WorldWideScience

Sample records for candu medium size

  1. A CANDU-type small/medium power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assembly known as a CANDU power reactor consists of a number of standardized fuel channels or 'power modules'. Each of these channels produces about 5 thermal megawatts on average. Within practical limitations on fuel enrichment and ultimately on economics, the number of these channels is variable between about 50 and approximately 700. Small reactors suffer from inevitable disadvantages in terms of specific cost of design/construction as well as operating cost. Their natural 'niche' for application is in remote off-grid locations. At the same time this niche application imposes new and strict requirements for staff complement, power system reliability, and so on. The distinct advantage of small reactors arises if the market requires installation of several units in a coordinated installation program - a feature well suited to power requirements in Canada's far North. This paper examines several of the performance requirements and constraints for installation of these plants and presents means for designers to overcome the consequent negative feasibility factors.

  2. Economics of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of producing electricity from CANDU reactors is discussed. The total unit energy cost of base-load electricity from CANDU reactors is compared with that of coal-fired plants in Ontario. In 1980 nuclear power was 8.41 m$/kW.h less costly for plants of similar size and vintage. Comparison of CANDU with pressurized water reactors indicated that the latter would be about 26 percent more costly in Ontario

  3. CANDU development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of the 950 MW(e) CANDU reactor is summarized. The design was specifically aimed at the export market. Factors considered in the design were that 900-1000 MW is the maximum practical size for most countries; many countries have warmer condenser cooling water than Canada; the plant may be located on coastal sites; seismic requirements may be more stringent; and the requirements of international, as well as Canadian, standards must be satisfied. These considerations resulted in a 600-channel reactor capable of accepting condenser cooling water at 320C. To satisfy the requirement for a proven design, the 950 MW CANDU draws upon the basic features of the Bruce and Pickering plants which have demonstrated high capacity factors

  4. Determination of the size of a scale down CANDU moderator test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo Wook; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Cha, Jae Eun; Choi, Hwa Lim [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A series of studies have been performed to derive a set of scaling criteria suitable for reproducing thermal hydraulic phenomena in a scale-down CANDU moderator tank similar to that in a prototype power plant during steady state operation and accident conditions. The major phenomena of the author's interests were the moderator flow circulation and temperature inside the moderator tank during steady state condition and the major accident conditions. In these studies, the governing equations were initially transformed into dimensionless equations based on the representative characteristic values of the basic design such as the time, tank diameter, inlet fluid velocity, and average temperature rise, and 3 dimensionless numbers, Re, Pr, Ar, were identified as those characterizing the major phenomena of the system. The relevant boundary conditions were then identified in a dimensionless form and compatibility of keeping these 3 dimensionless numbers, the volumetric heat source distribution and the boundary conditions in dimensionless forms the same for both prototype and scale down tanks were examined, and some of them which are less important are relaxed so as to find a practically implement able set of constrains. The size of the scaled-down moderator tank and the corresponding inlet velocity is then found for the available power supply size. As an example, an analysis was performed for a power supply capacity of 500 kW as compared to 100MW for the prototype.

  5. Integrated evolution of the medium power CANDU{sup MD} reactors; Evolution integree des reacteurs CANDU{sup MD} de moyenne puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzzo, F. [AECL Accelerators, Kanata, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this document is the main improvements of the CANDU reactors in the economic, safety and performance domains. The presentation proposes also other applications as the hydrogen production, the freshening of water sea and the bituminous sands exploitation. (A.L.B.)

  6. The evolution of the CANDU energy system - ready for Europe's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    margins and performance. The CANDU 6 design has evolved in both design and project delivery, so that the current CANDU 6 construction project at Qinshan Phase 3, in China, represents the nuclear project state-of-the-art. Experience with current plants, such as Cernavoda, is an important input to the development of improved designs for the future. Building on the strong CANDU knowledge base, AECL is continuing to adapt the CANDU design to develop the Next Generation CANDU medium-sized fuel channel reactor. This paper discusses the next generation of CANDU designs featuring major improvements in economics, inherent safety characteristics and performance, while retaining the proven benefits of the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. This leads to a seamless evolution which ensures that innovation is introduced in a way which minimizes project or operations uncertainties. (authors)

  7. HIRENASD Chimera medium-size grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chimera medium-size grid for HIRENASD. Two files, fort.501 for grid for wing, fuselage, and 'world' zones, fort.503 for collar zone. File format is plot3d,...

  8. Development of ANC-type empirical two-phase pump model for full size CANDU primary heat transport pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an ANC-type empirical two-phase pump model for CANDU (Canadian Deuterium) reactor primary heat transport pumps is described in the present paper. The model was developed based on Ontario Hydro Technologies' full scale Darlington pump first quadrant test data. The functional form of the ANC model which is widely used was chosen to facilitate the implementation of the model into existing computer codes. The work is part of a bigger test program with the aims: (1) to produce high quality pump performance data under off-normal operating conditions using both full-size and model scale pumps; (2) to advance our basic understanding of the dominant mechanisms affecting pump performance based on more detailed local measurements; and (3) to develop a 'best-estimate' or improved pump model for use in reactor licensing and safety analyses. (author)

  9. Sizing cracks in thin-walled CANDU reactor pressure tubes using crack-tip diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most practical nondestructive means of measuring the depth of cracks approximately 0.4 mm deep in CANDU reactor pressure tubes is the ultrasonic crack-tip diffraction method. Initially, optimum ultrasonic parameters for wave mode, transducer frequency, main-bang pulse characteristics, incident and diffracted angles were obtained on three fatigue cracks, based on the criteria of maximum signal amplitude and accuracy in determination of crack depth. In addition, three signal processing techniques, auto and cross-correlation, rectification and smoothing and the magnitude of the analytic signal, were used to obtain time measurements. The results of these measurements are presented. Except for the first fatigue crack, the depth calculations were accurate to within the specified range of ± 0.1 mm

  10. An integrated CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty years of experience have shown that the early choices of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium as fuel imposed a discipline on CANDU design that has led to outstanding performance. The integrated structure of the industry in Canada, incorporating development, design, supply, manufacturing, and operation functions, has reinforced this performance and has provided a basis on which to continue development in the future. These same fundamental characteristics of the CANDU program open up propsects for further improvements in economy and resource utilization through increased reactor size and the development of the thorium fuel cycle

  11. A theoretical model of the mean grain size evolution during the liquid phase sintering in CANDU advanced fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enhance the fuel burnup in CANDU reactors, the microstructure of the fuel pellet must by modified, in order to accommodate the fission gas released during irradiation. A large grain size structure is able to retain a large fraction of the released gases. The addition of some oxides to the UO2 powder leads to the liquid phase ocarina during sintering. Starting from the basic theory of the grain growth in solid and liquid phase sintering and from the experimental microstructure characterization, a model of the mean size evolution in the presence of very small liquid fraction is proposed. As a function of dopant concentration, solubility limits and liquid phase composition, this model explicitly takes account of the continuous distribution of the additive into the matrix during grain growth process of the wetting properties of the liquid phase and of all transfer processes governing the microstructure evolution: grain boundary diffusion, surface reaction and diffusion through the liquid phase. The model validation was done for UO2-Nb2O3 and UO2-TiO2 systems, in isothermal treatment at 1700 deg. C. The model predictions are confirmed by the qualitative and quantitative experimental results, given by SEM, X-ray diffraction investigations. (authors)

  12. The CANDU experience in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU program in Romania is now well established. The Cernavoda Nuclear Station presently under construction will consist of 5-CANDU 600 MWE Units and another similar size station is planned to be in operation in the next decade. Progress on the multi-unit station at Cernavoda was stalled for 18 months in 1982/83 as the Canadian Export Development Corporation had suspended their loan disbursements while the Romanian National debt was being rescheduled. Since resumption of the financing in August 1983 contracts worth almost 200M dollars have been placed with Canadian Companies for the supply of major equipment for the first two units. The Canadian design is that which was used in the latest 600 MWE CANDU station at Wolsong, Korea. The vast construction site is now well developed with the cooling water systems/channels and service buildings at an advanced stage of completion. The perimeter walls of the first two reactor buildings are already complete and slip-forming for the 3rd Unit is imminent. Many Romanian organizations are involved in the infrastructure which has been established to handle the design, manufacture, construction and operation of the CANDU stations. The Romanian manufacturing industry has made extensive preparations for the supply of CANDU equipment and components, and although a major portion of the first two units will come from Canada their intentions are to become largely self-supporting for the ensuing CANDU program. Quality assurance programs have been prepared already for many of the facilities

  13. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  14. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongen, W. van [NedWind bv, Rhenen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  15. CANDU nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a summary of the components that make up a CANDU reactor. Major emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. The reasons for CANDU's performance and the inherent safety of the system are also discussed

  16. CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on the operating performance and costs, reliability of system components and nuclear safety considerations both to the workers and the public

  17. Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A common concern The outer environment At present,small and medium-sized enterprises are faced with many serious challenges.Since most of the large-sized enterprises ln China are state-owned ones,small and medium-sized enterprises in this article are referred mainly to those in the private sector.

  18. Economics of CANDU-PHW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU-Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This paper discusses the cost of producing electricity from CANDU, presents actual cost experience of CANDU and coal in Ontario, presents projected CANDU and coal costs in Ontario and compares CANDU and Light Water Reactor cost estimates in Ontario

  19. Structures of medium-sized silicon clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kai-Ming; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Pan, Bicai; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Wacker, Jacob G.; Fye, James L.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    1998-04-01

    Silicon is the most important semiconducting material in the microelectronics industry. If current miniaturization trends continue, minimum device features will soon approach the size of atomic clusters. In this size regime, the structure and properties of materials often differ dramatically from those of the bulk. An enormous effort has been devoted to determining the structures of free silicon clusters. Although progress has been made for Sin with n search with a genetic algorithm. Ion mobilities determined for these geometries by trajectory calculations are in excellent agreement with the values that we measure experimentally. The cluster geometries that we obtain do not correspond to fragments of the bulk. For n = 12-18 they are built on a structural motif consisting of a stack of Si9 tricapped trigonal prisms. For n >= 19, our calculations predict that near-spherical cage structures become the most stable. The transition to these more spherical geometries occurs in the measured mobilities for slightly larger clusters than in the calculations, possibly because of entropic effects.

  20. Information Security in Small and Medium-Sized Companies

    OpenAIRE

    David Kral

    2011-01-01

    Information security doesn’t involve only large organizations. Small and medium-sized companies must closely examine this issue too, because they are increasingly threatened by cyber attacks. Many of them mistakenly believe, that security of their valuable data is sufficient, or that the attackers are not interested in them. Existing standards and methodologies for implementation and management of information security are often hard to transfer to the environment of small and medium-sized bus...

  1. An analytic study on LBLOCA for CANDU type reactor using MARS-KS/CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides the simulation results using MARS-KS/CANDU code for the Large Break LOCA of CANDU type reactor. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the capability of MARS-KS/CANDU for simulating the actual plants (Wolsong 2/3/4). The steady state and the transient analysis results were provided. After the sensitivity study depend on break size, the case that 35% of the inlet header known as the accident that has the most limiting effect on the temperature of the fuel sheath was calculated. In order to evaluate the results, the results were compared with those of CATHENA simulation. (author)

  2. Phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT) contribution to detection and sizing of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of service water systems and shutdown coolers heat exchangers in OPG CANDU stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three PAUT techniques [linear scan - longitudinal waves, sector scan -longitudinal waves and sector scan-transverse waves] were developed and validated to assess the MIC attack in service water systems (SWS) and shutdown coolers heat-exchangers (SDC-HX) of Darlington and Pickering CANDU stations. PAUT employs linear array probes with a frequency between 4-12 MHz, depending on surface conditions, component geometry and MIC size/category to be detected. Examples from lab validation and field trials are presented. Based on field trials results, the techniques were optimized and new cal blocks were manufactured. It was demonstrated for mid-length pipes and for SDC-HX, the PAUT is the best technique compared with D-meter conventional UT and with guided waves. The expected field accuracy is about 0.5 mm (0.020) for large MIC attack. The ligament evaluation is technically achievable for colonies / pin holes located 2 mm under the outer surface. Improvements were identified and implemented for the next outages. (author)

  3. Phased array ultrasonic technology (PAUT) contribution to detection and sizing of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of service water systems and shutdown coolers heat exchangers in OPG CANDU stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciorau, P.; Pullia, L.; Hazelton, T., E-mail: peter.ciorau@opg.com, E-mail: lou.pullia@opg.com, E-mail: trek.hazelton@opg.com [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Daks, W. [CAD WIRE, Markham, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Three PAUT techniques [linear scan - longitudinal waves, sector scan -longitudinal waves and sector scan-transverse waves] were developed and validated to assess the MIC attack in service water systems (SWS) and shutdown coolers heat-exchangers (SDC-HX) of Darlington and Pickering CANDU stations. PAUT employs linear array probes with a frequency between 4-12 MHz, depending on surface conditions, component geometry and MIC size/category to be detected. Examples from lab validation and field trials are presented. Based on field trials results, the techniques were optimized and new cal blocks were manufactured. It was demonstrated for mid-length pipes and for SDC-HX, the PAUT is the best technique compared with D-meter conventional UT and with guided waves. The expected field accuracy is about 0.5 mm (0.020{sup )} for large MIC attack. The ligament evaluation is technically achievable for colonies / pin holes located 2 mm under the outer surface. Improvements were identified and implemented for the next outages. (author)

  4. CANDU 9 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has made significant design improvements in the latest CANDU nuclear power plant (NPP) - the CANDU 9. The CANDU 9 operates with the energy efficient heavy water moderated reactor and natural uranium fuel and utilizes proven technology. The CANDU 9 NPP design is similar to the world leading CANDU 6 but is based upon the single unit adaptation of the 900 MWe class reactors currently operating in Canada as in integrated four-unit configurations. The evolution of the CANDU family of heavy water reactors (HAIR) is based on a continuous product improvement approach. Proven equipment and systems from operating stations are standardized and used in new products. As a result of the flexibility of the technology, evolution of the current design will ensure that any new requirements can be met, and there is no need to change the basic concept. This paper will provide an overview for some of the key features of the CANDU 9 NPP such as nuclear systems and equipment, advanced control and computer systems, safety design and protection features, and plant layout. The safety enhancements and operability improvements implemented in this design are described and some of the advantages that can be expected by the operating utility are highlighted. (author)

  5. The economics of medium-sized reactors in deregulated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for the deployment of small and medium reactors in deregulated markets is crucially dependent on demonstrating that such reactors are economically competitive with alternative power sources. Other factors, such as safety, reliability, waste arisings, environmental impact etc are also important to get right, but unless the economics are competitive, private investment is unlikely to be available for any reactor system. This paper examines the economics of the Westinghouse AP-600, which is the only medium-sized evolutionary PWR in the world today which has achieved regulatory approval. The paper presents an economic analysis of an AP-600 which shows that medium-sized systems can be economic in a competitive market and identifies the economic barriers that need to be overcome for their deployment to become a reality. The paper shows how sensitive the overall generating cost can be to the perceived financial risk, which helps to highlight where attention most needs to be focused. (author)

  6. Small- and Medium-Size Enterprise Financing in Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leora F. Klapper; Sarria-Allende, Virginia; Sulla, Victor

    2002-01-01

    There is currently a large interest in understanding firms' access to finance, particularly in the financing of small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). But the financing patterns of SMEs across countries is not well understood. For example, little is known about the relative importance of equity, debt, and inter-firm financing for SMEs across countries. The authors use the Amadeus datab...

  7. Unions in small and medium-sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten, Ann-Louise; Crouch, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trade unions are commonly weak in small- and medium-sized enterprises, which constitute a majority of European firms and are often family-owned. We investigate the influence of family ownership on employee membership, perceptions and experience with unions in Danish and Italian firms in the textile...

  8. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define...

  9. Marketing CANDU internationally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market for CANDU reactor sales, both international and domestic, is reviewed. It is reasonable to expect that between five and ten reactors can be sold outside Canada before the end of the centry, and new domestic orders should be forthcoming as well. AECL International has been created to market CANDU, and is working together with the Canadian nuclear industry to promote the reactor and to assemble an attractive package that can be offered abroad. (L.L.)

  10. The CANDU contribution to environmentally friendly energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National prosperity is based on the availability of affordable, energy supply. However, this need is tempered by a complementary desire that the energy production and utilization will not have a major impact on the environment. The CANDU energy system, including a next generation of CANDU designs, is a major primary energy supply option that can be an important part of an energy mix to meet Canadian needs. CANDU nuclear power plants produce energy in the form of medium pressure steam. The advanced version of the CANDU design can be delivered in unit modules ranging from 400 to 1200 MWe. This Next Generation of CANDU designs features lower cost, coupled with robust safety margins. Normally this steam is used to drive a turbine and produce electricity. However, a fraction of this steam (large or small) may alternatively be used as process steam for industrial consumption. Options for such steam utilization include seawater desalination, oil sands extraction and heating. The electricity may be delivered to an electrical grid or alternatively used to produce quantities of hydrogen. Hydrogen is an ideal clean transportation fuel because its use only produces water. Thus, a combination of CANDU generated electricity and hydrogen distribution for vehicles is an available, cost-effective route to dramatically reduce emissions from the transportation sector. The CANDU energy system contributes to environmental protection and the prevention of climate change because of its very low emission. The CANDU energy system does not produce any NOx, SOx or greenhouse gas (notably CO2) emissions during operation. In addition, the CANDU system operates on a fully closed cycle with all wastes and emissions fully monitored, controlled and managed throughout the entire life cycle of the plant. The CANDU energy system is an environmentally friendly and flexible energy source. It can be an effective component of a total energy supply package, consistent with Canadian and global climate

  11. Ontario Hydro CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on the operating performance and costs, reliability of system components and nuclear safety considerations for the workers and the public

  12. Ontario Hydro CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water (CANDU-PHW) type of nuclear-electric generating station has been developed jointly by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. This report highlights Ontario Hydro's operating experience using the CANDU-PHW system, with a focus on worker and public safety, operating performance and costs, and reliability of system components

  13. Corporate philanthropy in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Skřičková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to evaluate the current situation of corporate philanthropy in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Theoretical background of the bachelor thesis is done by using relevant literature. The evaluation of the current situation is accomplished by creation of PESTEL analysis, quantitative and qualitative research and EFE matrix. Based on the results, several recommendations will be suggested in terms of corporate philanthropy.

  14. Internal Control in Swedish Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gebramicheal, Zelalem Berhanu; Habtegiorgis, Tsegahiwot Teketel

    2009-01-01

    Small and medium size enterprises are currently the major part of economic activities through out the world. Nowadays, they represent about 99% of all types of enterprises in Sweden, with providing high job opportunities to its labour force as these enterprises need focus in their development; the internal control mechanism is a means and a way of directing, monitoring and measuring the SMEs resources. It plays an important role in preventing and detecting fraud and protecting the physical an...

  15. Utilizing Content Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Parviainen, Ville

    2014-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to find out how and to what extent online content is currently utilized for marketing purposes among small and medium-sized organizations in Finland. Additionally, positive and negative future prospects concerning this type of content marketing were explored. The study is mainly qualitative by nature. The empirical part of this thesis was carried out between July 2013 and March 2014 and it consists of five semi-structured interviews with five professio...

  16. Social responsible activities of small and medium sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlína Dalíková; Darja Holátová

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with corporate social responsibility in specific area of small and medium sized enterprises. Corporate social responsibility as a way of global advocated sustainable development can be characterised as an integration of not only economical aspects but also social and environmental ones to the corporate decision making. The aim of the article is to analytically describe motivate factors related with engagement to the corporate social responsibility and especially to analyse t...

  17. ERP system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zach, Ondrey

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Compared to large enterprises, SMEs represent fundamentally different environments, with a number of characteristics typifying the SME context. Because of these distinguishing differences, the findings from studies of ERP implementation in large enterprises cannot be fully applied to SMEs. The purpose of this research project is to explore the i...

  18. Entrepreneurial Orientation vs. Innovativeness of Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Ejdys

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation (entrepreneurship orientation) in innovation level among Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). A questionnaire survey was conducted among 137 firms in the Podlaskie Region. Three hypotheses related to entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness level were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The relation between two constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, that is proactiveness and risk t...

  19. The causal effect of board size in the performance of small and medium-sized firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of large publicly traded firms have shown a robust negative relationship between board size and firm performance. The evidence on small and medium-sized firms is less clear; we show that existing work has been incomplete in analyzing the causal relationship due to weak...... identification strategies. Using a rich data set of almost 7000 closely held corporations we provide a causal analysis of board size effects on firm performance: We use a novel instrument given by the number of children of the chief executive officer (CEO) of the firms. First, we find a strong positive...... correlation between family size and board size and show this correlation to be driven by firms where the CEO's relatives serve on the board. Second, we find empirical evidence of a small adverse board size effect driven by the minority of small and medium-sized firms that are characterized by having...

  20. Efficiency optimized control of medium-size induction motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, F.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim;

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (<10 kW) this can be done without considering the relatively small converter losses, but for medium-size drives (10-1000 kW) the losses can not be disr......The efficiency of a variable speed induction motor drive can be optimized by adaption of the motor flux level to the load torque. In small drives (... not be disregarded without further analysis. The importance of the converter losses on efficiency optimization in medium-size drives is analyzed in this paper. Based on the experiments with a 90 kW drive it is found that it is not critical if the converter losses are neglected in the control, except...... that the robustness towards load disturbances may unnecessarily be reduced. Both displacement power factor and model-based efficiency optimizing control methods perform well in medium-size drives. The last strategy is also tested on a 22 kW drive with good results....

  1. Building Medium Size Telescope Structures for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Schulz, A; Oakes, L; Schlenstedt, S; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the future instrument in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. Its sensitivity will surpass that of current generation experiments by a factor $\\sim$10, facilitated by telescopes of three sizes. The performance in the core energy regime will be dominated by Medium Size Telescopes (MST) with a reflector of 12 m diameter. A full-size mechanical prototype of the telescope structure has been constructed in Berlin. The performance of the prototype is being evaluated and optimisations, among others, facilitating the assembly procedure and mass production possibilities are being implemented. We present the current status of the developments from prototyping towards pre-production telescopes, which will be deployed at the final site.

  2. Significance assessment of small-medium sized reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Minoru [Japan Atomic Power Co., Research and Development Dept., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Preliminary assessment for deployment of small-medium sized reactor (S and M reactor) as a future option has been conducted at the JAPCO (Japan Atomic Power Company) under the cooperation with the CRIERI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry). Significance of the S and M reactor introduction is listed as follows; lower investment cost, possible siting near demand side, enlarged freedom of siting, shorter transmission line, good compatibility with slow increase of demand and plain explanation of safety using simpler system such as integral type vessel without piping, natural convection core cooling and passive safety system. The deployment of simpler plant system, modular shop fabrication, ship-shell structured building and longer operation period can assure economics comparable with that of a large sized reactor, coping with scale-demerit. Also the S and M reactor is preferable in size for the nuclear heat utilization such as hydrogen production. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Fuel for advanced CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor system has proven itself to be a world leader in terms of station availability and low total unit energy cost. In 1985 for example, four of the top ten reactor units in the world were CANDU reactors operating in South Korea and Canada. This excellent operating record requires an equivalent performance record of the low-cost, natural uranium fuel. Future CANDU reactors will be an evolution of the present design. Engineering work is under way to refine the existing CANDU 600 and to incorporate state-of-the-art technology, reducing the capital cost and construction schedule. In addition, a smaller CANDU 300 plant has been designed using proven CANDU 600 technology and components but with an innovative new plant layout that makes it cost competitive with coal fired plants. For the long term, work on advanced fuel cycles and major system improvements is underway ensuring that CANDU plants will stay competitive well into the next century

  4. Small and medium sized reactors: Status and prospects. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the early years of nuclear power deployment, the plants entering service were dominated by what are now considered small (less than 300 MW(e)) and medium (300 to 700 MW(e)) reactors. In the late 1970s, the balance shifted to larger size plants to serve the requirements of industrialized countries. However, since the early 1990s, the increased interest of developing countries in nuclear power, mainly in Asia, has resulted in intensified efforts in development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). Also, in industrialized countries, electricity market deregulation is calling for power generation flexibility that SMRs may offer. Apart from electricity generation, SMRs are of particular interest for non-electrical applications of nuclear energy, such as desalination of seawater and district heating. In recognition of the current global interest in small and medium sized reactors this seminar was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the 21st century, and to make this information available to all interested IAEA Member States. Keynote addresses also provided information on global energy demand and supply and international trends impacting the development and introduction of SMRs. Two hundred forty seven attendees from 39 countries and 5 international organizations participated in the seminar. The majority of the participants were from developing countries. The seminar not only provided valuable up to date information on SMRs, it also highlighted the importance of continued international co-operation in the development and application of nuclear power for peaceful uses throughout the world

  5. Micadur: Compact insulation system for medium-sized turbo generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aare, V.; Schuler, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    A high voltage, Class F, vacuum pressure impregnated insulation system for wound stator cores of the medium size turbogenerators is described. With this total impregnation technique the insulation process has been revolutionized. The excellent characteristics of this synthetic resin insulation system have made it possible to redesign the end winding support system for decisive improvement in reliability. This has been confirmed by operating experience in recent years. Test procedures were modified to suit the new insulation process and new repair procedures have been developed.

  6. Status and Prospects for Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable interest by Member States in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as a significant energy sources for the future. The support for this programme within the IAEA was recently reaffirmed at the 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity has been predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for other applications such as desalination, district heating and hydrogen production from the reforming of methane. Addressed herein is a review of ongoing SMR development activities within selected Member States, an overview of the Agency's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on their safety attributes. (author)

  7. Status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Member States have evinced interest in the continued development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) as an energy source for the future. Support for this programme was recently reaffirmed at the IAEA 1997 General Conference. Although the generation of electricity is the predominant focus of existing SMRs, there is increasing interest in using these plants for desalination, district heating and high temperature industrial process heat applications. Here is a review of SMR development within selected Member States, an overview of the IAEA's SMR programme and a discussion of selected SMR designs with emphasis on safety attributes. (author)

  8. Fracture mechanics characterisation of medium-size adhesive joint specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Medium-size specimens (<2 m in length), consisting of two glass-fibre beams bonded together by an adhesive layer were tested in four point bending to determine their load carrying capacity. Specimens having different thickness were tested. Except for onespecimen, the cracking occurred as cracking...... along the adhesive layer; initially cracking occurred along the adhesive/laminate interface, but after some crack extension the cracking took place inside the laminate (for one specimen the later part of thecracking occurred unstably along the adhesive/ laminate interface). Crack bridging by fibres was...

  9. CANDU, building the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, F. [Stern Laboratories (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The CEO of Stern Laboratories delivered a speech on the problems and challenges facing the nuclear industry. The CANDU system is looked at as the practical choice for the future of our energy source. The people of the industry must be utilized and respected to deliver to the best of their ability.

  10. CANDU market prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 1994 survey of prospective markets for CANDU reactors discusses prospects in Turkey, Thailand, the Philippines, Korea, Indonesia, China and Egypt, and other opportunities, such as in fuel cycles and nuclear safety. It was concluded that foreign partners would be needed to help with financing

  11. Internationalization of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Paunović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Highly developed countries, which are similar to Croatia by size and population, highlight the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs as holders of export activities and key factors in raising the competitiveness of the entire economy. In this paper authors research the concept of internationalization of SMEs. Analyzing the influence of decision makers on the process of internationalization and showing its advantages and disadvantages for the respective company and country, this research introduces the most common models on the basis of which this process is implemented in practice. A case study of a small export company from Croatia illustrates the process of internationalization to the U.S. market and provides useful information to the companies which are planning to enter new markets.

  12. Can small and medium sized reactors be competitive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost is an important attribute for the future development of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). This paper addresses the target costs necessary for SMRs to be competitive in the markets of the 21st century and ways and means that designers are considering to meet these targets. It briefly reviews the impacts on nuclear energy competitiveness of economic globalisation, market deregulation, privatisation of the power sector and policy measures aiming at sustainable development and highlights new challenges and opportunities that are created for nuclear power plants as a result of the changing policy making framework in the electricity sector. Recognising the importance of capital cost (60% or more of nuclear electricity generation cost) the paper elaborates on technical (e.g. simplified design and factory building) and managerial (e.g. series order) measures aiming at capital cost reduction. The impacts of deregulation of the electricity market and privatisation of the sector on the competitiveness of SMRs are addressed. The paper stresses the importance of internalisation of social and environmental costs and sustainable development objectives for the competitiveness of nuclear energy and in particular of SMRs that are adapted to decentralised electricity supply and co-generation. Finally, it presents some findings and conclusions, drawn from the NEA analyses, on the prospects for enhancing the economics of small and medium reactors and their potential contribution to sustainable energy mixes. (author)

  13. Ionic Structure and Photoabsorption in Medium Sized Sodium Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kümmel, S; Reinhard, P G

    1998-01-01

    We present ground-state configurations and photoabsorption spectra of Na-7+, Na-27+ and Na-41+. For the first time, both the ionic structure and the photoabsorption spectra of medium-size sodium clusters beyond Na-20 have been calculated self-consistently with a non-spherical treatment of the valence electrons in density functional theory. We use a local pseudopotential that has been adjusted to experimental bulk properties and the atomic 3s level of sodium. Our studies have shown that both the ionic structure of the ground state and the positions of the plasmon resonances depend sensitively on the pseudopotential used in the calculation, which stresses the importance of its consistent use in both steps.

  14. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles DeVoe

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response Team is needed to quickly respond to these incidents to minimize data loss, and provide forensic data for the purpose of notification, disciplinary action, legal action, and to remove the risk vector. This paper 1 will use the proven Incident Command System model used in emergency services to show any sized agency can have an a dequate CIRT.

  15. Medium-size high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) experience for the 40-MW(e) Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station of Philadelphia Electric Company and the 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. Both reactors are graphite moderated and helium cooled, operating at approx. 7600C (14000F) and using the uranium/thorium fuel cycle. The plants have demonstrated the inherent safety characteristics, the low activation of components, and the high efficiency associated with the HTGR concept. This experience has been translated into the conceptual design of a medium-sized 1170-MW(t) HTGR for generation of 450 MW of electric power. The concept incorporates inherent HTGR safety characteristics [a multiply redundant prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), a graphite core, and an inert single-phase coolant] and engineered safety features

  16. Entrepreneurial Orientation vs. Innovativeness of Small and Medium Size Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ejdys

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the role of entrepreneurial orientation (entrepreneurship orientation in innovation level among Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 137 firms in the Podlaskie Region. Three hypotheses related to entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness level were examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The relation between two constructs of entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, that is proactiveness and risk taking were analyzed. The research results show that proactiveness has a significant positive total effect on improving innovativeness. The findings suggest, in contrast to the strategic orientation literature, that risk taking deters enterprises from organizational innovation. The results confirmed the significantly higher impact of the risk taking as an intermediate variable on the innovation through the mediator of proactivity. This work examines the relations between entrepreneurial orientation and innovativeness, thus contributes to the strategic orientation literature.

  17. The role of small and medium-sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second half of the twentieth century has seen nuclear power evolve from the research and development environment to an industry that supplies 17% of the world's electricity. The past decade, however, has seen stagnation in nuclear power plant construction in the Western industrialized world, slow nuclear power growth in Eastern Europe and expansion only in East Asia. But the turn of the century is potentially a turning-point for nuclear power because of: increasing world energy consumption, with nuclear power's contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, nuclear fuel resources sustainability, and improvements in operation of current nuclear power plants; advanced reactor designs that will improve economics and availability, and further enhance safety; and continued strengthening of the nuclear power safeguards system. This paper looks at the role that small and medium-sized reactors can play in an increasingly competitive global energy market, particularly with regard to maintaining a sustainable mix of energy sources. (author)

  18. Variability management challenges in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomas Ihme

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Variability has become important means to provide customer specific products fast to the market. This paper presents findings from a literature study and questionnaire designed to find out the current variability management practices, challenges and needs in small and medium sized companies (SMEs. The literature study was carried out first, and based on its findings questionnaire study was designed and carried out. Transparency of variability and design decisions between R and D and business and customer interfaces and transparency of variability and design decisions within R and D were the most important and challenging variability areas in the studied organisations. The most frequently used architecture design issue was the use of known architectural styles and patterns to handle variability. The findings of the most challenging and important variability management topics, as well as the important improvement goals can be used to direct future research, and efforts to support companies in variability management.

  19. Incentives for improvement of CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU is a relatively young technology which has demonstrated many achievements as an electrical power generation system. These achievements include an unsurpassed safety record, high annual and lifetime capacity factors, low electricity cost and a broad range of other performance strengths which together indicate that the CANDU technology is fundamentally sound. Known capabilities not yet fully exploited, such as advanced fuel cycle options, indicate that CANDU technology will continue to pay strong dividends on research, development and design investment. This provides a strong incentive for the improvement of CANDU on a continuing basis

  20. CANDU at the crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-11-01

    ''Ready for the challenge of the 90s'' was the theme of this year's gathering of the Canadian Nuclear Association held in Toronto, 3-6 June. What that challenge really entails is whether the CANDU system will survive as the last remaining alternative to the light water reactor in the world reactor market, or whether it will decline into oblivion along with the Advanced Gas Cooled reactor and so many other technically excellent systems which have fallen along the way. The fate of the CANDU system will not be determined by its technical merits, nor by its impeccable safety record. It will be determined by public perceptions and by the deliberations of an Environmental Assessment Panel established by the Government of Ontario. The debate at the Association meeting is reported. (author).

  1. Design, Testing, and Realisation of a Medium Size Aerostat Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design, testing and realisation aspects during the development of a medium size aerostat envelope in the present work. The payload capacity of this aerostat is 300 kg at 1 km above mean sea level. The aerostat envelope is the aerodynamically shaped fabric enclosure part of the aerostat which generally uses helium for lifting useful payloads to a specified height. The envelope volume estimation technique is discussed which provides the basis for sizing. The design, material selection, testing and realisation aspects of this aerostat envelope are also discussed. The empirical formulas and finite element analysis are used to estimate the aerodynamic, structural and other design related parameters of the aerostat. Equilibrium studies are then explained for balancing forces and moments in static conditions. The tether profile estimation technique is discussed to estimate blow by distance and tether length. A comparison of estimated and measured performance parameters during trials has also been discussed.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 66, No. 2, March 2016, pp.93-99, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.66.9291

  2. The Medium Size Telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the planned next-generation instrument for ground-based gamma-ray astronomy, covering a photon energy range of ~20 GeV to above 100 TeV. CTA will consist of the order of 100 telescopes of three sizes, installed at two sites in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. This contribution deals with the 12 meter Medium Size Telescopes (MST) having a single mirror (modified Davies-Cotton, DC) design. In the baseline design of the CTA arrays, 25 MSTs in the South and 15 MSTs in the North provide the necessary sensitivity for CTA in the core energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. DC-MSTs will be equipped with photomultiplier (PMT)-based cameras. Two options are available for these focal plane instruments, that will be provided by the FlashCam and the NectarCAM sub-consortia. In this contribution, a short introduction to the projects and their status is given.

  3. Joint studies on large CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU PHWRs have demonstrated generic benefits which will be continued in future designs. These include economic benefits due to low operating costs, business potential, strategic benefits due to fuel cycle flexibility and operational benefits. These benefits have been realized in Korea through the operation of Wolsong 1, resulting in further construction of PHWRs at the same site. The principal benefit, low electricity cost, is due to the high capacity factor and the low fuel cost for CANDU. The CANDU plant at Wolsong has proven to be a safe, reliable and economical electricity producer. The ability of PHWR to burn natural uranium ensures security of fuel supply. Following successful Technology Transfer via the Wolsong 2,3 and 4 project, future opportunity exists between Korea and Canada for continuing co-operation in research and development to improve the technology base, for product development partnerships, and business opportunities in marketing and building PHWR plants in third countries. High reliability, through excellent design, well-controlled operation, efficient maintenance and low operating costs is critical to the economic viability of nuclear plants. CANDU plants have an excellent performance record. The four operating CANDU 6 plants, operated by four utilities in three countries, are world performance leaders. The CANDU 9 design, with higher output capacity, will help to achieve better site utilization and lower electricity costs. Being an evolutionary design, CANDU 9 assures high performance by utilizing proven systems, and component designs adapted from operating CANDU plants (Bruce B, Darlington and CANDU 6). All system and operating parameters are within the operating proven range of current plants. KAERI and AECL have an agreement to perform joint studies on future PHWR development. The objective of the joint studies is to establish the requirements for the design of future advanced CANDU PHWR including the utility need for design improvements

  4. Overview of the EUROfusion Medium Size Tokamak program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Piero; Beurskens, Marc; Coda, Stefano; Eich, Thomas; Meyer, Hendrik; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2015-11-01

    As a result of the new organization of the European fusion programme, now under the umbrella of the EUROfusion Consortium, the MST (Medium Size Tokamaks) task force is in charge of executing the European science programme in the ASDEX Upgrade, TCV and MAST-U tokamaks. This paper will present an overview of the main results obtained in the 2014 campaign-where only ASDEX upgrade was operating-and the preliminary achievements of the recently started 2015/16 campaign, where also TCV will contribute. The main subjects of the experimental campaigns are (i) the development of scenarios relevant for the ITER Q=10 goal, in an all metal wall device (ii) the understanding of ELM mitigation/suppression with pellets and resonant magnetic perturbations, and in particular the effect of density versus collisionality, (iii) the understanding and optimization of methods for disruption mitigation or avoidance and runaway electrons control and (iv) the exploration of ITER and DEMO relevant scenarios with high normalized separatrix power flux, Psep / R , (Psep is the power through the separatrix, R the major radius) and tolerable target heat loads. The overview of the future programs in MST will be given. http://www.euro-fusionscipub.org/mst1

  5. CANDU operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU-PHW program is based upon 38 years of heavy water reactor experience with 35 years of operating experience. Canada has had 72 reactor years of nuclear-electric operations experience with 10 nuclear units in 4 generating stations during a period of 18 years. All objectives have been met with outstanding performance: worker safety, public safety, environmental emissions, reliable electricity production, and low electricity cost. The achievement has been realized through total teamwork involving all scientific disciplines and all project functions (research, design, manufacturing, construction, and operation). (auth)

  6. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  7. Theoretical Investigation of Trust in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentinas Navickas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The hectic pace of competition pushes the sector of small and medium enterprise to adopt sophisticated marketing ideas. In this context, customers are becoming more and more selective. However, expansion possibilities are burdened by the great variety of limitations. The current study paper aims to investigate the academic perception of trust which is treated as competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises. The object of the article is trust in small and medium enterprises. It has three objectives: to analyse small and medium enterprise characteristics through the academic perspective; to consider trust from the theoretical point of view; and to present the models that centre their attention on the trust as a construct that enhances customer satisfaction. Regarding the novelty of the current study, it brings a novel approach on a great variety of collected understandings of trust and puts an important foundation for future theory and practice investigations.

  8. A comparison of the void reactivity effect between the CANDU standard and CANDU-6 SEU-43 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a CANDU type reactor the void coefficient of the reactivity is positive. The experimental data are available only for fresh fuel in cold conditions. On the other hand, taking into account the reactivity effects induced by changes of the coolant properties is often difficult. The safety analyses require an estimation of the calculation error. A comparison between models is an usual approach to obtain detailed information. In our paper a heterogeneous multi-stratified coolant model is used both for the CANDU standard fuel assembly cell and CANDU SEU-43 cell concept. The coolant is treated as a two phase (liquid and vapors) medium gravitationally separated. The results are inter-compared for different burnups in the partial or total void cases. (authors)

  9. Approaches to assess competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  10. Technology transfer in CANDU marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses how the CANDU system lends itself to technology transfer, the scope of CANDU technology transfer, and the benefits and problems associated with technology transfer. The establishment of joint ventures between supplier and client nations offers benefits to both parties. Canada can offer varying technology transfer packages, each tailored to a client nation's needs and capabilities. Such a package could include all the hardware and software necessary to develop a self-sufficient nuclear infrastructure in the client nation

  11. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. CANDU nuclear plant designers and owner/operators share information and operational experience nationally and internationally through the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). The research program generally emphasizes the unique aspects of the CANDU concept, such as heat removal through the moderator, but it has also contributed significantly to areas generic to most power reactors such as hydrogen combustion, containment failure modes, fission product chemistry, and high temperature fuel behaviour. Abnormal plant operating procedures are aimed at first using event-specific emergency operating procedures, in cases where the event can be diagnosed. If this is not possible, generic procedures are followed to control Critical Safety Parameters and manage the accident. Similarly, the on-site contingency plans include a generic plan covering overall plant response strategy, and a specific plan covering each category of contingency

  12. Organizational Culture Assessment of Small & Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Zaheer; Kashif ur Rehman; Abrar Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an ethnographic study defining and assessing the organizational culture exhibited by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). It primarily focuses on four cultural categories: clan, adhocracy, hierarchy and market-driven. These conceptual domains have been examined by the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument. Results from a sample of 162 SMEs in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area indicate that SME culture lacks creativity, innovation, freedom and risk taking. SMEs are not looking...

  13. Incident Response Plan for a Small to Medium Sized Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Charles DeVoe; SYED (SHAWON)M. RAHMAN

    2015-01-01

    Most small to medium health care organizations do not have the capability to address cyber incidents within the organization.Those that do are poorly trained and ill equipped .These health care organizations are subject to various laws that address privacy concerns , proper handling of financial information, and Person ally Identifiable Information. Currently an IT staff handles responses to these incidents in an Ad Hoc manner.A properly trained, staffed,and equipped Cyber Incident Response T...

  14. Enhanced candu 6 reactor: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU 6 power reactor is visionary in its approach, renowned for its on-power refuelling capability and proven over years of safe, economical and reliable power production. Developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), the CANDU 6 design offers excellent performance utilizing state-of-the-art technology. The first CANDU 6 plants went into service in the early 1980s as leading edge technology and the design has been continuously advanced to maintain superior performance with an outstanding safety record. The first set of CANDU 6 plants - Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau in Canada, Embalse in Argentina and Wolsong- Unit 1 in Korea - have been in service for more than 22 years and are still producing electricity at peak performance; to the end of 2004, their average Lifetime Capacity Factor was 83.2%. The newer CANDU 6 units in Romania (Cernavoda 1), Korea (Wolsong-Units 2, 3 and 4) and Qinshan (Phase III- Units 1 and 2) have also been performing at outstanding levels. The average lifetime Capacity Factor of the 10 CANDU 6 operating units around the world has been 87% to the end of 2004. Building on these successes, AECL is committed to the further development of this highly successful design, now focussing on meeting customers' needs for reduced costs, further improvements to plant operation and performance, enhanced safety and incorporating up-to-date technology, as warranted. This has resulted in AECL embarking on improving the CANDU 6 design through an upgraded product termed the ''Enhanced CANDU 6'' (EC6), which incorporates several attractive but proven features that make the CANDU 6 reactor even more economical, safer and easier to operate. Some of the key features that are being incorporated into the EC6 include increasing the plant's power output, shortening the overall project schedule, decreasing the capital cost, dealing with obsolescence issues, optimizing maintenance outages and incorporating lessons learnt through feedback obtained from the

  15. Predictors of organisational performance in small and medium-sized professional service firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glunk, Ursula; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The paper sets out our theoretical and empirical approach to delineating predictors of stakeholder performance in medium-sized computer service firms. It combines a resource-based approach with recent insights from the literature on small and medium-sized firms, professional service, and computer-se

  16. Second International Conference on CANDU Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four papers were presented at this conference in sessions dealing with international experience and programs relating to CANDU fuel; fuel manufacture; fuel behaviour; fuel handling, storage and disposal; and advanced CANDU fuel cycles. (L.L.)

  17. Quality Products - The CANDU Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime focus of the CANDU concept (natural uranium fuelled-heavy water moderated reactor) from the beginning has economy, heavy water losses and radiation exposures also were strong incentives for ensuring good design and reliable equipment. It was necessary to depart from previously accepted commercial standards and to adopt those now accepted in industries providing quality products. Also, through feedback from operating experience and specific design and development programs to eliminate problems and improve performance, CANDU has evolved into today's successful product and one from which future products will readily evolve. Many lessons have been learned along the way. On the one hand, short cuts of failures to understand basic requirements have been costly. On the other hand, sound engineering and quality equipment have yielded impressive economic advantages through superior performance and the avoidance of failures and their consequential costs. The achievement of lifetime economical performance demands quality products, good operation and good maintenance. This paper describes some of the basic approaches leading to high CANDU station reliability and overall excellent performance, particularly where difficulties have had to be overcome. Specific improvements in CANDU design and in such CANDU equipment as heat transport pumps, steam generators, valves, the reactor, fuelling machines and station computers, are described. The need for close collaboration among designers, nuclear laboratories, constructors, operators and industry is discussed. This paper has reviewed some of the key components in the CANDU system as a means of indicating the overall effort that is required to provide good designs and highly reliable equipment. This has required a significant investment in people and funding which has handsomely paid off in the excellent performance of CANDU stations. The close collaboration between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian industry and the

  18. ACR technology for CANDU enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ACR-1000 design retains many essential features of the original CANDU plant design. As well as further-enhanced safety, the design also focuses on operability and maintainability, drawing on valuable customer input and OPEX. The engineering development of the ACR-1000 design has been accompanied by a research and confirmatory testing program. This program has extended the database of knowledge on the CANDU design. The ACR-1000 design has been reviewed by the Canadian regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) which concluded that there are no fundamental barriers to licensing the ACR-1000 design in Canada after completing three phases of the pre-project design review. The generic PSAR for the ACR-1000 design was completed in September 2009. The PSAR contains the ACR-1000 design details, the safety and design methodology, and the safety analysis that demonstrate the ACR-1000 safety case and compliance with Canadian and international regulatory requirements and expectations. The ACR technology developed during the ACR-1000 Engineering Program and the supporting development testing has had a major impact beyond the ACR program itself: Improved CANDU components and systems; Enhanced engineering processes and engineering tools, which lead to better product quality, and better project efficiency; and Improved operational performance. This paper provides a summary of technology arising from the ACR program that has been incorporated into new CANDU designs such as the EC6, or can be applied for servicing operating CANDU reactors. (author)

  19. Future generations of CANDU: advantages and development with passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) advances water reactor and CANDLT technology using an evolutionary development strategy. This strategy ensures that innovations are based firmly on current experience and keeps our development programs focused on one reactor concept, reducing risks, development costs, and product development cycle times. It also assures our customers that our products will never become obsolete or unsupported, and the continuous line of water reactor development is secure and supported into the future. Using the channel reactor advantage of modularity, the subdivided core has the advantage of passive safety by heat removal to the low- pressure moderator. With continuous improvements, the Advanced CANDU Reactor TM (ACR-1000TM) concept will likely remain highly competitive for a number of years and leads naturally to the next phase of CANDU development, namely the Generation IV CANDU -SCWR concept. This is conventional water technology, since supercritical boilers and turbines have been operating for some time in coal-fired power plants. Significant cost, safety, and performance advantages would result from the CANDU-SCWR concept, plus the flexibility of a range of plant sizes suitable for both small and large electric grids, and the ability for co-generation of electric power, process heat, and hydrogen. In CANDU-SCWR, novel developments are included in the primary circuit layout and channel design. The R and D in Canada is integrated with the Generation IV international Forum (GIF) plans, and has started on examining replaceable insulating liners that would ensure channel life, and on providing completely passive reactor decay heat removal directly to the moderator heat sink without forced cooling. In the interests of sustainability, hydrogen production by a CANDU- SCWR is also be included as part of the system requirements, where the methods for hydrogen production will depend on the outlet temperature of the reactor

  20. Layout design studies for medium-sized telescopes within the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hassan, T; Nieto, D; Wood, M

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international project for a next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA, conceived as an array of tens of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, comprising small, medium and large-size telescopes, is aiming to improve on the sensitivity of current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude and provide energy coverage from 20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. In this study we explore how the medium-sized telescopes layout design and composition impacts the overall CTA performance by analyzing Monte Carlo simulations including Davies-Cotton and Schwarzschild-Couder medium-sized telescopes.

  1. A neutronic study of the cycle PWR-CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alberto da; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora Fortini; Fortini, Angela; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: albertomoc@terra.com.br; claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br; dora@nuclear.ufmg.br; fortini@nuclear.ufmg.br; rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    The cycle PWR-CANDU was simulated using the WIMSD-5B and ORIGEN2.1 codes. It was simulated a fuel burnup of 33,000 MWd/t for UO{sub 2} with enrichment of 3.2% and a fuel extended burnup of 45,000 MWd/t for UO{sub 2} with enrichments of 3.5%, 4.0% and 5.0% in a PWR reactor. The PWR discharged fuel was submitted to the simulation of deposition for five years. After that, it was submitted to AYROX reprocessing and used to produce a fuel to CANDU reactor. Then, it was simulated the burnup in the CANDU. Parameters such as infinite medium multiplication factor, k{sub inf}, fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity, {alpha}{sub TF}, moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity, {alpha}{sub TM}, the ratio rapid flux/total flux and the isotopic composition in the begin and the end of life were evaluated. The results showed that the fuels analyzed could be used on PWR and CANDU reactors without the need of change on the design of these reactors. (author)

  2. Build your own Candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the marketing of Candu reactors, particularly the export trade. Future sales will probably be of the nuclear side of a station only, thus striking a compromise between licensing and 'turnkey' sales. It is suggested that AECL might have made more money in the past had it not given the right to manufacture Candu fuel away to Canadian industry. Future sales to certain potential customers may be limited by the requirement of strict safeguards, which will almost certainly never be relaxed. (N.D.H.)

  3. Exploring Perceptions about the Use of e-HRM Tools in Medium Sized Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tanya; Horst, ter Vincent; Engbers, Sander; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruel, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on acceptance of Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) in medium sized organizations. We look at general SME’s in The Netherlands. The goal of this research is to analyse the perceptions about the use of HRIS as there is currently very little knowledge about it in “medium s

  4. Contribution of small and medium sized enterprises in development of agribusiness of Serbian Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Blaženka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Serbian republic is more and more connected with development of small and medium sized enterprises, which represent one of the main bases of Serbian economy. The economic potential of agriculture imposes the need of analyzing the condition in area of small and medium sized entrepreneurship which should be the carrier of future development of agribusiness. By ranging and grouping of Serbian republic municipalities (by discrimination and cluster analysis according to level of development of small and medium sized entrepreneurship in agriculture, the clear view is got in current state of regional development of this agricultural sector as the possibilities of future development. By development of small and medium sized enterprises in agriculture it is possible to achieve strategic goals of Serbian republic agro development and for realization of these goals it is necessary to ensure the stable economic ambient, appropriate pre conditions as measures of support which will be stimulating for development of agribusiness.

  5. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators(infrastructure,transaction process,operation management,and transaction safety),which are divided into 11 second-level indicators(hardware equipment,computer network,e-procurement,logistics distribution,supply chain management,customer relationship management,and payment security).We use analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to determine the weight of indicator at all levels,and establish fuzzy comprehensive evaluation mathematical model of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.Finally,through examples,we verify the rationality and reliability of evaluation method of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises combining analytic hierarchy process(AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

  6. The role of promotional strategies for small and medium- sized entreprises in sustainable marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Cecilia Popescu; Diana Maria Vrânceanu; Mihai Ioan Roșca

    2012-01-01

    In Romania, small and medium-sized enterprises manifest a certain interest in marketing activities, resulted in the existence of a specific marketing structure in half of them, as attests a survey done on a sample of 140 organizations. This research, focused on understanding the promotional strategies and tactics used by Romanian small and medium-sized enterprises, concluded that communication is oriented predominantly to quantitative objectives, not designed according to sustainable marketin...

  7. European Private Company : A solution for minority shareholders within small- and medium sized enterprises in Sweden?

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Diden

    2011-01-01

    The Swedish companies act of 2005 regulates public and private limited companies. With these two classification shortages of rights prosper to different kinds of company structures that exist in today’s business environment. The Swedish companies act focuses on larger companies and therefore smaller companies are often neglected. Specific problems that may occur in a small- and medium sized enterprise are not solved. The problems that occur in small- and medium sized companies have rather a r...

  8. Auditor Independence: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Knowledge of Auditor Independence Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Camilla; Dagman, Andréa

    2012-01-01

    The large accounting scandals in the early 21st century had large impact on the future discussion regarding the importance of auditor independence. This led to stricter auditor independence rules in Sweden as well as internationally. Small and medium-sized enterprises frequently hire their auditor for consulting services. A long and close audit-client relationship is common for small and medium sized enterprises. This is considered to be a threat towards the auditor independence. The purpose ...

  9. PERFORMANCE-DRIVEN BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED-ENTERPRISES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Hongtao; Tang Renzhong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the common limitations of business process management (BPM) methodologies and the requirements of small and medium sized-enterprises (SMEs), the importance of a "performance construct" of BPM methodologies is identified, a six-phase performance-driven BPM methodology for the production and operation processes of Chinese SMEs is developed. A case study on the process management of a medium-sized enterprise shows a successful example of running the methodology.

  10. The business environment and phases of development of small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The subject literature distinguishes several factors that determine the establishment, survival , operations and development of micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises in particular regions. In this article, the author presents a classification of these factors in terms of whether they are barriers or stimulators. On this basis, the author explains the influence of regional environment (meso-environment) factors on the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in various phases of ...

  11. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    OpenAIRE

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends from large to small and medium-sized companies. Secondly, by studying potential mediating and moderating effects to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which transformational and tr...

  12. The current situation of human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Radim Dušek

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the process of human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises of the South Bohemian region. The most valuable asset holdings of these enterprises are undoubtedly human resources, whose development is increasingly considered as the key competitive advantage that ensures long-term survival of business in the new global environment. The aim of this research is to find out the actual status of human resource management in the analyzed small and medium-sized ...

  13. Using Information Systems to Enable Managerial Accounting at Small and Medium Sized Manufacturing Firms in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized companies can utillise information systems (IS) to overcome restrictions imposed by their often limited resources. This dissertation investigates which factors contribute to an IS’s success in enabling managerial accounting at small and medium sized manufacturing firms in Germany. An adaptation of the IS Success Model is used as the research model for a quantitative empirical survey among 5,831 companies. Structural equation modelling confirms the model and reveals ...

  14. The Candu suppliers: Growing beyond Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada has demonstrated its ability to successfully manage Candu projects. It has been shown domestically by Ontario Hydro over a period of many years. It has been demonstrated abroad by private sector service companies, under Nuclear Construction Managers, on the 600 MW Wolsung project in South Korea, where NPM companies carried out virtually all project and construction management, the plant was in service only 60 months after the first concrete was poured for the reactor building. In the past, however, the project management team for Candu nuclear plants overseas, and for some at home, was often assembled ad hoc. Though this approach can be successful, it does not guarantee success in project and construction management. Because of the size, diversity and flexibility of the private owners of NPM, they have been able to keep their experienced nuclear power teams on staff even though the nuclear power industry has been going through slow times, assigning these people to large projects in other industries that call for the same high level of project, construction and commissioning management skills. Yet they are in a position to reassemble this team at very short notice, and have them ready to go to work on a major project within weeks of the green light

  15. CANDU steam generator life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steam generators are a critical component of a nuclear power reactor, and can contribute significantly to station unavailability, as has been amply demonstrated in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). CANDU steam generators are not immune to steam generator degradation, and the variety of CANDU steam generator designs and tube materials has led to some unexpected challenges. However, aggressive remedial actions, and careful proactive maintenance activities, have led to a decrease in steam generator-related station unavailability of Canadian CANDUs. AECL and the CANDU utilities have defined programs that will enable existing or new steam generators to operate effectively for 40 years. Research and development work covers corrosion and mechanical degradation of tube bundles and internals, chemistry, thermalhydraulics, fouling, inspection and cleaning, as well as provision for specially tool development for specific problem solving. A major driving force is development of CANDU-specific fitness-for-service guidelines, including appropriate inspection and monitoring technology to measure steam generator condition. Longer-range work focuses on development of intelligent on-line monitoring for the feedwater system and steam generator. New designs have reduced risk of corrosion and fouling, are more easily inspected and cleaned, and are less susceptible to mechanical damage. The Canadian CANDU utilities have developed programs for remedial actions to combat degradation of performance (Gentilly-2, Point Lepreau, Bruce A/B, Pickering A/B), and have developed strategic plans to ensure that good future operation is ensured. The research and development program, as well as operating experience, has identified where improvements in operating practices and/or designs can be made in order to ensure steam generator design life at an acceptable capacity factory. (author)

  16. The role of small and medium size reactors in the future US nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the various aspects of siting and sizing new generating facilities in the USA. Environmental and licensing issues are discussed. The economic considerations and assumptions for new plants are presented. Also, the electric transmission and distribution system characteristics and constraints are described with the potential role for several small and medium size designs summarized. (authors)

  17. Sustainability and Small to Medium Sized Enterprises--How to Engage Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have a major advantage over larger organisations in regard to addressing sustainability issues--their size means they are able to react very quickly to changes in the business environment. They are disadvantaged, however, by lack of information on marketplace changes that make sustainability an opportunity…

  18. International seminar on status and prospects for small and medium sized reactors. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors have been defined by IAEA in accordance with their net electrical power rating, or thermal equivalent power rating for reactors producing process heat. Within the global energy supply and demand the role of nuclear power, and specifically the role of small and medium sizes reactors, is reviewed. Some new design prospects of dual purpose power plants, namely for heat production and desalination, are presented. Some proposal for new concepts of small size power reactors are described. A special concern is devoted to economic and energy policy issues as well as to safety and non-proliferation matters

  19. Thorium utilization in Candu reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, means of thorium utilization in a CANDU reactor are considered. A once through thorium-DUPIC cycle is analyzed in detail. CANDU has the best neutron economy among the commercially available power reactors, which makes it suitable for many different fuel cycle options. A review of the available fuel cycles is also done in the scope of this study to select an economically viable cycle which does not impose profound changes in the neutronic properties of the core that require remodeling of core and related systems. To create a good model ot the CANDU core for the necessary calculations, the steady state properties of CANDU reactor are analyzed. It is assumed that approximation ot refueling as moving the bundles at a constant velocity is valid. This approximation leads to a corollary; The average cross sections of two adjacent bidirectionally refueled channels are independent of axial location. This is also veritied. A result of this corollary the CANDU core can be modeled only in radial direction in cylindirical geometry. The steady state CANDU core model is prepared using the actual power values and these values are sought in the results. The control systems which effect the neutron flux shape are introduced into the model later in the form of additional absorption cross section and lower diffusion coefficient. The results are in good agreement with the actual values. Several different thorium-DUPIC fuel bundle configurations are considered and the one with 12 Th02 elements in the third ring is found to have similar burnup dependent cross-sections and location infinite multiplication factors. Using the model created, the bundle is tested also in the tull core model and it is tound that this bundle configuration complies with the current refueling scheme. That is, no changes are necessary in the refuelind rate or the control systems. A higher conversion ratio of 0.82 is attained, while the excess reactivity of the core is found to decrease by 0.01 Ak

  20. The small (or large) modular CANDU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneley, D.; Harvel, G. [Univ. of Ontario Inst. of Tech., Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    This presentation outlines the design for small (or large) modular CANDU. The origins of this work go back many years to a comment by John Foster, then President of AECL CANDU. Foster noted that the CANDU reactor, with its many small fuel channels, was like a wood campfire. To make a bigger fire, just throw on some more logs (channels). If you want a smaller fire, just use fewer logs. The design process is greatly simplified.

  1. Systems analysis of the CANDU 3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a systems failure analysis study of the CANDU 3 reactor design; the study was performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. As part of the study a review of the CANDU 3 design documentation was performed, a plant assessment methodology was developed, representative plant initiating events were identified for detailed analysis, and a plant assessment was performed. The results of the plant assessment included classification of the CANDU 3 event sequences that were analyzed, determination of CANDU 3 systems that are ''significant to safety,'' and identification of key operator actions for the analyzed events

  2. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ružica Butigan; Ivana Mahnić

    2011-01-01

    Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a pr...

  3. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Yi-lei; Xue, Wan-xin; Yang, Chun-Yu; Su, Yong

    2012-01-01

    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sired agricultural enterprises. This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators (infrastructure, transaction process, operation management, and transaction safety), which are divided into 11 second-level indicators (hardware equipment, computer network, e-procurement, logistics dis...

  4. Accounting standards for small and medium-sized entities. Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Milanés Montero; Irene Albarrán Lozano; Joaquín Texeira Quirós; Esteban Pérez Calderón

    2011-01-01

    By approving Regulation 1606/2002, the European Commission entrusts the local European Union regulators with the difficult decision as to whether making the International Accounting Standards (IAS/IFRS) extensive for their Small and Medium sized Entities or not. International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sizzed Entities (hereinafter IFRS for SMEs) was published in 2009, and the European Commission had also decided to seek the opinion of EU stakeholders on this Standard. W...

  5. A Medium Sized Schwarzschild-Couder Cherenkov Telescope Mechanical Design Proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Byrum, K; Benbow, W; Cameron, R; Criswell, S; Errando, M; Guarino, V; Kaaret, P; Kieda, D; Mukherjee, R; Naumann, D; Nieto, D; Northrop, R; Okumura, A; Roache, E; Rousselle, J; Schlenstedt, S; Sternberger, R; Vassiliev, V; Wakely, S; Zhao, H

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is an international next-generation ground-based gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be implemented as southern and northern hemisphere arrays of tens of small, medium and large-sized imaging Cherenkov telescopes with the goal of improving the sensitivity over the current-generation experiments by an order of magnitude. CTA will provide energy coverage from ~20 GeV to more than 300 TeV. The Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) medium size (9.5m) telescopes will feature a novel aplanatic two-mirror optical design capable of accommodating a wide field-of-view with significantly improved angular resolution as compared to the traditional Davies-Cotton optical design. A full-scale prototype SC medium size telescope structure has been designed and will be constructed at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona during the fall of 2015. concentrate on the novel features of the design.

  6. UNICS - An Unified Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Mudit K; Burse, Mahesh P; Chordia, Pravin A; Chillal, Kalpesh S; Mestry, Vilas B; Das, Hillol K; Kohok, Abhay A

    2009-01-01

    Although the astronomy community is witnessing an era of large telescopes, smaller and medium sized telescopes still maintain their utility being larger in numbers. In order to obtain better scientific outputs it is necessary to incorporate modern and advanced technologies to the back-end instruments and to their interfaces with the telescopes through various control processes. However often tight financial constraints on the smaller and medium size observatories limit the scope and utility of these systems. Most of the time for every new development on the telescope the back-end control systems are required to be built from scratch leading to high costs and efforts. Therefore a simple, low cost control system for small and medium size observatory needs to be developed to minimize the cost and efforts while going for the expansion of the observatory. Here we report on the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system UNICS (Unified Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of vari...

  7. Technological Development And Internationalization Among Small And Medium-Sized Engineering Firms In The United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tesar, G; Velu, R

    1986-01-01

    Taking place among large U.S. processing and/or manufacturing firms and relates those changes to technological development of small and medium-sized engineering firms that service the large firms. Based on a series of interviews with the large firms and the engineering firms, the paper concludes that if the small and medium-sized engineering firms are to compete successfully with large foreign engineering firms that have replaced them in their own traditional markets, they will have to up-gra...

  8. CANDU safety under severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the CANDU reactor relevant to severe accidents are set first by the inherent properties of the design, and second by the Canadian safety/licensing approach. The pressure-tube concept allows the separate, low-pressure, heavy-water moderator to act as a backup heat sink even if there is no water in the fuel channels. Should this also fail, the calandria shell itself can contain the debris, with heat being transferred to the water-filled shield tank around the core. Should the severe core damage sequence progress further, the shield tank and the concrete reactor vault significantly delay the challenge to containment. Furthermore, should core melt lead to containment overpressure, the containment behaviour is such that leaks through the concrete containment wall reduce the possibility of catastrophic structural failure. The Canadian licensing philosophy requires that each accident, together with failure of each safety system in turn, be assessed (and specified dose limits met) as part of the design and licensing basis. In response, designers have provided CANDUs with two independent dedicated shutdown systems, and the likelihood of Anticipated Transients Without Scram is negligible. Probabilistic safety assessment studies have been performed on operating CANDU plants, and on the 4 x 880 MW(e) Darlington station now under construction; furthermore a scoping risk assessment has been done for a CANDU 600 plant. They indicate that the summed severe core damage frequency is of the order of 5 x 10-6/year. 95 refs, 3 tabs

  9. Sustainable manufacturing for Indonesian small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): The case of remanufactured alternators

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah, Yun; Biswas, Wahidul; Mazhar, Ilyas; Islam, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Achieving sustainability is a great challenge for most of the Indonesian manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Remanufacturing has been considered to be a key strategy to attain sustainable manufacturing by maximising the use of old components and minimising landfill size and energy usage. However, SMEs, which are undoubtedly the engine of the Indonesian manufacturing industry, do not have adequate experience, skill, resource, technology and financial support in the remanu...

  10. Transformational and transactional leadership: does it work in small to medium-sized enterprises?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesu, J.K.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 755 employees who rated 121 supervisors within 50 Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), this dissertation intends to fill in some of the existing gaps in the literature. Firstly, by investigating whether the impact of transformational and transactional leadership extends

  11. Key Influencing Factors behind Moodle Adoption in Irish Small to Medium Sized Higher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Livadas, Lelia; Miles, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Irish Small to Medium Sized Educational Institutions (SMSEs) involved in Higher Education (HE) that adopted Moodle, the OSS (Open Source Software) course management system (CMS). As Moodle has only been adopted in the Irish HE sector in the last 5-7 years, this research crucially studied the attitudes of the SMSEs that…

  12. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  13. The internationalization process of small and medium-sized enterprises : An evaluation of stage theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gankema, HGJ; Snuif, HR; Zwart, PS

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide better insight into the internationalization process of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Using a five-year panel dataset and a relatively new technique, DEL analysis, the predictive validity of the export stage concept of Cavusgil's innovation-related in

  14. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma in small- and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timans, W.; Antony, J.; Ahaus, K.; van Solingen, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we provide an exploration and analysis of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) implementation in Dutch manufacturing/engineering small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Critical success factors (CSFs) and impeding factors are identified and analysed. Exploratory empirical evidence about LSS implem

  15. Barriers to Employee Training in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: Insights and Evidences from Mauritius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padachi, Kesseven; Bhiwajee, Soolakshna Lukea

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Training is an important component of successful business concerns. However, although there is growing acceptance amongst scholars that small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are engines that drive economies across nations, through their contribution in terms of job creation and poverty reduction; extant research portray that these…

  16. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipple, C.; Vosti, E.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to address needs that are characterized of small to medium sized apparel manufactures and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for this specific efforts are discussed.

  17. An Agile Methodology for Implementing Service-Oriented Architecture in Small and Medium Sized Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of Lean/Agile principles, using action research to develop and deploy new technology for Small and Medium sized enterprises. The research case was conducted at the Lapeer County Sheriff's Department and involves the initial deployment of a Service Oriented Architecture to alleviate the data…

  18. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sager-Klauß, C.V.

    2016-01-01

    Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders la

  19. New Balancing Equipment for Mass Production of Small and Medium-Sized Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argeseanu, Alin; Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika

    2010-01-01

    The level of vibration and noise is an important feature. It is good practice to explain the significance of the indicators of the quality of electrical machines. The mass production of small and medium-sized electrical machines demands speed (short typical measurement time), reliability...

  20. Successful E-Learning in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    So far, e-learning has primarily been used when there are many learners involved. The up-front investments related to e-learning are relatively high, and may be perceived as prohibitive for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Some e-learning is, however, getting less expensive, and some e-learning models are more suited for small-scale…

  1. HRM implications for network collaboration of small and medium sized companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances;

    Collaboration in innovation networks is particularly important for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to remain competitive in a rapidly changing environment. Collaboration may however be particularly challenging for SMEs, due to their size and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper...

  2. Hedging Behavior in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: The Role of Unobserved Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We investigate factors that drive derivative usage in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The influence of these factors on hedging behavior cannot a priori be assumed equal for all SMEs. To address this heterogeneity, a generalized mixture regression model is used which classifies f

  3. Greening Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Evaluating Environmental Policy in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Khoa, Le

    2006-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) contribute considerably to the economic and social development of bothViet Namand Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). But at the same time this sector causes severe environmental proble

  4. EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Edyta Kulej-Dudek

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study which analysed knowledge management in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czêstochowa powiat. A Model of Stages in Employee Knowledge Growth was developed as an evaluation tool. The activities and behaviours of employees concerning management of knowledge resources were also characterized in the context of current knowledge-based processes.

  5. A compentence-based approach for small and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancatisano, Germano; Jurriëns, Jan; Verburg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of empirical research, a competence-based model of the internationalization process of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is developed. The model focuses on so-called International Market-Entry Core Competencies (IMECC), which are global management competences considered crucial

  6. Regulation of Small and Medium-Sized Business Development in Russia: Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Yuryevna Bogachkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove that despite the active state policy carried out since the second half of the 2000s and aimed at supporting small and medium-sized business in the Russian Federation, the current level of development of this economic sector is insufficient. The present paper characterizes the modern structure of small and medium-sized business. The authors show that the main problems hindering its growth are conditioned by low market demand, large tax deductions, numerous administrative barriers, lack of funding and state support. On the basis of the official data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service on theresults of annual surveys of entrepreneurs, the authors revealed the factors that prevented innovation situation in the country have stable negative impact on MSB, while the impact of such factors as imperfect legal and regulatory framework, investment risks, low profitability and inadequate state of technological infrastructure is relatively nonsignificant. The authors describe systemwide and resource measures of state regulation of small and medium-sized business. The system-wide measures include preferential access to production facilities and equipment, special tax regimes, administrative control. The measures of resource support to entrepreneurs consist in subsidizing the lease payments and interest rates on loans for the modernization of production; grant support, the establishment of microfinance organizations and guarantee funds, the development of business support infrastructure. The authors describe the forms of these measures implementation in 2013 and the main directions of improving the state regulation of small and medium-sized business, including the reduction of tax burden and facilitation of taxation procedures, the reduction of administrative barriers and ensuring access of small and medium-sized enterprises to government orders and technological infrastructure.

  7. Urban agglomerations and transformations of medium-sized towns in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runge Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This analysis investigates medium-sized towns in Poland, i.e. those with a population between 20–100 thousand, located up to 100 km away from the main city of the agglomeration. The aim of this article is to compare the level of socio-economic development of Polish towns depending on their location in relation to the main city in the largest agglomerations in 1998 and 2013. Three zones of distance from the main city of each agglomeration have been taken into consideration: a. the inner zone, reaching up to 25 km from the main city; b. the outer zone located at a distance of 25 to 50 km from the main city, and c. the peripheral zone, located at a distance of 50 to 100 km from the main city and including the medium-size towns located outside the agglomeration system. This analysis of the distribution of medium-sized towns and their level of socio-economic development has shown various levels of changes which depend on the distance from the main city of the agglomeration. In 1998, the highest level of development of the medium-sized towns was recorded in towns outside of these agglomeration systems, i.e. those located most remotely from the main city (peripheral zone. Most of the medium-sized towns are situated at a distance of 50–100 km from Warszawa, Kraków, Łódź, Lublin, Gdańsk and have developed their own local, or even regional labour markets and some of them have even provided administrative functions in the past as voivodeship capitals. Only in the Poznań agglomeration, the level of development of medium-sized towns was higher in the immediate surroundings of the main city (25 km. The medium-sized towns in all zones of the distance from the main city in the Wrocław agglomeration represented a similar level of development. By 2013, the level of development of the medium-sized towns in the peripheral zone in all investigated settlement systems had decreased, with a significant improvement in the level of development of the towns in

  8. CANDU reactors. Experience and innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The title of this paper highlights two key considerations which must be properly balanced through good management in the evolution of any engineering product. Excessive reliance on experience will lead to product stagnation; excessive reliance on innovation will often lead to an unsatisfactory product, at least in the first generation of this product. To illustrate this balancing process, the paper reviews CANDU evolution and experience and the balance between proveness and innovation achieved through management of the evolution process from early prototypes to today's large-scale commercial units. A forecast of continuing evolutionary directions is included

  9. Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Underhill, Ronald M.; Goddard, James K.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Piette, M. A.; Granderson, J.; Brown, Rich E.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; Kuruganti, T.

    2012-10-31

    Buildings consume over 40% of the total energy consumption in the U.S. A significant portion of the energy consumed in buildings is wasted because of the lack of controls or the inability to use existing building automation systems (BASs) properly. Much of the waste occurs because of our inability to manage and controls buildings efficiently. Over 90% of the buildings are either small-size (<5,000 sf) or medium-size (between 5,000 sf and 50,000 sf); these buildings currently do not use BASs to monitor and control their building systems from a central location. According to Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), about 10% of the buildings in the U.S. use BASs or central controls to manage their building system operations. Buildings that use BASs are typically large (>100,000 sf). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) were asked by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Program (BTP) to identify monitoring and control needs for small- and medium-sized commercial buildings and recommend possible solutions. This study documents the needs and solutions for small- and medium-sized buildings.

  10. The Role of Branding in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Vidic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to show the relationship between branding and brand management in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Traditionally, branding was associated with large and global corporations. However, we often forget that small and medium-sized enterprises also deal with their own names (brands in their own way. The study identified four types of businesses, regardless of their association with brands. We named these four types, as follows: Ignorant; User; Low-Cost Producer; and Differentiation Producer. If the first two types (i.e. Ignorant and User differ primarily in the extent to which they use simple branding activities, and are used mainly in the local market where the enterprises tend to operate, we found that the last two types (i.e. low-cost producers and differentiation producers design their branding strategies in accordance with their generic strategies and mode of growth.

  11. Surveillance of medium-size dams; Surveillance des barrages de taille moyenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    French hydro-power buildings belong to the government and are retroceded by the licence holder when the granting delay comes to an end. Experience has shown that less care is given by licence holders to the maintenance of medium-size dams that to big dams. For this reason, the French Ministry of Industry decided to harmonize and standardize the surveillance practices of medium-size dams. A circular was signed on May 23, 1997 which concerns the 10 to 20 m height dams with water reservoir volumes lower than the H{sup 2} x V{sup 0.5} criterion which is an evaluation of the potential risk of the dam. The surveillance modalities concern: the construction, the licence holder file, the first filling up, the operation, and the periodical safety inspections. (J.S.)

  12. A Sustainable Financing Credit Rating Model for China’s Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds a sustainable financing credit rating index system for small- and medium-sized enterprises in China from the perspective of sustainability. Then, a quantitative model for credit rating evaluation based on our index system is proposed by using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP, which has the advantage of considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Our numerical example shows that the index system is effective and practical. Our system improves the existing credit rating system to a certain extent. The evaluation method proposed can play an important guiding role for China's small- and medium-sized enterprises in the current transformation age. In particular, interested stakeholders can use this model to evaluate the investment risk of companies, especially with a focus on sustainability.

  13. The Importance Of Angel Investors In Financing The Growth Of Small And Medium Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veland Ramadani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Angel investors are very important for small and medium sized enterprises because they provide more than money. They are hands-on investors and contribute their skills, expertise, knowledge and contacts in the businesses they invest in. They are wealthy persons with great business experience. They are willing to invest and offer their wealth and knowledge to owners of small and medium sized enterprises and to entrepreneurs to start or develop their businesses. One of the attributes of angel investors is that they like to remain anonymus. Due to this attribute, a lot of ideas can not be accomplished. To eliminate this, many countries establish angel investor syndicates (groups and networks. These syndicates (groups and networks facilitate the process of matching entrepreneurs and angel investors.

  14. Voluntary disclosing cash flow statement in non-listed medium sized companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Finn

    2012-01-01

    . For this reason we conducted a multiple-case study, where we formulated a structured questionnaire and made partly open-ended interview with each one of the case-companies’ accountably responsible persons, i.e. one of the guys who signed the annual report. Among the majority of the answers we found a common......In Denmark, like some other EU Member States, medium-sized companies are requested to present a cash flow statement, but there are exemption rules similar to those for subgroups’ exemption to their presentation of consolidated financial statements. In a sample consisting of the paper versions...... of annual reports from 385 Danish non-listed medium-sized companies who were disclosing a cash flow statement as part of their annual report, we found that in a few cases, the companies were exempted to presentation of consolidated financial statements, but disclosing the cash flow statement voluntarily...

  15. Services Supporting Knowledge Maturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Ronald

    The hype around Web 2.0 has again sparked tremendous interest in IT-supported knowledge management and technology-enhanced learning in organizations. Although there has been abundant evidence of how to benefit from Web 2.0 technologies, information on how to go about deploying these in small and medium-sized enterprises in a coordinated manner are scarce. Based on the findings of an empirical study and an ethnographically informed study on knowledge maturing, this paper suggests a set of knowledge services to support a series of knowledge actions chained with the help of the knowledge maturing model. This set of services can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises for analyzing IT tools and systems which currently support their employees’ knowledge maturing activities, to foster knowledge cooperation with customers, suppliers and partners in their business environment and to find gaps which can be filled particularly by consuming services over the Web.

  16. Attractive and climate-friendly medium-sized cities; Attraktive og klimavennlige mellomstore byer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennoey, Aud

    2012-07-01

    Ministry of the Environment (MD) wanted an overview of current knowledge of climate-friendly and attractive urban development in medium-sized cities (10 - 50 000 inhabitants). This report presents and discusses knowledge between major cities' situation and challenges of land use and transport development to reduce car traffic and greenhouse gas emissions and on urban development for more attractive cities. A main conclusion is that there are major gaps in knowledge and opportunities for improvement. If those covered will be far better opportunities for planners, local authorities and others may be able to contribute to more climate-friendly and attractive medium-sized cities.The report is part of the project Comprehensive information pack for the status of knowledge from research on urban development. The project has also prepared a report entitled Planning for attractive urban environment. The reports are intended to complement each other and should be seen in context.(eb)

  17. CANDU safety analysis system establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Joo; Rhee, B. W.; Park, J. H.; Kim, H. T.; Choi, H. B.; Shim, J. I.; Yoon, C.; Yang, M. K

    2002-03-01

    To develop CANDU safety analysis system, methodology, and assessment technology, GAIs from CNSC and GSIs drived by IAEA are summarized. Furthermore, the following safety items are investigated in the present study. - It is intended to secure credibility of the void reactivity in the stage of nuclear design and analysis. The measurement data concerned with the void reactivity were reviewed and used to assess the physics code such as POWDERPUFS-V/RFSP, and the lattice code such as WIMS-AECL and MCNP-4B. - Reviewing the Final Safety Analysis Report for Wolsong-2/3/4 Units, the safety analysis methodology, classification for accident scenarios, safety analysis codes, their interface, etc. were examined. - The development of 3D CFD transient analysis model has been performed to predict local subcooling of the moderator in the vicinity of Calandria tubes in a CANDU-6 reactor in the case of Large LOCA transient. - The trip coverage analysis methodology based on CATHENA code is developed. The simulation of real plant transient showed good agreement. The trip coverage map was generated successfully for two typical depressurization and pressurization event. - The multi-dimensional analysis methodology for hydrogen distribution and hydrogen burning phenomena in PHWR containment is developed using GOTHIC code. The multi-dimensional analysis predicts the local hydrogen behaviour compared to the lumped parameter model.

  18. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    OpenAIRE

    Kamran Rousta; Karin M. Ekström

    2013-01-01

    Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established ...

  19. A Social Media Marketing Plan for a Medium-sized Consumer Goods Company

    OpenAIRE

    Okolie, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...

  20. The relationship between culture, leadership, strategic planning and performance in small and medium sized enterprises.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Regan, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    The importance of manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) to the economy is well documented. Most research on SMEs focuses on efficiency-related measures. The literature suggests that a significant amount of efficiency based initiatives have been directed at SMEs and that the time is now opportune to consider a more strategic approach. The literature survey indicates a dearth of empirical research on strategic planning in SMEs. In addition, the literature implies that strategi...

  1. PERCEIVED COMPETITION AND INNOVATIVE INTENTIONS IN DUTCH SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    De Jong, Jeroen P. J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the complex relationship between competition and innovation by analyzing survey data of 2,281 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Netherlands. We develop and test hypotheses on the relationships between three dimensions of perceived competition (internal rivalry, supplier power and buyer power) and firms' intentions to engage in product and process innovation. Moreover, we analyze if firms' strategic attention for innovation is a moderating variable. We find t...

  2. Small and medium-size enterprises in economic development : possiblities for research and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Sidney G.

    1995-01-01

    The World Bank's most important long-term advantage in promoting development, says the author, may lie in opportunities to address related obstacles simultaneously. It could mount concurrent efforts to address the problems of small and medium-size enterprises in a particular sector, region, or economy, for example. It could address the conditions of founding new firms, providing finance or technical assistance, developing mutual support institutions, resolving disputes, and perhaps reducing c...

  3. Management strategies for using business intelligence solution imbedded in ERP system in medium sized companies

    OpenAIRE

    Bobek, Samo; Sternad, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Being mature and more sophisticated management reporting, analysis and decision support integrated in business intelligent require different strategies how it should be implemented as successful support for managers and to add value to the business and to the company. In the article strategies for business intelligence in medium size companies are discussed. Some findings connected to management reporting associated with ERP solutions use are presented. One research study was focused into ERP...

  4. Incidence of Guerrilla Marketing Practices in Small and Medium Sized Turkish Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Caliskan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Guerrilla Marketing is a marketing tactic designed to attract prospects’ attention and to obtain competitive advantage by utilizing low cost or no cost marketing activities. Its popularity has been increasing as markets become increasingly competitive. Small or Medium sized Turkish exporters may benefit from deploying guerrilla marketing practices in the exporting process. In this article, the implementation level of guerrilla marketing practices among different types of exporters is analyzed.

  5. Incidence of Guerrilla Marketing Practices in Small and Medium Sized Turkish Exporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Caliskan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Guerrilla Marketing is a marketing tactic designed to attract prospects' attention and to obtain competitive advantage by utilizing low cost or no cost marketing activities. Its popularity has been increasing as markets become increasingly competitive. Small or Medium sized Turkish exporters may benefit from deploying guerrilla marketing practices in the exporting process. In this article, the implementation level of guerrilla marketing practices among different types of exporters is analyzed.

  6. Bank Financing to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanou, Constantinos; Rodriguez, Camila

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to shed light on current trends and policy challenges in the financing of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) by banks in Colombia. The paper is motivated by the well-documented financing gap for SMEs, whose causes are complex and multi-dimensional. Based on data collection and interviews with the authorities, a representative sample of banks, and othe...

  7. Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan ERIC; Isidora BERAHA; Sonja DJURICIN

    2011-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is ev...

  8. Working Capital Financing Preferences: The Case of Mauritian Manufacturing Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Kesseven Padachi; Carole Howorth; Narasimhan, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the approach of small- to medium-sized Mauritian manufacturing firms to working capital finance using a survey-based approach and case studies. Financing has been cited as one of the most common problems faced by SMEs and is often viewed as one of their main barriers to growth. Using parametric and non-parametric techniques, the important variables that affect the demand for financing are examined. Interestingly, it is observed that the sample firms adopted more inform...

  9. Small and medium sized enterprise marketing to foreign consumers in Seoul, South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    David A. English

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative case study was used to examine the experiences and perceptions of foreigners during interactions with small- and medium-sized enterprises in the Seoul Metropolitan Area. Two constructs, intercultural communications and consumer language, were used to identify difficulties that foreigners experienced during service encounters. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 participants based on a purposive sampling frame of 62 foreign professors. The transcripts were entered into MAX...

  10. Involvement of small and medium sized enterprises in the private realisation of public buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Heinecke, Bastian

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the procurement of public buildings in local authorities in the UK under the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) and its consequences for small and medium sized enterprises. Following an outline of the development of PFI in the UK, the paper explains the peculiarities of local authorities' involvement. Opportunities and problems of smaller constructors in such PFI projects are then analysed. Three case studies of smaller PFI schemes are reviewed including procurement process,...

  11. Motivational Factors for Growth in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) : Information Technology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kfutwa, Fukah

    2007-01-01

    Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) constitute the backbone of many economies in the world today. This is because they are creating new jobs and contributing positively to their respective economies in which Sweden is not an exception and par-ticularly the municipality of Jonkoping. SMEs invest in IT to gain access to integration of transactions oriented data and business processes. This thesis, motivational factors for growth in SMEs – (IT perspective) give an overview of how SMEs grow ...

  12. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES’ SATISFACTION WITH BANKS’ BUSINESS-ORIENTED SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Skvarciany

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – the purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of quality, variety, accessibility and price of banking services on small and medium-sized companies’ satisfaction with banks’ business-oriented services. This paper presents a regression equation of SMEs satisfaction with banks’ services, indicating the weight of each statistically significant factor in the overall SMEs satisfaction with the commercial banks’ services for business. Design/methodology/approach – an empirical study, investigating the influence of quality, variety, accessibility and price of banking services on SMEs’ satisfaction with business-oriented services, was conducted. A sample of 405 small and medium-sized companies’ employees was used for the survey. Findings – the results of the research show that price, accessibility and quality of banking services have a direct positive influence on the satisfaction of SMEs with commercial banks’ business-oriented services. However, the variety of banking services is not a statistically significant element and did not have an impact on the SMEs’ satisfaction with banks’ services for business. Moreover, it was found that the price and accessibility of banking services have a positive relationship with the quality of banking services. Research limitations/implications – this research was conducted in small and medium-sized companies’ sector and the results of the survey cannot be used to interpret the satisfaction of other business sectors with banking services. Practical implications – the findings suggest that banks can create SMEs’ satisfaction with business-oriented services through improving accessibility, quality and price of banking services in the way that best meets customers’ needs. Originality/Value – satisfaction with the banking services concerning SMEs is an important factor influencing the success of commercial banking activities. The present study provides useful

  13. Human Capital Development and Innovation: The Case of Training in Small and Medium Sized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Joanne; Baldwin, John R.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of small and medium-sized firms that perform training. It uses data taken from a recent Statistics Canada survey that permit firms' training decisions to be analyzed within the broader context of their many activities and strategies. The study finds strong evidence for the hypothesis that human capital development facilitated by training is complementary to innovation and technological change. Training incidence is found to be closely related to the imp...

  14. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Ghobakhloo; Tang Sai Hong; Norzima Zulkifli; Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewin...

  15. The Republic of Korea's small and medium size enterprises and their support systems

    OpenAIRE

    Linsu Kim; Nugent, Jeffrey B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate the effectiveness of private and collective technical, marketing, and financial support systems for the Republic of Korea's small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) and entrepreneurs. Their report draws on a survey of 122 SMEs that make woven textiles (42 firms), auto parts (20 firms), electronic parts (20 firms), and factory-automation products (40 firms). Although Korea has a dense network of public technology-support institutions, Korean SMEs tend to turn to private so...

  16. MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES IN JALISCO: THEIR EVOLUTION, AND STRATEGIC CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Fong Reynoso; Moisés Alejandro Alarcón Osuna; Luis Ernesto Ocampo Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The business structure in Jalisco, Mexico is primarily composed of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thus, it is fundamentally necessary to understand the dynamics, evolution and above all, the strategic challenges of this sector in order to understand the state’s economic performance and the possibilities for future development in Jalisco. As a result, this study analyzes the evolution of the SMEs (known as PyME, in Spanish) in Mexico and Jalisco by using data from the Econom...

  17. Small and Medium Sized Firms’ Competitiveness and Territorial Characteristics by using a MLR approach

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore; Duquenne, Marie Noelle

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the importance of territorial characteristics on small and medium-sized firms’ (SMEs) competitiveness. The analysis is based on primary data collected through questionnaires from 374 firms located in Bari (Italy), Varna (Bulgaria) and Thessaloniki (Greece). These firms operate in the sectors of industry, commerce and services. Through Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), the contribution of a large set of territorial characteristics has been assessed allowing us to extra...

  18. Financial and Tax Management in Small and Medium Sized Industrial Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestvinová, Viera; Homokyová, Mária; Horváthová, Martina

    2012-12-01

    Target of this paper was to evaluate the importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in Slovakia and to determine the application of financial and tax management in this type of enterprises. The results of our findings confirm that SMEs have an important role in Slovakia, and also that especially small businesses have little or no experience with the application of financial and tax management. Therefore the paper contains recommendations for financial and tax management of SMEs.

  19. How small and medium sized enterprises learn to compete effectively on international markets

    OpenAIRE

    Doole, Isobel

    2000-01-01

    This thesis seeks to develop insights into the nature of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that are effective in competing internationally, over the longer term. It therefore aims to provide a better understanding of the behaviour that engenders this capability. Its contributory value lies in the development of the new perspectives which emerged from inductive theory development grounded in longitudinal data collected between1996-1999. Traditionally explanations for the success of...

  20. Succession planning for small and medium-sized family advertising agencies in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Flourentzou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Leadership succession is not a single measure, but rather a complex process (Sharma et al., 2001) that is necessary to ensure continuity of effective managerial control and engagement in a business entity (Charan et al., 2001). Thus, the aim of this work-based project involves addressing and examining the question of succession planning in family-owned and managed small and medium-size Cypriot advertising agencies, as well as developing a feasible model of leadership succession for such agenc...

  1. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu Andrei; Ionescu Florin Tudor; Curmei Catalin Valeriu

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, ...

  2. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Magiswary Dorasamy; Maran Marimuthu; Jayamalathi Jayabalan; Murali Raman; Maniam Kaliannan

    2010-01-01

    The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face problems handling fundamental accounting...

  3. On the graphical analysis of the electronic structure of ferromagnetic clusters of medium size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, José Ramón Alvarez

    2004-12-01

    In a previous work, a theoretical approach, suitable to describe systems having a large number of fermions, was proposed, and results for ferromagnetic surface clusters of medium size (100-1000 atoms) were presented. The aim of the present contribution is to complete this previous work. Several significant theoretical and technical details, omitted previously, are provided here. The obtained spin orbitals are analyzed, by studying their symmetry, energy, and d contribution properties.

  4. The Effective Use of Facebook by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    František Pollák; Peter Dorčák

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study was to identify and then interpret the basic preconditions for effective use of the social networking site Facebook as a marketing communication platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) operating in a selected Central European market. Design/Methodology/Approach – In order to achieve the objective, as well as partial targets, this contribution can be seen as a summary of two autonomous and extensive analyses. The context necessary for the fulf...

  5. From competitive advantage to dynamic capabilities: small and medium-sized multinationals in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Tattara, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Italian firms have recently engaged in direct investment abroad through the establishment of production facilities in China and India. Using data gathered from interviews conducted in those countries in 2009 with 16 Italian predominantly small and medium-sized firms, this article explores: the motivations behind Italian parent companies’ decisions to create subsidiaries in Asia; relations between the newly established production facilities and their local suppliers and markets; any subsequent...

  6. Based on the AHP Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Supply Chain Supplier Evaluation Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwu Hu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the small and medium-sized enterprise supply chain supplier based on the AHP. For supply chain management issues in the supplier evaluation establishes the evaluation index system and then uses AHP decide the weight of each evaluation index. Moreover, it uses Linear Weighting Method to study supplier performance from perspective of quantitative research and gives the measurement process. In our empirical research, the applied method is scientific and feasible.

  7. Wireless magnetic sensors applied in the signal control of small and medium-sized cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zijun; Zhang Bo; Huang Zhen; Song Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    This topic is mainly about the typical applications of Wireless magnetic sensors in the signal control of smal and medium-sized cities. Based on the traffic characteristics of Fenghua city, through the networked control of Wireless magnetic sensors and signal controler, from "point, line, face" three aspects to optimize the traffic flow of Fenghua. The application results show that Wireless magnetic sensors can effectively improve the efficiency of traffic signal control in Fenghua.

  8. The challenges of Iranian small and medium-sized enterprises through process of internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Amirkhani, Kianoosh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of globalization and attracting new market increase the attitude of firms toward foreign market incrementally .This thesis was conducted to introduce a comprehensive framework of internationalization process in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Iran as well as monitoring challenges that firms will face in foreign market operation. Take a glance at the literature of internationalization, Iran`s economic situation and entry modes. The aim of this research was encouraging other st...

  9. Determinants of capital structure in small and medium sized enterprises in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Nawi, Hafizah

    2015-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This study aims to investigate the determinants of capital structure in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia and their effect on firms’ performance. The study addresses the following primary question: What are the factors that influence the capital structure of SMEs in Malaysia? The sample of this research is SMEs in the east coast region of Malaysia. Adopting a posi...

  10. Beyond the Product – Enabling design services in small and medium sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Eneberg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    While the design industry is moving into new domains, it seems that potential customers do not always understand how the designer can contribute beyond the aesthetically appealing product. The overall purpose of this thesis is to expand our understanding of design as an enabling service in the context of small and medium sized enterprises. Enabling design services have the potential to result in organizational learning and change. The co-creation of new knowledge and competencies can in turn ...

  11. CHOOSE: Towards a Metamodel for Enterprise Architecture in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Bernaert, Maxime; Poels, Geert; Snoeck, Monique; De Backer, Manu

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise architecture (EA) is a coherent whole of principles, methods, and models that are used in the design and realization of an enterprise’s organizational structure, business processes, information systems, and IT infrastructure. Recent research indicates the need for EA in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), important drivers of the economy, as they struggle with problems related to a lack of structure and overview of their business. However, existing EA frameworks are perceive...

  12. Inter-firm networking propensity in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongolo-Bakenda, Jean-Marie

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, market globalization has not only been a threat for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but also an opportunity to expand their activities in many countries (Murphy and al., 1991). In fact, some of SMEs are worldwide leaders in their sectors (Simon, 1990; Entreprise, 1995). Moreover, few of these worldwide SME leaders started businesses directly on an international level (Christensen, 1991; Brush, 1992; McDougall and al., 1994). This suggests that these SMEs use man...

  13. The ownership-performance puzzle: agency issues in small and medium-sized family firms

    OpenAIRE

    STEIJVERS, Tensie; Voordeckers, Wim; VANDEMAELE, Sigrid

    2007-01-01

    1. The purpose / topic of the research During the last decade, the discussion about the relationship between ownership structure and performance has seen important evolutions on a theoretical as well as empirical level. Especially family ownership in public firms drew the attention of researchers. In this paper, we explore the relationship between family ownership and financial performance for small and medium-sized private family firms and extend the results by recent studies of Anderson...

  14. Process improvement and organisational learning: evidence from engineering-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Rupert Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Process improvement has been identified as a central topic of operations management, being relevant to the different functional areas and assisting in providing the benefits operations management aims to realise. While extensive research has been conducted on specific process improvement methodologies, high resource requirement of specific process improvement methodologies make them inappropriate for many Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Compared to specific improvement methodologie...

  15. Adaptability of the internal business environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Misunova Hudakova, Ivana; Misun, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Companies that are exposed to an uncertain changing business environment must be able to adapt and change in order to achieve some compliance with the subject of business carried out and the objectives with the ambient conditions. Also these conditions can be a source of threats for small and medium-sized enterprises. In this context, we emphasize the adaptability of the enterprise. It is the active joining of resolving the conflict between the business entity and its environment. Signs of th...

  16. Regional context of small and medium-sized enterprises' development. case study of southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The paper verifies the existence of relations between development of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the particular factors of regional environment as well as demographic parameters of entrepreneurs and their enterprises. SMEs localized in Southern Poland in accordance with NUTS -1 nomenclature, which is made of two voivodeships: Lesser Poland (Małopolska) and Silesia (Śląsk), are research subjects. The main aim of the research is indication factors of regional environment which...

  17. Impact of Female Leadership on Employee engagement in German small and medium-sized Family Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Rittinger, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Due to the demographic change, German small and medium-sized family companies lack skilled employees. As a high level of employee engagement (EE) can help retaining skilled employees, engaging leaders are needed. The aim of this thesis was to analyse, if women are able to have a positive impact on employee engagement due to their leadership style. Qualitative theoretic information was gathered from academic literature. Latest professional journals and studies were used to give an insight ...

  18. An assessment of selected family business values in small and medium-sized family businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Merwe, S.P.; Venter, E.; Farrington, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the influence of selected business family values on the success of small and medium-sized family businesses. Success, for the purpose of this study, is measured using two variables, namely Harmonious family relationships and Perceived future continuity. The primary objective of this study is twofold: firstly, to identify the potential influence of selected business family values on the success of family businesses and secondly, to make practical recommendations on action...

  19. European Health Claims for Small and Medium-Sized Companies – Utopian Dream or Future Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Brandenburger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In December 2007, the European Regulation (EC 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims came into force. The European Union wanted to regulate the use of health claims on products. An online survey was carried out to evaluate the situation, particularly of small and medium-sized companies, dealing with the new regulation. Methods: The online survey on health claims was conducted with 16 enterprises. To underline the findings a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats analysis was made of the nutrition and health claims regulation regarding small and medium-sized companies in the European food and drink market. Results: The findings of this study indicated that the European Union did a step in the right direction. Most companies defined the decent competition, the simplified trade within the inner-European market, and the consumer protection as positive aspects. The biggest threat is seen in false investment conditioned by the limited research and development budgets, especially of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the cost intensive scientific evaluation to reach an authorized health claim. Conclusions: Overall, there are several strengths and opportunities speaking for SMEs and health claims in the near future. The most promising ones are the publishing of the new European Union Register of Nutrition and Health Claims and the learning effects that will occur. The biggest threat is, and will remain to be, false investment and the possible loss of a lot of money. Nevertheless, health claims for small and medium-sized enterprises will inevitably be the future to keep the European food and drink market competitive.

  20. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial versions of CANDU reactors were put into service starting more than 25 years ago. The first unit of Ontario Hydro's Pickering A station was put into service in 1971, and Bruce A in 1977. Most CANDU reactors, however, are only now approaching their mid-life of 15 to 20 years of operation. In particular, the first series of CANDU 6 plants which entered service in the early 1980's were designed for a 30 year life and are now approaching mid life. The current CANDU 6 design is based on a 40 year life as a result of advancement in design and materials through research and development. In order to assure safe and economic operation of these reactors, a comprehensive CANDU Plant Life Management (PLIM) program is being developed from the knowledge gained during the operation of Ontario Hydro's Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington stations, worldwide information from CANDU 6 stations, CANDU research and development programs, and other national and international sources. This integration began its first phase in 1994, with the identification of most of the critical systems structures and components in these stations, and a preliminary assessment of degradation and mechanisms that could affect their fitness for service for their planned life. Most of these preliminary assessments are now complete, together with the production of the first iteration of Life Management Plans for several of the systems and components. The Generic CANDU 6 PLIM program is now reaching its maturity, with formal processes to systematically identify and evaluate the major CSSCs in the station, and a plan to ensure that the plant surveillance, operation, and maintenance programs monitor and control component degradation well within the original design specifications essential for the plant life attainment. A Technology Watch program is being established to ensure that degradation mechanisms which could impact on plant life are promptly investigated and mitigating programs established. The

  1. Cobalt-60 production in CANDU power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology for cobalt-60 production in CANDU reactors, designed and developed by MDS Nordion and AECL, has been safely,economically and successfully employed in CANDU reactors with over 195 reactor years of production. Today over forty percent of the world's disposable medical supplies are made safer through sterilization using cobalt-60 sources from MDS Nordion. Over the past 40 years, MDS Nordion with its CANDU reactor owner partners, has safely and reliably shipped more than 500 million curies of cobalt-60 sources to customers around the world

  2. The Creation of Small and Medium-Sized Sport Enterprises and the Environmental Factors Affecting It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Azimzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are very basic solutions for the development of a country; therefore, it is important to understand the factors involved in their creation. Hence, this study sought to examine the relationship between environmental factors and creation of Small and medium-sized sport enterprises. The research population was small and medium-sized sport enterprises (1500 companies; their owners / managers were selected as the research sample (n = 258 by simple random sampling. Data were gathered using environmental factors (α=0.77 and enterprises creation qualification (α=0.81 questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation coefficient, Kolmogrof - Smirnov test, and multivariate regression analysis with SPSS16 software was used for data analysis. The results showed that in addition to positive and significant relationship with business, environmental factors could predict 6% of the creation variance; Also, except for the political dimension, all environmental aspects established a significant relationship with enterprise creation( p<0.01. Regression analysis showed that of environmental dimensions, economics and technology dimensions could explain 7 percent of Sports enterprise creation variance. According to path analysis method, this prediction ability is presented in a model. The findings suggested a diminished role of environment and its dimensions in explaining the process of SMEs creation.

  3. Consultant-Client Relationship and Knowledge Transfer in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises Change Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis F; Ferreira, Aristides I; Can, Amina B

    2016-04-01

    Based on Szulanski's knowledge transfer model, this study examined how the communicational, motivational, and sharing of understanding variables influenced knowledge transfer and change processes in small- and medium-sized enterprises, particularly under projects developed by funded programs. The sample comprised 144 entrepreneurs, mostly male (65.3%) and mostly ages 35 to 45 years (40.3%), who filled an online questionnaire measuring the variables of "sharing of understanding," "motivation," "communication encoding competencies," "source credibility," "knowledge transfer," and "organizational change." Data were collected between 2011 and 2012 and measured the relationship between clients and consultants working in a Portuguese small- and medium-sized enterprise-oriented action learning program. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the antecedents of sharing of understanding, motivational, and communicational variables, which were positively correlated with the knowledge transfer between consultants and clients. This transfer was also positively correlated with organizational change. Overall, the study provides important considerations for practitioners and academicians and establishes new avenues for future studies concerning the issues of consultant-client relationship and the efficacy of Government-funded programs designed to improve performance of small- and medium-sized enterprises. PMID:27154382

  4. Paths to Knowledge Management in Small and Medium-Sized Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mik Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate what path options can facilitate small and medium-sized hotels’ knowledge management? And how the options are realised by them? In order to answer these questions, this study undertook an empirical investigation into the current status and practice of knowledge management in small and medium-sized hotels. The empirical investigation was performed through thirteen face-to-face in-depth interviews with owners and managers in small and medium-sized hotels. While the interview method is selected so as to answer the questions, secondary data are utilised to support this study such as in defining the research questions and informing the study findings. This study observed that there were four broad approaches to the way in which hotels put their paths to knowledge management. Each type of the paths is named as: Match, Combination, Divergence, and Specialisation. As arguably, knowledge management is both part of the cost of doing business and the most likely source of competitive advantage, it is as important to the sole operator as to the large corporation. By understanding the different options, hotels will be able to make better decisions in the choice of their suitable paths to knowledge management.

  5. The role of independent intermediaries. The case of small and medium-sized exporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed; Moen, Øystein; Hammervold, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control and parti......The article examines how small and medium-sized exporters collaborate with intermediaries in foreign markets by studying the level of control, i.e. the delegation of decisions rights and task solution. It goes one step further than previous research, since it examines degrees of control...... and participation rather than just discrete types of intermediary modes (agents, importers, dealers, etc.). Associations with performance as well as the role of product and distributor characteristics are analyzed. Empirical data based on a sample of product-market ventures in 227 small and medium-sized Norwegian...... export firms are analysed by a structural equation modelling approach. The article provides empirical evidence that managers keep control of decision making to an extent that may have a negative impact on export performance. The empirical study indicates that firms should participate more in task...

  6. A meta-analysis of different HR-enhancing practices and performance of small and medium sized firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, Andreas; Hatak, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    The role of human capital has received considerable attention in research on small and medium sized firms. However, much uncertainty remains as to how practices that enhance human resources (HR) affect the performance of small and medium sized firms, whether some practices have stronger effects than

  7. Development of the management system for support of small and medium-sized entrepreneurship at the interregional level

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Kolpakidi

    2013-01-01

    Currently, there are several regulatory documents defining the strategy of development of small and medium-sized entrepreneurship in the regions of Russia. In the Siberian Federal District (SFD) such document is the Strategy of the socio-economic development of Siberia until 2020. At the regional level all subjects of the SFD have programs of development of small and medium businesses. Thereby, existing management system for support of small and medium-sized entrepreneurship includes three le...

  8. Future fuel cycle development for CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor has proven to be safe and economical and has demonstrated outstanding performance with natural uranium fuel. The use of on-power fuelling, coupled with excellent neutron economy, leads to a very flexible reactor system with can utilize a wide variety of fuels. The spectrum of fuel cycles ranges from natural uranium, through slightly enriched uranium, to plutonium and ultimately thorium fuels which offer many of the advantages of the fast breeder reactor system. CANDU can also burn the recycled uranium and/or the plutonium from fuel discharged from light water reactors. This synergistic relationship could obviate the need to re-enrich the reprocessed uranium and allow a simpler reprocessing scheme. Fule management strategies that will permit future fuel cycles to be used in existing CANDU reactors have been identified. Evolutionary design changes will lead to an even greater flexibility, which will guarantee the continued success of the CANDU system. (author)

  9. Operational Risk Assessment and Management in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorija Stasytytė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern organizations have raised a need to actively and quickly react to the changes in external business environment, as well as in internal processes considering not only the present situation, but also evaluating possible changes and forecasting the future. Enterprise risk assessment and management, which is strongly related with foreseeing the uncertain future, becomes topical not only scientifically, but also practically seeking to reveal new and unique solutions. Operational risk management in small and medium enterprises, creating the largest part of value added in the whole European Union, demands a separate attention and coordinated decisions and means. The objective of the paper – to analyse the process of enterprise risk management in small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as to propose adequate risk management solutions for these companies. After performing a research, it was found out that small and medium enterprises more than big organizations require a risk management strategy and methodology, need to distinguish activity objectives and events influencing them, and they can efficiently apply a risk portfolio method to manage risk. In small and medium enterprises it is recommended to incorporate a risk management system based on COSO ERM model that can be modified depending on company needs and possibilities, turning it into less formal and structured and easily applicable.

  10. Age-related decline in metabolic competence of small and medium-sized synaptic mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Giorgetti, Belinda; Spazzafumo, Liana; Solazzi, Moreno; Balietti, Marta

    2005-02-01

    A computer-assisted morphometric investigation of cytochrome oxidase (COX) activity, selectively evidenced by preferential diaminobenzidine cytochemistry, has been carried out on synaptic mitochondria in the cerebellar cortex of adult and old rats. The ratio (R) of the area of the cytochemical precipitate (CPA) to the overall area of each mitochondrion (MA) was calculated. R refers to the fraction of the inner mitochondrial membrane actively involved in cellular respiration, thus its quantitative estimation constitutes a reliable index of the mitochondrial metabolic competence (MMC). In adult rats a significant negative correlation between MA and R values was found, while in old animals there was just a positive trend. Paired-quartile comparisons of R values showed a significant age-related decrease in small and medium-sized mitochondria, whereas the lowest and not significant age-related reduction was found in oversized organelles. A paired decrease in number and increase in size is reported to be a general trend for mitochondria during aging, but oversized organelles, according to their low R value, constitute a scanty, though functional, compensating reaction. Thus, the present findings support the argument that the currently reported age-related cellular metabolic decay appears to rely both on the decline in MMC of the small and medium-sized mitochondria, and on their specific reduction in number. This novel result is of biological relevance since it is largely the small and medium-sized mitochondria that are required for the provision of adequate amounts of ATP for actual cellular performance, while the significantly enlarged organelles are thought to represent an intermediate ultrastructural feature in mitochondrial genesis and/or remodelling.

  11. The third generation CANDU control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In CANDU stations, as in most complex industrial plants, the man/machine interface design has progressed through three generations. First Generation control rooms consisted entirely on fixed, discrete components (handswitches, indicator lights, strip chart, recorder, annunciator windows, etc.). Human factors input was based on intuitive common sense factors which varied considerably from one designer to another. Second Generation control rooms incorporated video display units and keyboards in the control panels. Computer information processing and display are utilized. There is systematic application of human factors through ergonomic and anthropometric standards and cookbooks. The human factors are applied mainly to the physical layout of the control panels and the physical manipulation performed by the operators. Third Generation control rooms exploit the dramatic performance/cost improvements in computer, electronic display and communication technologies of the 1980's. Further applications of human factors address the cognitive aspects of operator performance. At AECL, second generation control rooms were installed on CANDU stations designed in the mid 70s and early 80s. Third generation features will be incorporated in the CANDU 3 station design and future CANDU stations. There have been significant improvements in the man/machine interface in CANDU stations over the past three decades. The continuing rapid technological developments in computers and electronics coupled with an increasing understanding and application of human factors principles is leading to further enhancements. This paper outlines progress achieved in earlier stations and highlights the features of the CANDU 3rd generation control room. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  12. Drift effects in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion equation is an approximation to the transport equation which relies on the validity of Fick's law. Since this law is not explicitly integrated in the transport equation it can only be derived approximately using homogenization theories. However, such homogenization theories state that when the cell is not symmetric Fick's law breaks down due to the presence of an additional term to the neutron current, called the drift term. In fact, this term can be interpreted as a transport correction to Fick's law which tends to increase the neutron current in a direction opposite to that specified by the flux gradient. In this paper, we investigate how the presence of asymmetric liquid zone controllers will modify the flux distribution inside a CANDU core. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Current information technology needs of small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimple, C., LLNL

    1998-04-01

    This report documents recent efforts of the American Textile Partnership (AMTEX{sup TM}) Demand Activated Manufacturing Architecture (DAMA) Project to identify opportunities for cost effective enhanced information technology use by small to medium sized apparel manufacturers and contractors. Background on the AMTEX/DAMA project and objectives for the specific DAMA Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) effort are discussed in this section. The approach used to gather information about current opportunities or needs is outlined in Section 2 Approach, and relevant findings are identified and a brief analysis of the information gathered is presented in Section 3 Findings. Recommendations based on the analysis, are offered in Section 4 Recommendations, and plans are suggested for DAMA follow-on in Section 5 Future Plans. Trip reports for each of the companies visited are contained in Appendix E - Company Trip Reports. These individual reports contain the data upon which the analysis presented in Section 3 Findings is based.

  14. Mitigating aging in CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging degradation is a phenomenon we all experience throughout life, both on a personal basis and in business. Many industries have been successful in postponing the inevitable impact on their related systems and components through programs to maintain long-term reliability, maintainability and safety. However, this has not always been the case for nuclear power. While all power plants are experiencing the world trend of increasing operating costs with age, few (if any) have been able to fully define the parameters that solve the aging equation, particularly in relation to major components. Inspection and preventive maintenance have not been effective in predicting life-limiting degradation and failure. In CANDU nuclear plants, utilities are taking a comprehensive approach in dealing with the aging problem. Programs have been established to identify the current condition and degradation mechanisms of critical components, the failure of which would impact negatively on station competitiveness and safety. These include subcomponents under the general headings of reactor components, civil structures, piping (nuclear and conventional), steam generators, turbines and cables. In support of these efforts, R and D projects have been defined under the CANDU Owners Group to deal with generic issues on aging common to its members (e.g., investigation of degradation mechanisms, development of tools and techniques to mitigate the effects of aging, etc.). This paper describes recent developments of this cost-shared program with specific reference to concrete aging and crack repairs, flow-assisted corrosion in piping, elastomer service life, cable aging, degradation mechanisms in steam generators and lubricant breakdown. (author)

  15. Absorber materials in CANDU PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a CANDU reactor the fuel channels are arranged on a square lattice in a calandria filled with heavy water moderator. This arrangement allows five types of tubular neutron absorber devices to be located in the relatively benign environment of low pressure, low temperature heavy water between neighbouring rows or columns of fuel channels. This paper will describe the roles of the devices and outline the design requirements of the absorber component from a reactor physics viewpoint. Nuclear heating and activation problems associated with the different absorbers will be briefly discussed. The design and manufacture of the devices will be also discussed. The control rod absorbers and shut off materials are cadmium and stainless steel. In the tubular arrangement, the cadmium is sandwiched between stainless steel tubes. This type of device has functioned well, but there is now concern over the availability and expense of cadmium which is used in two types of CANDU control devices. There are also concerns about the toxicity of cadmium during the fabrication of the absorbers. These concerns are prompting AECL to study alternatives. To minimize design changes, pure boron-10 alloyed in stainless steel is a favoured option. Work is underway to confirm the suitability of the boron-loaded steel and identify other encapsulated absorber materials for practical application. Because the reactivity devices or their guide tubes span the calandria vessel, the long slender components must be sufficiently rigid to resist operational vibration and also be seismically stable. Some of these components are made of Zircaloy to minimize neutron absorption. Slow irradiation growth and creep can reduce the spring tension, and periodic adjustments to the springs are required. Experience with the control absorber devices has generally been good. In one instance liquid zone controllers had a problem of vibration induced fretting but a redesigned back-fit resolved the problem. (author). 3 refs, 8

  16. Monte Carlo comparison of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Jogler, T; Dumm, J

    2013-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is a future very high energy gamma-ray observatory. CTA will be comprised of small-,medium- and large-size telescopes covering an energy range from tens of GeV to hundreds of TeV and will surpass existing telescopes in sensitivity by an order of magnitude. The aim of our study is to find the optimal design for the medium-size telescopes (MSTs), which will determine the sensitivity in the key energy range between a few hundred GeV to about ten TeV. To study the effect of the telescope design parameters on the array performance, we simulated arrays of 61 MSTs with 120 m spacing and a variety of telescope configurations. We investigated the influence of the primary telescope characteristics including optical resolution, pixel size, and light collection area on the total array performance with a particular emphasis on telescope configurations with imaging performance similar to the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) MST designs. We compare the performance...

  17. Use of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Adamczak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing competitiveness in the market, customer expectations related to the shortening of the deadlines and the reduction of prices of products and services force companies to improve the efficiency of internal processes. The integration of planning process is one of possible ways to achieve this aim. The integration of planning processes by the use of SOP model (Sales and Operations Planning is a method to implement this idea. The study allowed to identify ways to implement the process of sales and operations planning in small and medium-sized enterprises. Material and methods: The study was conducted in companies from different industries. The research method was in-depth interviews conducted with managers of companies or persons occupying management positions in the organizational process of implementing sales and operations planning. Results: During the survey, 10 companies were asked about the use of sales and operations planning, its elements and organizational aspects of its development, by the company. Conclusions: The use of sales and operations plan is closely dependent on the size of the company and its localization in the supply chain. Small enterprises are not interested in the integration of the planning process due to the small scale of operations and the centralization of decision-making process. Medium-sized enterprises, due to the increased complexity of the processes of planning, see the benefits of their integration in the SOP model.

  18. Butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty: An alternative approach for management of small- and medium-sized perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar Maurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty for small- and medium-sized central perforations and compare it with temporalis fascia tympanoplasty. Materials and Methods: A prospective, comparative study was conducted on 110 patients, divided into two groups. Patients of tubotympanic type of chronic suppurative otitis media with 2–6 mm size perforation were included in the study. Fifty-five patients were operated by temporalis fascia Type I tympanoplasty and rest 55 by butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty (transcanal technique under local anesthesia. Results were compared in terms of pre- and post-operative air-bone gap improvement and success rates. Results: In our study, in terms of outcomes, both techniques had similar results. The success rate was 93.7% in butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty and 96.3% in temporalis fascia group. However, in terms of time taken, butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty took less time (about 30 min than temporalis fascia (about 55 min. Conclusion: Transcanal butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty is a very good alternative in small- and medium-sized perforations for conventional temporalis fascia tympanoplasty as it is simple, takes less time, day care procedure, on table hearing improvement, cosmetically no postoperative scar, no need of post aural preparation, and patient can go home within hours.

  19. Different ways to organize the processes of financial administration : a field study of medium-sized Finnish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nummela, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This research concentrates on exploring the ways how financial administration is currently organized in medium-sized companies in Finland. Decentralization, centralization and outsourcing are options that are available to different-sized companies. The study was executed as a field study in seven medium-sized Finnish companies that represent different branches. Furthermore, the research method was qualitative theme interview. As large companies have already established their financial service...

  20. Bivariate Probit Models for Analysing how “Knowledge” Affects Innovation and Performance in Small and Medium Sized Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Salvatore; Mazzotta, Fernanda

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of innovation and its effects on small- and medium-sized firms We use the data from the OPIS databank, which provides a survey on a representative sample of firms from a province of the Southern Italy. We want to study whether small and medium sized firms can have a competitive advantage using their innovative capabilities, regardless of their sectoral and size limits. The main factor influencing the likelihood of innovation is knowledge, which is acquired...

  1. [Application of health questionnaires for health management in small- and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, K; Saito, M; Hasegawa, T; Aoki, S; Suzuki, S

    1986-01-01

    Two kinds of health questionnaires, the Todai Health Index (THI) and Cumulative Fatigue Index (CFI), were applied as a screening device for health management of workers belonging to small-medium sized enterprises. A total of 495 workers composed of 452 male workers of a glass-bottle manufacturing factory and 43 male workers of a soft-drink bottling factory were the subjects of the present study. It was found that the two kinds of health questionnaires were different from each other and have their own characteristics. Twelve scales of THI were grouped into two, the first consisting of ten scales (SUSY, RESP, EYSK, MOUT, DIGE, IMPU, MENT, DEPR, NERV, and LIFE) and the second consisting of two scales (AGGR and LISC). Nine categories of CFI were grouped into one by using principal factor analysis. It was confirmed that the twelve scale scores of THI obtained at small-medium sized factories differed from those scale scores of a reference group investigated at a large-sized enterprise. It is on the basis of the scales of aggressiveness and lies and also of the scale of mental unstability which characterizes workers, locality, job (clerical or field work), and size of industry (large or small sized) that the difference could be evaluated. Urban life characterized by a life style of staying up late at night and waking up late in the morning has been reflected on the scale of life irregularity. Irregularity of life induced by transformation of working schedule, such as two or three shifts of work and overtime, was also reflected on this scale. Two scales of THI test, i.e., many subjective symptoms and digestive organ complaints, seemed to be the representative scales indicating a close relation between work load and health level. The discriminant score for diagnosis of psychosomatic diseases is considered to be one of the most useful assessments of the individual's health condition. As mentioned above, THI is recommended as a convenient assessment method for health

  2. Design of an interdisciplinary engineering elective scoped around collaboration with Small Medium Sized enterprises (SME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ulrich, Mai-Mai; Pontoppidan, Maja Lund

    2014-01-01

    solving? Do the interdisciplinary teams add value for the SME? The elective SME Innovation and Intrapreneurship has been developed by DTU Diplom a department of the Technical University of Denmark. The department is mainly responsible for the education of the degree Bachelor of Engineering which is a 3...... a real life setting elective course, involving small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in engineering education. How do you engage with companies without compromising the learning outcome? How you manage the expectation from the companies and still maintaining the student responsibility for the problem...

  3. FINANCING OF FIXED ASSET INVESTMENT IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Geruzel-Dudzińska

    2016-01-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy, creates, because a significant part of GDP, provides employment to many millions of people. One of the main barriers to the development of these enterprises, not only in Poland but also in EU countries, is the scarcity of equity and the difficulty in obtaining external sources of financing. It is not just about lack of funds to finance current operations, but also, and perhaps above all, lack of investment in fixed asse...

  4. Adoption of COBIT5 and ITIL in Small and Medium Size Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chao; Zhang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the adoption of COBIT5 and ITIL used as the frameworks for IT governance (ITG) in Chinese Small and Medium Size Enterprises(SMEs). With the implementation of IT governance, the IT will be fully used to promote the core business of the enterprise and the risk and investments of IT will be balanced. To achieve the purpose of this thesis, questionnaire and mail survey are used as the method for research. We received 140 responds from the Chinese SMEs and these data are u...

  5. Financing Swedish Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Methods, Problems and Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeedan, Adli

    2003-01-01

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) are the seeds for a vital entrepreneurial economy. The Swedish SMEs, in particular, are very important for the future development of the Baltic Region. Financing these firms is an issue of great significance and a subject to care for. In this paper, we looked at established financing methods for Swedish SMEs. We also analyzed the impact of these methods on firm survivability using the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The SIV model is a new tool to ev...

  6. Energy coservation status and needs: medium-sized commercial/industrial firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The potential for conserving energy by Seattle City Light's commercial/industrial customers is investigated. The results of the study will help SCL and others to provide energy- and money-saving help to their medium-sized business customers. Fifty in-person interviews of firms within the SCL area and 102 mailed questionnaires from customers outside the area in Washington and Oregon were analyzed. Researchers found that many steps requiring little cost have been implemented, but instituting further hard conservation measures such as new machinery, retrofitting, or changes in machine operations are lacking. (MCW)

  7. Research on Dynamic Distributed Computing System for Small and Medium-Sized Computer Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Le Kang; Jianliang Xu; Feng Liu

    2012-01-01

      Distributed computing system is a science by which a complex task that need for large amount of computation can be divided into small pieces and calculated by more than one computer,and we can get the final result according to results from each computer.This paper considers a distributed computing system running in the small and medium-sized computer clusters to solve the problem that single computer has a low efficiency,and improve the efficiency of large-scale computing.The experiments show that the system can effectively improve the efficiency and it is a viable program.

  8. Money and Mental Wellbeing: A Longitudinal Study of Medium-Sized Lottery Wins

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Jonathan; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the famous questions in social science is whether money makes people happy. We offer new evidence by using longitudinal data on a random sample of Britons who receive medium-sized lottery wins of between £1000 and £120,000 (that is, up to approximately U.S. $200,000). When compared to two control groups — one with no wins and the other with small wins — these individuals go on eventually to exhibit significantly better psychological health. Two years after a lottery win, th...

  9. Theoretical exploration of pump and probe in medium-sized Na clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate pump and probe dynamics in simple metal clusters of medium size. Test cases are Na9+ and Na41+. The initial pulse ionizes the cluster and excites ionic motion by a sudden increase of Coulomb pressure. The subsequent ionic breathing motion can be directly mapped by the probe pulses if the analysing frequency stays sufficiently below the plasmon resonance peak at all times. Pump and probe experiments could thus provide direct access to ionic dynamics in electronically excited metal clusters, in the spirit of pump and probe experiments on small molecules. (author)

  10. Financial Management Challenges In Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Strategic Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Karadag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :Due to their significant role in creation of new jobs, rise in GDP, entrepreneurship and innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are recognized as the the drivers of socio-economic growth, both in developed and developing economies. In Turkey, 99.9 % of all enterprises fall into SME category. Therefore, the significance of SMEs for Turkish economy and society is much higher in Turkey, compared to other emerging and developed countries. Small and medium-sized companies are faced with a number of challenges whereas the problems arising from “poor financial management” are reported as the major causes of business failures in SMEs. Strategic financial management (SFM which is a research area that has attracted the interest of researchers after 2010, is one of the key managerial areas of SMEs, due to its vital role on the survival, growth and performance of SMEs. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the central role of financial management and identify the financial management challenges and practices that influence the organizational performance in Turkish SMEs, from a strategic management perspective. Within the course of this paper, the importance and challenges of SMEs in Turkey are presented in the first section, while the literature on strategic and financial management in SMEs are reviewed in the second part. In the third section, the recent strategic financial management concept, the implications of strategic financial management practices for SMEs in Turkey and the relationships between strategic financial management practices and SME performance, are discussed. Small and medium sized enterprise finance in Turkey is a developing research area, therefore this paper aims to make a significant contribution to the existing literature by analyzing the major challenges at the conduct of financial management in Turkish SMEs and the influence of strategic financial management practices on the performances of small and

  11. Relationship banking in Finnish small and medium-sized enterprise M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Lassi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to show whether Finnish small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) that are involved in M&A are provided bank financing with different terms than other SMEs. Another aspect is to study the rofitability of these SME M&A customers comparing them to other SME customers. Since an M&A occasion is typically a point of irregularity in the continuum of a firm’s ifecycle, firms might be willing to change their main bank at the same time. Thus, banks could have an incentive ...

  12. Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Hong Nhat

    2007-01-01

    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process ha...

  13. A Pointing Solution for the Medium Size Telescopes for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Tiziani, D; Oakes, L; Schwanke, U

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of the calibration of the Cherenkov Telescope Array is the pointing, which enables an exact alignment of each telescope and therefore allows to transform a position in the sky to a point in the plane of the Cherenkov camera and vice versa. The favoured approach for the pointing calibration of the medium size telescopes (MST) is the installation of an optical CCD-camera in the dish of the telescope that captures the position of the Cherenkov camera and of the stars in the night sky simultaneously during data taking. The adaption of this approach is presented in this proceeding.

  14. Implementing or updating ISO 9001 for small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Röyttä, Juuso

    2016-01-01

    ISO 9001 standard sets the requirements for quality management system. There were one million certified companies in the world in 2014 for ISO 9001. In September 2015, ISO organization published a new revision for ISO 9001. With the new revision, companies in the world have three year transition time starting from September 2015. The objective of my thesis is find out what the small and medium-sized companies need to do to get certified for the new ISO 9001:2015 standard. To find out thi...

  15. Integrated Foreign Exchange Risk Management: The Role of Import in Medium-Sized, Manufacturing Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Høg, Esben; Kuhn, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research has focused on export as a proxy for exchange rate exposure and the use of foreign exchange derivatives as an instrument to deal with this exposure. This empirical study applies an integrated foreign exchange risk management approach with a particular focus on the role of import...... in medium-sized manufacturing firms in Denmark (a small, open economy). We find a strong, negative relation between import and the use of foreign exchange derivatives on the aggregate level. Our findings are consistent with the notion that firms use import to match the foreign exchange exposure created...

  16. Search for global minimum geometries for medium sized germanium clusters: Ge12-Ge20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, S.; Yoo, S.; Zeng, X. C.

    2005-04-01

    We have performed an unbiased search for the global minimum geometries of small-to-medium sized germanium clusters Gen(12⩽n⩽18) as well as a biased search (using seeding method) for Gen(17⩽n⩽20). We employed the basin-hopping algorithm coupled with the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional calculations. For each size, we started the unbiased search with using several structurally very different initial clusters, or we started the biased search with three different seeds. Irrespective of the initial structures of clusters we found that the obtained lowest-energy clusters of the size n =12-16 and 18 are the same. Among them, the predicted global minima of Gen(12⩽n⩽16) are identical to those reported previously [Shvartsburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 167 (1999)]. For n =17-20, we have identified two or three nearly isoenergetic low-lying isomers (for each size) that compete for the global minimum. Nearly all the low-lying clusters in the size range of 12⩽n⩽20 contain the tri-caped trigonal prism motif and are all prolate in geometry, in agreement with the experiment.

  17. Search for global minimum geometries for medium sized germanium clusters: Ge12-Ge20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, S; Yoo, S; Zeng, X C

    2005-04-22

    We have performed an unbiased search for the global minimum geometries of small-to-medium sized germanium clusters Gen(12< or =n< or =18) as well as a biased search (using seeding method) for Gen(17< or =n< or =20). We employed the basin-hopping algorithm coupled with the plane-wave pseudopotential density functional calculations. For each size, we started the unbiased search with using several structurally very different initial clusters, or we started the biased search with three different seeds. Irrespective of the initial structures of clusters we found that the obtained lowest-energy clusters of the size n=12-16 and 18 are the same. Among them, the predicted global minima of Gen(12< or =n< or =16) are identical to those reported previously [Shvartsburg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 167 (1999)]. For n=17-20, we have identified two or three nearly isoenergetic low-lying isomers (for each size) that compete for the global minimum. Nearly all the low-lying clusters in the size range of 12< or =n< or =20 contain the tri-caped trigonal prism motif and are all prolate in geometry, in agreement with the experiment.

  18. Assessment of RELAP5/CANDU+ code for regulatory auditing analysis of CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Hho Jung; Yang, Chae Yong

    2001-12-15

    The objectives of this study are to undertake the verification and validation of RELAP5/CANDU+ code, which is developed in this project, by simulating the B8711 test of RD-14 facility, and to examine the properties of this code by doing the sensitivity analysis for experimental prediction modes about thermal-hydraulics phenomena in CANDU reactor systems added to this code. The B8711 test was an experiment of a 45% ROH break for simulating large LOCA. Also, in this study, the methods for making input cards related to CANDU options are described, so that some users can use the RELAP5/CANDU+ code with easy. RELAP/CANDU+ code can choose the options of Henry-Fauske mode, Ransom-Trapp model, and Moody model for prediction of the critical mass flow. It is examined that Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model are considered properly, but Moody model is still required to be improved. Heat transfer correlations available in RELAP5/CANDU+ code for CANDU-type reactors are a horizontal stratified model, a fuel heat-up model and D2O/H2O CHF correlations, and these models take an important role to improve the predictability of the experimental procedures. It is concluded that RELAP5/CANDU+ code is useful for the auditing of the accident analysis of CANDU reactors, and the results of the sensitivity analysis for thermal-hydraulic models examined in this study are valuable for the actual auditing of real CANDU-type power plants.

  19. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  20. Feasibility study of CANDU-9 fuel handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU's combination of natural uranium, heavy water and on-power refuelling is unique in its design and remarkable for reliable power production. In order to offer more output, better site utilization, shorter construction time, improved station layout, safety enhancements and better control panel layout, CANDU-9 is now under development with design improvement added to all proven CANDU advantages or applicable technologies. One of its major improvement has been applied to fuel handling system. This system is very similar to that of CANDU-3, and some parts of the system are applied to those of the existing CANDU-6 or CANDU-9. Design concepts and design requirements of fuel handling system for CANDU-9 have been identified to compare with those of the existing CANDU and the design feasibilities have been evaluated. (author). 4 tabs., 13 figs., 9 refs

  1. NectarCAM, a camera for the medium sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F

    2016-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) which covers the core energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The expected performance of the camera are discussed. Prototypes of NectarCAM components have been built to validate the design. Preliminary results of a 19-module mini-camera are presented, as well as future plans for building and testing a full size camera.

  2. Development of a Simplified Process Integration Methodology for application in Medium-Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergamini, Riccardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Bühler, Fabian;

    2016-01-01

    Achieving significant energy savings is fundamental for reaching the ambitious EU 20-20-20 environmental targets. Several methodologies based on the Pinch concept have proved to be highly effective for identifying and assessing energy savings possibilities in the industrial sector. However, saving...... opportunities may be missed in the case of medium-size industries. Applying these methods may indeed be costly and time consuming,as it can require large engineering efforts, e.g., for data acquisition.This paper presents a methodology based on process integration techniques, termed "Specific Savings......Potential method" (SSP), to depict and promote energy savings in intermediate-size industries for plant retrofit. It builds on the idea that only few of the process streams in a factory should be considered for efficiency measures implementation with regards to economic and operational aspects. Three screening...

  3. Status of the Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), is an international project for the next generation ground- based observatory for gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range from 20 GeV to 300 TeV. The sensitivity in the core energy range will be dominated by up to 40 Medium-Sized Telescopes (MSTs). The MSTs, of Davies-Cotton type with a 12 m diameter reflector are currently in the prototype phase. A full-size mechanical telescope structure has been assembled in Berlin. The telescope is partially equipped with different mirror prototypes, which are currently being tested and evaluated for performances characteristics. A report concentrating on the details of the tele- scope structure, the drive assemblies and the optics of the MST prototype will be given.

  4. Actuator Development at IAAT for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Diebold, S; Pühlhofer, G; Renner, S; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Tenzer, C

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be the future observatory for TeV gamma-ray astronomy. In order to increase the sensitivity and to extend the energy coverage beyond the capabilities of current facilities, its design concept features telescopes of three different size classes. Based on the experience from H.E.S.S. phase II, the Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics T\\"ubingen (IAAT) develops actuators for the mirror control system of the CTA Medium Size Telescopes (MSTs). The goals of this effort are durability, high precision, and mechanical stability under all environmental conditions. Up to now, several revisions were developed and the corresponding prototypes were extensively tested. In this contribution our latest design revision proposed for the CTA MSTs are presented.

  5. Status of the Schwarzchild-Couder Medium-Sized Telescope for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Benbow, W

    2016-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is planned to be the next-generation very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observatory. It is anticipated that CTA will improve upon the sensitivity of the current generation of VHE experiments, such as VERITAS, HESS and MAGIC, by an order of magnitude. CTA is planned to consist of two graded arrays of Cherenkov telescopes with three primary-mirror sizes. A proof-of-concept telescope, based on the dual-mirror Schwarzchild-Couder design, is being constructed on the VERITAS site at the F.L. Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona, USA, and is a candidate design for the medium-sized telescopes. The construction of the telescope will be completed in early 2017, and the status of this project is presented here.

  6. Optical bistability in plasmonic nanoparticles: Effect of size, shape and embedding medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshfar, Nader; Foroughi, Hamidreza

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistability, which one input signal allows two possible outputs, from single spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and also nanoshells in the frame work of quasi-static formalism. It is shown that the bistability behavior greatly depends on several parameters such as the nanoparticle size, material and the surrounding dielectric environment. We demonstrated the width of the bistability region and also the bistable threshold depends on the geometrical parameters, and can be tuned by adjusting the size of nanoparticle, the shell thickness and the dielectric constant of the embedding medium. It is also shown that the optical bistable behavior depends strongly on the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and nanoshells. However, these dependences of optical bistability of spherical/cylindrical nanoparticles and nanoshells on changing of their geometrical parameters can be used for realize optical switching and sensing purposes.

  7. Simplified product value measurement framework for small and medium sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parkash

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For Small Medium Sized Enterprises with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for strong and continuously increasing Product Value to reduce business risks and revenue losses and to increase market share and customer satisfaction. To fulfill this need, Product Value Measurement is necessary to characterize the current status and further improvement. It is not easy to obtain the measures about the Product Value because its many features have qualitative characteristics. We need simplified but result oriented systematic framework to measure it while considering the measurement purpose and how to measure and why do it. Methods: How to design this is the main aim of this research paper. In this paper, GQM (Goal-Question-Metric method as a measurement framework is introduced to measure the Product Value for Small Medium Sized Enterprises along with case study to represent that this framework was effective. Results and conclusions: The proposed Model was effective for focusing on the essence of measurement and for avoiding extra excessive data not necessary for doing the effective measurement.

  8. Determinants of Supply and Demand for Trade Credit by Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinê Jordão de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the determinant factors of supply and demand for trade credit by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs, using data collected in a survey of managers from 481 firms in 32 cities in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais (Brazil between 2008 and 2010. The multivariate relationship model proposed here is grounded in trade credit, agency and transaction costs theories. This study is based on a technique known as path analysis that uses a system of simple regressions estimated by simultaneous equations. The main results show the following: (i trade credit and short-term bank loans are supplementary (and not substitute sources of funds for MSMEs, which demonstrates that trade credit can be used by financial institutions as an indicator of the creditworthiness of the company; (ii the proportion of credit sales, the days sales outstanding measure and sales growth are positively related to the amount of trade credit demanded, which suggests that trade credit is transferred along the supply chain; and (iii the supply of trade credit is positively related to the importance that management ascribes to both internal capital and bank credit, which illustrates the strategic use of the supply of trade credit to increase sales. These results have important implications for companies' managers, financial institutions and the government agencies responsible for formulating policies that support and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  9. Safety Analysis for Medium/Small Size Integral Reactor: Evaluation of Safety Characteristics for Small and Medium Integral Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hho jung; Seul, K.W.; Ahn, S.K.; Bang, Y.S.; Park, D.G.; Kim, B.K.; Kim, W.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, W.K.; Shim, T.M.; Choi, H.S.; Ahn, H.J.; Jung, D.W.; Kim, G.I.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The Small and medium integral reactor is developed to be utilized for non-electric areas such as district heating and steam production for desalination and other industrial purposes, and then these applications may typically imply a closeness between the reactor and the user. It requires the reactor to be designed with the adoption of special functional and inherent safety features to ensure and promote a high level of safety and reliability, in comparison with the existing nuclear power plants. The objective of the present study is to establish the bases for the development of regulatory requirements and technical guides to address the special safety characteristics of the small and medium integral reactor. In addition, the study aims to identify and to propose resolutions to the possible safety concerns in the design of the small and medium integral reactor. 34 refs., 20 tabs. (author)

  10. Application of FMEA-methodology for qualitative risk assessment of investment projects of small and medium-sized businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Philipchuk Anton Andreevich; Miroshnikov Vyacheslav Vasil'evich

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors suggest a method for the qualitative analysis of therisks of investment projects of small and medium-sized businesses based on theadaptation of the method of analysis of potential failures and their impact on FMEA.

  11. Innovation Gateways for SMEs: Finding the Formula for Successful Interaction between Universities and Small and Medium-Size Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter T.

    1995-01-01

    The University of Warwick's Breakthrough Technologies program links with small and medium-sized businesses to stimulate awareness of innovations. The Manufacturing Excellence Initiative provides postgraduate training for company staff that focuses on best practices and change management. (SK)

  12. CANDU 9 safety enhancements and licensability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU 9 design has followed the evolutionary product development approach that has characterized the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. In addition to utilizing proven equipment and systems from operating stations, the CANDU 9 design has looked ahead to incorporate design and safety enhancements necessary to meet evolving utility and regulatory requirements both in Canada and overseas. To demonstrate licensability in Canada, and to assure overseas customers that the design had independent regulatory review in the country of origin, the pre-project Basic Engineering Program included an extensive two year formal review by the Canadian regulatory authority, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Documentation submitted for this licensing review included the licensing basis, safety requirements and safety analysis necessary to demonstrate compliance with regulations as well as to assess system design and performance. The licensing review was successfully completed in 1997 January. In addition, to facilitate licensability in Korea, CANDU 9 incorporates feedback from the application of Korean licensing requirements to the CANDU 6 reactors at Wolsong site. (author)

  13. CANDU safety and licensing framework and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Safety is a shared responsibility of the Industry, public and the Government. The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) safety fundamentals, basic objectives and safety guides lay down the principles from which requirements, recommendations and methodologies for safety design of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are derived. Within the framework of the international regulations and those of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), this paper will discuss the overall safety objectives, the defence in depth philosophy guiding CANDU safety, as well as the licensing process defined to meet all applicable CNSC regulations. The application of such philosophy to the ACR design and safety approach will also be discussed along with aspects of its implementation. The role of deterministic analysis, and Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) in the design and licensing process of the Advanced CANDU Reactor will be discussed. Postulated initiating events and their combinations, acceptance criteria, CANDU margins and limits, supporting methodologies and computer codes used in safety analysis will be reviewed. The paper will also note intrinsic safety characteristics of CANDU, some of the ACR passive safety features built-in by design, CANDU distinctive features with respect to severe core damage, mechanisms of heat rejection in those extreme conditions, emergency coolant injection system features and other post accident mitigating systems. Update on the ACR Canadian and US licensing progress will also be provided. (authors)

  14. Purchasing practice in SMEs : Practical impressions about the purchasing activities of small and medium sized enterprises in the manufacturing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulik, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Small and medium sized companies are important to the European economy and considered as the true backbone of the European economy, being primarily responsi-ble for wealth and economic growth. Further, the purchasing function of small and medium sized companies had become more and more important to firms within the creating of competitive advantages. Additional, former research emphasizes the need of companies to engage in closer relationships in order to survive in nowadays business environm...

  15. Experience Reference from the Financial Support Practices for Japan’s Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaozhen Fan

    2009-01-01

    The government-dominant financial system in Japan has exerted significant effects on the reconstruction of economy, the realization of industrial policy goals, and the construction of independent industrial and national economic system after the war. In Japan, the government takes much count of support for small and medium-sized enterprise financing. It establishes a small and medium-sized enterprise financial system that takes non-governmental units as principal parts and government as assis...

  16. Relationship marketing of small to medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest Province / Fred Angels Amulike Musika

    OpenAIRE

    Musika, Fred Angels Amulike

    2002-01-01

    This study concentrated on the concept of relationship marketing and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the Northwest province of South Africa. This study addressed the gap between the relationship marketing theory and its implementation by small and medium sized textile retailers in the textile industry of the Northwest province. Researchers in relationship marketing have started to realise that there is a definite need for detailed empirical ...

  17. INTERNALIZATION OR EXTERNALIZATION: WHAT DETERMINES THE MODE OF GOVERNANCE FOR SMALL- AND MEDIUM-SIZED TECHNOLOGY ENTERPRISES?

    OpenAIRE

    Gongming Qian; Lee Li; Zhengming Qian

    2012-01-01

    Small and medium-sized firms interested in entering international markets face a difficult decision with regard to the choice of governance modes. The options available to a firm include internalization and externalization. Existing theories contradict each other as to the strategic benefits of these options. This study compares these theories in the context of small and medium-sized technology-based enterprises. Findings from this study suggest that merits of internalization and externalizat...

  18. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  19. Creativity, creations and innovations in the management of small and medium-sized business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usheva M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is a process of development and expression of new ideas interwoven in the company mission and vision to lead not only to financial success but also to real loyalty and involvement of the employees with the company problems and achievements. The main objective of this paper is through the research among contemporary managers and entrepreneurs, representatives of small and medium-sized business in the region of Blagoevgrad to prove that creativity skills are deployed in each person, to identify the specific characteristics of the creative thinking of the manager and the tools that stimulate them to increase competitiveness in the context of the sustainable development of the small and medium business in international and domestic tourism market. The main result to be achieved is evidence that when there is adequate (positive self-evaluation, intrinsic motivation or chiefly necessity of creativity manifestation, emotivity in the sense of creative enthusiasm, personal professional effectiveness and appropriate situational factors, the modern manager is able to model conditions for the manifestation of creativity (creative self-expression, both in themselves and in their subordinates. This in turn leads to increased competitiveness and intensive implementation of innovations in the company management and operation. The main research methods used in the study are literature review on the subject, survey, analysis of processes, intuitive and systematic approach, systematic observation, data classification and interpretation.

  20. Correlates of Tax Compliance of Small and Medium Size Businesses in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oludele Akinloye Akinboade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxation provides a predictable and stable flow of revenue to finance development objectives. This is important in a country like Cameroon that has serious challenges with meeting its development objectives. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs are significant for economic growth in the country, contributing as much as about 22 percent of the gross domestic product. SMEs generate taxable incomes. They also collect employment and value added taxes on behalf of the government. Taxation, however, imposes high cost to small businesses. SMEs are less tax compliant in comparison to large businesses. SMEs are considered the ‘hard to tax group from the informal sector.’ As such, the literature suggests that only a fraction of their taxable incomes is reported to tax authorities. Against this background, factors that correlate with tax compliance of 575 small and medium size companies in Cameroon are discussed from a survey of companies in the manufacturing and wholesale sectors. High registration cost and time-consuming processes promote tax non-compliance. The perception that tax system is corrupt discourages registration and filing compliance. When there are too many compliance hurdles, the probability of filing compliance is reduced. However, a fair and static system encourages filing and registration compliance. A clear and consistent tax system promotes filing compliance. Authorities that understand their responsibilities and are willing to respond to enquiries during the registration process promote tax compliance in general.

  1. Role of Relationship Marketing in Small and Medium-Sized Entreprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Butigan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with marketing, small and medium enterprises (SMEs are commonly associated in literature with relationship marketing which results in marketing networks. This paper examines the specific characteristics that differentiate large companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reasons that prevent SMEs from engaging in traditional marketing within the scope of marketing mix. The paper also shows that the key characteristic which distinguishes small from large companies is a prominent role of owner/managers. The owner/manager affects marketing of SMEs by creating his or her own personal networks with stakeholders in the environment, and considers it an important strategic focus and a factor that increases the performance of marketing decision-making. After a thorough review of secondary data sources this paper examines relationship marketing as a marketing framework for SMEs and, finally, proves that relationship marketing is more appropriate for SMEs than are traditional marketing concepts, that relationship marketing and network marketing create an important framework for SMEs and that there is a link between relationship marketing, personal networks and SMEs.

  2. Size Effects on Surface Elastic Waves in a Semi-Infinite Medium with Atomic Defect Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mirzade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates small-scale effects on the Rayleigh-type surface wave propagation in an isotopic elastic half-space upon laser irradiation. Based on Eringen’s theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics, the basic equations of wave motion and laser-induced atomic defect dynamics are derived. Dispersion equation that governs the Rayleigh surface waves in the considered medium is derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for phase velocity and attenuation (amplification coefficients which characterize surface waves are obtained. It is shown that if the generation rate is above the critical value, due to concentration-elastic instability, nanometer sized ordered concentration-strain structures on the surface or volume of solids arise. The spatial scale of these structures is proportional to the characteristic length of defect-atom interaction and increases with the increase of the temperature of the medium. The critical value of the pump parameter is directly proportional to recombination rate and inversely proportional to deformational potentials of defects.

  3. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  4. Development of CAPP System for Small and Medium Size Apparel Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ling; ZHANG Wen-bin

    2006-01-01

    Existing computer-aided process planning (CAPP) systems for garment manufacturing emphasize all-purpose ones, lack of specialism and availability. So, few developed is popular in the garment industries. This study is intended for developing a CAPP system, which aims at the actual condition of process planning in the small and medium size apparel enterprises (SMAs). It enables the technologists of process planning to be quicker in generating suitable plans that are similar to existing styles or new. It also automatically provides labor cost by considering the shop-flocr conditions. Process planning is achieved by adopting the Hybrid Interactive-variant process planning method. The proposed system has been realized in Borland Delphi 7 and Oracle 8. For validation of the system,the software has been implemented successfully in a firm named Jingchen in China.

  5. Supply Chain adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mathias Thim; Bernon, Mike

    2016-01-01

    , this research suggests that SMEs could benefit from greater awareness and adoption of supply chain capabilities. While the research is exploratory in nature, we propose that better understanding of the adoption of supply chain management within SMEs will lead to improved performance.......Purpose: The importance of having a competitive supply chain strategy is not to be underestimated (Underwood & Agg 2012; Aronow et al. 2014). Despite the importance of creating strong supply chain capabilities, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) find it difficult to implement supply chain...... management (Vaaland & Heide 2007). The aim of this research was to explore supply chain adoption in SMEs. The research was based upon investigating the extent to which supply chain management is adopted by SMEs, and what factors support companies in achieving consistency between supply chain capabilities...

  6. Access to finance for small and medium-sized enterprises in North Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljumović Isidora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the problems small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are facing in Serbian municipalities in North Kosovo. The experience and previous researches show that SMEs, especially those in crisis areas, have a greater demand than supply for financial resources. We have created a questionnaire in order to get relevant data from SMEs in North Kosovo and to assess the shortcomings of the system of financing. Results show that access to finance in North Kosovo is extremely limited. Entrepreneurs and SMEs are usually financed with own resources and with a help from friends or family, while the bank loans are not frequent and are very expensive.

  7. Mapping mobility patterns to public spaces in a medium-sized city using geolocated tweets

    CERN Document Server

    Salas-Olmedo, María Henar

    2016-01-01

    This research evidences the usefulness of open big data to map mobility patterns in a medium-sized city. Motivated by the novel analysis that big data allow worldwide and in large metropolitan areas, we developed a methodology aiming to complement origin-destination surveys with \\`a la carte spatial boundaries and updated data at a minimum cost. This paper validates the use of Twitter data to map the impact of public spaces on the different parts of the metropolitan area of Concepci\\'on, Chile. Results have been validated by local experts and evidence the main mobility patterns towards spaces of social interaction like malls, leisure areas, parks and so on. The map represents the mobility patterns from census districts to different categories of public spaces with schematic lines at the metropolitan scale and it is centred in the city of Concepci\\'on (Chile) and its surroundings (~10 kilometres).

  8. Knowledge management in small and medium-sized companies; Wissensmanagement bei kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, M. [Netzwirtschaft, EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Neises, C. [Regulierungsmanagement, regionetz GmbH, Dueren (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Knowledge management has now also reached the energy economy, as first branch-specific seminars show. This awakening interest is very much to be welcomed, although until now it has been more the representatives of large energy companies who have made themselves heard. Public utilities, which as a rule are subsumed under the category ''small and medium sized company'', have other possibilities as well as limitations than large corporations when it comes to knowledge management. The present article explains what knowledge management is and how public utilities and regional supply companies can identify and make practical use of opportunities available to them through knowledge management while giving due consideration to their structural characteristics.

  9. SINGLE EURO PAYMENTS AREA AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON THE EUROPEAN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Avădanei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to discuss the implications of the Single Euro Payments Area from the perspective of the European SMEs. The current unpredictable and very challenging market situation has not fundamentally changed the fact that payment services need to continue modernization in order to become more flexible, agile and adapt in order to comply with its important purpose in society.SEPA is needed to ensure the new modern payment platform that can enable Europe to move beyond basic services, increase payments efficiency, embrace innovation and integrate further services in the trade process. European Small and Medium-sized Enterprises see SEPA see SEPA as an important step towards the completion of the internal market, but such a major initiative has to be well planed, must meet the practical needs of enterprises and provide, at least in the long run, positive incentives for all market participants.

  10. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  11. Adaptive Traffic Control Systems in a medium-sized Scandinavian city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Traffic Control Systems (ATCS) are aimed at reducing congestion. ATCS adapt to approaching traffic to continuously optimise the traffic flows in question. ATCS have been implemented in many locations, including the Scandinavian countries, with various effects. Due to congestion problems......, ATCS were installed in the eight signalised intersections of a 1.7 km stretch of the ring road in the medium-sized Danish city of Aalborg. To measure the effect of ATCS a with/without study was carried out. GPS data from a car following the traffic, recorded transportation times for buses in service......, and GPS data from a range of cars driving on the ring road formed the basis for the study. The result of ATCS implementation was a significant 17% reduction in transportation time on the ring road in the most congested period, the afternoon peak. Less significant effects were found regarding the morning...

  12. FINANCING OF FIXED ASSET INVESTMENT IN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Geruzel-Dudzińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the economy, creates, because a significant part of GDP, provides employment to many millions of people. One of the main barriers to the development of these enterprises, not only in Poland but also in EU countries, is the scarcity of equity and the difficulty in obtaining external sources of financing. It is not just about lack of funds to finance current operations, but also, and perhaps above all, lack of investment in fixed assets. This paper aims to present available sources of financing of fixed assets for enterprises from the SME sector and the assessment of their use by these companies.

  13. In-beam evaluation of a medium-size Resistive-Plate WELL gaseous particle detector

    CERN Document Server

    Moleri, L; Arazi, L; Azevedo, C D R; Breskin, A; Coimbra, A E C; Oliveri, E; Pereira, F A; Renous, D Shaked; Schaarschmidt, J; dos Santos, J M F; Veloso, J F C A; Bressler, S

    2016-01-01

    In-beam evaluation of a fully-equipped medium-size 30$\\times$30 cm$^2$ Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector is presented. It consists here of a single element gas-avalanche multiplier with Semitron ESD225 resistive plate, 1 cm$^2$ readout pads and APV25/SRS electronics. Similarly to previous results with small detector prototypes, stable operation at high detection efficiency (>98%) and low average pad multiplicity (~1.2) were recorded with 150 GeV muon and high-rate pion beams, in Ne/(5%CH$_4$), Ar/(5%CH$_4$) and Ar/(7%CO$_2$). This is an important step towards the realization of robust detectors suitable for applications requiring large-area coverage; among them Digital Hadron Calorimetry.

  14. Meaningfullness for creation of growth in Small- and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how meaningfulness of growth can be created in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting...... in 2013 and finished January 2017. Preliminary findings are revealed and have been discussed with the participating SMEs. Important antecedent tensions are present in all SMEs on historical capabilities and the freedom to pursue new ideas as very important for the creation of meaningfulness for utilizing...... create tensions to overcome, which takes time. Additionally the daily operations tend to get more awareness on behalf on the more long-term development of innovation and growth. The meaningfulness created therefore has to be robust to get enough prioritisation to pursue the new ideas for innovation...

  15. Glass formability in medium-sized molecular systems/pharmaceuticals. I. Thermodynamics vs. kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenkang; Li, Xiangqian; Chen, Zeming; Liu, Ying Dan; Labardi, Massimiliano; Capaccioli, Simone; Paluch, M.; Wang, Li-Min

    2016-05-01

    Scrutinizing critical thermodynamic and kinetic factors for glass formation and the glass stability of materials would benefit the screening of the glass formers for the industry of glassy materials. The present work aims at elucidating the factors that contribute to the glass formation by investigating medium-sized molecules of pharmaceuticals. Glass transition related thermodynamics and kinetics are performed on the pharmaceuticals using calorimetric, dielectric, and viscosity measurements. The characteristic thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of glass transition are found to reproduce the relations established for small-molecule glass formers. The systematic comparison of the thermodynamic and kinetic contributions to glass formation reveals that the melting-point viscosity is the crucial quantity for the glass formation. Of more interest is the finding of a rough correlation between the melting-point viscosity and the entropy of fusion normalized by the number of beads of the pharmaceuticals, suggesting the thermodynamics can partly manifest its contribution to glass formation via kinetics.

  16. Design of an interdisciplinary engineering elective scoped around collaboration with Small Medium Sized enterprises (SME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nynne Budtz; Ulrich, Mai-Mai; Pontoppidan, Maja Lund

    2014-01-01

    To acquire the right competences as an engineer in the 21st century1 ((King, 2007), you need to be able to work inter-disciplinary and learn the necessary innovation methods and tools2. This paper will strive to answer some of questions identified in the progress of developing and implementing...... a real life setting elective course, involving small and medium sized enterprises (SME) in engineering education. How do you engage with companies without compromising the learning outcome? How you manage the expectation from the companies and still maintaining the student responsibility for the problem...... cooperation and proceed with an introductory explanation of the current course, how the course has been scoped including the theory behind and how the company cooperation has been developed. Finally it will bring a discussion about preliminary results (as the course is ongoing) and recommendations...

  17. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  18. Tax-saving, Innovative Incentives for Small and Medium - Sized Enterprises in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ambrus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The small-and medium-sized enterprises in the Hungarian economy have been playing a decisive role. Among the difficulties they face during their activities one of the most serious is to raise funds for their labour costs. They try to reduce their tax wedge burden, which is regarded one of the highest in Europe, in various ways. In order to keep the adequate workforce they can provide fringe benefits supplementing to wages and salaries. The cautious application of the referring acts enables companies to motivate workforce and reduce the tax and contribution burdens at the same time. Our research aimed to find an answer how SMEs take these advantages and what factors support or hinder the use of the system.

  19. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  20. Survey of food safety practices on small to medium-sized farms and in farmers markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Judy A; Gaskin, Julia W; Harrison, Mark A; Cannon, Jennifer L; Boyer, Renee R; Zehnder, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-01

    As produce consumption has increased, so have foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh produce. Little research has addressed food safety practices used on small to medium-sized farms selling locally or in farmers markets. This study evaluated current food safety practices used by farmers on small to medium-sized farms and managers of farmers markets in Georgia, Virginia, and South Carolina based on responses to surveys. Surveys were developed, pretested, and revised before implementation with target audiences and were implemented via mail and the Web to maximize participation, with reminders sent to nonrespondents. Data were collected from 226 farmers and 45 market managers. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all response variables. Responses from farmers indicated that more than 56% of them use manures. Of those who use manures, 34% use raw or mixtures of raw and composted manure, and over 26% wait fewer than 90 days between application of raw manure and harvest. Over 27% use water sources that have not been tested for safety for irrigation, and 16% use such water sources for washing produce. Over 43% do not sanitize surfaces that touch produce at the farm. Only 33% of farmers always clean transport containers between uses. Responses from market managers indicated that over 42% have no food safety standards in place for the market. Only 2 to 11% ask farmers specific questions about conditions on the farm that could affect product safety. Less than 25% of managers sanitize market surfaces. Only 11% always clean market containers between uses. Over 75% of markets offer no sanitation training to workers or vendors. While farmers and market managers are using many good practices, the results indicate that some practices being used may put consumers at risk of foodborne illness. Consequently, there is a need for training for both farmers and market managers.

  1. ACR-1000TM - advanced Candu reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the Advanced CANDU ReactorTM- 1000 (ACR-1000TM) as an evolutionary advancement of the current CANDU 6TM reactor. This evolutionary advancement is based on AECL's in-depth knowledge of CANDU structures, systems, components and materials, gained during 50 years of continuous construction, engineering and commissioning, as well as on the experience and feedback received from operators of CANDU plants. The ACR design retains the proven strengths and features of CANDU reactors, while incorporating innovations and state-of-the-art technology. These innovations improve economics, inherent safety characteristics, and performance, while retaining the proven benefits of the CANDU family of nuclear power plants. The Canadian nuclear reactor design evolution that has reached today's stage represented by the ACR-1000, has a long history dating back to the early 1950's. In this regard, Canada is in a unique situation, shared only by a very few other countries, where original nuclear power technology has been invented and further developed. The ACR design has been reviewed by domestic and international regulatory bodies, and has been given a positive regulatory opinion about its licensability. The Canadian regulator, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) completed the Phase 1 and Phase 2 pre-project design reviews in December 2008 and August 2009, respectively, and concluded that there are no fundamental barriers to licensing the ACR-1000 design in Canada. The final stage of the ACR-1000 design is currently underway and will be completed by fall of 2011, along with the final elements of the safety analyses and probabilistic safety analyses supporting the finalized design. The generic Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the ACR-1000 was completed in September 2009. The PSAR demonstrates ACR-1000 safety case and compliance with Canadian and international regulatory requirements and expectations. (authors)

  2. Neutronic parameters calculations of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutronic calculations that reproduce in a simplified way some aspects of a CANDU reactor design were performed. Starting from some prefixed reactor parameters, cylindrical and uniform iron adjuster rods were designed. An appropriate refueling scheme was established, defininig in a 2 zones model their dimensions and exit burnups. The calculations have been done using the codes WIMS-D4 (cell), SNOD (reactivity device simulations) and PUMA (reactor). Comparing with similar calculations done with codes and models usually employed for CANDU design, it is concluded that the models and methods used are appropriate. (Author)

  3. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies.

  4. Evaluating the control software for CTA in a medium size telescope prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, I.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Koeppel, H.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Consortium, CTA

    2012-12-01

    CTA (Cherenkov Telescope Array) is one of the largest ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based γ-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays (one in the Northern hemisphere and one in the Southern hemisphere) composed of telescopes of several sizes. A prototype for the Medium Size Telescope (MST) of a diameter of 12 m will be installed in Berlin by the end of 2012. This MST prototype will be composed of the mechanical structure, drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras and a weather station will allow the measurement of the performance of the instrument. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control framework is currently being considered by the CTA consortium to serve as the array control middleware. In order to evaluate the ACS software, it has been decided to implement an ACS-based readout and control system for the MST prototype. The design of the control software is following the concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium, like the use of a Unified Modeling Language (UML) based code generation framework for ACS component modeling, and the use of OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) for hardware access. In this contribution, the progress in the implementation of the control system for this CTA prototype telescope is described.

  5. Credit Rationing and the Simulation of Bank-Small and Medium Sized Firm Artificial Credit Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuefeng; ZHANG Wei; XIONG Xiong; SHEN Dehua; ZHANG Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the financing difficulties faced by the small and medium-sized firms,the paper built an artificial credit markets with the agent-based computational modeling to simulate the real world credit transactions.There are firms,banks,different risk-type projects as well as legal and supervision environments in which debt contracts constitute the financial instruments.The simulation results show that the number of collateral,average success probability of projects,and the prime interest rate have materially impact on bank's average profit,bank's capital,the overall interest rate,the number of borrowing firms,loan size,and the degree of credit rationing.These results in line with those of the classical S-W model in the sense that the relationship between bank profits and interest rates is non-monotonic as well as the relationship between credit rationing and interest rates.And thus there is an adverse selection effect in credit rationing theory.

  6. The CANTEACH project: preserving CANDU technical knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost sixty years have passed since the nuclear energy venture began in Canada. Fifty years have passed since the founding of AECL. Tens of thousands of dedicated people have forged a new and successful primary energy supply. CANDU technology is well into its second century. This specialty within the world's fission technology community is quite unique, first because it was established as a separate effort very early in the history of world fission energy, and second because it grew in an isolated environment, with tight security requirements, in its early years. Commercial security rules later sustained a considerable degree of isolation. The pioneers of CANDU development have finished their work. Most of the second generation also has moved on. As yet, we cannot point to a consistent and complete record of this remarkable achievement. We, as a nuclear enterprise, have not captured the design legacy in a form that is readily accessible to the current and future generation of professionals involved with CANDU reactors, be they students, designers, operations staff, regulators, consultants or clients. This is a serious failure. Young people entering our field of study must make do with one or two textbooks and a huge collection of diverse technical papers augmented by limited-scope education and training materials. Those employed in the various parts of the nuclear industry rely mostly on a smaller set of CANDU- related documents available within their own organization; documents that sometimes are rather limited in scope. University professors often have even more limited access to in-depth and up to date information. In fact, they often depend on literature published in other countries when preparing lectures, enhanced by guest lecturers from various parts of the industry. Because CANDU was developed mostly inside Canada, few of these text materials contain useful data describing processes important to the CANDU system. For many years it has been recognized that

  7. Extracting nuclear sizes of medium to heavy nuclei from total reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, W.; Hatakeyama, S.; Ebata, S.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Background: Proton and neutron radii are fundamental quantities of atomic nuclei. To study the sizes of short-lived unstable nuclei, there is a need for an alternative to electron scattering. Purpose: The recent paper by Horiuchi et al. [Phys. Rev. C 89, 011601(R) (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.89.011601 proposed a possible way of extracting the matter and neutron-skin thickness of light- to medium-mass nuclei using total reaction cross section, σR. The analysis is extended to medium to heavy nuclei up to lead isotopes with due attention to Coulomb breakup contributions as well as density distributions improved by paring correlation. Methods: We formulate a quantitative calculation of σR based on the Glauber model including the Coulomb breakup. To substantiate the treatment of the Coulomb breakup, we also evaluate the Coulomb breakup cross section due to the electric dipole field in a canonical-basis-time-dependent-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory in the three-dimensional coordinate space. Results: We analyze σR's of 103 nuclei with Z =20 , 28, 40, 50, 70, and 82 incident on light targets, H,21, 4He, and 12C. Three kinds of Skyrme interactions are tested to generate those wave functions. To discuss possible uncertainty due to the Coulomb breakup, we examine its dependence on the target, the incident energy, and the Skyrme interaction. The proton is a most promising target for extracting the nuclear sizes as the Coulomb excitation can safely be neglected. We find that the so-called reaction radius, aR=√{σR/π } , for the proton target is very well approximated by a linear function of two variables, the matter radius and the skin thickness, in which three constants depend only on the incident energy. We quantify the accuracy of σR measurements needed to extract the nuclear sizes. Conclusions: The proton is the best target because, once the incident energy is set, its aR is very accurately determined by only the matter radius and neutron-skin thickness. If σR's at

  8. Comparison of microperc and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy for medium-sized lower calyx stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, Adem; Akbulut, Fatih; Buldu, Ibrahim; Karatag, Tuna; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Gurbuz, Gokhan; Istanbulluoglu, Okan; Armagan, Abdullah; Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Tasci, Ali Ihsan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to present the outcomes of comparative clinical study of microperc versus mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PNL) in the treatment of lower calyx stones of 10-20 mm. Patients with lower calyx stones treated with microperc (Group-1) or mini-PNL (Group-2) between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographics of the patients were compared, including age, gender, BMI, stone size, laterality and procedural parameters (operation and fluoroscopy time), and outcomes (success and complication rates). A total of 98 patients were evaluated, assigned to Group-1 (n = 58) and to Group-2 (n = 40). Groups were statistically similar in terms of age, stone size, and BMI (p = 0.3, 0.07, 0.6, respectively). The mean procedure and fluoroscopy duration for Group-1 were 43.02 ± 27.98 min and 112.05 ± 72.5 s, and 52.25 ± 23.09 min and 138.53 ± 56.39 s in Group-2 (p = 0.006 and 0.006). The mean hematocrit drop was significantly higher in Group-2 compared to Group-1 (3.98 vs. 1.96%; p < 0.001); however, none of the cases required blood transfusion. Overall complication rates exhibited no statistically significant difference (p = 0.57). Stone-free status was similar (86.2 vs. 82.5%, p = 0.66). The tubeless procedure rate was significantly higher in Group-1 (p < 0.001). In Group-2, duration of hospitalization was significantly longer than in Group-1 (2.63 vs. 1.55 days; p < 0.01). Outcomes of the present retrospective study show that microperc is a treatment option for medium-sized lower calyx stone, being associated with lower blood loss, procedure, reduced fluoroscopy and hospitalization time, and a higher tubeless rate. PMID:26194110

  9. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. → We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. → Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. → HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. → Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to

  10. Organisational culture as a part in the development of open innovation - the perspective of small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to introduce various concepts and business models is nowadays a prerequisite of creating a competitive advantage. This is to a large extent closely linked to the ability of enterprises to create, implement and disseminate a variety of innovative solutions. Today the use of open innovation is a necessity. This applies not only to large organisations, but also to small and medium-sized enterprises. In order to implement open innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises need to effectively manage their own growth through the preparation of appropriate strategies and the development of a model that encompasses all changes, taking into account a number of factors related to the growth dynamics of this sector. It is understood that an appropriate organisational culture plays an important role in the implementation of innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises. There are many indications that a cultural mismatch and misunderstanding are the main reasons for major problems related to the low level of implementation of innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim of the paper is to outline the issue of the impact of organisational culture on the development of the concept of open innovation in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  11. Exporting apocalypse: CANDU reactors and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author believes that the peaceful use of nuclear technology leads inevitably to the production of nuclear weapons, and that CANDU reactors are being bought by countries that are likely to build bombs. He states that exports of reactors and nuclear materials cannot be defended and must be stopped

  12. Particle size and hydration medium effects on hydration properties and sugar release of wheat straw fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat straw is gaining importance as a feedstock for the production of biofuels and high value-added bioproducts. Several pretreatments recover the fermentable fraction involving the use of water or aqueous solutions. Therefore, hydration properties of wheat straw fibers play an important role in improving pretreatment performance. In this study, the water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied using water, propylene glycol (PPG) and an effluent from a H2-producing reactor as the hydration media with three particle sizes (3.35, 2.00 and 0.212 mm). The effects of swelling were analyzed by optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The highest WRC was reached with the effluent medium (9.84 ± 0.87 g g−1 in 4 h), followed by PPG (8.52 ± 0.18 g g−1 in 1 h) and water (8.74 ± 0.76 g g−1 in 10 h). The effluent hydration treatment had a synergic effect between the enzymes present and the water. The particle size had a significant effect on the WRC (P < 0.01), the highest values were reached with 3.35 mm fibers. The CLSM images showed that finer fibers were subjected to a shaving effect due to the grinding affecting its capacity to absorb the hydration medium. The microscopic analysis showed the increase in the width of the epidermal cells after the hydration and a more undulating cell wall likely due to the hydration of the amorphous regions in the cellulose microfibrils. The sugar release was determined, achieving the highest glucose content with the effluent hydration treatment. - Highlights: • Water retention capacity (WRC) and swelling of wheat straw fibers were studied. • The highest WRC was achieved with a biological effluent. • The enzymatic activity in the biological effluent yielded the highest sugar release. • Finer fibers showed a shaving effect that affected its capacity to absorb water. • A more undulating cell wall was visualized after the hydration

  13. Development situation about the Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor is the most versatile commercial power reactor in the world. The acronym 'CANDU', a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, stands for 'CANada Deuterium Uranium'. CANDU uses heavy water as moderator and uranium (originally, natural uranium) as fuel. All current power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU type. Canada exports CANDU type reactor in abroad. CANDU type is used as the nuclear power plants to produce electrical. Today, there are 41 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and the design has continuously evolved to maintain into unique technology and performance. The CANDU-6 power reactor offers a combination of proven, superior and state-of-the-art technology. CANDU-6 was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types. One of its characteristics is a very high operating and fuel efficiency. Canada Nuclear Power Generating Stations were succeeded in a commercial reactor of which the successful application of heavy water reactor, natural uranium method and that on-power fuelling could be achieved. It was achieved through the joint development of a major project by strong support of the federal government, public utilities and private enterprises. The potential for customization to any country's needs, with competitive development and within any level of domestic industrial infrastructure, gives CANDU technology strategic importance in the 21st century

  14. Candu reactors with thorium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade and a half AECL has established a strong record of delivering CANDU 6 nuclear power plants on time and at budget. Inherently flexible features of the CANDU type reactors, such as on-power fuelling, high neutron economy, fuel channel based heat transport system, simple fuel bundle configuration, two independent shut down systems, a cool moderator and a defence-in-depth based safety philosophy provides an evolutionary path to further improvements in design. The immediate milestone on this path is the Advanced CANDU ReactorTM** (ACRTM**), in the form of the ACR-1000TM**. This effort is being followed by the Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR) design that will allow water-cooled reactors to attain high efficiencies by increasing the coolant temperature above 5500C. Adaptability of the CANDU design to different fuel cycles is another technology advantage that offers an additional avenue for design evolution. Thorium is one of the potential fuels for future reactors due to relative abundance, neutronics advantage as a fertile material in thermal reactors and proliferation resistance. The Thorium fuel cycle is also of interest to China, India, and Turkey due to local abundance that can ensure sustainable energy independence over the long term. AECL has performed an assessment of both CANDU 6 and ACR-1000 designs to identify systems, components, safety features and operational processes that may need to be modified to replace the NU or SEU fuel cycles with one based on Thorium. The paper reviews some of these requirements and the associated practical design solutions. These modifications can either be incorporated into the design prior to construction or, for currently operational reactors, during a refurbishment outage. In parallel with reactor modifications, various Thorium fuel cycles, either based on mixed bundles (homogeneous) or mixed channels (heterogeneous) have been assessed for technical and economic viability. Potential applications of a

  15. Using Advanced Fuel Bundles in CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the exit fuel burnup in CANDU reactors was a long-time challenge for both bundle designers and performance analysts. Therefore, the 43-element design together with several fuel compositions was studied, in the aim of assessing new reliable, economic and proliferation-resistant solutions. Recovered Uranium (RU) fuel is intended to be used in CANDU reactors, given the important amount of slightly enriched Uranium (~0.96% w/o U235) that might be provided by the spent LWR fuel recovery plants. Though this fuel has a far too small U235 enrichment to be used in LWR's, it can be still used to fuel CANDU reactors. Plutonium based mixtures are also considered, with both natural and depleted Uranium, either for peacefully using the military grade dispositioned Plutonium or for better using Plutonium from LWR reprocessing plants. The proposed Thorium-LEU mixtures are intended to reduce the Uranium consumption per produced MW. The positive void reactivity is a major concern of any CANDU safety assessment, therefore reducing it was also a task for the present analysis. Using the 43-element bundle with a certain amount of burnable poison (e.g. Dysprosium) dissolved in the 8 innermost elements may lead to significantly reducing the void reactivity. The expected outcomes of these design improvements are: higher exit burnup, smooth/uniform radial bundle power distribution and reduced void reactivity. Since the improved fuel bundles are intended to be loaded in existing CANDU reactors, we found interesting to estimate the local reactivity effects of a mechanical control absorber (MCA) on the surrounding fuel cells. Cell parameters and neutron flux distributions, as well as macroscopic cross-sections were estimated using the transport code DRAGON and a 172-group updated nuclear data library. (author)

  16. Thermochemical modelling of advanced CANDU reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Emily Catherine

    2009-04-01

    With an aging fleet of nuclear generating facilities, the imperative to limit the use of non-renewal fossil fuels and the inevitable need for additional electricity to power Canada's economy, a renaissance in the use of nuclear technology in Canada is at hand. The experience and knowledge of over 40 years of CANDU research, development and operation in Ontario and elsewhere has been applied to a new generation of CANDU, the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR). Improved fuel design allows for an extended burnup, which is a significant improvement, enhancing the safety and the economies of the ACR. The use of a Burnable Neutron Absorber (BNA) material and Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel has created a need to understand better these novel materials and fuel types. This thesis documents a work to advance the scientific and technological knowledge of the ACR fuel design with respect to thermodynamic phase stability and fuel oxidation modelling. For the BNA material, a new (BNA) model is created based on the fundamental first principles of Gibbs energy minimization applied to material phase stability. For LEU fuel, the methodology used for the BNA model is applied to the oxidation of irradiated fuel. The pertinent knowledge base for uranium, oxygen and the major fission products is reviewed, updated and integrated to create a model that is applicable to current and future CANDU fuel designs. As part of this thesis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Coulombic Titration (CT) experiments are compared to the BNA and LEU models, respectively. From the analysis of the CT results, a number of improvements are proposed to enhance the LEU model and provide confidence in its application to ACR fuel. A number of applications for the potential use of these models are proposed and discussed. Keywords: CANDU Fuel, Gibbs Energy Mimimization, Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel, Burnable Neutron Absorber (BNA) Material, Coulometric Titration, X-Ray Diffraction

  17. Effects of urban green areas on air temperature in a medium-sized Argentinian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra S. Coronel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban climate is the result of both atmospheric and geographic factors affecting a region, as well as the morphology, structures and human activities in a city. Urban vegetation in particular affects this climate at a local scale and provides many other social, economic and ecological benefits. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of different green areas used for urban and periurban agriculture and forestry activities (UPAF on daily atmospheric temperature and the required degrees of cooling or refrigerating temperature. Comfort temperatures were defined using a range 18-24°C and analyzed using actual measured as well as forecasted temperatures using a future scenario. Actual temperatures were recorded from September 2013 to August 2014 using digital sensors across eight sites in Rosario, Argentina: three in the central core with no vegetation, one in the central core with street trees, one in an urban agriculture site, one in a public park and two in periurban agricultural areas. Results show that air temperature in the central core with no vegetation were higher than those in other sites with vegetation during day and night, with the exception of the temperatures measured at the central core site with street trees. Findings also show that temperature effects in urban agricultural gardens of approximately 0.2 ha were similar to those of gardens and public parks 2-3 ha in size. Three UPAF types were classified according to cooling degree days, which decreased in order from (1 central core with no trees; (2 central core with street trees and public parks; and (3 urban and periurban agriculture areas. Conversely, the opposite trends for heating degree days were found. Results from this study can be used for integrating UPAF measures into climate change mitigation and urban planning policies in medium-sized cities in the developing world.

  18. Harmonization process in defining small and medium-sized enterprises. Arguments for a quantitative definition versus a qualitative one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mădălina BUCULESCU (COSTICĂ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Harmonization process of the definition and financial reporting of small and medium-sized enterprises is still a challenge for European and international organizations and institutions. Analysing the definitions of SMEs issued by European Commission, World Bank, OECD, the definitions used within a couple of countries and other studies regarding this aspect, it concluded that is not yet a consensus regarding the definition of the small and medium-sized enterprises. The various criteria used to classify the enterprises in the category of SMEs, different thresholds, the economic activity and economic context of each country are the main factors which interfere with the existence of one international available quantitative definition for small and medium-sized enterprises.

  19. Status of innovative small and medium sized reactor designs 2005. Reactors with conventional refuelling schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a renewed interest in Member States in the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). In the near term, most new NPPs are likely to be evolutionary designs building on proven systems while incorporating technological advances and often the economics of scale, resulting from the reactor outputs of up to 1600 MW(e). For the longer term, the focus is on innovative designs aiming to provide increased benefits in the areas of safety and security, non-proliferation, waste management, resource utilization and economy, as well as to offer a variety of energy products and flexibility in design, siting and fuel cycle options. Many innovative designs are reactors within the small-to-medium size range, having an equivalent electric power less than 700 MW(e) or even less than 300 MW(e). The projected timelines of readiness for deployment are generally between 2010 and 2030. The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those just considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, and those already having practical experience in nuclear power, with a balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative SMRs for a variety of uses, on the achieved state-of-the-art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The report is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electrical producers and policy makers. The main chapters of this report, addressed to all abovementioned groups of stakeholders, provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user-related special features of innovative SMRs, outline the achieved design and regulatory status and its progress since previous IAEA publications, review targeted deployment dates, fuel cycle options, design approaches used to meet design objectives in specific subject areas, enabling technologies and current

  20. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  1. Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.;

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X......-ray grazing incidence telescopes. They consider the performance of continuously graded Ni/C multilayers in a multi-focus, Kirkpatrick-Baez, geometry and show a significant improvement when compared to standard coatings of gold. For a total length of 3.3 m, a total aperture of 48 cm by 48 cm and 64 foci......, an effective area of 250 cm2 at 60 keV and a FWHM field of view of 6' is obtained. It is shown that a modular array of conical telescopes (conical approximation to a Wolter-I geometry), with the same length and aperture provides similar effective areas. Energy-dispersive X-ray reflectivity data (15-70 ke...

  2. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela G Morato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of the notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants. There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics.

  3. Conditioned medium from human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells limits infarct size and enhances angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Patrizia; Malpasso, Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Cervio, Elisabetta; Calvillo, Laura; Copes, Francesco; Pisano, Federica; Mura, Manuela; Kleijn, Lennaert; de Boer, Rudolf A; Viarengo, Gianluca; Rosti, Vittorio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Roccio, Marianna; Gnecchi, Massimiliano

    2015-05-01

    The paracrine properties of human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMCs) have not been fully elucidated. The goal of the present study was to elucidate whether hAMCs can exert beneficial paracrine effects on infarcted rat hearts, in particular through cardioprotection and angiogenesis. Moreover, we aimed to identify the putative active paracrine mediators. hAMCs were isolated, expanded, and characterized. In vitro, conditioned medium from hAMC (hAMC-CM) exhibited cytoprotective and proangiogenic properties. In vivo, injection of hAMC-CM into infarcted rat hearts limited the infarct size, reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and ventricular remodeling, and strongly promoted capillary formation at the infarct border zone. Gene array analysis led to the identification of 32 genes encoding for the secreted factors overexpressed by hAMCs. Among these, midkine and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine were also upregulated at the protein level. Furthermore, high amounts of several proangiogenic factors were detected in hAMC-CM by cytokine array. Our results strongly support the concept that the administration of hAMC-CM favors the repair process after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25824141

  4. The spatiotemporal trajectory of a dengue epidemic in a medium-sized city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Daniela G; Barreto, Florisneide R; Braga, José U; Natividade, Marcio S; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Morato, Vanessa; Teixeira, Maria da Glória Lima Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases is important to allow for improvements of control measures. To investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of an epidemic dengue occurred at a medium-sized city in the Northeast Region of Brazil in 2009, we conducted an ecological study of the notified dengue cases georeferenced according to epidemiological week (EW) and home address. Kernel density estimation and space-time interaction were analysed using the Knox method. The evolution of the epidemic was analysed using an animated projection technique. The dengue incidence was 6.918.7/100,000 inhabitants; the peak of the epidemic occurred from 8 February-1 March, EWs 6-9 (828.7/100,000 inhabitants). There were cases throughout the city and was identified space-time interaction. Three epicenters were responsible for spreading the disease in an expansion and relocation diffusion pattern. If the health services could detect in real time the epicenters and apply nimbly control measures, may possibly reduce the magnitude of dengue epidemics. PMID:26061236

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from small and medium-sized Kansas mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillhart, D B; Fox, L B; Upton, S J

    1994-05-01

    Seven species of hard-bodied ticks were collected from 20 species of small and medium-sized mammals in Kansas; Amblyomma americanum L., Dermacentor variabilis (Say), Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard), Ixodes cookei Packard, I. kingi Bishopp, I. sculptus Neumann, and I. texanus Banks. Dermacentor variabilis was found statewide, A. americanum only in the eastern one-third of the state, and the Ixodes spp. and H. leporispalustris were widely scattered. The most common tick found was D. variabilis, both by itself and in association with other ticks. Mammals that ticks were collected from included Canis latrans Say, Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus (Ord), Didelphis virginianus Kerr, Geomys bursarius (Shaw), Lynx rufus (Schreber), Marmota monax bunkeri Black, Mephitis mephitis (Schreber), Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner), Mus musculus L., Peromyscus leucopus (Rafinesque), P. maniculatus (Wagner), Procyon lotor hirtus Nelson and Goldman, Reithrodontomys megalotis (Baird), Sciurus niger rufiventer Geoffroy, Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon and Bachman), Sylvilagus floridanus (J. A. Allen), Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber), and Vulpes velox velox (Say). PMID:8057327

  6. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) infestation on medium-sized mammals and blue jays in northwestern Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannelli, A; Kitron, U; Jones, C J; Slajchert, T L

    1993-09-01

    High prevalence of infestation of five species of medium-sized mammals and blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata (L.), by immature Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman and Corwin was found in Castle Rock State Park in northwestern Illinois during May-August 1991. Raccoons, Procyon lotor L., and opossums, Didelphis virginiana Kerr, were infested with the highest larval densities and were trapped primarily in bottomland forest and ecotone habitats. All species had similar nymphal densities, except the eastern cottontails, Sylvilagus floridanus Allen, which were infested with fewer nymphs. Infestation by I. dammini is reported for the first time for fox squirrels, Sciurus niger E. G. St. Hilaire, and for the first time in the midwestern United States for blue jays, C. cristata. These two species were hosts for nymphs in upland forest habitat. Molting rates varied among ticks that fed on different host species and among larvae that fed on individuals of the same species. Molting rate is proposed as an important factor in determining the relative importance of a host species to I. dammini population dynamics. PMID:8254647

  7. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  8. Financing innovative small and medium-sized enterprises in times of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan ERIC

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME in general and particularly innovative ones are becoming an increasingly important factor on the road to achieving smart, sustainable and comprehensive development. Because of their propensity to innovative undertaking and risk, SMEs contribute significantly to economic growth but are generally less productive and pay the cost of high rates of death and lower rates of profitability. Financing SMEs is risky and uncertain and for innovative SMEs it is even more difficult to access financing. When financing innovative activities, investors perceive high risks and it is even more emphasized in times of crisis when there is an increase in the cost of capital. Institutional support and governmental programmes have an important role in closing financial gap that innovative SMEs are faced with. Because the survival and development of SMEs is to a great extant determined by their ability to access favorable financing, the main objective of this paper is to provide policy recommendations for promoting availability of financing to innovative SMEs in order to foster economic recovery and more dynamic development of Serbia. The recommendations are to emerge from analyzes and evaluation of currently available sources of finance for innovative SMEs.

  9. Pointing Calibration for the Cherenkov Telescope Array Medium Size Telescope Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Oakes, Louise; Baehr, Juergen; Gruenewald, Sandra; Raeck, Tobias; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schubert, Anja; Schwanke, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    Pointing calibration is an offline correction applied in order to obtain the true pointing direction of a telescope. The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) aims to have the precision to determine the position of point-like as well as slightly extended sources, with the goal of systematic errors less than 7 arc seconds in space angle. This poster describes the pointing calibration concept being developed for the CTA Medium Size Telescope (MST) prototype at Berlin-Adlershof, showing test results and preliminary measurements. The MST pointing calibration method uses two CCD cameras, mounted on the telescope dish, to determine the true pointing of the telescope. The "Lid CCD" is aligned to the optical axis of the telescope, calibrated with LEDs on the dummy gamma-camera lid; the "Sky CCD" is pre-aligned to the Lid CCD and the transformation between the Sky and Lid CCD camera fields of view is precisely modelled with images from special pointing runs which are also used to determine the pointing model. During source ...

  10. Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, J; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

  11. CRITICAL FACTORS IN OUTSOURCING OF ACCOUNTING FUNCTIONS IN MALAYSIAN SMALL MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magiswary Dorasamy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that business face in sustaining competitive advantage in the corporate world have become a major concern. Businesses are adopting cutting-edge technologies and best practices to cope with rapid, global changes. Various business functions are being reengineered for this purpose. Accounting functions play an important role in helping businesses to maintain competitive advantage. However, some small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs face problems handling fundamental accounting functions. This is predominantly because of their lack of expertise; accounting functions require not only knowledge of generally accepted accounting rules or tax regulations but also the expertise needed to apply the rules in a given business environment (Everaert, Sarens and Rommel, 2006. This paper offers some insight on the outsourcing of accounting functions as there is paucity of data in this area in the context of Malaysia. Essentially, it presents empirical evidence regarding Malaysian SMEs' accounting outsourcing practices. A survey of SMEs was conducted to identify the overall outsourcing landscape as it relates to accounting and third-party organisations. The factors that contribute to the decision to outsource accounting functions are analysed. The study reveals a significant relationship between outsourcing accounting functions and two contributing factors, risks and operation management.

  12. Assessing Incorrect Household Waste Sorting in a Medium-Sized Swedish City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rousta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Source separation is a common method for dealing with the increasing problem of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW in society. The citizens are then responsible for separating waste fractions produced in their home. If the consumers fail to sort the waste according to the source separation scheme, it will lead to an ineffective system. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the environmental, economic and social aspects of incorrect waste sorting in a medium sized Swedish city that has established a source separation system. In order to determine the extent to which citizens correctly sort their waste, food waste (black bags and combustible fraction (white bags, were collected randomly from a residential area and categorized in different waste fractions. The results show that approximately 68 wt% of the waste in the white and 29 wt% in the black bags were not sorted correctly. This incorrect sorting accrues over 13 million SEK per year cost for this community. In order to improve the inhabitants’ participation in the waste management system, it is necessary to change different factors such as convenience and easy access to the recycling stations in the local MSW management systems as well as to review current regulation and policy.

  13. Signaling from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in striatal medium-sized spiny neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eMatamales

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs receive massive glutamate inputs from the cerebral cortex and thalamus and are a major target of dopamine projections. Interaction between glutamate and dopamine signaling is crucial for the control of movement and reward-driven learning, and its alterations are implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders including Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity are thought to depend on transcription of gene products that alter the structure and/or function of neurons. Although multiple signal transduction pathways regulate transcription, little is known about signal transmission between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of striatal neurons and its regulation. Here we review the current knowledge of the signaling cascades that target the nucleus of MSNs, most of which are activated by cAMP and/or Ca2+. We outline the mechanisms by which signals originating at the plasma membrane and amplified in the cytoplasm are relayed to the nucleus, through the regulation of several protein kinases and phosphatases and transport through the nuclear pore. We also summarize the identified mechanisms of transcription regulation and chromatin remodeling in MSNs that appear to be important for behavioral adaptations, and discuss their relationships with epigenetic regulation.

  14. ADVANTAGES OF CROWDFUNDING AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF FINANCING OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Golić

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of funding, and limited access to it are the basic problems faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Given the great role and importance of SMEs in every national economy, any progress in solving these problems in terms of creating and finding alternative sources of funding should attract great attention in both professional and scientific and the wider socio-political communities. Crowdfunding is an innovative and relatively new concept that connects entrepreneurs and investors through the Internet. This method allows the entrepreneurs to collect funds through the Internet by "open invitation" to finance their projects/ventures and thus raise the necessary funds by relatively small contributions of a relatively large number of investors. As such, crowdfunding is a fast-growing model increasingly debated of in academic circles and the European institutions. This paper will consider crowdfunding as an alternative means of financing SMEs and try to give different aspects of crowdfunding - and explain how it works, what are the advantages of using it for SMEs and thus expand the knowledge on the topic.

  15. Key Supplier Relationship Management: The Case of Croatian Medium-Sized and Large Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Miočević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The key supplier relationship management represents a vital organizational process. Companies should pay attention not only to managing customer relationships but also to managing relationships with suppliers in order to perform well. They should identify the extent to which a certain supplier adds value through the procurement process. In this line of reasoning, both theory and practice make a distinction between strategic (key and non-strategic (transactional suppliers. By employing the segmentation of the supply market, companies balance their supplier portfolio and are capable of identifying the key suppliers. They can also develop specific programs and initiatives that are aimed at preserving these relationships. In the empirical part of the paper, a survey was conducted on a sample of 123 medium-sized and large Croatian manufacturing companies. The structural model involving the relationship between the key supplier relationship management and value-oriented purchasing was tested. The results indicate that there is a statistically direct, positive and significant relationship between these two constructs. Likewise, the results stress that a theoretical conceptualization and operationalization of the key supplier relationship management construct is both valid and justified. Finally, the theoretical and practical implications and limitations of this study are offered.

  16. Drivers for OSH interventions in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagno, Enrico; Masi, Donato; Leão, Celina Pinto

    2016-01-01

    The debate concerning occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions has recently focused on the need of improving the evaluation of interventions, and in particular on the need for providing information about why the intervention worked or not, under what circumstances and in which context. Key concepts in the analysis of the context are the drivers, i.e., those factors enabling, fostering or facilitating OSH interventions. However, the concept of driver for an OSH intervention is both confused and contested. Although the term is widely used, there is little consensus on how drivers should be understood, how important they are in different contexts and how they can facilitate interventions. This exploratory study based on interviews with the owner-managers and the safety officers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) gives an overview of the most characteristic drivers for OSH interventions. The results will be used to make an initial evaluation of SMEs' needs, and will help orient interventions and future research. PMID:26654679

  17. Business Benefits from Enterprise Systems Implementation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mathrani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The market for enterprise systems (ESs continues to grow as business becomes increasingly global and competitive. Increasingly, the market focus for ES vendors is on small businesses. The purpose of this study is to provide a unique ES vendor/consultant perspective on (a the business benefits small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs expect from their ES investment and (b to examine current practices of ES implementation in SMEs through a conceptual framework that considers the organisational, process and strategic context of the implementation. This study does so with interview data collected from ES vendors, ES consultants and IT research firms, who are the key players in the New Zealand ES industry. A distinctive contribution of this research is the vendor/consultant perspective as the unit of analysis, rather than the SME perspective commonly used in similar research. The vendor/consultant perspective offers a comprehensive viewpoint that extends across numerous SMEs in a variety of industries. Findings from interviews with these professionals indicate that although many ES implementations are several years old now, SMEs have only recently started tracking benefits through analytical processes in expectation to realise business value from their ES investment. The results also identify how ES implementation practices are adapting to be more suitable to the SME sector, an important market for ES vendors given the saturation of the large enterprise market for ES implementation.

  18. Resource efficiency and culture--workplace training for small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliesner, Anna; Liedtke, Christa; Rohn, Holger

    2014-05-15

    Although there are already some qualification offers available for enterprises to support resource efficiency innovations, the high potentials that can be identified especially for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have not been activated until now. As successful change lies in the hands of humans, the main aim of vocational education has to be the promotion of organisational and cultural changes in the enterprises. As there is already a small but increasing number of enterprises that perform very well in resource efficiency innovations one question arises: What are typical characteristics of those enterprises? Leaning on a good-practice approach, the project "ResourceCulture" is going to prove or falsify the hypothesis that enterprises being successful with resource efficiency innovations have a specific culture of trust, which substantially contributes to innovation processes, or even initially enables them. Detailed empirical field research will light up which correlations between resource efficiency, innovation and cultures of trust can be found and will offer important aspects for the improvement of management instruments and qualification concepts for workplace training. The project seizes qualification needs that were likewise mentioned by enterprises and consultants, regarding the implementation of resource efficiency. This article - based on first empirical field research results - derives preliminary indications for the design of the qualification module for the target groups resource efficiency consultants and managers. On this basis and in order to implement "ResourceCulture" conceptual and methodological starting points for workplace training are outlined.

  19. Microfinance: Diagnosis of the micro-business, medium-sized business and its financial technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Toledo Concha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work shows how the financing for micro and small businesses in Peru has increased and has greatlyexpanded in the last few years, not only in institutions specialized in this field, focused their efforts in giving financialservices to businesspeople of micro and medium-sized business, but most of the so-called traditional banks havefocused their attention to this emerging sector using the know-how of microfinance lending technology, banking seekto work with people of low income sectors, that were not subject for credit opportunities to develop their business andas a consequence not able to improve their quality of life .Throughout this investigation, we make a diagnosis of macro and micro environment of the microfinance field, itsdevelopment and expectations for a strong presence in the Peruvian financial market. We consider the development oflending technology, where the analysis of the ability and willingness to pay are the fundamental basis for the evaluationof credits in specialized companies in this sector.

  20. Continuous improvement of the quality reporting system of a medium-size company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Anthony; Onuh, Spencer

    2001-10-01

    Many companies are faced with quality improvement issues on a daily basis but their response to this problem varies. This paper discusses the improvement in the defect reporting system at a medium sized manufacturing company following the appointment of an experienced, motivated, design engineer to be dedicated to that task. It sets out the situation that the engineer inherited and details the changes that were incorporated; it assesses which were successful and which failed. Following a survey of current literature, it was seen that there is little written specifically on the subject of audited defect reporting. It is felt that this study goes some way to filling that void. A successful survey of engineering companies in Southern Hampshire reinforces the principle findings, that the emphasising of the Check part of Demming's Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a novel approach to the Quality Improvement Process, and that it has reduced the cost of rework by an audited 80% in a period of two years.

  1. The Sustainable Strategy for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises: The Relationship between Mission Statements and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethem Duygulu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to contribute to the literature by empirically examining the relationship between small and medium sized enterprises’ (SMEs mission statements and their performance in sustainable strategy formulation. Although it seems that there is a relatively vast amount of research with regard to mission statements of companies, very few studies have focused on the relationship between mission statements and performance. When these few studies are taken into consideration, it is difficult to reach any overall conclusion since their findings are mixed and inconclusive. To achieve this aim, 3034 SMEs operating in organized industrial zones in Turkey were examined via a survey approach. In order to investigate the relationships among the variables, nine categories of mission statements as independent variables and four performance indicators (financial, market, production, and overall as dependent variables were analyzed through logistic regression. This study identified three mission components, (1 survival, growth, and profit; (2 philosophy and values; and (3 public image, as the common independent variables in explaining the performance of SMEs. Survival, growth, and profit is the most frequently observed mission component regardless of the subsector differentiation in the entire sample, which reflects the significance of business sustainability for SMEs in the Turkish manufacturing context. Besides, among all performance indicators, SMEs’ market performance was found to be the lowest when compared to other performance indicators (financial, production, overall. Although the firms were placed in different manufacturing subsectors, similar mission statements were highlighted so that the discourse similarity might be considered as evidence of isomorphism characteristics for SMEs.

  2. Experimental testing of centrifugal pump: small and medium sized enterprise product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Paddiyatu, F.; Khafidh, M.; Nugroho, S.; Sugiyanto, S.; Jamari, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental testing for centrifugal pump for fisherman ship, manufactured by small and medium sized enterprises in Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research covers material analysis, component observation, endurance and vibration test. Six centrifugal pumps are tested and three main pump components are discussed: shaft, bearings and seals. The results show that the material of the shaft is predicted to support and transmit the load from the engine to impeller. The problem found in the tolerance and geometry accuracy of the shaft which causes difficulties during assembling process, excessive wear and leakage during testing. From the endurance and vibration test, the ball bearings fail and lock the shaft due to the fatigue on the rolling elements and raceways. The oil seal and water seal also fail in maintaining the oil and water in the chamber and induce the unlubricated system for the ball bearings. Some suggestions are delivered to improve the product quality of the centrifugal pump. A good quality of the centrifugal pump for fishermen ship and long life span is expected to be produced by local SMEs to win the free trade competition in the Indonesian market.

  3. Project appraisal for small and medium size wind energy installation: The Italian wind energy policy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, the distributed energy production from small wind turbines (i.e.<200 kWp) has developed into a relevant business opportunity for different investors in Italy. The market, especially in Italy, has rapidly grown, achieving 9 MWp only in 2011, with an increase from 1.5 MW in 2009 to 13.3 MW at the end of 2011. This paper reports the results of a case study on the installation of several small wind turbines. It aims to provide an analysis of the conditions in Italy that make it possible to install these machines and offer a reliable reference for designing, planning, and controlling small wind turbine projects while focusing on the strategic variables of time, cost, and quality used by typical enterprises in the investment projects. The results are relevant to investors as well as engineering, procurement, and construction companies involved in this new sector, which must understand Italy’s renewable energy policy and its effects in practice. Moreover, certain national energy policy conclusions are reported and discussed in this paper. To properly study the sector, the data on time, cost and quality are analysed using typical project management tools. - Highlights: • Focus on the Italian wind energy sector. • Analysis of Italian policy effects. • Focus on small/medium size wind energy machines

  4. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of waste prevention on the level of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Waste prevention is a principle means of achieving the goals of waste management and a key element for developing sustainable economies. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) contribute substantially to environmental degradation, often not even being aware of their environmental effects. Therefore, several initiatives have been launched in Austria aimed at supporting waste prevention measures on the level of SMEs. To promote the most efficient projects, they have to be evaluated with respect to their contribution to the goals of waste management. It is the aim of this paper to develop a methodology for evaluating waste prevention measures in SMEs based on their goal orientation. At first, conceptual problems of defining and delineating waste prevention activities are briefly discussed. Then an approach to evaluate waste prevention activities with respect to their environmental performance is presented and benchmarks which allow for an efficient use of the available funds are developed. Finally the evaluation method is applied to a number of former projects and the calculated results are analysed with respect to shortcomings and limitations of the model. It is found that the developed methodology can provide a tool for a more objective and comprehensible evaluation of waste prevention measures. PMID:18676138

  6. Strategies for Successful Information Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghobakhloo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology (IT adoption is an important field of study in a number of areas, which include small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. Due to the numerous advantages of IT, SMEs are trying to adopt IT applications to support their businesses. IT adoption by SMEs differs from larger organizations because of their specific characteristics, such as resources constraints. Therefore, this research aims to provide a better and clearer understanding of IT adoption within SMEs by reviewing and analyzing current IT literature. In this research, the review of literature includes theories, perspectives, empirical research and case studies related to IT adoption, in particular within SMEs from various databases such as Business Premier, Science Direct, JStor, Emerald Insight and Springer Link. The proposed model of effective IT adoption is believed to provide managers, vendors, consultants and governments with a practical synopsis of the IT adoption process in SMEs, which will in turn assist them to be successful with IT institutionalization within these businesses.

  7. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  8. NectarCAM : a camera for the medium size telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch~Bigas, O; Bolmont, J; Bouyjou, F; Brun, P; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ginzov, C Diaz; Durand, D; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Gascon, D; Giebels, B; Henault, F; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Horan, D; Houles, J; Jean, P; Jocou, L; Karkar, S; Knoedlseder, J; Kossakowski, R; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lenain, J-P; Leveque, A; Louis, F; Martinez, G; Moudden, Y; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Pavy, S; Petrucci, P-O; Pierre, E; Prast, J; Punch, M; Ramon, P; Rateau, S; Ravel, T; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Shayduk, M; Sizun, P-Y; Sulanke, K-H; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor~Alvarez, L-A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Wischnewski, R

    2015-01-01

    NectarCAM is a camera proposed for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) covering the central energy range of ~100 GeV to ~30 TeV. It has a modular design and is based on the NECTAr chip, at the heart of which is a GHz sampling Switched Capacitor Array and a 12-bit Analog to Digital converter. The camera will be equipped with 265 7-photomultiplier modules, covering a field of view of 8 degrees. Each module includes the photomultiplier bases, high voltage supply, pre-amplifier, trigger, readout and Ethernet transceiver. The recorded events last between a few nanoseconds and tens of nanoseconds. The camera trigger will be flexible so as to minimize the read-out dead-time of the NECTAr chips. NectarCAM is designed to sustain a data rate of more than 4 kHz with less than 5\\% dead time. The camera concept, the design and tests of the various subcomponents and results of thermal and electrical prototypes are presented. The design includes the mechanical structure, cooling of the electro...

  9. Heavy metal contamination of road-deposited sediments in a medium size city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Bian, Bo; Li, Lei

    2008-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium that affects the characteristics of heavy metals in stormwater runoff. 62 RDS samples were collected from four different land use types (commercial, residential, intense traffic and riverside park) in the Zhenjiang city of China. The samples were analysed for concentrations of five metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni). The maximum mean concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni from different land use types were 686, 589, 158, 129 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations, whilst Zn, Cr, Ni and Cu did not show any discernible variations among the other three areas. Seven particle sizes were analysed separately for the heavy metal concentrations. In all studied areas, particles traffic area particularly due to high concentrations of Pb. These findings provide invaluable information for the development of appropriate management strategies to decrease nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas. PMID:18085420

  10. Innovative capabilities, firm performance and foreign ownership: Empirical analysis of large and medium-sized companies form all industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Talaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article innovative capability, i.e. the ability of new products and markets development, is analyzed and empirically tested. The results have proven that the companies with more developed innovative capabilities achieve higher performance levels, but that there is no difference in innovative capabilities between large and medium-sized companies. On the other hand, medium-sized companies have slightly higher levels of sales growth and increase in market share. Also, companies in foreign ownership are better at development of new products and new production methods, and they have higher levels of sales growth, market share and increase in market share.

  11. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    MA, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  12. Methotrexate and etanercept-induced primary cutaneous CD4 positive small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Han; Qiu, Shu; Lu, Rongbiao; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs and biological agents may represent a potential risk of lymphoma development in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. But most cases are diffuse, large B-cell lymphomas. Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, a provisional entity in the 2005 WHO-EORTC classification of cutaneous lymphomas, is only described in a limited number of reports. To our knowledge, our case is a rare instance of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium-sized pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma, after associated treatment with methotrexate and etanercept, in a patient with moderate rheumatoid arthritis who had undergone an orchidectomy incorrectly. PMID:27438209

  13. Technology spin-offs from a CANDU development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6) and ACR-1000 design retain many essential features of the operating CANDU 6 plant design. As well as further-enhanced safety, the design also focuses on operability and maintainability, drawing on valuable customer input and OPEX. The engineering development of the ACR-1000 design has been accompanied by a research and confirmatory testing program. The ACR technology developed during the ACR-1000 Basic Engineering Program and the supporting development testing has extended the database of knowledge on the CANDU design. This paper provides a summary of technology arising from the ACR program that has been incorporated into new CANDU designs such as the Enhanced CANDU 6 (EC6), or can be applied for servicing operating CANDU reactors. (author)

  14. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. PMID:24302431

  15. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, R.H.; Macici, N [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gibb, R. [New Brunswick Power, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Purdy, P.L.; Manzer, A.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO{sub 2} fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly

  16. Fuel condition in Canadian CANDU 6 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cornerstone of the CANDU concept is its natural uranium fuel, and the success of its reactor operation hinges on the fuel condition in the reactor. Neutron economy, on power refuelling, and simple fuel design are among the unique characteristics of CANDU fuel. In Canadian CANDU 6 reactors (Gentilly 2 and Point Lepreau), the 37-element fuel has provided an enviable record of safe, economic and reliable plant operation for 29 reactor years to date. The fuelling cost is among the lowest in the world - a corollary of high neutron economy, simple fuel design, and judicial fuelling scheme. The reliability of fuel is high: only 21 of the 60000 bundles discharged from Gentilly 2 were confirmed defective and the five-year period from March 1992 to February 1997 saw no defect at all at Gentilly-2. Also, thanks to the inherent on-power refuelling capability and an effective defect detection and removal system, the primary coolant loops are kept extremely clean (very low activity level) - benefiting both maintenance and safety. Moreover, the inventories of fission products in the core and in the channel are maintained within the safety analysis envelope, due to on-power fuelling and sophisticated fuel management. In this paper, CANDU 6 fuel performance is reviewed against the feedback from post-irradiation examinations, and the findings from our ongoing R and D program. The results suggest that the fuel behavior m reactor are basically as originally anticipated, despite an evolutionary 3% increase in bundle uranium mass in the 1980's. For operating conditions within the CANDU 6 37-element experience, the average strains are typically 0.09%; and fission gas release, 2.7%. The UO2 fuel remains stoichiometric after irradiation. In-core measurements of pressure tube fitting are generally low. All these observations are consistent with the excellent fuel performance statistics coming out of the two Canadian CANDU 6 reactors. Additionally, this paper will briefly discuss our

  17. Factors preceding CRM readiness in small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Vallabh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Customer relationship management (CRM is important to organisations striving for competitive advantage through building relationships with their customers.Research purpose: This study identified the factors preceding CRM and assessed selected South African small- and medium-sized tourism enterprises’ (SMTEs readiness for CRM.Motivation: CRM is likely to enhance SMTEs’ competitiveness. However, successful adoption and implementation of CRM is unlikely unless the organisation is ready for it.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research approach and survey questionnaire yielded primary data from 332 respondent organisations selected by systematic sampling. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify the latent factors preceding CRM readiness. Organisational CRM readiness was assessed based on CRM maturity in terms of data collection, use and sharing throughout the organisation.Main findings: Respondent-organisations performed well on the four factors preceding CRM readiness − business strategy, customer strategy, touch points and competencies, skills and technology and also on data collections and use, but not on data sharing.Practical/Managerial implications: CRM practice is believed to assist organisations in tailoring products and services to customers’ needs, providing customer satisfaction, enhancing customer retention and ultimately improving the organisation’s competitiveness and profitability. CRM might fail if SMTEs do not have CRM-enabling conditions in place and a CRM readiness audit should therefore be performed.Contribution: The study contributes to a largely under-researched area concerning CRM in SMTEs by providing an improved understanding of the factors that will enable SMTEs to engage in CRM activities.

  18. Geological constraints of giant and medium-sized gas fields in Kuqa Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    There is a gas-rich and well-charged petroleum system in the Kuqa Depression where Triassic and Jurassic source rocks play important roles. Distributed in an area of more than 10000 km2 and with a thickness of up to 1000 m, they are composed of dark mudstones, carbonaceous mudstones and coal seams containing 6%, 40% and 90% of TOC, respectively, and are mainly the humic organic matter. As high-quality regional cap rocks, the Neogene and Eogene gypsum rocks and gypseous mudstones matched well with the underlying Neogene and Cretaceous-Eogene sandstones. They have formed the most favorable reservoir-seal assemblages in the Kuqa Depression. Also the Jurassic sandstones and mudstones formed another favorable reservoir-seal assemblage. The traps are shaped late in the fold-thrust belt, mainly fixed in the Tertiary-Quaternary, where ten structure styles have been distinguished. These traps spread as a zone in N-S, are scattered like a segmental line in W-E and show tier-styled vertically. The best traps are gypsum-salt covered fault-bend anticlines related to the passive roof duplex. This petroleum system is characterized by late accumulation. In the early Himalayan Movement, mainly gas condensate and oil accumulated and were distributed in the outer circular region of the kitchen; whereas in the middle and late Himalayan the gas accumulations mainly formed and were distributed in the inner circular region near the kitchen. The overpressure of gas pools is common and is formed by seal capacity of thick gypsum layers, extensive tectonic compression and large uplift. The well-preserved anticline traps underlying the high-quality regional cap rocks of the Tertiary gypsum rocks and gypseous mudstones are the main targets for the discovery of giant and medium-sized gas fields. Above conclusions are important for the petroleum geology theory and the exploration of the fold-thrust belt in foreland basins in central and western China.

  19. Are fragment-based quantum chemistry methods applicable to medium-sized water clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dandan; Shen, Xiaoling; Li, Wei; Li, Shuhua

    2016-06-28

    Fragment-based quantum chemistry methods are either based on the many-body expansion or the inclusion-exclusion principle. To compare the applicability of these two categories of methods, we have systematically evaluated the performance of the generalized energy based fragmentation (GEBF) method (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 2193) and the electrostatically embedded many-body (EE-MB) method (J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2007, 3, 46) for medium-sized water clusters (H2O)n (n = 10, 20, 30). Our calculations demonstrate that the GEBF method provides uniformly accurate ground-state energies for 10 low-energy isomers of three water clusters under study at a series of theory levels, while the EE-MB method (with one water molecule as a fragment and without using the cutoff distance) shows a poor convergence for (H2O)20 and (H2O)30 when the basis set contains diffuse functions. Our analysis shows that the neglect of the basis set superposition error for each subsystem has little effect on the accuracy of the GEBF method, but leads to much less accurate results for the EE-MB method. The accuracy of the EE-MB method can be dramatically improved by using an appropriate cutoff distance and using two water molecules as a fragment. For (H2O)30, the average deviation of the EE-MB method truncated up to the three-body level calculated using this strategy (relative to the conventional energies) is about 0.003 hartree at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level, while the deviation of the GEBF method with a similar computational cost is less than 0.001 hartree. The GEBF method is demonstrated to be applicable for electronic structure calculations of water clusters at any basis set. PMID:27263629

  20. The Effective Use of Facebook by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Operating in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Pollák

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this study was to identify and then interpret the basic preconditions for effective use of the social networking site Facebook as a marketing communication platform for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs operating in a selected Central European market. Design/Methodology/Approach – In order to achieve the objective, as well as partial targets, this contribution can be seen as a summary of two autonomous and extensive analyses. The context necessary for the fulfillment of the main objective was analyzed based on secondary data on hundreds of company profiles (of local SMEs, operating predominantly in the service sector and conducting their business activities in a business-to-consumer (B2C environment managed by a specific marketing agency operating on the Slovak market. The collected data were subsequently subjected to a thorough statistical testing based on monitored parameters. Findings and implications – From the perspective of the main findings, basic recommendations for the efficient use of selected marketing communication tools on the social networking site Facebook are described in terms of improving the expected user interactions. Limitations – We consider the mainly local nature of the data sources to be the biggest limitation in the research process. Due to the local nature of this study, however, this limitation has no significant effect on the quality of the research. Originality – The findings and information presented in this contribution can help improve our understanding of issues related to the effective implementation of resources (time and finances by entities using selected marketing tools, particularly marketing communication in the context of the social networking site Facebook for the purpose of promotion and branding.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a medium sized PV facility in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier University's School of Engineering has been involved in education and research in renewable energy for the past 35 years. With the aim demonstration of the viability of production of solar electricity at a high latitude location such as Edinburgh (56 degree north)the school undertook to commission a medium-sized PV electricity generation project. The installation of 32 rows of BP solar silicon panels covering a total area of 160 square metres ensures generation of 17.6kW peak (AC) power. Figure 1 presents a photograph of the facility under discussion. The project has been part (60%) financed by UK Government's PV electricity demonstration programme through the office of Energy Saving Trust. The University has plans to generate hydrogen from solar electricity that will be stored for noctumal production of electricity using fuel-cell technology, thus completing the complete cycle of generation, storage and reproduction of sustainable energy. The project that is part of Napier University's Merchiton Campus was completed on 6 April 2005 and since that date AC power has been fed into the University grid with the peak power being enough to operate up to 80 of the 500 computers at the University's Jack Kilby Computing Centre. DC power is produced from the BP solar high efficincy (17%) monocrystalline panels, each of which produces 90W of power at 22 Volts. This DC electricity is then fed into a total of four inverters hence converting to a stable AC supply. Two of the larger inverters receive current from 12 rows (4 strings x 3 rows) each, while the smaller inverters take power in from 4 rows (2 strings x 2 rows) each. The PV facility is fully instrumented with both input (incident solar energy) and PV electrical energy output recorded at a frequency of 15 minutes. This article will present the energetic, environmental and monetary life cycle assessment (LCA) of the above facility.(Author)

  2. Maximum urban heat island intensity in a medium-sized coastal Mediterranean city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K.; Kittas, Constantinos

    2012-02-01

    This paper studies the maximum intensity of the urban heat island (UHI) that develops in Volos urban area, a medium-sized coastal city in central Greece. The maximum temperature difference between the city center and a suburb is 3.4°C and 3.1°C during winter and summer, respectively, while during both seasons the average maximum UHI intensity is 2.0°C. The UHI usually starts developing after sunset during both seasons. It could be attributed to the different nocturnal radiative cooling rate and to the different anthropogenic heat emission rate that are observed at the city center and at the suburb, as well as to meteorological conditions. The analysis reveals that during both seasons the daily maximum hourly (DMH) UHI intensity is positively correlated with solar radiation and with previous day's maximum hourly UHI intensity and negatively correlated with wind speed. It is also negatively correlated with relative humidity during winter but positively correlated with it during summer. This difference could be attributed to the different mechanisms that mainly drive humidity levels (i.e., evaporation in winter and sea breeze (SB) in summer). Moreover, it is found that SB development triggers a delay in UHI formation in summer. The impact of atmospheric pollution on maximum UHI intensity is also examined. An increase in PM10 concentration is associated with an increase in maximum UHI intensity during winter and with a decrease during summer. The impact of PM10 on UHI is caused by the attenuation of the incoming and the outgoing radiation. Additionally, this study shows that the weekly cycle of the city activities induces a weekly variation in maximum UHI intensity levels. The weekly range of DMH UHI intensity is not very large, being more pronounced during winter (0.4°C). Moreover, a first attempt is made to predict the DMH UHI intensity by applying regression models, whose success is rather promising.

  3. PEDESTRIAN RESPONSE TO ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE FOR MEDIUM SIZE CITY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritikana Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Level of vehicular noise pollution is one of the major factors to choose pedestrian mode of transportation among other modes of transportation. Transportation systems and their related outcomes are responsible for ensuring safe travel options, including walking people of all ages and different abilities. This study will provide an opportunity to quantify the environmental impact in terms of noise level for future development and planning of pedestrian infrastructure in India. It will also help in modal shifting towards walking, improvements in energy efficiency, and the impact of specific contaminants on health. Exposure of high noise level can cause annoyance and severe stress on auditory and nervous system of pedestrians. Most of the Indian cities have noise level above than acceptable limits because of rapid urbanization with increasing number of vehicular traffic. The objective of this study is to study response of pedestrians towards noise pollution in Roorkee at different locations based on different land use. Roorkee is a medium size city with a population of 2.73 lakhs (Roorkee Metropolitan areas, 2011 census, situated in Uttarakhand, India. It is a city with large number of educational institutions and sizable numbers of student population. Noise level study has been carried out at ten locations on NH-58 near Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. Noise data was collected at an interval of 30 seconds. Design implications for future improvement of pedestrian infrastructure have been presented in this paper considering traffic noise as an environmental factor. It is expected that the study outcome shall be useful in understanding positive effect of low traffic noise encouraging increased usage of pedestrian facilities within urban transport network.

  4. THE PREMISES OF STRATEGIC MARKETING PLANNING IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Andrei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present paper is to identify the framework and the necessary conditions for the small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs to be able to adopt the strategic marketing planning. Also, the paper aims to underline the importance of the strategic marketing planning and the manner in which the SMEs can adopt, implement and operationalize the strategic marketing planning instruments, whose correct understanding and usage ensure the capacity to generate competitive advantage, the key element both from the perspective of the fierce competition and the perspective of the future development of the SMEs. Within SMEs the implementation of marketing becomes an evident requirment, mostly due to the relationship that these have with the market, thus, leading towards market orientation of the activities, a new approach developed by the marketing vision on managing the activities from these types of organizations. Regarded upon, from the marketing perspective, the activities from the SMEs, especially the marketing activities, cannot take place randomly. Resource allocation, a characteristic of these types of organizations, and the objectives with regards to superior customer needs satisfaction and economic efficiency maximization, claim thorough plannification and deployment of the activities in a sequence that represents the implementation of a strategy previously assumed. Within this framework, the strategic marketing planning appears as a complex process employing all scientific instruments that comprise segmentation, positioning and marketing mix. Utilizing the strategic marketing planning within SMEs depends to further extend on marketing integration; process directly related with a series of factors such as the nature of the market, development stage, product type, management quality and the influences of the marketing department of the SME. The implications onto the marketing activities from SMEs are reflected upon each strategic

  5. Morbidity of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Amand; Eichner, Friederike; Stang, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Asylum seekers constitute a particularly vulnerable group. Not only is their physical and mental health exposed to multiple stresses, but also their access to health care in Germany is legally restricted. Up to now, there is very limited scientific literature investigating the health-outcomes of asylum seekers in Germany. The aim of this study was to provide prevalence data on the morbidity and vaccination status of asylum seekers in a medium-sized German city. We used a structured questionnaire in a cross-sectional study on 214 adult asylum seekers (182 males, 24 females, 8 unknown) in Halle, Germany, 2015. The questionnaire inquired about the respondent's self-reported physical health and vaccination status and assessed their mental health using the Hopkins-Symptom-Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Pain (37.9 %) and psychological illness (depression: 54.7 %, anxiety disorder: 40.2 %; post-traumatic stress disorder: 18.2 %) were the most prevalent complaints. Among asylum seekers with psychological complaints, co-morbidity was high (64.2 % had more than one psychological disease). 5.6 % of the respondents mentioned suicidal thoughts. The prevalence of chronic diseases was low. We suggest interventions to improve asylum seekers' health on two levels: first, the obligatory initial medical examination after the refugees' arrival at the reception centre should be complemented with questions related to the vaccination status and the most common complaints including pain and psychological diseases. Second, medical infrastructure should be expanded to better serve the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse patient populations, so that those screened positive can be referred for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27068422

  6. Bioluminescence imaging in a medium-sized animal by local injection of d-luciferin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciferase is one of the most commonly used reporter enzymes in the field of molecular imaging. D-luciferin is known as the substrate for luciferase enzyme and its cost is very expensive. Therefore, the bioluminescence molecular imaging study has been allowed in small animals such as mice and rats. In this current study, we validated local injection of D-luciferin in articular capsule for bioluminescence imaging in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured and infected by replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding firefly luciferase. And then was performed different method of chondrocyte cell injection and transplantation into the knee of rabbits. The rabbits underwent imaging by cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin (3mg) into experimental knee joint as well as contralateral normal knee joint on days 1, 5, 7, 9. We sought whether optimal imaging signal was acquired by using cooled CCD camera after local injection of D-luciferin. We successfully visualized injected or transplanted cells in knee joint by local injection of D-luciferin. Total photon flux (7.86E+08 p/s/cm2/sr) from the knee joint transplanted with cells approximately increased 10-fold more than (9.43E+07p/s/cm2/sr) that from injected knee joints until 7 day. Imaging signal was observed in transplanted joints until day 9 after surgery while signal from injected knee was observed by day 7 after injection. We successfully carried out bioluminescence imaging study with medium sized animal by local injection of small amount of D-luciferin. Survival of chondrocytes were prolonged when surgically transplanted in joints than when directly injected in joint space

  7. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  8. Impact of EU Enlargement on Business Environment of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Marián Gál; Tomás Sabol

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of EU enlargement on business environment in the Slovak Republic. Integration of Slovakia into EU has significantly influenced operating conditions for small and medium enterprises. Prosperity of small and medium enterprises depends mainly on their ability to adapt themselves to these new conditions.

  9. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for PDO sheath temperature prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle PDO experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of PDO model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of subchannel flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against PDO tests performed during five full-size CANDU bundle experiments conducted between 1992 and 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element bundles. A total of 10 PDO test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for existing CANDU reactors. Code predictions of maximum PDO fuel-sheath temperature were compared against measurements from the SL PDO tests to quantify the code's prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, separate-effects sensitivity studies quantified the contribution of each PDO model change or enhancement to the improvement in PDO heat transfer prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of PDO sheath temperature in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  10. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Z., E-mail: chengz@aecl.ca; Rao, Y.F., E-mail: raoy@aecl.ca; Waddington, G.M., E-mail: waddingg@aecl.ca

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for PDO sheath temperature prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle PDO experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of PDO model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of subchannel flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against PDO tests performed during five full-size CANDU bundle experiments conducted between 1992 and 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element bundles. A total of 10 PDO test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for existing CANDU reactors. Code predictions of maximum PDO fuel-sheath temperature were compared against measurements from the SL PDO tests to quantify the code's prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, separate-effects sensitivity studies quantified the contribution of each PDO model change or enhancement to the improvement in PDO heat transfer prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of PDO sheath temperature in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles.

  11. Modelling and simulation of dynamic characteristics of CANDU-SCWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to the thermal properties of supercritical water and features of heat transfer correlation under supercritical pressure, a detailed thermal-hydraulic model with movable boundary of is developed for CANDU-SCWR (Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactor). Steady-state results of the model agree well with the design data. The dynamic responses of CANDU-SCWR to different disturbances are simulated and characteristics are analyzed. A dynamic model for ACR is also developed using CATHENA. Differences between dynamic characteristics of CANDU-SCWR and those of ACR are highlighted and investigated. It is concluded that CANDU-SCWR has a larger time constant, but with a higher response amplitude. (author)

  12. Validation of WIMS-CANDU using Pin-Cell Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Young; Min, Byung Joo; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The WIMS-CANDU is a lattice code which has a depletion capability for the analysis of reactor physics problems related to a design and safety. The WIMS-CANDU code has been developed from the WIMSD5B, a version of the WIMS code released from the OECD/NEA data bank in 1998. The lattice code POWDERPUFS-V (PPV) has been used for the physics design and analysis of a natural uranium fuel for the CANDU reactor. However since the application of PPV is limited to a fresh fuel due to its empirical correlations, the WIMS-AECL code has been developed by AECL to substitute the PPV. Also, the WIMS-CANDU code is being developed to perform the physics analysis of the present operating CANDU reactors as a replacement of PPV. As one of the developing work of WIMS-CANDU, the U{sup 238} absorption cross-section in the nuclear data library of WIMS-CANDU was updated and WIMS-CANDU was validated using the benchmark problems for pin-cell lattices such as TRX-1, TRX-2, Bapl-1, Bapl-2 and Bapl-3. The results by the WIMS-CANDU and the WIMS-AECL were compared with the experimental data.

  13. Reactor physics and economic aspects of the CANDU reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A history of the development of the CANDU system is given along with a fairly detailed description of the 600 MW(e) CANDU reactor. Reactor physics calculation methods are described, as well as comparisons between calculated reactor physics parameters and those measured in research and power reactors. An examination of the economics of CANDU in the Ontario Hydro system and a comparison between fossil fuelled and light water reactors is presented. Some physics, economics and resources aspects are given for both low enriched uranium and thorium-fuelled CANDU reactors. Finally the RβD program in Advanced Fuel Cycles is briefly described

  14. Using the Critical Incident Technique to Research Decision Making regarding Access to Training and Development in Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Alan; Redmond, Janice; Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2012-01-01

    Employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) form part of a "disadvantaged" group within the workforce that receives less access to training and development (T&D) than employees in large firms. Prior research into reasons for the relatively low levels of employee participation in training and development has typically involved surveys of…

  15. Virtual Class: Distance Learning for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises in the Spanish Region of Castilla y Leon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Blanca; Perez, Maria Angeles; Verdu, Maria Jesus; Navazo, Maria Agustina; Lopez, Ricardo; Mompo, Rafael; Garcia, Joaquin

    Lifelong learning is becoming a necessity in the new Information Society where everyone, particularly small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), must keep up with new technologies. Education and training are of the most importance in this updating. An interdisciplinary and inter-university work group called "Canalejas" (Spain) has developed a…

  16. Using Computer-Based Continuing Professional Education of Training Staff to Develop Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraksa, Nanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a career development program for staff involved in providing training for small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Most of these staff were professional vocational teachers in schools. The program uses information communication technology (ICT), and its main objective is to teach Moodle software as a tool for…

  17. A Bayesian Approach to International Distributor Selection for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the Software Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying appropriate international distributors for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the software industry for overseas markets can determine a firm's future endeavors in international expansion. SMEs lack the complex skills in market research and decision analysis to identify suitable partners to engage in global market entry.…

  18. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  19. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... WATER REGULATIONS Control of Lead and Copper § 141.81 Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps... review and approve the addition of a new source or long-term change in water treatment before it...

  20. Organoselenium and DMAP co-catalysis: regioselective synthesis of medium-sized halolactones and bromooxepanes from unactivated alkenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay; Jana, Sadhan; Prasad, Ch Durga; Yadav, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-03-18

    A catalytic system consisting of bis(4-methoxyphenyl)selenide and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) has been developed for the regioselective synthesis of medium-sized bromo/iodo lactones and bromooxepanes possessing high transannular strain. (77)Se NMR, mass spectrometry and theoretical studies reveal that the reaction proceeds via a quaternary selenium intermediate. PMID:26906914

  1. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND...

  2. UCD4SME: Small to Medium-sized Enterprises involving their users and clients for product innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Lille, C.S.H.

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of Small to Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) starts to realize the opportunities offered by User-centred Design (UCD). The issue is that our understanding of UCD either comes from large companies or is developed in an academic setting, without taking SMEs into account. This resea

  3. Deriving Default Dermal Exposure Values for Use in a Risk Assessment Toolkit for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Goede, H.A.; Tijssen, S.C.H.A.; Oppl, R.; Schipper, H.J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the derivation of default task-based dermal exposure values for use in a risk assessment toolkit for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). A set of separately determined dermal exposure modifiers have been applied to published studies of dermal exposure to obtain 'normalize

  4. The influence of CEO gender on market orientation and performance in service small and medium-sized service businesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Peter S.; Babakus, Emin; Danskin Englis, Paula; Pett, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effects of CEO gender on market orientation and performance (growth and profitability) among a sample of small and medium-sized service businesses. Gender was found to have significant indirect effects (via market orientation) on both market performance (growth) and financial

  5. Revenue-Based Financial Modeling: A Sustainable Model for Medium-Size, Private, Mission-Based Schools of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbouk, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the implementation and assessment of revenue-based budgeting at a medium-size, private, mission-based graduate school of education (SOE), under the pseudonym Peter Claver University (PCU). Additionally, two other similar schools were included in the study because they used revenue-based budgeting for a period of 10 years or…

  6. Heavy water cycle in the CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen atom has two isotopes: deuterium 1H2 and tritium 1H3. The deuterium oxide D2O is called heavy water due to its density of 1105.2 Kg/m3. Another important physical property of the heavy water is the low neutron capture section, suitable to moderate the neutrons into natural uranium fission reactor as CANDU. Due to the fact that into this reactor the fuel is cooled into the pressure tubes surrounded by a moderator, the usage of D2O as primary heat transport (PHT) agent is mandatory. Therefore a large amount of heavy water (approx. 500 tons) is used in a CANDU reactor. Being a costly resource - it represents 20% of the initial plant capital cost, D2O management is required to preserve it. (author)

  7. A review of CANDU plant lifetime management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, plant lifetime management(PLIM) including life extension has become the focus of the nuclear industry worldwide due to a number of factors which have arisen over the past decade : new siting difficulties, imbalance of power supply and demand, and high construction costs. In order to solve the problems, the PLIM program is being developed for the purpose of life extension and improvement of plant availability and safety. This paper describes the current activities and prospects of AECL and CANDU utilities, the conceptional evaluation results for the degradation mechanisms, and PLIM regulatory aspects. In addition, this paper provides the applicability of CANDU PLIM to Wolsong Unit 1 which has been operated for 17 years

  8. CANDU 9 design for hydrogen in containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU 9 is a single unit plant whose design is based on proven CANDU technology with some design improvements in plant performance and safety. One improvement is in the area of post-accident hydrogen control. The reactor building layout and hydrogen control system are designed to enhance atmospheric mixing and prevent unacceptably high local and global hydrogen concentrations. Preliminary safety analysis shows that a maximum of 300 kg of hydrogen is produced during the metal-water reaction phase of severe accident: a large LOCA with emergency core cooling unavailable. Even though the hydrogen production rate is conservatively overestimated, preliminary containment thermalhydraulic analysis predicts that the maximum hydrogen concentration in the accident vault peaks at 6.8% by volume without crediting hydrogen igniters and recombiners. After about one hour, the concentration throughout the reactor building is about 2.4%. (author)

  9. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Cities and communities are central players in the energy transition process. Energy demand is determined by the built environment. Renewable energy production needs space. The conflicts between different interest groups often break out in the context of local implementation measures that affect urban planning and the appearance of landscapes.Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders lack experience and criteria for strategic decision making. After a period of fierce determination to turn the wheel against climate change, it seems that there is a growing resignation among politicians, planners and the public because some things have not turned out the way we’d expected and the hope for quick solutions fades. Rebound-effects seem to eat up the savings to a good extent, and alternative ideas of how sustainable energy systems may be put into place have not yet been persuasive in many cases. Energy systems have proved to be complex. They are still perceived to be important but in practice there is a growing uneasiness about the right steps to take. The overarching research question of this thesis is: What do decision makers in smalland medium-sized communities need to become more successful in implementing

  10. Candu technology: the next generation now

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the development philosophy, direction and concepts that are being utilized by AECL to refine the CANDU reactor to meet the needs of current and future competitive energy markets. The technology development path for CANDU reactors is based on the optimization of the pressure tube concept. Because of the inherent modularity and flexibility of this basis for the core design, it is possible to provide a seamless and continuous evolution of the reactor design and performance. There is no need for a drastic shift in concept, in technology or in fuel. By continual refinement of the flow and materials conditions in the channels, the basic reactor can be thermally and operationally efficient, highly competitive and economic, and highly flexible in application. Thus, the design can build on the successful construction and operating experience of the existing plants, and no step changes in development direction are needed. This approach minimizes investor, operator and development risk but still provides technological, safety and performance advances. In today's world energy markets, major drivers for the technology development are: (a) reduced capital cost; (b) improved operation; (c) enhanced safety; and (d) fuel cycle flexibility. The drivers provide specific numerical targets. Meeting these drivers ensures that the concept meets and exceeds the customer economic, performance, safety and resource use goals and requirements, including the suitable national and international standards. This logical development of the CANDU concept leads naturally to the 'Next Generation' of CANDU reactors. The major features under development include an optimized lattice for SEU (slightly enriched uranium) fuel, light water cooling coupled with heavy water moderation, advanced fuel channels and CANFLEX fuel, optimization of plant performance, enhanced thermal and BOP (balance of plant) efficiency, and the adoption of layout and construction technology adapted from successful on

  11. NEW APPROACHES TO CUSTOMER BASE SEGMENTATION FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meleancă Raluca-Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this paper is to explore current praxis and theory related to customer segmentation and to offer an approach which is best suited for small and medium sized enterprises. The proposed solution is the result of an exploratory research aiming to recognize the main variables which influence the practice of segmenting the customer base and to study the most applied alternatives available for all types of enterprises. The research has been performed by studying a large set of secondary data, scientific literature and case studies regarding smaller companies from the European Union. The result of the research consists in an original approach to customer base segmentation, which combines aspects belonging to different well spread practices and applies them to the specific needs of a small or medium company, which typically has limited marketing resources in general and targeted marketing resources in particular. The significance of the proposed customer base segmentation approach lies in the fact that, even though smaller enterprises are in most economies the greatest in number compared to large companies, most of the literature on targeting practices has focused primarily on big companies dealing with a very large clientele, while the case of the smaller companies has been to some extent unfairly neglected. Targeted marketing is becoming more and more important for all types of companies nowadays, as a result of technology advances which make targeted communication easier and less expensive than in the past and also due to the fact that broad-based media have decreased their impact over the years. For a very large proportion of smaller companies, directing their marketing budgets towards targeted campaigns is a clever initiative, as broad based approaches are in many cases less effective and much more expensive. Targeted marketing stratagems are generally related to high tech domains such as artificial intelligence, data mining

  12. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. To be competitive in anticipated markets, small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) rely on design and deployment approaches that are able to offset the adverse impacts of economy of scale. Such approaches include design simplification resulting from the application of safety design features that are the most appropriate for reactors of smaller capacity; the economy of mass production of multiple prefabricated modules; the option of incremental capacity increase, with possible benefits resulting from accelerated learning; sharing of common equipment and facilities; shorter construction

  13. Independence and diversity in CANDU shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy Control Board regulations state that Canadian CANDU reactors shall have two fully effective, independent and diverse shutdown systems. The Darlington Nuclear Generating Station is the first power plant operated by Ontario Hydro to make use of software-based computer control in its shutdown systems. By virtue of the reliance placed on these systems to prevent exposure of the public to harmful radioactivity in the event of an accident, the shutdown system software has been categorized as safety critical software. An important issue that was considered in the design of the Darlington shutdown systems was how the software should be designed and incorporated into the systems to comply with the independence and diversity requirement. This paper describes how the independence and diversity requirement was complied with in previous CANDU shutdown system designs utilizing hardware components. The difference between systems utilizing hardware alone, and those utilizing both hardware and software are discussed. The results of a literature search into the issue of software diversity, the behaviour of multi-version software systems, and experience in other industries utilizing safety critical software are referred to. This paper advocates a systems approach to designing independent shutdown systems utilizing software. Opportunities exist at the system level for design decisions that can enhance software diversity and can reduce the likelihood of common mode faults in the systems. In the light of recent experience in implementing diverse safety critical software, potential improvements to the design process for CANDU shutdown systems are identified. (Author) 19 refs

  14. CANDU spent fuel dry storage interim technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDU heavy water reactor is developed by Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) it has 40 years of design life. During operation, the reactor can discharge a lot of spent fuels by using natural uranium. The spent fuel interim storage should be considered because the spent fuel bay storage capacity is limited with 6 years inventory. Spent fuel wet interim storage technique was adopted by AECL before 1970s, but it is diseconomy and produced extra radiation waste. So based on CANDU smaller fuel bundle dimension, lighter weight, lower burn-up and no-critical risk, AECL developed spent fuel dry interim storage technique which was applied in many CANDU reactors. Spent fuel dry interim storage facility should be designed base on critical accident prevention, decay heat removal, radiation protection and fissionable material containment. According to this introduction, analysis spent fuel dry interim storage facility and equipment design feature, it can be concluded that spent fuel dry interim storage could be met with the design requirement. (author)

  15. Coolability of severely degraded CANDU cores. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneley, D.A.; Blahnik, C.; Rogers, J.T.; Snell, V.G.; Nijhawan, S

    1996-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies have shown that the separately cooled moderator in a CANDU reactor provides an effective heat sink in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) accompanied by total failure of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). The moderator heat sink prevents fuel melting and maintains the integrity of the fuel channels, therefore terminating this severe accident short of severe core damage. Nevertheless, there is a probability, however low, that the moderator heat sink could fail in such an accident. The pioneering work of Rogers (1984) for such a severe accident using simplified models showed that the fuel channels would fail and a bed of dry, solid debris would be formed at the bottom of the calandria which would heat up and eventually melt. However, the molten pool of core material would be retained in the calandria vessel, cooled by the independently cooled shield-tank water, and would eventually resolidify. Thus, the calandria vessel would act inherently as a 'core-catcher' as long as the shield tank integrity is maintained. The present paper reviews subsequent work on the damage to a CANDU core under severe accident conditions and describes an empirically based mechanistic model of this process. It is shown that, for such severe accident sequences in a CANDU reactor, the end state following core disassembly consists of a porous bed of dry solid, coarse debris, irrespective of the initiating event and the core disassembly process. (author)

  16. Integrated control centre concepts for CANDU power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size and complexity of nuclear power plants has increased significantly in the last 20 years. There is general agreement that plant safety and power production can be enhanced if more operational support systems that are significantly different from the ones based on the more conventional technologies used in plant control rooms. In particular, artificial intelligence and related technologies will play a major role in the development of innovative methods for information processing and presentation. These technologies must be integrated into the overall management and control philosophy of the plant and not be treated as vehicles to implement point solutions. The underlying philosophy behind our approach is discussed in this paper. Operator support systems will integrate into the overall control philosophy by complementing the operator. Four support systems are described; each is a prototype of a system being considered for the CANDU 3 control centre

  17. Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cánovas, M.; Gálvez, J. C.; Moragues, A.; Bermejo, E. B.

    2010-01-01

    The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC) has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa) self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost....

  18. Rupture process of four medium-sized earthquakes that occurred in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    RodríGuez-Lozoya, HéCtor E.; Quintanar, Luis; Ortega, Roberto; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Yagi, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    Four medium-sized earthquakes (Mw Global CMT project 5.5, 5.6, 5.9, 6.3; hereinafter named Topolobampo, Angel de la Guarda, San Lorenzo, and Loreto earthquakes, respectively) located in the Gulf of California Extensional Province were studied to obtain their kinematic rupture processes. A network of broadband seismic stations located around the Gulf of California recorded the events (Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha). Inversion of the seismic moment tensor and body waveform modeling were used to obtain the fault geometry and slip distribution on the fault plane, respectively. From these analyses, we obtained source depths of the order of 5.5 ± 0.5 km. We found also that the source rupture processes of the Topolobampo and Angel de la Guarda events have simple moment rate functions and source time durations of 5.0 ± 1.2 and 4.2 ± 1.2 s, respectively. The Topolobampo event was a right-lateral strike-slip event, and Angel de la Guarda was a normal event. The San Lorenzo and Loreto shocks show a rather complex rupture, with source time durations of 7.5 ± 1.2 and 9.0 ± 1.2 s, respectively. For these earthquakes, we tested the resolution of numerical results, performing an extra inversion with smoother waveforms. The new inversions do not show the separated patches of slip, as in the first analysis, but the slip distribution has an elongated shape not characteristic of simple events. We cannot therefore conclude rupture propagation for the San Lorenzo event, although the extent of the patch for the Loreto earthquake agrees with aftershock locations. Estimates of source time durations for these earthquakes are at the upper limit of the values found for earthquakes elsewhere. Directions of P axes are in the same order of magnitude as the maximum horizontal stress obtained for the so-called Gulf of California stress province from borehole elongations, focal plane solutions, and fault slip data.

  19. An Innovative Farm Scale Biogas/Composting Facility for a Sustainable Medium Size Dairy Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Approach: The amount of energy related costs as a portion of the total farm operating cost can be as high as 29% and the continuing increase of the real cost of energy related farm input has been one of the major factors impacting the cost of agricultural production. However, agricultural has the potential of replacing some of the purchased energy in the form of fossil fuels, commercial fertilizer and field production of animal feed with bioenergy and organic fertilizer from onsite renewable biomass such as animal manure in order to economically and environmentally sustain it. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative energy efficient pilot scale anaerobic digester composting facility. Methodology: A solid/liquid manure separator farm scale anaerobic digester and composting facility for a medium sized dairy farm were designed, constructed and tested. In order to make the anaerobic digestion economically viable under Canadian climatic conditions, the design, installation and operation of the system were based on advantages gained from the digester as a component of the total farm management system. In addition to the biogas production, benefits related to manure handling and storage, environmental quality improvement through odor control and water pollution reduction, fertilizer recovery and water recycling, were considered. Results: The layout of the farm was modified to provide solutions for four environmental problems related to: disposal of milkhouse wastes and overflow from the manure storage facility into the fire pond. The system possesses high energy conversion efficiency at relatively low capital cost and reduced labour requirement and has indirect energy ramifications through the production of organic fertilizer (compost to replace expensive and energy consuming commercial fertilizer as well as the production of bioenergy (biogas which will reduce the demand for energy. The overflow from the system (purified water can be

  20. The Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises Office (SME Office) at the European Medicines Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December 2005, the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) launched an "SME Office" to provide financial and administrative assistance to micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), with the aim of promoting innovation and the development of new human and veterinary medicinal products by SMEs. According to current EU definition of an SME, companies with fewer than 250 employees, and an annual turnover of not more than 50 million euro or an annual balance sheet total of not more than 43 million euro, are eligible for assistance from the SME Office. Incentives available from the EMEA for SMEs, include: Administrative and procedural assistance from SME Office within the Agency; Fee reductions (90%) for scientific advice and inspections; Fee exemptions for certain administrative services (excluding parallel distribution); Deferral of the fee payable for an application for marketing authorisation or related inspection until after the grant of the marketing authorisation; Conditional fee exemption where scientific advice followed and marketing application is unsuccessful; Assistance with translations of the product information documents. At the end of May 2009, more than 380 companies from 21 countries across the European Economic Area (EEA) had SME status assigned by the EMEA. The large majority of companies are developing medicinal products for human use, 16 are veterinary companies, 15 companies are developing products for both human and veterinary use and 38 are regulatory consultants. Since the SME initiative started the Agency has processed more than 130 requests for scientific advice with fee reductions totalling of 6.9 million euro. Regulatory assistance has been provided to more than 170 companies and 12 companies have benefited from the SME translation service. Stakeholders have acknowledged the significant role the SME Office now plays as a service provider. In the period between January 2006 and June 2009, 34 applications for marketing authorization

  1. Knowledge Management Acceptance: Success Factors amongst Small and Medium-Size Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N.L.  TAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The value and importance of knowledge, as seen by numerous organisations today, does without a doubt play a crucial role in the current ever-challenging and aggressive business environment. As a result, businesses that aspire to be labelled as being successful and competitive need to seek and find better ways to improve their firms’ performance. Hence, Knowledge Management (KM, which is viewed as a source of sustainable competitive advantage, has attracted the attention of various companies all over the business world, including Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia. With the realisation of KM, the systematic management of organisation knowledge - a strategic corporate asset not to be taken lightly; can thus be created, transferred, shared and, utilised, in pushing for greater organisational competitiveness, innovativeness and, productivity. This research examined the success factors that help to increase the business performance of SMEs in Malaysia. Besides, it also highlighted the importance and contribution of KM amongst SMEs. Therefore, the reason behind this study is to understand and recognised the acceptance of KM and therefore further classified the success factors that contributed to the business performance outcome amongst SMEs in Malaysia. With this, the success factors observed in this research; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; are thoroughly investigated to explore on whether these factors have an impact on knowledge creation; knowledge transfer; knowledge sharing and knowledge utilisation; of KM processes among SMEs in Malaysia. Approach: This study aids to determined and examined the success factors; culture; leadership; employee participation; Information and Communications Technology (ICT; organisational structure; of SMEs that further influences KM processes; knowledge creation, transfer, sharing, utilisation

  2. Ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses; Ventilation i medelstora och stoerre pannhus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotherus, Dan [AaF Installation AB, Oerebro (Sweden); Larsson, Tord [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to exemplify and clarify the need for ventilation in medium-sized and large boiler houses. We will furthermore present some recommendations, guidelines and advice for the design and construction of a boiler house ventilation system to the plant owners and suppliers of equipment. Boiler house ventilation can be performed in different ways using mechanical or natural ventilation. The solution to be chosen depends on the following factors: Working environment requirements and a necessity to control temperature and pressure in the boiler house; The design of the boiler plant and house; The need for combustion air; The investment expenditure as well as operation and maintenance costs. Mechanical ventilation should be chosen if the aim is a controllable 'climate'. The mechanical ventilation can be either centrally situated or distributed with many aggregates in the boiler house. Centrally situated ventilation equipment will give a higher accessibility and lower maintenance costs than a distributed ventilation system. If the boiler house is designed with natural ventilation the air and flue gas fans will be the only ones installed. In this case temperature and pressure inside the boiler house will be difficult to control. The design factor for the ventilation plant in a boiler house is in most cases the demand to cool the air inside the boiler house to approximately 45 deg C. This is the highest temperature allowed by the Occupational Safety and Health Act in a work environment where the boiler operator is working alone. The air flow which is required for the combustion is normally less than the air flow needed to cool the air in the boiler house. The supply air which is cooling the air inside the boiler house should be supplied on several different levels to attain an efficient cooling. If the combustion air is taken from the heated indoor air the boiler house will work as a heat reclaimer. The difference between outdoor and indoor

  3. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a ‘super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  4. Small, medium, large or supersize? The development and evaluation of interventions targeted at portion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Poelman, M P

    2014-07-01

    In the past decades, portion sizes of high-caloric foods and drinks have increased and can be considered an important environmental obesogenic factor. This paper describes a research project in which the feasibility and effectiveness of environmental interventions targeted at portion size was evaluated. The studies that we conducted revealed that portion size labeling, offering a larger variety of portion sizes, and proportional pricing (that is, a comparable price per unit regardless of the size) were considered feasible to implement according to both consumers and point-of-purchase representatives. Studies into the effectiveness of these interventions demonstrated that the impact of portion size labeling on the (intended) consumption of soft drinks was, at most, modest. Furthermore, the introduction of smaller portion sizes of hot meals in worksite cafeterias in addition to the existing size stimulated a moderate number of consumers to replace their large meals by a small meal. Elaborating on these findings, we advocate further research into communication and marketing strategies related to portion size interventions; the development of environmental portion size interventions as well as educational interventions that improve people's ability to deal with a 'super-sized' environment; the implementation of regulation with respect to portion size labeling, and the use of nudges to stimulate consumers to select healthier portion sizes. PMID:25033959

  5. Life Assurance Strategy for CANDU NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Plants have a nominal 'design life' that forms the basis of equipment specification, economic evaluations and licensing for some jurisdictions. Some component in the plant may require replacement, refurbishing and or rehabilitation during the plant 'design life'. Components which are extremely difficult or economically impossible to replace will place a limit on plant life. Rehabilitation programs completed to date on older CANDU plants to improve reliability of plant components, coupled with R and D programs, experimental data and advanced analytical methods form the basis for CANDU plant component life assurance. Life assurance is verified during plant operation by comprehensive in-service inspection programs and laboratory examinations. The paper provides an overview of the experiences to date on Refurbishment and Rehabilitation programs and some Canadian approaches on the main activities involved in scoping and managing nuclear plant life assurance. A number of proactive programs are underway to anticipate, detect and mitigate potential aging degradation at an early stage to ensure plant safety and reliability. Some of these programs include; systematic plant condition assessment, refurbishment and upgrading programs, environmental qualification programs and a program of examination of components from decommissioned reactors. These programs are part of an overall nuclear power plant maintenance strategy. Beyond life assurance, a longer term approach would be geared towards life extension as a viable option for the future. Recent CANDU designs have benefited from the early CANDU experience and are expected to require less rehabilitation. Examples of changes in CANDU 6 include fuel channel design and adopting a closed component cooling water system. New designs are based on 'design life' longer than that used for economic evaluations. The approach is to design for easy replace ability for components that can be economically replaced. Specific examples

  6. Pressure tube life management in CANDU-6 nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating parameters of pressure tube in CANDU-6 reactor, the relation between pressure tube life and plant life improvement of pressure tube by AECL in past years were summarized, and the factors affecting pressure tube life, idea and main measures of pressure tube life management in QINSHAN CANDU-6 power plant introduced

  7. Effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor of rockfill materials using medium triaxial test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Rockfill dams are mostly constructed using blasted rockfill materials obtained by blasting rocks or al-luvial rockfill materials collected from the riverbeds. Behaviors of rockfill materials and their charac-terization significantly depend on breakage factor observed during triaxial loading. In this paper, two modeled rockfill materials are investigated by using medium triaxial cell. Drained triaxial tests are conducted on various sizes of modeled rockfill materials used in the two dams, and test data are analyzed accordingly. Breakage factor of rockfill material is studied and the effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor are investigated using medium triaxial cell as many researchers have already conducted investigation using large triaxial cell.

  8. How medium-size resurgent calderas work: the case of Pantelleria, Ischia and the unrest Campi Flegrei structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Arienzo, Ilenia; Carandente, Antonio; D'Antonio, Massimo; de Vita, Sandro; di Renzo, Valeria; di Vito, Mauro; Marotta, Enrica; Belviso, Pasquale

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of time and space relationships among magmatism, volcanism, and resurgence of medium-size calderas is a necessary tool to formulate a general model for their dynamics which also permits to forecast their evolution. To define a general hypothesis for the Campi Flegrei caldera, in a persistent state of unrest, the Ischia and Pantelleria medium-size resurgent structures, in variable stages of evolution, have been investigated. In particular some parameters such as the structural and volcanological evolution, with emphasis on resurgence dynamics and coeval volcanism, and the evolution, present state and role of the magmatic system in resurgence, have been defined. For the Campi Flegrei caldera, the data collected during unrest episodes have also been taken into account. This innovative approach adds a time-perspective on how resurgent calderas behave. The proposed general hypothesis will help in long- and short-term volcanic hazards assessment and will support Civil Defence Authorities in elaborating actions devoted to volcanic risk reduction.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to assess the importance of the environmental dimension of the concept of corporate social responsibility (Social Corporate Responsibility - CSR in small and medium-sized enterprises. The first part describes the essence of corporate social responsibility. The second part is the basic pillar of CSR, which is an ecological area. The third part presents the environmental efforts undertaken by small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of CSR. The analysis was based on the literature available and data obtained from empirical research conducted by the writer. The results show that companies, however in different extent undertake ecological activities willingly. Furthermore, those activities benefit not only in terms of the environmental dimension of CSR, but also in other areas of the organization.

  10. Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    2015-01-01

    Unstructured socialization and territorialization. A street-ethnographic take on urban youth in a medium-sized town in Denmark. In 2013, the municipality in Horsens, a medium-sized provincial town in Denmark, bestowed the city's children and young people a skater / parkour / ball-cage facility...... kinds the groups fight for space and place for their unstructured socialization processes with their peers. Officially, the municipality donated the facility to give local children and young people an opportunity to use their bodies and participate in diverting and edifying cultural activities within...... the urban space. But not all children and young people subscribe to these municipal agendas, and thus conflicting relationships also occur between the municipality and (particu-larly) some groups of young people, whose forms of capital, activities and cultural life is not consistent with the normative basis...

  11. Determinants of small and medium sized fast growing enterprises in central and eastern Europe: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mateev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the main determinants of growth in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs in central and eastern Europe. The important role played by SMEs in the economic development of central and eastern European (CEE countries has attracted the recent attention of academics and policymakers but remains relatively unexplored. Empirical research has suggested that firm growth is determined not only by the traditional characteristics of size and age but also by other firm-specific factors such as indebtedness, internal financing, future growth opportunities, process and product innovation, and organisational changes. Although growth in manufacturing and service SMEs in transition economies is well explained by the traditional firm characteristics of size and age, there is no empirical evidence concerning what other specific factors may be associated with SME growth and performance in these countries. Using a panel dataset of 560 fast growing small and medium enterprises from six transition economies we find that firm size when measured by firm total assets can explain to a large extent the growth in SMEs in these countries. When size is proxied by a firm’s number of employees the observed effect is marginal. Firm specific characteristics such as leverage, current liquidity, future growth opportunities, internally generated funds, and factor productivity are found to be important factors in determining a firm’s growth and performance. Age and ownership do not seem to be able to explain firm growth. The results of our empirical study have also some policy implications: we argue that governments in transition economies need to pay an increased attention to small and medium sized enterprises and try to create a business environment that will be beneficial for SME development.

  12. Ultrasonic crack-tip diffraction in CANDU reactor pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there is no reliable method of measuring defect depths in CANDU reactor pressure tubes. The demonstrated success of crack-tip diffraction (or time-of-flight-testing) in round-robins on thick components has promoted an interest in this technique. In CANDU reactors, pressure tubes are effectively accessible only from the inside. Development work has concentrated on outside surface defects using 45 degree shear waves in contrast to the longitudinal waves usually used for testing thick components with this technique. Due to the small wall thickness of the pressure tubes (4.2 mm) and the typical sizes of defects of interest (0.15 mm or greater), frequencies of the order of 20 MHz are being used. A further complication comes from the orientation of the defects, which may be at any angle in pressure tubes. Initial studies have been performed on a series of outside surface notches and slots, plus a real fatigue crack. This crack was on the inside surface, so the technique required measuring this defect's depth from the outside. Initial results are encouraging. Even without signal processing, crack-tip diffracted signals were detectable from all but very large (2.5 mm) and very small (less than 0.076 mm) notches. Errors in estimates of defect depths were typically less than 0.1 mm for all the notches, and the results were consistent. Measurements on the fatigue crack showed similar random errors, though there appeared to be a deterministic error of about 0.1 mm as well

  13. VOLTTRON™: Tech-to-Market Best-Practices Guide for Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cort, Katherine A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicholls, Andrew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-07-11

    VOLTTRON™ is an open-source distributed control and sensing platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. It was developed to be used by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to support transactive controls research and deployment activities. VOLTTRON is designed to be an overarching integration platform that could be used to bring together vendors, users, and developers and enable rapid application development and testing. The platform is designed to support modern control strategies, including the use of agent- and transaction-based controls. It also is designed to support the management of a wide range of applications, including heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; electric vehicles; and distributed-energy and whole-building loads. This report was completed as part of the Building Technologies Office’s Technology-to-Market Initiative for VOLTTRON’s Market Validation and Business Case Development efforts. The report provides technology-to-market guidance and best practices related to VOLTTRON platform deployments and commercialization activities for use by entities serving small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. The report characterizes the platform ecosystem within the small- and medium-sized commercial building market and articulates the value proposition of VOLTTRON for three core participants in this ecosystem: 1) platform owners/adopters, 2) app developers, and 3) end-users. The report also identifies key market drivers and opportunities for open platform deployments in the small- and medium-sized commercial building market. Possible pathways to the market are described—laboratory testing to market adoption to commercialization. We also identify and address various technical and market barriers that could hinder deployment of VOLTTRON. Finally, we provide “best practice” tech-to-market guidance for building energy-related deployment efforts serving small- and

  14. Size-Dependent Transition to High-Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics in a Two-Dimensional Excitable Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Strain, M C; Strain, Matthew C.; Greenside, Henry S.

    1997-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of an excitable medium with multiple spiral defects is shown to vary smoothly with system size from short-lived transients for small systems to extensive chaos for large systems. A comparison of the Lyapunov dimension density with the average spiral defect density suggests an average dimension per spiral defect varying between three and seven. We discuss some implications of these results for experimental studies of ventricular fibrillation.

  15. The role of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in the socio-economic stability of Karachi

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Javed; Herani, Gobind M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the core constraints in financing of SMEs in Karachi that impede their growth and even undermine their liquidity and financial position. Literature review: The problems and constraints are faced by small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Karachi with regard to access to financing. Along with Karachi, the other cities and areas in Pakistan are facing alike problems. Methods: This study is exploratory in nature and includes quantitative and...

  16. Estimation of the Treatment Effects of Ownership on the Indirect Financing of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuzhen Wang; Yi Hu; Xiaohua Xia; Ying Deng

    2014-01-01

    Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the important driving forces for the growth of China’s economy. However, financing difficulty has always been the important problem besetting the development of SMEs for a long time. In particular, in recent years, US subprime crisis in 2008 caused a heavy blow to the development of some externally oriented SMEs. Thus, how to effectively overcome financing predicament for the SMEs is crucial for Chinese government. In this paper, based on microda...

  17. Economic and technical aspects of the use of IP telephony in the segment of small and medium-sized businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Holásek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the introduction of VoIP technology in the environment of small and medium-sized company from techno-economic perspective. The work introduces the VoIP technology in terms of functionality, but also with economic aspects of IP telephony. The aim is to determine whether the transition to VoIP technology may reduce corporate telecommunication costs while contributing to the development of corporate communications. Readers are shown the advantages, but also what the limit...

  18. Effects of particle size and confining pressure on breakage factor of rockfill materials using medium triaxial test

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Rockfill dams are mostly constructed using blasted rockfill materials obtained by blasting rocks or alluvial rockfill materials collected from the riverbeds. Behaviors of rockfill materials and their characterization significantly depend on breakage factor observed during triaxial loading. In this paper, two modeled rockfill materials are investigated by using medium triaxial cell. Drained triaxial tests are conducted on various sizes of modeled rockfill materials used in the two dams, and te...

  19. INNOVATION INCUBATORS – ENTITIES OF SUPPORT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES’ COMPETITIVENESS IN THE MODERN ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia MAIER

    2013-01-01

    Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essentia...

  20. Management and organization problems of small and medium sized enterprise’s: a research on textile firms in Denizli

    OpenAIRE

    Celalettin Serinkan; Hasan Cabar

    2008-01-01

    Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SME) are important establishments for countries to evolve entrepreneurship, to refresh economy, to create employment, technological development and structural change. SME’s have to know and apply management and organization topics to continue their lifes in today’s circumstances. In today’s business environment that is intensified competition is lived, importance of investigating solution ways and taking necessary steps for management and ...

  1. THE MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING - A WAY OF PERFORMING FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT IN ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    SABOU Felicia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the importance of managerial accounting in small and medium-sized enterprises. In accordance with Romanian Accountancy Law no 82/1991, managerial accounting and cost analyze are compulsory. As a result of some studies it has been ascertained that most companies don`t know how to correctly organize their managerial accounting and their system of costs. Specialized studies have revealed the fact that many trading companies who didn`t organize their managerial accounting, desp...

  2. How Business Guanxi Affects a Firm’s Performance : A Study on Chinese Small and Medium Sized Construction Companies

    OpenAIRE

    TANG, Wanyi; Cheng, Qian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese term “Guanxi” literally refers to interpersonal relationships which have aroused growing interests among researchers and business practitioners. Common research interests are mainly centered on theoretical study and model building instead of applying them to business practices while this paper is aimed to investigate how business Guanxi works from a practical view, and in particular how business Guanxi affects the performance of small and medium-sized Chinese construction companie...

  3. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: “Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?” Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), ...

  4. Comprehensive therapeutic effect of the stroke rehabilitation unit in a medium-sized comprehensive community hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Fu; Hong Wang; Jia Sun; Haiyan Sun; Qingyang Song; Yi Liu; Hong Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute stroke unit (stroke care unit) is developing in some domestic large-sized hospitals, but most stroke patients need stroke rehabilitation unit therapy, so setting stroke rehabilitation unit in medium-sized comprehensive community hospital (secondary hospital), where medical facility is relatively insufficient, is a new pathway to satisfy stroke patients.OBJECTIVE: To observe the comprehensive effect of developing stroke rehabilitation unit based on the facility of secondary hospital and its feasibility.DESIGN: Non-randomized concurrent controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Beijing Longfu Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 264 stroke reconvalescents who suffered stroke for 7 days and received treatment in the Department of Neurology, Beijing Longfu Hospital during June 2003 to June 2005 were involved in the study. All the involved patients were confirmed by CT or MRI. The patients were scored by using Modified Edinbergh-Scandinavia stroke scale (SSS) > 16 points. Written informed consents were obtained from all the patients. The patients were assigned into 2 groups according to the willing of patients and their relatives: ①treatment group, in which, there were 134 patients, 76 males and 58 females, aged 43 to 74 years;cerebral infarction was found in 116 cases and cerebral hemorrhage in 18 cases;② control group, in which,there were 130 patients, 66 males and 64 females, aged 45 to 77 years, cerebral infarction was found in 115 cases and cerebral hemorrhage in 15 cases. There were significant differences in baseline data of the patients between two groups. METHODS: A same basic treatment was conducted in the patients of the two groups. ① Patients in the treatment group admitted to stroke rehabilitation unit and received comprehensive rehabilitation treatment.The rehabilitation flow-sheet: randomization-letting the patients of treatment group go into the unit-making comprehensive assessment in the initial stage-making therapy

  5. Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Implications for the carriers of the 2175 {\\AA} UV bump

    CERN Document Server

    Steglich, M; Rouillé, G; Huisken, F; Mutschke, H; Henning, Th

    2010-01-01

    Mixtures of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been produced by means of laser pyrolysis. The main fraction of the extracted PAHs were primarily medium-sized, up to a maximum size of 38 carbon atoms per molecule. The use of different extraction solvents and subsequent chromatographic fractionation provided mixtures of different size distributions. UV-VIS absorption spectra have been measured at low temperature by matrix isolation spectroscopy and at room temperature with PAHs as film-like deposits on transparent substrates. In accordance with semi-empirical calculations, our findings suggest that large PAHs with sizes around 50 to 60 carbon atoms per molecule could be responsible for the interstellar UV bump at 217.5 nm.

  6. Multi-step approach to Code-coupling for progression induced severe accidents in CANDU NPPs (MACPISA-CANDU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, D.J.; Luxat, J.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Giannotti, W.; D' Auria, F. [Univ. of Pisa, Dept. of Mechanical, Nuclear and Production Engineering, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reviews the progression of severe accidents, describes computer codes currently employed for analysis of severe accidents and outlines a new methodology to modelling the progression of severe accidents in CANDU nuclear power plants (NPPs) called the Multi-step Approach to Code-coupling for Progression Induced Severe Accidents in CANDU NPPs (MACPISA-CANDU). The MACPISA-CANDU methodology was used to couple the U.S. NRC codes SCDAP/RELAP5 (RELAP/SCDAPSIM Mod 3.4) and MELCOR (1.8.5) in order to model a small break loss of coolant accident with loss of emergency coolant injection (SBLOCA-LOECI) under natural circulation in a CANDU 6 NPP. Using this model it was shown that the sheath temperature did not exceed the zirconium melting temperature of 2098 K and hence the progression of the severe accident was terminated as expected. (author)

  7. Cloud Computing: The Level of Awareness Amongst Small & Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei; Essandoh, Kofi Asare

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing services are being touted as a major enabler for small businesses lately. This new paradigm is seen to offer unique opportunities to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide and developing economies are no exception. It presents SMEs access to similar technologies available...... indicated that a slight majority of the respondents were familiar with cloud computing on the individual level but the level of awareness amongst the larger SME industry was low to medium. The finding therefore recommends education and sensitization on cloud computing in order to increase awareness...... to their larger counterparts and those in the developed world which inherently creates innovativeness, increases competitive advantage and impacts their operations and processes. This paper seeks to determine the level of awareness and familiarity with this emerging computing paradigm. The results of the study...

  8. Conditioned Medium From Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Limits Infarct Size and Enhances Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Danieli, Patrizia; Malpasso, Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Maria Chiara; Cervio, Elisabetta; Calvillo, Laura; Copes, Francesco; Pisano, Federica; Mura, Manuela; Kleijn, Lennaert; De Boer, Rudolf A.; Viarengo, Gianluca; Rosti, Vittorio; Spinillo, Arsenio; Roccio, Marianna; Gnecchi, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate whether human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMCs) can exert beneficial paracrine effects on infarcted rat hearts. In particular, the administration of hAMC-conditioned medium repaired ischemic damage through cardioprotection and angiogenesis. Finally, several putative active paracrine mediators that might account for the effects observed were identified by gene and protein arrays.

  9. Methodologies and Decision Criteria for Demonstrating Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors - Present Value Capital Cost Model. Annex VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaller size reactors are required to fulfil the growing energy needs of developing countries and emerging markets, as well as niche markets in developed countries. Grid appropriate reactors have been identified within the United States Department of Energy Global Nuclear Energy Partnership initiative as one of the key elements required to enable worldwide expansion of the peaceful use of nuclear power. In a speech at a conference in Algiers on 9 January 2007, the former IAEA Director General, Mohamed El Baradei, discussed the interest in new small and medium-size reactor designs which allow a more incremental investment than is required for a big reactor, and provide a better match to grid capacity in many developing countries'. Smaller size reactors (IAEA defines as 'small' those reactors with a power <300 MW(e) and 'medium' with a power <700 MW(e)) are the logical choice for smaller countries or those with a limited electrical grid. In fact, smaller reactors are now in different stages of development throughout the world, and interest in their deployment has also been expressed. With regards to decisions on the addition of power plant capacity, small reactors have many attractive characteristics, namely size, simplicity, enhanced safety, cost savings and lower financial resource requirements. On the downside, the specific costs of some components and systems of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) may be higher as a result of economy of scale effects. This annex explores some of the factors affecting decisions on power plant capacity addition in world markets, focusing particularly on many of the characteristics of SMRs

  10. CANDU refurbishment - managing the life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All utilities that operate a nuclear power plant have an integrated plan for managing the condition of the plant systems, structures and components. With a sound plant life management program, after about 25 years of operation, replacement of certain reactor core components can give an additional 25 to 30 years of operation. This demonstrates the long-term economic strength of CANDU technology and justifies a long-term commitment to nuclear power. Indeed, replacement of pressure tubes and feeders with the most recent technology will also lead to increased capacity factors - due to reduced requirements for feeder inspections and repair, and eliminating the need for fuel channel spacer relocation which have caused additional and longer maintenance outages. Continuing the operation of CANDU units parallels the successful life extensions of reactors in other countries and provides the benefits of ongoing reliable operation, at an existing plant location, with the continued support of the host community. The key factors for successful, optimum management of the life cycle are: ongoing, effective plant life management programs; careful development of refurbishment scope, taking into account system condition assessments and a systematic safety review; and, a well-planned and well-executed retubing and refurbishment outage, where safety and risk management is paramount to ensure a successful project The paper will describe: the benefits of extended plant life; the outlook for refurbishment; the life management and refurbishment program; preparations for retubing of the reactor core; and, enhanced performance post-retubing. Given the potential magnitude of the program over the next 10 years, AECL will maintain a lead role providing overall support for retubing and plant Life Cycle Management programs and the CANDU Owners Group will provide a framework for collaboration among its Members. (author)

  11. Structural integrity evaluations of CANDU pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The core of a CANDU-6 pressurized heavy water reactor consists of some hundred horizontal pressure tubes that are manufactured from a Zr-2.5%Nb alloy and which contain the fuel bundles. These tubes are susceptible to a damaging phenomenon known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC). The Zr-2.5%Nb alloy is susceptible to DHC phenomenon when there is diffusion of hydrogen atoms to a service-induced flaws, followed by the hydride platelets formation on the certain crystallographic planes in the matrix material. Finally, the development of hydride regions at the flaw-tip will happened. These hydride regions are able to fracture under stress-temperature conditions (DHC initiation) and the cracks can extend and grow by DHC mechanism. Some studies have been focused on the potential to initiate DHC at the blunt flaws in a CANDU reactor pressure tube and a methodology for structural integrity evaluation was developed. The methodology based on the Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD's) consists in an integrated graphical plot, where the fracture failure and plastic collapse are simultaneously evaluated by means of two non-dimensional variables (Kr and Lr). These two variables represent the ratio of the applied value of either stress or stress intensity factor and the resistance parameter of corresponding magnitude (yield stress or fracture toughness, respectively). Once the plotting plane is determined by the variables Kr and Lr, the procedure defines a critical failure line that establishes the safe area. The paper will demonstrate the possibility to perform structural integrity evaluations by means of Failure Assessment Diagrams for flaws occurring in CANDU pressure tubes. (author)

  12. Proof testing of CANDU concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to commissioning of a CANDU reactor, a proof pressure test is required to demonstrate the structural integrity of the containment envelope. The test pressure specified by AECB Regulatory Document R-7 (1991) was selected without a rigorous consideration of uncertainties associated with estimates of accident pressure and conatinment resistance. This study was undertaken to develop a reliability-based philosophy for defining proof testing requirements that are consistent with the current limit states design code for concrete containments (CSA N287.3).It was shown that the upodated probability of failure after a successful test is always less than the original estimate

  13. Configuration management for CANDU feeder refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canada Deuterium Uranium Reactor CANDU was originally designed to last twenty-five years. In 2005, Atomic Energy of Canada (AECL) made the decision to extend the life of the reactor by thirty years. One of the most critical elements of the life extension project was determining how to refurbish the Primary Heat Transport System. It was determined that the refurbishment required replacing the entire length of inlet and outlet feeders, from the end fittings to the header. The use of a robust Configuration Management program would have added significant value to the life extension project. (author)

  14. Development of the advanced CANDU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Min, Byung Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Choi, J. H.; Lee, B. C.; Kim, S. N.; Jo, C. H.; Paik, J. S.; On, M. R.; Park, H. S.; Kim, S. R. [Korea Electric Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the advanced design technology to improve safety, operability and economy and to develop and advanced safety evaluation system. More realistic and reasonable methodology and modeling was employed to improve safety margin in containment analysis. Various efforts have been made to verify the CATHENA code which is the major safety analysis code for CANDU PHWR system. Fully computerized prototype ECCS was developed. The feasibility study and conceptual design of the distributed digital control system have been performed as well. The core characteristics of advanced fuel cycle, fuel management and power upgrade have been studied to determine the advanced core. (author). 77 refs., 51 tabs., 108 figs.

  15. A generalized perturbation program for CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Sik [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    A generalized perturbation program has been developed for the purpose of estimating zonal power variation of a CANDU reactor upon refueling operation. The forward and adjoint calculation modules of RFSP code were used to construct the generalized perturbation program. The numerical algorithm for the generalized adjoint flux calculation was verified by comparing the zone power estimates upon refueling with those of forward calculation. It was, however, noticed that the truncation error from the iteration process of the generalized adjoint flux is not negligible. 2 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

    2011-10-01

    Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

  17. The role of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the phase behavior of medium sized Lennard-Jones clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Poon, Louis; Bowles, Richard K

    2010-08-21

    The free energy of a 600-atom Lennard-Jones cluster is calculated as a function of surface and bulk crystallinity in order to study the structural transformations that occur in the core of medium sized clusters. Within the order parameter range studied, we find the existence of two free energy minima at temperatures near freezing. One minimum, at low values of both bulk and surface order, belongs to the liquid phase. The second minimum exhibits a highly ordered core with a disordered surface and is related to structures containing a single fcc-tetrahedral subunit, with an edge length of seven atoms (l=7), located in the particle core. At lower temperatures, a third minimum appears at intermediate values of the bulk order parameter which is shown to be related to the formation of multiple l=6 tetrahedra in the core of the cluster. We also use molecular dynamics simulations to follow a series of nucleation events and find that the clusters freeze to structures containing l=5, 6, 7, and 8 sized tetrahedra as well as those containing no tetrahedral units. The structural correlations between bulk and surface order with the size of the tetrahedral units in the cluster core are examined. Finally, the relationships between the formation of fcc tetrahedral subunits in the core, the phase behavior of medium sized clusters and the nucleation of noncrystalline global structures such as icosahedra and decahedra are discussed.

  18. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu; Constantin Cazacu; Ovidiu Ionescu; Georgeta Ionescu; Ramon Jurj; Marius Popa; Roxana Cazacu; Ancuta Cotovelea

    2014-01-01

    We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus). Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data seri...

  19. MANUFACTURING AND CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL IN PLANTS OF MEXICO; A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG LARGE AND MEDIUM SIZE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Monge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A random and statistically significant sample of 40 medium (12 and large (28 manufacturing plants of Apodaca, Mexico were surveyed using a structured and validated questionnaire to investigate the level of implementation of lean manufacturing, sustainable manufacturing, continuous improvement and operational efficiency and environmental responsibility in them, it is important to mention it was found that performance in the mentioned philosophies, on the two categories of plants is low, however large plants show a better performance than medium plants. In both cases, it is worrying that in the highly industrialized municipality of Apodaca,  Mexico are not decisively adopting the philosophies mentioned, as this compromises in a global world, in the medium and long term the viability of the plants, particularly the medium size plants. Finally this article shows the results of the answers to the items of questionnaire for the plants managers, and this can be useful to the management of the plants to identify and to define specific improvement actions towards priority areas.

  20. Simulation-based reactor control design methodology for CANDU 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, M.K.; MacBeth, M.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Chan, W.F.; Lam, K.Y. [Cassiopeia Technologies Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    The next generation of CANDU nuclear power plant being designed by AECL is the 900 MWe CANDU 9 station. This design is based upon the Darlington CANDU nuclear power plant located in Ontario which is among the world leading nuclear power stations for highest capacity factor with the lowest operation, maintenance and administration costs in North America. Canadian-designed CANDU pressurized heavy water nuclear reactors have traditionally been world leaders in electrical power generation capacity performance. This paper introduces the CANDU 9 design initiative to use plant simulation during the design stage of the plant distributed control system (DCS), plant display system (PDS) and the control centre panels. This paper also introduces some details of the CANDU 9 DCS reactor regulating system (RRS) control application, a typical DCS partition configuration, and the interfacing of some of the software design processes that are being followed from conceptual design to final integrated design validation. A description is given of the reactor model developed specifically for use in the simulator. The CANDU 9 reactor model is a synthesis of 14 micro point-kinetic reactor models to facilitate 14 liquid zone controllers for bulk power error control, as well as zone flux tilt control. (author)

  1. Trends in the capital costs of CANDU generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper consolidates the actual cost experience gained by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario Hydro, and other Canadian electric utlities in the planning, design and construction of CANDU-PHWR (CANada Deuterium Uranium-Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) generating stations over the past 30 years. For each of the major CANDU-PHWR generating stations in operation and under construction in Canada, an analysis is made to trace the evolution of the capital cost estimates. Major technical, economic and other parameters that affect the cost trends of CANDU-PHWR generating stations are identified and their impacts assessed. An analysis of the real cost of CANDU generating stations is made by eliminating interest during construction and escalation, and the effects of planned deferment of in-service dates. An historical trend in the increase in the real cost of CANDU power plants is established. Based on the cost experience gained in the design and construction of CANDU-PHWR units in Canada, as well as on the assessment of parameters that influence the costs of such projects, the future costs of CANDU-PHWRs are presented

  2. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tingzhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

  3. Diversity of medium and large sized mammals in a Cerrado fragment of central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Campos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to community ecology of medium and large mammals represent a priority in developing strategies for conservation of their habitats. Due to the significant ecological importance of these species, a concern in relation to anthropogenic pressures arises since their populations are vulnerable to hunting and fragmentation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the diversity of medium and large mammals in a representative area of the Cerrado biome, located in the National Forest of Silvânia, central Brazil, providing insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of Cerrado mammals. Sampling was carried out by linear transects, search for traces, footprint traps and camera traps. We recorded 23 species, among which three are listed in threat categories (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Chrysocyon brachyurus and Leopardus tigrinus. We registered 160 records in the study area, where the most frequently recorded species were Didelphis albiventris (30 records and Cerdocyon thous (28 records. Our results indicated that a small protected area of Cerrado can include a large and important percentage of the diversity of mammals in this biome, providing information about richness, abundance, spatial distribution and insights for future studies on the biodiversity and conservation of these biological communities.

  4. Improvement of environmental management incentives for small and medium-sized enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kee Bok; Lee, Seung Kyu; Lim, Chae Woon; Chung, Ho Sun [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The developed countries have been prepared the national innovation for sustainable development for a long time. The international advanced enterprises, such as multinational enterprises, are enhancing the active and strategic environmental management. However, in spite of such changes in the world, small and middle-sized enterprises do not show any substantial changes. It is true that most of enterprises do not recognize the need of environmental management. Although they have intention for environmental improvement, it is also true that they do not have any strength to maintain effective management. Moreover, with over 99% of small and middle-sized enterprises among entire enterprises in Korea, it is hardly possible to establish an effective regulation system. The purpose of this study is to make a policy plan to induce the development of environmental friendly small and middle-sized enterprises under the recognition of such problems. 138 refs., 4 figs., 195 tabs.

  5. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger. PMID:25120949

  6. Analyzing the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises of a national technology innovation research and development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmin

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. In particular, an empirical analysis is presented that aims to answer the following question: "Is there a difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes?" Methodologically, the efficiency of a government-sponsored R&D project (i.e., GSP) is measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), and a nonparametric analysis of variance method, the Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test is adopted to see if the efficiency differences between R&D collaboration types and between government R&D subsidy sizes are statistically significant. This study's major findings are as follows. First, contrary to our hypothesis, when we controlled the influence of government R&D subsidy size, there was no statistically significant difference in the efficiency between R&D collaboration types. However, the R&D collaboration type, "SME-University-Laboratory" Joint-Venture was superior to the others, achieving the largest median and the smallest interquartile range of DEA efficiency scores. Second, the differences in the efficiency were statistically significant between government R&D subsidy sizes, and the phenomenon of diseconomies of scale was identified on the whole. As the government R&D subsidy size increases, the central measures of DEA efficiency scores were reduced, but the dispersion measures rather tended to get larger.

  7. A Review of Supply Chain Collaboration Practices for Small and Medium-sized Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, SY; Thoo, AC; Z, Sulaiman; FM, Muharam

    2016-05-01

    For the decades, organizations have endeavored to look for external sources for opportunities to achieve efficient and responsive supply chain with their partners especially for small and medium manufacturers (SMM). In this scenario, supply chain collaboration (SCC) is an interaction between supply chain members with the purpose of utilizes the knowledge and resources of customers and suppliers, and integrates the flows of products and information in order to achieve a common goal and obtain mutual benefit. The essential SCC dimensions for SMMs comprised of information sharing, joint knowledge creation, joint decision making, goal congruence and incentive sharing. The successful implementation of SCC can give SMMs an edge over their competitors. This paper aims to introduce a review of SCC practices for SMM. Overall, the findings provide managerial insights for the SMM in SCC implementation owing to resource scarcity and the need to draw SCC in order to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage.

  8. Simulation of Supply-Chain Networks: A Source of Innovation and Competitive Advantage for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Liotta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available On a daily basis, enterprises of all sizes cope with the turbulence and volatility of market demands, cost variability, and severe pressure from globally distributed competitors. Managing uncertainty about future demand requirements and volumes in supply-chain networks has become a priority. One of the ways to deal with uncertainty is the utilization of simulation techniques and tools, which provide greater predictability of decision-making outcomes. For example, simulation has been widely applied in decision-making processes related to global logistics and production networks at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels, where it is used to predict the impact of decisions before their implementation in complex and uncertain environments. Large enterprises are inclined to use simulation tools whereas small and medium-sized enterprises seem to underestimate its advantages. The objective of this article is to emphasize the relevance of simulation for the design and management of supply-chain networks from the perspective of small and medium-sized firms.

  9. Permeability and pore size distribution in medium strength self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cánovas, M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of self-compacting concrete (SCC has been on the rise in recent years. Research on this type of concrete has focused primarily on determining optimal dosage, while durability, particularly for medium strength SCC, has received much less attention. The present study explored the permeability of a number of medium strength (characteristic strength, 30 MPa self-compacting concretes, including SCCs made with common cement, in pursuit of a balance between performance and cost. Pressurised water and mercury intrusion porosimetry tests were conducted to determine concrete behaviour when exposed to aggressive agents. The findings showed that the capillary networks of these concretes are essentially impermeable to aggressive agents.

    El hormigón autocompactante ha experimentado un amplio desarrollo en los últimos años. Los estudios sobre este hormigón se han centrado en obtener dosificaciones óptimas, mientras los relativos a su durabilidad son escasos, especialmente en el caso de hormigones de resistencia moderada. Este trabajo se centra en el estudio de la permeabilidad de distintos hormigones autocompactantes de resistencia moderada (resistencia característica 30 MPa. El estudio incluye hormigones fabricados con cementos comunes, en los que se ha buscado un equilibrio entre prestaciones y precio. Con el fin de estudiar su comportamiento frente a la penetración de agentes agresivos, se han realizado los ensayos de permeabilidad al agua bajo presión y estudio de la porosimetría por intrusión de mercurio. Los resultados de los ensayos ponen de manifiesto el buen comportamiento de estos hormigones frente a la posible penetración de agentes agresivos por la red capilar.

  10. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Pühlhofer, G.; Bauer, C.; Bernhard, S.; Capasso, M.; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; S Funk; Gadola, A.; Garrecht, F.; Hermann, G.; Jung, I.; Kalekin, O.(Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany); Kalkuhl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale ...

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TANGIBLE ASSETS AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED COMPANIES IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Harc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The asset structure of companies should matter for financing decisions. Small and medium-sized companies in Croatia may use tangible assets as collateral, either providing more access to creditors or as a guarantee in case of bankruptcy. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between tangible assets and the capital structure of Croatian small and medium-sized enterprises. Most previous studies have shown various relationships between tangible assets and leverage. This study has been conducted on a sample of 500 Croatian SMEs for the period between 2005 and 2010. The data used for the empirical analysis were taken from companies’ annual reports. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient is applied in order to examine the relationship between tangible assets and leverage measures. The results of this research indicate that tangible assets are differently correlated with short-term and long-term leverage. The relationship between tangible assets and short-term leverage is negative and statistically significant in all observed years. The relationship between tangible assets and long-term leverage is positive in all observed years and statistically significant. The results show that small and medium-sized companies use their collateral to attract long-term debt, which means that small and medium-sized companies use lower costs and the interest rate of long-term debt in relation to short-term debt. These findings correspond with the maturity matching principle, according to which long-term assets are financed with long-term financing and short-term assets are financed with short-term funds. These results suggest that tangible assets have a positive impact on the long-term debt of Croatian SMEs because tangible assets constitute a positive signal to the financial institutions, which can request the selling of these assets in case of bankruptcy. These findings are consistent with the trade-off theory which predicts a positive relation

  12. An integrated approach for developing a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to improve competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourens, A.S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low-technology firms, such as those found within the furniture manufacturing industry, have no framework or methodology to guide them successfully to acquire and integrate technology that enables them to operate more competitively. The aim of this article is to illustrate the development of a technology strategy framework for small- to medium-sized furniture manufacturers to assist them to improve their competitiveness. More specifically, this article presents an integrated technology strategy framework that enables management to integrate their business strategy with their technology requirements successfully, thus improving competitiveness.

  13. Monte Carlo Studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, M; Dumm, J; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters repre...

  14. Market entry decisions of US small and medium-sized software firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ojala, Arto; Tyrväinen, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates market entry decisions of the U.S. software SMEs by analyzing the impact of the most obvious factors (cultural distance, geographical distance, country risk, and three market size variables) in traditional internationalization theories to target country selection. By investigating the influence of these commonly cited macro-level factors, this study proposes the best indicator for market entry decisions of the U.S. small and mediumsized software...

  15. Magic number behavior for heat capacities of medium sized classical Lennard-Jones clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Frantz, D D

    2001-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate heat capacities as functions of temperature for classical atomic clusters of aggregate sizes $25 \\leq N \\leq 60$ that were bound by pairwise Lennard-Jones potentials. The parallel tempering method was used to overcome convergence difficulties due to quasiergodicity in the solid-liquid phase-change regions. All of the clusters studied had pronounced peaks in their heat capacity curves, most of which corresponded to their solid-liquid phase-change regions. The heat capacity peak height and location exhibited two general trends as functions of cluster size: for $N = 25$ to 36, the peak temperature slowly increased, while the peak height slowly decreased, disappearing by $N = 37$; for $N = 30$, a very small secondary peak at very low temperature emerged and quickly increased in size and temperature as $N$ increased, becoming the dominant peak by $N = 36$. Superimposed on these general trends were smaller fluctuations in the peak heights that corresponded to ``magic numbe...

  16. Development of advanced CANDU PHWR -Development of the advanced CANDU technology-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The target of this project is to assess the feasibility of improving PHWR and to establish the parameter of the improved concept and requirements for developing it. To set up the requirements for the Improved Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor: (1) Design requirements of PHWR main systems and Safety Design Regulatory Requirements for Safety Related System i.e. Reactor Shutdown System, Emergency Core Cooling System and Containment System were prepared. (2) Licensing Basis Documents were summarized and Safety Analysis Regulatory. Requirements were reviewed and analyzed. To estimate the feasibility of improving PHWR and to establish the main parameters of the concept of new PHWR in future: (1) technical level/developing trend of PHWR in Korea through Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 design experience and Technical Transfer Program was investigated to analyze the state of basic technology and PHWR improvement potential. (2) CANDU 6 design improvement tendency, CANDU 3 design concept and CANDU 9 development state in other country was analyzed. (3) design improvement items to apply to the reactors after Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 were selected and Plant Design Requirements and Conceptual Design Description were prepared and the viability of improved HWR was estimated by analyzing economics, performance and safety. (4) PHWR technology improving research and development plan was established and international joint study initiated for main design improvement items

  17. Organizational Culture and Open Innovation Performance in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Jolanta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the links between organizational culture, the use of open innovation sources and the performance of SMEs. The main hypothesis of the study is that a special type of organizational culture (termed innovative culture, which fosters creativity, learning and inter-employee cooperation – will correspond with a greater scope of open innovation sources and higher levels of innovative, operational and financial performance. The study was based on a representative CATI survey of 473 SMEs operating in manufacturing and services industries in Poland. Our statistical analysis relied on building and testing structural equation model with the AMOS software. The findings confirmed a positive association between innovative culture and the scope of open sources of innovation. However, innovative culture had no direct effect on the percentage of sales from new and modified products, which is often used as a metric of innovativeness, but did show a positive influence on an index of operational performance and ROI. Such statistical patterns suggest that fostering innovative culture is beneficial to a company, though probably not through an increased number of product innovations, but rather via process, administrative and marketing innovations, as well as other gains in efficiency attained due to more streamlined employee cooperation and knowledge exchange. The study adds to the existing body of knowledge in management science by providing a better understanding of mechanisms underlying innovative culture’s impacts on open innovation practices and metrics of operational and financial performance in the context of small and medium enterprises.

  18. Innovation in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to examine innovative activities in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the Malaysian information technology (IT) industry. This study addresses three research questions: 1. What is the innovation pattern among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? 2. How significant is interactive learning between SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry and other agents in the innovation system? and 3. What is the role of the government in promoting innovation among SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry? Two approaches were taken to collect data for this study, that is, mail survey and face-to-face interviews. Based on findings from this study, the SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry were divided into four categories, namely, highly innovative, innovative, inventive, and non innovative. The patterns of knowledge acquisition and interactive learning vary among the different categories of firms, and on the whole, vertical linkages with suppliers were found to be the most significant. Finally, support through the provision of funding was considered to be among the most important roles of the government in promoting innovation in SMEs in the Malaysian IT industry. (author)

  19. Monte Carlo studies of medium-size telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M.; Jogler, T.; Dumm, J.; Funk, S.

    2016-01-01

    We present studies for optimizing the next generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). Results focus on mid-sized telescopes (MSTs) for CTA, detecting very high energy gamma rays in the energy range from a few hundred GeV to a few tens of TeV. We describe a novel, flexible detector Monte Carlo package, FAST (FAst Simulation for imaging air cherenkov Telescopes), that we use to simulate different array and telescope designs. The simulation is somewhat simplified to allow for efficient exploration over a large telescope design parameter space. We investigate a wide range of telescope performance parameters including optical resolution, camera pixel size, and light collection area. In order to ensure a comparison of the arrays at their maximum sensitivity, we analyze the simulations with the most sensitive techniques used in the field, such as maximum likelihood template reconstruction and boosted decision trees for background rejection. Choosing telescope design parameters representative of the proposed Davies-Cotton (DC) and Schwarzchild-Couder (SC) MST designs, we compare the performance of the arrays by examining the gamma-ray angular resolution and differential point-source sensitivity. We further investigate the array performance under a wide range of conditions, determining the impact of the number of telescopes, telescope separation, night sky background, and geomagnetic field. We find a 30-40% improvement in the gamma-ray angular resolution at all energies when comparing arrays with an equal number of SC and DC telescopes, significantly enhancing point-source sensitivity in the MST energy range. We attribute the increase in point-source sensitivity to the improved optical point-spread function and smaller pixel size of the SC telescope design.

  20. Sales Organization & Tactics : Solutions for improving the sales function in medium sized B-2-B companies

    OpenAIRE

    Aller, Rick Johan

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is a work summarizing the most important obstacles in the sales function in a mid-sized B-2-B company. It suggests solutions to the problems on both an organizational and a tactical level. Practical knowledge and case studies are intertwined in the theory for the reader to quickly grasp the vital points of both organizational and tactical issues. It then provides a guide for applying the suggested solutions in practice. The thesis is helpful to any company or start-up aiming to imp...

  1. General overview of CANDU advanced fuel cycles program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R and D program for CANDU advanced fuel cycles may be roughly divided into two components which have a near-and long-term focus, respectively. The near-term focus is on the technology to implement improved once-through cycles and mixed oxide (plutonium-uranium oxides) recycle in CANDU and on technologies to separate zirconium isotopes. Included is work on those technologies which would allow a CANDU-LWR strategy to be developed in a growing nuclear power system. For the longer-term, activities are focused on those technologies and fuel cycles which would be appropriate in a period when nuclear fuel demand significantly exceeds mined uranium supplies. Fuel cycles and systems under study are thorium recycle, CANDU fast breeder systems and electro-nuclear fissile breeders. The paper will discuss the rationale underlying these activities, together with a brief description of activities currently under way in each of the fuel cycle technology areas

  2. Proceedings of the Canadian Nuclear Society CANDU maintenance conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference proceedings comprise 51 papers on the following aspects of maintenance of CANDU reactors: Major maintenance projects, maintenance planning and preparation, maintenance effectiveness, future maintenance issues, safety and radiation protection. The individual papers have been abstracted separately

  3. Korea signs for 2nd CANDU at Wolsong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sale of a second CANDU 6 reactor to Korea for the Wolsong site is discussed in relation to nuclear power in Korea, the Korean economy generally, Canadian trade with Korea, and cooperation between AECL and KAERI

  4. Key thrusts in next generation CANDU. Annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current electricity markets and the competitiveness of other generation options such as CCGT have influenced the directions of future nuclear generation. The next generation CANDU has used its key characteristics as the basis to leap frog into a new design featuring improved economics, enhanced passive safety, enhanced operability and demonstrated fuel cycle flexibility. Many enabling technologies spinning of current CANDU design features are used in the next generation design. Some of these technologies have been developed in support of existing plants and near term designs while others will need to be developed and tested. This paper will discuss the key principles driving the next generation CANDU design and the fuel cycle flexibility of the CANDU system which provide synergism with the PWR fuel cycle. (author)

  5. Periodic inspection of CANDU nuclear power plant containment components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standard is one in a series intended to provide uniform requirements for CANDU nuclear power plants. It provides requirements for the periodic inspection of containment components including the containment pressure suppression systems

  6. Fast 3C 279 gamma flares by a merging medium size black hole jet aligned to the AGN one by tidal torque?

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The shorter-than-Schwarzschild 3C 279 variability flare on June 2015 is very puzzling. Its nature cannot naturally be due to a NS merging nor to a medium sized (a hundred solar masses) BH collapse onto the AGN. Our preliminary model is based on the long-life (nearly a year) merging of a medium size BH spiralling toward the largest AGN one, that is dragging by tidal torques the medium size BH jet along the same 3C 279 one, aligning both jets toward Earth. The twin overlapping blazars may offer at once a long and a short scale variability consistent with the surprising Fermi discover.

  7. Olive Oil Tracer Particle Size Analysis for Optical Flow Investigations in a Gas Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shaun; Smith, Barton

    2014-11-01

    Seed tracer particles must be large enough to scatter sufficient light while being sufficiently small to follow the flow. These requirements motivate a desire for control over the particle size. For gas measurements, it is common to use atomized oil droplets as tracer particles. A Laskin nozzle is a device for generating oil droplets in air by directing high-pressure air through small holes under an oil surface. The droplet diameter frequency distribution can be varied by altering the hole diameter, the number of holes, or the inlet pressure. We will present a systematic study of the effect of these three parameters on the resultant particle distribution as it leaves the Laskin nozzle. The study was repeated for cases where the particles moved through a typical jet facility before their size was measured. While the jet facility resulted in an elimination of larger particles, the average particle diameter could be varied by a factor of two at both the seeder exit and downstream of the jet facility.

  8. Mapping trends of large and medium size carnivores of conservation interest in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Cristian Adamescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analysed yearly estimates of population size data during 2001-2012 for five carnivores species of conservation interest (Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Lynx lynx, Felis silvestris and Canis aureus. Population size estimations were done by the game management authorities and integrated by the competent authorities on the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. Trends in data were detected using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. This test was chosen considering the short length of data series and its usefulness for non-normal distributed data. The trend was tested at three spatial scales: game management units (n=1565, biogeographical region (n=5 and national. Trends depicted for each game management unit were plotted using ArcGIS, resulting species trend distribution maps. For the studied period increasing population trends were observed for Ursus arctos, Canis lupus, Canis aureus and Lynx lynx, while for Felis silvestris there was no trend recorded. Such an analysis in especially useful for conservation proposes, game management and reporting obligations under article 17 of the EC Habitat Directive, using population trend as a proxy for population dynamics. We conclude that the status of the five carnivore species is favourable during the study period.

  9. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  10. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis.

  11. Determining Sustainable Land Use by Modal Split Shift Strategy for Low Emissions: Evidence from Medium-Sized Cities of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization in medium-sized cities in China has led to revolution of transportation systems resulting in negative impacts on the environment. Evaluating the relationship among land use, modal split, and traffic emission can help propose regional optimal land use pattern by modal shift strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Data were collected from seven medium-sized cities in China. The study first evaluated the land use that influences mode split and the relationship between modal split and traffic emission. Then a sustainable mode shift strategy was provided to reduce emissions. Lastly, we provided constructive suggestions for sustainable land use pattern by mode shift strategy. To reduce emission per trip, nonmotorized trip modes and public transit should be increased, and, accordingly, the residence-industry and residence-retain mix entropy should be increased. The study found that the regions with job-housing balance or retail-housing mix could increase the mode share of nonmotorized vehicle traffic and reduce car use. The modal shift can in the future benefit emission reductions.

  12. An empirical study on the critical success factors of small to medium sized projects in a South African mining company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Randt, Francois Jean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Projects that fail, for whatever reason, can impact negatively on society, organisations, and other stakeholders. A number of researchers have identified various critical success factors (CSFs that can influence the outcome and success of a project. This research therefore aims to determine the CSFs that influence various success measures of small- to medium-sized projects at a South African mining company, Exxaro Resources’ Grootegeluk Coal Mine. Other objectives of this research include determining the extent of the impacts of these CSFs on the different success measures of a project. The investigation suggests that there are correlations among CSFs, and that certain factors impact the outcome of projects far more than others. This research finds that the single most important CSF for small- to medium-sized projects is the selection of a competent project manager. The competent project manager is characterised by a group of interrelated CSF factors: good leadership, commitment, and learning from past experiences. Based on the research results, other CSFs are discussed and explored in order for recommendations to be made on how this mining company, and possibly other organisations, can achieve greater project success.

  13. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  14. How to Improve Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Profitability by Practicing an Efficient Human Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In The European Union’s country members, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs play an essential role in economic life, having special features that make adaptation process to the contemporary economy easier. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the most dynamic and vital factor of progress in the contemporary society, main generator of economic performance and substance in any country, employment opportunity provider for most of population, major contributor to the national budget, and engine to improve the living standard of the population. SMEs represent 99% from all enterprises, drawing up the main human resources aglomeration. In the contemporary economic context, SMEs should act as learning entities, by developing the most important resources they own: the human resources. Human resource development (HRD has gained a permanent role within SMEs, agencies and nations, increasingly not only as an academic discipline, but as a central theme in development area. Being a combination of training and education, in a broad context of adequate human resource policies, HRD ensures the continual improvement and growth of both individual and organization.

  15. Reconstructing eruptive source parameters from tephra deposit: a numerical approach for medium-sized explosive eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Spanu, A; Barsotti, S

    2015-01-01

    Since the seventies, several reconstruction techniques have been proposed, and are currently used, to extrapolate and quantify eruptive parameters from sampled deposit datasets. Discrete numbers of tephra ground loadings or stratigraphic records are usually processed to estimate source eruptive values. Reconstruction techniques like Pyle, Power law and Weibull are adopted as standard to quantify the erupted mass (or volume) whereas Voronoi for reconstructing the granulometry. Reconstructed values can be affected by large uncertainty due to complexities occurring within the atmospheric dispersion and deposition of volcanic particles. Here we want to quantify the sensitivity of reconstruction techniques, and to quantify how much estimated values of mass and grain size differ from emitted and deposited ones. We adopted a numerical approach simulating with a dispersal code a mild explosive event occurring at Mt. Etna, with eruptive parameters similar to those estimated for eruptions occurred in the last decade. T...

  16. Recent advances in gyrokinetic full-f particle simulation of medium sized Tokamaks with ELMFIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janhunen, S.J.; Kiviniemi, T.P.; Korpio, T.; Leerink, S.; Nora, M. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Heikkinen, J.A. [VTT, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Ogando, F. [Helsinki University of Technology, Euratom-Tekes Association, Espoo (Finland); Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Large-scale kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas based on first principles are called for in studies of transition from low to high confinement mode and internal transport barrier formation in the core plasma. Such processes are best observed and diagnosed in detached plasma conditions in mid-sized tokamaks, so gyrokinetic simulations for these conditions are warranted. A first principles test-particle based kinetic model ELMFIRE[1] has been developed and used in interpretation[1,2] of FT-2 and DIII-D experiments. In this work we summarize progress in Cyclone (DIII-D core) and ASDEX Upgrade pedestal region simulations, and show that in simulations the choice of adiabatic electrons results in quenching of turbulence (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Proceedings of the international conference on CANDU fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain full texts of all paper presented at the first International Conference on CANDU Fuel. The Conference was organized and hosted by the Chalk River Branch of the Canadian Nuclear Society and utilized Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's facilities at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Previously, informal Fuel Information Meetings were used in Canada to allow the exchange of information and technology associated with CANDU. The Chalk River conference was the first open international forum devoted solely to CANDU and included representatives of overseas countries with current or potential CANDU programs, as well as Canadian participants. The keynote presentation was given by Dr. J.B. Slater, who noted the correlation between past successes in CANDU fuel cycle technology and the co-operation between researchers, fabricators and reactor owner/operators in all phases of the fuel cycle, and outlined the challenges facing the industry today. In the banquet address, Dr. R.E. Green described the newly restructured AECL Research Company and its mission which blends traditional R and D with commercial initiatives. Since this forum for fuel technology has proven to be valuable, a second International CANDU Fuel Conference is planned for the fall of 1989, again sponsored by the Canadian Nuclear Society

  18. Conceptual Study on Dismantling of CANDU Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Woo-Tae; Lee, Sang-Guk [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we reviewed 3D design model of the CANDU type reactor and suggested feasible cutting scheme. The structure of CANDU nuclear reactor, the calandria assembly was reviewed using 3-D CAD model for future decommissioning. Through the schematic diagram of CANDU nuclear power plant, we identified the differences between PWR and CANDU reactor assembly. Method of dismantling the fuel channels from the calandria assembly was suggested. Custom made cutter is recommended to cut all the fuel channels. The calandria vessel is recommended to be cut by band saw or plasma torch. After removal of the fuel channels, it was assumed that radiation level near the calandria vessel is not very high. For cutting of the end shields, various methods such as band saw, plasma torch, CAMC could be used. The choice of a specific method is largely dependent on radiological environment. Finally, method of cutting the embedment rings is considered. As we assume that operators could cut the rings without much radiation exposure, various industrial cutting methods are suggested to be applied. From the above reviews, we could conclude that decommissioning of CANDU reactor is relatively easy compared to that of PWR reactor. Technologies developed from PWR reactor decommissioning could be applied to CANDU reactor dismantling.

  19. Investigation of urban water quality using simulated rainfall in a medium size city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Li, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is an important environmental medium for impacting the characteristics of pollutants in stormwater runoff; it is of critical importance to investigate the water quality of urban environments. The paper develops a rainfall simulator as an important research tool to ensure homogeneity and reduce the large number of variables that are usually inherent to urban water quality research. The rainfall simulator was used to experiment runoff samples from typical residential and traffic areas in the Zhenjiang. The data show that land use is one of the major factors contributing to the difference in the pollutants concentration in the RDS. The maximum mean EMC for TN, TDN, TP, and TDP at residential area was 5.52, 3.07, 1.65, and 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The intense traffic area displayed the highest metal concentrations. Concentrations of runoff pollutants varied greatly with land use and storm characteristics. The correlation of pollutant concentrations with runoff times was another predominant phenomenon. Peaks in pollutants concentration occurred at 1 and 10 min during the whole storm event. A concentration peak that correlates with a peak in runoff flowrate correlates with rainfall intensity. The pollutant loadings (kilograms per hectare) in the Zhenjiang were 11.39 and 55.28 for COD, 8.42 and 57.48 for SS, 0.11 and 0.88 for TN, 0.02 and 0.14 for TP, 0.02 and 0.09 for Zn, and 0.01 and 0.04 for Pb. The higher rainfall contribute to the higher pollutant loading at the residential and intense traffic areas, as a result of the pollutant loadings direct dependence on rainfall intensity. The results confirmed that the rainfall simulator is a reliable tool for urban water quality research and can be used to simulate pollutant wash-off. These findings provide invaluable information for the development of appropriate management strategies to decrease nonpoint source contamination loading to the water environment in urban areas. PMID:21359999

  20. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis.

  1. Inspection of Candu Nuclear Reactor Fuel Channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Channel Inspection and Gauging Apparatus of Reactors (CIGAR) is a fully atomated, remotely operated inspection system designed to perform multi-channel, multi-task inspection of CANDU reactor fuel channels. Ultrasonic techniques are used for flaw detection, (with a sensitivity capable of detecting a 0.075 mm deep notch with a signal to noise ratio of 10 dB) and pressure tube wall thickness and diameter measurements. Eddy currrent systems are used to detect the presence of spacers between the coaxial pressure tube and calandria tube, as well as to measure their relative spacing. A servo-accelerometer is used to estimate the sag of the fuel channels. This advanced inspection system was commissioned and declared in service in September 1985. The paper describes the inspection systems themselves and discussed the results achieved to-date. (author)

  2. CANDU energy for steam assisted gravity drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional open-pit mining has been used by industry for many years to remove oil sands from shallow deposits. To increase production capacity, the industry is looking for new technology to exploit bitumen from deep deposits. Among them, SAGD (Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage) appears to be the most promising approach. It uses steam to remove bitumen from underground reservoirs. Recently, the SAGD recovery process has been put into commercial operation by major oil companies.Atomic Energy Canada Limited has assessed the use of the ACR-1000 as a source of heat and electricity for oil sand extraction and processing. The ACR-1000 design is an evolutionary development of the familiar CANDU technology, adding innovations to enhance economics, operations, and safety margins. The net electrical output from a standard ACR-1000 will be close to 1100 MWe, depending on local cooling water temperature

  3. Ballooning of CANDU pressure tubes. Model assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient creep equations used to analyze the possible ballooning and failure of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) were developed and verified using as-received Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube material. But in a CANDU reactor, the pressure tubes absorb deuterium and are exposed to a continuous neutron fluence. Consequently, a literature survey was done to determine how irradiation damage and deuterium might affect the creep rate and ductility of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes in the temperature range from 600 to 800 degrees C. It was found that irradiation damage, dissolved deuterium and deuteride blisters could possibly affect the creep rate and ductility of ZR-2.5% Nb pressure tubes in this temperature range, but deuteride platelets are expected to have little effect. Further tests are required to determine the effect of irradiation damage and deuterium on the creep rate and ductility of pressure tubes

  4. SLARette operations at CANDU 6 stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Objective of the SLARette system as an ongoing maintenance device was to design a system which could be installed in reactor, commissioned and operational in less than 48 hours and removed in less than 24 hours, thus allowing a selected number of fuel channels to be SLARed during the normal yearly maintenance outage. This required a relatively simple design that does not require any changes to the Station Fuel Handling Systems and is portable, reliable and easily maintained. Over the last 10 years virtually every part of the SLARette system has been enhanced to further reduce man-hour and man-rem expenditure and it has now been used successfully on four CANDU 6 stations and many fuel channels. (author)

  5. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis

  6. The medium-sized charged YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters: A relativistic computational investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional method. The medium-sized YbSin± clusters with n = 8, 9, 10, and 13 significantly deform their neutral geometries, which are confirmed by the calculated AIP and VIP values. The relative stabilities in terms of the calculated fragmentation energies exhibit that the YbSin+ (n = 8, 10, 13) and YbSin- (n = 8, 10, 12) clusters have stronger abundances than their corresponding neighbors; the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps of the charged clusters are increased generally as the cluster size going from n = 7 to 13; the large HOMO-LUMO gaps of charged clusters indicate that their chemical activities are weaker than those of their neutral counterparts, especially for n = 7, 10, and 13 clusters. Generally, the obtained or removed charge influences electronic and geometrical structures of the charged clusters. Research highlights: → Most of the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters keep frameworks as the neutrals, and the geometries of 8a+, 9a+, 10a+, and 13a+ are significant deformed, which are reflected from the calculated VIPs and AIPs values. The charged YbSi8 cluster is actually the most stable isomer. → According to the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps of the clusters, one finds that the HOMO-LUMO gaps for the charged YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are smaller than those of the neutrals, reflecting that the removed or obtained charge influences the HOMO-LUMO gaps of neutral clusters. → The calculated results show that the YbSin (n = 7-13) clusters are the nonmagnetic structures because the f orbitals are filled completely, which are not involved in the chemical bonding. - Abstract: The geometries and electronic properties of the medium-sized YbSin± (n = 7-13) clusters are investigated systematically by using relativistic density functional

  7. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouaad Amine MAZRI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

  8. Deformation Behavior in Medium Mn Steel of Nanometer-Sized α' + γ Lamellar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Kim, Dong Hwi; Heo, Nam Hoe; Hong, Chang Wan; Kim, Sung-Joon

    2016-09-01

    Yielding and work-hardening phenomena in an Fe-10.62Mn-2.84Al-0.17C-0.5Mo steel, which is composed of nanometer-sized lamellae of α' and γ, are described on the basis of the Hall-Petch relations. Unlike the general expectation, yielding in the steel, which consists of lamellae of α' and mechanically stable γ, occurs through the propagation of pileup dislocations from α' to γ. However, when γ is mechanically unstable, yielding occurs through the stress-assisted martensitic transformation (SAMT) within the unstable γ region, resulting in a low YS of about 500 MPa. The overall prominent work-hardening behavior of this steel after yielding is due to the active SAMT, which does not accompany the increase in mobile dislocation density and so causes the high elastic strain rate. The carbon partitioning treatment increases the SAMT starting strength to about 980 MPa, which is caused by the mechanical stabilization of γ. The overall low work-hardening behavior of this case is mainly attributed to the active propagation of pile-up dislocation from α' to γ which causes the high plastic strain rate through the abrupt increase of mobile dislocation density.

  9. Pigment Yellow 101: A showcase for photo-initiated processes in medium-sized molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigment Yellow 101 (P.Y.101) is a fluorescent yellow pigment which exhibits a surprisingly rich photochemistry of several competing reaction pathways as revealed by recent time-resolved femtosecond experiments. Our elaborate quantum chemical investigations employing density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) show that the observed fluorescence competes with excited state intramolecular proton transfer and trans-cis isomerization processes. Moreover, the experimentally observed spectral features of the complicated excited state dynamics can be assigned to stable trans-diol, trans-keto and cis-diol, cis-keto isomers on the ground and excited state surfaces. Still, due to its molecular size P.Y.101 poses a challenge to electronic structure theory and many problems occur in particular with respect to the excited state calculations. Thus, P.Y.101 serves also as an educative example for which TDDFT yields a reasonable vertical electronic spectrum, but fails in the prediction of excited state structures, when standard GGA or hybrid functionals with low fractions of Hartree-Fock exchange are employed. This failure is attributed to the charge-transfer failure of TDDFT

  10. Contamination and risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediments in a medium-sized city of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo; Lin, Cheng; Wu, Hai suo

    2015-02-01

    Road-deposited sediment (RDS) is a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contamination of metals in urban areas and the associated risks to human health. A total of 62 RDS samples were collected for metal test in four urban areas in a medium size city in eastern China. The areas that represented different land uses consisted of intense traffic area (ITA), commercial area (CA), residential area (RA), and riverside park area (RPA). The effects of particle size and different land uses on metal contamination and health risk were the major focus in this study. The test results showed that RDS in ITA appeared to have higher metal content, enrichment factor (EF), ecological risk index (RI), and the non-cancer and cancer risks than in the other areas. The metal contamination and health risk increased inversely with particle size. The particles less than 63 μm were found to be most critical in development of metal contamination and health risk. The EF was measured to be greater than 2.0 in the four areas, indicating a moderate enrichment. The measured RI ranged between 50 and 200, indicating considerable to moderate risks. The non-cancer risk for children was high in the four areas but was low for adults in all test areas except in ITA. The cancer risk of Cr for children was high in all test areas. Based on the test results, the contamination control and management for metals in RDS shall focus on the effects from such factors as particles (<63 μm) and the land use for intense traffic (ITA). PMID:25463858

  11. 浅析中小企业融资新措施%The New Measures for the Financing of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李普玲

    2014-01-01

    我国中小企业在国民经济中发挥着重要作用,而融资难是中小企业发展的主要障碍之一。鉴于此,本文试图结合最近一两年来针对中小企业融资环境的内外部变化来研究中小企业融资新措施。%China's small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the national economy,while the financing difficulty is one of the main obstacles for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. In terms of this, this paper studies the new measures on the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises based on the internal and external financing environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in recent years.

  12. Analysis on Profit Quality of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises: A Case Study of YM Industrial Co., Ltd in Guang’an City of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; JIANG; Huawei; LUO

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, under the influence of system and environment and other factors, some small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises in China only seek growth of profit in quantity, but neglect the growth of profit in quality, leading to low profit quality. This study reasonably defines the concept of profit quality of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and expounds general characteristics of high quality profit. On the basis of general factors influencing profit quality of enterprises, it builds indicator system for evaluating the profit quality of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises. Also, it conducts an empirical analysis on profit quality of Chinese small and medium-sized enterprises with YM Industrial Co., Ltd in Guang’an City of Sichuan Province as an example.

  13. 浅析中小企业融资新措施%The New Measures for the Financing of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李普玲

    2014-01-01

    China's small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in the national economy,while the financing difficulty is one of the main obstacles for the development of small and medium-sized enterprises. In terms of this, this paper studies the new measures on the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises based on the internal and external financing environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in recent years.%我国中小企业在国民经济中发挥着重要作用,而融资难是中小企业发展的主要障碍之一。鉴于此,本文试图结合最近一两年来针对中小企业融资环境的内外部变化来研究中小企业融资新措施。

  14. Size controlled sonochemical synthesis of highly crystalline superparamagnetic Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohamed [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-873 Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Ceramics Department, National Research Centre, El-Bohous Street, 12622 Cairo (Egypt); Torati, Sri Ramulu [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-873 Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Rao, B. Parvatheeswara [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Abdel-Hamed, M.O. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University (Egypt); Kim, CheolGi, E-mail: cgkim@dgist.ac.kr [Department of Emerging Materials Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-873 Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Mn–Zn ferrite NPs were synthesized by two different methods are polyol and sonochemical. • The sonochemical method produced NPs with high crystallinity than polyol method. • The ferrite samples synthesized by sonochemical method showed high magnetization values and superparamagnetic properties. • XRD, TEM, EDS, TGA, FTIR, and VSM techniques used to characterize the samples. - Abstract: Monodisperse Mn{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x = 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8) nanoparticles have been synthesized using two different routes namely sonochemical and polyol methods, and the shape and size along with physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles were compared in detail. In both the routes, the synthesis was performed in a single reaction without the use of any surfactant and deoxygenated conditions. The reaction kinetics and surface adsorption characteristics of nanoparticles were observed by thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of a pure ferrite phase with cubic spinel structure, and the patterns further clearly indicate that the sonochemical method produces highly crystalline particles without any post calcination reaction, comparing with the polyol process. Transmission electron microscopy results reveal that the nanoparticles synthesized by polyol method are mostly aggregated and spherical in nature whereas the nanoparticles produced by sonochemical method are monodisperse large particles with cubic like shapes. The overall studies demonstrated that the sonochemical method is facile, reliable, rapid and very attractive for the aqueous synthesis of highly crystalline and high magnetic moment (84.5 emu/g) monodisperse superparamagnetic Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles which considered as potential materials for various applications.

  15. Methodology Improvement of Reactor Physics Codes for CANDU Channels Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Hyun; Choi, Geun Suk; Win, Naing; Aung, Tharndaing; Baek, Min Ho; Lim, Jae Yong [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    As the operational time increase, pressure tubes and calandria tubes in CANDU core encounter inevitably a geometrical deformation along the tube length. A pressure tube may be sagged downward within a calandria tube by creep from irradiation. This event can bring about a problem that is serious in integrity of pressure tube. A measurement of deflection state of in-service pressure tube is, therefore, very important for the safety of CANDU reactor. In this paper, evaluation of impacts on nuclear characteristic due to fuel channel deformation were aimed in order to improve nuclear design tools for concerning the local effects from abnormal deformations. It was known that sagged pressure tube can cause the eccentric configuration of fuel bundles in pressure tube by O.6cm maximum. In this case, adverse pin power distribution and reactivity balance can affect reactor safety under normal and accidental condition. Thermal and radiation-induced creep in pressure tube would expand a tube size. It was known that maximum expansion may be 5% in volume. In this case, more coolant make more moderation in the deformed channel resulting in the increase of reactivity. Sagging of pressure tube did not cause considerable change in K-inf values. However, expansion of the pressure tube made relatively large change in K-inf. Modeling of eccentric and enlarged configuration is not easy in preparation of input geometry at both HELlOS and MCNP. On the other hand, there is no way to consider this deformation in one-dimensional homogenization tool such as WIMS code. The way of handling this deformation was suggested as the correction method of expansion effect by adjusting the number density of coolant. The number density of heavy water coolant was set to be increased as the rate of expansion increase. This correction was done in the intact channel without changing geometry. It was found that this correction was very effective in the prediction of K-inf values. In this study, further

  16. Cost and schedule reduction for next-generation Candu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has developed a suite of technologies for CanduR reactors that enable the next step in the evolution of the Candu family of heavy-water-moderated fuel-channel reactors. These technologies have been combined in the design for the Advanced Candu Reactor TM1 (ACRTM), AECL's next generation Candu power plant. The ACR design builds extensively on the existing Candu experience base, but includes innovations, in design and in delivery technology, that provide very substantial reductions in capital cost and in project schedules. In this paper, main features of next generation design and delivery are summarized, to provide the background basis for the cost and schedule reductions that have been achieved. In particular the paper outlines the impact of the innovative design steps for ACR: - Selection of slightly enriched fuel bundle design; - Use of light water coolant in place of traditional Candu heavy water coolant; - Compact core design with unique reactor physics benefits; - Optimized coolant and turbine system conditions. In addition to the direct cost benefits arising from efficiency improvement, and from the reduction in heavy water, the next generation Candu configuration results in numerous additional indirect cost benefits, including: - Reduction in number and complexity of reactivity mechanisms; - Reduction in number of heavy water auxiliary systems; - Simplification in heat transport and its support systems; - Simplified human-machine interface. The paper also describes the ACR approach to design for constructability. The application of module assembly and open-top construction techniques, based on Candu and other worldwide experience, has been proven to generate savings in both schedule durations and overall project cost, by reducing premium on-site activities, and by improving efficiency of system and subsystem assembly. AECL's up-to-date experience in the use of 3-D CADDS and related engineering tools has also been proven to reduce both engineering and

  17. The Research on the Status of Small-and-Medium-Sized Enterprises of County in the Dominant Industry of Shaanxi County Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis analyzes the role of small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county in promoting county economy:the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the material basis of developing production and boosting county economy;the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the main channel of increasing farmers’ job opportunities and realizing affluent life;the development of the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county become the propeller of development of urbanization and county economy;the development of the small-and-medium-sized enterprises of county creates excellent conditions for the construction of modern agriculture.The thesis indicates that the low level of county industrialization is the principal factor impeding the county economy of Shaanxi Province and it also analyzes the opportunities and challenges when quickening the development of county industry.The countermeasures of developing small-and-medium-sized enterprises are put forward as follows:raise the awareness and determine the concept of using industry to make county powerful;build scientific planning and outline of county enterprise development to propel the innovation of developing and operating system of county enterprise;create beneficial conditions and reinforce the degree of county enterprise support entrepreneurship;take the park construction as vehicle and reinforce the degree of attracting investments from overseas;take the autonomous innovation as the impetus and develop the recycling economy;improve and optimize the service environment so as to create an excellent investment environment for enterprise.

  18. CANDU-OCR power station options and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates and in some cases expands the technical and economic parameters presented originally in AECL-4441. 'Summary report on the design of a prototypical 500 MWe CANDU-OCR power station.' Updating is desirable owing to the increasing number of inquiries that have been received by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. from government agencies and the private sector. Each is exploring the available options in their continuing endeavour to provide sufficient and economical energy. The organic-cooled reactor (OCR) concept is particularly interesting to the oil industry because the high steam pressures it can develop allow it to be used for heavy oil extraction can also be used economically for other large thermal and electrical energy production requirements such as those encountered in district heating schemes, heavy water production and electricity production. The report describes a reference OCR-500 MWe reactor. It includes an overview of organic reactor experience and areas for further development based on 14 years of operating experience with the WR-1 reactor. A discussion of several variations on the reference design is given including estimates of costs for various reactor sizes, enrichments and operating functions. Costs are presented in a form which allow easy comparison with those of competing energy options. (auth)

  19. A framework for operator support systems for CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size and complexity of nuclear power plants has increased significantly in the last 20 years. There is a general agreement that both plant safety and availability can be enhanced by providing the operator with more operational support if than can be done without overloading him/her with unnecessary information. Recent advances in computer technology provide opportunities for implementing operator support systems that are significantly different from the ones based on the more conventional technologies used in plant control rooms. In particular, artificial intelligence and the related technologies will play a major role in the development of innovative methods for information processing and presentation. Our approach to these technologies is that they must be integrated into the overall management and control philosophy of the plant and are not to be treated as vehicles to implement point solutions. The underlying philosophy behind this approach and the design objectives and goals for the CANDU 3 control centre are discussed in this paper. Operator support systems will integrate into the overall control philosophy by complementing the operator. There is also a role for such systems in assisting the operator to be a situation manager, organizing, managing and planning the running of the plant. Four support systems that incorporate the underlying philosophy are described

  20. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  1. WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR IMPLEMENTING HACCP SYSTEMS IN CHINA’S SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED FOOD ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaosheng Jin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, a large number of small and medium-sized food enterprises (food SMEs rarely adopt the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP system, which results in a low product quality. Some local governments have encouraged food SMEs to implement HACCP systems through financial subsidies, but because of an incomplete understanding of the willingness to pay (WTP for implementing HACCP systems in food SMEs, relevant policies have not enhanced the adoption rate of HACCP systems. Based on our questionnaire survey data of 132 food SMEs in China's Henan, Guangdong, and Zhejiang provinces, this study estimates Chinese food SMEs' WTP for implementing HACCP systems by a double bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation method (CVM. According to the estimated results, the WTP for implementing HACCP systems under the log-logistic model is approximately 115,714 Chinese RMB (113,149 Chinese RMB for the log-normal model.

  2. Small And Medium-Sized Business Development In Regions: Establishment Of Priority Directions By The Example Of Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yevgenyevich Tolmachev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research of current small and medium-sized business development in Sverdlovsk region. It includes analysis of enterprise development statistics, Russian and international experience, sociological survey of entrepreneurs’ satisfaction of doing business conditions in Sverdlovsk region. The aim of the research was to develop proposals for business support system development in the long run for inclusion in the SME Development Strategy in Sverdlovsk region up to 2030. As a result, a set of strategic SME development directions was formulated. It includes measures aimed at business problems solving through the development of SME support tools and at addressing institutional problems of business support. The paper includes proposals for improvement of regional support system and implementation the priority SME development direction

  3. Development of Proof-of-Concept Units for the Advanced Medium-Sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriulli, JB

    2002-04-03

    The purpose of this report is to document the development of the proof-of-concept units within the Advanced Medium-sized Mobile Power Sources (AMMPS) program. The design used a small, lightweight diesel engine, a permanent magnet alternator, power electronics and digital controls as outlined in the philosophy detailed previously. One small proof-of-concept unit was completed and delivered to the military. The unit functioned well but was not optimized at the time of delivery to the military. A tremendous amount of experience was gained during this phase that can be used in the development of any follow-on AMMPS production systems. Lessons learned and recommendations for follow-on specifications are provided. The unit demonstrated that significant benefits are possible with the new design philosophy. Trade-offs will have to be made but many of the advantages appear to be within the technical grasp of the market.

  4. Randomized clinical trial of mast cell inhibition in patients with a medium-sized abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Eldrup, N; Hultgren, R;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is thought to develop as a result of inflammatory processes in the aortic wall. In particular, mast cells are believed to play a central role. The AORTA trial was undertaken to investigate whether the mast cell inhibitor, pemirolast, could retard...... the growth of medium-sized AAAs. In preclinical and clinical trials, pemirolast has been shown to inhibit antigen-induced allergic reactions. METHODS: Inclusion criteria for the trial were patients with an AAA of 39-49 mm in diameter on ultrasound imaging. Among exclusion criteria were previous aortic...... surgery, diabetes mellitus, and severe concomitant disease with a life expectancy of less than 2 years. Included patients were treated with 10, 25 or 40 mg pemirolast, or matching placebo for 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in aortic diameter as measured from leading edge adventitia...

  5. Size-dependent thermal stability analysis of graded piezomagnetic nanoplates on elastic medium subjected to various thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the thermal stability of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates based on the nonlocal theory and a refined plate model. The METE-FG nanoplate is subjected to the external electric potential, magnetic potential and different temperature rises. Interaction of elastic medium with the METE-FG nanoplate is modeled via Winkler-Pasternak foundation model. The governing equations are derived by using the Hamilton principle and solved by using an analytical method to determine the critical buckling temperatures. To verify the validity of the developed model, the results of the present work are compared with those available in the literature. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of the nonlocal parameter, foundation parameters, temperature rise, external electric and magnetic potentials on the size-dependent thermal buckling characteristics of METE-FG nanoplates.

  6. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy. PMID:25204160

  7. Small and medium-sized enterprises in the export-oriented strategy of Ukraine’s development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Yevdokymova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the economic development of Ukraine, as it enters the world arena through its export potential. The author accentuates the diverse methods, ways and areas of economic policy for improving the export performance of SMEs. In particular, attention is centered on the support of SMEs by governments, international organizations and associations of entrepreneurs-exporters. In the opinion of the author, it is imperative to analyze the global experience in improving and stimulating SME exports not only in the economically developed countries, but also in those that are at such a political and socioeconomic stage of development as Ukraine is today. The author lists the policy areas for improving SME exports and their essence and outlines the prospects for their further development.

  8. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  9. The triple helix frame for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for innovation and development of offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2016-01-01

    This research reveals how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can enable innovation and contribute to a reduction in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in offshore wind farms. The research provides findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 SMEs for the understanding of the impact...... show that SMEs need access to market and industry stakeholders to understand, learn and select among business innovation opportunities. Universities, governmental bodies and industries can create a knowledge space for organisational reciprocal learning between SMEs and larger enterprises to enable...... innovation for the reduction of the LCOE in the wind farm industry. This knowledge space also provides important insight and understanding for the governmental and university helices for active contribution to offshore wind energy. The governmental policy impact stresses the need for a more strategic long...

  10. Study on the Preparation of Allyl-modified Starch in Isopropyl/Water Medium for Warp Sizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man-li; ZHU Zhi-feng; ZHANG Long-qiu

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the pretreatment of starch by etherification was developed to eliminate the problems of lower grafting efficiency associated with the preparation of starch graft copolymers as warp sizing agents.The etherification of starch with allyl chloride was investigated in order to effectively enhance the reaction efficiency.The technological variables of the reaction considered for evaluating the etherification included sodium hydroxide amount,water content in water-isopropyi alcohol medium,allyl cldoride concentration,reaction temperature and reaction time.The experimental result demonstrated that the variables considered showed evident effect on the reaction efficiency.For the etherification,a condition of 20% for the water content,1.5:1 for the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to allyl chloride.and at 30℃ under 24h reaction is Sufficient to retain the reaction efficiency above 50%.Furthermore,a contrast test demonstrated that the graft efficiency can be increased with the etherification pretreatment.

  11. Assessment for Production and Operation Ability of Medium and Small-sized Enterprises Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-hong; XU Jun; WANG Guan; ZENG Qi

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve production and operation ability of medium and small-sized enterprises, an assessment-index system of production and operation ability was proposed, and a corresponding assessment model was established based on BP neural network. The conjunction weights of the neural network were continuously modified from output layer to input layer in the process of neural network training to reduce the errors between the anticipated and actual outputs. The results from an example show that this method is reliable and feasible. The production and operation ability of an enterprise with assessed result of 0.833 is fairly powerful, and that with assessed result of 0.644 is average.

  12. Innovation incubators – entities of support of small and medium-sized enterprises’ competitiveness in the Modern economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Lidia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Innovation incubators are entities of the infrastructure network of support of small and medium-sized enterprises. At the stage of SMEs’ maximum vulnerability, they improve the survival of innovative businesses through the range of services and facilities provided. They are designed to mitigate the problems faced by SMEs, which develop and implement innovations, ensuring sustainability and competitiveness. Along with promoting the entrepreneurial spirit, innovation incubators play an essential role in promoting knowledge and innovation transfer, introduction of the research results into economic circuit, creating links between businesses, universities, research institutions, etc., links between people, talents and resources.In this article, we will focus on innovation incubators, their role in the development of SMEs in the world and in the Republic of Moldova, making an accent in the creation and development of the country's first Innovation Incubator „Inovatorul”.

  13. Occurrence of large and medium-sized mammals: Occurrence but not count models predict pronghorn distribution: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Management of medium to large-sized terrestrial mammals (Antilocapridae, Canidae, Cervidae, Leporidae, Mustelidae, Ochotonidae) in the western United States is multifaceted and complex. Species in this group generally are charismatic and provide economic opportunities, although others are considered a nuisance at one extreme or are listed as species of conservation concern at the other. Understanding the relative influence of land cover, habitat fragmentation, and human land use on their distribution during the breeding season is imperative to inform management decisions on land use and conservation planning for these species. We surveyed medium to large-sized sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-associated mammal species in 2005 and 2006 on 141 random transects (mean length = 1.1 km) in the Wyoming Basins, an area undergoing rapid land cover transformation due to human actions including energy development. Overall, we observed 10 species but only obtained enough observations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) to develop spatially explicit distribution models. For pronghorn, occurrence related positively to proportion of sagebrush land cover within 0.27 km, mixed shrubland land cover within 3 km, riparian land cover within 5 km, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 0.27 km, road density within 5 km, and decay distance to power line corridors at 1 km, but negatively to salt-desert shrubland cover within 18 km and an interaction between sagebrush and NDVI within 0.27 km. We found excellent predictive capability of this model when evaluated with independent test data. The model provides a basis for assessing the effects of proposed development on pronghorn and can aid planning efforts to avoid or mitigate adverse effects on pronghorn.

  14. Evolution of the CANDU ICS-90+ control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the CANDU Control Room and the associated design process has evolved considerably over several generations of plants, from the first commercial scale demonstration CANDU at Douglas Point through to the large scale CANDUs at Darlington, and beyond, for the next generation of CANDU plant, ICS-90+, represented by new designs like CANDU 3. In the early plants, the control room configuration was based on designers' projections of control interface requirements. With succeeding generations, of designs, there has been an evolution towards: increasing attention to formal requirements definition, incorporation into the Human Machine Interface (HMI) of a larger base of operational experience, more systematic consideration of Human Factors (HF) aspects of the design and the application of a more powerful computer based HMI. For the newest plant, the CANDU 3, a Human Factors Engineering Program Plan (HFEPP) defines the overall HF engineering process, the associated requirements and HF engineering standards to be followed in each stage, and for all HMI aspects of the control room and plant design. The CANDU 3 control room also incorporates several new design innovations that will facilitate operating crew performance improvements. These are based on past experience with operating CANDU plants, incorporated with the use of formal design and validation methods plus results from Canadian research program to support control centre design and operation. For example, there are design improvements to facilitate: operator tracking of plant state, problem solving, alarm filtering, annunciation system interrogation, special safety system testing features, etc. The present paper will expand and elaborate on each of the above topics. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  15. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein, E-mail: mahdm@iust.ac.ir; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution.

  16. Size properties of colloidal nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation and studying the effects of liquid medium and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Colloidal aluminum- and titanium-based nanoparticles fabricated by laser ablation. • Various liquid environments and laser fluences were applied as variable parameters. • Physical characteristics of liquid medium influence ablation process and nanoparticle formation. • Size properties of prepared nanoparticles depend on liquid medium and laser fluence. • Ablation of both metals in ethanol results in nanoparticles with smaller size. - Abstract: In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium targets in distilled water, ethanol, and acetone as liquid environments. Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for characterization of produced nanoparticles. Using image processing technique and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles’ mean size and size distribution were achieved. The results show that liquid medium has strong effect on size properties of produced nanoparticles. From the results, it was found that ablation of both metal targets in ethanol medium leads to formation of smaller size nanoparticles with narrower size distributions. The influence of laser fluence was also investigated. According to the results, higher laser fluence produces larger mean size nanoparticles with broader size distribution

  17. Value added services to CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decade or so, nuclear power plants, just like other types of electricity generating plants, have been facing a number of challenges. Depending on the operating environment of the utility, these challenges are forcing plant owners to examine all facets of the operating costs. Privatization, deregulation and economics of alternative electricity generation methods are exerting enormous pressure on nuclear power plants to streamline costs and improve their operational performance. CANDU reactors are no exception to these forces and face similar pressures. In particular, operating plants that are contemplating plant life extensions are being required to clearly demonstrate the economics of continued operation over other forms of power generation available to the utility. Improvement of capacity factors has the effect of increasing the revenues from the plant and as these revenues increase, the fixed portion of the plant costs including OM and A costs become a smaller percentage of the total revenues. Similar results can be achieved by aiming to reduce the plant OM and A costs. In reality, most well-planned intervention schemes directed at reducing OM and A costs tend to also increase the plant availability. Following plant turnover after commissioning, AECL has been supporting the CANDU owners and utilities with an assortment of products and services dealing with plant operations and outage management issues. AECL has taken the lead in arranging specialized resources, products and services by teaming with other complementary organizations to provide a complete suite of services. Recent examples of such support to operating CANDU plants will be described in the paper. AECL is responding to this changing business environment in two important ways. First, AECL is changing from simply providing a service to its clients towards providing value, something much more important. To this end, AECL is looking to other organizations to form alliances, partnerships and

  18. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  19. Basic research and industrialization of CANDU advanced fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Suk Ho; Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Ji Su [and others

    2000-04-01

    Wolsong Unit 1 as the first heavy water reactor in Korea has been in service for 17 years since 1983. It would be about the time to prepare a plan for the solution of problems due to aging of the reactor. The aging of CANDU reactor could lead especially to the steam generator cruding and pressure tube sagging and creep and then decreases the operation margin to make some problems on reactor operations and safety. The counterplan could be made in two ways. One is to repair or modify reactor itself. The other is to develop new advanced fuel to increase of CANDU operation margin effectively, so as to compensate the reduced operation margin. Therefore, the first objectives in the present R and D is to develop the CANFLEX-NU (CANDU Flexible fuelling-Natural Uranium) fuel as a CANDU advanced fuel. The second objectives is to develop CANDU advanced fuel bundle to utilize advanced fuel cycles such as recovered uranium, slightly enriched uranium, etc. and so to raise adaptability for change in situation of uranium market. Also, it is to develop CANDU advanced fuel technology which improve uranium utilization to cope with a world-wide imbalance between uranium supply and demand, without significant modification of nuclear reactor design and refuelling strategies. As the implementations to achieve the above R and D goal, the work contents and scope of technology development of CANDU advanced fuel using natural uranium (CANFLEX-NU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the nuclear design and fuel management analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the safety analysis, fuel fabrication technologies, the out-pile thermalhydraulic test and in-pile irradiation tests performed. At the next, the work scopes and contents of feasibility study of CANDU advanced fuel using recycled uranium (CANFLEX-RU) are the fuel element/bundle designs, the reactor physics analysis, the thermalhydraulic analysis, the basic safety analysis of a CANDU-6 reactor with CANFLEX-RU fuel, the fabrication and

  20. A study on the Chinese beliefs and their effects on small and medium sized business after 1990

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth Wall; Zhang Runtong; Yang Yancheng; Lin Hua

    2008-01-01

    As a result of economic reform commencing in 1978 in China, cultural beliefs of the Chinese business owners are changing. While much has been published concerning large and multinational businesses, there is a gap in knowledge Of cultural beliefs of small and medium sized enterprises. To provide new knowledge, a survey on these smaller sized enterprises located throughout China was conducted in the summer of 2006. Respondents were selected from urban and rural areas, coastal and inland provinces and various industries to provide information on their opinions on how some of their cultural beliefs have changed from 1990 to present. Specific beliefs questioned include: Use of fengshui, Traditional Forbidden Activities, Company Naming Responsibility, Company Name Basis, Use of Numbers, Use of Physiognomy, and Prediction of a Company's Future. The importance of fengshui has risen over in the last sixteen years and certain traditional forbidden activities such as not turning over the fish while eating has remained important as a cultural belief Naming a company is important and the desirability of a good name is based on various factors. Use of numbers, physiognomy, and non-scientific methods for predicting the future success of companies are of lesser use. These aspects of cuhure are reviewed in consideration of the change from a planned economy to a market-based economy.

  1. Green oriented urban development for urban ecosystem services provision in a medium sized city in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinico F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In southern Italy many cities are characterized by a lack of public urban greenspaces. Non-urbanized areas in these cities are suffering from surrounding urbanization pressures. These areas still provide important ecosystem services even if they are limited in size, highly fragmented and often neglected by local planning. New planning strategies are needed in order to protect and enhance the provision of ecosystem services delivered by existing Non-Urbanized areas, but municipalities usually have limited funds for acquiring public green areas via land expropriations. At the same time, requests for new urban development are still considerable. Consequently, it is not realistic to propose strategies for green areas that do not include new developments. The paper illustrates a strategy for a Green Oriented Urban Development (GOUD that has been applied for the Master Plan of Catania, a medium sized city in Sicily (southern Italy. The strategy includes a limited amount of developments as well as new greenspaces in selected areas (Resource Zones, through the transfer of property and development rights between the municipality and developers. The strategy will allow to enhance the provision of ecosystem services, especially cultural services (thanks to a dramatic increase of accessibility to new greenspaces, regulating services (through climate regulation by new green land covers and provisioning services such as urban agricultural products. Results show that it is possible to improve urban ecosystem services creating a more liveable and healthy urban environment at reduced cost for the municipal administrations.

  2. Presenting a Framework to Analyze Local Climate Policy and Action in Small and Medium-Sized Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hoppe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academic attention to local climate policy usually focuses on large-sized cities. Given the climate challenges ahead this seems unjustified. Small and medium-sized cities (SMCs deserve scholarly attention as well. The main question is: What factors influence climate change policy and local climate actions in SMCs? In this article we present an analytical framework to analyze climate change policy and local climate actions of SMCs. The framework addresses different aspects: policy-input, -throughput, -output, -outcome, characteristics of the local environment, local action arenas, influence by higher government levels, and interaction with climate change issue networks. The framework is used to analyze and compare four case studies of SMCs in the Dutch region of Twente (two urban and two rural municipalities, and addresses both adaptation and mitigation. Results show that both ‘localist’, ‘multi-level’ and issue network membership factors influence local climate policy action. Governance modes discerned concern mostly ‘governing by authority’ and ‘self-governing’. When reflecting on the role of SMCs in climate action the study revealed the importance of local capacity building schemes issued by provincial government, inter-municipal network collaboration, and the potential for local governments to mobilize and organize citizen action.

  3. Development of the ACS+OPC UA based control system for a CTA medium size telescope prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Bagmeet; Oya, Igor; Birsin, Emrah; Köppel, Hendryk; Melkumyan, David; Schlenstedt, Stefan; Schmidt, Torsten; Schwanke, Ullrich; Wegner, Peter; Wiesand, Stephan; Winde, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation Very High Energy (VHE, defined as > 50GeV to several 100TeV) telescope facility, currently in the design and prototyping phase, and expected to come on-line around 2016. The array would have both a Northern and Southern hemisphere site, together delivering nearly complete sky coverage. The CTA array is planned to have ~100 telescopes of several different sizes to fulfill the sensitivity and energy coverage needs. Each telescope has a number of subsystems with varied hardware and control mechanisms; a drive system that gets commands and inputs via OPC UA (OPC Unified Architecture), mirror alignment systems based on XBee/ZigBee protocol and/or CAN bus, weather monitor accessed via serial/Ethernet ports, CCD cameras for calibration, Cherenkov camera, and the data read out electronics, etc. Integrating the control and data-acquisitions of such a distributed heterogeneous system calls for a framework that can handle such a multi-platform, multi-protocol scenario. The CORBA based ALMA Common software satisfies these needs very well and is currently being evaluated as the base software for developing the control system for CTA. A prototype for a Medium Size Telescope (MST, ~12m) is being developed and will be deployed in Berlin, by end of 2012. We present the development being carried out to integrate and control the various hardware subsystems of this MST prototype using ACS.

  4. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate Research Programme (ACRP) by means of the project CHC-FloodS (id KR13AC6K11102). Further support is also received from the ACRP project HighEnd:Extremes (id KR13AC6K10981) and the project NHCM-2, funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF; id P 24785-N29).

  5. Operational improvements in the CANDU 9 control centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AECL has adopted an evolutionary approach to the design of the CANDU 9 control centre. Several factors have contributed to this decision including the desire to build on the successes of the current generation of CANDU stations, the changing roles and responsibilities of operations staff, an improved understanding of human error in operational situations, the opportunity for improved plant performance through the introduction of new technologies, and evolving customer and regulatory requirements. Underlying this approach is a refined engineering design process that cost-effectively integrates operational feedback and human factors engineering to define the operating staff information and information presentation requirements. Based on this approach, the CANDU 9 control centre will provide utility operating staff with a layout and information organization that is better matched to operational tasks, thereby leading to reduced operations, maintenance and administration (OM and A) costs. Significant design features that contribute to the improved operational capabilities of the CANDU 9 control centre include: a control centre layout with improved functionality; a new Plant Display System that is separated from the digital control computer system; and an enhanced computerized reactor shutdown system. The paper will present a summary of the design process, a detailed description of the CANDU 9 control centre layout and features, a description of the plant control and display systems design, including findings from a regulatory review, and other improvements to enhance operability. (author)

  6. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ► Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ► Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and

  7. Hydrogen analysis using MELCOR at CANDU plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Chu; Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Han Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    As a part of a submitted Wolsong Severe Accident Management Plan(SAMP) at the end of 2009, KINS needs to the review of it. In this the focus is on the hydrogen behavior during the station blackout(SBO) because the hydrogen explosion during severe accident in CANDU plants such as Wolsong units has been safety issue. A SBO occurs with failure of the emergency power system when loss of class IV electric power happens because the loss of class IV power is the most dominant internal event causing core damage for Wolsong units. And following a SBO event, most of the engineered safety features(ESFs), including hydrogen igniters, are inoperable except the passive systems such as Dousing systems. Hydrogen is generated due to Zr-steam reaction in fuel channels and core debris oxidation in the suspended debris beds, jet breakup of molten debris in the water pool of the reactor vault and molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI). A combustible gas control system consisting of Passive Autocatalytic Recombiner(PAR) is currently installed at Wolsong unit 1. The results of MELCOR analysis are presented

  8. Industrial process heat from CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated on a large scale that CANDU reactors can produce industrial process steam as well as electricity, reliably and economically. The advantages of cogeneration have led to the concept of an Industrial Energy Park adjacent to the Bruce Nuclear Power Development in the province of Ontario. For steam demands between 300,000 and 500,00 lb/h (38-63 kg/s) and an annual load factor of 80%, the estimated cost of nuclear steam at the Bruce site boundary is $3.21/MBtu ($3.04GJ), which is at least 30% cheaper than oil-fired steam at the same site. The most promising near term application of nuclear heat is likely to be found within the energy-intensive chemical industry. Nuclear energy can substitute for imported oil and coal in the eastern provinces if the price remains competitive, but low cost coal and gas in the western provinces may induce energy-intensive industries to locate near those sources of energy. In the long term it may be feasible to use nuclear heat for the mining and extraction of oil from the Alberta tar sands. (auth)

  9. Examinations on the Meteorologic Factors of Urban Heat Island Development in Small and Medium-sized Towns of Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szegedi, S.; Gyarmati, R.; Kapocska, L.; Toth, T.

    2010-09-01

    EXAMINATIONS ON THE METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND DEVELOPMENT IN SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED TOWNS OF HUNGARY Sandor Szegedi, Renata Gyarmati, Laszlo Kapocska and Tamas Toth University of Debrecen Department of Meteorology, 4032 Debrecen Egyetem tér 1. The thermal difference between the settlements and their environment is called urban heat island (UHI). Potential UHI intensities are mainly determined by the size, population and built-up structure of settlements. Meteorological conditions have a determinant impact on the development of the heat island at a certain moment. International and Hungarian studies usually deal with metropolises and big cities; much less attention is paid to medium-sized and small towns. Consequently this study has been focused on the development of UHI in such Hungarian urbanized areas as mentioned above. Settlements, located near the city of Debrecen (ca. 220,000 inhabitants) in East Hungary, with population of about 30000, 20000 10000 and 1000 were chosen for the research. Car-mounted digital thermometers with data loggers were used. Twenty four measurements were carried out during a one-year-long campaign in 2003-2004. Synoptic conditions, especially cloudiness, wind direction and wind speed were taken to consideration as determinant factors. Spatial characteristics of UHI have been described. Results have proved the existence of UHI even in the smallest settlement under suitable weather conditions. The non-heating season proved to be more advantageous for the development of UHI due to stronger irradiance and frequent anticyclonic synoptic conditions. Effects of cloudiness and wind speed have been revealed as well. St type clouds have proved to be most effective in preventing the formation of UHI. A 90-100% St cover could completely eliminate the thermal differences between natural and artificial surfaces. Ci type clouds had the weakest impact, they could prevent the formation of the heat island only in the smallest

  10. Ninth international conference on CANDU fuel, 'fuelling a clean future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Society's 9th International Conference on CANDU fuel took place in Belleville, Ontario on September 18-21, 2005. The theme for this year's conference was 'Fuelling a Clean Future' bringing together over 80 delegates ranging from: designers, engineers, manufacturers, researchers, modellers, safety specialists and managers to share the wealth of their knowledge and experience. This international event took place at an important turning point of the CANDU technology when new fuel design is being developed for commercial application, the Advanced CANDU Reactor is being considered for projects and nuclear power is enjoying a renaissance as the source energy for our future. Most of the conference was devoted to the presentation of technical papers in four parallel sessions. The topics of these sessions were: Design and Development; Fuel Safety; Fuel Modelling; Fuel Performance; Fuel Manufacturing; Fuel Management; Thermalhydraulics; and, Spent Fuel Management and Criticalty

  11. Evolution of the CANDU control centre retrofit and new stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant event data from operating nuclear plants in many countries consistently indicates human errors are the root cause for 40-60% of operating station significant events. Because so much information is already in digital form, opportunities exist to improve the CANDU control centre with retrofits that exploit this information. These opportunities are enhanced because of rapid technological development in computers and electronics, coupled with significant progress in the behavioural sciences that greatly increases our knowledge of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of human beings. CANDU control rooms are undergoing retrofits and for future CANDU stations, a new concept of the control centre is emerging. The objective is to significantly reduce the incidence of human error, reduce operations and maintenance costs and improve both reliability and safety

  12. Distinctive safety aspects of the CANDU-PHW reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two lectures are presented in this report. They were prepared in response to a request from IAEA to provide information on the 'Special characteristics of the safety analysis of heavy water reactors' to delegates from member states attending the Interregional Training Course on Safety Analysis Review, held at Karlsruhe, November 19 to December 20, 1979. The CANDU-PHW reactor is used as a model for discussion. The first lecture describes the distinctive features of the CANDU reactor and how they impact on reactor safety. In the second lecture the Canadian safety philosophy, the safety design objective, and other selected topics on reactor safety analysis are discussed. The material in this report was selected with a view to assisting those not familiar with the CANDU heavy water reactor design in evaluating the distinctive safety aspects of these reactors. (auth)

  13. Advancing CANDU experience to the world steam generator market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tube degradation in certain recirculating nuclear steam generators has provided a market for steam generator replacement. Prior to this need, B and W supplied over 200 steam generators for CANDU nuclear plants. With this experience, and implementing extensive research and development improvements in material selection, design enhancements, and new manufacturing and analytical methods, B and W has supplied or secured orders for the replacement of 26 steam generators. Along with plans for new replacement orders, B and W will continue to supply steam generators for future CANDU plants. This paper will review the progression of B and W's CANDU experience to meet the replacement steam generator market, and examine the continuous improvements required for today's increasingly demanding nuclear specifications. (author). 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  15. Conference proceedings of the 4. international conference on CANDU fuel. V. 1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain the full texts of all 65 papers presented at the 4th International Conference on CANDU fuel. As such, they represent an update on the state-of-the-art in such important CANDU fuel topics as International Development Programs and Operating Experience with CANDU fuel, Performance Assessments and Fuel Behavior Modeling, Fuel Properties, Licensing and Accident Analyses for CANDU fuel, Design, Testing and Manufacturing, and Advanced Fuel Designs. The large number of papers required the use of parallel sessions for the first time at a CANDU Fuel Conference

  16. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF MODERN MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PLANNING THE MARKETING ACTIVITY WITHIN THE SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olteanu Valerica

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight, from a marketing perspective, the manner and conditions in which small and medium-sized enterprises can use modern management methods in planning the marketing activity. Using modern methods of management are particularly important for managers of these organizations and especially for marketers. Thus, the following methods play a significant role within the marketing activitiesn#8217; development for marketing specialists, namely: management by objectives, management by budgets, management by projects, and management by product. The high degree of understanding and using the above methods is, in the current economic environment, one of the determinants of the market success of small and medium-sized enterprises. In the current context, the adoption of the management by objectives is not a facultative option for the small and medium-sized enterprises, but rather a binding one in the context of adopting and practicing an efficient marketing with significant results on the development of marketing programs comprised within them. Similarly to the management by objectives, the use of the management by budgets within the small and medium-sized enterprises has a series of features required by their smaller size, features that should be considered by marketers. Regarding the use of management by projects, this method has to constitute the foundation for the elaboration of marketing programs developed within the small and medium-sized enterprises, thereby allowing shaping an action that can be accompanied by success in achieving the goals comprised within the marketing programs. Finally, the role of the management by product is extremely important in the marketing activity within the small and medium-sized enterprises, especially in the operationalization of concepts such as strategic marketing and tactical marketing. This paper thus outlines from a marketing point of view the main issues aiming at understanding and using

  17. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  18. Heavy water detritiation to support CANDU station maintenance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water and tritium control are important aspects of CANDU operation and have a major impact on station maintenance activities. Station personnel are trained to understand the importance of heavy water management and the economics and environmental impact of tritiated heavy water losses. This paper discusses new GE technology that can now make a major improvement in CANDU maintenance activities through significant reductions in station tritium levels. Tritium is of particular concern in the CANDU industry given the nature of heavy water reactors to build up high levels of tritium over time. High tritium levels in the reactor vault significantly slow down maintenance activities in the reactor vault due to the requirement for personnel protective equipment, including breathing apparatus and cumbersome plastic air suits. The difficulties increase as reactors age and tritium levels increase. Building upon GE's extensive operational experience in tritium management in CANDU reactors and its own tritium handling facility, GE. has developed a new large-scale diffusion based isotope separation process as an alternative to conventional cryogenic distillation. Having a tritium inventory an order of magnitude lower than conventional cryogenic distillation, this process is very attractive for heavy water detritiation, and applicable to single and multi-unit CANDU stations. This new process can now provide a step change reduction in CANDU heavy water tritium levels resulting in reduced environmental emissions and lowering reactor vault tritium MPC(a) levels. Reactor vault tritium can be reduced sufficiently for maintenance activities to be done without plastic suits, leading to shorter outages, improved station capacity factors, and improved station economics. (author)

  19. Development of Regulatory Requirements and Inspection Guides for CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. W.; Kim, K.; Ryu, Y. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ro, H. Y.; Jin, T. E. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The first domestic CANDU power reactor, Wolsong unit 1, has been operated for about twenty years since commercial operation in 1983, and has been raised common aging issues of CANDU reactors in pressure tubes, calandria tubes, feeder pipes, etc. To solve these aging issues, utility is promoting the refurbishment activities for these major components. Therefore, confirmation and improvement for insufficient requirements considering the CNSC regulatory documents, regulatory principles between regulatory body and utilities related with refurbishment activities are required. These review contents are described herein, and representative review results are presented.

  20. Evolution of the CANDU control centre design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the CANDU NPP control centre and the associated control centre design process has evolved considerably over several generations of plants, from Douglas Point through Darlington, and beyond, to new designs like CANDU 3. In the early plants, the control centre configuration had to be based on designers' projections of control interface requirements. With succeeding generations of designs, along with the introduction of advancing computer control technology, a larger based of operational experience has been factored into the control interface design, and increasing attention has been given to more formal requirements definition, and more systematic consideration of human factors aspects of the design