cultivars are small plants with upright leaves longer than they are wide, similar to romaine type...

  7. Influence of the type of working fluid in the lower cycle and superheated steam parameters in the upper cycle on effectiveness of operation of binary power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachel Aleksander A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper presented have been the results of the analysis of effectiveness of operation of binary power plant consisting of combined two Clausius-Rankine cycles, namely the binary cycle with water as a working fluid in the upper cycle and organic substance as a working fluid in the lower cycle, as well as a single fluid component power plant operating also in line with the C-R cycle for superheated steam, with water as a working fluid. The influence of the parameters of superheated steam in the upper cycle has been assessed as well as the type of working fluid in the lower cycle. The results of calculations have been referred to the single-cycle classical steam power plant operating at the same parameters of superheated steam and the same mass flow rate of water circulating in both cycles. On the basis of accomplished analysis it has been shown that the binary power plant shows a greater power with respect to the reference power plant.

  8. Impact of elevated CO₂ and N addition on bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh ecosystem with various types of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seon-Young; Ding, Weixing; Kang, Hojeong

    2015-06-01

    The individual effects of either elevated CO2 or N deposition on soil microbial communities have been widely studied, but limited information is available regarding the responses of the bacteria, fungi, and archaea communities to both elevated CO2 and N in wetland ecosystems with different types of plants. Using a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-Q-PCR), we compared communities of bacteria, fungi, and archaea in a marsh microcosm with one of seven macrophytes, Typha latifolia, Phragmites japonica, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Scirpus lacustris, Juncus effusus, Phragmites australis, or Zizania latifolia, after exposing them to eCO2 and/or amended N for 110 days. Overall, our results showed that the elevated CO2 and N may affect the bacterial and archaeal communities, while they may not affect the fungal community in terms of both diversity and abundance. The effects of elevated CO2 and N on microbial community vary depending on the plant types, and each microbial community shows different responses to the elevated CO2 and N. In particular, elevated CO2 might force a shift in the archaeal community irrespective of the plant type, and the effect of elevated CO2 was enhanced when combined with the N effect. This study indicates that elevated CO2 and N addition could lead to changes in the community structures of bacteria and archaea. Our results also suggest that the fungal group is less sensitive to external changes, while the bacterial and archaeal groups are more sensitive to them. Finally, the characteristics of the plant type and relevant physicochemical factors induced by the elevated CO2 and N may be important key factors structuring the microbial community's response to environmental change, which implies the need for a more comprehensive approach to understanding the pattern of the wetland response to climate change.

  9. The method used for justification of engineering solutions for multistage plate-type mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupov, V. B.

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes technical and economic problems associated with the selection of designs of mufflers attached to gas-air ducts of thermal power plants. A method is suggested that makes it possible to determine the dimensions of each stage of plate-type mufflers on the basis of achieving the lowest total discounted costs in order to provide the required acoustical performance at a permissible aerodynamic resistance of a muffler. The condition of the lowest total discounted costs for a multistage muffler, which is valid for different types of mufflers, has been obtained.

  10. PLANT FUNCTIONAL TYPES OF ZONAL WOODY PLANT COMMUNITIES IN RELATION TO HYDROTHERMIC FACTORS%地带性木本植物群落功能型的水热分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国宏

    2002-01-01

    植物功能型是对环境条件做出相似的反应和对关键生态学过程具有相似影响的植物组合.不同功能型植物对生态系统过程的作用不同,通过植物功能型的分析对揭示生态系统功能至关重要.甘肃省境内5种地带性木本植物群落(亚热带常绿落叶阔叶林、暖温带落叶阔叶林、温带针阔混交林、寒温性针叶林和荒漠旱生灌木群落)依据植物体的高度、叶片的生长对策及果实类型可划分出23种功能型.其分布格局与水热因子的相关分析表明:1)湿热的生境利于乔木、大灌木、藤木、寄生植物和常绿植物及翅果、坚果、核果、NFDA5NFDA6果、颖果类植物的发育,干冷生境利于灌木、小灌木和落叶植物以及蒴果类植物的发育.2)干果类和肉果类的成因可能与植物生长环境中水分供应状况密切相关,即潮湿的生境利于肉果类植物的发育,干旱的生境有利于干果类(如胞果)的发育.3)研究区域地带性木本植物群落物种丰富度和功能型的丰富度格局主要受制于水分梯度影响,而良好的水热组合可孕育木本植物群落最丰富的果实类型.%Plant functional types can be defined as sets of plants exhibiting similar responses to environmental variations and having similar effects on the dominant processes in ecosystems. In the present paper, 23 plant functional types were identified from five zonal woody plant communities occurred in Gansu province, NW of China. This paper has made some explorations on the relationship between the patterns of zonal woody plant functional types and the hydrothermic factors to which they subjected. Some conclusions are as follows: Environments with warm-humid combinations would result in well-developed plant communities characterized by arbor, big shrubs, lianas and parasites as the dominant life forms and key fruit, nut, drupe, follicle, caryopsis as the dominant fruit types, while dry

  11. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Laurids Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  12. Final Report for DE-FG02-04ER15626: P-type ATPases in Plants – Role of Lipid Flippases in Membrane Biogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Jeffrey F. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-02-24

    The long-range goal of the research is to understand the structure and biological functions of different P-type ATPases (ion pumps) in plant cells, and to use that knowledge to enhance the production of bioenergy from plants, or plant-research inspired technologies. Ptype ATPases include ion pumps that specifically transport H+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, K+, or Na+, as well as at least one unusual subfamily that appears to function as lipid flippases, flipping specific lipids from one side of a membrane bilayer to the other. As a group, P-type ATPases are thought to consume more than 1/3 of the cellular ATP in typical eukaryotic cells. Recent research in the Harper lab focused on understanding the biochemical and biological functions of P-type ATPases that flip lipids. These flippases belong to the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases. The activity of lipid flippases is thought to induce membrane curvature and/or create an asymmetry in which certain lipid head groups are preferential exposed to one surface or the other. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are 12 members of this family referred to as Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA) 1 to ALA12. Using genetic knockouts, the Harper lab has established that this unusual subfamily of P-type ATPases are critical for plants to cope with even modest changes in temperature (e.g., down to 15°C, or up to 30°C). In addition, members of one subclade are critical for cell expansion, and loss of function mutants result in severe dwarfism. Other members of this same sub-clade are critical for pollen tube growth, and loss of function mutants are sterile under conditions of hot days and cold nights. While the cellular processes that depend on lipid flippases are still unclear, the genetic analysis of loss of function mutants clearly show they are of fundamental importance to plant growth and response to the environment.

  13. Influence of the Asian Monsoon on net ecosystem carbon exchange in two major plant functional types in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kwon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the feedback loops in radiation, temperature, and soil moisture with alterations in rainfall patterns, the influence of the changing monsoon on net ecosystem CO2 exchange can be critical to the estimation of carbon balance in Asia. In this paper, we examined the eddy covariance CO2 fluxes observed from 2004 to 2008 in two major plant functional types in KoFlux, i.e., the Gwangneung deciduous forest (GDK site and the Haenam farmland (HFK site. The objectives of the study were to (1 quantify the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE, ecosystem respiration (RE, and gross primary production (GPP, (2 examine their interannual patterns, and (3 assess the mechanism for the coupling of carbon and water exchange associated with the summer monsoon. The GDK site, which had a maximum leaf area index (LAI of ~5, was on average a relatively weak carbon sink with NEE of −84 gC m−2 y−1, RE of 1028 gC m−2 y−1, and GPP of 1113 gC m−2 y−1. Despite about 20% larger GPP (of 1321 gC m−2 y−1 in comparison with the GDK site, the HFK site (with the maximum LAI of 3 to 4 was a weaker carbon sink with NEE of −58 gC m−2 y−1 because of greater RE of 1263 gC m−2 y−1. In both sites, the annual patterns of NEE and GPP had a striking "mid-season depression" each year with two distinctive peaks of different timing and magnitude, whereas RE did not. The mid-season depression at the GDK site occurred typically from early June to late August, coinciding with the season of summer monsoon when the solar radiation decreased substantially due to frequent rainfalls and cloudiness. At the HFK site, the mid-season depression began earlier in May and continued until the end of July due to land use management (e.g., crop rotation in addition to such disturbances as summer monsoon and typhoons

  14. Assessment of Plant Functional Types in Tropical Arid and Semi-Arid Ecosystems of India Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Krishna, P. Hari; Murthy, M. S. R.

    2011-09-01

    Tropical ecosystems undergo changes caused by season, climate or multiple anthropogenic impacts. Such changes may cause gradual or rapid shifts from one state to another. There has been a focus on functional classifications of plants to find tools for monitoring and assessing species status in changing environments. It has been recognised that plant biological characteristics can be related to their response to predominant environmental factors and interactions between other organisms. These findings have resulted in a search for plant functional types (PFTs) that are user-defined groups of species with similar response to environmental resources and disturbance associated to common biological traits. Now, identification of plant functional types is priority area in the climate change research. Satellite Earth observation data is an important tool in providing considerable information on extracting PFT information at global and regional levels. From the modelling perspective, some of the current needs are the refinement of processes that govern community assembly, such as natural and anthropogenic disturbances. PFTs used in large-scale models are insufficient to represent the diversity of responses in natural plant communities. The currently available MODIS PFT map was generated by re-labeling the IGBP land cover type classes. However, the error magnitudes of the MODIS PFT product and their spatial and temporal distributions have not been fully characterized. Remotely sensed derived information of the phenology, community composition and vegetation structure are the key inputs to integrate with the variability in precipitation and temperature to map the spatial distribution of Plant functional types. PFTs allows accurate representation of the land surface by separately specifying the composition and structure of PFTs within a grid cell. Very little research efforts are discernible in India that explicitly address the PFTs. In the present study five natural

  15. 浅析聚甲醛装置中界面计的选型%Brief Discussion on Interface Meter Type Selection for POM Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽; 任红宇

    2012-01-01

    Interface meter is widely applied to measure two immiscible liquid interfaces in petrochemical and chemical plant. The interface measurement to extraction tower is very important in POM plant, and it directly affects the purity of reactant and product quality. The principle and characteristics of several traditional interface meters are briefly introduced. Combined with two typical actual working conditions in POM plant, the type selection is discussed in detail. The application of RF admittance interface meter in POM plant is described. The principle and notes for type selection is disclosed. It can be used as reference of interface meter type selection in other projects.%在石化、化工生产中,界面计广泛用于两种互不相溶液体的界面测量。萃取塔的界面测量在聚甲醛装置中起重要作用,直接影响到反应物的纯度以及产品的质量。简述了几种常见界面计的测量原理及特点,结合聚甲醛装置中两种比较典型的实际工况逐一分析了界面计的选型,介绍了射频导纳界面计在聚甲醛项目中的应用,简述了界面计选型的原则及注意事项,供其他工程中界面计的设计选型借鉴参考。

  16. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  17. Optimizing stomatal conductance for maximum carbon gain under water stress: A meta-analysis across plant functional types and climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomatal responses to environmental variables, in particular atmospheric CO2 concentration and soil water status, are needed for quantifying the controls on carbon and water exchanges between plants and the atmosphere. Building on previous leaf-scale gas exchange models and stomatal optimality theor...

  18. The re-discovered Maculinea rebeli (Hirschke, 1904: Host ant usage, parasitoid and initial food plant around the type locality with taxonomical aspects (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Tartally

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the myrmecophilous Maculinea alcon group (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae is highly debated. The host-plant and host-ant usage of these butterflies have conventionally been important in their identification. Maculinea ‘rebeli’ has generally been considered to be the xerophilous form of Ma. alcon (Ma. alcon X hereafter with Gentiana cruciata as initial food plant. However, the type locality and all other known sites of Ma. rebeli are found above the coniferous zone, and are well separated from the lower regions where Ma. alcon X sites are found. Furthermore, no food plant and host ant data for the nominotypic Ma. rebeli have yet been published. Our aim was therefore to identify the host ant(s of Ma. rebeli around the type locality and compare this with the host ant usage of nearby Ma. alcon X. Nests of Myrmica spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae close to the host plants were opened on one Ma. alcon X (host plant: Gentiana cruciata and two Ma. rebeli (host plant: Gentianella rhaetica, first record, confirmed by oviposition and emerging larvae sites just before the flying period, to find prepupal larvae and pupae. Three Myrmica species (My. lobulicornis, My. ruginodis, My. sulcinodis were found on the two Ma. rebeli sites, which parasitized exclusively My. sulcinodis (22 individuals in 7 nests. On the Ma. alcon X site Myrmica sabuleti and My. lonae were found, with My. sabuleti the exclusive host (51 individuals in 10 nests. Ichneumon cf. eumerus parasitized both butterflies. The results highlight the differentiation of Maculinea rebeli from Ma. alcon X, from both conservation biological and ecological points of view. Thus, it should be concluded that Ma. rebeli does not simply represent an individual form of Ma. alcon but it can be considered as at least an ecological form adapted to high mountain conditions both in its initial food plant and host ant species. In addition, it should be emphasized that Ma. alcon X (= Ma. rebeli auct. nec

  19. Five types of olfactory receptor neurons in the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi: selective responses to inducible host-plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichão, Helena; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Araújo, Jorge; Mustaparta, Hanna

    2005-02-01

    Plants release hundreds of volatiles that are important in the interaction with herbivorous animals, but which odorants are detected by which species? In this study, single receptor neurons on the antenna of the oligophagous strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi were screened for sensitivity to naturally produced plant compounds by the use of gas chromatography linked to electrophysiological recordings from single cells. The narrow tuning of the neurons was demonstrated by responses solely to a few structurally related sesquiterpenes, aromatics or monoterpene hydrocarbons out of hundreds of plant constituents tested. We present five olfactory receptor neuron types, identified according to one primary odorant i.e. the compound to which the neurons are most sensitive. These odorants, (-)-germacrene D, (-)-beta-caryophyllene, methyl salicylate, E-beta-ocimene and (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, present in the intact strawberry plant, are induced in higher amounts by weevil feeding. This suggests that these compounds can provide information about the presence of conspecifics. We used protocols especially designed to allow comparison with previously investigated species. Striking similarities, but also differences, are demonstrated between receptor neuron specificity in the strawberry weevil and moths.

  20. Plant functional types are more efficient than climate in predicting spectrums of trait variation in evergreen angiosperm trees of tropical Australia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, H. F.; Prentice, I. C. C.; Atkin, O. K.; Bloomfield, K. J.; Bradford, M.; Weerasinghe, L. K.; Harrison, S. P.; Evans, B. J.; Liddell, M. J.; Wang, H.; Cao, K. F.; Fan, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of Plant Functional Types (PFTs) in current generation of Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) is excessively simplistically. Key ecophysiological properties, such as photosynthesis biochemistry, are most times merely averaged and trade-off with other plant traits is often neglected. Validation of a PFT framework based in photosynthetic process is crucial to improve reliability of DGVMs. We present 431 leaf-biochemical and wood level measurements in evergreen angiosperm trees of tropical forests in Australia and China that were divided in four spectrums of plant trait variation: metabolic, structural, hydraulic and height dimensions. Plant traits divided in each of these dimensions adopt survival strategies reflected more clearly by trade-off within each spectrum, and in some extent across spectrums. Co-ordination theory (that Rubisco- and electron-transport limited rates of photosynthesis are co-limiting) and least-coast theory (that intercellular to ambient CO2 concentration minimizes the combined costs per unit carbon assimilation, regulating maximum height and wood density) expectations matched PFT (which takes in account canopy position and light access, and life spam) variation. Our findings suggest that climate (air moisture, air temperature, light) has lower power representing these dimensions, in comparison to the PFT framework.

  1. Estonian soil classification as a tool for recording information on soil cover and its matching with local site types, plant covers and humus forms classifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlli, Raimo; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rannik, Kaire; Krebstein, Kadri

    2015-04-01

    Estonian soil classification (ESC) has been used successfully during more than half of century in soil survey, teaching of soil science, generalization of soil databases, arrangement of soils sustainable management and others. The Estonian normally developed (postlithogenic) mineral soils (form 72.4% from total area) are characterized by mean of genetic-functional schema, where the pedo-ecological position of soils (ie. location among other soils) is given by means of three scalars: (i) 8 stage lithic-genetic scalar (from rendzina to podzols) separates soils each from other by parent material, lithic properties, calcareousness, character of soil processes and others, (ii) 6 stage moisture and aeration conditions scalar (from aridic or well aerated to permanently wet or reductic conditions), and (iii) 2-3 stage soil development scalar, which characterizes the intensity of soil forming processes (accumulation of humus, podzolization). The organic soils pedo-ecological schema, which links with histic postlithogenic soils, is elaborated for characterizing of peatlands superficial mantle (form 23.7% from whole soil cover). The position each peat soil species among others on this organic (peat) soil matrix schema is determined by mean of 3 scalars: (i) peat thickness, (ii) type of paludification or peat forming peculiarities, and (iii) stage of peat decomposition or peat type. On the matrix of abnormally developed (synlithogenic) soils (all together 3.9%) the soil species are positioned (i) by proceeding in actual time geological processes as erosion, fluvial processes (at vicinity of rivers, lakes or sea) or transforming by anthropogenic and technological processes, and (ii) by 7 stage moisture conditions (from aridic to subaqual) of soils. The most important functions of soil cover are: (i) being a suitable environment for plant productivity; (ii) forming adequate conditions for decomposition, transformation and conversion of falling litter (characterized by humus

  2. Engineering of N. benthamiana L. plants for production of N-acetylgalactosamine-glycosylated proteins - towards development of a plant-based platform for production of protein therapeutics with mucin type O-glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalova Sasha M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucin type O-glycosylation is one of the most common types of post-translational modifications that impacts stability and biological functions of many mammalian proteins. A large family of UDP-GalNAc polypeptide:N-acetyl-α-galactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts catalyzes the first step of mucin type O-glycosylation by transferring GalNAc to serine and/or threonine residues of acceptor polypeptides. Plants do not have the enzyme machinery to perform this process, thus restricting their use as bioreactors for production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. Results The present study demonstrates that an isoform of the human GalNAc-Ts family, GalNAc-T2, retains its localization and functionality upon expression in N. benthamiana L. plants. The recombinant enzyme resides in the Golgi as evidenced by the fluorescence distribution pattern of the GalNAc-T2:GFP fusion and alteration of the fluorescence signature upon treatment with Brefeldin A. A GalNAc-T2-specific acceptor peptide, the 113-136 aa fragment of chorionic gonadotropin β-subunit, is glycosylated in vitro by the plant-produced enzyme at the "native" GalNAc attachment sites, Ser-121 and Ser-127. Ectopic expression of GalNAc-T2 is sufficient to "arm" tobacco cells with the ability to perform GalNAc-glycosylation, as evidenced by the attachment of GalNAc to Thr-119 of the endogenous enzyme endochitinase. However, glycosylation of highly expressed recombinant glycoproteins, like magnICON-expressed E. coli enterotoxin B subunit:H. sapiens mucin 1 tandem repeat-derived peptide fusion protein (LTBMUC1, is limited by the low endogenous UDP-GalNAc substrate pool and the insufficient translocation of UDP-GalNAc to the Golgi lumen. Further genetic engineering of the GalNAc-T2 plants by co-expressing Y. enterocolitica UDP-GlcNAc 4-epimerase gene and C. elegans UDP-GlcNAc/UDP-GalNAc transporter gene overcomes these limitations as indicated by the expression of the model LTBMUC1

  3. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, Kevin B; Pasin, Gonca

    2016-07-23

    Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals) that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein) consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars-all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product's glucoregulatory effects.

  4. Emerging Evidence for the Importance of Dietary Protein Source on Glucoregulatory Markers and Type 2 Diabetes: Different Effects of Dairy, Meat, Fish, Egg, and Plant Protein Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars—all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product’s glucoregulatory effects.

  5. Thermodynamic evaluation of supercritical oxy-type power plant with high-temperature three-end membrane for air separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Balicki, Adrian; Michalski, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of `zero-emission' technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670 °C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.

  6. Thermodynamic evaluation of supercritical oxy-type power plant with high-temperature three-end membrane for air separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the technologies which allow to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly of carbon dioxide, special attention deserves the idea of ‘zero-emission’ technology based on boilers working in oxy-combustion technology. In the paper a thermodynamic analysis of supercritical power plant fed by lignite was made. Power plant consists of: 600 MW steam power unit with live steam parameters of 650 °C/30 MPa and reheated steam parameters of 670 °C/6 MPa; circulating fluidized bed boiler working in oxy-combustion technology; air separation unit and installation of the carbon dioxide compression. Air separation unit is based on high temperature membrane working in three-end technology. Models of steam cycle, circulation fluidized bed boiler, air separation unit and carbon capture installation were made using commercial software. After integration of these models the net electricity generation efficiency as a function of the degree of oxygen recovery in high temperature membrane was analyzed.

  7. A Novel Class of Plant Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Orsellinic Acid Biosynthesis from Rhododendron dauricum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taura, Futoshi; Iijima, Miu; Yamanaka, Eriko; Takahashi, Hironobu; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Saeki, Haruna; Morimoto, Satoshi; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Kurosaki, Fumiya; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rhododendron dauricum L. produces daurichromenic acid, the anti-HIV meroterpenoid consisting of sesquiterpene and orsellinic acid (OSA) moieties. To characterize the enzyme responsible for OSA biosynthesis, a cDNA encoding a novel polyketide synthase (PKS), orcinol synthase (ORS), was cloned from young leaves of R. dauricum. The primary structure of ORS shared relatively low identities to those of PKSs from other plants, and the active site of ORS had a unique amino acid composition. The bacterially expressed, recombinant ORS accepted acetyl-CoA as the preferable starter substrate, and produced orcinol as the major reaction product, along with four minor products including OSA. The ORS identified in this study is the first plant PKS that generates acetate-derived aromatic tetraketides, such as orcinol and OSA. Interestingly, OSA production was clearly enhanced in the presence of Cannabis sativa olivetolic acid cyclase, suggesting that the ORS is involved in OSA biosynthesis together with an unidentified cyclase in R. dauricum. PMID:27729920

  8. The Forest Energy Chain in Tuscany: Economic Feasibility and Environmental Effects of Two Types of Biomass District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fagarazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine two biomass district heating plants operating in Tuscany, with a specific focus on the ex-post evaluation of their economic and financial feasibility and of their environmental benefits. The former biomass district heating plant supplies only public users (Comunità Montana della Lunigiana, CML: administrative body that coordinates the municipalities located in mountain areas, the latter supplies both public and private users (Municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana. Ex-post investment analysis was performed to check both the consistency of results with the forecasts made in the stage of the project design and on the factors, which may have reduced or jeopardized the estimated economic performance of the investment (ex-ante assessment. The results of the study point out appreciable results only in the case of biomass district heating plants involving private users and fuelled by biomasses sourced from third parties. In this case, the factors that most influence ex-post results include the conditions of the woody biomass local market (market prices, the policies of energy selling prices to private users and the temporal dynamics of private users’ connection. To ensure the consistency of ex-post economic outcome with the expected results it is thus important to: (i have good knowledge of the woody local market; (ii define energy selling prices that should be cheap for private users but consistent with energy production costs and (iii constrain private users beforehand to prevent errors in the plant design and in the preliminary estimate of return on investment. Moreover, the results obtained during the monitoring activities could help in providing information on the effectiveness of the supporting measures adopted and also to orient future choices of policy makers and particularly designers, to identify the most efficient configuration of district heating organization for improving energy and

  9. Plant hydraulic responses to long-term dry season nitrogen deposition alter drought tolerance in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovaroff, Alexandria L; Santiago, Louis S; Vourlitis, George L; Grantz, David A; Allen, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition represents a significant N input for many terrestrial ecosystems. N deposition can affect plants on scales ranging from photosynthesis to community composition, yet few studies have investigated how changes in N availability affect plant water relations. We tested the effects of N addition on plant water relations, hydraulic traits, functional traits, gas exchange, and leaf chemistry in a semi-arid ecosystem in Southern California using long-term experimental plots fertilized with N for over a decade. The dominant species were Artemisia california and Salvia mellifera at Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve and Adenostoma fasciculatum and Ceanothus greggii at Sky Oaks Field Station. All species, except Ceanothus, showed increased leaf N concentration, decreased foliar carbon to N ratio, and increased foliar N isotopic composition with fertilization, indicating that added N was taken up by study species, yet each species had a differing physiological response to long-term N addition. Dry season predawn water potentials were less negative with N addition for all species except Adenostoma, but there were no differences in midday water potentials, or wet season water potentials. Artemisia was particularly responsive, as N addition increased stem hydraulic conductivity, stomatal conductance, and leaf carbon isotopic composition, and decreased wood density. The alteration of water relations and drought resistance parameters with N addition in Artemisia, as well as Adenostoma, Ceanothus, and Salvia, indicate that N deposition can affect the ability of native Southern California shrubs to respond to drought.

  10. Physical features of small disperse coal dust fraction transportation and structurization processes in iodine air filters of absorption type in ventilation systems at nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01

    The research on the physical features of transportation and structurization processes by the air-dust aerosol in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal adsorbent granules in an air filter of the adsorption type in the heating ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system at the nuclear power plant is completed. The physical origins of the coal dust masses distribution along the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules during the air-dust aerosol intake process in the near the surface layer of absorber are researched. The quantitative technical characteristics of air filtering elements, which have to be considered during the optimization of air filters designs for the application in the ventilation systems at the nuclear power plants, are obtained.

  11. Improvement of boreal vegetation modelling and climate interactions through the introduction of new bryophyte and artic-shrub plant functional types in a land surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druel, Arsène; Krinner, Gerhard; Peylin, Philippe; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Peregon, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Boreal and tundra vegetation, which represents 22% of the global land area, has had a significant impact on climate through changes of albedo, snow cover, soil thermal dynamics, etc. However, it is frequently poorly represented in earth system models used for climate predictions. We improved the description of high-latitude vegetation and its interactions with the environment in the ORCHIDEE land surface model by creating new plant functional types with specific biogeochemical and biophysical properties: boreal shrubs, bryophytes (mosses and lichens) and boreal C3 grasses. The introduction of shrub specificities allows for an intermediate stratum between trees and grasses, with a new carbon allometry within the plant, inducing new interactions between wooden species and their environment, especially the complex snow-shrubs interaction. Similarly, the introduction of non-vascular plants (i.e. bryophytes) involves numerous changes both in physical and biological processes, such as the response of photosynthesis to surface humidity, the decomposition of carbon and the soil thermal conductivity. These changes in turn lead to new processes and interactions between vegetation and moisture (soil and air), carbon cycle, energy balance, etc. For the boreal C3 grasses we did not include new processes compared to the generic C3 grass PFT, but improved the realism of the carbon and water budgets with new boreal adjusted parameters. We assess the performance of the modified ORCHIDEE land surface model and in particular its ability to represent the new plant types (their phenology etc.), and evaluate the effects of these new PFTs on the simulated energy, water and carbon balances of boreal ecosystems. The potential impact of these refinements on future climate simulations will be discussed.

  12. Modelling of habitat conditions by self-organizing feature maps using relations between soil, plant chemical properties and type of basaltoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kosiba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the use of Kohonen's network for classification of basaltoides on the base of chemical properties of soils and Polypodium vulgare L. The study area was Lower Silesia (Poland. The archival data were: chemical composition of types of basaltoides from 89 sites (Al2O3, CaO, FeO, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, P2O5, SiO2 and TiO2, elements contents in soils (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Ti and Zn and leaves of P. vulgare (Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Ni, P, Pb, S, Ti and Zn from 20 sites. Descriptive statistical parameters of soils and leaves chemical properties have been shown, statistical analyses using ANOVA and relationships between chemical elements were carried out, and SOFM models have been constructed. The study revealed that the ordination of individuals and groups of neurons in topological maps of plant and soil chemical properties are similar. The constructed models are related with significantly different contents of elements in plants and soils. These models represent different chemical types of soils and are connected with ordination of types of basaltoides worked out by SOFM model of TAS division. The SOFM appeared to be a useful technique for ordination of ecological data and provides a novel framework for the discovery and forecasting of ecosystem properties.

  13. Non-Invasive Detection of Protein Content in Several Types of Plant Feed Materials Using a Hybrid Near Infrared Spectroscopy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xia; Tang, Shichuan; Li, Guozhen; Zhou, Xingfan

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied to construct a hybrid model for the non-invasive detection of protein content in different types of plant feed materials. In total, 829 samples of plant feed materials, which included corn distillers’ dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, corn gluten meal, distillers’ dried grains (DDG) and rapeseed meal, were collected from markets in China. Based on the different preprocessed spectral data, specific models for each type of plant feed material and a hybrid model for all the materials were built. Performances of specific model and hybrid model constructed with full spectrum (full spectrum model) and selected wavenumbers with VIP (variable importance in the projection) scores value bigger than 1.00 (VIP scores model) were also compared. The best spectral preprocessing method for this study was found to be the standard normal variate transformation combined with the first derivative. For both full spectrum and VIP scores model, the prediction performance of the hybrid model was slightly worse than those of the specific models but was nevertheless satisfactory. Moreover, the VIP scores model obtained generally better performances than corresponding full spectrum model. Wavenumbers around 4500 cm-1, 4664 cm-1 and 4836 cm-1 were found to be the key wavenumbers in modeling protein content in these plant feed materials. The values for the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and the relative prediction deviation (RPD) obtained with the VIP scores hybrid model were 1.05% and 2.53 for corn DDGS, 0.98% and 4.17 for corn germ meal, 0.75% and 6.99 for corn gluten meal, 1.54% and 4.59 for DDG, and 0.90% and 3.33 for rapeseed meal, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that the protein content in several types of plant feed materials can be determined using a hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy model. And VIP scores method can be used to improve the general predictability of

  14. Role of insecticides in reducing thrips injury to plants and incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus in Virginia market-type peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, D Ames; Malone, S; Aref, S; Brandenburg, R L; Jordan, D L; Royals, B M; Johnson, P D

    2007-08-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV), transmitted by many thrips species, is a devastating pathogen of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. TSWV has become a serious problem in the Virginia/Carolina peanut-growing region of the United States. During 2002, TSWV was present in 47% of the North Carolina hectarage and caused a 5% yield reduction in Virginia. Factors influencing levels of TSWV in runner market-type peanut cultivars, which are primarily grown in Alabama, Flordia, Georgia, and Texas, have been integrated into an advisory to help those peanut growers reduce losses. An advisory based on the southeast runner market-type version is currently under development for virginia market-type peanut cultivars that are grown primarily in the Virginia/ Carolina region. A version based on preliminary field experiments was released in 2003. One factor used in both advisories relates to insecticide use to reduce the vector populations and disease incidence. This research elucidated the influence of insecticides on thrips populations, thrips plant injury, incidence of TSWV, and pod yield in virginia market-type peanut. Eight field trials from 2003 to 2005 were conducted at two locations. In-furrow application of aldicarb and phorate resulted in significant levels of thrips control, significant reductions in thrips injury to seedlings, reduced incidence of TSWV, and significant increases in pod yield. Foliar application of acephate after aldicarb or phorate applied in the seed furrow further reduced thrips plant injury and incidence of TSWV and improved yield. These findings will be used to improve the current virginia market-type TSWV advisory.

  15. Science and Measurement Requirements for a Plant Physiology and Functional Types Mission: Measuring the Composition, Function and Health of Global Land and Coastal Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Rogez, Francois; Green, Rob; Ungar, Steve; Knox, Robert; Asner, Greg; Muller-Karger, Frank; Bissett, Paul; Chekalyuk, Alex; Dierssen, Heidi; Gamon, John; Hook, Simon; Meister, Gerhard; Middleton, Betsy; Ollinger, Scott; Roberts, Dar; Siegel, Dave; Townsend, Phil; Saatchi, Sassan; Unstin, Susan; Turner, Woody; Wickland, Diane; Bontempi, Paula; Emanuel, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed Plant Physiology and Functional Types (PPFT) Mission. The National Academy of Sciences Decadal Survey, placed a critical priority on a Mission to observe distribution and changes in ecosystem functions. The PPFT satellite mission provides the essential measurements needed to assess drivers of change in biodiversity and ecosystem services that affect human welfare. The presentation reviews the science questions that the mission will be designed to answer, the science rationale, the science measurements, the mission concept, the planned instrumentation, the calibration method, and key signal to noise ratios and uniformity requirements.

  16. Method for calculating coolant resonance frequencies under normal and accident conditions in nuclear power plants with WWER-type pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, K.N. (Moskovskij Ehnergeticheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-03-01

    Mathematical models are proposed for calculating acoustic oscillation resonance frequencies in the coolant in various components of the WWER type primary circuit (core, steam generator, pressurizer, piping). Due to the correspondence between model calculations and experimental results obtained in operating nuclear power plants, the developed models can be used for practical calculations. The possibility of calculating the eigenfrequencies of the coolant oscillation under different operating conditions leads to the interpretation of operational data, to the analysis of operational conditions, to the detection of coolant boiling in the reactor, and to design changes in order to prevent resonance oscillations within the coolant.

  17. Quantification of Soil-to-Plant Transport of Recombinant Nucleopolyhedrovirus: Effects of Soil Type and Moisture, Air Currents, and Precipitation†

    OpenAIRE

    Fuxa,James R.; Richter, Arthur R.

    2001-01-01

    Significantly more occlusion bodies (OB) of DuPont viral construct HzSNPV-LqhIT2, expressing a scorpion toxin, were transported by artificial rainfall to cotton plants from sandy soil (70:15:15 sand-silt-clay) than from silt (15:70:15) and significantly more from silt than from clay (15:15:70). The amounts transported by 5 versus 50 mm of precipitation were the same, and transport was zero when there was no precipitation. In treatments that included precipitation, the mean number of viable OB...

  18. Bacterial community variation and microbial mechanism of triclosan (TCS) removal by constructed wetlands with different types of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Congcong; Xie, HuiJun; Xu, Jingtao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jingmin

    2015-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antimicrobial agent that is toxic to microbes and other aquatic organisms. Constructed wetlands (CWs) are now popular in TCS removal. However, knowledge on the effects of TCS on the bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs is lacking. The effects of TCS (60 μg L(-1)) on bacterial communities in batch-loaded CWs with emergent (Typha angustifolia), submerged (Hydrilla verticillata), and floating plant (Salvinia natans) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing technology. After six periods of experiment, the TCS removal efficiencies were over 90% in CWs, and negative effects of TCS on bacterial community richness and diversity were observed. Moreover, plant species effect existed. Bacterial strains that contributed to TCS biodegradation in CWs were successfully identified. In TCS-treated T. angustifolia and H. verticillata CWs, beta-Proteobacteria increased by 16.63% and 18.20%, respectively. In TCS-treated S. natans CWs, delta- and gamma-Proteobacteria and Sphingobacteria increased by 9.36%, 19.49%, and 31.37%, respectively, and could relate to TCS biodegradation. TCS affected the development of certain bacteria, and eventually, the bacterial community structures in CWs. This research provided ecologically relevant information on bacterial community and microbial removal mechanism in CWs under TCS treatment.

  19. Long-term reproductive behaviour of woody plants across seven Bornean forest types in the Gunung Palung National Park (Indonesia): suprannual synchrony, temporal productivity and fruiting diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles H; Curran, Lisa M; Marshall, Andrew J; Leighton, Mark

    2007-10-01

    For 68 months, we observed the reproductive behaviour of 7288 woody plants (172 figs, 1457 climbers and 5659 trees) spanning major soil and elevational gradients. Two 2-3 month community-wide supra-annual fruiting events were synchronized across five forest types, coinciding with ENSO events. At least 27 genera in 24 families restricted their reproduction to these events, which involved a substantial proportion of tree diversity (> 80% of phylogenetic diversity). During these events, mean reproductive levels (8.5%) represented an almost four-fold increase compared with other months. These patterns indicate a strong behavioural advantage to this unusual reproductive behaviour. Montane forest experienced a single, separate fruiting peak while the peat swamp forest did not participate. Excluding these events, no temporal reproductive pattern was detectable, at either the landscape or forest type. These phenological patterns have major implications for the conservation of frugivore communities, with montane and swamp forests acting as 'keystone' forests.

  20. Morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types in temperate grasslands along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengyuan; Ma, Linna; Yuan, Shan; Wang, Renzhong

    2017-01-01

    At the species level, plants can respond to climate changes by changing their leaf traits; however, there is scant information regarding the responses of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types (PFTs) to aridity. Herein, the leaf traits of five PFTs representing 17 plant species in temperate grasslands were examined along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China. The results show that leaf thickness in shrubs, perennial grasses and forbs increased with heightened aridity. Trees increased soluble sugar content, but shrubs, perennials and annual grasses enhanced proline accumulation due to increasing aridity. Moreover, vessel diameter and stomatal index in shrubs and perennial grasses decreased with increasing aridity, but stomatal density and vascular diameter of five PFTs were not correlated with water availability. In conclusion, divergences in adaptive strategies to aridity among these PFTs in temperate grasslands were likely caused by differences in their utilization of water resources, which have different temporal and spatial distribution patterns. Leaf traits of shrubs and perennial grasses had the largest responses to variability of aridity through regulation of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits, which was followed by perennial forbs. Trees and annual grasses endured aridity only by adjusting leaf physiological processes. PMID:28106080

  1. Morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types in temperate grasslands along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengyuan; Ma, Linna; Yuan, Shan; Wang, Renzhong

    2017-01-20

    At the species level, plants can respond to climate changes by changing their leaf traits; however, there is scant information regarding the responses of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits of plant functional types (PFTs) to aridity. Herein, the leaf traits of five PFTs representing 17 plant species in temperate grasslands were examined along a large-scale aridity gradient in northeastern China. The results show that leaf thickness in shrubs, perennial grasses and forbs increased with heightened aridity. Trees increased soluble sugar content, but shrubs, perennials and annual grasses enhanced proline accumulation due to increasing aridity. Moreover, vessel diameter and stomatal index in shrubs and perennial grasses decreased with increasing aridity, but stomatal density and vascular diameter of five PFTs were not correlated with water availability. In conclusion, divergences in adaptive strategies to aridity among these PFTs in temperate grasslands were likely caused by differences in their utilization of water resources, which have different temporal and spatial distribution patterns. Leaf traits of shrubs and perennial grasses had the largest responses to variability of aridity through regulation of morphological, physiological and anatomical traits, which was followed by perennial forbs. Trees and annual grasses endured aridity only by adjusting leaf physiological processes.

  2. A Comprehensive Review of the Literature Supporting Recommendations From the Canadian Diabetes Association for the Use of a Plant-Based Diet for Management of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Sylvia; Campbell, Emily E; Fournier, John; O'Connor, Colleen; Madill, Janet

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is considered one of the fastest growing diseases in Canada, representing a serious public health concern. Thus, clinicians have begun targeting modifiable risk factors to manage type 2 diabetes, including dietary patterns such as a plant-based diets (PBDs). The Canadian Diabetes Association has included PBDs among the recommended dietary patterns to be used in medical nutrition therapy for persons with type 2 diabetes. To support knowledge translation, this review summarizes the current literature relating to PBDs and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, its clinical applications and its acceptability in the management of type 2 diabetes as well as its application in community settings. This comprehensive review seeks to close the literature gap by providing background and rationale to support the use of PBDs as medical nutrition therapy. Within this review is support from large observational studies, which have shown that PBDs were associated with lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes. As well, intervention studies have shown that PBDs were just as effective, if not more effective, than other diabetes diets in improving body weight, cardiovascular risk factors, insulin sensitivity, glycated hemoglobin levels, oxidative stress markers and renovascular markers. Furthermore, patient acceptability was comparable to other diabetes diets, and PBDs reduced the need for diabetes medications. Diabetes education centres in Canada could improve patients' perceptions of PBDs by developing PBD-focused education and support as well as providing individualized counselling sessions addressing barriers to change. The development of more standardized and user-friendly PBD practice guidelines could overcome the disparity in recommendations and, thereby, increase how frequently practitioners recommend PBDs. Based on current published research, PBDs lend support in the management of type 2 diabetes.

  3. Molecular typing of Dutch isolates of Xanthomonas arboricola pathovar pruni isolated from ornamental cherry laurel.Journal of Plant Pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma-Vlami, M.; Martin, W.; Koenraadt, H.; Teunissen, H.; Pothier, J.F.; Duffy, B.; Doorn, van J.

    2012-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) has been found in several cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) nurseries in the Netherlands, causing leaf spot. As no information is available yet about the epidemiology of this quarantine bacterium in cherry laurel, molecular typing of Xap isolates can consider

  4. Spatial analysis of plant detritus processing in a Mediterranean River type: the case of the River Tirso Basin, Sardinia, Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The river continuum concept represents the most general framework addressing the spatial variation of both structure and function inriver ecosystems.In the Mediterranean ecoregion, summer drought events and dams constitute the main sources of local disturbance to thestructure and functioning of river ecosystems occurring in the river basin.In this study, we analysed patterns of spatial variation of detritusprocessing in a 7th order river of the Mediterranean ecoregion( River Tirso, Sardinia-Italy) and in three 4th order sub-basins which wereexposed to different summer drought pressures.The study was carried out on Phragmites australis and Alnas glutinosa leaf detritus at 31 fieldsites in seasonal field experiment Detritus processing rates were higher for Alnus glutinosa than for Phragmites australis plant detritus.Processing rates of Alnus glutinosa leaves varied among seasons and study sites from 0.006d-1 to 0.189 d- 1 and those of Phragmites australisleaves ranged from 0.0008 d- 1 to 0.102 d- 1 , with the lowest values occurring at sites exposed to summer drought.Seasons and sites accountedfor a significant proportion of such variability.Alder detritus decay rates generally decreased with increasing stream order, while reed detritusdecay rates generally increased on the same spatial gradient.Summer drought events affected these spatial patterns of variation by influencingsignificantly the decay rates of both plant detritus.The comparisons among and within sub-basins showed strong negative influence of summerdrought on detritus processing rates.Similarly, in the entire River Tirso basin decay rates were always lower at disturbed than at undisturbedsites for each stream order; decay rates of reed detritus remained lower at those sites even after the end of the disturbance events, while alderdecay rates recovered rapidly from the summer drought perturbations.The different recovery of the processing rates of the two leaves could alsoexplain the different patterns of

  5. 玉米RIL群体的主要株型性状调查研究%Studies on Main Plant Type Characters of RIL Population in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 刘小红; 罗绮; 谭振波; 李润植

    2009-01-01

    本研究调查了玉米自交系Mo17、黄早4及由这两个材料构建的F_9代重组自交系(Recombinant inbred line,RIL)群体的株高和穗位高两个株型性状,对这两个性状在群体中的表现用SPSS11.5软件作了描述性统计和相关分析,并构建了频数分布图.结果显示这两个性状在亲本间表现出显著差异;在群体中呈现连续变异,与正态分布曲线拟合较好.该结果为控制这两个性状的数量性状位点(Quantitative trait locus, QTL)的作图研究提供了田间表型数据.%Plant height and ear height of maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines 'Mol7', 'Huangzao 4' and the F9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross between 'Mol7' and 'Huangzao 4' were investigated in this study. According to the data of the RIL population, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and frequency distribution graphs for the two plant type characters were performed with SPSS 11.5 software. The results showed that the two traits were significantly different between the two parental lines, and continuous variations were found in the RIL population. The results provided the phenotypic data in QTL mapping controlling the two plant type characters.

  6. Venus Flytrap HKT1-Type Channel Provides for Prey Sodium Uptake into Carnivorous Plant Without Conflicting with Electrical Excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, J; Scherzer, S; Shabala, S; Krol, E; Neher, E; Mueller, T D; Hedrich, R

    2016-03-01

    The animal diet of the carnivorous Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, contains a sodium load that enters the capture organ via an HKT1-type sodium channel, expressed in special epithelia cells on the inner trap lobe surface. DmHKT1 expression and sodium uptake activity is induced upon prey contact. Here, we analyzed the HKT1 properties required for prey sodium osmolyte management of carnivorous Dionaea. Analyses were based on homology modeling, generation of model-derived point mutants, and their functional testing in Xenopus oocytes. We showed that the wild-type HKT1 and its Na(+)- and K(+)-permeable mutants function as ion channels rather than K(+) transporters driven by proton or sodium gradients. These structural and biophysical features of a high-capacity, Na(+)-selective ion channel enable Dionaea glands to manage prey-derived sodium loads without confounding the action potential-based information management of the flytrap.

  7. Selecting compressor-type refrigeration systems for air conditioning plants. Decision criteria. Auswahl von Kompressionskaeltesystemen fuer Klimaanlagen. Entscheidungskriterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobowsky, H. (YORK International GmbH, Mannheim (Germany))

    1999-03-01

    The economic efficiency of compression-type refrigerating systems has continuously improved in recent years. All constructional elements have meanwhile been adapted to the physical properties of the alternative refrigerants. These developments are aimed at improving the coefficient of performance, reducing leakage, and optimising investment costs. The market is showing a distinct trend towards alternative refrigerants R 134a, R 407C, and NH[sub 3].

  8. Holdings of type specimens of plants in herbaria of China%我国植物模式标本的馆藏量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永

    2012-01-01

    Species diversity is one of the central topics of biodiversity. Type specimens are the permanent vouchers of taxonomic names, and are irreplaceable as a means to safeguard the stability of the nomenclatu-ral system. Holdings of common specimens and type specimens are indices reflecting historical accumulation of botanical studies for a certain country or region. This paper reviews holdings of common specimens and type specimens in herbaria worldwide and those native to China. Overall, we conclude that type collections in herbaria of China are relatively less than the world on average, because plants from China were studied by western botanists for over 400 years before Chinese botanists started to collect specimens and study plants in the early twentieth century. Based on digitization of type specimens housed in native herbaria, it is now urgent to digitize not only type specimens of Chinese herbaria, but also those held in herbaria abroad. In addition, the number of collections per species in Chinese herbaria is much less than the world average. For Chinese botanical researchers, it is important to conduct investigations in poorly studied areas in China and overseas, and to enhance the overall number and representation of specimens for each species.%植物标本是物种存在的永久凭证,模式标本在保障命名体系稳定中有不可替代的作用.标本馆藏量和模式标本数量反映一个国家或地区的历史积累.作者通过对比分析,发现我国的标本馆藏量远低于国际平均水平,模式标本馆藏量也相对较少,历史积累不足.在数字化本土馆藏模式标本基础上,标本数字化平台项目应将国外馆藏的中国植物种类的模式标本“引渡”回国.今后我国植物分类学研究者的重要工作之一是加强空白地区和国外标本采集,提高馆藏标本的代表性.

  9. Commercial-Scale Performance Predictions for High-Temperature Electrolysis Plants Coupled to Three Advanced Reactor Types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. G. McKellar; J. E. O' Brien; J. S. Herring

    2007-09-01

    This report presents results of system analyses that have been developed to assess the hydrogen production performance of commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plants driven by three different advanced reactor – power-cycle combinations: a high-temperature helium cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle, a supercritical CO2-cooled reactor coupled to a direct recompression cycle, and a sodium-cooled fast reactor coupled to a Rankine cycle. The system analyses were performed using UniSim software. The work described in this report represents a refinement of previous analyses in that the process flow diagrams include realistic representations of the three advanced reactors directly coupled to the power cycles and integrated with the high-temperature electrolysis process loops. In addition, this report includes parametric studies in which the performance of each HTE concept is determined over a wide range of operating conditions. Results of the study indicate that overall thermal-to- hydrogen production efficiencies (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) in the 45 - 50% range can be achieved at reasonable production rates with the high-temperature helium cooled reactor concept, 42 - 44% with the supercritical CO2-cooled reactor and about 33 - 34% with the sodium-cooled reactor.

  10. Studies of selected plant raw materials as alternative sources of triterpenes of oleanolic and ursolic acid types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Radosław

    2007-02-07

    The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of triterpene aglycones of saponin fractions isolated from vegetative and generative organs of three Silphium species, Silphium perfoliatum, Silphium trifoliatum, and Silphium integrifolium, as compared to materials used in the herbal industry such as Panax quinquefolium root and Calendula officinalis flower, was performed. The analyses revealed that triterpene aglycones of saponins isolated from tested Silphium and Calendula species were oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. It was found that Panax roots contained only the aglycone of oleanolic acid within the triterpene saponin group. The leaves of Silphium harvested in May were characterized by the highest content of oleanolic acid-They contained 17.03 mg/g dry weight of the triterpenic acid, on average. The seasons before flowering and at the beginning of that stage appeared to be the most efficient periods for leaf collection in reference to triterpene aglycone contents in plant yield. Moreover, it was found that inflorescences of S. trifoliatum and S. integrifolium contained oleanolic acid in amounts of 22.05 and 17.95 mg/g dry weight respectively, whereas Calendula flowers contained 20.53 mg/g dry weight. The oleanolic acid content in Panax roots was 3.15 mg/g dry weight. Ursolic acid most abundantly occurred in S. integrifolium and S. trifoliatum at concentrations of about 14.98 mg/g dry weight in leaves harvested before flowering (June) and to 15.50 mg/g dry weight in leaves collected during flowering.

  11. The Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopJ targets the host cell proteasome to suppress salicylic-acid mediated plant defence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib Üstün

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv requires type III effector proteins (T3Es for virulence. After translocation into the host cell, T3Es are thought to interact with components of host immunity to suppress defence responses. XopJ is a T3E protein from Xcv that interferes with plant immune responses; however, its host cellular target is unknown. Here we show that XopJ interacts with the proteasomal subunit RPT6 in yeast and in planta to inhibit proteasome activity. A C235A mutation within the catalytic triad of XopJ as well as a G2A exchange within the N-terminal myristoylation motif abolishes the ability of XopJ to inhibit the proteasome. Xcv ΔxopJ mutants are impaired in growth and display accelerated symptom development including tissue necrosis on susceptible pepper leaves. Application of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 restored the ability of the Xcv ΔxopJ to attenuate the development of leaf necrosis. The XopJ dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced levels of salicylic acid (SA and changes in defence- and senescence-associated gene expression. Necrosis upon infection with Xcv ΔxopJ was greatly reduced in pepper plants with reduced expression of NPR1, a central regulator of SA responses, demonstrating the involvement of SA-signalling in the development of XopJ dependent phenotypes. Our results suggest that XopJ-mediated inhibition of the proteasome interferes with SA-dependent defence response to attenuate onset of necrosis and to alter host transcription. A central role of the proteasome in plant defence is discussed.

  12. Characterisation of perovskite-type high-temperature membranes used for oxygen supply in fossil fuelled power plant processes; Charakterisierung perowskitischer Hochtemperaturmembranen zur Sauerstoffbereitstellung fuer fossil gefeuerte Kraftwerksprozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebius, Sigrid Annett

    2010-03-12

    In this thesis thermochemical properties of mixed conducting perovskite-type materials were investigated. Those materials are assumed to be applicable as gas separation membranes in the oxyfuel process. Here, the materials are aimed to produce the required oxygen for the combustion more energy-efficient than using cryogenic air separation. High-temperature materials which are applicable for this purpose must be gastight and should exhibit a high oxygen permeation rate and a preferably low thermal expansion coefficient. Moreover, the materials need to be long-term stable under power plant relevant conditions. The aim of this work is a better understanding of the material behaviour. Furthermore, on the basis of the results it should be possible to draw conclusions concerning the suitability of the material for application in oxyfuel power plant processes. Therefor, the influence of the chemical composition (doping elements and stoichiometry) of the perovskites, the temperature and the oxygen content in the ambient atmosphere on the thermochemical properties are studied systematically. In the framework of this thesis it could be stated that the thermochemical behaviour of prospective membrane materials strongly depends on the above mentioned parameters. In addition, the degradation behaviour (thermochemical stability) of the materials was investigated. The degradation behaviour influences the suitability of the material to be used in oxyfuel power plant processes. Here, the influence of the chemical composition of the perovskites, the temperature and the CO{sub 2}-concentration in dry and humid atmospheres was also studied. On the basis of the results it could be stated that the thermochemical stability strongly depends on the surrounding atmosphere and on the chemical composition of the perovskites. (orig.)

  13. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  14. Protein export according to schedule: architecture, assembly, and regulation of type III secretion systems from plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2012-06-01

    Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Involvement of CjMDR1, a plant multidrug-resistance-type ATP-binding cassette protein, in alkaloid transport in Coptis japonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitan, Nobukazu; Bazin, Ingrid; Dan, Kazuyuki; Obata, Kazuaki; Kigawa, Koji; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Sato, Fumihiko; Forestier, Cyrille; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2003-01-01

    Alkaloids comprise one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is preferentially accumulated in the rhizome of Coptis japonica, a ranunculaceous plant, whereas gene expression for berberine biosynthetic enzymes has been observed specifically in root tissues, which suggests that berberine synthesized in the root is transported to the rhizome, where there is high accumulation. We recently isolated a cDNA encoding a multidrug-resistance protein (MDR)-type ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (Cjmdr1) from berberine-producing cultured C. japonica cells, which is highly expressed in the rhizome. Functional analysis of Cjmdr1 by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system showed that CjMDR1 transported berberine in an inward direction, resulting in a higher accumulation of berberine in Cjmdr1-injected oocytes than in the control. Typical inhibitors of ABC proteins, such as vanadate, nifedipine, and glibenclamide, as well as ATP depletion, clearly inhibited this CjMDR1-dependent berberine uptake, suggesting that CjMDR1 functioned as an ABC transporter. Conventional membrane separation methods showed that CjMDR1 was localized in the plasma membrane of C. japonica cells. In situ hybridization indicated that Cjmdr1 mRNA was expressed preferentially in xylem tissues of the rhizome. These findings strongly suggest that CjMDR1 is involved in the translocation of berberine from the root to the rhizome. PMID:12524452

  16. Biosynthesis of biphenyls and benzophenones--evolution of benzoic acid-specific type III polyketide synthases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerhues, Ludger; Liu, Benye

    2009-01-01

    Type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) generate a diverse array of secondary metabolites by varying the starter substrate, the number of condensation reactions, and the mechanism of ring closure. Among the starter substrates used, benzoyl-CoA is a rare starter molecule. Biphenyl synthase (BIS) and benzophenone synthase (BPS) catalyze the formation of identical linear tetraketide intermediates from benzoyl-CoA and three molecules of malonyl-CoA but use alternative intramolecular cyclization reactions to form 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone, respectively. In a phylogenetic tree, BIS and BPS group together closely, indicating that they arise from a relatively recent functional diversification of a common ancestral gene. The functionally diverse PKSs, which include BIS and BPS, and the ubiquitously distributed chalcone synthases (CHSs) form separate clusters, which originate from a gene duplication event prior to the speciation of the angiosperms. BIS is the key enzyme of biphenyl metabolism. Biphenyls and the related dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Maloideae. This subfamily of the Rosaceae includes a number of economically important fruit trees, such as apple and pear. When incubated with ortho-hydroxybenzoyl (salicoyl)-CoA, BIS catalyzes a single decarboxylative condensation with malonyl-CoA to form 4-hydroxycoumarin. A well-known anticoagulant derivative of this enzymatic product is dicoumarol. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia also formed 4-hydroxycoumarin when fed with the N-acetylcysteamine thioester of salicylic acid (salicoyl-NAC). BPS is the key enzyme of benzophenone metabolism. Polyprenylated benzophenone derivatives with bridged polycyclic skeletons are widely distributed in the Clusiaceae (Guttiferae). Xanthones are regioselectively cyclized benzophenone derivatives. BPS was converted into a functional phenylpyrone synthase (PPS) by a single amino acid substitution in the initiation/elongation cavity. The

  17. High frequency, cell type-specific visualization of fluorescent-tagged genomic sites in interphase and mitotic cells of living Arabidopsis plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Winden Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interphase chromosome organization and dynamics can be studied in living cells using fluorescent tagging techniques that exploit bacterial operator/repressor systems and auto-fluorescent proteins. A nuclear-localized Repressor Protein-Fluorescent Protein (RP-FP fusion protein binds to operator repeats integrated as transgene arrays at defined locations in the genome. Under a fluorescence microscope, the tagged sites appear as bright fluorescent dots in living cells. This technique has been used successfully in plants, but is often hampered by low expression of genes encoding RP-FP fusion proteins, perhaps owing to one or more gene silencing mechanisms that are prevalent in plant cells. Results We used two approaches to overcome this problem. First, we tested mutations in four factors involved in different types of gene silencing and/or epigenetic modifications for their effects on nuclear fluorescence. Only mutations in DDM1, a chromatin remodelling ATPase involved in repeat-induced heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation, released silencing of the RP-FP fusion protein. This result suggested that the operator repeats can trigger silencing of the adjacent gene encoding the RP-FP fusion protein. In the second approach, we transformed the tagged lines with a second T-DNA encoding the RP-FP fusion protein but lacking operator repeats. This strategy avoided operator repeat-induced gene silencing and increased the number of interphase nuclei displaying fluorescent dots. In a further extension of the technique, we show that green fluorescent-tagged sites can be visualized on moving mitotic chromosomes stained with red fluorescent-labelled histone H2B. Conclusions The results illustrate the propensity of operator repeat arrays to form heterochromatin that can silence the neighbouring gene encoding the RP-FP fusion protein. Supplying the RP-FP fusion protein in trans from a second T-DNA largely alleviates this problem. Depending

  18. Dependence of the productivity of maize and soybean intercropping systems on hybrid type and plant arrangement pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolijanović Željko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems could improve utilization of the most important resources (soil, water and nutrients, provide a better control of weeds, pests and diseases, and finally higher productivity, especially under rain-fed growing conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of three maize (Zea mays L. prolific hybrids (FAO 500, 600 and 700 and the spatial intercrop patterns on the above-ground biomass and grain yields of maize and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill, on chernozem soil type at Zemun Polje, Belgrade, in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications and three treatments: 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in strips for each maize hybrid (three variants, 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in alternate rows for each hybrid (another three variants and monocrops of both maize and soybeans. To optimize the ecological and economic benefits of maize/soybean intercrop in terms of yield, variety selection and compatibility of the component crops should be made using established agronomic management practices involving the two crops. Suitable maize varieties for maize/soybean intercrop systems are varieties that have less dense canopy. These varieties would therefore have lesser shading effect to the understory beans. However, establishment of an appropriate spatial arrangement of the component crops would be essential to alleviate negative effects especially on the less competitive crop. The intercropping system in alternate rows showed significantly higher above-ground biomass and grain yields in comparation with both the strip intercropping system and maize monocrops in 2004. Soybean gave significantly lower above-ground biomass and grain yield in intercrops than in monocrops. Maize prolific hybrid growing in intercropping with soybean as legume crop, increased productivity of cropping system, especially in favourable agroecological conditions. Maize and soybean yields

  19. Effects of whole-plant corn silage hybrid type on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows through a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Shaver, R D

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the effect of whole-plant corn silage (WPCS) hybrids in dairy cattle diets may allow for better decisions on hybrid selection by dairy producers, as well as indicate potential strategies for the seed corn industry with regard to WPCS hybrids. Therefore, the objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis using literature data on the effects of WPCS hybrid type on intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and lactation performance by dairy cows. The meta-analysis was performed using a data set of 162 treatment means from 48 peer-reviewed articles published between 1995 and 2014. Hybrids were divided into 3 categories before analysis. Comparative analysis of WPCS hybrid types differing in stalk characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional, dual-purpose, isogenic, or low-normal fiber digestibility (CONS), brown midrib (BMR), hybrids with greater NDF but lower lignin (%NDF) contents or high in vitro NDF digestibility (HFD), and leafy (LFY). Hybrid types differing in kernel characteristics were in 4 categories: conventional or yellow dent (CONG), NutriDense (ND), high oil (HO), and waxy. Genetically modified (GM) hybrids were compared with their genetically similar non-biotech counterpart (ISO). Except for lower lignin content for BMR and lower starch content for HFD than CONS and LFY, silage nutrient composition was similar among hybrids of different stalk types. A 1.1 kg/d greater intake of DM and 1.5 and 0.05 kg/d greater milk and protein yields, respectively, were observed for BMR compared with CONS and LFY. Likewise, DMI and milk yield were greater for HFD than CONS, but the magnitude of the difference was smaller. Total-tract NDF digestibility was greater, but starch digestibility was reduced, for BMR and HFD compared with CONS or LFY. Silage nutrient composition was similar for hybrids of varied kernel characteristics, except for lower CP and EE content for CONG than ND and HO. Feeding HO WPCS to dairy cows decreased milk fat content

  20. Type Selection and Installation Design of Field Instrument in Urea Plant%尿素装置现场仪表选型及安装设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈松华; 孔繁荣

    2012-01-01

    Type selection and installation of field instrument in urea plant has the characters of complexity and diversity. The instrument type selection and installation design schemes are proposed according to the process flow and media characteristics of the urea unit. Typical analysis, flow, liquid level, pressure, temperature, the scope of application and notes of installation for control valve etc. during urea production are described in detail.%尿素装置的现场仪表选型和安装具有复杂多样性,结合尿素装置的工艺流程、介质特性,提出了仪表选型及安装设计方案。详细介绍了尿素生产过程中典型的分析、流量、液位、压力、温度、控制阀等仪表的适用范围及安装注意事项。

  1. Glyco-engineering for the production of recombinant IgA1 with distinct mucin-type O-glycans in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicker, Martina; Maresch, Daniel; Strasser, Richard

    2016-11-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common autoimmune disease that is characterized by formation and deposition of IgA1-containing immune complexes frequently leading to end-stage kidney disease. The IgA1 in these immune complexes carries aberrantly glycosylated O-glycans. In circulating IgA1 these galactose-deficient mucin-type O-glycans are bound by autoantibodies and thus, contribute to immune complex formation and pathogenesis. Even though the disease is associated with the overproduction of aberrant O-glycans on IgA1, specific structure-function-studies of mucin-type O-glycans are limited. Compared to other expression hosts, plants offer the opportunity for de novo synthesis of O-glycans on recombinant glycoproteins as they are lacking the mammalian O-glycosylation pathway. Recently, we demonstrated that Nicotiana benthamiana are suitable for the generation of distinct O-glycans on recombinant IgA1. Here, we expand our engineering repertoire by in planta generation of galactose-deficient and α2,6-sialylated O-glycans which are the prevailing glycans detected on IgA1 from patients with IgAN.

  2. The allelopathic effects of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of Lactuca sativa enhanced by different types of acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congyan; Xiao, Hongguang; Zhao, Lulu; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Fei; Shi, Yanchun; Du, Daolin

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species can exhibit allelopathic effects on native species. Meanwhile, the types of acid deposition are gradually changing. Thus, the allelopathic effects of invasive species on seed germination and growth of native species may be altered or even enhanced under conditions with diversified acid deposition. This study aims to assess the allelopathic effects (using leaves extracts) of invasive plant Solidago canadensis on seed germination and growth of native species Lactuca sativa treated with five types of acid deposition with different SO4(2-) to NO3(-) ratios (1:0, sulfuric acid; 5:1, sulfuric-rich acid; 1:1, mixed acid; 1:5, nitric-rich acid; 0:1, nitric acid). Solidago canadensis leaf extracts exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. High concentration of S. canadensis leaf extracts also similarly exhibited significantly allelopathic effects on root length of L. sativa. This may be due to that S. canadensis could release allelochemicals and then trigger allelopathic effects on seed germination and growth of L. sativa. Acid deposition exhibited significantly negative effects on seedling biomass, root length, seedling height, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be ascribed to the decreased soil pH values mediated by acid deposition which could produce toxic effects on seedling growth. Sulfuric acid deposition triggered more toxic effects on seedling biomass and vigor index of L. sativa than nitric acid deposition. This may be attributing to the difference in exchange capacity with hydroxyl groups (OH(-)) between SO4(2-) and NO3(-) as well as the fertilizing effects mediated by nitric deposition. All types of acid deposition significantly enhanced the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on root length, germination index, vigor index, and germination rate index of L. sativa. This may be due to the negatively synergistic effects of

  3. CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DEVICE FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF THE HORIZONTAL FUEL CHANNELS IN THE CANDU 6 NUCLEAR REACTOR. PART 7 - FUNCTIONING OF THE DECOMMISSIONING DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi ROSCA FARTAT

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to achieve the device functioning steps for the commissioning of the horizontal fuel channels of calandria vessel. The dismantling of the fuel channel is performed by one device which shall provide radiation protection during the stages of decommissioning, ensuring radiation protection of the workers. For the decommissioning operation design shall be taken to ensure all aspects of security, environmental protection during decommissioning operation steps and creating and implementing work procedures resulting from developed decommissioning plan. The fuel channel decommissioning device is designed for dismantling and extraction of the fuel channel and its components. The decommissioning operation consists of following major steps: platform with device positioning to the fuel channel to be dismantled; coupling and locking the device at the fuel channel; unblock, extract and store the channel closure plug; unblock, extract and store the channel shield plug; block and cut the middle and the end of the pressure tube; block, extract and store the end fitting; block, extract and store the half of pressure tube; mounting of the extended closing plug. The operations steps are performed by the Cutting and Extraction Device and by the extraction actuator from the device handling elements assembly. After each step of dismantling is necessary the confirmation its finalization in order to perform the next operation step. The dismantling operation steps of the fuel channel components are repeated for all the 380 channels of the reactor, from the front of calandria side (plane R as well as the rear side (plane R'.

  4. JSTOR Plant Science

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    JSTOR Plant Science is an online environment that brings together content, tools, and people interested in plant science. It provides access to foundational content vital to plant science – plant type specimens, taxonomic structures, scientific literature, and related materials, making them widely accessible to the plant science community as well as to researchers in other fields and to the public. It also provides an easy to use interface with powerful functionality that su...

  5. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linstädter, Anja; Schellberg, Jürgen; Brüser, Katharina; Moreno García, Cristian A; Oomen, Roelof J; du Preez, Chris C; Ruppert, Jan C; Ewert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs) with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs). Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses) and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses) performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold) had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may also be useful

  6. Are there consistent grazing indicators in Drylands? Testing plant functional types of various complexity in South Africa's Grassland and Savanna Biomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Linstädter

    Full Text Available Despite our growing knowledge on plants' functional responses to grazing, there is no consensus if an optimum level of functional aggregation exists for detecting grazing effects in drylands. With a comparative approach we searched for plant functional types (PFTs with a consistent response to grazing across two areas differing in climatic aridity, situated in South Africa's grassland and savanna biomes. We aggregated herbaceous species into PFTs, using hierarchical combinations of traits (from single- to three-trait PFTs. Traits relate to life history, growth form and leaf width. We first confirmed that soil and grazing gradients were largely independent from each other, and then searched in each biome for PFTs with a sensitive response to grazing, avoiding confounding with soil conditions. We found no response consistency, but biome-specific optimum aggregation levels. Three-trait PFTs (e.g. broad-leaved perennial grasses and two-trait PFTs (e.g. perennial grasses performed best as indicators of grazing effects in the semi-arid grassland and in the arid savanna biome, respectively. Some PFTs increased with grazing pressure in the grassland, but decreased in the savanna. We applied biome-specific grazing indicators to evaluate if differences in grazing management related to land tenure (communal versus freehold had effects on vegetation. Tenure effects were small, which we mainly attributed to large variability in grazing pressure across farms. We conclude that the striking lack of generalizable PFT responses to grazing is due to a convergence of aridity and grazing effects, and unlikely to be overcome by more refined classification approaches. Hence, PFTs with an opposite response to grazing in the two biomes rather have a unimodal response along a gradient of additive forces of aridity and grazing. The study advocates for hierarchical trait combinations to identify localized indicator sets for grazing effects. Its methodological approach may

  7. Phylogeny of an Albugo sp. infecting Barbarea vulgaris in Denmark and its frequency of symptom development in natural populations of two evolutionary divergent plant types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Heimes, Christine; Hauser, Thure Pavlo;

    2014-01-01

    The oomycete Albugo candida has long been considered a broad spectrum generalist pathogen, but recent studies suggest that it is diverged into several more specialised species in addition to the generalist Albugo candida s.s.. Whereas these species cause the disease white blister rust in many...... that the Albugo sp. infecting B. vulgaris may indeed be an independent specialised species. White blister rust and Albugo DNA was only detected in two populations of the plant type that frequently develops symptoms upon controlled inoculations. The lack of white rust and Albugo sp. DNA in the other plant type may...

  8. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  9. Prioritizing stream types according to their potential risk to receive crop plant material--A GIS-based procedure to assist in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops and systemic insecticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Rebecca; Kuhn, Ulrike; Bundschuh, Mirco; Naegele, Caroline; Elsaesser, David; Schlechtriemen, Ulrich; Oehen, Bernadette; Hilbeck, Angelika; Otto, Mathias; Schulz, Ralf; Hofmann, Frieder

    2016-03-15

    Crop plant residues may enter aquatic ecosystems via wind deposition or surface runoff. In the case of genetically modified crops or crops treated with systemic pesticides, these materials may contain insecticidal Bt toxins or pesticides that potentially affect aquatic life. However, the particular exposure pattern of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., via plant material) is not properly reflected in current risk assessment schemes, which primarily focus on waterborne toxicity and not on plant material as the route of uptake. To assist in risk assessment, the present study proposes a prioritization procedure of stream types based on the freshwater network and crop-specific cultivation data using maize in Germany as a model system. To identify stream types with a high probability of receiving crop materials, we developed a formalized, criteria-based and thus transparent procedure that considers the exposure-related parameters, ecological status--an estimate of the diversity and potential vulnerability of local communities towards anthropogenic stress--and availability of uncontaminated reference sections. By applying the procedure to maize, ten stream types out of 38 are expected to be the most relevant if the ecological effects from plant-incorporated pesticides need to be evaluated. This information is an important first step to identifying habitats within these stream types with a high probability of receiving crop plant material at a more local scale, including accumulation areas. Moreover, the prioritization procedure developed in the present study may support the selection of aquatic species for ecotoxicological testing based on their probability of occurrence in stream types having a higher chance of exposure. Finally, this procedure can be adapted to any geographical region or crop of interest and is, therefore, a valuable tool for a site-specific risk assessment of crop plants carrying systemic pesticides or novel proteins, such as insecticidal Bt toxins, expressed

  10. Bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes from developing castor oil seeds interact in vivo and associate with the surface of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonho; Khuu, Nicholas; Howard, Alexander S M; Mullen, Robert T; Plaxton, William C

    2012-07-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from developing castor oil seeds (COS) exists as two distinct oligomeric isoforms. The typical class-1 PEPC homotetramer consists of 107-kDa plant-type PEPC (PTPC) subunits, whereas the allosterically desensitized 910-kDa class-2 PEPC hetero-octamer arises from the association of class-1 PEPC with 118-kDa bacterial-type PEPC (BTPC) subunits. The in vivo interaction and subcellular location of COS BTPC and PTPC were assessed by imaging fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged PEPCs in tobacco suspension-cultured cells. The BTPC-FP mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate/globular structures, identified as mitochondria by co-immunostaining of endogenous cytochrome oxidase. Inhibition of respiration with KCN resulted in proportional decreases and increases in mitochondrial versus cytosolic BTPC-FP, respectively. The FP-PTPC and NLS-FP-PTPC (containing an appended nuclear localization signal, NLS) localized to the cytosol and nucleus, respectively, but both co-localized with mitochondrial-associated BTPC when co-expressed with BTPC-FP. Transmission electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled developing COS revealed that BTPC and PTPC are localized at the mitochondrial (outer) envelope, as well as the cytosol. Moreover, thermolysin-sensitive BTPC and PTPC polypeptides were detected on immunoblots of purified COS mitochondria. Overall, our results demonstrate that: (i) COS BTPC and PTPC interact in vivo as a class-2 PEPC complex that associates with the surface of mitochondria, (ii) BTPC's unique and divergent intrinsically disordered region mediates its interaction with PTPC, whereas (iii) the PTPC-containing class-1 PEPC is entirely cytosolic. We hypothesize that mitochondrial-associated class-2 PEPC facilitates rapid refixation of respiratory CO(2) while sustaining a large anaplerotic flux to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons withdrawn for biosynthesis.

  11. New rht-Type Metal-Organic Frameworks Decorated with Acylamide Groups for Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture and Chemical Fixation from Raw Power Plant Flue Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangyang; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Cong; Bai, Junfeng; He, Cheng; Duan, Chunying

    2016-11-23

    The combination of carbon dioxide capture and chemical fixation in a one-pot process is attractive for both chemists and governments. The cycloaddition of carbon dioxide with epoxides to produce cyclic carbonates is an atomic economical reaction without any side products. By incorporating acylamide to enhance the binding affinity toward CO2, new rht-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with (3, 28) and (3, 24) connected units were constructed. Zn-NTTA with two types of dinuclear paddlewheel building blocks-{Zn2(OOC(-))4} and {Zn2(OOC(-))3}. The high uptake of CO2 (115.6 cm(3)·g(-1)) and selectivity over N2 (30:1) at 273 K indicated that these MOFs are excellent candidates for postcombustion CO2 isolation and capture. The MOFs feature high catalytic activity, rapid dynamics of transformation and excellent stability with turnover number (TON) values up to 110 000 per paddlewheel unit after 5 × 6 rounds of recyclability, demonstrating that they are promising heterogeneous catalysts for CO2 cyclo-addition to value-added cyclic carbonates. The cycloaddition of epoxides with wet gases demonstrated that the catalyst activity was not affected by moisture, and the indices of the PXRD patterns of the bulk samples filtered from the catalytic reaction revealed that the crystallinities were maintained. The combination of the selective capture and catalytic transformation in one-pot enables the use of a negative-cost feedstock-raw power plant flue gas without any separation and purification-revealing the broad prospects of such MOFs for practical CO2 fixation in industry.

  12. Genome-wide analyses of the transcriptomes of salicylic acid-deficient versus wild-type plants uncover Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) as a regulator of flowering time in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Silvia; Mir, Ricardo; Martínez, Cristina; León, José

    2010-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been characterized as an activator of pathogen-triggered resistance of plants. SA also regulates developmental processes such as thermogenesis in floral organs and stress-induced flowering. To deepen our knowledge of the mechanism underlying SA regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis, we compared the transcriptomes of SA-deficient late flowering genotypes with wild-type plants. Down- or up-regulated genes in SA-deficient plants were screened for responsiveness to ultraviolet (UV)-C light, which accelerates flowering in Arabidopsis. Among them, only Pathogen and Circadian Controlled 1 (PCC1) was up-regulated by UV-C light through a SA-dependent process. Moreover, UV-C light-activated expression of PCC1 was also dependent on the flowering activator CONSTANS (CO). PCC1 gene has a circadian-regulated developmental pattern of expression with low transcript levels after germination that increased abruptly by day 10. RNAi plants with very low expression of PCC1 gene were late flowering, defective in UV-C light acceleration of flowering and contained FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript levels below 5% of that detected in wild-type plants. Although PCC1 seems to function between CO and FT in the photoperiod-dependent flowering pathway, transgenic plants overexpressing a Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR)-fused version of CO strongly activated FT but not PCC1 after dexamethasone treatment.

  13. Discovery of plant phenolic compounds that act as type III secretion system inhibitors or inducers of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Ching-Hong

    2013-09-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens.

  14. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halary, Sébastien; Daubois, Laurence; Terrat, Yves; Ellenberger, Sabrina; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG) transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT) and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  15. Mating type gene homologues and putative sex pheromone-sensing pathway in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a presumably asexual plant root symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Halary

    Full Text Available The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle.

  16. Research Progress of Plant Type Microbial Fuel Cell%植物型微生物燃料电池研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许鹏; 许丹; 张义; 夏世斌; 吴振斌

    2014-01-01

    The combination of the microbial fuel cell with aquatic plants(PMFC)is a new low -carbon environmental pro-tection technology ,it is an important innovation in the field of water pollution control and has raised widespread concern in the world .This paper reviews the current research situation about PMFC ,summarizes the principles of different types of PMF ,analyzes the factors influencing the power production of the PMFC and finally prospects the future application ,as well as working directions of this system .%微生物燃料电池(MFC )与水生植物相耦合,构成植物型微生物燃料电池(PMFC )系统是一项全新的低碳环保产能技术,是水污染控制领域的一项重要技术创新,已在国内外引起广泛关注。对植物型MFC的研究现状进行了综述,总结了不同类型PMFC的工作原理并分析了影响其产电的因素,最后对该系统未来的应用及研究方向进行了展望。

  17. 植物功能型研究方法在生态系统模型中的应用%Plant functional type and its application in ecosystem modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉洁; 杨霏云; 赵俊芳; 刘峻杉

    2011-01-01

    Plant functional type is a new concept in studying the relationships between vegetation and global change at different spatial-temporal scales, and widely applied in the research field of plant ecology modeling. This paper introduced the concept of plant functional type and its resemblance and difference with life form, guild, and biome, summarized five common classification criteria of plant functional type, and highlighted the application of plant functional type in ecosystem modeling. In recent 50 years, the concept of plant functional type was applied in the following three aspects: 1 ) regional or global scale statistical modeling, 2) classic mechanism modeling, and 3 ) modeling how the ecosystem was affected by different classification criteria of plant functional type. The objective of this paper was to promote the resolution of the aggregation of plant functional groups in the up-scaling of ecosystem modeling.%植物功能型(PFTs)是研究不同时空尺度上植被与全球变化之间关系的新方法,被广泛应用于植物生态学模型研究领域.本文介绍了植物功能型的概念由来以及与生活型(life form)、功能团(guild)、生物群区(biome)的区别和联系,总结了植物功能型的5种常见的划分标准,并将近半个世纪以来植物功能型研究方法在生态模型中的应用归纳为3种情况:1)在早期的区域或全球尺度的统计模型中的应用;2)在机理性经典模型中的应用;3)在以测试不同功能型划分标准对生态系统结构和功能的影响为目的的模型中的应用.旨在促进生态系统模型尺度上推过程中遇到的植物类群合并问题的解决.

  18. Compounds from the Fruits of the Popular European Medicinal Plant Vitex agnus-castus in Chemoprevention via NADP(H:Quinone Oxidoreductase Type 1 Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of our continuing efforts in the search for potential biologically active compounds from medicinal plants, we have isolated 18 compounds including two novel nitrogen containing diterpenes from extracts of the fruits of Vitex agnus-castus. These isolates, along with our previously obtained novel compound vitexlactam A (1, were evaluated for potential biological effects, including cancer chemoprevention. Chemically, the nitrogenous isolates were found to be two labdane diterpene alkaloids, each containing an α, β-unsaturated γ-lactam moiety. Structurally, they were elucidated to be 9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-16,15-amide (2 and 6β-acetoxy-9α-hydroxy-13(14-labden-15,16-amide (3, which were named vitexlactams B and C, respectively. The 15 known isolates were identified as vitexilactone (4, rotundifuran (5, 8-epi-manoyl oxide (6, vitetrifolin D (7, spathulenol (8, cis-dihydro-dehydro-diconiferylalcohol-9-O-β-D-glucoside (9, luteolin-7-O-glucoside (10, 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (11, casticin (12, artemetin (13, aucubin (14, agnuside (15, β-sitosterol (16, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (17, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucose ester (18. All compound structures were determined/identified on the basis of 1D and/or 2D NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. Compounds 6, 8, 9, and 18 were reported from a Vitex spieces for the first time. The cancer chemopreventive potentials of these isolates were evaluated for NADP(H:quinone oxidoreductase type 1 (QR1 induction activity. Compound 7 demonstrated promising QR1 induction effect, while the new compound vitexlactam (3 was only slightly active.

  19. Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes.

  20. Based on the New Type of Banana Planting Open Pit of UG Simulation Machine%基于新型香蕉种植开坑机的UG仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢炳光; 马俊生; 马桂香; 梁甲; 刘子良; 文棋

    2016-01-01

    For large banana plantations of relative lack of research and development of the open pit machine , designed a new type of banana planting machine open pit.This machine has the open pit are of good quality, lower cost, and can adapt to the characteristics of different digging holes required .In this paper , the new type of banana planting the working principle of the open pit machine kinematics analysis and using 3 d software UG , new real banana planting open pit machine working condition .The results show that the new type of banana planting open pit machine can meet the de -mand of work .A new type of banana planting the development of the open pit machine can be used as crop other similar open pit machine developed to provide the reference .%针对大规模香蕉种植开坑机的研发比较缺乏的问题,设计了一种新型香蕉种植开坑机. 该机具有开坑质量高、成本较低及能适应不同挖坑要求的特点. 为此,介绍了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作原理,并运用三维软件UG进行运动学分析,真实再现了新型香蕉种植开坑机的工作状况. 结果表明:新型香蕉种植开坑机能够满足工作需求,可为其他类似农作物开坑机器的研制提供参考.

  1. Global Activities and Plant Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an extensive review of the empirical evidence found for Sweden concerning plant survival. The result reveals that foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants have the lowest exit rates, followed by purely domestic-oriented plants, and that domestic MNE plants have...... the highest exit rates. Moreover, the exit rates of globally engaged plants seem to be unaffected by increased foreign presence, whereas there appears to be a negative impact on the survival rates of non-exporting non-MNE plants. Finally, the result reveals that the survival ratio of plants of acquired...... exporters, but not other types of plants, improves post acquisition....

  2. Rapid screening and identification of lycodine-type alkaloids in Lycopodiaceae and Huperziaceae plants by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Si-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Pan, Ke; Zou, Hong-Yan; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Lycodine-type alkaloids have gained significant interest owing to their unique skeletal characteristics and acetylcholinesterase activity. This study established a rapid and reliable method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS/MS) for comprehensive characterization of lycodine-type alkaloids for the first time. The lycodine-type alkaloids were detected successfully from Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides, Huperzia serrata and Phlegmarirus carinatus in seven plants of the Lycopodiaceae and Huperziaceae families, based on the established characteristic MS fragmentation of five known alkaloids. Furthermore, a total of 13 lycodine-type alkaloids were identified, of which three pairs of isomers were structurally characterized and differentiated. This study further improves mass analysis of lycodine-type alkaloids and demonstrates the superiority of UPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometer for the rapid and sensitive structural elucidation of other trace active compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. QTL analysis of novel genomic regions associated with yield and yield related traits in new plant type based recombinant inbred lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marathi Balram

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice is staple food for more than half of the world’s population including two billion Asians, who obtain 60-70% of their energy intake from rice and its derivatives. To meet the growing demand from human population, rice varieties with higher yield potential and greater yield stability need to be developed. The favourable alleles for yield and yield contributing traits are distributed among two subspecies i.e., indica and japonica of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.. Identification of novel favourable alleles in indica/japonica will pave way to marker-assisted mobilization of these alleles in to a genetic background to break genetic barriers to yield. Results A new plant type (NPT based mapping population of 310 recombinant inbred lines (RILs was used to map novel genomic regions and QTL hotspots influencing yield and eleven yield component traits. We identified major quantitative trait loci (QTLs for days to 50% flowering (R2 = 25%, LOD = 14.3, panicles per plant (R2 = 19%, LOD = 9.74, flag leaf length (R2 = 22%, LOD = 3.05, flag leaf width (R2 = 53%, LOD = 46.5, spikelets per panicle (R2 = 16%, LOD = 13.8, filled grains per panicle (R2 = 22%, LOD = 15.3, percent spikelet sterility (R2 = 18%, LOD = 14.24, thousand grain weight (R2 = 25%, LOD = 12.9 and spikelet setting density (R2 = 23%, LOD = 15 expressing over two or more locations by using composite interval mapping. The phenotypic variation (R2 ranged from 8 to 53% for eleven QTLs expressing across all three locations. 19 novel QTLs were contributed by the NPT parent, Pusa1266. 15 QTL hotpots on eight chromosomes were identified for the correlated traits. Six epistatic QTLs effecting five traits at two locations were identified. A marker interval (RM3276-RM5709 on chromosome 4 harboring major QTLs for four traits was identified. Conclusions The present study reveals that favourable alleles for

  4. Bi- to tetravalent glycoclusters presenting GlcNAc/GalNAc as inhibitors: from plant agglutinins to human macrophage galactose-type lectin (CD301) and galectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Sabine; O'Sullivan, Shane; Koller, Christiane; Murphy, Paul V; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-14

    Emerging insights into the functional spectrum of tissue lectins leads to identification of new targets for the custom-made design of potent inhibitors, providing a challenge for synthetic chemistry. The affinity and selectivity of a carbohydrate ligand for a lectin may immensely be increased by a number of approaches, which includes varying geometrical or topological features. This perspective leads to the design and synthesis of glycoclusters and their testing using assays of physiological relevance. Herein, hydroquinone, resorcinol, benzene-1,3,5-triol and tetra(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethene have been employed as scaffolds and propargyl derivatives obtained. The triazole-containing linker to the α/β-O/S-glycosides of GlcNAc/GalNAc presented on these scaffolds was generated by copper-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. This strategy was used to give a panel of nine glycoclusters with bi-, tri- and tetravalency. Maintained activity for lectin binding after conjugation was ascertained for both sugars in solid-phase assays with the plant agglutinins WGA (GlcNAc) and DBA (GalNAc). Absence of cross-reactivity excluded any carbohydrate-independent reactivity of the bivalent compounds, allowing us to proceed to further testing with a biomedically relevant lectin specific for GalNAc. Macrophage galactose(-binding C)-type lectin, involved in immune defence by dendritic cells and in virus uptake, was produced as a soluble protein without/with its α-helical coiled-coil stalk region. Binding to ligands presented on a matrix and on cell surfaces was highly susceptible to the presence of the tetravalent inhibitor derived from the tetraphenylethene-containing scaffold, and presentation of GalNAc with an α-thioglycosidic linkage proved favorable. Cross-reactivity of this glycocluster to human galectins-3 and -4, which interact with Tn-antigen-presenting mucins, was rather small. Evidently, the valency and spatial display of α-GalNAc residues is a key factor to design potent and

  5. Phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the aquatic plants Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites Australis: leaf-type-dependent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Lee, Sunryung

    2016-05-01

    The phytotoxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata and Phragmites australis were investigated using mesocosms. The percentage of dissolved Zn in the ZnO NP treatment solutions was measured along with plant shoot growth, antioxidant enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, and Zn content. The dissolution rate of ZnO NPs in Hoagland solution was inversely related to the concentration. The submerged aquatic plant H. verticillata, growth was reduced during the early stages of the experiment when exposed to the highest ZnO NP concentration (1000 mg/L), whereas the emerged aquatic plant P. australis began to show significantly reduced growth after a few weeks. The measurements of chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, and Zn accumulation showed that P. australis was adversely affected by NPs and absorbed more Zn than H. verticillata. The results indicated that physiological differences among aquatic plants, such as whether they use leaves or roots for nutrient and water uptake, led to differences in nanoparticle toxicity. Overall, High ZnO NP concentrations caused significant phytotoxicity on aquatic plants, and low concentrations caused unpredictable phytotoxicity. Therefore, the use and disposal of zinc oxide nanoparticles should be carefully monitored.

  6. Stomagenesis versus myogenesis: Parallels in intrinsic and extrinsic regulation of transcription factor mediated specialized cell-type differentiation in plants and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putarjunan, Aarthi; Torii, Keiko U

    2016-05-01

    Although the last common unicellular ancestor of plants and animals diverged several billion years ago, and while having developed unique developmental programs that facilitate differentiation and proliferation specific to plant and animal systems, there still exists a high degree of conservation in the logic regulating these developmental processes within these two seemingly diverse kingdoms. Stomatal differentiation in plants involves a series of orchestrated cell division events mediated by a family of closely related bHLH transcription factors (TFs) to create a pair of mature guard cells. These TFs are in turn regulated by a number of upstream signaling components that ultimately function to achieve lineage specific differentiation and organized tissue patterning on the plant epidermis. The logic involved in the specification of the myogenic differentiation program in animals is intriguingly similar to stomatal differentiation in plants: Closely-related myogenic bHLHs, known as MRFs (Myogenic Regulatory Factors) provide lineage specificity essential for cell-fate determination. These MRFs, similar to the bHLHs in plants, are regulated by several upstream signaling cascades that succinctly regulate each differentiation step, leading to the production of mature muscle fibers. This review aims at providing a perspective on the emerging parallels in the logic employed by key bHLH transcription factors and their upstream signaling components that function to precisely regulate key cell-state transition events in the stomatal as well as myogenic cell lineages.

  7. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type I) within the product group: small cogeneration plants; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen in Anlehnung an ISO 14024 (Type I) fuer die Produktgruppe: Kleine Blockheizkraftwerk-Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Hirschl, B.; Kaliske, J. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Reese, I.; Grimpe, T. [Hamburg Gas Consult (HGC) GmbH (Germany)

    2000-11-02

    This study is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for small cogeneration plants and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel on cogeneration plants could be specified. The study began with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants was analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between cogeneration plants and heating plants was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were presented and discussed in an expert talk by various company representatives and experts in this field. As a result of the expert talk and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for small cogeneration plants can be recommended. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding the compliance with directives, efficient energy use (electrical and overall efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, mentioning the plant's supplementary energy consumption), emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, sound emissions, the offer of maintenance contracts, plant take back obligations, as well as requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel. because energy-efficient'. Besides cogeneration plants based on engines, the study also focused on small stationary fuel cells. They are currently in the development phase and are tested within the scope of several field studies. Compared to conventional heating plants and cogeneration plants powered by engines, this new technology promises clear ecological advantages and constitutes a future alternative to engine powered equivalents. Faced by the current state of development and the limited quality of the

  8. Plant ID. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant identification. Presented first are a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about the scientific classification of plants. The following topics are among those discussed: main types of plants; categories of vascular plants; gymnosperms and…

  9. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  10. PHYTODIVERSITY AND PECULIARITIES OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF HERBALS AND OTHER ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE PLANT TYPES OF CHECHERSK DISTRICT OF GOMEL REGION BORDERING BRYANSK REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sapegin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 255 plant (herbals and economically valuable plants and 24 soil samples were taken from 4 investigated sites of Chechersk district for radiological analysis. The plants are presented by 33 species of 31 genera and 26 families. The rest 23 families included 1 species (3,0% each. There were 6 (18,2% tree species, 5 (15,1% shrubs and 1 (3,0% species of sub shrubs, 21 (63,6% species of grasses. Exceeding of 137Cs permissible concentration was found out for 21 (48,8% of 51 taken plant samples. Strontium accumulation changed from 343 Bk/kg to 14 Bk/kg. The research has shown that most part of radionuclides remain in the surface soil layers, which constitutes certain danger. Moreover 90Sr migration in soil takes place much quicker than 137Cs. All these facts show that the use of herbals and other economically valuable plants from the studied sites is possible only under compulsory radiological control.

  11. Mapping Arctic Plant Functional Type Distributions in the Barrow Environmental Observatory Using WorldView-2 and LiDAR Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Langford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale modeling of Arctic tundra vegetation requires characterization of the heterogeneous tundra landscape, which includes representation of distinct plant functional types (PFTs. We combined high-resolution multi-spectral remote sensing imagery from the WorldView-2 satellite with light detecting and ranging (LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM to characterize the tundra landscape in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO, a 3021-hectare research reserve located at the northern edge of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Vegetation surveys were conducted during the growing season (June–August of 2012 from 48 1 m × 1 m plots in the study region for estimating the percent cover of PFTs (i.e., sedges, grasses, forbs, shrubs, lichens and mosses. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic remote sensing characteristics and PFT fractions at the vegetation plots from field surveys. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale PFT fractions for our study region of 586 hectares at 0.25-m resolution around the sampling areas within the BEO, which was bounded by the LiDAR footprint. We employed an unsupervised clustering for stratification of this polygonal tundra landscape and used the clusters for segregating the field data for our upscaling algorithm over our study region, which was an inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation. We describe two versions of PFT distribution maps upscaled by IDW from WorldView-2 imagery and LiDAR: (1 a version computed from a single image in the middle of the growing season; and (2 a version computed from multiple images through the growing season. This approach allowed us to quantify the value of phenology for improving PFT distribution estimates. We also evaluated the representativeness of the field surveys by measuring the Euclidean distance between every pixel. This guided the ground-truthing campaign in late July of 2014 for

  12. Foreign DNA sequences are received by a wild-type strain of Aspergillus niger after co-culture with transgenic higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T; Golz, C; Schieder, O

    1994-12-01

    Different transgenic plants of Brassica napus, Brassica nigra, Datura innoxia and Vicia narbonensis expressing the hph gene under the control of the 35s promoter were co-cultivated with mycelial material of Aspergillus niger in microcosms under sterile conditions. A significantly higher number of hygromycin B-resistant colonies of re-isolated fungi was obtained if compared with co-cultures with non-transgenic plants. The hph gene and other foreign sequences could be detected in some of the resistant strains only for a short time after selection, indicating a rapid loss of foreign DNA. A more stable transgenic strain was obtained after co-culture with transgenic plants of D. innoxia including a high number of hph copies in their genome. DNA with detected pUC sequences was prepared to transform E. coli DH5 alpha. One of the recovered plasmids is shown to include pieces of the plant-transforming vector and a foreign sequence. The 35s-regulated expression of genes is studied in A. niger.

  13. Screening for potential α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory constituents from selected Vietnamese plants used to treat type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Thi Dieu Binh; Stærk, Dan; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The 18 plant species investigated in this study have been used as herbal antidiabetic remedies in Vietnamese traditional medicines. This study aimed to evaluate their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two key enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation...

  14. Genome sequences of Ralstonia insidiosa type strain ATCC 49129 and strain FC1138, a strong biofilm producer isolated from a fresh-cut produce-processing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 is a strong biofilm producer, isolated from a local fresh-cut produce processing plant. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Ralstonia insidiosa FC1138 which includes two circular chromosomes and a plasmid. To our knowledge, this is the first reported complete ...

  15. Flower synchrony, growth and yield enhancement of small type bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) through plant growth regulators and NPK fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Baset M A; Islam, Md Serajul; Miah, Md Yunus; Das, M R; Khan, H I

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of growth regulator and NPK fertilization effects are important tools for flower stimulation and yield improvement in cucurbits. This investigation demonstrates the comparative male-female flower induction and fruit yield of small sized bitter gourd treated with NPK fertilizers and plant growth regulators. Namely, two experiments having three replicates were conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with NPK fertilization and plant growth regulators-GA3, NAA and Ethophon application on small sized bitter gourd-genotype BG5 at the research field of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU). In experiment 1, different doses of NPK fertilizers comprised of 10 treatments and in that of experiment 2, different levels of plant growth regulators indicated 10 treatments. The results indicated that application of different doses of NPK fertilizer and plant growth regulators significantly (< or = 0.05) influenced over the flower initiation and fruit setting. The application of N90-P45-K60 fertilizer along with Ethophon spraying resulted in the better yield of small sized bitter gourd.

  16. Molecular Docking Explains Atomic Interaction between Plant-originated Ligands and Oncogenic E7 Protein of High Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in women worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. In the last few decades, various compounds from plant origin such as Curcumin, Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, Jaceosidin, Resveratrol etc. have been used as anti cancer therapeutic agents. Different studies have shown these plant-originated compounds are able to suppress HPV infection. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV play a key role in HPV related cancers. In this study, we explored these ligands from plants origin against E7 oncoprotein of high risk HPV 16, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor pRb protein. A robust homology model of HPV 16 E7 was built to foresee the interaction mechanism of E7 oncoprotein with these ligands using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking studies demonstrate the interaction of these ligands with pRb binding site of E7 protein by residues Tyr52, Asn53, Val55, Phe57, Cys59, Ser63, Thr64, Thr72, Arg77, Glu80 and Asp81 and help restoration of pRb functioning. This in silico based atomic interaction between these ligands and E7 protein may assist in validating the plant-originated ligands as effective drugs against HPV.

  17. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  18. Cooling the intact loop of primary heat transport system using Shutdown Cooling System in case of LOCA events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icleanu Diana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to model the operation of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS for CANDU 6 nuclear power plants in case of LOCA accidents, using Flowmaster calculation code, by delimiting models and setting calculation assumptions, input data for hydraulic analysis and input data for calculating thermal performance check for heat exchangers that are part of this system.

  19. Type and Sort of Plant Communities in Putuo Mountains under Tourism Development%旅游开发下普陀山植物群落类型及其排序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军玲; 张金屯; 邹春辉; 刘忠阳

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of the category and distribution pattern of Plant Communities in the tourism development is a basis for ecological management of the scenic zone. This study employed Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN), Detrended Correspondence Analysis ( DCA ), Canonical Correspondence Analysis ( CCA ) and DCCA to classify and sort plant communities in Putuo Mountains under tourism development and analysed the influence of tourism on plant communities. The result showed that; 1 ) TWINSPAN divided all the sample areas into seven sections which represented seven types of plant communities. There was an obvious gradient in the pattern of plant communities from complicated to simple with orientation from the left to the right. The gradient objectively reflected ecological relationships between tourism development and plant communities. 2) The first axis of DCA reflected the Integrated environmental gradient, that is, from the left to the right the altitude and the slope increased and the aspect turned from sunny to shaded. At the same time the distance to tour road go far and width of tour road broaden. In other words, the tourism influencing index decreased gradually from the left to the right. 3 ) There was a relatively strong correlation between the first axis of DCA and all of the geography factors. Specifically, there was a relatively strong negative correlation between the first axis of DCA and width of tour road, distance to tour road and slope shape. There was a relatively strong negative correlation between the second axis of DCA and width of tour road and slope. At the same time it has a positive correlation with altitude. All of these are in accordance with the distribution of their DCCA Ordination graph and turn out the accuracy of DCCA result. It is obvious that tourism development had influenced plant communities and the more tourists, the more influence. It is suggested that the scenic spot should be divided into core reserve, recreation buffer

  20. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  1. Transient expression of Human papillomavirus type 16 L2 epitope fused to N- and C-terminus of coat protein of Potato virus X in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Noemi Cerovska; Hana Hoffmeisterova; Tomas Moravec; Helena Plchova; Jitka Folwarczna; Helena Synkova; Helena Ryslava; Viera Ludvikova; Michal Smahel

    2012-03-01

    Transient expression of foreign genes based on plant viral vectors is a suitable system for the production of relevant immunogens that can be used for the development of a new generation of vaccines against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study the epitope derived from HPV-16 L2 minor capsid protein (amino acids 108–120) was expressed from Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector pGR106 as N- or C-terminal fusion with the PVX coat protein (PVX CP) in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The fusion protein L2108-120-PVX CP was successfully expressed in plants at a level of 170 mg/kg of fresh leaf tissue. The C-terminal fusion protein PVX CP- L2108-120 was expressed using mutated vector sequence to avoid homologous recombination at a level of 8 mg/kg of fresh leaf tissue. Immunogenicity of L2108-120-PVX CP virus-like particles was tested after immunization of mice by subcutaneous injection or tattoo administration. In animal sera the antibodies against the PVX CP and the L2108-120 epitope were found after both methods of vaccine delivery.

  2. ALOG domains: provenance of plant homeotic and developmental regulators from the DNA-binding domain of a novel class of DIRS1-type retroposons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyer Lakshminarayan M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the Arabidopsis LSH1 and Oryza G1 (ALOG family of proteins have been shown to function as key developmental regulators in land plants. However, their precise mode of action remains unclear. Using sensitive sequence and structure analysis, we show that the ALOG domains are a distinct version of the N-terminal DNA-binding domain shared by the XerC/D-like, protelomerase, topoisomerase-IA, and Flp tyrosine recombinases. ALOG domains are distinguished by the insertion of an additional zinc ribbon into this DNA-binding domain. In particular, we show that the ALOG domain is derived from the XerC/D-like recombinases of a novel class of DIRS-1-like retroposons. Copies of this element, which have been recently inactivated, are present in several marine metazoan lineages, whereas the stramenopile Ectocarpus, retains an active copy of the same. Thus, we predict that ALOG domains help establish organ identity and differentiation by binding specific DNA sequences and acting as transcription factors or recruiters of repressive chromatin. They are also found in certain plant defense proteins, where they are predicted to function as DNA sensors. The evolutionary history of the ALOG domain represents a unique instance of a domain, otherwise exclusively found in retroelements, being recruited as a specific transcription factor in the streptophyte lineage of plants. Hence, they add to the growing evidence for derivation of DNA-binding domains of eukaryotic specific TFs from mobile and selfish elements.

  3. Simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic ions in plant parts of Betula pendula from two different types of ecosystems (Wielkopolski National Park and Chemical Plant in Luboń, Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The results of inorganic and organic anion concentrations in samples of soils and plant parts of Betula pendula (tap roots, lateral roots, stem, twigs, leaves), in the bioavailable fraction, are presented in this study. An ion chromatography method was applied for the first time in the simultaneous determination of inorganic and organic anions, as an effective tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples with different matrix. A linear gradient elution with potassium hydroxide allowed for the separation of both inorganic and organic ions such as: F(-), CH3COO(-), HCOO(-), Cl(-), NO2 (-), Br(-) and NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), CH2(COO)2 (2-), C2O4 (2-), PO4 (3-) and C3H5O(COO)3 (3-). The samples of soils and plant parts of B. pendula from the area of the Wielkopolski National Park (WNP) and the Chemical Plant in Luboń (LU; protected vs. contaminated area) were selected for the study. The obtained results indicated that such inorganic ions as: F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and PO4 (3-) are quite easily transported from soil to leaves. In contrast, the mechanism of migration could not be clearly defined for SO4 (2-) because the ion was retained in roots of many of the analysed samples. Significantly higher bioavailability of inorganic ions was observed for samples collected from the area of the WNP. Phosphates were the only ions which showed no variation in their concentrations between the two sampling sites, both for soils and plant parts of B. pendula. None of the organic anions was detected in soil samples. The acetate, formate, malonate, oxalate and citrate ions were detected in all leaf samples. The statistical analysis allowed the author to determine the mechanism of ion migration and accumulation in leaves and, additionally, determine the variation in the occurrence of inorganic and organic ions depending on the sampling site (WNP vs. LU). The results of the statistical analysis were confirmed by the bioacumulation (BF) and translocation (TF) factors.

  4. The Structure Design and Simulation Analysis of New Type Banana Planting Open Pit Machine%新型香蕉种植开坑机的结构设计与仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄玉印; 张林

    2017-01-01

    Based on the principle of reduce labor costs, improve labor efficiency, this paper developed a controllable connecting rod type 3-dof new banana planting open pit machine. First of all, through the formula based on screw theory based on the degrees of freedom, calculates the controllable banana planting open pit machine freedom, Secondly, ba-nana planting open pit machine was established by applying the method of closed loop vector controlled the kinematics e-quation of earth auger, it is concluded that the kinematics characteristic;finally, combining with the multi-body dynam-ics theory combined with ADAMS software, simulation analysis was carried out on the controlled banana planting open pit machine, it is concluded that the engine movement characteristics. The results verify the rationality and feasibility of the new type of structure.%基于降低减轻人力成本、提高劳动效率的原则,研发了一种可控连杆式三自由度香蕉种植开坑机。首先,通过基于旋量理论为基础的自由度公式,计算出可控香蕉种植开坑机自由度;其次,运用闭环矢量法建立了可控香蕉种植开坑机的运动学方程,得出其运动学特性;最后,结合多体动力学理论及 ADAMS 软件,对可控香蕉种植开坑机进行仿真分析,得出其发动机运动特性,进而验证了该新型结构的合理性和可行性。

  5. 蒸汽喷射式热泵在化工厂的应用小结%Application of Steam Jet Type Heat Pump in Chemical Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌海; 曹军锋; 侯成军

    2014-01-01

    Author has introduced the working principle and technical features for jet type heat pump;has summarized the application situation for jet type heat pump;has analyzed the energy conservation effect and environment protection benefit by using jet type heat pump technology.%介绍了喷射式热泵的工作原理和技术特点;总结了喷射式热泵的应用情况,分析了采用喷射式热泵技术的节能效果和环保效益。

  6. Adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food processing plants as affected by growth medium, surface type and incubation temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Maria Ângelo Jerônimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of different growth media [BHI broth, BHI broth plus glucose (10 g/100 mL and BHI broth plus NaCl (5 g/100 mL] and incubation temperatures (28 or 37 ºC on the adherence, detachment and biofilm formation on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces (2 x 2 cm coupons for a prolonged period (24-72 h by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S3, S28 and S54 from food processing plants. The efficacy of the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite (250 mg/mL and peracetic acid (30 mg/mL in reducing the number of viable bacterial cells in a preformed biofilm was also evaluated. S. aureus strains adhered in highest numbers in BHI broth, regardless of the type of surface or incubation temperature. Cell detachment from surfaces revealed high persistence over the incubation period. The number of cells needed for biofilm formation was noted in all experimental systems after 3 days. Peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite were not efficient in completely removing the cells of S. aureus adhered onto polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces. From these results, the assayed strains revealed high capacities to adhere and form biofilms on polypropylene and stainless steel surfaces under the different growth conditions, and the cells in biofilm matrixes were resistant to total removal when exposed to the sanitizers sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de crescimento [caldo BHI, caldo BHI adicionado de glucose (10 g/100 mL e caldo BHI adicionado de NaCl (5 g/100 mL] e temperaturas de incubação (28 e 37 ºC sobre a adesão, separação e formação de biofilme sobre superfícies (2 x 2 cm de polipropileno e aço inoxidável durante longo tempo de incubação (24-72 h por parte de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus (S3, S58 e S54 isoladas de plantas de processamento de alimentos. Também foi avaliada a eficácia dos sanitizantes hipoclorito de sódio (250 mg/mL e ácido perac

  7. Consequences of flagellin export through the type III secretion system of Pseudomonas syringae reveal a major difference in the innate immune systems of mammals and the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Lei; Chakravarthy, Suma; Worley, Jay N; Collmer, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Bacterial flagellin is perceived as a microbe (or pathogen)-associated molecular pattern (MAMP or PAMP) by the extracellular pattern recognition receptors, FLS2 and TLR5, of plants and mammals respectively. Flagellin accidently translocated into mammalian cells by pathogen type III secretion systems (T3SSs) is recognized by nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptor NLRC4 as a pattern of pathogenesis and induces a death-associated immune response. The non-pathogen Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf0-1, expressing a Pseudomonas syringae T3SS, and the plant pathogen P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 were used to seek evidence of an analogous cytoplasmic recognition system for flagellin in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Flagellin (FliC) was secreted in culture and translocated into plant cells by the T3SS expressed in Pf0-1 and DC3000 and in their ΔflgGHI flagellar pathway mutants. ΔfliC and ΔflgGHI mutants of Pf0-1 and DC3000 were strongly reduced in elicitation of reactive oxygen species production and in immunity induction as indicated by the ability of challenge bacteria inoculated 6 h later to translocate a type III effector-reporter and to elicit effector-triggered cell death. Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression in N. benthamiana of FliC with or without a eukaryotic export signal peptide, coupled with virus-induced gene silencing of FLS2, revealed no immune response that was not FLS2 dependent. Transiently expressed FliC from DC3000 and Pectobacterium carotovorum did notinduce cell death in N. benthamiana, tobacco or tomato leaves. Flagellin is the major Pseudomonas MAMP perceived by N. benthamiana, and although flagellin secretion through the plant cell wall by the T3SS may partially contribute to FLS2-dependent immunity, flagellin in the cytosol does not elicit immune-associated cell death. We postulate that a death response to translocated MAMPs would produce vulnerability to the many necrotrophic pathogens of plants, such as P

  8. Dairy Product Manufacturing Costs at Cooperative Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, K. Charles

    1983-01-01

    Cost data are summarized for 14 plants manufacturing cheese, butter, and powder and average costs are presented for each product. Average cost curves are estimated for each plant. The scale of plant for least-cost operations is identified for plants of each product type. Plant capacity utilization and seasonal volume variation and their impacts on manufacturing cost are delineated.

  9. Effects of Planting Density of Fuel Type Energy Forest of Elaeagnus angustifolia L.%燃料型沙枣能源林造林密度效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志燕

    2011-01-01

    在相同的立地条件下,按不同造林密度设定样地,造林后对5种不同密度沙枣林分进行密度效应观测,测定株高、地径、生物量、热值、能量现存量等。结果表明:造林第3年株高和地径增长速度明显慢于第2年;造林3 a后沙枣能源林林分生物量与能量现存量均随密度的减小而减小;密度不对热值产生影响;从造林3 a后来看,密植(10 000株/hm26,667株/hm24,444株/hm2)的生物量及能量现存量明显高于疏植(3 333株/hm22,500株/hm2)。%Five types of planting density were designed under the same site condition,and determination of height,diameter,biomass,calorific value and energy were carried on simultaneously.Results showed that the growth rate of plant height and diameter of the third year was slower than the second year apparently.After three years,stand biomass of energy forest of Elaeagnus angustifolia decreased with the decreases of density,while density had no effeet on calorific value.For the 3-year-old plantation,above-ground biomass and energy of dense vegetation(10 000 plants/hm2,6 667 plants/hm2,4 444 plants/hm2) was significantly higher than that of sparse vegetation(3 333 plants/hm2,2 500 plants/hm2).

  10. Assay and heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris of plant cell wall type-II membrane anchored glycosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent Larsen; Egelund, Jack; Damager, Iben

    2009-01-01

    Two Arabidopsis xylosyltransferases, designated RGXT1 and RGXT2, were recently expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect cells and by use of the free sugar assay shown to catalyse transfer of D-xylose from UDP-α-D-xylose to L-fucose and derivatives hereof. We have now examined expression of RGX...... nmol conversion of substrate • min-1 • µl medium-1) similar to those of RGXT1 and RGXT2 expressed in Baculovirus transfected insect Sf9 cells. In summary, the data presented suggest that Pichia is an attractive host candidate for expression of plant glycosyltransferases....

  11. Two HAP2-GCS1 homologs responsible for gamete interactions in the cellular slime mold with multiple mating types: Implication for common mechanisms of sexual reproduction shared by plants and protozoa and for male-female differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Marina; Yamada, Lixy; Fujisaki, Yukie; Bloomfield, Gareth; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; Sawada, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Urushihara, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    Fertilization is a central event in sexual reproduction, and understanding its molecular mechanisms has both basic and applicative biological importance. Recent studies have uncovered the molecules that mediate this process in a variety of organisms, making it intriguing to consider conservation and evolution of the mechanisms of sexual reproduction across phyla. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum undergoes sexual maturation and forms gametes under dark and humid conditions. It exhibits three mating types, type-I, -II, and -III, for the heterothallic mating system. Based on proteome analyses of the gamete membranes, we detected expression of two homologs of the plant fertilization protein HAP2-GCS1. When their coding genes were disrupted in type-I and type-II strains, sexual potency was completely lost, whereas disruption in the type-III strain did not affect mating behavior, suggesting that the latter acts as female in complex organisms. Our results demonstrate the highly conserved function of HAP2-GCS1 in gamete interactions and suggest the presence of additional allo-recognition mechanisms in D. discoideum gametes.

  12. Type I J-domain NbMIP1 proteins are required for both Tobacco mosaic virus infection and plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Du

    Full Text Available Tm-2² is a coiled coil-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat resistance protein that confers durable extreme resistance against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV by recognizing the viral movement protein (MP. Here we report that the Nicotiana benthamiana J-domain MIP1 proteins (NbMIP1s associate with tobamovirus MP, Tm-2² and SGT1. Silencing of NbMIP1s reduced TMV movement and compromised Tm-2²-mediated resistance against TMV and ToMV. Furthermore, silencing of NbMIP1s reduced the steady-state protein levels of ToMV MP and Tm-2². Moreover, NbMIP1s are required for plant resistance induced by other R genes and the nonhost pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000. In addition, we found that SGT1 associates with Tm-2² and is required for Tm-2²-mediated resistance against TMV. These results suggest that NbMIP1s function as co-chaperones during virus infection and plant immunity.

  13. Effect of plant growth regulators and explant types on regeneration and micropropagation of a commercial strawberry cultivar (Fragaria ×ananassa cv. Selva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Madani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa L. is an important horticultural product that is highly acceptable because of its desirable taste, flavor, mineral elements, vitamins and secondary metabolites. Conventionally, strawberries are vegetatively propagated by runners arising from axillary buds on the plant crown. Plant propagation through runner produces a limited number of propagules. In the view of mass propagation and transformation, it is highly desirable to optimize methods of rapid, efficient and large scale multiplication of Fragaria X ananassa Duch. through tissue culture. In present study, developing an effective protocol for regeneration of strawberry cv. Selva, different explants (leaf disk, shoot tips and hypocotyls and media modifications were examined. The best response towards shoot induction was observed on shoot tip explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l of BAP and IAA. Direct shoots emerged from hypocotyls grown on MS medium supplemented by 2,4-D, BAP and TDZ at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/l respectively. Indirect shoot regeneration was produced from hypocotyls on MS medium containing 2 mg/l of BAP. Using activated charcoal enhanced explants proliferation on culture media due to decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and adsorption of inhibitory compounds.

  14. The Gene Encoding Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Is a Candidate for the anthocyaninless Locus of Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants Type).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Douglas L; Vaziri, Anoumid; Shergill, Gurbaksh

    2016-01-01

    Rapid cycling Brassica rapa, also known as Wisconsin Fast Plants, are a widely used organism in both K-12 and college science education. They are an excellent system for genetics laboratory instruction because it is very easy to conduct genetic crosses with this organism, there are numerous seed stocks with variation in both Mendelian and quantitative traits, they have a short generation time, and there is a wealth of educational materials for instructors using them. Their main deficiency for genetics education is that none of the genetic variation in RCBr has yet been characterized at the molecular level. Here we present the first molecular characterization of a gene responsible for a trait in Fast Plants. The trait under study is purple/nonpurple variation due to the anthocyaninless locus, which is one of the Mendelian traits most frequently used for genetics education with this organism. We present evidence that the DFR gene, which encodes dihyroflavonol 4-reductase, is the candidate gene for the anthocyaninless (ANL) locus in RCBr. DFR shows complete linkage with ANL in genetic crosses with a total of 948 informative chromosomes, and strains with the recessive nonpurple phenotype have a transposon-related insertion in the DFR which is predicted to disrupt gene function.

  15. Protocols for Callus and Somatic Embryo Initiation for Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae): Influence of Explant Type, Sugar, and Plant Growth Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant work on callus induction and somatic embryogenesis was realized for Hibiscus sabdariffa. Two genotypes (Hibiscus sabdariffa and Hibiscus sabdariffa var. altissima) two sugars (sucrose and glucose) and three concentrations (1 %, 2%, 3%) of each sugar, 3 explant types (root, hypocotyl, c...

  16. 崂山野生攀援植物属的地理成分分析%Studies on the Areal -types of Genera of Wild Climbing Plants in Laoshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦连; 王元军; 徐爱东; 李红燕; 王超

    2011-01-01

    Laoshan is located in the North -east of Shandong Province, between the latitude 34°25' -38 °23 'N and longitude 114°36' -122°43'E with an area of 386 km^2. It is rich in the resources of wild climbing plants. The paper aims at analyzing the areal - types of genera of wild climbing plants in Laoshan by means of investigating in the wild field and looking up and arranging and identifieating the specimens from several related specimen room. The results obtained are as follows :There are 26 families 49 genera 104 species and varieties of wild climbing plants exist in Laoshan ; The areal- types of genera of flora of wild climbing plants in Laoshan has the features of richness in species, complexity in floristic elements, diversity in types, equivalence in Tropical elements and Temperate elements and so on.%崂山地处山东半岛东南部,位于北纬36°03’-36°23’,东经120°07’~1'20°43’,山区总面积386km^2,有较为丰富的野生攀援植物资源.通过野外采集及标本的整理鉴定,初步确认该区共有野生攀援植物26科49属104种(包括种下等级).根据对崂山野生攀援植物属的地理成分分析的结果,指出本区野生攀援植、物区系具有以下特征:(1)种类组成丰富,地理成分复杂;(2)区系中热带性地理成分和温带性地理成分相当;(3)相对于整个种子植物区系来说,野生攀援植物区系具有更强的热带性亲缘.

  17. Optimization of the irradiation conditions of some control components and materials for the nuclear power plants and the radiation stability of certain types of plastic lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešek, M.; Reřichová, M.; Třebicky, V.; Chvojka, M.

    Fail-safe operation of various safeguard devices, operational and auxiliary equipments and control components, e.g. servomotors other engines and various appliances, is required for a safe operation of nuclear power plants. Non-metal materials, control components, motors and other appliances have to be tested and their properties evaluated after γ-irradiation with doses corresponding to the assumed long term radiation commitment and also to the irradiation caused by an eventual accident. The radiation stability of greases used in devices exposed to high doses of the ionizing radiation presents a rather serious and important problem. The results of some tests and the evaluation of the properties of irradiated plastic lubricants are described.

  18. New type feed additive——plant sterols%新型饲料添加剂——植物甾醇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红梅; 张勇

    2008-01-01

    甾醇类(sterols)化合物在自然界中广泛分布,根据其来源不同,可分为植物甾醇、动物甾醇和菌类甾醇。动物甾醇主要为胆固醇(cholesterol)。菌类甾醇主要有菌类所含的麦角甾醇(ergosterol)和海藻类所含的岩光甾醇(fucosterol)。植物甾醇(plant sterol or phytosterol)通常以多种形式存在。是一种类似于环状醇结构的物质,广泛分布于自然界,代表了植物代谢的一个终产物。

  19. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako eMitsumasu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root-parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones (SLs, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  20. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  1. 不同株型品种冬小麦NDVI变化特征及产量分析%Changes in NDVI and yield of winter wheat cultivars with different plant types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯美臣; 杨武德

    2011-01-01

    Plant type and irrigation scheme are key influencing factors of real-time yield estimation and monitoring of winter wheat in precision farming. In this paper, MODIS remote sensing data were used in combination with GPS and ground-truth non-remote sensing data to determine the dynamics of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of winter wheat cultivars with different plant types under irrigation and non-irrigation conditions. The relationship between NDVI and yield of different winter wheat cultivats in different growth stages was then analyzed. Results showed the trends in NDVI with developmental stages of different wheat cultivars were same, following a low-high-low curve. There were obvious differences in NDVI from jointing to booting stages for different cultivars, and NDVI for cultivars with horizontal plant types was higher than that for cultivars with erect plant types. It implied that the jointing-to-booting stage was the best period for identifying plant types of winter wheat cultivars. Even for the same cultivar, mean NDVI was obviously different at each growth stage for irrigated and non-irrigated lands. NDVI for irrigated winter wheat was higher than that for non-irrigated winter wheat, with a notable difference especially at the early heading stage. At early heading stage, NDVI was strongly correlated with yield in irrigated and non-irrigated lands. However, regression equation based on NDVI both in the early heading and filling stages gave better prediction for wheat yield than that based on NDVI only in the early heading stage. This was especially the case for non-irrigated wheat fields.%冬小麦不同株型品种和灌溉类型是影响产量遥感估测的重要因素,对二者的实时监测可以提高产量的估测精度.结合遥感数据(MODIS数据)与非遥感数据(GPS数据和外业调查资料),研究了不同株型品种冬小麦在水、旱地条件下归一化差值植被指数(NDVI)的动态变化特征,分析了不同生育

  2. 苹果苗木类型和栽植时间对幼树生长特性的影响%Effects of nursery type and planting date on vegetative growth characteristics of the young apple tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋春晖; 余拱鑫; 张庆伟; 刑利博; 宋晓敏; 赵彩平; 韩明玉; 李高潮

    2013-01-01

    [目的]为了研究不同栽植时间下不同苗木类型的生长特性,[方法]以3a生‘长富2号’/‘M26’/八棱海棠为试材,测定3个栽植时间(2010年3月10日、4月10日和5月10日)下分枝苗、去分枝苗和单干苗生长特性相关指标.[结果]5月份栽植植株的生长势弱于3、4月栽植的植株;单干苗生长势弱于分枝苗和去分枝苗.栽植后第2年,3、4月栽植植株的株高、主干粗度显著大于5月栽植的植株.去分枝苗和单干苗株高显著大于分枝苗.3种苗木类型主干粗度依次为分枝苗>去分枝苗>单干苗,且相互差异显著.分枝苗和去分枝苗冠径显著大于单干苗.栽植后第3年,分枝苗的花芽数显著高于去分枝苗和单干苗.[结论]苹果苗木在冷藏条件下,4月栽植是可行的,本试验中3月份栽植较为适宜.分枝苗有利于促进幼树提早开花结果.%[Objective]The objective of this research was to study the growth characteristics of the different types of nursery planted on different planting date. [Method] 3-year-old apple (Malus domestica Borth.)cultivar 'Fuji Nagafu No. 2'/'M26'/ Malus prunifolia(Willd.) Borkh were used as material and, two factor completely random block design was involved including 3 planting dates i.e. March 10, April 10 and May 10 in 2010, and 3 types of nursery i.e. branched tree, branch removed tree and un-branched tree. In the first year after planting, the survival rate,and the increase dynamics of tree height, shoot length and trunk diameter were investigated, the characteristics of branch,leaf and canopy were observed in the second year, and the flower number was counted in the third year. [Result )The results showed that: the survival rate of all treatments were higher than 95%. Both planting date and nursery type had significant effect on growth potential. The trees planted in May showed low growth potential, compared with trees planted in other dates. The unbranched trees had the lowest

  3. Wireless Instrument and Network Conifguration of Tower Type CSP Power Plant%塔式光热发电无线仪表和无线网络配置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李才永; 胡立国; 徐同社

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了一种群塔式太阳能光热发电系统的定日镜、吸热蓄热器、汽水管道等系统的基本仪表配置和仪表的主要功能。根据这些仪表配置的特点提出了无线仪表和无线网络的具体配置方案。本文还介绍了每种无线仪表的特点和在群塔式太阳能光热发电系统中的具体应用范围以及各种无线网络设备,如无线多功能节点、各类无线转接模块、手持设备、无线管理平台等的功能以及配置。%In this paper, one multi-tower CSP power plant instrument conifguration and function for heliostats, solar thermal receivers, steam and water pipes is presented. Wireless instrument and wireless network configuration are developed based on the character of the instrument configuration. Each type of wireless instrument and its detail application in multi-tower CSP power plant is presented. Function and conifguration of each type of wireless network equipment, such as wireless multi-function node, every type of wireless adaptor, handheld, wireless device manager is also presented.

  4. Fruit type spectra and their altitudinal distribution patterns of wild plants in Beijing%北京地区野生植物果实类型谱及沿海拔分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于顺利; 方伟伟; 张小凤

    2012-01-01

    陆地生态系统的果实类型谱是植物对环境长期适应演化的结果.本文分析了北京地区的所有被子植物1371种以及4种生活型(乔木、灌木、草本、藤本)的果实类型谱,并调查了北京西部东灵山的植物果实类型谱的海拔梯度变化格局.结果表明:北京果实类型中蒴果的比例最高,其次为瘦果、坚果、颖果、浆果、荚果等;北京果实类型中肉果比例占13.57%,干果比例占86.43%;干果中裂果比例占35.6%,闭果比例占50.83%.4种生活型中果实类型的构成式样相差较大,乔木中坚果比例最高,其肉果比例为32.7%,干果比例为67.3%;灌木中浆果比例最高,其肉果比例为49.2%,干果比例为50.8%;草本中瘦果比例最高,其肉果比例为6.4%,干果比例为93.6%;藤本中浆果占绝对优势,其肉果比例为52.2%,干果比例为47.8%,这些特征与北京地区所在的温带气候和地理位置(较高纬度和较低海拔)相适应.在东灵山地区,随着海拔的升高,肉果的比例逐渐降低,从海拔为1083m的18.52%至海拔2100 m处消失,而干果的比例则逐渐升高,从80.95%以致达到100%.随着海拔的升高,肉果、核果、浆果的比例显著下降,而干果的比例明显上升,原因为随着海拔的升高,水热条件变得较为严酷,不利于核果、浆果等植物的生存,更适合瘦果、蒴果等植物的生长.本研究对理解北京山地果实类型分布格局与当地气候的关系以及陆地生态系统对自然环境的长期适应演化具有一定的意义.%The fruit type spectrum of terrestrial ecosystem is a result of long-term adaptation evolution to the environment. In this paper, the fruit type spectra of 1371 wild seed plants and their four life forms (tree, shrub, herb, and liana) in Beijing area were analyzed, and the distribution patterns of the fruit type spectra along an altitudinal gradient in Donglingshan Mountain in western Beijing

  5. Prevalence, types, and geographical distribution of Listeria monocytogenes from a survey of retail Queso Fresco and associated cheese processing plants and dairy farms in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Enriquez, R I; Garcia-Galaz, A; Acedo-Felix, E; Gonzalez-Rios, I H; Call, J E; Luchansky, J B; Diaz-Cinco, M E

    2007-11-01

    In the first part of this study, samples were collected from farms, cheese processing plants (CPPs), and retail markets located in various geographical areas of Sonora, Mexico, over a 12-month period during the summer of 2004 and winter of 2005. Four (all Queso Fresco [QF] from retail markets) of 349 total samples tested positive for Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Of these four positive samples, three were collected in the northern region and one in the southern region of Sonora. Additionally, two were collected during the winter months, and two were collected during the summer months. For the second part of the study, a total of 39 samples from a farm, a CPP, and retail markets were collected and processed according to a combination of the Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-143-SSA1-1995.10 method (NOM) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, and 27 samples from these same locations were collected and processed according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service method (USDA-FSIS). The NOM-FDA method recovered the pathogen from 6 (15%) of 39 samples (one cheese and five product contact surfaces), while the USDA-FSIS method recovered the pathogen from 5 (18.5%) of 27 samples (all product contact surfaces). In addition, the 40 isolates recovered from the 15 total samples that tested positive for Lm grouped into five distinct pulsotypes that were ca. 60% related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. The results of this study confirmed a 3.4% prevalence of Lm in QF collected from retail markets located in Sonora and no appreciable difference in the effectiveness of either the NOM-FDA or USDA-FSIS method to recover the pathogen from cheese or environmental samples.

  6. COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND OBSERVED SEISMIC ACCELERATIONS IN COMPOSITE-TYPE ROCK-FILL DAM OF THE DNESTROVSKAYA HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT DURING EXPERIMENTAL EXPLOSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Matvienko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in earth dams has been developed within the framework of seismic resistance wave theory. In this case we take into account an influence of the dam foundation and seismic wave emission into it. The methodology is based on numerical solution of the dynamic problem while using a finite difference method. A software program SGD “Determination of seismic acceleration in the earth dam” has been prepared on the basis of the developed methodology. The program allows to evaluate ordinates of calculation orthographic representations for acceleration throughout the dam height for all time moments. Thus, it is possible to obtain the most dangerous acceleration orthographic representations at direct and reverse seismic actions. The papers presents verification (compliance test of calculated and observed seismic accelerations for the rock-fill dam of the Dnestrovskaya Hydro-Electric Power Plant No 1. The observed seismic accelerations have been obtained during experimental explosions. The calculated seismic accelerations have been obtained in accordance with the proposed methodology for determination of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. A comparative analysis of calculation results with the data of field observations has demonstrated that a maximum difference between extreme accelerations obtained by calculation, and during field observations, do not exceed 10.11 % for the dam crest, and 6.56 % for its bottom. The obtained results permit to recommend the developed program for engineering calculations of seismic accelerations in the earth dams. The program application will make it possible to determine seismic acceleration in the earth dam with sufficient reliability.

  7. Response of aboveground carbon balance to long-term, experimental enhancements in precipitation seasonality is contingent on plant community type in cold-desert rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAbee, Kathryn; Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew; Bosworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands are important carbon (C) pools at global scales. However, the degree of net C storage or release in water-limited systems is a function of precipitation amount and timing, as well as plant community composition. In northern latitudes of western North America, C storage in cold-desert ecosystems could increase with boosts in wintertime precipitation, in which climate models predict, due to increases in wintertime soil water storage that enhance summertime productivity. However, there are few long-term, manipulative field-based studies investigating how rangelands will respond to altered precipitation amount or timing. We measured aboveground C pools and fluxes at leaf, soil, and ecosystem scales over a single growing season in plots that had 200 mm of supplemental precipitation added in either winter or summer for the past 21 years, in shrub- and exotic-bunchgrass-dominated garden plots. At our cold-desert site (298 mm precipitation during the study year), we hypothesized that increased winter precipitation would stimulate the aboveground C uptake and storage relative to ambient conditions, especially in plots containing shrubs. Our hypotheses were generally supported: ecosystem C uptake and long-term biomass accumulation were greater in winter- and summer-irrigated plots compared to control plots in both vegetation communities. However, substantial increases in the aboveground biomass occurred only in winter-irrigated plots that contained shrubs. Our findings suggest that increases in winter precipitation will enhance C storage of this widespread ecosystem, and moreso in shrub- compared to grass-dominated communities.

  8. 城市绿地空间3种配置模式降温增湿效应比较%Analysis of the effects of cooling and humidification of three plant disposition types of urban green space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文豹; 徐敏; 张小茜

    2011-01-01

    Magnolia grandiflora-Buxus sinica - Ophiopogon japonicas land (arbor-shrub-herbs), Buxus sinica-mixed grass- land(shrub-herbs) and grassland were chose to analyze the effects of cooling and humidification. The results showed the effects of cooling and humidification in the arbor-shrub-grass were the best, the second was the shrub-herb type. The grass- land could regulate soil and air temperature and humidity, but its influence was slight. There were also signifant differences among the three plant disposition types, the order of synthetical ecological effects, from the best to worst, was arbor-shrub- grass type, shrub-herb type, and grass type.%选择广玉兰-瓜子黄杨-细叶麦冬植物群落(乔灌草)、瓜子黄杨-混合草坪植物群落(灌草)、草坪3种配置类型,对城市休闲区不同绿化类型的降温增湿效应进行了分析。结果表明,乔灌草绿地降温效应最佳,增湿效应最明显,其次是灌草绿地,草坪地虽具有一定的降温增湿效应,但是效果较差。不同配置类型的生态效应存在差异,其综合效应是乔灌草群落〉灌草群落〉草坪群落。

  9. 两种植物提取物对害虫杀虫效果的研究%Insecticidal Activity of Two Types of Plants to Harmful Insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏帆; 陈成; 柯群; 方元平; 吴中华

    2011-01-01

    Using the density of 60% ethyl alcohol to get the extracting of the leaf, fruit peel, pulp of Melia azedarach, the leaf of Nerium indicum Mill,and obtained the extracting by decoct the root skin of Melia azedarach,and then concentrated and prepared different densities of them. The insecticidal activity of the plant was tested in the laboratory. Two pesticides were used to be positive control. The extract of the two had insecticidal activity to pests on certain level, the dose-effect of the mortality rate of Calex pipiens pallens were increasing by time increasing, and stabilized after 48 h. The peel and the pulp of Melia azedarach had the highest cytotoxic activity, LC50 were 0.281 0 mg/mL and 0.278 0mg/mL respectively,the root skin of Nerium indicum Mill was most obvious to Heliothis armigera Hubner, LC50 was 0.187 7 mg/mL.%用60%乙醇采用破碎提取法获得苦楝叶、果皮、果肉和夹竹桃叶提取液,用煎煮法获得苦楝根皮提取液:将提取液浓缩成浸膏,并配制成不同浓度对淡色库蚊和棉铃虫幼虫进行生物测试.结果表明各提取液对两种害虫均具有一定的毒杀作用.淡色库蚊的死亡率随处理时间的延长而不断增加,48 h后趋于稳定,苦楝果肉和果皮提取物的毒杀活性最高,LC50分别为0.281 0mg/mL和0.278 0mg/mL;苦楝根皮提取物对棉铃虫的毒杀和拒食作用最明显,其LC50为0.187 7 mg/mL.

  10. Plant Transgenerational Epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Quadrana, Leandro; Colot, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Transgenerational epigenetics is defined in opposition to developmental epi-genetics and implies an absence of resetting of epigenetic states between generations. Unlike mammals, plants appear to be particularly prone to this type of inheritance. In this review, we summarize our knowledge about trans-generational epigenetics in plants, which entails heritable changes in DNA methylation. We emphasize the role of transposable elements and other repeat sequences in the cr...

  11. Plant Mobile Small RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Melnyk, Charles; Molnar, Attila; Slotkin, R Keith

    2013-01-01

    In plants, RNA silencing is a fundamental regulator of gene expression, heterochromatin formation, suppression of transposable elements, and defense against viruses. The sequence specificity of these processes relies on small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules. Although the spreading of RNA silencing across the plant has been recognized for nearly two decades, only recently have sRNAs been formally demonstrated as the mobile silencing signals. Here, we discuss the various types of mobile sRNA mol...

  12. 石油化工生产装置低压系统接线及接地型式%Wiring and Grounding Types of Low Voltage System in Petrochemical Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任佩佳; 邵文平; 姜旭; 董柏屹

    2016-01-01

    简述低压系统接地的型式,介绍了石油化工生产装置低压系统的接线方式,根据用电负荷特点及工程实际绘制了石油化工生产装置低压系统接线图,探讨关于低压系统三极、四极断路器选择的问题,结合实际分别阐述电动机配电电缆芯数选择问题及变压器中性点工作接地线截面的确定。%Grounding types of low-voltage system were described, wiring of low-voltage system in petrochemical plants was introduced, wiring diagram of low-voltage system in petrochemical plants was drew based on electrical load characteristics and engineering practice, choice of level 3 and level 4 circuit breakers in the low voltage system was discussed. Combined with the actual conditons, selection of the motor power cables was also discussed, and the neutral point grounding wire section of transformer was determined.

  13. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  14. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  15. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen eNietzsche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1 responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic alpha subunit associates with a regulatory beta subunit and an activating gamma subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1 alpha subunit (AKIN10/11 of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins can share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  16. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation. PMID:24600465

  17. Past and future scenarios of the effect of carbon dioxide on plant growth and transpiration for three vegetation types of southwestern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Calvet

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of an operational CO2-responsive land surface model (the ISBA-A-gs model of Météo-France to the atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], is investigated for 3 vegetation types (winter wheat, irrigated corn, coniferous forest. Past (1960 and future (2050 scenarios of [CO2] corresponding to 320 ppm and 550 ppm, respectively, are explored. The sensitivity study is performed for 4 annual cycles presenting contrasting conditions of precipitation regime and air temperature, based on continuous measurements performed on the SMOSREX site near Toulouse, in southwestern France. A significant CO2-driven reduction of canopy conductance is simulated for the irrigated corn and the coniferous forest. The reduction is particularly large for corn, from 2000 to 2050 (–18%, and triggers a drop in optimum irrigation (–30 mm y−1. In the case of wheat, the response is more complex, with an equal occurrence of enhanced or reduced canopy conductance.

  18. 25 CFR 140.26 - Infectious plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infectious plants. 140.26 Section 140.26 Indians BUREAU... Infectious plants. Traders shall not introduce into, sell, or spread within Indian reservations any plant, plant product, seed, or any type of vegetation, which is infested, or infected or which might act as...

  19. Effect of precipitates on long-term creep deformation properties of P92 and P122 type advanced ferritic steels for USC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, M., E-mail: yoshizaw-mtr@sumitomometals.co.jp [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Igarashi, M.; Moriguchi, K. [Corporate Research and Development Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan); Iseda, A. [Tubular Products Technology Department, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., 1-8-11 Harumi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-6111 (Japan); Armaki, Hassan Ghassemi; Maruyama, K. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-02 Aobayama, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    Long-term creep rupture strengths and the microstructural stability of ASME P92 and P122 pipes have been studied using creep testing at the temperatures from 550 to 700 deg. C and detailed scanning transmission electron microscopy. Creep rupture strength of P92 is found to be more stable than that of P122 at temperatures over 600 deg. C, which is mainly due to the difference in their Cr content. P122 type model steel with reduced Cr content, 9%Cr, has been prepared to explore the effect of Cr on the stability of MX and formation of Z-phase during creep deformation. MX in 9%Cr steel is found to be stable even after prolonged exposure at 650 deg. C, while Cr and Fe concentration to MX without marked coarsening has been observed in 10.5%Cr steel after aging for 10,000 h at 650 deg. C. This seems to lead to the transition of MX carbonitride into the Z-phase after aging for 23,000 h, which requires ordering in a M{sub 2}N lattice to achieve a tetragonal Z-phase to be stable. Creep deformation behavior in the transient creep region of the steels is almost same up to about 7000 h, while in the acceleration creep region the creep rate of 10.5%Cr steel becomes much faster than that of 9%Cr steel, resulting in shorter rupture life. It is obvious that the creep rupture strength degradation starts prior to the formation of Z-phase in 10.5%Cr steel. It is thus concluded that Z-phase is not a necessary factor for degradation of creep rupture strength but the instability of the fine precipitates such as Cr{sub 2}(C, N) caused by the compositions change like Cr supply to MX carbonitride is more essential.

  20. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China starts to produce vegetables and fruits in a factory sunshine,air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axiomatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory,scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent,such as deserts, islands,water surfaces,South and North poles and space,as well as in human habitats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  1. Manufacturing Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Sunshine, air and soil are indispensable for green plants. This might be axi-omatic but not in a plant factory. By creating a plant factory, scientists are trying to grow plants where natural elements are deficient or absent, such as deserts,islands, water surfaces, South and North poles and space, as well as in human habi-tats such as skyscrapers in modern cities.

  2. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water....

  3. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  4. 繁殖方法对滇I型粳稻不育系群体中可育株类型和频率的影响%Effects of Multiplying Methods on Type and Frequency of Fertile Plants in Populations of Japonica Dian I-type CMS Lines in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文建成; 黄大军; 陆定科; 谭亚玲; 洪汝科; 谭学林

    2011-01-01

    连续4a调查了以袋繁和自繁方式生产的4个滇I型不育系的11个群体,发现"可育株"的出现频率为0.087 1%.其表型与相应保持系一致.采用测交和分子标记技术分析了这些"可育株"的基因型,发现袋繁不育系群体存在核恢复基因位点基因型为r矿的"保持株"和Rf/rf的"回复株"2种类型,而自繁不育系群体还新出现基因型为RfRf的"纯合株"类型.与袋繁群体比,自繁群体出现"可育株"的频率提高了74.7%.其中"保持株"频率提高了42.6%,"回复株"频率提高了149.3%.基于不育系繁殖方法不同,不育系中出现"可育株"混杂的几率不同,为获得高纯度的不育系种子,滇I型不育系繁殖应在袋繁基础上,扩大自繁群体,减少自繁次数.%It was found that the ratio of fertile plants (FP) was 0.087 1% on average based on the investigation of 11 populations of four japonica Dian Ⅰ-type CMS Lines (CMS-D1) generated by bagged pollination multiplication (BPM) and natural pollination multiplication (NPM) for four years (2005-2008), and the phenotype of fertile plants was similar to that of maintainer plants. The analysis based on selfing, testcrossing and DNA marker techniques showed that there were two genotypes, i.e. , rf/rf ( maintainer plants) and Rf/rf (revertants), for the fertile plants in the populations generated by BPM, but in the populations generated by NPM, besides the above two genotypes, a new genotype, Rf/Rf ( homozygous plants), was found. In comparison with the BPM populations, the NPM populations had a higher ratio of fertile plants by 74.7%, of maintainer plants by 42.6% and of revertants by 149.3%. Since different methods of multiplication results in a different degree of impurity of fertile plants in CMS populations, it is necessary to enlarge the size of NPM population on the basis of BPM and lessen the multiplying times to ensure a high seed purity in the multiplication of CMS-D1.

  5. Coroa do abacaxi 'Smooth Cayenne' na produção de mudas do tipo rebentão 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple crown on the yield of suckers type planting material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimário Inácio Coelho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o emprego da coroa na produção de mudas do tipo rebentão, coroas do abacaxizeiro 'Smooth Cayenne', pesando de 200 a 300 gramas, foram cultivadas em vasos com 5 dm³ de substrato, em casa de vegetação. Aos quinze e aos trinta dias após o plantio, foram pulverizadas com 10 mL de solução contendo GA3 (0, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1 e BAP (0, 100, 200 e 400 mg L-1 em uma combinação das diferentes concentrações, totalizando 16 tratamentos e quatro repetições. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, no esquema fatorial 4x4. Observou-se efeito do GA3 e do BAP na emissão de brotos, a cada período de dois meses, sendo que os maiores valores estimados foram de 1,81 brotos a cada 60 dias e um total médio de 12,6 brotos em 420 dias após o plantio, quando se utilizou 230 mg L-1 de BAP. Não houve efeito do GA3 e do BAP sobre o número, peso e comprimento dos maiores brotos colhidos aos 124, 214, 314 e 360 dias. Foram colhidas, em um período de 360 dias após o plantio da coroa, 5,2 mudas com peso médio de 145 g e comprimento igual a 35,9 cm.Aiming to evaluate the use of 'Smooth Cayenne' pineapple plant crowns on yielding planting material of the suckers type, pineapple crowns, weighting from 200 to 300 g, were planted in pots containing 5 dm³ of substrate, in a greenhouse. Fifteen and thirty days after being planted, they were pulverized with 10 mL of GA3 (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 and BAP (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 combining the concentrations totalizing 16 treatments with four replicates. The experimental outline was in randomized blocks in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme. Effects of GA3 and BAP on shoot emission were evaluated every two-month intervals. The highest rates of shoot emission were 1,81 shoots every 60 days and a total average of 12.6 shoots at 420 days after planting, under 230 mg L-1 of BAP. There were no GA3 or BAP effects on the number, weight and length of the largest offshoots harvested at 124, 214

  6. Autoluminescent plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krichevsky

    Full Text Available Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye.

  7. Plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian T

    2010-05-11

    Plant volatiles are the metabolites that plants release into the air. The quantities released are not trivial. Almost one-fifth of the atmospheric CO2 fixed by land plants is released back into the air each day as volatiles. Plants are champion synthetic chemists; they take advantage of their anabolic prowess to produce volatiles, which they use to protect themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses and to provide information - and potentially disinformation - to mutualists and competitors alike. As transferors of information, volatiles have provided plants with solutions to the challenges associated with being rooted in the ground and immobile.

  8. 新型膜组件及超滤膜在焦化废水处理中的应用%Application of new type membrane module and ultrafiltration membrane in advanced treatment of coke plant wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉辉; 隋明明

    2015-01-01

    介绍了国产PVDF复合膜及新型外置浸没式膜组件在焦化废水深度处理中的应用。 PVDF复合膜在确保通量的前提下,避免了物理损伤带来的断丝、出水悬浮物超标等问题。新型膜组件具有占地面积小、自动化程度高等优点,其出水可以直接回用或作为反渗透膜的进水。%This paper introduces the application of China-made PVDF composite membrane and new type external submerged membrane module in advanced treatment of coke plant wastewater. PVDF has avoided the problems of wire break and exceeding amount of suspended solid in discharged water on condition of ensuring the flux. The new type membrane module has advantages of less space occu-pation and higher automation level,and the discharged water could be directly reused or used as feed water for reverse osmosis membrane.

  9. PA1b, a plant peptide, induces intracellular [Ca2+] in- crease via Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel and triggers secretion in pancreatic β cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using alginic acid to adsorb polypeptides at pH 2.7, we isolated a peptide pea albumin 1b (PA1b) from pea seeds. The PA1b is a single chain peptide consisting of 37 amino acid residues with 6 cysteines which constitutes the cystine-knot structure. Using microfluorometry and patch clamp techniques, we found that PA1b significantly elevated the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+ ]i) and elicited membrane capacitance increase in the primary rat pancreatic β cells. The PA1b effect on [Ca2+]i elevation was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, ni- modipine. Interestingly, we found that PA1b significantly depolarized membrane potential, which could lead to the opening of voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels and influx of extracellular Ca2+, and then evoke robust secretion. In this study we identified the plant peptide PA1b which is capable of affecting the excitability and function of mammalian pancreatic β cell.

  10. PA1b, a plant peptide, induces intracellular [Ca2+] increase via Ca2+ influx through the L-type Ca2+ channel and triggers secretion in pancreatic β cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU ZhiTao; DUN XinPeng; ZHANG Ming; ZHU HongLiang; XIE Li; WU ZhengXing; CHEN ZhengWang; XU Tao

    2007-01-01

    Using alginic acid to adsorb polypeptides at pH 2.7, we isolated a peptide pea albumin 1b (PA1b) from pea seeds. The PA1b is a single chain peptide consisting of 37 amino acid residues with 6 cysteines which constitutes the cystine-knot structure. Using microfluorometry and patch clamp techniques, we found that PA1b significantly elevated the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) and elicited membrane capacitance increase in the primary rat pancreatic β cells. The PA1b effect on [Ca2+]i elevation was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nimodipine. Interestingly, we found that PA1b significantly depolarized membrane potential, which could lead to the opening of voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels and influx of extracellular Ca2+, and then evoke robust secretion. In this study we identified the plant peptide PA1b which is capable of affecting the excitability and function of mammalian pancreatic β cell.

  11. Genetic background of novel sequence types of CTX-M-8- and CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from public wastewater treatment plants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropa, Milena; Lincopan, Nilton; Balsalobre, Livia C; Oliveira, Danielle E; Moura, Rodrigo A; Fernandes, Miriam Rodriguez; da Silva, Quézia Moura; Matté, Glavur R; Sato, Maria I Z; Matté, Maria H

    2016-03-01

    The release of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae to the environment is a public health issue worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic background of genes encoding ESBLs in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In 2009, during a local surveillance study, seven ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were recovered from five WWTPs and screened for ESBL genes and mobile genetic elements. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out, and wild plasmids were transformed into electrocompetent Escherichia coli. S1-PFGE technique was used to verify the presence of high molecular weight plasmids in wild-type strains and in bla ESBL-containing E. coli transformants. Strains harbored bla CTX-M-8, bla CTX-M-15, and/or bla SHV-28. Sequencing results showed that bla CTX-M-8 and bla CTX-M-15 genes were associated with IS26. MLST revealed new sequence types for E. coli (ST4401, ST4402, ST4403, and ST4445) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ST1574), except for one K. pneumoniae from ST307 and Enterobacter cloacae from ST131. PCR and S1-PFGE results showed CTX-M-producing E. coli transformants carried heavy plasmids sizing 48.5-209 kb, which belonged to IncI1, IncF, and IncM1 incompatibility groups. This is the first report of CTX-M-8 and SHV-28 enzymes in environmental samples, and the present results demonstrate the plasmid-mediated spread of CTX-M-encoding genes through five WWTPs in São Paulo, Brazil, suggesting WWTPs are hotspots for the transfer of ESBL genes and confirming the urgent need to improve the management of sewage in order to minimize the dissemination of resistance genes to the environment.

  12. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  13. Plant caspase-like proteases in plant programmed cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qixian; Zhang, Lingrui

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-controlled disassembly of the cell. In animal systems, the central core execution switch for apoptotic PCD is the activation of caspases (Cysteine-containing Aspartate-specific proteases). Accumulating evidence in recent years suggests the existence of caspase-like activity in plants and its functional involvement in various types of plant PCD, although no functional homologs of animal caspases were identified in plant genome. In this mini-review, ...

  14. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  15. 新型环氧树脂砂浆在公路工程植筋中的应用%Application of New-type Epoxy Resin Mortar in Planting Reinforcement Bar of Highway Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小刚

    2012-01-01

    Research purposes: The introduction was given to the current applicable situation of the epoxy resin mortar and aiming at the problem of the poor coherence of the cohering surface caused by the toxicity of the auxiliary materials like epoxy resin curing agent and the contraction of the epoxy resin, the study was done on the selection of the raw materials, formulating of recipe and the various properties of the epoxy resin mortar for the purpose of finding out the low toxic, low contracting and high cohering strength epoxy resin mortar that was available for the planting reinforcement bar. Research conclusions: (1) The selection of the curing agent and the other auxiliary agents used in the epoxy resin mortar is crucial to cutting the toxicity of the epoxy resin mortar, especially the curing agent has more impact on the toxicity of the mortar. ( 2) Adding the appropriate amount of cements and sands can obviously reduce the contraction of the resin to avoid the crack of the cohering surface. ( 3 ) The cohering strength of new - type low toxic epoxy resin mortar can reach at the 20 MPa for one day, the cohering strength after 3 days can meet the design requirement of planting reinforcement bar and its final strength can reach at 60 MPa with the contraction rate of about 0. 3%. (4) When the planting depth of the smooth round reinforcement bar is not lees than 15 times of the reinforcement bar diameter and the planting depth of the screw thread reinforcement bar is not less than 10 times of the reinforcement bar diameter, the drawing force can yield the reinforcement bar, so it has perfect applicable value in the planting reinforcement bar engineering.%研究目的:通过阐述环氧树脂砂浆应用的现状,针对环氧树脂固化剂等辅助材料的毒性及环氧树脂砂浆收缩引起粘结面粘结不良,对环氧树脂砂浆原材料选择、配方设计及砂浆的各种性能进行研究,得到低毒性、低收缩、高粘结强度的适用于工程植筋

  16. 新型低氮旋流燃烧器在马莲台发电厂中的应用%Application of new type low NOx cyclone burner in Maliantai Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金义

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain the aim of reducing NOx emission in power plant and improving the en-vironment, aiming at the problem of using DDR cyclone burner engender highered NOx, Maliantai Power Plant uses the new type low NOx cyclone burner combine with SCR (selective catalytic reduc-tion) flue gas denitrification technology application into the denitrification improvement project, ob-tains better effects. The result shows that after the improvement of the burner, each operation index of the boiler is normally, the efficiency of the boiler increases, Nox emission density decreases obviously from original 679.85 mg/Nm3 to 290 mg/Nm3 , gains great social and economic benefits.%为了达到降低发电厂NOx排放物、改善生态环境的目的,针对采用DDR旋流燃烧器产生NOx较高的问题,马莲台发电厂在脱硝改造工程中大胆采用新型低氮燃烧器与SCR烟气脱硝相结合的技术,取得了良好效果。结果表明:燃烧器改造后锅炉运行各项指标正常,锅炉效率略有提高,NOx排放浓度明显减少,由原来的679.85 mg/Nm3降为290 mg/Nm3,取得了巨大的社会效益和经济效益。

  17. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  18. 不同秧龄和氮肥运筹对杂交籼稻株型的影响%Effects of different transplanting seedling ages and nitrogen managements on plant type of indica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕腾飞; 周伟; 孙永健; 朱懿; 严奉君; 杨志远; 马均

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transplanting seedling age is an important factor that may greatly affect the population quality and grain yield formation of rice . Related researches have showed that by extending the transplanting seedling ages , the tillering growth rate would slowed down;the growth duration would get shorted;peak seedling stage would occur in advance;leaf area index ( LAI) at full heading stage , the numbers of effective panicle per plant and grains per panicle would decreased , resulting in obvious reduction of grain yield . Due to the special landscape of the hilly area in China , the old transplanting seedling age still exist in those areas . The rice plant type is closely associated with the formation , growth and development of panicle , thus a good individual plant is essentially important for improving the quality of the population . Besides , nitrogen and its management are also important factors affecting the growth and grain yield formation of rice . To investigate the effect of seeding ages and nitrogen managements on some plant type characteristics of hybrid rice , F you 498 was used as test material in this experiment . Split plot was conducted with transplanting seedling ages (35 d , 50 d and 65 d) as main plot and nitrogen application strategy (0% panicle fertilizer , 20%panicle fertilizer , 40% panicle fertilizer and 60% panicle fertilizer) as sub‐plot . The aims were to provide the theoretical and practical data for improving the grain yield of old transplanting seedling age in hilly areas . The results showed that the LAI at full heading stage decreased with the extension of seedling age , and the average LAI of 65 d seedling age was significantly lower than 35 d and 50 d , but due to the larger and wider of top 3 leaves of 65 d seedling age , its high effective leaf area ratio was significantly larger than that 35 d and 50 d . With the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application ratio at panicle differentiation stage , the LAI of 50 d and 65 d

  19. Plant protein glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an essential co- and post-translational modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotes. The initial steps of N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing are highly conserved between plants, mammals and yeast. In contrast, late N-glycan maturation steps in the Golgi differ significantly in plants giving rise to complex N-glycans with β1,2-linked xylose, core α1,3-linked fucose and Lewis A-type structures. While the essential role of N-glycan modifications on distinct mammalian glycoproteins is already well documented, we have only begun to decipher the biological function of this ubiquitous protein modification in different plant species. In this review, I focus on the biosynthesis and function of different protein N-linked glycans in plants. Special emphasis is given on glycan-mediated quality control processes in the ER and on the biological role of characteristic complex N-glycan structures. PMID:26911286

  20. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, Sarah [USDA ARS Plant Gene Expression Center

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  1. Analysis of the Characters of Plant Type of Summer Maize in Huanghuaihai Region%黄淮海地区夏玉米株型结构特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建栋; 于强; 吴乃元

    2001-01-01

    利用抛物线法对夏玉米株型结构进行了计算机模拟,结果表明该方法可以较为准确地模拟出夏玉米株型结构特征,其要求确定的参数较少因而使用非常方便。利用抛物线法对黄淮海地区3种典型品种的夏玉米群体株型结构特征进行了全面系统的测定分析,给出了平展型沈丹7号、一般型掖单13号以及竖立型掖单4号不同生育期的叶面积密度分布函数,并对比了3个品种的叶倾角倾斜指数随生育期的变化特点,从而为黄淮海地区夏玉米农业气候资源数值模拟提供了最基本的重要模型参数,同时也为农学领域内玉米耕作栽培及育种提供了一定的理论依据。%A computer model was established for simulation of plant type of summer maize and the characters of plant type of three summer maize varieties were analysized. The results showed that inclination index changed with the growing stage of maize and the inclination indexes of three varieties were different from heading. The variety Yedan No.4 is -0.213,whereas that of variety Shendan No.7 could reach 0.095. Values of the area distribution of different summer maize varieties at different growing stage were given in this paper, which can be used as the basic parameters in the numerical model for simulation of agroclimatic resource in Huanghuaihai Region.

  2. The Intelligent Behavior of Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Leendert C

    2016-01-01

    Plants are as adept as animals and humans in reacting effectively to their ever-changing environment. Of necessity, their sessile nature requires specific adaptations, but their cells possess a network-type communication system with emerging properties at the level of the organ or entire plant. The

  3. Epigenetics in plant tissue culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, M.J.M.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants produced vegetatively in tissue culture may differ from the plants from which they have been derived. Two major classes of off-types occur: genetic ones and epigenetic ones. This review is about epigenetic aberrations. We discuss recent studies that have uncovered epigenetic modifications at

  4. Protecting Yourself from Poisonous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products NIOSH-Issued Publications Publication Types Alerts Current Intelligence Bulletins Criteria Documents Fact Sheets Health Hazard Evaluations ( ... contact with the plant Indirect contact (touching tools, animals, or clothing with urushiol on them) Inhalation of ...

  5. Design and experiment of NJS-1 type open-circuit closed wind tunnel for plant protection%NJS-1型植保直流闭口式风洞设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁素明; 薛新宇; 兰玉彬; 蔡晨; 张玲; 秦维彩; 张宋超

    2015-01-01

    Drift potential is one of the most important factors affecting spraying quality. Plant protection wind tunnel is an important and preferred tool for quantitative study on drift potential, which is an effective, reliable and feasible research tool for the parameter localization of spray model building. Wind tunnel can provide a well controlled environment for drift measurements under a range of wind speeds and spraying conditions. The NJS-1 type of plant protection wind tunnel was designed based on the drift potential theory, principle of wind tunnel design and atmospheric boundary layer similarity theory, which was composed of inlet section, power section, flexible section, transition section, diffusion section, stability section, contraction section and working section. The total length of the wind tunnel was about 20.0 m; the length of the working section (including five subsections) was about 7.5 m, while the cross section the of the working section was 1.2 m wide and 1.8 m high; the contraction section was 3.0 m long and the contraction ratio was 4; the settling chamber was 2.5 m long and the cross section was 2.4 m wide and 3.6 m high; a hexagon honeycomb of stainless steel and two 18-mesh stainless steel screens were embedded inside the settling chamber; the diffusion section was 2.5 m long, and diffusion ratio was 4 and diffusion angle was 40°; the transition section was 2.8 m long and its main function coupled the power section and the diffusion section. The power section was composed of collector device, impeller, nose cowl, guide vane unit, trail hood and air duct, and was produced by an axial fan which was driven by the 25 kW electric machine. The design of the air supply device and main technical parameters of key parts was based on the theories of fluid mechanics. The air volume of the fan was 21.6 m3/s at the fan speed of 960 r/min, which was determined to adopt 8 impellers and 9 guide glades, the impeller diameter was 1.2 m and the guide glade width

  6. Plant Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  7. Emissions of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from Portland cement manufacturing plants: inter-kiln variability and dependence on fuel-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Stephen; Ames, Michael; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2011-09-15

    Emissions from Portland cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations and are thus subject to stringent regulations. Direct testing of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gases provides the best basis for assessing the extent of these risks. However, these tests (i) are often conducted under stressed, rather than typical, operating conditions, (ii) may be limited in number and duration, and (iii) may be influenced by specific fuel-types and attributes of individual kilns. We report here on the results of more than 150 emissions-tests conducted of two kilns at a Portland cement manufacturing plant in Portugal. The tests measured various regulated metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Stack-gas concentrations of pollutants were found to be highly variable, with standard deviations on the order of mean values. Emission rates of many pollutants were higher when coal was used as the main kiln fuel (instead of petroleum coke). Use of various supplemental fuels, however, had little effect on stack emissions, and few statistically significant differences were observed when hazardous waste was included in the fuel mix. Significant differences in emissions for some pollutants were observed between the two kilns despite their similar designs and uses of similar fuels. All measured values were found to be within applicable regulatory limits.

  8. Design analysis of the molten core confinement within the reactor vessel in the case of severe accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with a reactor of the VVER type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonaryov, Yu. A.; Budaev, M. A.; Volchek, A. M.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Zagryazkin, V. N.; Kiselyov, N. P.; Kobzar', V. L.; Konobeev, A. V.; Tsurikov, D. F.

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reports the results of the preliminary design estimate of the behavior of the core melt in vessels of reactors of the VVER-600 and VVER-1300 types (a standard optimized and informative nuclear power unit based on VVER technology—VVER TOI) in the case of beyond-design-basis severe accidents. The basic processes determining the state of the core melt in the reactor vessel are analyzed. The concept of molten core confinement within the vessel based on the idea of outside cooling is discussed. Basic assumptions and models, as well as the results of calculation of the interaction between molten materials of the core and the wall of the reactor vessel performed by means of the SOCRAT severe accident code, are presented and discussed. On the basis of the data obtained, the requirements on the operation of the safety systems are determined, upon the fulfillment of which there will appear potential prerequisites for implementing the concept of the confinement of the core melt within the reactor in cases of severe accidents at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors.

  9. Plant minichromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler, James A; Graham, Nathaniel D; Swyers, Nathan C; Cody, Jon P; McCaw, Morgan E

    2016-02-01

    Plant minichromosomes have the potential for stacking multiple traits on a separate entity from the remainder of the genome. Transgenes carried on an independent chromosome would facilitate conferring many new properties to plants and using minichromosomes as genetic tools. The favored method for producing plant minichromosomes is telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation because the epigenetic nature of centromere function prevents using centromere sequences to confer the ability to organize a kinetochore when reintroduced into plant cells. Because haploid induction procedures are not always complete in eliminating one parental genome, chromosomes from the inducer lines are often present in plants that are otherwise haploid. This fact suggests that minichromosomes could be combined with doubled haploid breeding to transfer stacked traits more easily to multiple lines and to use minichromosomes for massive scale genome editing.

  10. Language of plants: Where is the word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimpraga, Maja; Takabayashi, Junji; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-04-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) causing transcriptomic, metabolomic and behavioral responses in receiver organisms. Volatiles involved in such responses are often called "plant language". Arthropods having sensitive chemoreceptors can recognize language released by plants. Insect herbivores, pollinators and natural enemies respond to composition of volatiles from plants with specialized receptors responding to different types of compounds. In contrast, the mechanism of how plants "hear" volatiles has remained obscured. In a plant-plant communication, several individually emitted compounds are known to prime defense response in receiver plants with a specific manner according to the chemical structure of each volatile compound. Further, composition and ratio of volatile compounds in the plant-released plume is important in plant-insect and plant-plant interactions mediated by plant volatiles. Studies on volatile-mediated plant-plant signaling indicate that the signaling distances are rather short, usually not longer than one meter. Volatile communication from plants to insects such as pollinators could be across distances of hundreds of meters. As many of the herbivore induced VOCs have rather short atmospheric life times, we suggest that in long-distant communications with plant volatiles, reaction products in the original emitted compounds may have additional information value of the distance to emission source together with the original plant-emitted compounds.

  11. Plant Mobile Small RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunoyer, Patrice; Melnyk, Charles; Molnar, Attila; Slotkin, R. Keith

    2013-01-01

    In plants, RNA silencing is a fundamental regulator of gene expression, heterochromatin formation, suppression of transposable elements, and defense against viruses. The sequence specificity of these processes relies on small noncoding RNA (sRNA) molecules. Although the spreading of RNA silencing across the plant has been recognized for nearly two decades, only recently have sRNAs been formally demonstrated as the mobile silencing signals. Here, we discuss the various types of mobile sRNA molecules, their short- and long-range movement, and their function in recipient cells. PMID:23818501

  12. 不可逆闭式布雷顿热电联产装置火用经济性能优化%Exergy Economic Performance Optimization of an Irreversible Closed Type Brayton Heating-and-power Cogenration Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶桂生; 陈林根; 孙丰瑞

    2009-01-01

    By adopting a finite time thermodynamic method,studied was the exergy economic performance of an irreversible closed type Brayton cogeneration plant under the condition of a constant temperature heat source and derived were its profit margin and exergy coefficient analytic expression.By employing a numerical calculation method,with the profit margin serving as a target,optimized were the distribution of heat conductivity and the choice of pressure ratio.The authors have studied the optimum profit margin and corresponding exergy efficiency characteristics and analyzed the influence of various design parameters of the cogeneration system on its optimized performance.The research results show that for a given total heat conductivity,there exist only one optimum heat conductivity distribution ratio and pressure ratio among heat exchangers at high temperature,low temperature and end-user side,which results in an maximal value of the non-dimensional profit margin of the plant.In the meantime,there is an optimum end-user temperature.%应用有限时间热力学方法,研究了恒温热源条件下不可逆闭式布雷顿联产装置的火用经济性能,导出了利润率及火用效率解析式.利用数值计算方法,以利润率为目标,对热导率分配和压比的选取进行了优化.研究了最优利润率及相应火用效率特性,并分析了各种联产设计参数对联产优化性能的影响.结果表明,对于给定的总热导率,在高温、低温和用户侧换热器之间,存在唯一的最佳热导率分配比和唯一的最佳压比,使得装置的无因次利润率取得最大值;同时存在最佳用户温度.

  13. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  14. Lectin typing of Campylobacter concisus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune Munck; Hynes, Sean O; Permin, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    A total of 44 clinical isolates and the type strain of the putative pathogen Campylobacter concisus were grouped based on their reactions with plant lectins. The optimized lectin typing system used C. concisus strains proteolytically pretreated and subsequently typed by using a panel of four...

  15. Seed planting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes prairie seed plantings on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) between 1992 and 2009.

  16. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  17. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  18. Plant-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from basidiomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Yuzon, Jennifer; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Mäkelä, Miia R; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Basidiomycete fungi subsist on various types of plant material in diverse environments, from living and dead trees and forest litter to crops and grasses and to decaying plant matter in soils. Due to the variation in their natural carbon sources, basidiomycetes have highly varied plant-poly

  19. Plant redox proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2011-01-01

    In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox...... PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...

  20. High-efficiency absorption-type heat pumps and refrigerators. From topology to the pilot plant; Hocheffiziente Absorptionsmaschinen zur Versorgung mit Kaelte und Waerme. Von der Topologie zur Pilotanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, F.; Demmel, S.; Lamp, P. [Bayerisches Zentrum fuer Angewandte Energieforschung e.V. (ZAE Bayern), Wuerzburg (Germany); Kahn, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Physik Dept. E19; Alefeld, G.

    1998-12-31

    Absorption-type heat pumps or refrigerators are systems operated with heat. They have been known for a long time and are frequently used especially in airconditioning in the USA and south-east Asia. However, the conventional technique used is subject to many physical limitations, restricting their broader use. The paper demonstrates ways of overcoming these restrictions, for instance by multi-stage design. The exploitation of topological principles much facilitates the synthesis of novel circuits. The technical relevance of such developments is demonstrated by means of selected examples of executed laboratory and pilot plants. Modern absorption technology saves resources and prevents environmental pollution by consuming less fossil energy compared with the conventional technique, for instance by harnessing the thermal potential of solar energy or utilizing waste heat and residual heat, and, not least, thanks to the use of natural refrigerants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Absorptionswaermepumpen oder -kaeltemaschinen sind durch Waerme angetriebene Anlagen, die seit langem bekannt sind und besonders in der Klimatechnik in den USA und im suedostasiatischen Raum haeufig eingesetzt werden. Die dabei verwendete konventionelle Technik unterliegt allerdings vielfaeltigen physikalischen Einschraenkungen, die ihre noch breitere Anwendung verhindern. Es wird gezeigt, wie diese Einschraenkungen beispielsweise durch Mehrstufigkeit ueberwunden werden koennen. Durch die Verwendung topologischer Grundsaetze wird die Synthese neuartiger Kreislaeufe stark vereinfacht. Die technische Bedeutung solcher Entwicklungen wird an ausgewaehlten Beispielen ausgefuehrter Labor- und Pilotanlagen gezeigt. Durch den im Vergleich zu konventioneller Technik geringeren Verbrauch an fossiler Energie, beispielsweise durch die thermische Nutzung von Sonnenenergie oder durch die Nutzung von Ab- oder Restwaerme und nicht zuletzt durch die Verwendung natuerlicher Kaeltemittel werden bei Einsatz moderner

  1. Comparison on Growth Characteristics and Economic Benefits of Coffee under Different Planting Types%不同种植模式咖啡生长特性与经济效益比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云萍; 黎秀元; 闫林; 孙燕; 黄丽芳; 王晓阳; 陈鹏

    2011-01-01

    为探讨海南咖啡生产适宜的栽培模式。分析比较了咖啡单作和咖啡香蕉间作2种栽培模式下咖啡的生长量、产量、光合特性及经济效益情况。结果表明:2种栽培模式下咖啡生长量、产量、净光合速率差异均不显著;咖啡香蕉间作比咖啡单作模式下叶面积、叶绿素SPAD值大,但差异未达到显著;咖啡香蕉间作模式下4年单位面积总投入比咖啡单作高58.5%,总收益率比咖啡单作高60.7%。咖啡香蕉间作模式在缩短投资回收期、提高产值、增加收益方面显著高于咖啡单作。%Experiments were carried out on coffee monoculture and coffee-banana intercropping to exploring suitable cultivation modes in Hainan Province. Compared growth, yield, photosynthetic characteristics and economic benefit of coffee in this two planting types. The results indicate growth, yield and net photosynthetic rate are no obvious difference. In coffee-banana interplanting, there was larger leaf area and larger chlorophyll spad, the cost per mu was 58.5% higher, the economic benefit per mu was 60.7% higher than coffee monoculture. Investment reclaim cycle can be shortened, productive value improved and income increased when compared with coffee monoculture.

  2. Finding Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimou Zheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types. It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box. The other type may be called TATA-less signal, and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition. While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot, their TATA-less signals are significantly different. A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming. By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature, an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  3. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  4. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  5. Marketing time predicts naturalization of horticultural plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Robert W; Liu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    to address this problem, including research to identifyand select noninvasive forms and types of horticultural plants is urgently needed.

  6. 重水堆核电站薄壁压力管的水浸超声检测技术%Ultrasonic Immersion Inspection of Thin-Wall Pressurized Tubes in Heavy Water Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱思民; 毕炳荣; 邹廉列; 裴卫农

    2005-01-01

    描述了秦山三期CANDU-6重水堆核电站压力管的内壁划伤情况.针对划伤状况,制定超声探伤检验工艺.采用水浸超声探伤方法对内壁的划伤深度进行估判,阐述了水浸探伤的试验方法与探伤检测过程,同时依据检测结果,对划伤的压力管进行了分析与评价.

  7. Calcium signaling during the plant-plant interaction of parasitic Cuscuta reflexa with its hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, M.; Kaiser, B.; Krol, van der A.R.; Kaldenhoff, R.

    2010-01-01

    The plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces various responses in compatible and incompatible host plants. The visual reactions of both types of host plants including obvious morphological changes require the recognition of Cuscuta ssp. A consequently initiated signaling cascade is triggered which lea

  8. Session Types = Intersection Types + Union Types

    CERN Document Server

    Padovani, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We propose a semantically grounded theory of session types which relies on intersection and union types. We argue that intersection and union types are natural candidates for modeling branching points in session types and we show that the resulting theory overcomes some important defects of related behavioral theories. In particular, intersections and unions provide a native solution to the problem of computing joins and meets of session types. Also, the subtyping relation turns out to be a pre-congruence, while this is not always the case in related behavioral theories.

  9. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  10. Radiosensitivity in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauman, A F

    1979-01-01

    The report presents a compilation of available data on the sensitivity of plants to ionizing radiation, and provides basic information on methods of determining such sensitivities, or of estimating radiosensitivities by calcuation of the nuclear factors upon which they depend. The scope of the data presented here is necessarily limited to the most generally useful radiobiological end points and to the most commonly-used types of radiation. Many of the factors which influence radiosensitivity, particularly nuclear factors, will be discussed. Emphasis will be upon whole-plant studies done at Brookhaven National Laboratory by A.H. Sparrow and his associates, since these studies are the source of most of the available radiosensitivity data and of all the sensitivity predictions listed here. Data presented here include summaries of experimentally-determined radiosensitivities at various end points for both herbaceous and woody higher plants, and for a few species of ferns and lower plants. The algae and fungi have not been considered here due to space limitations.

  11. Powder detergents production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for powder detergent production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories, in 1998. - 2000. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant with a capacity of 25,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Delta In", Zrenjanin, in 2000.This technology was an innovation, because new approach in mixing a powder materials was used, as well as introducing a new type of dryer in detergent production. The product meets all quality demands for detergents with high specific weight (1000 g/l, as well as environmental regulations. The detergent production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. There is no waste material in detergent zeolite production, because all products with unsatisfactory quality are returned to the process. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  12. Plant Sterols: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and Physiological Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valitova, J N; Sulkarnayeva, A G; Minibayeva, F V

    2016-08-01

    Sterols, which are isoprenoid derivatives, are structural components of biological membranes. Special attention is now being given not only to their structure and function, but also to their regulatory roles in plants. Plant sterols have diverse composition; they exist as free sterols, sterol esters with higher fatty acids, sterol glycosides, and acylsterol glycosides, which are absent in animal cells. This diversity of types of phytosterols determines a wide spectrum of functions they play in plant life. Sterols are precursors of a group of plant hormones, the brassinosteroids, which regulate plant growth and development. Furthermore, sterols participate in transmembrane signal transduction by forming lipid microdomains. The predominant sterols in plants are β-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol. These sterols differ in the presence of a methyl or an ethyl group in the side chain at the 24th carbon atom and are named methylsterols or ethylsterols, respectively. The balance between 24-methylsterols and 24-ethylsterols is specific for individual plant species. The present review focuses on the key stages of plant sterol biosynthesis that determine the ratios between the different types of sterols, and the crosstalk between the sterol and sphingolipid pathways. The main enzymes involved in plant sterol biosynthesis are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, C24-sterol methyltransferase, and C22-sterol desaturase. These enzymes are responsible for maintaining the optimal balance between sterols. Regulation of the ratios between the different types of sterols and sterols/sphingolipids can be of crucial importance in the responses of plants to stresses.

  13. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  14. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  15. Plant Functional Types and Biomes of China at a Regional Scale%区域尺度的中国植物功能型与生物群区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪健

    2001-01-01

    Thirty-nine dominant plant functional types (PFTs) of China wereidentified based on the present Chinese vegetation types and their distributional pattern using the “eco-physiognomy" principle. They are alpine evergreen conifer, boreal evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen conifer, cool temperate evergreen conifer, temperate evergreen conifer, warm temperate evergreen conifer, tropical evergreen conifer, boreal summergreen broadleaf, cool temperate summergreen broadleaf, temperate summergreen broadleaf, cold warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, intermediate warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, southern warm-temperate evergreen broadleaf, warm-temperate schlerophyllous broadleaf, warm temperate summergreen broadleaf, tropical evergreen broadleaf, tropical raingreen broadleaf, tropical deciduous broadleaf, warm temperate bamboo, alpine/subalpine shrub, temperate steppe shrub, temperate desert shrub, cool temperate shrub, temperate shrub, warm temperate shrub, tropical shrub, xeric shrub, alpine forb, desert forb, temperate steppe grass, temperate grass, sedge, mangrove, boreal crop, cool temperate crop, temperate crop, warm temperate crop, tropical crop, and bare land. Twenty-one potential biomes were then assigned on the basis of dominant PFTs. They are boreal deciduous forest, boreal evergreen forest, cold temperate mixed coniferous-broadleaf forest, temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest, warm temperate mixed deciduous-evergreen broadleaf forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen forest, warm temperate broad-leaved evergreen monsoon forest, tropical rain forest, tropical seasonal forest, tropical deciduous forest, mangrove forest, xeric woodland/savannas, temperate meadow/savannas, temperate steppe, temperate semi-steppe, temperate desert, temperate semi-desert, alpine/subalpine coniferous forest, alpine/subalpine shrub/meadow, alpine/subalpine steppe, and alpine/subalpine desert. If the agricultural vegetation was taken into account, twenty-five actual biomes

  16. Plant characteristics associated with natural enemy abundance at Michigan native plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, A K; Landis, D A

    2007-08-01

    Habitat management is a type of conservation biological control that focuses on increasing natural enemy populations by providing them with plant resources such as pollen and nectar. Insects are known to respond to a variety of plant characteristics in their search for plant-provided resources. A better understanding of the specific characteristics used by natural enemy insects in selecting these resources could greatly improve efficiency in screening plants for habitat management. We examined 5 previously tested and widely recommended resource plants and 43 candidate plants to test whether the number and type of natural enemies and herbivores at each plant were predicted by plant characteristics including: period of peak bloom, floral area, maximum flower height, hue, chroma, and corolla size. Natural enemy abundance increased with week of peak bloom and greater floral area across all plants tested. Ordination of plant characteristics indicated that increasing floral area, period of peak bloom, maximum flower height, and decreasing corolla width grouped together into a single principal component. Both natural enemy and herbivore abundance increased significantly with the principal component for this set of characteristics, but the relationship with herbivore abundance was weaker. These results indicate that, for a given time of the season, selection of plants with the largest floral area has potential to increase natural enemy abundance in habitat management plantings and streamline plant selection for habitat management.

  17. Type-indexed data types

    OpenAIRE

    Hinze, R.; Jeuring, J.T.; Löh, A.

    2004-01-01

    A polytypic function is a function that can be instantiated on many data types to obtain data type specific functionality. Examples of polytypic functions are the functions that can be derived in Haskell, such as show, read, and ‘==’.More advanced examples are functions for digital searching, pattern matching, unification, rewriting, and structure editing. For each of these problems, we not only have to define polytypic functionality, but also a type-indexed data type: a data type that is con...

  18. Robots and plant safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.

    1996-02-01

    The application of robots in the harsh environments in which TELEMAN equipment will have to operate has large benefits, but also some drawbacks. The main benefit is the ability gained to perform tasks where people cannot go, while there is a possibility of inflicting damage to the equipment handled by the robot, and the plant when mobile robots are involved. The paper describes the types of possible damage and the precautions to be taken in order to reduce the frequency of the damaging events. A literature study for the topic only gave some insight into examples, but no means for a systematic treatment of the topic. (au) 16 refs.

  19. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level....... In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant...... (WPP) will be considered. The aggregate WPP model, which will be based on the upscaling of the individual wind turbine model on the electrical part, will make use of an equivalent wind speed. The implemented model follows the basic structure of the generic standard Type 4 wind turbine model proposed...

  20. Balancing people, plants, and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    Two of the biggest challenges facing the US power industry today are retaining an experienced, capable workforce and operating and maintaining a reliable, diversified fleet of generating plants. Success in the marketplace requires a proper balancing of staff and new technology, something few gencos do well. Following this introductory paper in this issue are several technical articles representing a small sample of the steps that gencos nationwide are taking to prolong plant life. Unlike the false promise of Ponce de Leon's fountain of youth in Florida, the promise of longer life for aging plants is real wherever experienced engineers and technicians are on the job. The article looks at problems across America, from the East Coast to the West Coast. It is supported by diagrams projecting US new capacity and plant type additions up to 2014. 5 figs.

  1. Efficiencies of Power Plants Using Hydrothermal Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaka, Kazuma; Yuvamitra, Korakot; Ishikawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    Wet biomass is hard to handle as a fuel for power plants because it contains high moisture and its drying process needs more energy input than it produces. Hydrothermal oxidation could be one of the promising technologies to overcome this problem because this process does not need drying process at all. We focus on recovery of thermal energy produced by hydrothermal oxidation of wet biomass. Two kinds of power plant are investigated, a direct type and an indirect type. In the direct type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and directly flowed into a turbine. In the indirect type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and the reaction heat is conveyed to the main water, which is flowed into a turbine. The amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency are calculated by using ethanol, glucose and peat solutions as reactants. In both type of power plant, one steam turbine is employed for generating electricity with the maximum turbine inlet temperature of 650 °C. As ethanol concentration increased, the amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency become higher. The maximum efficiency for the direct type power plant using ethanol solution is about 26.4 % for 17.6 wt% at the reactor pressure of 10 MPa. The efficiency of the indirect type power plant is much lower than that of the direct type, but by pressurizing main water up to 4 MPa, the efficiency becomes higher up to 20.9 %. For glucose solution, the maximum efficiency for the direct type is about 25.5 % for 34.5 wt% at the reactor pressure of 5 MPa. The maximum efficiency of the indirect type at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 21.1 % for 40.7 wt%. For peat solution, only the indirect type is investigated. The maximum efficiency at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 20.8 % for 36.8 wt%.

  2. Caspases in plants: metacaspase gene family in plant stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, David; Bohn, Bianca; Cabreira, Caroline; Leipelt, Fábio; Dias, Nathalia; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H; Cagliari, Alexandro

    2015-11-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an ordered cell suicide that removes unwanted or damaged cells, playing a role in defense to environmental stresses and pathogen invasion. PCD is component of the life cycle of plants, occurring throughout development from embryogenesis to the death. Metacaspases are cysteine proteases present in plants, fungi, and protists. In certain plant-pathogen interactions, the PCD seems to be mediated by metacaspases. We adopted a comparative genomic approach to identify genes coding for the metacaspases in Viridiplantae. We observed that the metacaspase was divided into types I and II, based on their protein structure. The type I has a metacaspase domain at the C-terminus region, presenting or not a zinc finger motif in the N-terminus region and a prodomain rich in proline. Metacaspase type II does not feature the prodomain and the zinc finger, but has a linker between caspase-like catalytic domains of 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10). A high conservation was observed in the zinc finger domain (type I proteins) and in p20 and p10 subunits (types I and II proteins). The phylogeny showed that the metacaspases are divided into three principal groups: type I with and without zinc finger domain and type II metacaspases. The algae and moss are presented as outgroup, suggesting that these three classes of metacaspases originated in the early stages of Viridiplantae, being the absence of the zinc finger domain the ancient condition. The study of metacaspase can clarify their assignment and involvement in plant PCD mechanisms.

  3. 煤气综合利用电厂设计中风机选型问题分析%Analysis of type selection of fan in BFG comprehensive utilization power plant design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广伟

    2012-01-01

    The problem of insufficient performance capability of fans in the design of BFC comprehensive utilization power plant thermal process system was discussed and analyzed. The engineering example and the conclusion provide the reference to the reasonable selection of fans in the design of BFC comprehensive utilization power plant.%对煤气综合利用电厂热力工艺系统设计中遇到的送、引风机出力不足的情况,进行了探讨、分析.工程实例及结论,为煤气综合利用电厂设计中风机的合理选型提供参考.

  4. Production of the streaky silphium perfoliatum as well as grain-type plants as an alternative for enhanced contrations of mice; Produktion von durchwachsener Silphie sowie Getreideganzpflanzen als Alternativen zu hohen Maiskonzentrationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jana; Gurgel, Andreas [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The State Research Institute of Agriculture and Fishery Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania is involved in searching for substitute substrates for biogas production. A promising ecologically valuable and profitable alternative is at first the permanent culture ''Durchwachsene Silphie'' and at second the use of whole-plant cereal silage. The Silphie convinced with approximately the same dry matter and biogas yields as maize. An increase of the yields could be achieved by optimizing the production process. The same applies to the use of whole-plant cereal silage. A first screening showed that there isn't a significant influence on the dry matter yield neither of different agrotechnical measures nor the cultivation of different varieties and species. More differential studies are necessary to make definite statements about the correlations between production processes and increase of dry matter yields. (orig.)

  5. Introduced aquatic plants and algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-native aquatic plants such as waterhyacinth and hydrilla severely impair the uses of aquatic resources including recreational faculties (lakes, reservoirs, rivers) as well as timely delivery of irrigation water for agriculture. Costs associated with impacts and management of all types of aquatic...

  6. A Study of Insect Pollinators Associated With DoD TER-S Flowering Plants, Including Identification of Habitat Types Where They Co-Occur by Military Installation in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Epicauta strigosa Camp Blanding G2, S2 Carex impressinervia (AL) (Impressed-nerved sedge ) wind pollinated R. B. Woodruff Lake G1G2, S1...Fort Benning Military Reservation, GA and Lake Seminole, GA; autogamous). • Carex impressinervia (R. B. Woodruff Lake, AL; wind pollinated...sp. • Carex sp. • Eriogonum sp. • Helianthus sp. • Lupinus sp. • Phacelia sp. • Symphyotrichum sp. It is rare for any flowering plant

  7. Plant and root endophyte assembly history: interactive effects on native and exotic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Benjamin A; Hawkes, Christine V; Fukami, Tadashi

    2016-02-01

    Differences in the arrival timing of plants and soil biota may result in different plant communities through priority effects, potentially affecting the success of native vs. exotic plants, but experimental evidence is largely lacking. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to investigate whether the assembly history of plants and fungal root endophytes could interact to influence plant emergence and biomass. We introduced a grass species and eight fungal species from one of three land-use types (undisturbed, disturbed, or pasture sites in a Florida scrubland) in factorial combinations. We then introduced all plants and fungi from the other land-use types 2 weeks later. Plant emergence was monitored for 6 months, and final plant biomass and fungal species composition assessed. The emergence and growth of the exotic Melinis repens and the native Schizacharyium niveum were affected negatively when introduced early with their "home" fungi, but early introduction of a different plant species or fungi from a different site type eliminated these negative effects, providing evidence for interactive priority effects. Interactive effects of plant and fungal arrival history may be an overlooked determinant of plant community structure and may provide an effective management tool to inhibit biological invasion and aid ecosystem restoration.

  8. Plant Transgenerational Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrana, Leandro; Colot, Vincent

    2016-11-23

    Transgenerational epigenetics is defined in opposition to developmental epigenetics and implies an absence of resetting of epigenetic states between generations. Unlike mammals, plants appear to be particularly prone to this type of inheritance. In this review, we summarize our knowledge about transgenerational epigenetics in plants, which entails heritable changes in DNA methylation. We emphasize the role of transposable elements and other repeat sequences in the creation of epimutable alleles. We also argue that because reprogramming of DNA methylation across generations seems limited in plants, the inheritance of DNA methylation defects results from the failure to reinforce rather than reset this modification during sexual reproduction. We compare genome-wide assessments of heritable DNA methylation variation and its phenotypic impact in natural populations to those made using near-isogenic populations derived from crosses between parents with experimentally induced DNA methylation differences. Finally, we question the role of the environment in inducing transgenerational epigenetic variation and briefly present theoretical models under which epimutability is expected to be selected for.

  9. Control of Fish and Aquatic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, R. B.; And Others

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is a handbook for the water body manager. The bulk of the contents deals with aquatic plant control. The different types of aquatic plants, their reproduction and growth, and their role in the ecology of the water body are introduced in this main section. Also, the…

  10. Leaf Absorption of Plants of Different Types to Fog in Xishuang Banna Region%西双版纳地区不同类型植物叶片对雾水的吸收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王博轶; 周远; 马洪军

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨雾对西双版纳地区植物的水分效应.[方法]于雾凉季选取西双版纳地区2 种附生植物大叶南苏和狮子尾以及分别生长在雨林和石灰山的大叶藤黄、黄花胡椒和红雾水葛为材料,测定其叶片水势的日变化.[结果]一般早上8:00 左右植物叶片水势最高,午后14:00水势最低.植物可通过叶片吸收雾水,当水势值较低的叶片被蒸馏水喷雾后,其水势值升高趋势先快后慢,且叶片对水分的吸收速率较高.附生植物叶片比非附生植物叶片吸水快且多;同种植物生长在石灰山的植株叶片吸水后水势恢复比生长在雨林中的植株快.[结论]生长在石灰山的植物更能有效利用雾水.%[ Objective ] The purpose of this study was to discuss the moisture effect of fog on plants in Xishuang Banna region. [ Method] In fog cool season ,Rhaphidophora peepla ,Rhaphidophora hongkongensis, Garcinia xanthochymus ,Piper fiaviflorum and Pouzolzia sanguinea were selected from Xishuang Banna region as materials for determining the daily variation of water potential of leaf,among which R. peepla and R. hongkongensis were epiphytes and G. xanthochymus ,P. flaviflorum and P. sanguinea were growing in rain forest and lime mountain resp. [ Result] Generally,the water potential of plant leaves was highest at about 8:00 a. m. and that was lowest at 14:00 p. m. The plants could absorb fog through leaves. After the leaves with lower water potential values were sprayed with distilled water,the ascending of their water potential values was first fast and then slow and the absorption rate of leaves to water was higher. The water absorption of epiphyte leaves was faster and more than that of non - epiphyte leaves. In the comparison of the same plant species, the restoration of water potential of plant leaves growing in lime mountain after absorbing water was faster than that of plant leaves growing in rain forest. [ Conclusion ] The plants growing in

  11. Using Weeds and Wildflowers to Study Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    Offers suggestions for activities in which local weeds and wildflowers are used to study a variety of topics. These topics include classification, ecological succession, and mapping. Also lists the types of experiments students can perform with these plants. (JN)

  12. Type inference for correspondence types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Gordon, Andy; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    We present a correspondence type/effect system for authenticity in a π-calculus with polarized channels, dependent pair types and effect terms and show how one may, given a process P and an a priori type environment E, generate constraints that are formulae in the Alternating Least Fixed-Point (A...

  13. 大株红景天治疗2型糖尿病肾病的临床观察%Clinical Observation on the Effect of Large Plant Rhodiola in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秀杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of large plant rhodiola injection for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods 40 cases with diabetic nephropathy admitted in our hospital from January 2013 to September 2013 were randomly divid-ed into the treatment group and the control group. The control group was treated with the conventional western medicine, and the treatment group was treated with large plant rhodiola injection on the basis of the treatment of the control group. Results The total effective rate of the treatment group was 85.0%, and that of the control group was 55.0%, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Large plant rhodiola injection has good curative effect on diabetic nephropathy.%目的:探讨观察大株红景天注射液治疗糖尿病肾病的疗效。方法将该院2013年1月—2013年9月收治的40例糖尿病肾病患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组用西药常规治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上加用大株红景天注射液。结果治疗组总有效率85.0%,对照组总有效率55.0%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论大株红景天注射液治疗糖尿病肾病有较好疗效。

  14. Plant Functional Types and Their Impact Environmental Factors in a Naturally Recovered Poplar-birch Woodland on the North Slope of Qilian Mountains, China%祁连山北坡自然恢复杨桦林地植物功能型组成及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石福习; 赵成章; 任珩; 周伟; 高福元; 盛亚萍; 李丽丽

    2012-01-01

    Plant functional types (PFTs) are important in understanding the dynamics and the functions of an ecosystems, which provide also useful information for ecosystem management. In 28 observation plots of a naturally recovered popiar-birch woodland on the north slope of Qilian Mountains, China, 81 plant species were classified into 18 plant functional types (PFTs), according to their life forms (including arbors, lianas, subshrub, shrub, perennial grasses, perennial forbs and annual or biennial grass) and ecotypes (including xerophyte, xerophytic and mesophytic, mesophyte and hygrophyte). The relationships between PFTs and environmental factors were studied using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). The results showed that the dominant PFTs were PFTsl6 (mesophytic perennial forbs), PFTs23 (hygrophytic perennial forbs), PFTs9 (xerophytic and mesophytic perennial forbs) and PFTslS (mesophytic shrub) on the poplar-birch restoration woodland. The stratificd structure with wood, shrub and herb layers indicated the plant life forms had a tendency of complication and structurization, and the emerging mesophyte plants reflected changes of the micro-environments. The distribution patterns of PFTs were controlled by the soil physical and chemical properties in that soil bulk density, soil organic carbon and content of nitrogen determined the characteristics of the plant life forms, while the soil water moisture and canopy cover were the main ecologis factors that affected the distribution of ecotypes. The slope position and slope aspect controlled the plant distribution pattem and formation of the community.%依据生活型(乔木、藤本、灌木、半灌木、多年生禾草、多年生杂类草和一二年生草本)和水分生态型(旱生、旱中生、中生和湿生)将祁连山北坡次生杨桦林28个调查样地中的81个物种划分为18种植物功能型(Plant function types,PFTs),并通过典范对应分析(CCA)方法研究植物功能型与环境因子间

  15. Fining Signals for Plant Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeimouZheng

    2003-01-01

    The strongest signal of plant promoter is searched with the model of single motif with two types.It turns out that the dominant type is the TATA-box.The other type may be called TATA-less signal,and may be used in gene finders for promoter recognition.While the TATA signals are very close for the monocot and the dicot,their TATA-less signals are significantly different.A general and flexible multi-motif model is also proposed for promoter analysis based on dynamic programming.By extending the Gibbs sampler to the dynamic programming and introducing temperature,an efficient algorithm is developed for searching signals in plant promoters.

  16. Plant injury by air pollutants: influence of humidity on stomatal apertures and plant response to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, H W; Daines, R H

    1969-03-14

    Ozone injury to Bel W3 tobacco and pinto bean plants increases with increasing humidity. The degree of plant injury sustained correlates well with porometer measurements; this indicates that the size of stomatal apertures increases with increasing humidity. Humidity may therefore influence plant response to all pollutants and may account in part for the greater sensitivity of plants to ozone-type injury in the eastern United States compared with the same species of plants grown in the Southwest. with those grown in the Southwest.

  17. The composite effect of transgenic plant volatiles for acquired immunity to herbivory caused by inter-plant communications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Muroi

    Full Text Available A blend of volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from plants induced by herbivory enables the priming of defensive responses in neighboring plants. These effects may provide insights useful for pest control achieved with transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles. We therefore investigated, under both laboratory and greenhouse conditions, the priming of defense responses in plants (lima bean and corn by exposing them to transgenic-plant-volatiles (VOCos including (E-β-ocimene, emitted from transgenic tobacco plants (NtOS2 that were constitutively overexpressing (E-β-ocimene synthase. When lima bean plants that had previously been placed downwind of NtOS2 in an open-flow tunnel were infested by spider mites, they were more defensive to spider mites and more attractive to predatory mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed downwind of wild-type tobacco plants. This was similarly observed when the NtOS2-downwind maize plants were infested with Mythimna separata larvae, resulting in reduced larval growth and greater attraction of parasitic wasps (Cotesia kariyai. In a greenhouse experiment, we also found that lima bean plants (VOCos-receiver plants placed near NtOS2 were more attractive when damaged by spider mites, in comparison to the infested plants that had been placed near the wild-type plants. More intriguingly, VOCs emitted from infested VOCos-receiver plants affected their conspecific neighboring plants to prime indirect defenses in response to herbivory. Altogether, these data suggest that transgenic-plant-emitted volatiles can enhance the ability to prime indirect defenses via both plant-plant and plant-plant-plant communications.

  18. Peroxiredoxins in plants and cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2011-08-15

    Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are central elements of the antioxidant defense system and the dithiol-disulfide redox regulatory network of the plant and cyanobacterial cell. They employ a thiol-based catalytic mechanism to reduce H2O2, alkylhydroperoxide, and peroxinitrite. In plants and cyanobacteria, there exist 2-CysPrx, 1-CysPrx, PrxQ, and type II Prx. Higher plants typically contain at least one plastid 2-CysPrx, one nucleo-cytoplasmic 1-CysPrx, one chloroplast PrxQ, and one each of cytosolic, mitochondrial, and plastidic type II Prx. Cyanobacteria express variable sets of three or more Prxs. The catalytic cycle consists of three steps: (i) peroxidative reduction, (ii) resolving step, and (iii) regeneration using diverse electron donors such as thioredoxins, glutaredoxins, cyclophilins, glutathione, and ascorbic acid. Prx proteins undergo major conformational changes in dependence of their redox state. Thus, they not only modulate cellular reactive oxygen species- and reactive nitrogen species-dependent signaling, but depending on the Prx type they sense the redox state, transmit redox information to binding partners, and function as chaperone. They serve in context of photosynthesis and respiration, but also in metabolism and development of all tissues, for example, in nodules as well as during seed and fruit development. The article surveys the current literature and attempts a mostly comprehensive coverage of present day knowledge and concepts on Prx mechanism, regulation, and function and thus on the whole Prx systems in plants.

  19. 青藏高原典型植被土壤溶解性氮与植物量相关性分析%Relationship Between Dissolved Nitrogen and Plant Biomass in Qing-Tibet Plateau Typical Vegetation Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽; 李以康; 崔莹; 张法伟; 韩道瑞; 郭小伟; 李婧; 曹广民

    2012-01-01

    研究区域位于中国生态网络海北高寒草甸生态系统定位研究站,选取青藏高原典型植被禾草-矮嵩草草甸、小嵩草草甸和金露梅灌丛草甸,对其土壤速效无机氮(IN)/溶解性有机氮(DON)储量与植物量相关性进行分析,发现三种草地土壤IN储量同地上植物量具有正相关性,其中灌丛相关系数高于草甸;地带性植被(禾草-矮嵩草草甸)土壤IN储量同地上植物量之间的相关性高于其偏途演替阶段(小嵩草草甸);土壤溶解性有机氮的消耗同地上植物量的形成具有一定程度的正相关性,其中小嵩草草甸和金露梅灌丛草甸达到中度相关水平,禾草-矮嵩草草甸为低度相关水平;地下根系现存量同IN/DON之间均没有明显的相关关系.说明土壤IN/DON对地上植物量的形成可能具有一定程度的贡献,如果这一论断成立,那么研究其对植物量形成的贡献形式及过程将成为亟待解决的问题.%Using chemical analysis to study the relationship between dissolved inorganic nitrogen/dissolved organic nitrogen and biomass in three typical plateau vegetations, which are Gramineae - Kobresia humilis meadow, Potentil-la fruticosa Shrub meadow and Kobresia pygmae meadow. The results showed that: there was a positive relationship between dissolved inorganic nitrogen formation and plant biomass aboveground, Shrub meadow had higher correlation coefficient than other ones, and the health grassland had stronger interaction than sub-health grassland. There was positive relationship between dissolved organic nitrogen consumption and plant biomass aboveground, and they were medium correlation coefficient in P. Fruticosa Shrub meadow and K. Pygmae meadow, while it was weaker correlation coefficient in G. K. Humilis meadow. There was no relationship between plant biomass below ground and dissolved inorganic or dissolved organic nitrogen. To sum up,dissolved organic nitrogen and inorganic nitrogen maybe

  20. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  1. POISONOUS PLANTS IN GARDENS AND GRAZING LANDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. AGANGA; M. NSINAMWA; K. OTENG; B. MAULE

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of poisonous plants, their toxic agents and the symptoms of poisoning. Poisonous plants are plants, which as a whole or part thereof under all or certain conditions and in amount likely to be taken or into contact with an organism will exert harmful effects or causes death either immediately or by reason of cumulative action of toxic property due to presence of known or unknown chemical action. There are different types of diseases caused by some poisonous plants. Poiso...

  2. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Król, Małgorzata

    2016-12-20

    For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  3. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...... system operation, i.e., it does not rely on information about the possible faults. We illustrate the proposed method using real-world data from a coal driven power plant as well as simulated data from an oil production facility....

  4. The Applie d Research of Dual-effect Solid-adsorption Type Refrigeration Technology for Use in a Centralized Refrigeration System at a Thermal Power Plant%双效固体吸附制冷技术在热电厂集中 供冷中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中华; 王如竹

    2001-01-01

    采用双效固体吸附式制冷技术开发了热电厂新型集中供冷系 统。该系统结构简单、性能可靠、投资低、耗电少、无污染。不但可为全厂提供空调用冷, 而且可大幅度提高电厂机组热经济性,具有显著的节能与环保效果。%An innovative centralized refrigeration system was developed for a thermal power plant through the use of a dual-effect solid-adsorption type refrigeration te ch nology. The system features a simple structural design, reliable performance, lo w investment outlay, low power consumption and absence of pollutants. With the h elp of this system it is not only possible to supply cooling energy for the air - conditioning of the thermal power plant as a whole, but also greatly enhance the thermal efficiency of the power plant. Moreover, it also contributes to signifi cant energy savings and a pollution-free environment.

  5. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  6. Smart plants: memory and communication without brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A Carl

    2014-01-01

    The immobility of plants is consistent with their principal function: collecting light to provide photosynthetic substrate for the biological system. Their immobility does impose limitations on some basic requirements, such as the need for pollination, for seed dispersal, and for protection against herbivores. Meeting these 3 needs will logically necessitate some ability for plant communication - at least a capability for beneficial adaptive behavior. Three types of plant behavior provide evidence of memory and communication abilities: a capability for memory, a capability for measuring time, and extensive evidence of chemical signaling systems. These may provide benefits for genetic outcrossing, seed dispersal and protection - beneficial adaptive behaviors. The chemical signaling system constitutes a wireless communication network that draws mobile animals into assisting plant functions that require mobility. Plants share their chemical signaling systems most frequently with insects and birds. These beneficial adaptable behaviors may be interpreted as some type of consciousness.

  7. Chloroplast avoidance movement reduces photodamage in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Masahiro; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Oikawa, Kazusato; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Miyao, Mitsue; Wada, Masamitsu

    When plants are exposed to light levels higher than those required for photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species are generated in the chloroplasts and cause photodamage. This can occur even under natural growth conditions. To mitigate photodamage, plants have developed several protective mechanisms. One is chloroplast avoidance movement, in which chloroplasts move from the cell surface to the side walls of cells under high light conditions, although experimental support is still awaited. Here, using different classes of mutant defective in chloroplast avoidance movement, we show that these mutants are more susceptible to damage in high light than wild-type plants. Damage of the photosynthetic apparatus and subsequent bleaching of leaf colour and necrosis occur faster under high light conditions in the mutants than in wild-type plants. We conclude that chloroplast avoidance movement actually decreases the amount of light absorption by chloroplasts, and might therefore be important to the survival of plants under natural growth conditions.

  8. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  9. Poinsettia plant exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  10. Enrichment planting without soil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1998-12-31

    Where enrichment planting had been carried out with either of the two species Picea abies and Pinus contorta, the survival of the planted seedlings was at least as good as after planting in a normal clear cut area treated with soil scarification. This was in spite of the fact that the seedlings were placed shallow in the humus layer without any soil treatment. However, they were sheltered from insects by treatment before planting. Where enrichment planting was carried out with Pinus sylvestris the survival in dense forest was poor, but in open forest the survival was good. The growth of planted seedlings was enhanced by traditional clearing and soil treatment. However, this wa